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Sample records for characteristics glycaemia treatment

  1. Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus : glycaemia and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) with an implantable pump is a last-resort treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). As compared to the most commonly used forms of insulin administration -injections and an externally placed pump- which deliver in

  2. Pathophysiology and aetiology of impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: does it matter for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, K; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    the transition from the prediabetic states to overt type 2 diabetes is characterised by a non-reversible vicious cycle that includes severe deleterious effects on glucose metabolism, there are good reasons to use the well-established aetiological and pathophysiological differences in i-IFG, i-IGT and IFG......Prior to the development of type 2 diabetes, glucose levels increase into the prediabetic states of isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), or combined IFG/IGT. A better understanding of the aetiology and pathophysiology of the prediabetic states...... might give a basis for the development of individualised prevention and treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes. Several studies have examined mechanisms and potential aetiological factors leading to the development of the different prediabetic states. The pathophysiology of i-IFG seems to include...

  3. Optimizing management of glycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sudesna; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J

    2016-06-01

    The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) continues largely unabated due to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle and obesogenic environment. A cost-effective patient-centred approach, incorporating glucose-lowering therapy and modification of cardiovascular risk factors, could help prevent the inevitable development and progression of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Glycaemic optimization requires patient structured education, self-management and empowerment, and psychological support along with early and proactive use of glucose lowering therapies, which should be delivered in a system of care as shown by the Chronic Care Model. From diagnosis, intensive glycaemic control and individualised care is aimed at reducing complications. In older people, the goal is maintaining quality of life and minimizing morbidity, especially as overtreatment increases hypoglycaemia risk. Maintaining durable glycaemic control is challenging and complex to achieve without hypoglycaemia, weight gain and other significant adverse effects. Overcoming patient and physician barriers can help ensure adequate treatment initiation and intensification. Cardiovascular safety studies with newer glucose-lowering agents are now mandatory, with a sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (empagliflozin), and two glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (liraglutide and semaglutide) being the first to demonstrate superior CV outcomes compared with placebo.

  4. Pycnogenol efficiency on glycaemia, motor nerve conduction velocity and markers of oxidative stress in mild type diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankyova, S; Kucera, P; Goldenberg, Z; Yaghi, D; Navarova, J; Kyselova, Z; Stolc, S; Klimas, J; Racanska, E; Matyas, S

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effects of Pycnogenol at various doses on preprandial and postprandial glucose levels, the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAGA) and on motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Pycnogenol treatment (10, 20, 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day) lasted for 8 weeks after induction of diabetes. Pycnogenol significantly decreased elevated levels of preprandial glycaemia in treated animals at all doses. At doses of 10 mg/kg b.w./day and 20 mg/kg b.w./day it significantly decreased elevated levels of postprandial glycaemia compared with diabetic non-treated animals. Pycnogenol failed to induce a significant decrease of postprandial glycaemia at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w./day. Pycnogenol improved significantly the impaired MNCV at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w./day compared with non-treated animals. The levels of TBARs were elevated in diabetic rats. The levels of NAGA increased gradually despite the treatment. Pycnogenol failed to affect the increased levels of TBARs and NAGA. Pycnogenollowered the elevated levels of glycaemia and reduced the decline in motor nerve conduction velocity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The effect of Pycnogenol on postprandial glycaemic levels and MNCV was not dose-dependent.

  5. Impact of postprandial glycaemia on health and prevention of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaak, E E; Antoine, J-M; Benton, D

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial glucose, together with related hyperinsulinemia and lipidaemia, has been implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, available evidence is discussed on postprandial glucose...... to health and disease. Also of importance is the evaluation of the potential role of the time course of postprandial glycaemia....

  6. Target fasting glycaemia for pump-treated type-I diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E A; Sonnenberg, G E; Best, F; Heding, L G; Berger, M

    1984-04-01

    In 17 type-I diabetic patients on continuous s.c. insulin infusion (CSII) therapy, potential interrelationships between fasting levels of blood glucose (BG), serum free insulin (free IRI), total (free and bound) insulin (total IRI) and insulin-binding immunoglobulin G ( IgGI ) were evaluated. There was no consistent relationship between the basal s.c. infused insulin dosages and the associated insulinaemia or glycaemia. A significant inverse correlation was found between the fasting levels of serum free IRI and BG (P less than 0.005). On the basis of this interrelationship, a target range of 90-110 mg/dl for fasting BG during CSII treatment is proposed.

  7. Profile of cortisol, glycaemia, and blood parameters of American Bullfrog tadpoles Lithobates catesbeianus exposed to density and hypoxia stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C. Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations to the physiological profile (cortisol, glycaemia, and blood parameters of Lithobates catesbeianus caused by the stressors density and hypoxia. The organisms were in the prometamorphosis stage and exposed to different tadpole densities: 1 tadpole/L (T1, 5 tadpoles/L (T2, and 10 tadpoles/L (T3 for 12 days. The blood was collected through the rupture of the caudal blood vessel and collected under normoxia (immediate collection and hypoxia (after 15 minutes of air exposure conditions. Cortisol levels rose on the fourth and eighth days of treatment and returned to basal levels by the end of the experiment. The stressor mechanisms tested did not affect glycaemia. White blood cells (total number of lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils showed a significant difference at the twelfth day of the experiment when compared with the start of the experiment. We concluded that, under controlled conditions, a density of up to 10 tadpoles/L and air exposure for 15 minutes did not cause harmful physiological alterations during the experimental period. The answer to these stressors maybe was in another hormonal level (corticosterone.

  8. Admission glycaemia and outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müdespacher, Damaris; Radovanovic, Dragana; Camenzind, Edoardo; Essig, Manfred; Bertel, Osmund; Erne, Paul; Eberli, Franz Robert; Gutzwiller, Felix

    2007-12-01

    Some studies of patients with acute myocardial infarction have reported that hyperglycaemia at admission may be associated with a worse outcome. This study sought to evaluate the association of blood glucose at admission with the outcome of unselected patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Using the Acute Myocardial Infarction and unstable angina in Switzerland (AMIS Plus) registry, ACS patients were stratified according to their blood glucose on admission: group 1: 2.80-6.99 mmol/L, group 2: 7.00-11.09 mmol/L and group 3: > 11.10 mmol/L. Odds ratios for in-hospital mortality were calculated using logistic regression models. Of 2,786 patients, 73% were male and 21% were known to have diabetes. In-hospital mortality increased from 3% in group 1 to 7% in group 2 and to 15% in group 3. Higher glucose levels were associated with larger enzymatic infarct sizes (p<0.001) and had a weak negative correlation with angiographic or echographic left ventricular ejection fraction. High admission glycaemia in ACS patients remains a significant independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 1.08; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.05-1.14, p<0.001) per mmol/L. The OR for in-hospital mortality was 1.04 (95% CI 0.99-1.1; p=0.140) per mmol/L for patients with diabetes but 1.21 (95% CI 112-1.30; p<0.001) per mmol/L for non-diabetic patients. In conclusion, elevated glucose level in ACS patients on admission is a significant independent predictor of in-hospital mortality and is even more important for patients who do not have known diabetes.

  9. Risk scores for diabetes and impaired glycaemia in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Witte, Daniel Rinse; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To develop risk scores for diabetes and diabetes or impaired glycaemia for individuals living in the Middle East and North Africa region. In addition, to derive national risk scores for Algeria, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates and to compare the performance of the regional risk...

  10. Program and staff characteristics in successful treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E R

    1992-01-01

    Women come to drug treatment with lower self-esteem (Regan et al. 1984), more social isolation, and more difficult life situations than men. Women are more likely to present with mental health comorbidity such as depression (Regan et al. 1982). Treatment programs modeled on outcome research on male patients may not yield strategies that are successful with women. Only in the past decade has research been undertaken into the specific population characteristics of women in drug treatment. Programs must be designed with a clear understanding of women's psychological makeup and particular life stress, including the need to care for their children and the reality of physical and sexual abuse. Drug treatment often unmasks a variety of psychosocial problems that, if not adequately addressed by the drug treatment program, may result in relapse into drug use. Many women live in poverty and are inadequately educated, two factors that can interfere with reintegration of the recovered addict into the community. Thus, the drug treatment program, to provide successful long-term outcomes with respect to drug use, must provide long-term aftercare that includes attention to the variety of social, medical, and emotional problems faced by women who use drugs.

  11. Psoriasis: characteristics, psychosocial effects and treatment options.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Sheila

    2012-02-01

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic non-infectious inflammatory skin disease with a variety of different presentations. The classic presentation is of well-defined red plaques with silver scale. The characteristic scale makes the disorder highly visible and intrusive on the patient\\'s lifestyle. The visible nature of the disease ensures that psoriasis has both physical and psychosocial effects. In normal skin, epidermal cell reproduction and proliferation takes 28 days. In psoriasis this process is considerably accelerated to approximately 4 days, resulting in the deposit of immature cells on the skin. While the exact cause of this process is unknown, certain environmental and genetic factors are known to be triggers. Disease management depends on disease severity, psychosocial effects and the patient\\'s lifestyle. To effectively treat this disease the nurse must be skilled in psoriasis management, and in patient education and motivation. This article reviews the characteristics, aetiology, psychosocial effects and treatment strategies of psoriasis.

  12. Effect of aquatic exercise training on lipids profile and glycaemia: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Delevatti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of aquatic exercise training on glycaemia and lipids profile. A systematic review of clinical trials was performed assessing the effects of aquatic exercise and/or training in upright position on lipids profile and glycaemic index. Two raters independently assessed the eligibility criteria and the methodological quality of the studies using the PEDro scale. Average and standard deviation of all variables significantly altered by the interventions were extracted for calculating percentage alterations. Three studies involving the acute effect of aquatic aerobic exercise on the variables of interest were analysed, with two of them demonstrating the efficacy of this type of training in improving lipids profile. Nine studies involving the chronic effects of aquatic training on the same variables were also analysed; eight of them, which assessed different training interventions for different populations, reported benefits of exercise regarding these variables. In conclusion, the improvements found in response to aquatic exercise training in upright position in glycaemia and lipids profile indicate the aquatic environment as a favourable environment for conducting exercise programmes.

  13. Cortical visual impairment: Characteristics and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić, Vesna; Anđelković, Marija; Jablan, Branka; Žigić, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    According to the latest studies, Cortical visual impairment – CVI is one of the most common causes of problems and difficulties in visual functioning. It results from the impairment of the central part of visual system, i.e. visual cortex, posterior visual pathway, or both. The diagnosis is usually made in the first three years of life. The aim of this paper is to present the characteristics of children with CVI, and the strategies used for treatment. CVI has a negative impact on almost all d...

  14. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Malignant Granuloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjin Feng; Junbing Guo; Yong Chen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyse the clinical characteristics of malignant granuloma(MG) and evaluate its treatment.METHODS From March 1985 to May 1998, 101 cases of malignant granuloma were treated with radiation (RT) alone or radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy or chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. For chemotherapy, a CCNU, COMP (CTX, VCR, MTX, PDN) or CHOP (CTX,ADM, VCR, PDN) regimen was given. Radiation was directed through the anterior field of the nose mainly for nasal and paranasal sinus malignant granuloma, and through the faciocervical field for malignant granuloma of Walderyer's ring or for patients with cervical lymphadenectasis. Total dose was 45-65 Gy over 5-6 weeks.RESULTS The overall 3-year, 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 78.2%, 56.1% and 39.7% respectively. The 5-year survival rate was: RT group 60.3%, RT + CHOP or CHOP + RT group 64.7% (P >0.05), RT +CCNU group 40%, and RT + COMP group 33.3%. The 5-year survival rates of patients with one involved focus and more than 2 involved foci were 75.6%(34/45) and 39.3% (22/56) (P<0.001). The 5-year survival rates of patients with or without body symptoms were 39.6% (18/48) and 67.9%(36/53) (P<0.05). The 5-year survival rate of the 50-60 Gy group and the <50Gy group were 60.1% (40/66) and 20% (1/5)(P <0.05). The local and regional recurrence rate was 20.8 % (21/101 ).CONCLUSION Radiotherapy alone should be the treatment of choice for patients with one site involvement and without body symptoms. Radiation fields should be large enough to include the potentially involved sites. The recommended dose is 50-60 Gy over 5-6 weeks. It is suggested that patients with more than 2 foci involvement and those with body symptoms should receive the combination therapy.

  15. The influence of maternal glycaemia and dietary glycaemic index on pregnancy outcome in healthy mothers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, Ciara A

    2010-07-01

    Infant birth weight has increased in Ireland in recent years along with levels of childhood overweight and obesity. The present article reviews the current literature on maternal glycaemia and the role of the dietary glycaemic index (GI) and its impact on pregnancy outcomes. It is known that maternal weight and weight gain significantly influence infant birth weight. Fetal macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal trauma to both mother and infant. Furthermore, macrosomic infants have greater risk of being obese in childhood, adolescence and adulthood compared to normal-sized infants. There is evidence that there is a direct relationship between maternal blood glucose levels during pregnancy and fetal growth and size at birth, even when maternal blood glucose levels are within their normal range. Thus, maintaining blood glucose concentrations within normal parameters during pregnancy may reduce the incidence of fetal macrosomia. Maternal diet, and particularly its carbohydrate (CHO) type and content, influences maternal blood glucose concentrations. However, different CHO foods produce different glycaemic responses. The GI was conceived by Jenkins in 1981 as a method for assessing the glycaemic responses of different CHO. Data from clinical studies in healthy pregnant women have documented that consuming a low-GI diet during pregnancy reduces peaks in postprandial glucose levels and normalises infant birth weight. Pregnancy is a physiological condition where the GI may be of particular relevance as glucose is the primary fuel for fetal growth.

  16. Carnosic acid-rich rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaf extract limits weight gain and improves cholesterol levels and glycaemia in mice on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Alvin; Cases, Julien; Roller, Marc; Chiralt-Boix, Amparo; Coussaert, Aurélie; Ripoll, Christophe

    2011-10-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts (RE) are natural antioxidants that are used in food, food supplements and cosmetic applications; exert anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycaemic effects; and promote weight loss, which can be exploited to develop new preventive strategies against metabolic disorders. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive effects of rosemary leaf extract that was standardised to 20 % carnosic acid (RE) on weight gain, glucose levels and lipid homeostasis in mice that had begun a high-fat diet (HFD) as juveniles. The animals were given a low-fat diet, a HFD or a HFD that was supplemented with 500 mg RE/kg body weight per d (mpk). Physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored for 16 weeks. Body and epididymal fat weight in animals on the HFD that was supplemented with RE increased 69 and 79 % less than those in the HFD group. Treatment with RE was associated with increased faecal fat excretion but not with decreased food intake. The extract also reduced fasting glycaemia and plasma cholesterol levels. In addition, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of RE in vitro on pancreatic lipase and PPAR-γ agonist activity; the in vitro findings correlated with our observations in the animal experiments. Thus, the present results suggest that RE that is rich in carnosic acid can be used as a preventive treatment against metabolic disorders, which merits further examination at physiological doses in randomised controlled trials.

  17. Diet and glycaemia: the markers and their meaning. A report of the Unilever Nutrition Workshop.

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    Alssema, Marjan; Boers, Hanny M; Ceriello, Antonio; Kilpatrick, Eric S; Mela, David J; Priebe, Marion G; Schrauwen, Patrick; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2015-01-28

    Consumption of carbohydrate-containing foods leads to transient postprandial rises in blood glucose concentrations that vary between food types. Higher postprandial glycaemic exposures have particularly been implicated in the development of chronic cardiometabolic diseases. Reducing such diet-related exposures may be beneficial not only for diabetic patients but also for the general population. A variety of markers have been used to track different aspects of glycaemic exposures, with most of the relevant knowledge derived from diabetic patients. The assessment of glycaemic exposures among the non-diabetic population may require other, more sensitive markers. The present report summarises key messages of presentations and related discussions from a workshop organised by Unilever intended to consider currently applied markers of glycaemic exposure. The particular focus of the meeting was to identify the potential applicability of glycaemic exposure markers for studying dietary effects in the non-diabetic population. Workshop participants concluded that markers of glycaemic exposures are sparsely used in intervention studies among non-diabetic populations. Continuous glucose monitoring remains the optimal approach to directly assess glycaemic exposure. Markers of glycaemic exposure such as glycated Hb, fructosamine, glycated albumin, 1,5-anhydroglucitol and advanced glycation end products can be preferred dependent on the aspect of interest (period of exposure and glucose variability). For all the markers of glycaemia, the responsiveness to interventions will probably be smaller among the non-diabetic than among the diabetic population. Further validation and acceptance of existing glycaemic exposure markers applied among the non-diabetic population would aid food innovation and better design of dietary interventions targeting glycaemic exposure.

  18. Effect of different protein types on second meal postprandial glycaemia in normal weight and normoglycemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winder Tadeu Silva Ton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic affecting 346 million people in the world. The glycemic control is the key for diabetes prevention and management. Some proteins can stimulate insulin release and modulate glycemic response. Objectives: To assess the effect of the consumption of different types of protein (whey protein, soy protein and egg white on a second meal postprandial glycaemia in normal weight and normoglycemic subjects. Methodology: Randomized crossover clinical trial. After an overnight fast of 12-hours, ten subjects attended the laboratory to drink one of the protein shakes (whey, soy or egg white or the control drink. Thirty minutes later, the subjects consumed a glucose solution (25 g glucose. Glycemic response was monitored at times 0 (before glucose solution and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min (after glucose solution consumption. Incremental area under the glycemic curve (iAUC was calculated by the trapezoidal method. Furthermore, glycemic response was assessed by a new method using iG equation. Results: Compared with control, whey and soy protein drinks reduced postprandial iAUC in 56.5% (p = 0.004 and 44.4% (p = 0.029, respectively. Whey protein was the only protein capable of avoiding great fluctuations and a peak in postprandial glycemia. The assessment of glycemic response by iG equation showed positive correlation with iAUC (Pearson 0.985, p < 0.05. Conclusion: The consumption of whey and soy protein 30 minutes before a glucose load resulted in lower iAUC compared with control drink. Whey protein maintained postprandial glycemia more stable.

  19. Etiological characteristics and treatment of tardive dyskinesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Li; Xueli Sun; Che Zhou

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The pathogenesis of tardive dyskinesia(TD)is complicated and uncertain.Thus,there is not any effective treatment for it.The psychiatrists pay more and more attention to TD,which lasts for a long time and is difficult to treat.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of Medline database was undertaken to jdentify articles about the feature of etiology and the progression of treatment for TD published in English by using the keywords of"TD,etiology.pathogenesis"and"TD,therapy,drug treatment".Meanwhile,Chinese articles about the feature of etiologY and the progression of treatment for TD were searched in Wanfang database and China joumal full-text database,and the keywords were"TD,etiology,pathogenesis"and"TD,therapy,drug Treatment".-in Chinese.STUDY SELECTION:Articles met the following inclusion cdteda were selected in this paper.Inclusion cdteda:①Researches of randomized blind control design,before and after control design and retrospective.②Researches of the feature of etiology and the progression of treatment for TD.Exclusion cdteda:the repetitive researches and individual reports,DATA EXTRACTION:Totally 65 articles related the feature of etiology and the progression of treatment for TD of randomized blind control design,before and after control design and retrospective studies were collected,and 53 of them were accorded with the inclusion criteda.Of the 12 excluded ones,8 were concerning with genetics,4 were repetitive researches.DATA SYNTHESIS:The feature of etiology for TD includes:①Hypothesis of dopamine receptor super-sensitivity:The dopamine recaptor is persistently blocked,so it wi¨result in functional disorder in CNS,and then TD may take place.②Hypothesis of neuronal degeneration:The concentration of aminosucoinic acid and glutamic acid wi¨;ncrease after the antipsychotic used for a Iong time and this wilI result in neuronal degeneration through glutamic acid receptor in the postsynaptic membrane;meanwhile with free radical

  20. Chronic migraine--classification, characteristics and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Dodick, David W; Goadsby, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    According to the revised 2nd Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, primary headaches can be categorized as chronic or episodic; chronic migraine is defined as headaches in the absence of medication overuse, occurring on =15 days per month for =3 months, of which...... headaches on =8 days must fulfill the criteria for migraine without aura. Prevalence and incidence data for chronic migraine are still uncertain, owing to the heterogeneous definitions used to identify the condition in population-based studies over the past two decades. Chronic migraine is severely...... disabling and difficult to manage, as affected patients experience substantially more-frequent headaches, comorbid pain and affective disorders, and fewer pain-free intervals, than do those with episodic migraine. Data on the treatment of chronic migraine are scarce because most migraine-prevention trials...

  1. Clinical characteristics and current treatment of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laura P; Pasquale, Louis R

    2014-06-02

    Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disorder in which degenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGC) produce significant visual disability. Clinically, glaucoma refers to an array of conditions associated with variably elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) that contributes to RGC loss via mechanical stress, vascular abnormalities, and other mechanisms, such as immune phenomena. The clinical diagnosis of glaucoma requires assessment of the ocular anterior segment with slit lamp biomicroscopy, which allows the clinician to recognize signs of conditions that can produce elevated IOP. After measurement of IOP, a specialized prismatic lens called a gonioscope is used to determine whether the angle is physically open or closed. The structural manifestation of RGC loss is optic nerve head atrophy and excavation of the neuroretinal rim tissue. Treatment is guided by addressing secondary causes for elevated IOP (such as inflammation, infection, and ischemia) whenever possible. Subsequently, a variety of medical, laser, and surgical options are used to achieve a target IOP.

  2. Evolution of glycaemia during irradiation syndrome; Evolution de la glycemie au cours du syndrome d'irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisonnier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-15

    The evolution of glycaemia following irradiation has been followed in the rat and pig. The results concerning a case of human accidental exposure have also been included. The author has tried to see whether the observed variations are reproducible and have a prognostic value. (author) [French] L'evolution de la glycemie a ete suivie, chez le rat et le porc, apres irradiation. Les resultats relatifs a une irradiation accidentelle humaine sont egalement rapportes. L'auteur cherche a definir si les variations observees sont reproductibles et ont une valeur pronostique. (auteur)

  3. [Comparative study of postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients after consumption of mono- and disaccharides and sweeteners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Meshcheriakova, V A; Plotnikova, O A; Gapparov, M G

    2002-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of mono- and disaccharides, sugar alcohols, honey, corn patoka and products with nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners on dynamic of postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients. After ingestion of 30 g fructose, blood glucose did not show a marked increase in comparison with sucrose or honey. After ingestion of 30 g sorbitol or isomalt, blood glucose curve was not significantly different. It was indicated that corn patoka in chewing candies with isomalt has a high hyperglycaemic effect whereas drink with nonnutritive sweeteners did not change blood glucose from fasting levels.

  4. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of severe ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹翔

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics and medicine treatment of patients with severe ulcerative colitis(UC),the efficacy of rescue treatment in patients with glucocorticoid(GCS)resistant severe UC,and the clinical risk factors in patients with GCS-refractory severe UC.Methods From January 2001 to December 2012,

  5. Impaired fasting glycaemia vs impaired glucose tolerance: similar impairment of pancreatic alpha and beta cell function but differential roles of incretin hormones and insulin action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Vaag, A; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The impact of strategies for prevention of type 2 diabetes in isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (i-IFG) vs isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT) may differ depending on the underlying pathophysiology. We examined insulin secretion during OGTTs and IVGTTs, hepatic and peri...

  6. Neuroendocrine disruption in the shore crab Carcinus maenas: Effects of serotonin and fluoxetine on chh- and mih-gene expression, glycaemia and ecdysteroid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandrine; Monsinjon, Tiphaine; Delbecque, Jean-Paul; Olivier, Stéphanie; Poret, Agnès; Foll, Frank Le; Durand, Fabrice; Knigge, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Serotonin, a highly conserved neurotransmitter, controls many biological functions in vertebrates, but also in invertebrates. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine, are commonly used in human medication to ease depression by affecting serotonin levels. Their residues and metabolites can be detected in the aquatic environment and its biota. They may also alter serotonin levels in aquatic invertebrates, thereby perturbing physiological functions. To investigate whether such perturbations can indeed be expected, shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) were injected either with serotonin, fluoxetine or a combination of both. Dose-dependent effects of fluoxetine ranging from 250 to 750nM were investigated. Gene expression of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) as well as moult inhibiting hormone (mih) was assessed by RT-qPCR at 2h and 12h after injection. Glucose and ecdysteroid levels in the haemolymph were monitored in regular intervals until 12h. Serotonin led to a rapid increase of chh and mih expression. On the contrary, fluoxetine only affected chh and mih expression after several hours, but kept expression levels significantly elevated. Correspondingly, serotonin rapidly increased glycaemia, which returned to normal or below normal levels after 12h. Fluoxetine, however, resulted in a persistent low-level increase of glycaemia, notably during the period when negative feedback regulation reduced glycaemia in the serotonin treated animals. Ecdysteroid levels were significantly decreased by serotonin and fluoxetine, with the latter showing less pronounced and less rapid, but longer lasting effects. Impacts of fluoxetine on glycaemia and ecdysteroids were mostly observed at higher doses (500 and 750nM) and affected principally the response dynamics, but not the amplitude of glycaemia and ecdysteroid-levels. These results suggest that psychoactive drugs are able to disrupt neuroendocrine control in decapod crustaceans, as they interfere with the

  7. Short-term reproducibility of impaired fasting glycaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes The ADDITION study, DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S S; Glümer, C; Sandbæk, Annelli;

    2007-01-01

    BG) individuals with impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes had a second test done after 14 days. Intra-individual coefficients of variation (CV) were estimated in each glucose tolerance class using the approximation CV(2)(x)=var(ln(x)). Bland-Altman plots with limits...... of agreement were made. In the total population, the CV(intra) was 7.9% and 13.8% for FBG and 2hBG, respectively. Limits of agreement ranged from -1.15 to 1.67mmol/l for FBG and from - 2.62 to 3.27mmol/l for 2hBG. One individual with IFG and 22.5% with IGT had diabetes at the second test, 76.1% with diabetes...... persistently classified with abnormal glucose regulation; diabetes was confirmed in 76% of the cases. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec-12...

  8. Characteristics of women in jail and treatment orientations. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, T W; Kravitz, H M; Goldman, L B; Freeman, A

    2000-07-01

    Women who have been incarcerated are a high-risk group for criminal recidivism, and criminal justice statistics indicate that females are increasing in numbers more rapidly than the male detainee population. According to data from epidemiologic studies, incarcerated women are often young, single, mothers from ethnic minority backgrounds who have little education and poor work histories. Mental illness, drug abuse, and risky behaviors relating to contracting HIV/AIDS are common problems among female detainees. In this report, research into characteristics of women in jail and literature relating to treatment programs for incarcerated women are reviewed. Implications relating to treatment needs, program development, and further research are discussed. A case example and treatment intervention are presented based on this review.

  9. Characteristics and treatment of greywater--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaitidak, Dilip M; Yadav, Kunwar D

    2013-05-01

    Safe and sufficient quantity of water is necessary for a healthy growth of human beings. The gap between water demand and available water supply is increasing day by day. Proper sanitation, especially decentralized approach, can solve the problem of water supply and wastewater management and that can be done by reuse of greywater. Typically, from a household, greywater (GW) flow is around 65 % of the total wastewater flow. Further light greywater is around 50 % of the total GW. Hence, GW has a high potential for recycle and reuse. The aim of this article is to reveal the present state of art in GW treatment and to identify the further scope for research. Present article contains a review on per capita GW generation, GW characteristics, and its treatment. Around 22 treatment systems comprising different treatment processes are discussed in detail for removal efficiency of pollutants, effluent concentrations and their compliance with wastewater reuse guidelines and standards. Constructed wetland and filtration were found efficient in the removal of most of the reuse parameters compared to other technologies. Anaerobic followed by aerobic system with post-disinfection unit may be a sustainable option for GW treatment for reuse. There is a need to develop the technologies for GW treatment at household level to increase the reuse practises at grass root level. Further, there is need of development of flow diagram with different technologies by targeting the type of reuse (flushing, gardening, agriculture, etc.).

  10. Characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimen and treatment adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia da Silveira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimens and treatment adherence was studied in adolescent and adult patients who underwent antiretroviral therapy from January 1998 to September 2000, at the Service for Specialized Assistance in Pelotas. The patients were interviewed on two occasions, and the use of antiretrovirals during the previous 48 hours was investigated by a self-report. Adherence was defined as use of 95% or more of the prescribed medication. Social-demographic variables were collected through direct questionnaires. The antiretroviral regimen and clinical data were copied from the patients' records. Associations between the independent variables and adherence were analyzed by means of logistic regression. The multivariate analysis included characteristics of the antiretroviral regimens, social-demographic variables, as well as perception of negative effects, negative physiological states, and adverse effects of the treatment. Among the 224 selected patients, 194 participated in our study. Their ages varied from 17 to 67 years; most patients were men, with few years of schooling and a low family income. Only 49% adhered to the treatment. Adherence to treatment regimens was reduced when more daily doses were indicated: three to four doses (odds ratio of adherence to treatment (OR=0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.22-1.01 and five to six (OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.09-0.62; two or more doses taken in a fasting state (OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.11-0.68, and for patients who reported adverse effects to the treatment (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.19-0.77. Most of the regimens with more than two daily doses of medication included at least one dose apart from mealtimes. The results suggest that, if possible, regimens with a reduced number of doses should be chosen, with no compulsory fasting, and with few adverse effects. Strategies to minimize these effects should be discussed with the patients.

  11. Effects of thermal treatments on donkey milk nutritional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, Paolo; Vincenzetti, Silvia

    2013-12-01

    Human breast milk is the best nutritional support to ensure right development and influence immune status of the newborn infant. However, when it is not possible to breast feed it may be necessary to use commercial infant formulas that mimic, where possible, the levels and types of nutrients present in human milk. Despite this, some formula-fed infants develop allergy and/or atopic disease compared to breast-fed infants. Most infants with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of cow's milk-based formula. Donkey milk may be considered a good substitute for cow's milk in feeding children with CMPA since its composition is very similar to human milk. An in-depth analysis of the donkey milk protein profile has been performed in this study. The interest was focused on the milk proteins considered safe for the prevention and treatment of various disorders in human. Since donkey milk supply is related to its seasonal availability during the year, in this study were evaluated the effects of different thermal treatments on the protein fractions of donkey milk. The results obtained in fresh, frozen, powdered and lyophilized donkey milk showed different values in total proteins, caseins, whey proteins and lysozyme content. This study demonstrated the possibility of using lyophilization in order to maintain the nutritional characteristics of donkey milk. The article presents some promising patents on the effects of thermal treatments on donkey milk nutritional characteristics.

  12. A review of greywater characteristics and treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyjoo, Yash; Pareek, Vishnu K; Ang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of different characteristics of greywater (GW) and current treatment methods. GW is domestic wastewater excluding toilet waste and can be classified as either low-load GW (excluding kitchen and laundry GW) or high-load GW (including kitchen and/or laundry). This review provides information on the quantity of GW produced, its constituents (macro and micro), existing guidelines for wastewater reuse, current treatment methods (from storage to disinfection) as well as related costs and environmental impacts. Moreover some successful examples from various countries around the world are examined. The current preferred treatments for GW use physical and biological/natural systems. Recently, chemical systems like coagulation, adsorption and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been considered and have been successful for low to moderate strength GW. The presence of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOC), which are hazardous micropollutants in GW, is emphasised. Since conventional treatments are not efficient at removing XOC, it is recommended that future studies look at chemical treatment, especially AOPs that have been found to be successful at mineralising recalcitrant organic compounds in wastewater.

  13. Characteristics of opiate users leaving detoxification treatment against medical advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenne, Deric R; Boros, Alec P; Fischbein, Rebecca L

    2010-07-01

    Substance-dependent patients leaving against medical advice (AMA) pose a unique challenge to detoxification programs. Most notably, AMA patients fail to access residential or outpatient treatment needed after detoxification and often return to detoxification treatment multiple times which has deleterious results for the patient and is taxing to the healthcare system. Using retrospective data from 89 daily opiate-using detoxification patients completing detoxification and 95 patients leaving AMA, we sought to identify patient characteristics useful in predicting AMA discharges from detoxification. Bivariate analyses indicated that AMA patients reported drug use did not impair their health, were injection drug users, younger and had fewer previous treatment admissions. Binomial logistic regression indicated that AMA patients were more likely to be unemployed and report that drug use did not impair their health. Patients completing detoxification were less likely to be injection drug users and less likely to be self-referred to treatment. Identifying patients at risk of leaving AMA provides an opportunity for clinicians to intervene in an effort to increase treatment engagement for these patients.

  14. Characteristics of integrated biological aerated filter in municipal wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qiang; ZHANG Yu-ping; XU Jian-bin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of integrated biological aerated filter (IBAF) applied to municipal wastewater treatment were studied in a pilot scale experiment. The experimental results showed that IBAF has high efficiencies in removing organic pollutants, such as CODCr and SS, in municipal wastewater. The removal rates of CODCr and SS can reach over 90% and 80%, respectively, when COD and SS in the influent are 234 mg L-1 and 112 mg L-1, hydraulic retention time (HRT) is 8 h, and the aerated intensity is in the range of (0.5 to 0.6) L m-2 s-1.

  15. General characteristics of dental morbidity in children against orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovach I.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A wide spread of orthodontic treatment showed a fairly high risk of complications developed from the use of various devices. The aim of our study was to determine the general characteristics of dental morbidity in children with orthodontic treatment. According to the survey the most common pathologies in children with orthodontic problems are dental caries (87,8-92,9% and chronic catarrhal gingivitis (81.2-84.1%. The prevalence of different types of diseases of the mucous membrane and soft tissues of the oral cavity in children surveyed was 30.5-32.9%. Non-caries lesions of dental hard tissues occurred in 39.5-40.9% of the children surveyed, local enamel hypoplasia was observed in 42.9%, systemic enamel hypoplasia made up 17.8%, signs of hypersensitivity of enamel were found in 9.6%, and the wedge defects – in two children.

  16. CHARACTERISTIC AND TREATMENT OF ISOLATED TUBERCULOSIS OF THE PANCREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Isolated tuberculosis of pancreas is very rare clinical entity. Since 1970, we have treated 9 patients, 3 men and 6 women (average 48.3 years), with isolated tuberculosis of pancreas. 2 patients were diagnosed as pancreatic tuberculosis, 1 patient pancreatic cyst and 6 patients pancreatic carcinoma before operation. They all underwent exploratory laparotomy, and were confirmed to be pancreatic tuberculosis by histopathology. Their common characteristics were that tuberculosis was only localized in pancreas without tuberculosis at extrapancreatic sites and that the treatment of anti-TB drugs had much effect on them. By analysis, it was considered that isolated tuberculosis of pancreas was usually mistaken for pancreatic carcinoma because it localized in pancreas, the contents of masses in pancreas should be noted carefully in order to avoid misdiagnosis and treatment of anti-TB drugs should be taken in time.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  18. Addition of rapamycin to anti-CD3 antibody improves long-term glycaemia control in diabetic NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Perl

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Non-Fc-binding Anti CD3 antibody has proven successful in reverting diabetes in the non-obese diabetes mouse model of type 1 diabetes and limited efficacy has been observed in human clinical trials. We hypothesized that addition of rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor capable of inducing operational tolerance in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, would result in improved diabetes reversal rates and overall glycemia. METHODS: Seventy hyperglycemic non-obese diabetic mice were randomized to either a single injection of anti CD3 alone or a single injection of anti CD3 followed by 14 days of intra-peritoneal rapamycin. Mice were monitored for hyperglycemia and metabolic control. RESULTS: Mice treated with the combination of anti CD3 and rapamycin had similar rates of diabetes reversal compared to anti CD3 alone (25/35 vs. 22/35. Mice treated with anti CD3 plus rapamycin had a significant improvement in glycemia control as exhibited by lower blood glucose levels in response to an intra-peritoneal glucose challenge; average peak blood glucose levels 30 min post intra-peritoneal injection of 2 gr/kg glucose were 6.9 mmol/L in the anti CD3 plus rapamycin group vs. 10 mmo/L in the anti CD3 alone (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The addition of rapamycin to anti CD3 results in significant improvement in glycaemia control in diabetic NOD mice.

  19. Patient and GP characteristics associated with antidepressant treatment in depressed patients: a multilevel analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, L. van; Volkers, A.; Bakker, D. de

    2007-01-01

    Background: Antidepressants are frequently prescribed drugs in Dutch general practice, but patients differ in the treatment they receive. Both patient and GP characteristics may explain this difference. Objectives: To identify patient and GP characteristics associated with antidepressant treatment i

  20. Three-year registry data on biological treatment for psoriasis: the influence of patient characteristics on treatment outcome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, R.J.B.; Boezeman, J.B.M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Jong, E.M.G.J. de

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The course of biological treatment in clinical practice may be highly different from treatment schedules in clinical trials. Treatment modifications and patient characteristics may influence treatment safety and efficacy. So far, long-term results from the use of biological treatment in

  1. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Geothermal power plants use geothermal fluids as a resource and create waste residuals as part of the power generation process. Both the geofluid resource and the waste stream are considered produced fluids. The chemical and physical nature of produced fluids can have a major impact on the geothermal power industry and can influence the feasibility of geothermal power development, exploration approaches, power plant design, operating practices, and the reuse or disposal of residuals. In general, produced fluids include anything that comes out of a geothermal field and that subsequently must be managed on the surface. These fluids vary greatly depending on the geothermal reservoir being harnessed, power plant design, and the life cycle stage in which the fluid exists, but generally include water and fluids used to drill geothermal wells, fluids used to stimulate wells in enhanced geothermal systems, and makeup and/or cooling water used during operation of a geothermal power plant. Additional geothermal-related produced fluids include many substances that are similar to waste streams from the oil and gas industry, such as scale, flash tank solids, precipitated solids from brine treatment, hydrogen sulfide, and cooling-tower-related waste. This review paper aims to provide baseline knowledge on specific technologies and technology areas associated with geothermal power production. Specifically, this research focused on the management techniques related to fluids produced and used during the operational stage of a geothermal power plant; the vast majority of which are employed in the generation of electricity. The general characteristics of produced fluids are discussed. Constituents of interest that tend to drive the selection of treatment technologies are described, including total dissolved solids, noncondensable gases, scale and corrosion, silicon dioxide, metal sulfides, calcium carbonate, corrosion, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive material. Management

  2. Pressure ulcers in four Indonesian hospitals: prevalence, patient characteristics, ulcer characteristics, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Yufitriana; Lohrmann, Christa; Halfens, Ruud Jg; Schols, Jos Mga

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this article was to study characteristics of pressure ulcer patients and their ulcers, pressure ulcer preventive and treatment measures in four Indonesian general hospitals. A multicentre cross-sectional design was applied to assess pressure ulcers and pressure ulcer care in adult patients in medical, surgical, specialised and intensive care units. Ninety-one of the 1132 patients had a total of 142 ulcers. Half (44·0%) already had pressure ulcers before admission. The overall prevalence of category I-IV pressure ulcers was 8·0% (95% CI 6·4-9·6), and the overall nosocomial pressure ulcer prevalence was 4·5% (95% CI 3·3-5·7). Most pressure ulcer patients had friction and shear problems, were bedfast, had diabetes and had more bedridden days. Most ulcers (42·3%) were category III and IV. One third of the patients had both pressure ulcers and moisture lesions (36·3%) and suffered from pain (45·1%). The most frequently used prevention measures were repositioning (61·5%), skin moisturising (47·3%), patient education (36·3%) and massage (35·2%). Most pressure ulcer dressings involved saline-impregnated or antimicrobial gauzes. This study shows the complexities of pressure ulcers in Indonesian general hospitals and reveals that the quality of pressure ulcer care (prevention and treatment) could be improved by implementing the recent evidence-based international guideline.

  3. Characteristics of liquid effluents and treatment systems; Caracteristicas dos efluentes liquidos e sistemas de tratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the liquid effluents characteristics and the treatment systems, approaching the following subjects: the hydrological cycle; physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the liquid effluents; biological, chemical and physical characteristics; records on industrial effluents; treatment processes of industrial effluents.

  4. Patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, drug treatment history and characteristics of addicts in methadone maintenance treatment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekarchizadeh Hajar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810 in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%, more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education, and employed (>70%. The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69% and crystalline heroin (24%. The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%, crystalline heroin (28%, cannabis (16%, amphetamines (15%, and other drugs (33%. Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men.

  5. 40 CFR 63.1582 - What are the characteristics of an industrial POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... industrial POTW treatment plant? 63.1582 Section 63.1582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Works Industrial Potw Treatment Plant Description and Requirements § 63.1582 What are the characteristics of an industrial POTW treatment plant? (a) Your POTW is an industrial POTW treatment plant if...

  6. Patient Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes for African American, Hispanic, and White Adolescents in DATOS-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L.; Staab, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Compared background, pre-treatment characteristics, and post-treatment outcomes of African American, Hispanic, and white adolescent substance abusers participating in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents (DATOS-A). Found that patients were similar with respect to basic pre-treatment demographics. Compared to white adolescents,…

  7. Heroin Addiction: Psychosocial Characteristics and Considerations for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, John K.

    This paper presents a review of relevant medical and psychological literature that addresses the psychological characteristics of heroin addiction and addicts: dependence (both physical and psychological); explanations of the phenomenon of addiction (both medical and behavioral); and other psychosocial views of causation including escapism,…

  8. Characteristics Analysis on Acupuncture Treatment of Stranguria in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-gong; GU Jie; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    This paper makes a statistical analysis on the acupuncture treatment of stranguria recorded in 62 ancient books with computer. The statistics show that the frequently treated meridians are Conception Vessel,three yin meridians of foot, and Bladder Meridian; the commonly treated areas are lower abdomen, midial aspects of legs, and lower back; the commonly used techniques are moxibustion, and needling.

  9. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure Characteristics of Laser Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yuanbin; Li, Yajiang; Yang, Qingqing; Liu, Yan; Ren, Guocheng

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, effect of heat treatment on the microstructures and wear properties of laser alloying (LA) composites is investigated. LA of the T-Co50/FeSi/TiC/TiN/CeO2 mixed powders on substrate of 45 steel can form the hard composites, which increased the wear resistance of substrate greatly. Such LA composites were investigated by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The tempering promoted the growth of the block-shape hard phases, favoring an enhancement of the integrity of block-shape hard phases; and tempering also improved greatly the formation mechanism, guarantying the composites to have enough ability of intensity transfer. This research provided essential experiment and theoretical basis to promote the application of the laser and heat treatment technologies in the field of surface modification.

  10. Interaction effects of treatment setting and client characteristics on retention and completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Chris; di Menza, Salvatore; Arfken, Cynthia; Schuster, Charles R

    2002-01-01

    Client-treatment matching assumes treatment outcome will be improved if characteristics of clients are matched to specific elements of treatment. Few empirical studies, however, have examined matching across different types of treatment settings. The present research examined differences in demographics and substance-related problems in populations admitted to three substance abuse treatment settings--outpatient (n = 1132), intensive outpatient (n = 1190), and residential (n = 149)--and tested whether interactions between client characteristics and type of setting predicted rates of 30-day retention and treatment completion. In addition, three specific hypotheses based on prior theoretical and empirical investigations were tested. Client characteristics included demographic information (e.g., sex, age, race) and Addiction Severity Index (ASI) composite scores. Client-setting interactions were found for both retention and completion. All three hypotheses received at least partial support. Implications for client assignment and future research are discussed.

  11. Wastewater Treatment in a Hybrid Biological Reactor (HBR) :Nitrification Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONG WANG; LI-BO WU

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the nitrifying characteristics of both suspended- and attached- biomass in a hybrid bioreactor. Methods The hybrid biological reactor was developed by introducing porous ceramic particles into the reactor to provide the surface for biomass attachment. Microorganisms immobilized on the ceramics were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All chemical analyses were performed in accordance with standard methods. Results The suspended- and attached-biomass had approximately the same nitrification activity. The nitrifying kinetic was independent of the initial biomass concentration, and the attached-biomass had a stronger ability to resist the nitrification inhibitor. Conclusion The attached biomass is superior to suspended-biomass for nitrifying wastewater, especially that containing toxic organic compounds. The hybrid biological reactor consisting of suspended- and attached-biomass is advantageous in such cases.

  12. Characteristics of Acupuncture Treatment of Dementia in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-gong; GU Jie; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    This paper makes a statistical analysis on the acupuncture treatment of dementia recorded in 93 ancient books. The statistics show that the common acupoints are Shenmen ( HT 7), Shaoshang ( LU 11 ),Dazhong ( KI4), Yinbai ( SP 1 ), Houxi ( SI 3 ), Xinshu (BL 15), Yongquan (KI 1), Jiuwei (CV 15) and Baihui (GV 20); the common meridians are the Heart Meridian, Bladder Meridian and Kidney Meridian; the common areas are palm, medial side of leg, upper back and head; the acupoints of the heart meridian are frequently used, especially those in the distal end;heavy moxibustion functions to open orifices and needling to regulate qi.

  13. The characteristics, treatment and prevention of laboratory animal allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Ferdenzi, Elisabetta; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-12-17

    Laboratory animal allergy (LAA) is a pervasive problem that affects up to one-third of laboratory animal personnel. An immediate hypersensitivity reaction can be triggered by contact with antigens present in urine, hair, dander and saliva of laboratory animals. The authors provide an overview of the epidemiology, triggering mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment and risk factors of LAA. They also discuss primary and secondary prevention measures that can be taken to reduce LAA morbidity and to allow personnel suffering from LAA to safely continue to do their jobs.

  14. Microstructural Characteristic of Montmorillonite and Its Thermal Treatment Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Pingxiao; MING Caibing; LI Rong

    2005-01-01

    The montmorillonite was studied by different methods, such as chemical analysis, DAT, TG, XRD, IR, AFM and MAS NMR. The experimental results show that the hydroxyl in octahedra sheets begins dehydrating when the thermal treatment temperature reaches 659℃, but the layer structure remains the same,and the corresponding Al(Ⅵ) is turned into Al(Ⅳ) in octahedra sheets. When the temperature reaches 900℃, the layer structure of montmorillontite is destroyed, and the new mineral phase μ-cordierite is found. When the temperature reaches 1200℃, the μ-cordierite phase loses its stability, and decomposes into cristobalite phase and mullite phase.Meanwhile, the recrystallization phenomenon in thermal treatment products is obvious. There is a small quantity of AlⅥ signal in MAS NMR spectrum, corresponding to Al of mullite. When the temperature reaches 1350℃, the cristobalite and mullite phases reduce slightly, and more Fe-cordierite phase appears, corresponding to Fe-cordierite spectrum in XRD and MAS NMR.

  15. [INVITED] Laser treatment of Inconel 718 alloy and surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Karatas, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser surface texturing of Inconel 718 alloy is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas. The combination of evaporation and melting at the irradiated surface is achieved by controlling the laser scanning speed and the laser output power. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the treated surface are analyzed using the analytical tools including optical, electron scanning, and atomic force microscopes, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Microhardnes and friction coefficient of the laser treated surface are measured. Residual stress formed in the surface region is determined from the X-ray diffraction data. Surface hydrophobicity of the laser treated layer is assessed incorporating the sessile drop method. It is found that laser treated surface is free from large size asperities including cracks and the voids. Surface microhardness increases significantly after the laser treatment process, which is attributed to the dense layer formation at the surface under the high cooling rates, dissolution of Laves phase in the surface region, and formation of nitride species at the surface. Residual stress formed is compressive in the laser treated surface and friction coefficient reduces at the surface after the laser treatment process. The combination of evaporation and melting at the irradiated surface results in surface texture composes of micro/nano-poles and pillars, which enhance the surface hydrophobicity.

  16. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis in adults: clinical characteristics, etiology, treatment and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Samkar, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we describe the clinical characteristics, etiology, treatment and outcome of zoonotic bacterial meningitis. Each chapter describes meningitis patients infected by a specific zoonotic pathogen, such as Streptococcus equi, Streptococcuis suis, Capnocytophaga canimorsus, Campylobacter f

  17. Clinical characteristics and treatment of ovarian serous borderline tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Li-jian; Guo Li-na

    2004-01-01

    Ovarian serous borderline tumors (SBTs) are characterized by good prognosis and occasional late recurrence. The 5-year and 10-year survival rates are all more than 90%. But traditionally patients with SBTs used to be treated with bilateral oophorectomy, hysterectomy and postoperative chemotherapy. A high proportion of SBTs occurred in young patients. The traditional treatment with complete excision of reproductive organs seemed to be too aggressive for young patients. It is imperative that conservative surgical procedures with fertility sparing should be employed to them. In this paper the literatures in regard to the final outcome of the conservative surgical therapy for SBTs were reviewed and the appropriate extent of conservative surgical procedures was discussed in detail.

  18. Characteristics and treatment of vascular injuries: a review of 387 cases at a Chinese center

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhui; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Kaizhen; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Yu; Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with vascular injuries. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 378 consecutive patients with vascular injuries treated at our hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. Basic characteristics (such as gender; age; cause, site, and type of injury; and concomitant injuries) were recorded, and efficacy was compared between treatments for same type/site injuries. Results: Vascular ...

  19. Intraperitoneal versus subcutaneous insulin therapy in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijk, P R; Logtenberg, S J J; Hendriks, S H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII), a last-resort type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) treatment, has only been investigated in small or controlled studies. We aimed to investigate glycaemia and quality of life (QoL) with CIPII versus subcutaneous (SC) insulin therapy duri...

  20. Pharmacokinetic characteristics of antimicrobials and optimal treatment of urosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Weidner, Wolfgang; Naber, Kurt G

    2007-01-01

    Urosepsis accounts for approximately 25% of all sepsis cases and may develop from a community-acquired or nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI). Nevertheless, the underlying UTI is almost exclusively a complicated one with involvement of the parenchymatous urogenital organs (e.g. kidneys, prostate) and mostly associated with any kind of obstructive uropathy. If urosepsis originates from a nosocomial infection, a broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens have to be expected, which are often multiresistant. In urosepsis, as in other types of sepsis, the severity of sepsis depends mostly upon the host response. The treatment of urosepsis follows the generally accepted rules of the 'Surviving Sepsis' campaign guidelines. Early normalisation of blood pressure and early adequate empirical antibacterial therapy with optimised dosing are equally important to meet the requirements of early goal-directed therapy. In most cases of urosepsis, early control of the infectious focus is possible and as important. Optimal supportive measures need to follow the early phase of resuscitation. To lower mortality from urosepsis, an optimal interdisciplinary approach between intensive care, anti-infective therapy and urology is essential, assisted by easy access to the necessary laboratory and imaging diagnostic procedures. Although most antibacterials achieve high urinary concentrations, there are several unique features of complicated UTI, and thus urosepsis, that influence the activity of antibacterial substances: (i) renal pharmacokinetics differ in unilateral and bilateral renal impairment and in unilateral and bilateral renal obstruction; (ii) variations in pH may influence the activity of certain antibacterials; and (iii) biofilm infection is frequently found under these conditions, which may increase the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibacterials at the site of infection by several hundred folds. Assessment of antibacterial pharmacodynamic

  1. Hearing Loss in Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Characteristics and Treatment Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Pillion

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is the most common heritable disorder of connective tissue. It is associated with fractures following relatively minor injury, blue sclerae, dentinogenesis imperfecta, increased joint mobility, short stature, and hearing loss. Structures in the otic capsule and inner ear share in the histologic features common to other skeletal tissues. OI is due to mutations involving several genes, the most commonly involved are the COL1A1 or COL1A2 genes which are responsible for the synthesis of the proalpha-1 and proalpha-2 polypeptide chains that form the type I collagen triple helix. A genotype/phenotype relationship to hearing loss has not been established in OI. Hearing loss is commonly found in OI with prevalence rates ranging from 50 to 92% in some studies. Hearing loss in OI may be conductive, mixed, or sensorineural and is more common by the second or third decade. Treatment options such as hearing aids, stapes surgery, and cochlear implants are discussed.

  2. Social Network Characteristics of Urban Adolescents in Brief Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the social network characteristics of 102 urban adolescents in brief substance abuse treatment are described and analyzed longitudinally to examine risk and protective mechanisms. The treatment intervention had one session devoted to social support and networks. Social networks were conceptualized and measured along two dimensions…

  3. Instant coffee extract with high chlorogenic acids content inhibits hepatic G-6-Pase in vitro, but does not reduce the glycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassoli, Bruna Kempfer; Cassolla, Priscila; Borba-Murad, Glaucia Regina; Constantin, Jorgete; Salgueiro-Pagadigorria, Clairce Luzia; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; de Souza, Helenir Medri

    2015-06-01

    Coffee is the main source of chlorogenic acid in the human diet, and it contains several chlorogenic acid isomers, of which the 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) is the predominant isomer. Because there are no available data about the action of chlorogenic acids from instant coffee on hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity and blood glucose levels, these effects were investigated in rats. The changes on G-6-Pase activity and liver glucose output induced by 5-CQA were also investigated. Instant coffee extract with high chlorogenic acids content (37.8%) inhibited (p  0.05). Similarly, 5-CQA (1 mM) reduced (p  0.05) on glucose output arising from glycogenolysis in liver perfusion. It was concluded that instant coffee extract with high content of chlorogenic acids inhibited hepatic G-6-Pase in vitro, but failed to reduce the glycaemia probably because the coffee chlorogenic acids did not reach enough levels within the hepatocytes to inhibit the G-6-Pase and reduce the liver glucose output.

  4. Consumption of the Soluble Dietary Fibre Complex PolyGlycopleX® Reduces Glycaemia and Increases Satiety of a Standard Meal Postprandially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky A. Solah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of consumption of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX® was compared to wheat dextrin (WD in combination with a standard meal, on postprandial satiety and glycaemia in a double-blind, randomised crossover trial, of 14 healthy subjects trained as a satiety panel. At each of six two-hour satiety sessions, subjects consumed one of three different test meals on two separate occasions. The test meals were: a standard meal plus 5 g PGX; a standard meal plus 4.5 g of PGX as softgels; and a standard meal plus 5 g of WD. Subjects recorded fullness using a labelled magnitude scale at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and the total area under the curve (AUC, mean fullness vs. time was calculated. The meals with PGX (in granular and softgel form gave higher satiety (AUC (477 ± 121 and 454 ± 242 cm·min, than the meal with WD (215 ± 261 cm·min (p < 0.001. Subjects had blood glucose levels measured after the meals with PGX (granules and WD. Glucose response (AUC was significantly lower (p < 0.001 after the PGX meal than for the WD meal.  The high viscosity reported for PGX is a likely mechanism behind the significant satiety and blood glucose modulating effects observed in this study.

  5. Characteristics and Outcomes of Young Adult Opiate Users Receiving Residential Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Siobhan; MacMaster, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Opiate use patterns, user characteristics, and treatment response among young adults are of interest due to current high use prevalence and historical low levels of treatment engagement relative to older populations. Prior research in this population suggests that overall, young adults present at treatment with different issues. In this study the authors investigated potential differences between young adult (18-25 years of age) and older adult (26 and older) opiate users and the impact of differences relative to treatment motivation, length and outcomes. Data for this study was drawn from 760 individuals who entered voluntary, private, residential treatment. Study measures included the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), the Treatment Service Review (TSR), and University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA). Interviews were conducted at program intake and 6-month post-discharge. Results indicate that older adults with a history of opiate use present at treatment with higher levels of severity for alcohol, medical, and psychological problems and young adults present at treatment with greater drug use and more legal issues. Significant improvement for both groups was noted at 6 months post treatment; there were also fewer differences between the two age groups of opiate users. Results suggest different strategies within treatment programs may provide benefit in targeting the disparate needs of younger opiate users. Overall, however, results suggest that individualized treatment within a standard, abstinence-based, residential treatment model can be effective across opiate users at different ages and with different issues, levels of severity, and impairment at intake.

  6. Observations on the Prevalence, Characteristics, and Effects of Self-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangge eMa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: When facing illness, a person may choose self-treatment as an alternative to hospital (and primary care-based treatment. Despite its important role in healthcare, the study on self-treatment remains limited. The goal is to collectively report the observations in the literature on the prevalence, characteristics, and effects of self-treatment.Methods: Extensive literature search was conducted, and relevant information was extracted.Results: Published studies have reported that in some regions, the prevalence of self-treatment is high and varies across illness conditions and treatment approaches. Self-medication is the most popular self-treatment approach. Multiple regional, demographic, personal, cultural and religious factors have been implicated in the pursuit of self-treatment. In addition, accessibility of healthcare also plays a role. Self-treatment in general has a positive clinical and financial effect. However there have been concerns on abuse and possible negative effects. Conclusions: This article reviews observations made in recent studies on several important aspects of self-treatment. Comprehensive and systematic study is still lacking. Interventions are needed to solve several problems associated with self-treatment.

  7. The clinical characteristics,treatment and outcome of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the drug resistance of My-coplasma pneumoniae among children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) ,and to explore the clinical and radiological characteristics of and the role of azithromycin in the treatment of of macrolide-resistant (MR) Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.Methods Cases of CAP in children (n=179) were prospectively enrolled in

  8. Effects of Program and Patient Characteristics on Retention of Drug Treatment Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Joshi, Vandana; Maglione, Margaret; Chou, Chih Ping; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Studied the effects of program and patient characteristics on patient retention in residential, out-patient, and methadone maintenance drug treatment programs. Data for 26,047 patients in 87 programs show that threshold retention rates were generally low for all 3 program types, although program practice and service provision played important…

  9. Abdominal infections in the intensive care unit: characteristics, treatment and determinants of outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, J. De; Lipman, J.; Sakr, Y.; Marshall, J.C.; Vanhems, P.; Barrera Groba, C.; Leone, M.; Vincent, J.L.; Pickkers, P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal infections are frequent causes of sepsis and septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU) and are associated with adverse outcomes. We analyzed the characteristics, treatments and outcome of ICU patients with abdominal infections using data extracted from a one-day point preva

  10. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in 132 patients with malignant mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Abakay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our objective is to scrutinize clinical, laboratory, radiological characteristics, treatment regimens, and treatment outcomes of malignant mesothelioma (MM cases in our hospital. Materials and Methods: We investigated, retrospectively, the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of all 132 MM patients at Dicle University Hospital between January 2006 and April 2010. Results: A total of 82 (62.1% patients were male, and 50 (37.9% female. Median age was 56.0 years. Mean survival time was 9.6±6.9 months. Mean survival time of patients who had received best supportive care was 7.5 months, chemotherapy 10.4 months, and multimodality treatment regimen 12.6 months. Patients in the multimodality treatment group survived longer than did those in the other two groups (P=0.042. A total of 76 patients received chemotherapy, of whom 17 (22.3% were administered Cisplatin/Carboplatin and Gemcitabine, 58 (76.4% Cisplatin/Carboplatin and Pemetrexed, and one (1.3% Cisplatin + Docetaxel. Complete and partial response to treatment in patients receiving Cisplatin/Carboplatin and Gemcitabine was found 47.1% and Cisplatin/Carboplatin and Pemetrexed was found 50.0% (P>0.05. Conclusions: MM related to asbestos exposure is seen frequently in Turkey. Patients present with the typical clinical features of dyspnea, weight loss, and chest pain. Survival analysis shows that patients receiving multimodality treatment may be better.

  11. Multidisciplinary Treatments, Patient Characteristics, Context of Care, and Adverse Incidents in Older, Hospitalized Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah L. Shever

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to adverse incidents by creating a model that included patient characteristics, clinical conditions, nursing unit context of care variables, medical treatments, pharmaceutical treatments, and nursing treatments. Data were abstracted from electronic, administrative, and clinical data repositories. The sample included older adults hospitalized during a four-year period at one, academic medical facility in the Midwestern United States who were at risk for falling. Relational databases were built and a multistep, statistical model building analytic process was used. Total registered nurse (RN hours per patient day (HPPD and HPPDs dropping below the nursing unit average were significant explanatory variables for experiencing an adverse incident. The number of medical and pharmaceutical treatments that a patient received during hospitalization as well as many specific nursing treatments (e.g., restraint use, neurological monitoring were also contributors to experiencing an adverse incident.

  12. Characteristics of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Bryan N; Cauce, Ana Mari

    2006-03-01

    Previous research has suggested that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals enter treatment for substance abuse with more severe problems than heterosexual individuals. However, methodological difficulties, particularly the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample, have limited the ability to draw conclusions about LGBT individuals who receive services for substance abuse. This study took advantage of a unique opportunity to examine a representative sample of openly LGBT clients receiving publicly funded substance abuse treatment by using data gathered by treatment providers in Washington State. Baseline differences between openly LGBT and heterosexual clients were compared in a variety of domains. Results demonstrated that openly LGBT clients enter treatment with more severe substance abuse problems, greater psychopathology, and greater medical service utilization when compared with heterosexual clients. When the analyses were stratified based on sex, different patterns of substance use and associated psychosocial characteristics emerged for the LGBT clients. Implications for provision of appropriate services and recommendations to treatment agencies are discussed in this article.

  13. Fresh Kills leachate treatment and minimization study. Volume 1, Characteristics and treatment alternatives: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillos, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    1993-09-01

    The New York City Department of Sanitation is developing a comprehensive landfill leachate management plan for the Fresh Kills Landfill. The leachate was first analyzed for conventional and priority pollutants. The leachate was well buffered at pH 7 to 8 with an alkalinity of 5,000 to 6,000 mg/L. The BOD was low, usually less than 100 mg/L, but the COD was as high as 1,800 mg/L. Ammonia concentrations were around 700 mg/L and the color resembled strong tea at 3,000 colorimetric units. Only few of the priority pollutants were present, and at extremely low concentrations. Based on the chemical characteristics of the leachate, the primary environmental impact would be on the oxygen balance of the receiving surface waters.

  14. Modification of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber Characteristics Using Superheated Steam Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbian Karuppuchamy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF was treated with superheated steam (SHS in order to modify its characteristics for biocomposite applications. Treatment was conducted at temperatures 190–230 °C for 1, 2 and 3 h. SHS-treated OPMF was evaluated for its chemical composition, thermal stability, morphology and crystallinity. OPMF treated at 230 °C exhibited lower hemicellulose content (9% compared to the untreated OPMF (33%. Improved thermal stability of OPMF was found after the SHS treatment. Moreover, SEM and ICP analyses of SHS-treated OPMF showed that silica bodies were removed from OPMF after the SHS treatment. XRD results exhibited that OPMF crystallinity increased after SHS treatment, indicating tougher fiber properties. Hemicellulose removal makes the fiber surface more hydrophobic, whereby silica removal increases the surface roughness of the fiber. Overall, the results obtained herewith suggested that SHS is an effective treatment method for surface modification and subsequently improving the characteristics of the natural fiber. Most importantly, the use of novel, eco-friendly SHS may contribute to the green and sustainable treatment for surface modification of natural fiber.

  15. Modification of oil palm mesocarp fiber characteristics using superheated steam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Noor Ida Amalina Ahamad; Ariffin, Hidayah; Andou, Yoshito; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Nishida, Haruo; Yunus, Wan Zin Wan; Karuppuchamy, Subbian; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2013-07-30

    In this study, oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) was treated with superheated steam (SHS) in order to modify its characteristics for biocomposite applications. Treatment was conducted at temperatures 190-230 °C for 1, 2 and 3 h. SHS-treated OPMF was evaluated for its chemical composition, thermal stability, morphology and crystallinity. OPMF treated at 230 °C exhibited lower hemicellulose content (9%) compared to the untreated OPMF (33%). Improved thermal stability of OPMF was found after the SHS treatment. Moreover, SEM and ICP analyses of SHS-treated OPMF showed that silica bodies were removed from OPMF after the SHS treatment. XRD results exhibited that OPMF crystallinity increased after SHS treatment, indicating tougher fiber properties. Hemicellulose removal makes the fiber surface more hydrophobic, whereby silica removal increases the surface roughness of the fiber. Overall, the results obtained herewith suggested that SHS is an effective treatment method for surface modification and subsequently improving the characteristics of the natural fiber. Most importantly, the use of novel, eco-friendly SHS may contribute to the green and sustainable treatment for surface modification of natural fiber.

  16. Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks’ sucrose-rich diet compared to an artificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Astrup

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of exchanging sucrose for artificial sweeteners on risk factors for developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. Objective: To investigate the effects of a diet high in sucrose versus a diet high in artificial sweeteners on fasting and postprandial metabolic profiles after 10 weeks.Healthy overweight subjects were randomised to consume drinks and foods sweetened with either sucrose (∼2 g/kg body weight (n = 12 or artificial sweeteners (n = 11 as supplements to their usual diet. Supplements were similar on the two diets and consisted of beverages (∼80 weight% and solid foods (yoghurts, marmalade, ice cream, stewed fruits. The rest of the diet was free of choice and ad libitum. Before (week 0 and after the intervention (week 10 fasting blood samples were drawn and in week 10, postprandial blood was sampled during an 8-hour meal test (breakfast and lunch.After 10 weeks postprandial glucose, insulin, lactate, triglyceride, leptin, glucagon, and GLP-1 were all significantly higher in the sucrose compared with the sweetener group. After adjusting for differences in body weight changes and fasting values (week 10, postprandial glucose, lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 were significantly higher and after further adjusting for differences in energy and sucrose intake, postprandial lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were still significantly higher on the sucrose-rich diet.A sucrose-rich diet consumed for 10 weeks resulted in significant elevations of postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia compared to a diet rich in artificial sweeteners in slightly overweight healthy subjects.

  17. Clinical characteristics and treatment response to SSRI in a female pedophile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eva W C; Choy, Alberto L

    2002-04-01

    Although much investigation has been done with male sex offenders, there have been few studies on female sex offenders. Female sex offenders have been reported as having a high incidence of psychiatric disorders, but female paraphilics were rarely described. The literature on the treatment of female sex offenders is also limited and treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) has not been reported. This paper presents the case of a woman with DSM-IV pedophilia. Her clinical characteristics, her offense history, and her positive response to treatment with sertraline (a SSRI) are described. This case adds to the limited literature on female pedophiles and suggests that SSRIs may be an effective treatment for paraphilic disorders in female sex offenders.

  18. Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease: characteristics and treatment in an Irish patient cohort.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, EP

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is increasing globally. However, reliable national and international data relating to its epidemiology and management is lacking. During the period 2003-2014, MAC was isolated from the pulmonary samples of 75 patients at the Irish Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory (IMRL). Most patients (42, 56%) had underlying pulmonary disease, and 37 (49%) had clinical\\/radiographic characteristics consistent with MAC pulmonary disease. However, only 18 patients (24%) fulfilled internationally accepted criteria for diagnosis\\/treatment of this disease. Treatment was started in 13 (72%) of these cases, which is similar to internationally published treatment rates. The diagnosis of significant MAC pulmonary disease can be difficult, and treatment is not always warranted even when diagnostic criteria are met.

  19. NOTE: Gating characteristics of an Elekta radiotherapy treatment unit measured with three types of detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip M.; Symonds-Tayler, J. Richard N.; Colgan, Ruth; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Letts, Nicky; Sandin, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    The characteristics of an Elekta Precise treatment machine with a gating interface were investigated. Three detectors were used: a Farmer ionization chamber, a MatriXX ionization chamber array and an in-house, single pulse-measurement ionization chamber (IVC). Measurements were made of dosimetric accuracy, flatness and symmetry characteristics and duty cycle for a range of beam-on times and gating periods. Results were compared with a standard ungated delivery as a reference. For all beam-on times, down to 0.5 s, dosimetric differences were below ±1% and flatness and symmetry parameter variations were below ±1.5%. For the shorter beam-on times the in-house detector deviated from the other two detectors, suggesting that this device should be used in conjunction with other detectors for absolute dosimetry purposes. However, it was found to be useful for studying gated beam characteristics pulse by pulse.

  20. MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENDOCARP AND KERNEL OF CASHEW NUT 'CCP 76' PRIOR AND POST THERMAL TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    De Araujo, MC; Ferraz, ACD

    2008-01-01

    Viscoelastic characteristics of raw cashew nut shell hinder its decortication by compression. In order to facilitate the shell opening and to liberate the kernel, nuts were subjected to hydration and thermal treatment in cashew nut shell liquid (CSL) at 210 degrees C. With the objective of developing more appropriate shelling mechanisms the cashew nut 'CCP 76' was characterized by its main dimensions, mass and volume, as well as mechanical behavior of the endocarp and kernel, prior and after ...

  1. Effect of heat-moisture treatment on the structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Larissa S; Moraes, Jaqueline; Albano, Kivia M; Telis, Vânia R N; Franco, Célia M L

    2016-04-01

    The effect of heat-moisture treatment on structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch was investigated. Heat-moisture treatment was performed with starch samples conditioned to 28% moisture at 100 ℃ for 2, 4, 8, and 16 h. Structural and physicochemical characterization of native and modified starches, as well as rheological assays with gels of native and 4 h modified starches subjected to acid and sterilization stresses were performed. Arrowroot starch had 23.1% of amylose and a CA-type crystalline pattern that changed over the treatment time to A-type. Modified starches had higher pasting temperature and lower peak viscosity while breakdown viscosity practically disappeared, independently of the treatment time. Gelatinization temperature and crystallinity increased, while enthalpy, swelling power, and solubility decreased with the treatment. Gels from modified starches, independently of the stress conditions, were found to have more stable apparent viscosities and higher G' and G″ than gels from native starch. Heat-moisture treatment caused a reorganization of starch chains that increased molecular interactions. This increase resulted in higher paste stability and strengthened gels that showed higher resistance to shearing and heat, even after acid or sterilization conditions. A treatment time of 4 h was enough to deeply changing the physicochemical properties of starch.

  2. Physical and sensory characteristics of marinated broiler drumsticks treated with lactoperoxidase system and thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, F J; Ockerman, H W

    2006-06-01

    1. The lactoperoxidase system (LPS) and thermal treatments have been shown to inactivate some micro-organisms in foods. However, further studies are needed to evaluate whether these treatments influenced the physical and sensory characteristics of treated samples. 2. A solution that contained 1% acetic acid and 3% salt with pH adjusted to 4 was developed as a standard marinade. The LPS consisting of 1 microg/ml lactoperoxidase (LP), 5.9 mM potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) and 2.5 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was added to the marinade for the LPS treatments. 3. In the thermal treatment, samples were heated with the marinade solution at 58 degrees C for 2 min and then marinated at 4 degrees C for 18 h, while the non-thermal treatments were marinated at 4 degrees C for 18 h. 4. For sensory evaluation, flavouring agents including 0.3% black pepper and 0.15% garlic powder were added to the marinade. For physical evaluation, no flavouring agents were added. 5. The results showed that combined LPS and thermal treatment did not impair the physical or sensory qualities of the samples. 6. In conclusion, marinated broiler drumsticks treated with LPS and thermal treatment had acceptable physical and sensory qualities.

  3. Patient-initiated second opinions: systematic review of characteristics and impact on diagnosis, treatment, and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Velma L; Singh, Hardeep; Meyer, Ashley N D; Levy, Lewis; Harrison, David; Graber, Mark L

    2014-05-01

    The impact of second opinions on diagnosis in radiology and pathology is well documented; however, the value of patient-initiated second opinions for diagnosis and treatment in general medical practice is unknown. We conducted a systematic review of patient-initiated second opinions to assess their impact on clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction and to determine characteristics and motivating factors of patients who seek a second opinion. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Academic OneFile databases using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexes and keyword searches. Search terms included referral and consultation, patient-initiated, patient preference, patient participation, second opinion, second review, and diagnosis. Multiple reviewers screened abstracts and articles to determine eligibility and extract data. We assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and rated study quality using Cochrane's GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. We screened 1342 abstracts and reviewed full text of 41 articles, identifying 7 articles that reported clinical agreement data and 10 that discussed patient characteristics, motivation, and satisfaction. We found that a second opinion typically confirms the original diagnosis or treatment regimen but that 90% of patients with poorly defined conditions remain undiagnosed. However, 10% to 62% of second opinions yield a major change in the diagnosis, treatment, or prognosis. A larger fraction of patients receive different advice on treatment than on diagnosis. Factors motivating a second opinion include diagnosis or treatment confirmation, dissatisfaction with a consultation, desire for more information, persistent symptoms, or treatment complications. Patients generally believed that second opinions were valuable. Second opinions can result in diagnostic and treatment differences. The literature on patient-initiated second opinions is limited, and the accuracy of

  4. Influence of Gate Dielectric and Its Surface Treatment on Electrical Characteristics of Solution-Processed ZnO Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Jung, Ji-Hoon; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Zhang, Xue; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, Jaehoon

    2016-02-01

    We report how interface treatments affect electrical performance, including subthreshold characteristics, in solution-processed transparent metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) with SiO2 and SiNx gate dielectrics. Ultra-violet (UV) ozone treatment and O2 plasma treatment are carried out as a surface treatment of the interface between a spin-coated zinc oxide (ZnO) layer and a gate dielectric. With the SiO2 dielectric, UV ozone treatment dominantly affects subthreshold characteristics, while O2 plasma treatment produces enhanced mobility and lower threshold voltage shift. With the SiNx dielectric, every electrical parameter including mobility, threshold voltage shift, and subthreshold characteristics is enhanced by 02 plasma treatment. Our experimental results demonstrate that interface engineering treatments variously influence the electrical performance in solution-processed ZnO TFTs.

  5. Laser treatment of a neodymium magnet and analysis of surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Rizwan, M.; Kassas, M.

    2016-08-01

    Laser treatment of neodymium magnet (Nd2Fe14B) surface is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas. A thin carbon film containing 12% WC carbide particles with 400 nm sizes are formed at the surface prior to the laser treatment process. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer are examined using the analytical tools. The corrosion resistance of the laser treated surface is analyzed incorporating the potentiodynamic tests carried out in 0.05 M NaCl+0.1 M H2SO4 solution. The friction coefficient of the laser treated surface is measured using the micro-scratch tester. The wetting characteristics of the treated surface are assessed incorporating the sessile water drop measurements. It is found that a dense layer consisting of fine size grains and WC particles is formed in the surface region of the laser treated layer. Corrosion resistance of the surface improves significantly after the laser treatment process. Friction coefficient of laser treated surface is lower than that of the as received surface. Laser treatment results in superhydrophobic characteristics at the substrate surface. The formation of hematite and grain size variation in the treated layer slightly lowers the magnetic strength of the laser treated workpiece.

  6. Childhood sexual abuse characteristics, intimate partner violence exposure, and psychological distress among women in methadone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Malitta; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa

    2012-10-01

    Traumatic experiences and their biopsychosocial sequelae present complex challenges in substance use treatment. For women with substance use problems, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), intimate partner violence exposure (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and overall psychological distress are often co-occurring concerns. To address gaps in knowledge and to strengthen practice regarding these critical issues in substance use treatment, we drew upon cross-sectional and longitudinal data from baseline and 12-month interviews with a random sample of 416 women in methadone treatment to examine relationships between CSA characteristics, particularly the presence of force and involvement of family, IPV, and mental health concerns. Although CSA involving force and family was not associated with IPV as hypothesized, it was associated with increased risk of PTSD and overall psychological distress. The multivariate findings underscore the psychological vulnerabilities associated with CSA involving force and family and suggest that drug use and financial circumstances may be important targets to reduce IPV risk.

  7. Enhancement of drying and rehydration characteristics of okra by ultrasound pre-treatment application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüfekçi, Senem; Özkal, Sami Gökhan

    2017-02-01

    Effect of ultrasound application prior to hot air drying on drying and rehydration kinetics, rehydration ratio and microstructure of okra slices were investigated. For this purpose, the selected parameters are ultrasound pre-treatment time (10, 20 and 30 min), ultrasound amplitude (55 and 100%) and the temperature of drying air (60 and 70 °C). 5 mm thick cylindrical shaped okra slices were used in the experiments. The samples were immersed in water and ultrasonic pre-treatments were done in water with ultrasonic probe connected to an ultrasonic generator with 20 kHz frequency. Pre-treated samples were dried in a tray drier with a 0.3 m/s air velocity. Ultrasound pre-treatment affected the drying rate of the okra slices significantly. Drying time of okra slices was decreased by the application of ultrasound pre-treatment. Modified Page model found to be the most suitable model for describing the drying characteristics of okra slices. Improvements in rehydration properties of the dried samples were observed due to the ultrasound pre-treatment. The influence of the ultrasound pre-treatment on microstructure was clearly observed through scanning electron microscopy images of the dried samples. As the amplitude of ultrasound increased the changes in structure of the okra tissue increased.

  8. Vibration and damping characteristics of cylindrical shells with active constrained layer damping treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ling; Zhang, Dongdong; Wang, Yi

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, the application of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatments is extended to the vibration control of cylindrical shells. The governing equation of motion of cylindrical shells partially treated with ACLD treatments is derived on the basis of the constitutive equations of elastic, piezoelectric and visco-elastic materials and an energy approach. The damping of a visco-elastic layer is modeled by the complex modulus formula. A finite element model is developed to describe and predict the vibration characteristics of cylindrical shells partially treated with ACLD treatments. A closed-loop control system based on proportional and derivative feedback of the sensor voltage generated by the piezo-sensor of the ACLD patches is established. The dynamic behaviors of cylindrical shells with ACLD treatments such as natural frequencies, loss factors and responses in the frequency domain are further investigated. The effects of several key parameters such as control gains, location and coverage of ACLD treatments on vibration suppression of cylindrical shells are also discussed. The numerical results indicate the validity of the finite element model and the control strategy approach. The potential of ACLD treatments in controlling vibration and sound radiation of cylindrical shells used as major critical structures such as cabins of aircraft, hulls of submarines and bodies of rockets and missiles is thus demonstrated.

  9. The suggestion of common cause of disease, characteristics of human body, and medical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Jun Cho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives & Methods: This suggestion was attempted to be elevated the recognition of common characteristics in disease. So, we performed to analyze the correlation of common cause of disease, characteristics of human body, and medical treatment. And the results are as follows. Results: 1. The cause of disease is consist of genetic factor, aging, habit, food of not good in health, weather, environment, deficit of the physical activity, stress and so on. 2. Generally, human has common and individual weakness. Individual weakness is appeared similar to the occurrence of volcano and lapse. 3. The correlation of disease and medical treatments is possible to explain using the quotation of the law of motion made by Isaac Newton, the great physicist. 4. When the process of the medical treatment was not progressed, the prognosis is determined by the correlation of the homeostasis(H' in human body and the homeostasis(H of disease. 5. The prognosis of disease is determined by the relationship between the energy of disease(F and medical treatment(F'. 6. The exact diagnosis is possible to predict the treatment sequence, and the facts that homeostasis in human body and disease, relationship between the energy of disease(F and medical treatment(F', action and reaction are important to determine the prognosis. 7. The careful observation of improving response and worsening action of disease becomes available for exact prognosis. Conclusion: The above described contents may be useful in clinical studies, and the concrete clinical reports about this will be made afterward.

  10. Treatment utilisation and trauma characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Traut

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on treatment utilisation and outcome in South African youth. This study was undertaken to document demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with PTSD. Design. A retrospective chart study of all patients presenting to a child and adolescent inpatient unit was conducted between 1994-1996. For children and adolescents diagnosed with PTSD; demographic, diagnostic and treatment variables, including trauma type, family history, and delays in treatment seeking, were documented. Setting. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatient Unit, Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town. Subjects. Children and adolescents (2 to 18 years presenting to an inpatient unit (n=737. Results. 10.3% (n=76 met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Gender differences were clearly evident: PTSD was six times more prevalent in girls (65 with PTSD were female and 11 were male; girls were most likely to have experienced rape or sexual abuse while boys were most likely to have witnessed a killing. Psychotherapy was the most common intervention for PTSD, followed by treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant. 97.4% of children and adolescents who were treated demonstrated significant improvement. Delays in seeking treatment and problems with the primary support group were highly prevalent. Conclusion. PTSD is a common disorder that is responsive to treatment with psychotherapy and/or tricyclic antidepressants in child and adolescent inpatients. These findings underscore the importance of early identification and treatment of childhood PTSD in mental health settings, in particular tertiary service institutions.

  11. The Effect of Mechanochemical Treatment of the Cellulose on Characteristics of Nanocellulose Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, V. A.; Yaschenko, O. V.; Alushkin, S. V.; Kondratyuk, A. S.; Posudievsky, O. Y.; Koshechko, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The development of the nanomaterials with the advanced functional characteristics is a challenging task because of the growing demand in the market of the optoelectronic devices, biodegradable plastics, and materials for energy saving and energy storage. Nanocellulose is comprised of the nanosized cellulose particles, properties of which depend on characteristics of plant raw materials as well as methods of nanocellulose preparation. In this study, the effect of the mechanochemical treatment of bleached softwood sulfate pulp on the optical and mechanical properties of nanocellulose films was assessed. It was established that the method of the subsequent grinding, acid hydrolysis and ultrasound treatment of cellulose generated films with the significant transparency in the visible spectral range (up to 78 % at 600 nm), high Young's modulus (up to 8.8 GPa), and tensile strength (up to 88 MPa) with increased ordering of the packing of the cellulose macromolecules. Morphological characterization was done using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) analyzer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanocellulose particles had an average diameter of 15-30 nm and a high aspect ratio in the range 120-150. The crystallinity was increased with successive treatments as shown by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The thermal degradation behavior of cellulose samples was explored by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA).

  12. Characteristics and Treatment Results of 5 Patients with Fibrous Dysplasia and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Ozdemir Kutbay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Fibrous dysplasia is a rare bone disease caused by missense mutation leading to abnormal fibroblast and osteoblast proliferation and increased bone resorption. FD can present in monostotic or polyostotic forms. About 3% of FD could be in association with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS. Because FD is a rare disease, there is limited data in the literature about characteristics of disease and response to treatment. Methods. We present our five cases of FD with general properties and their responses to medical treatment. Results. Two of our patients had polyostotic and three had monostotic FD. One of the polyostotic patients had MAS. One of our patients had surgery for femur fractures, facial asymmetry, and findings of compression. Four patients were given pamidronate; one was given zoledronic acid as bisphosphonate treatment. Bone pain was relieved in all patients with medical treatment. Conclusion. There was a decrease in bone turnover markers to some degree with medical treatment but no radiological improvement was observed.

  13. Mooren's ulcer in China: a study of clinical characteristics and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J; Xie, H; Wang, Z.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China); Yang, B.; Liu, Z.; Chen, L.; Gong, X.; Lin, Y.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate the clinical characteristics and compare the effects of several methods of treatment of Mooren's corneal ulcer.
METHODS—550 consecutive cases of Mooren's corneal ulcer were analysed in patients, including age, sex, laterality of eye, ulcer location, perforative rate, cure rate of surgeries, recurrent rate, the effects of conjunctiva excision, lamellar keratoplasty (LKP), and LKP plus 1% cyclosporin A eye drops.
RESULTS—The average age of onset was 48.4 years of age. The ra...

  14. Pandemic and Avian Influenza A Viruses in Humans: Epidemiology, Virology, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Cao, Bin

    2017-03-01

    The intermittent outbreak of pandemic influenza and emergence of novel avian influenza A virus is worldwide threat. Although most patients present with mild symptoms, some deteriorate to severe pneumonia and even death. Great progress in the understanding of the mechanism of disease pathogenesis and a series of vaccines has been promoted worldwide; however, incidence, morbidity, and mortality remains high. To step up vigilance and improve pandemic preparedness, this article elucidates the virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and treatment of human infections by influenza A viruses, with an emphasis on the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, H5N1, and H7N9 subtypes.

  15. Physical and mechanical characteristics of poor-quality wood after heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romagnoli M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poor-quality Corsican pine (Pinus nigra subsp. laricio (Poir. Maire and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco wood samples were heat treated with the aim of testing the improvement of wood quality that could increase their economic value. Wood properties were measured to assess quality in treated and non-treated materials, including density, hardness, anti-swelling efficiency (ASE, modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR, and compression strength. The results showed higher dimensional stability in heat-treated wood, yet mechanical performance in compression and bending strength were only marginally affected by loss of density. Despite having a re­latively low density after heat treatment, Corsican pine sapwood has potential in manufacturing higher-value products. In contrast, heat treatment applied to Douglas fir wood did not appear economically viable; insufficient differences were detected between the naturally desirable characteristics of this species and heat-treated samples.

  16. Effect of Surface Treatment on the Surface Characteristics of AISI 316L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steve; Selvaduray, Guna

    2005-01-01

    The ability of 316L stainless steel to maintain biocompatibility, which is dependent upon the surface characteristics, is critical to its effectiveness as an implant material. The surfaces of mechanically polished (MP), electropolished (EP) and plasma treated 316L stainless steel coupons were characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) for chemical composition, Atomic Force Microscopy for surface roughness, and contact angle measurements for critical surface tension. All surfaces had a Ni concentration that was significantly lower than the bulk concentration of -43%. The Cr content of the surface was increased significantly by electropolishing. The surface roughness was also improved significantly by electropolishing. Plasma treatment had the reverse effect - the surface Cr content was decreased. It was also found that the Cr and Fe in the surface exist in both the oxide and hydroxide states, with the ratios varying according to surface treatment.

  17. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy in Children: A Review of Clinical Characteristics and Recommendations for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Karimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy (CIDP is an acquired and autoimmune neuropathy, characterized by a chronic, rapidly progressive, symmetric weakness. In children, abnormal gait is as a first symptom of muscle weakness. Evidence Acquisition: The diagnosis of CIDP is on the basis of clinical characteristics, electrodiagnostic that shows the severity of the disease, lumbar puncture and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Results: The first-line treatments in childhood CIDP are intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG, corticosteroids, and plasmapheresis. Response to first-line therapies is usually satisfactory; nevertheless, recommendations regarding the choice of second-line therapy can only be prepared on the basis of the existing practice described in some of the case reports. Conclusions: This review demonstrated the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of childhood CIDP.

  18. Characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of hypoglossal canal dural arteriovenous fistula: report of nine cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, Shinji; Satoh, Koichi; Matsubara, Shunji; Satomi, Junichiro; Hanaoka, Mami; Nagahiro, Shinji [University of Tokushima, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokushima (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    We report the characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) of the hypoglossal canal in nine patients with this relatively rare vascular disorder. Of 248 patients with intracranial DAVFs managed at our institution, nine patients (3.6%; four men, five women; mean age 62 years) were diagnosed with hypoglossal canal DAVF. We investigated patient characteristics with respect to clinical symptoms, neuroradiological findings, efficacy and complications related to endovascular treatment. Seven patients had experienced head injury. All patients presented with pulsatile tinnitus. One patient displayed ipsilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy before treatment. MR angiography showed a 'magic wand' appearance between the affected hypoglossal canal and the internal jugular vein in four patients. Angiography demonstrated an AV fistula on the medial aspect of the superior jugular bulb, mostly arising from the bilateral occipital, ascending pharyngeal and vertebral arteries with drainage to the internal jugular vein via the anterior condylar vein. Contralateral carotid injection accurately clarified the shunting point. Five patients underwent endovascular treatment: transarterial embolization (TAE; n=2), transvenous embolization (TVE; n=2), and TAE/TVE (n=1). Complete shunt obliteration was achieved in four patients and shunt reduction in one. The remaining four patients were treated conservatively and the shunt had disappeared at follow-up. Postoperative hypoglossal nerve palsy occurred in one patient after TVE, possibly due to coil overpacking. The incidence of hypoglossal canal DAVF was not very low in our series. Contralateral carotid injection is an essential examination to provide an accurate diagnosis. TVE should be considered when access is available, although TAE is also appropriate for shunt reduction. (orig.)

  19. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes among patients with tuberculosis in Bangkok and Nonthaburi, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosuthi, Weerawat; Kawkitinarong, Kamon; Suwanpimolkul, Gompol; Chokbumrungsuk, Channarong; Jirawattanapisal, Thidaporn; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Akksilp, Somsak

    2012-11-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem in many large cities. We retrospectively studied the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with active TB at 6 hospitals in Bangkok and Nonthaburi, Thailand during 2008-2009. Eight hundred thirteen patients were included in the study. The mean age of subjects +/- SD was 41 +/- 14 years and mean body weight +/- SD was 53 +/- 11 kilograms. The three leading co-morbid conditions were HIV infection (40%), diabetes (6%) and chronic liver disease (2%). Two-thirds of subjects had isolated pulmonary TB. Isoniazid, rifampicin and multi-drug resistance were seen in 13, 7 and 5%, respectively. After 1 year, 52% were cured or completed treatment, 19% transferred out, 12% defaulted, 9% were still on-going TB treatment, 7% had died and 1% had failed treatment. Survival rates at 2, 6 and 12 months were 93, 85 and 81% among HIV seropositive subjects; 96, 94 and 92% among HIV seronegative subjects and 98, 97 and 97% among subjects with unknown HIV status (p Bangkok, Thailand.

  20. Effects of Surface Treatment of Activated Carbon on Its Surface and Cr(VI) Adsorption Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Jin; Jang, Yu Sin [Advanced Materials Division., Korea Research Institute of Chimical Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In this work, the effect of surface treatments on activated carbons (ACs) has been studied in the context of gas and liquid adsorption behaviors. The chemical solutions used in this experiment were 35% sodium hydroxide, and these were used for the acidic and basic treatments, respectively. The surface properties have been determined by pH, acid-base values, and FT-IR. The adsorption isotherms of Cr(VI) ion on activated carbons have been studied with the 5 mg/l concentration at ambient temperature. N{sub 2} adsorption isotherm characteristics, which include the specific surface area, micro pore volume, and microporosity, were determined by BET and Boer's-plot methods. In case of the acidic treatment of activated carbons, it was observed that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ion was more effective due to the increase acid value (or acidic functional group) of activated carbon surfaces. However, the basic treatment on activated carbons was caused no significant effects, probably due to the decreased specific surface area and total pore volume. 27 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Investigation of structural modification and thermal characteristics of lignin after heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Young; Hwang, Hyewon; Oh, Shinyoung; Kim, Yong-Sik; Kim, Ung-Jin; Choi, Joon Weon

    2014-05-01

    Milled wood lignin was subjected to heat treatment between 150 and 300°C to understand the pattern of its structural modification and thermal properties. When the temperature was elevated with interval of 50°C, the color of the lignin became dark brown and the lignin released various forms of phenols from terminal phenolic groups in the lignin, leading to two physical phenomena: (1) gradual weight loss of the lignin, up to 19% based on dry weight and (2) increase in the carbon content and decrease in the oxygen content. Nitrobenzene oxidation and (13)C NMR analyses confirmed a cleavage of β-O-4 linkage (depolymerization) and reduction of methoxyl as well as phenolic hydroxyl group were also characteristic in the lignin structure during heat treatment. Simultaneously with lignin depolymerization, GPC analysis provided a possibility that condensation between lignin fragments could also occur during heat treatment. TGA/DTG/DSC data revealed that thermal stability of lignin obviously increased after heat treatment, implicating the structural rearrangement of lignin to reduction of β-O-4 linkage as well as accumulation of CC bonds.

  2. Melancholic features in inpatients with major depressive disorder associate with differential clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Huang, Chun-Jen; Liu, Shi-Kai

    2016-04-30

    To determine whether the presence of melancholic features in hospitalized patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) was associated with specific clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes, supporting melancholic depression as a distinct subtype within MDD. 126 acutely ill inpatients with MDD were enrolled in an open, 6-week trial with fixed-dose fluoxetine 20mg daily. Symptom severity was assessed regularly, using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S). Melancholic features were defined according to the DSM-IV criteria. Clinical variables were compared between patients with and without melancholic features. Generalized estimating equations method was used to explore the differences in HAMD-17 and CGI-S scores between the 2 groups over time. Clinical response was defined as having a 50% or greater reduction in HAMD-17 scores. 96 (76.2%) of the 126 patients with at least one post-baseline assessment met the criteria for melancholic depression. Melancholic depression differed from non-melancholic depression in clinical characteristics and predicted a better response to fluoxetine treatment. The differentiation between melancholic and non-melancholic depression within MDD hence is clinically significant and valid.

  3. A Monte Carlo evaluation of beam characteristics for total body irradiation at extended treatment distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarova, Roumiana; Krantz, Marcus

    2014-05-08

    The aim is to study beam characteristics at large distances when focusing on the electron component. In particular, to investigate the utility of spoilers with various thicknesses as an electron source, as well as the effect of different spoiler-to-surface distances (STSD) on the beam characteristics and, consequently, on the dose in the superficial region. A MC model of a 15 MV Varian accelerator, validated earlier by experimental data at isocenter and extended distances used in large-field total body irradiation, is applied to evaluate beam characteristics at distances larger than 400 cm. Calculations are carried out using BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc code packages and phase space data are analyzed by the beam data processor BEAMdp. The electron component of the beam is analyzed at isocenter and extended distances, with and without spoilers as beam modifiers, assuming vacuum or air surrounding the accelerator head. Spoiler thickness of 1.6 cm is found to be optimal compared to thicknesses of 0.8 cm and 2.4 cm. The STSD variations should be taken into account when treating patients, in particular when the treatment protocols are based on a fixed distance to the patient central sagittal plane, and also, in order to maintain high dose in the superficial region.

  4. Physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge produced after thermochemical treatment of petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shilpi; Prasad, Basheshwar; Mishra, I M

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes the physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge generated after thermochemical treatment of wastewater from a petrochemical plant manufacturing purified terephthalic acid (PTA). Although FeCl3 was found to be more effective than CuSO4 in removing COD from wastewater, the settling and filtration characteristics of FeCl3 sludge were poorer. Addition of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAA; 0.050kg/m3) to the FeCl3 wastewater system greatly improved the values of the filter characteristics of specific cake resistance (1.2 x 10(8) m/kg) and resistance of filter medium (9.9 x 10(8) m(-1)) from the earlier values of 1.9 x 10(9) m/kg and 1.7 x 10(8) m(-1), respectively. SEM-EDAX and FTIR studies were undertaken, to understand the sludge structure and composition, respectively. The moisture distribution in the CuSO4 sludge, FeCl3 sludge and FeCl3 + CPAA sludge showed that the amount of bound water content in the CuSO4 and FeCl3 + CPAA sludges is less than that of the FeCl3 sludge and there was a significant reduction in the solid-water bond strength of FeCl3 + CPAA sludge, which was responsible for better settling and filtration characteristics. Due to the hazardous nature of the sludge, land application is not a possible route of disposal. The thermal degradation behaviour of the sludge was studied for its possible use as a co-fuel. The studies showed that degradation behaviour of the sludge was exothermic in nature. Because of the exothermic nature of the sludge, it can be used in making fuel briquettes or it can be disposed of via wet air oxidation.

  5. Current characteristics associated with hereditary angioedema attacks and treatment: the home infusion based patient experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, Raffi; Banerji, Aleena; Guyer, Autumn; Morphew, Tricia

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a current perspective on the characteristics of hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks and treatment as captured by a home infusion service. Retrospective data on 158 HAE patients who were enrolled in this acute treatment program were analyzed for factors surrounding an attack. The majority of patients had a high level of disease severity at baseline (88%), with a higher than expected likelihood of having a positive family history (87.8%). The most likely times for patients to call for home treatment were just before and during working hours (6:00 A.M.-5:00 P.M.). Eighty-three percent had more than one alternate mode of medication. Factors associated with a severe attack included an overall severe rating of HAE attacks in the previous year, an abdominal attack alone or a combination of peripheral and abdominal attacks versus a peripheral attack alone, and the use of two doses rather than one for treatment of the current attack. Average time to relief onset was 43.5 minutes. One dose of ecallantide was sufficient to treat the majority of attacks, and a second dose was needed in 23.6% of patients experiencing a severe attack. However, patients who reported both a severe attack rating during the previous year and experiencing only a peripheral current attack were more likely to experience a severe current attack. Acute treatment paradigms for HAE remain diverse. Understanding factors driving these decisions could help alleviate the overall burden of this disease and help overcome some of the challenges faced by the patients and their caretakers and improve their quality of life. Enhanced capture and analysis of prodromal factors in future studies should help us further alleviate the burden of this disease.

  6. Effects of heat treatment on physical, microstructural and optical characteristics of PbS luminescent nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Moztarzadeh, Fathollah; Vashaee, Dayoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2012-04-01

    The oxidation of lead sulfide (PbS) luminescent nanocrystals (NCs) considerably changes their luminescence characteristics. Hence, an understanding of the oxidation mechanism, the structure and properties of oxidized moieties is important. In this research, well-defined spherical PbS NCs were synthesized via a simple, effective and surfactant-free method and characterized. Then, the effects of heat treatment (at 250, 350, 450 and 550 °C) on the PbS NCs were investigated. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs of the synthesized PbS NCs revealed that they had a well-defined spherical morphology. In addition, the average crystallite size using Scherrer's formula was about 13 nm and the calculated lattice constant using Bragg's equation was 0.5950 nm, which was very close to the value in the standard card (JCPDS No. 5-592). Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the heat treatment of samples at temperatures of 250, 350,450 and 550 °C in air results in the formation of oxide sulfate phase of the compositions PbSO4 and PbO·PbSO4. The lattice parameter, crystallite size, average internal stress, micro-strain and optical properties of PbS NCs were calculated and correlated with the heat-treatment temperature.

  7. Waste Sludge Characteristics of a Wastewater Treatment Plant Compared with Environmental Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Mesdaghinia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensive health hazards. On the other hand, this sludge has benefits for plants and soils. Thereupon, land application of sludge has received much attention over the traditional incineration and dump in sea. The comprehensive regulations of U.S.EPA title 40 CFR parts 503 include criteria and standards for land application of sludge. One of the most important wastewater treatment plants in Tehran, Iran is Shoosh Plant, which applies its waste sludge in agricultural lands after dewatering in drying beds. In this research, waste sludge from drying beds was examined according to 40 CFR parts 503. Results indicate that the dehydrated sludge has not the characteristics required for final discharge. If the dewatering process in the existing beds of the plant would be modified according to title 40 CFR part 503, the standard of Pathogen Reduction class B would be achieved. Waste sludge of drying bed must be applied in agricultural land with respect to the conditions of application method that is presented in vector attraction reduction. Concentration of this waste sludge is less than ceiling concentration limits identified by title 40 CFR parts 503.

  8. Uncertainties of stormwater characteristics and removal rates of stormwater treatment facilities: implications for stormwater handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, J G; Liefting, H J; Boogaard, F C

    2012-12-15

    Stormwater runoff is a major contributor to the pollution of receiving waters. This study focuses at characterising stormwater in order to be able to determine the impact of stormwater on receiving waters and to be able to select the most appropriate stormwater handling strategy. The stormwater characterisation is based on determining site mean concentrations (SMCs) and their uncertainties as well as the treatability of stormwater by monitoring specific pollutants concentration levels (TSS, COD, BOD, TKN, TP, Pb, Cu, Zn, E.coli) at three full scale stormwater treatment facilities in Arnhem, the Netherlands. This has resulted in 106 storm events being monitored at the lamella settler, 59 at the high rate sand filter and 132 at the soil filter during the 2 year monitoring period. The stormwater characteristics in Arnhem in terms of SMCs for main pollutants TSS and COD and settling velocities differ from international data. This implies that decisions for stormwater handling made on international literature data will very likely be wrong due to assuming too high concentrations of pollutants and misjudgement of the treatability of stormwater. The removal rates monitored at the full scale treatment facilities are within the expected range, with the soil filter and the sand filter having higher removal rates than the lamella settler. The full scale pilots revealed the importance of incorporating gross solids removal in the design of stormwater treatment facilities, as the gross solids determine operation and maintenance requirements.

  9. The clinical characteristics and treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss with vestibular schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chang; Gong, Qilin; Zuo, Wenjing; Zhang, Rong; Zhou, Aidong

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical characteristics and treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS). The clinical features of the VS patients were explored by retrospectively analyzing the clinical data from 542 cases of SSNHL patients between January 2008 and March 2013. There were 10 cases (10 ears) diagnosed with VS in 542 cases of SSNHL patients (10 ears, 1.85 %), 3 males, 7 females, with a range of 28-57 years. Among all the cases, eight patients with abnormal ABR, ten with ear ipsilateral stapedius reflexes which were completely not elicited and seven patients with healthy ear contralateral stapedius reflexes which were completely not elicited. Neuromas were classified by Koos grades according to size (8 of grade I, 1 of grade II, 1 of grade IV). Eight small VS  patients were taken waiting and MRI therapy strategies. Meanwhile, we used glucocorticoid treatment and timely and short-term medication to improve the microcirculation of the inner ear for these patients. And four cases' hearing was improved. Some vestibular schwannomas have SSNHL as initial symptoms, especially the small ones in internal auditory canal. To prevent misdiagnosis or leak-diagnosis, MRI should be performed as a routine test for SSNHL, and ABR is sometimes necessary for SSNHL patients. It is also necessary to give appropriate treatment to protect hearing of the small vestibular schwannoma patients whose first symptoms are diagnosed as SSNHL in acute phase.

  10. Releasing characteristics of phosphorus and other substances during thermal treatment of excess sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The releasing characteristics of phosphorus, nitrogen compounds, organics, and some metal cations during thermal treatment of excess sludge were investigated. It was found that during heating not only phosphorus, but also nitrogen compounds, organics, and some metal cations could be released in abundance. The maximum orthophosphate (ortho-P) release of about 90 mg/L in concentration was observed at 50℃ in 1 h. Except for volatile fatty acids (VFAs), comparatively little total nitrogen (TN), total organic carbon(TOC), and metal cations were released at the same time. Such results might favor further process of phosphorus recovery. VFAs were considerably released only at 50℃. Acetic, butyric, and propionic acid were the most abundant components in turn and their releasing profiles exhibited good linear relationship with time (R2 = 0.9977, 0.9624, and 0.8908, respectively). The concentrations of Mg2+ and K+ increased with time and temperature during thermal treatment, but Ca2+ decreased. The release of Mg2+ and K+ agreed well with TP release (R2 = 0.9892 and 0.9476, respectively). Temperature in the experimental range had very little impact on the linear relationships,especially of Mg2+. Moreover, the parameter of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) was found to be an important factor for thermal sludge treatment as the released ortho-P and total phosphorus (TP) at 50℃ increased more than one-fold when MLSS was increased from 4000 to 8000 mg/L.

  11. Role of Patient and Practice Characteristics in Variance of Treatment Quality in Type 2 Diabetes between General Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, Yeon Young; Sidorenkov, Grigory; Denig, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background Accounting for justifiable variance is important for fair comparisons of treatment quality. The variance between general practices in treatment quality of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients may be attributed to the underlying patient population and practice characteristics. The objective of

  12. [Characteristics of anaerobic sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of high-solids-content waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-jun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xi-hui

    2006-06-01

    Based on the experiments of digestion of thermo-hydrolyzed sewage sludge in both mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) with 20, 10, 7.5, 5d hydraulic retention time (HRT), operating characteristics of ASBR for treatment of high-solids-content waste were investigated. ASBR can efficiently accumulates suspended solids and keep high concentration solids, however there exists a "critical point" of ASBR, which means the maximum capability to accumulate suspended solids without negative effects on ASBR stability, and beyond which the performance deteriorates. Under steady condition, ASBR can sustains high solid retention time (SRT) and mean cell retention time (MCRT), the SRT and MCRT is 2.53 approximately 3.73 and 2.03 approximately 3.14 times of hydraulic retention time (HRT) when treating thermo-hydrolyzed sludge, respectively. Therefore, compared to traditional continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR), the efficiency of ASBR enhances about 7.13% approximately 34.68%.

  13. Effect of climate change on stormwater characteristics and treatment efficiencies of stormwater retention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Vezzaro, Luca; Birch, Heidi;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of climate changes on stormwater characteristics and treatment efficiency of retention ponds. This was performed by using an integrated model for two scenarios representing the current situations and a climate change scenario....... The dissolved concentrations showed no strong relationship to rainfall intensity. The simulations with the integrated model showed that the climate change increase of rainfall intensity led to an increase in the concentrations discharged from the catchment. The higher flows caused a decrease in the pond removal...... performance with an overall increase in the particulate concentrations discharged to the environment. The changes in the two scenarios affected only the particulate phase, so no major impact on toxicity due to stormwater discharge is expected due to climate change. Further research is needed to address...

  14. THE IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PATIENT FOR THE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zavrazhnyh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim – the identification of hormonal and psychological characteristics of patients with metabolic syndrome (MS, determining the effectivenessof drug-free weight loss.Materials and methods. The study included 180 patients with MS (according to the criteria of ATP III, received dietary treatment and thermal bath at the spa. Anthropometric measures, the data of the daily blood pressure monitoring, blood levels of hormones (insulin, leptin, were assessed , following surveys were conducted – the definition of eating disorders (PP tests SANT (estimate well-being, activity, mood,anxiety and LOBI (diagnosis related to types of illness. According to the results of the course non-drug treatment, all patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 – with a positive effect of therapy (n = 87 and 2nd – no effect (n = 93. The criterion for the division served as the simultaneous presence of four factors: decrease in body weight by 2 kg or more, reduction in waist circumference by 2 cm or more, decreasedlevels of triglycerides and blood glucose.Results. The group of patients therapy who proved to be ineffective, characterized by significantly higher levels of insulin and leptin, a predominance of emotiogenic PP, high self-esteem of his being. In relation to the state of neglect of the disease, its denial, indifference to the fate were prevailing. A correlation of levels of insulin and leptin levels with parameters of arterial pressure, PP, test results SANT.Conclusion. In patients with MS psychological and behavioral pattern that has adverse effects on weight loss and associated with the levels of leptin and insulin are diagnosed. Taking into account of these characteristics will increase the effectiveness of therapy.

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PATIENT FOR THE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zavrazhnyh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim – the identification of hormonal and psychological characteristics of patients with metabolic syndrome (MS, determining the effectivenessof drug-free weight loss.Materials and methods. The study included 180 patients with MS (according to the criteria of ATP III, received dietary treatment and thermal bath at the spa. Anthropometric measures, the data of the daily blood pressure monitoring, blood levels of hormones (insulin, leptin, were assessed , following surveys were conducted – the definition of eating disorders (PP tests SANT (estimate well-being, activity, mood,anxiety and LOBI (diagnosis related to types of illness. According to the results of the course non-drug treatment, all patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 – with a positive effect of therapy (n = 87 and 2nd – no effect (n = 93. The criterion for the division served as the simultaneous presence of four factors: decrease in body weight by 2 kg or more, reduction in waist circumference by 2 cm or more, decreasedlevels of triglycerides and blood glucose.Results. The group of patients therapy who proved to be ineffective, characterized by significantly higher levels of insulin and leptin, a predominance of emotiogenic PP, high self-esteem of his being. In relation to the state of neglect of the disease, its denial, indifference to the fate were prevailing. A correlation of levels of insulin and leptin levels with parameters of arterial pressure, PP, test results SANT.Conclusion. In patients with MS psychological and behavioral pattern that has adverse effects on weight loss and associated with the levels of leptin and insulin are diagnosed. Taking into account of these characteristics will increase the effectiveness of therapy.

  16. The spectrum of Apert syndrome: phenotype, particularities in orthodontic treatment, and characteristics of orthognathic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehmer Ulrike

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the PubMed accessible literature, information on the characteristics of interdisciplinary orthodontic and surgical treatment of patients with Apert syndrome is rare. The aim of the present article is threefold: (1 to show the spectrum of the phenotype, in order (2 to elucidate the scope of hindrances to orthodontic treatment, and (3 to demonstrate the problems of surgery and interdisciplinary approach. Children and adolescents who were born in 1985 or later, who were diagnosed with Apert syndrome, and who sought consultation or treatment at the Departments of Orthodontics or Craniomaxillofacial Surgery at the Dental School of the University Hospital of Münster (n = 22; 9 male, 13 female were screened. Exemplarily, three of these patients (2 male, 1 female, seeking interdisciplinary (both orthodontic and surgical treatment are presented. Orthodontic treatment before surgery was performed by one experienced orthodontist (AH, and orthognathic surgery was performed by one experienced surgeon (UJ, who diagnosed the syndrome according to the criteria listed in OMIM™. In the sagittal plane, the patients suffered from a mild to a very severe Angle Class III malocclusion, which was sometimes compensated by the inclination of the lower incisors; in the vertical dimension from an open bite; and transversally from a single tooth in crossbite to a circular crossbite. All patients showed dentitio tarda, some impaction, partial eruption, idopathic root resorption, transposition or other aberrations in the position of the tooth germs, and severe crowding, with sometimes parallel molar tooth buds in each quarter of the upper jaw. Because of the severity of malocclusion, orthodontic treatment needed to be performed with fixed appliances, and mainly with superelastic wires. The therapy was hampered with respect to positioning of bands and brackets because of incomplete tooth eruption, dense gingiva, and mucopolysaccharide ridges. Some teeth did not

  17. Relationship between biosecurity and production/antimicrobial treatment characteristics in pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanen, M; Persoons, D; Ribbens, S; de Jong, E; Callens, B; Strubbe, M; Maes, D; Dewulf, J

    2013-11-01

    The biosecurity status of 95 breeder-finisher pig herds was quantified using a risk-based weighted scoring system. Data relating to herd-, farmer- and production-characteristics and to the prophylactic use of antimicrobials were also collected. The average external biosecurity score (measures to prevent pathogens from entering a herd) was 65 (range, 45-89) and the average internal score (measures to reduce the within-herd spread of pathogens) was 52 (range, 18-87). External scores were positively associated with herd size, while internal scores were negatively associated with both 'age of buildings' and 'years of experience of the farmer', indicating that biosecurity is generally better implemented in larger herds, in more modern facilities and by younger farmers. External and internal biosecurity scores were positively associated with daily weight gain and negatively associated with feed conversion ratio of fattening pigs. Internal scores were negatively associated with disease treatment incidence, suggesting that improved biosecurity might help in reducing the amount of antimicrobials used prophylactically. This study demonstrates and quantifies a clear link between biosecurity and both production- and antimicrobial treatment-related criteria in pig herds.

  18. Association of Psychological Characteristics and Functional Dyspepsia Treatment Outcome: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caihua

    2016-01-01

    This study was to investigate the association of psychological characteristics and functional dyspepsia treatment outcome. 109 patients who met the criteria for FD were enrolled. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL90), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to measure personality, psychological symptoms, and sleep quality in our patients. Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ) was used to assess dyspeptic symptoms at baseline and after eight weeks of treatment. The LDQ scores change after therapy, and the degraded rate of LDQ was used to assess the prognosis of patients. Logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of the personality, psychological symptoms, and sleep quality on the prognosis of patients. Our result revealed that poor sleep quality (OR = 7.68, 95% CI 1.83–32.25) and bad marriage status (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.10–1.36) had the negative effect on the prognosis of FD, while extroversion in personality traits (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.76–0.96) had positive effect on the prognosis of FD. We should pay attention to the sleep quality, the personality, and the marriage status of FD patients; psychological intervention may have benefit in refractory FD. PMID:27547220

  19. Extra-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor :Clinical Characteristics,Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵善峰; 闫丙健; 周岩冰

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinicopathological characteristics,treatment and prognosis of extrogastrointestinal stromal tumor(EGIST).Methods:In our study,Clinicopathological data of EGISTs from January 2010 to October 2014were systematically investigated.Pathology results were rechecked.Patients also were followed Up.Prognostic factors were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models and univariate and multivariate with Log-rank test.Results:An amount of EGISTs cases were selected due to inclusion criteria,including 28males and 26Females,with age from 18 To78 years(median,58).Patients were follwed up.12cases were dead.The 1-,3-,5-year survival rates were 91%,75%,66%.Patients undergoing R0 resection had a better 5-year overall survival rate than those undergoing R1 resection(75%vs46%,P<0.05).For patients with high risk of recurrence after surgery,the 5-year overall survival rate was 62%and 40%respectively(P<0.05).Conclusions:Tumor size,mitotic count and tumor rupture affect the prognosis of patients after resection of primary EGISTs independently.Adjuvant imatinib can effectively improve the prognosis of the patients with high risk of recurrence,and the survival rate of patients after surgery.Surgical resection is the main treatment of EGIST,and R0 resection helps to prolong the survival time.

  20. Impact of aerobic stabilization on the characteristics of treatment sludge in the leather tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokgor, Emine Ubay; Aydinli, Ebru; Tas, Didem Okutman; Zengin, Gulsum Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of aerobic stabilization on the treatment sludge generated from the leather industry was investigated to meet the expected characteristics and conditions of sludge prior to landfill. The sludge types subjected to aerobic stabilization were chemical treatment sludge, biological excess sludge, and the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges. At the end of 23 days of stabilization, suspended solids, volatile suspended solids and total organic carbon removal efficiencies were determined as 17%, 19% and 23% for biological sludge 31%, 35% and 54% for chemical sludge, and 32%, 34% and 63% for the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges, respectively. Model simulations of the respirometric oxygen uptake rate measurements showed that the ratio of active biomass remained the same at the end of the stabilization for all the sludge samples. Although mixing the chemical and biological sludges resulted in a relatively effective organic carbon and solids removal, the level of stabilization achieved remained clearly below the required level of organic carbon content for landfill. These findings indicate the potential risk of setting numerical restrictions without referring to proper scientific support.

  1. Atomic oxygen characteristics in a dielectric barrier discharge developed for wound treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldus, Sabrina; Schroeder, Daniel; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Nowadays, infected chronic wounds are a major problem of society. Atmospheric pressure plasmas like dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) have already shown their ability of improving the wound healing process of chronic wounds in clinical trials. Yet, the mechanism of action is poorly understood. A DBD comprising a single driven electrode is a beneficial configuration for wound treatment. The patient itself functions as the counter electrode. Hence, reactive oxygen species (ROS) like ozone or atomic oxygen produced in the plasma reach the wound directly. Some ROS, including superoxide or nitric oxide, are produced by skin cells to repulse invading bacteria. Nevertheless, a very high amount of ROS leads to oxidative stress and can cause cell damage or even cell death. Therefore it is crucial to have a well characterized plasma for effective wound treatment. Plasma parameters are determined using absolutely calibrated optical emission spectroscopy. Density of atomic oxygen is measured applying xenon-calibrated two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. A simulation of the afterglow chemistry, developed to gain insight in the characteristics of the atomic oxygen and its flux towards the treated surface, is cross-checked with measurement results. Work supported by the German Research Foundation within PAK816.

  2. Characteristics of Mexican and Mexican American adolescents in treatment for "cheese" heroin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robrina; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Adinoff, Bryon; Carmody, Thomas; Coton, Casey E; Tirado, Carlos F

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and cultural characteristics of Hispanic adolescent heroin users are not well described. The current exploratory study was conducted to describe a sample of in-treatment Hispanic adolescents with opioid dependence, specifically, cheese heroin. Mexican and Mexican American adolescents with heroin dependence (N = 72) in three treatment programs were interviewed and completed self-report measures. Participants reported, on average, first using cheese heroin at age 13.5 years and daily use at age 14.2 years. The majority (74%) reported a previous overdose. Adolescents being raised by caregivers other than both biological parents, who used drugs with relatives, and whose immediate family members have documentation to be in the United States fared worse on several indicators of drug use severity and other risky behaviors. The self-reported brief time period from first use to daily use strongly suggests the need for early prevention efforts. Additional research is needed to add to these preliminary results and inform prevention efforts.

  3. Clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of patients with giant intracranial aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Wei; WANG Shuo; ZHAO Yuan-li; YANG Hai-bo; ZHAO Ji-zong

    2008-01-01

    Background Compared with smaller aneurysms,giant intracranial aneurysms (GICAs) have a poorer prognosis and require more meticulous surgical planning and techniques to exclude them from the circulation.GICAs continue to challenge the limits of neurosurgical techniques.A series of 170 patients with GICAs were reviewed for understanding the clinical characteristics.surgical treatment and outcomes of patients with GICAs.Methods Collected data of 170 consecutive patients with GICAs from January 1995 to July 2007 were analyzed.The clinicaI Characteristics in this study included age,sex,intracranial aneurysms size,the first presentations,locations and Hunt & Hess grade.Surgical methods included direct clipping of the aneurysm neck,parent artery reconstruction,proximal artery ligation,trapping and wrapping.Surgical results were evaluated postOperatively by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS).Results GICAs were more commonly diagnosed at age 30 to 50 years with a mean age of 39.3 years and without obvious gender preponderance in our study (88 male and 82 female patients).The size of the GlCAs ranged from 2.5 cm to 8.0 cm(mean,2.9 cm).Hemorrhage (41%),mass effect (34%) and headache (12%) were the first 3 most common presentations.Regarding the Hunt & Hess classification,at admission there were 1 00 cases in grade 0,24 in grade 1,21 in grade 2,16 in grade 3,8 in grade 4 and 1 in grade 5.There were 84 cases of GICAs treated by direct neck-clipping,47 by parent artery reconstruction,19 by proximal artery occlusion(with 4 combined with reVascuIarization),18 by trapping and 2 by wrapping.The follow-up study (ranging from 6 to 115 months,mean 32 months)showed good results in 108 cases.moderate disability in 26 and severe disability in 15 according to GOS.Six cases died.Conclusions Surgical treatment is an effective treatment for GICAs.SurgicaI strategies should be made carefully and individually.Doppler ultrasonography,neuroendoscope and intraoperative angiography are useful to

  4. Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: clinical characteristics and feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang X

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Jiang, Ying Jin, Yan Li, Hui-Fang Huang, Ming Wu, Keng Shen, Ling-Ya Pan Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: The objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA in the post-diethylstilbestrol (DES era and to evaluate the feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment. The records of 32 patients with CCAs who were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from August 1986 to June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Three of the patients had undergone fertility-preserving treatment. The incidence of CCA among cervical adenocarcinomas was 15.2%. The median age was 38 years: 11 patients (34.4% were diagnosed before 30 years of age and two (6.3% after 70 years of age. Ten patients (31.2% were nulliparous. No patient had been exposed to DES. Twenty-nine patients (90.6% presented with obvious symptoms, and the cervix appeared abnormal in 26 patients (81.3%. Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap tests were abnormal in all four patients in whom they were performed (three had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and one had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. The distribution by stage was 56.3% stage I, 34.4% stage II, 6.3% stage III, and 3.1% stage IV. Treatments mainly included surgery for patients with stage I to IIA CCA and radiochemotherapy for patients with advanced CCA. The overall 5-year progression-free survival was 72.2%. Patients with stage I to IIA CCA had better 5-year progression-free survival than did patients with stage IIB to IV CCA (81.5% versus 40.0%, P=0.003. The three patients who had undergone fertility-preserving treatment had no recurrences. CCA may also affect adolescents and children without prior DES exposure, who are often misdiagnosed as having functional uterine

  5. Impact of preoperative patient characteristics on posturethroplasty recurrence: The significance of stricture length and prior treatments

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    Jibril Oyekunle Bello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urethral strictures are common in urologic practice of Sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. We determine the rate of stricture recurrence following urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures and evaluate preoperative variables that predict of stricture recurrence in our practice. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-six men who had urethroplasty for proven anterior urethral stricture disease between February 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative factors including age, socioeconomic factors, comorbidities, etiology of strictures, stricture location, stricture length, periurethral spongiofibrosis, and prior stricture treatments were assessed for independent predictors of stricture recurrence. Results: The median age was 49.5 years (range 21-90, median stricture length was 4 cm (range 1-18 cm and the overall recurrence rate was 27.8%. Postinfectious strictures, pan urethral strictures or multiple strictures involving the penile and bulbar urethra were more common. Most patients had penile circular fasciocutaneous flap urethroplasty. Following univariate analysis of potential preoperative predictors of stricture recurrence, stricture length, and prior treatments with dilations or urethrotomies were found to be significantly associated with stricture recurrence. On multivariate analysis, they both remained statistically significant. Patients who had prior treatments had greater odds of having a recurrent stricture (odds ratio 18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-224.3. Stricture length was dichotomized based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis, and strictures of length ≥5 cm had significantly greater recurrence (area under ROC curve of 0.825, 95% CI 0.690-0.960, P = 0.032. Conclusion: Patients who had prior dilatations or urethrotomies and those with long strictures particularly strictures ≥5 cm have significantly greater odds of developing a recurrence following urethroplasty in Nigerian

  6. Settleability and characteristics of ferrate(VI)-induced particles in advanced wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Deng, Yang

    2016-04-15

    Ferrate(VI) as an emerging water treatment agent has recently recaptured interests for advanced wastewater treatment. A large number of studies were published to report ferrate(VI)-driven oxidation for various water contaminants. In contrast, very few efforts were made to characterize ferrate(VI) resultant particles in water and wastewater. In this study, jar tests were performed to examine the settleability and characteristics of ferrate(VI)-induced iron oxide particles, particularly the non-settable fraction of these particles, after ferrate(VI) reduction in a biologically treated municipal wastewater. The particle settleability was evaluated through the measurement of turbidity and particulate iron concentration in the supernatant with the settling time. Results showed that a majority of ferrate(VI)-induced iron oxide aggregates remained suspended and caused an increased turbidity. For example, at a Fe(VI) dose of 5.0 mg/L and pH 7.50, 82% of the added iron remained in the supernatant and the turbidity was 8.97 NTU against the untreated sample turbidity (2.33 NTU) after 72-h settling. The poor settling property of these particles suggested that coagulation and flocculation did not perform well in the ferrate(VI) treatment. Particle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that nano-scale particles were produced after ferrate(VI) decomposition, and gradually aggregated to form micro-scale larger particles in the secondary effluent. Zeta potentials of the non-settable ferrate(VI) resultant aggregates varied between -7.36 and -8.01 mV at pH 7.50 during the 72-h settling. The negative surface charges made the aggregates to be relatively stable in the wastewater matrix.

  7. Epidemiological and Clinical Baseline Characteristics as Predictive Biomarkers of Response to Anti-VEGF Treatment in Patients with Neovascular AMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis K. Tsilimbaris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review the current literature investigating patient response to antivascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF therapy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD and to identify baseline characteristics that might predict response. Method. A literature search of the PubMed database was performed, using the keywords: AMD, anti-VEGF, biomarker, optical coherence tomography, treatment outcome, and predictor. The search was limited to articles published from 2006 to date. Exclusion criteria included phase 1 trials, case reports, studies focusing on indications other than nAMD, and oncology. Results. A total of 1467 articles were identified, of which 845 were excluded. Of the 622 remaining references, 47 met all the search criteria and were included in this review. Conclusion. Several baseline characteristics correlated with anti-VEGF treatment response, including best-corrected visual acuity, age, lesion size, and retinal thickness. The majority of factors were associated with disease duration, suggesting that longer disease duration before treatment results in worse treatment outcomes. This highlights the need for early treatment for patients with nAMD to gain optimal treatment outcomes. Many of the identified baseline characteristics are interconnected and cannot be evaluated in isolation; therefore multivariate analyses will be required to determine any specific relationship with treatment response.

  8. Slaughterhouse wastewater characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry: A review on trends and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2015-09-15

    A thorough review of advancement in slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry is presented. This study also provides a general review of the environmental impacts, health effects, and regulatory frameworks relevant to the SWW management. A significant progress in high-rate anaerobic treatment, nutrient removal, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), and the combination of biological treatment and AOPs for SWW treatment is highlighted. The treatment processes are described and few examples of their applications are given. Conversely, few advances are accounted in terms of waste minimization and water use reduction, reuse, and recycle in slaughterhouses, which may offer new alternatives for cost-effective waste management. An overview of the most frequently applied technologies and combined processes for organic and nutrient removal during the last decade is also summarized. Several types of individual and combined processes have been used for the SWW treatment. Nevertheless, the selection of a particular technology depends on the characteristics of the wastewater, the available technology, and the compliance with regulations. This review facilitates a better understanding of current difficulties that can be found during production and management of the SWW, including treatment and characteristics of the final effluent.

  9. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections in a general hospital: patient characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility, and treatment outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Samonis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is acquiring increasing importance as a nosocomial pathogen. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the characteristics and outcome of patients with any type of S. maltophilia infection at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, between 1/2005-12/2010. S. maltophilia antimicrobial susceptibility was tested with the agar dilution method. Prognostic factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality were assessed with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients (median age: 70.5 years; 64.7% males with S. maltophilia infection, not related to cystic fibrosis, were included. The 68 patients were hospitalized in medical (29.4%, surgical (26.5%, hematology/oncology departments (23.5%, or the intensive care units (ICU; 20.6%. The most frequent infection types were respiratory tract (54.4%, bloodstream (16.2%, skin/soft tissue (10.3%, and intra-abdominal (8.8% infection. The S. maltophilia-associated infection was polymicrobial in 33.8% of the cases. In vitro susceptibility was higher to colistin (91.2%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and netilmicin (85.3% each, and ciprofloxacin (82.4%. The empirical and the targeted treatment regimens were microbiologically appropriate for 47.3% and 63.6% of the 55 patients with data available, respectively. Most patients received targeted therapy with a combination of agents other than trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The crude mortality and the mortality and the S. maltophilia infection-related mortality were 14.7% and 4.4%, respectively. ICU hospitalization was the only independent prognostic factor for mortality. CONCLUSION: S. maltophilia infection in a general hospital can be associated with a good prognosis, except for the patients hospitalized in the ICU. Combination reigmens with fluoroquinolones, colistin, or tigecycline could be alternative treatment options to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

  10. [Characteristics of acid red 3R wastewater treatment by ozone microbubbles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Du, Ya-Wei; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Zhou, Yu-Wen; Liu, Chun; Yang, Jing-Liang; Zhang, Lei

    2015-02-01

    The application of microbubble technology for ozonation wastewater treatment could enhance ozone mass transfer, improve ozonation performance and increase ozone utilization efficiency. The ozone microbubbles were used to treat synthetic acid red 3R wastewater in the present study, and compared to ozone conventional bubbles. The ozone mass transfer and ozonation characteristics of acid red 3R were investigated when ozone microbubbles and ozone conventional bubbles were applied. The results confirmed the enhanced ozone mass transfer using microbubbles. The ozone mass transfer coefficient using microbubbles was 3.6 times higher than that using conventional bubbles under the same conditions. Simultaneously, the ozone decomposition coefficient using microbubbles was 6.2 times higher than that using conventional bubbles, which would be favorable for *OH generation. The ozonation rate and mineralization efficiency of acid red 3R could be improved significantly using ozone microbubbles. A TOC removal efficiency of 78.0% was achieved using ozone microbubbles, which was about 2 times higher than that using ozone conventional bubbles. The ozone utilization efficiency using microbubbles was much higher that using conventional bubbles during ozonation treatment of acid red 3R. The average ozone utilization efficiencies were 97.8% and 69.3% when microbubbles and conventional bubbles were used, respectively. The oxidative ability of ozone microbubbles could be increased by enhancing *OH generation, and as a result, the oxidative reaction of degradation intermediates was accelerated by ozone microbubbles. Especially, the mineralization ability of small organic acid intermediates using ozone microbubbles was about 1.6 times higher than that using ozone conventional bubbles.

  11. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment for Patients with Occult Chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical manifestations and assess direct antiviral effect for patients with occult hepatitis B in China. Methods The study includes 15 patients with occult hepatitis B and their medical history, family history, ifrst-diagnosis time, conifrmed-diagnosis time, laboratory report, anti-viral therapy and outcomes were analyzed. Results The average age of the patients is 38.67-year old (6 males and 9 females), 2 with acute hepatitis B (2/15, 13.3%), 13 with no hepatitis history (13/15, 86.6%), 8 with family history (8/15, 53.3%), 6 with no family history (6/15, 40%), 1 with unknown family history (1/15, 6.6%). Eight patients were treated with entecavir (0.5 mg/day, taken orally), with effective results and steady conditions;3 patients were treated with lamivudine (0.1 g/day, taken orally), 2 of them were prescribed to take adefovir dipivoxil additionally due to drug-resistance, the other one was treated with lamivudine continuously without drug-resistance;4 cases refused anti-viral therapy. One patient’s condition remained steady, 1 patient died of cirrhosis with portal hypertension and liver failure 5 years after ifrst-diagnosis, 1 patient progressed to hepatocellular carcinoma and accepted surgery operation treatment 5 years after ifrst-diagnosis, the other 1 patient progressed to compensatory cirrhosis 2 years after ifrst-diagnosis and is steady from then, which indicates that occult chronic hepatitis B can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma without therapy in time. Conclusions The clinical characteristics of 15 cases with occult chronic hepatitis B showed that these patients with short latency, younger age when being-struck, and light damage to liver function. The efifcacy and drug-resistance of nucleos(t)ide-analogue (entecavir, lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil) in treatment of patients with occult chronic hepatitis B are similar to chronic hepatitis B.

  12. Characteristics of drug-abusing women with children in residential treatment: a preliminary evaluation of program retention and treatment completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Lori

    2008-01-01

    An ex post facto study was conducted to investigate treatment outcomes for 80 women and 168 children admitted into a residential substance-abuse treatment program. The results indicated childhood emotional neglect is a barrier for remaining in and completing treatment for African-American women with comorbid psychological disorders but not for those with crack cocaine dependent disorders. African-American women with comorbid psychological disorders were also three times more likely to dropout of treatment. In addition, there were relatively few differences for between drug-exposed and nonexposed children. However, the results indicated that children of substance-abusing women who completed treatment were more likely to have behavioral problems, to receive early intervention services, and to have mothers as legal guardians by the end of treatment. Implications for gender-specific interventions for African-American women and their children in residential treatment are discussed.

  13. A novel ammonia-oxidizing archaeon from wastewater treatment plant: Its enrichment, physiological and genomic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuyang; Ding, Kun; Wen, Xianghua; Zhang, Bing; Shen, Bo; Yang, Yunfeng

    2016-03-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are recently found to participate in the ammonia removal processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), similar to their bacterial counterparts. However, due to lack of cultivated AOA strains from WWTPs, their functions and contributions in these systems remain unclear. Here we report a novel AOA strain SAT1 enriched from activated sludge, with its physiological and genomic characteristics investigated. The maximal 16S rRNA gene similarity between SAT1 and other reported AOA strain is 96% (with “Ca. Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis”), and it is affiliated with Wastewater Cluster B (WWC-B) based on amoA gene phylogeny, a cluster within group I.1a and specific for activated sludge. Our strain is autotrophic, mesophilic (25 °C–33 °C) and neutrophilic (pH 5.0–7.0). Its genome size is 1.62 Mb, with a large fragment inversion (accounted for 68% genomic size) inside. The strain could not utilize urea due to truncation of the urea transporter gene. The lack of the pathways to synthesize usual compatible solutes makes it intolerant to high salinity (>0.03%), but could adapt to low salinity (0.005%) environments. This adaptation, together with possibly enhanced cell-biofilm attachment ability, makes it suitable for WWTPs environment. We propose the name “Candidatus Nitrosotenuis cloacae” for the strain SAT1.

  14. [Morpho-functional characteristic of oral mucosal epithelium after treatment with a cytostatic drug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leont'eva, I V; Bykov, V L

    2011-01-01

    The effect of cytostatic drug cyclophosphamide (CY) on lingual epithelium was studied in 90 female mice using histological, morphometric, quantitative histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. CY (400 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally three times with a 48 h interval. Material was obtained 2 days after injections and 10-20 days after their discontinuation. CY treatment was shown to result in the damage of both surface epithelium of the tongue and the epithelium of minor lingual salivary glands. Damage to the surface epithelium was more pronounced on the ventral surface of the tongue and was associated mainly with the disturbances of its proliferation. Changes were less severe on the dorsal surface and were seen as the disturbances of epithelial differentiation and desquamation. Glandular epithelium was damaged to a lesser extent than the surface one, with serocytes being more sensitive to the cytotoxic injury than mucocytes. After cytostatic drug discontinuation, the tendency for the normalization of the epithelial characteristics was noted. Most persistent changes in the surface epithelium were found on the dorsal surface of the tongue and in the glandular epithelium--in the serous secretory portions of the salivary glands.

  15. Characteristic correlation study of UV disinfection performance for ballast water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Te; Li, Hongying; Osman, Hafiiz; Kang, Chang-Wei

    2016-11-01

    Characteristic correlation between ultraviolet disinfection performance and operating parameters, including ultraviolet transmittance (UVT), lamp power and water flow rate, was studied by numerical and experimental methods. A three-stage model was developed to simulate the fluid flow, UV radiation and the trajectories of microorganisms. Navier-Stokes equation with k-epsilon turbulence was solved to model the fluid flow, while discrete ordinates (DO) radiation model and discrete phase model (DPM) were used to introduce UV radiation and microorganisms trajectories into the model, respectively. The UV dose statistical distribution for the microorganisms was found to move to higher value with the increase of UVT and lamp power, but moves to lower value when the water flow rate increases. Further investigation shows that the fluence rate increases exponentially with UVT but linearly with the lamp power. The average and minimum resident time decreases linearly with the water flow rate while the maximum resident time decrease rapidly in a certain range. The current study can be used as a digital design and performance evaluation tool of the UV reactor for ballast water treatment.

  16. Effects of thermal treatment on physical and mechanical characteristics of coal rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹土兵; 王品; 李夕兵; 舒荣华; 叶洲元

    2016-01-01

    To study the physical and mechanical properties of coal rock after treatment at different temperatures under impact loading, dynamic compression experiments were conducted by using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The stress–strain curves of specimens under impact loading were obtained, and then four indexes affected by temperature were analyzed in the experiment: the longitudinal wave velocity, elastic modulus, peak stress and peak strain. Among these indexes, the elastic modulus was utilized to express the specimens’ damage characteristics. The results show that the stress–strain curves under impact loading lack the stage of micro-fissure closure and the slope of the elastic deformation stage is higher than that under static loading. Due to the dynamic loading effect, the peak stress increases while peak strain decreases. The dynamic mechanical properties of coal rock show obvious temperature effects. The longitudinal wave velocity, elastic modulus and peak stress all decrease to different extents with increasing temperature, while the peak strain increases continuously. During the whole heating process, the thermal damage value continues to increase linearly, which indicates that the internal structure of coal rock is gradually damaged by high temperature.

  17. A profile of pedophilia: definition, characteristics of offenders, recidivism, treatment outcomes, and forensic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ryan C W; Hall, Richard C W

    2007-04-01

    Pedophilia has become a topic of increased interest, awareness, and concern for both the medical community and the public at large. Increased media exposure, new sexual offender disclosure laws, Web sites that list the names and addresses of convicted sexual offenders, politicians taking a 'get tough' stance on sexual offenders, and increased investigations of sexual acts with children have increased public awareness about pedophilia. Because of this increased awareness, it is important for physicians to understand pedophilia, its rate of occurrence, and the characteristics of pedophiles and sexually abused children. In this article, we address research that defines the various types and categories of pedophilia, review available federal data on child molestation and pornography, and briefly discuss the theories on what makes an individual develop a sexual orientation toward children. This article also examines how researchers determine if someone is a pedophile, potential treatments for pedophiles and sexually abused children, the risk of additional sexual offenses, the effect of mandatory reporting laws on both physicians and pedophiles, and limitations of the current pedophilic literature.

  18. Clinical and pathological characteristics of primary intraspinal hemangiopericytoma and choice of treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan; ZHAO Ji-zong

    2007-01-01

    Background Primary intraspinal hemangiopericytoma is a rare malignant mesenchymal tumor with high rates of recurrence and metastasis. Surgery is the main therapeutic procedure for this lesion. This clinical research was undertaken to analyze the pathological characteristics, clinical course, and the choice of treatment for this lesion. Methods Twenty-three patients with primary intraspinal hemangiopericytomas were treated from 1987 to 2004. The clinical and imaging features, pathological findings, therapeutic procedures, and prognosis were analyzed retrospectively. Results Primary intraspinal hemangiopericytoma is more likely to attack middle-aged persons. The tumor mainly manifests as muscle weakness and sensor abnormalities. Microscopic examination showed slit-like vascular spaces and oral- or spindle-shaped cells with slightly acidic cytoplasm and oral nuclei. Tumors were subtotally resected in 11 patients, subtotally resected with postoperative radiotherapy in 4, totally resected in 5, and totally resected with postoperative radiotherapy in 3. Two patients were given spinal stabilization after total resection. Recurrence and metastatic rates were 50% and 0 in intradural patients. They were 73% and 27% in extradural patients, respectively. Conclusions The tumor should be resected en bloc with the neighboring dural mater to reduce recurrence and metastasis. Patients with subtotal resection need adjuvant radiotherapy. Patients with evident spinal involvement may benefit from spinal stabilization. The prognosis of the lesion arising from the dural mater is better.

  19. Participant Preferences for Pharmacologic Chronic Pain Treatment Trial Characteristics: An ACTTION Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shannon M; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Kitt, Rachel A; Markman, John D; Vaughan, Janet A; Cowan, Penney; Kopecky, Ernest A; Malamut, Richard; Sadosky, Alesia; Tive, Leslie; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2016-11-01

    Barriers to clinical trial recruitment can delay study completion, potentially resulting in increased costs and an unrepresentative sample. In the current study of 150 participants with chronic pain, we used a computerized adaptive choice-based conjoint survey that included 8 characteristics that may affect enrollment in pharmacologic pain treatment trials (ie, treatment allocation, frequency of pain ratings, treatment administration method, current medications, number of study visits, availability of evening and weekend visits, invasiveness of laboratory procedures, payment). These data were analyzed using Sawtooth Software ver. 8.4.8 (Sawtooth Software, Inc, Orem, UT), which identifies the characteristics that dominate participants' decisions across multiple sets of potential trials. Three characteristics had the largest relative importance in participants' trial preferences: 1) invasiveness of required laboratory procedures (ie, 22%), with no procedures or blood tests preferred over ice-water sensory testing or skin biopsy; 2) ability to continue current pain medications (21%); and 3) payment for study participation (21%), with higher payment preferred. The fourth most important characteristic was number of study visits (13%), with participants preferring fewer in-person visits and more phone contacts. Understanding the preferences of potential participants is an important step toward enhancing enrollment in pain treatment trials.

  20. A comparison of physical characteristics between patients seeking treatment for neck pain and age-matched healthy people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, A; Mehlsen, J; Ostergaard, K

    1997-01-01

    To compare physical characteristics of the cervical musculature, including maximal isometric strength of the flexors and extensors, relative isometric endurance of the extensors and the active range of motion (ROM) in extension in a group of patients seeking treatment for chronic neck pain...

  1. Angst for tandbehandling. Prevalens og karakteristika blandt voksne danskere [Fear of dental treatment. Prevalence and characteristics among adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.; Brødsgaard, I.; Scheutz, F.

    1995-01-01

    anxiety, especially in the odontophobiia group, were years of avoidance of treatment and associated poor subjective perceptions of oral health. Logistic analyses revealed that although dental drilling was the identifying feature of dental anxiety characteristics, the drill could be symbolic for the many...

  2. Cleptomania: características clínicas e tratamento Kleptomania: clinical characteristics and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon E Grant

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A cleptomania, um transtorno incapacitante do controle dos impulsos, caracteriza-se pelo furto repetitivo e incontrolável de itens que são de pequena utilidade para a pessoa acometida por esse transtorno. Apesar de seu histórico relativamente longo, a cleptomania continua sendo pouco entendida pelo público geral, pelos clínicos e pelos que dela sofrem. MÉTODO: Este artigo revisa a literatura sobre o que se sabe a respeito das características clínicas, histórico familiar, neurobiologia e opções de tratamento para indivíduos com cleptomania. RESULTADOS: A cleptomania geralmente tem seu início no final da adolescência ou no início da vida adulta, e parece ser mais comum em mulheres. A comorbidade psiquiátrica ao longo da vida com outros transtornos de controle de impulsos (20-46%, de uso de substâncias (23-50% e de humor (45-100% é freqüente. Indivíduos com cleptomania sofrem de prejuízo significativo em sua capacidade de funcionamento social e ocupacional. A cleptomania pode responder ao tratamento com terapia cognitivo-comportamental e com várias farmacoterapias (lítio, antiepilépticos e antagonistas de opióides. CONCLUSÕES: A cleptomania é um transtorno incapacitante que resulta em uma vergonha intensa, bem como problemas legais, sociais, familiares e ocupacionais. São necessários estudos de tratamento em ampla escala.OBJECTIVES: Kleptomania, a disabling impulse control disorder, is characterized by the repetitive and uncontrollable theft of items that are of little use to the afflicted person. Despite its relatively long history, kleptomania remains poorly understood to the general public, clinicians, and sufferers. METHOD: This article reviews the literature for what is known about the clinical characteristics, family history, neurobiology, and treatment options for individuals with kleptomania. RESULTS: Kleptomania generally has its onset in late adolescence or early adulthood and appears to be more

  3. Differential effects of two chronic diazepam treatment regimes on withdrawal anxiety and AMPA receptor characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Claire; Pratt, Judith A

    2006-03-01

    Withdrawal from chronic benzodiazepines is associated with increased anxiety and seizure susceptibility. Neuroadaptive changes in neural activity occur in limbo-cortical structures although changes at the level of the GABA(A) receptor do not provide an adequate explanation for these functional changes. We have employed two diazepam treatment regimes known to produce differing effects on withdrawal aversion in the rat and examined whether withdrawal-induced anxiety was accompanied by changes in AMPA receptor characteristics. Rats were given 28 days treatment with diazepam by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route (5 mg/kg) and the subcutaneous (s.c.) route (15 mg/kg). Withdrawal anxiety in the elevated plus maze was evident in the group withdrawn from chronic s.c. diazepam (relatively more stable plasma levels) but not from the chronic i.p. group (fluctuating daily plasma levels). In the brains of these rats, withdrawal anxiety was accompanied by increased [3H]Ro48 8587 binding in the hippocampus and thalamus, and decreased GluR1 and GluR2 subunit mRNA expression in the amygdala (GluR1 and GluR2) and cortex (GluR1). The pattern of changes was different in the chronic i.p. group where in contrast to the chronic s.c. group, there was reduced [3H]Ro48 8587 binding in the hippocampus and no alterations in GluR1 and GluR2 subunit expression in the amygdala. While both groups showed reduced GluR1 mRNA subunit expression in the cortex overall, only the agranular insular cortex exhibited marked reductions following chronic i.p. diazepam. Striatal GluR2 mRNA expression was increased in the i.p. group but not the s.c. group. Taken together, these data are consistent with differential neuroadaptive processes in AMPA receptor plasticity being important in withdrawal from chronic benzodiazepines. Moreover, these processes may differ both at a regional and receptor function level according to the behavioral manifestations of withdrawal.

  4. Comparison of reverse osmosis membrane fouling characteristics in full-scale leachate treatment systems with chemical coagulation and microfiltration pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukapan, Weerapong; Khananthai, Benyapa; Srisukphun, Thirdpong; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2015-01-01

    Fouling characteristics of reverse osmosis (RO) membrane with chemical coagulation and microfiltration (MF) pre-treatment were investigated at full-scale leachate treatment systems. In chemical coagulation pre-treatment, solid separation from stabilized leachate was performed by ferric chloride coagulation followed by sand filtration. Meanwhile, MF pre-treatment and the RO system utilized direct filtration using a 0.03 µm membrane without chemical addition. MF pre-treatment yielded better pollutant removals in terms of organics and nitrogen. The study on effect of pre-treatment on RO membrane fouling revealed that accumulated foulant on the RO membrane in MF pre-treatment was significantly lower than that of chemical coagulation. Nevertheless, NaOH cleaning of the fouled RO membrane after chemical coagulation pre-treatment could better recover its permeate flux, thus suggesting that the formation of a loose-structure cake layer by chemical coagulation pre-treatment could allow effective penetration of chemical cleaning and detachment of foulant layer from the membrane surface.

  5. The characteristics of keratomycosis by Beauveria bassiana and its successful treatment with antimycotic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Sonoyama

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiroko Sonoyama1, Kaoru Araki-Sasaki1, Shigeyasu Kazama1, Tsutomu Kawasaki1, Hidenao Ideta1, Atsuko Sunada2, Seishi Asari2, Yoshitsugu Inoue3, Kozaburo Hayashi41Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Laboratory for Clinical Investigation, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 3Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organ, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, Japan; 4Immunology and Virology Section Lab, Immunology, NEI, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Clinical findings and treatment of keratomycosis caused by Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic filamentous fungus, are described for an 80-year-old woman, who was referred to the hospital for ocular pain and redness on the 9th day after an ocular injury caused by the frame of her glasses. She had a long history of recurrent diabetic iritis and continuously used topical antibiotics and corticosteroids. At her first visit, a slit-lamp examination indicated a corneal ulcer confined within the superficial stromal layer, along with a slight infiltration and edema. Only a very few inflammatory cells were seen in the anterior chamber. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings revealed septate fungal hyphae with zig-zag rachis and budding that was subsequently identified as B. bassiana by slide culture. Topical voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin and oral itraconazole were effective and the lesion disappeared leaving only a mild scar at 2 months. The sensitivity of B. bassiana to various antimycotic agents was confirmed by broth microdilution, agar dilution with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute standard, and a disk method using topically applied concentrations. B. bassiana, which exhibits a characteristic appearance in smears and causes superficial keratomycosis, is sensitive to voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin, and itraconazole.Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, keratomycosis, filamentous

  6. [Characteristics of orthophosphate adsorption on ferric-alum residuals (FARs) from drinking water treatment plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang-Hui; Pei, Yuan-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Batch tests have been used to investigate the characteristics of orthophosphate adsorption on ferric-alum residuals (FARs) from drinking water treatment plant. ICP, SEM and XRD analyses confirm that the FARs enriched in Fe and Al elements and presented amorphism structure. Orthophosphate sorption by the FARs can be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics equation. Fine adsorption effects of the FARs were found under lower pH values, particularly a 40.13% drop of the adsorptive capacity from pH 4.6 to pH 7.6. The FARs with grain sizes of 0.6-0.9 mm had the highest adsorption capacity of orthophosphate. Experimental data could be better fitted by the isotherm models of Langmuir (R2 = 0.9736) and Freundlich (R2 = 0.9916). The maximal adsorptive capacity reached 45.45 mg x g(-1) estimated from Langmuir isotherm model. Compared with other natural and industrial materials, FARs has relatively higher adsorption capacity. Under similar testing conditions, it was found that only about 10% orthophosphate could be desorbed from the FARs. Further study demonstrated that the mean energy of orthophosphate sorption on the FARs was 13.36 kJ x mol(-1) and the deltaH0 > 0, deltaS0 > 0 and deltaG0 < 0, which indicated that orthophosphate sorption on the FARs was a spontaneously endothermic chemical reaction. It can be therefore highly valued that the FARs may be applied to phosphate removal from wastewater and surface water.

  7. Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis cases by risk groups, Japan, 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko Ito

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We studied the characteristics and treatment outcomes of the following risk groups for tuberculosis (TB: those with HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM, contact cases, the homeless, foreigners, health care workers (HCW and the elderly. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by analysing the Japanese TB surveillance data of all cases registered between 2007 and 2010 (N = 96 689. Results: The annual proportion of TB cases by risk group was stable over the study period, although there was a slight but significant increase observed for foreigner and elderly cases. Homeless and elderly TB cases had the highest DM co-morbidity (16.6% and 15.3%, respectively. HIV co-infection was low in all TB cases (0.2% yet highest in foreigners (1.3%. HIV status of 45% of TB cases was unknown. The proportion of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB was similar among all risk groups (0.0%–0.9% except foreigner, at 3.4%. Males in most risk groups had higher mortality than females; the mortality of all TB cases in all age groups for both males and females was 3.6–24 times higher than the general population. Discussion: Reasons for the high proportion of “HIV status unknown” should be investigated and improved. Contact tracing among foreign cases with MDR-TB should be a priority. Homeless persons should be screened for DM together with TB. Programmes to enhance health and nutrition status may benefit TB prevention among the elderly. Tuberculosis screening and TB education are important for HCW.

  8. The role of angiogenesis in implant dentistry part I: Review of titanium alloys, surface characteristics and treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asatourian, Armen; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Sheibani, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis plays an important role in osseointegration process by contributing to inflammatory and regenerative phases of surrounding alveolar bone. The present review evaluated the effect of titanium alloys and their surface characteristics including: surface topography (macro, micro, and nano), surface wettability/energy, surface hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity, surface charge, and surface treatments of dental implants on angiogenesis events, which occur during osseointegration period. Material and Methods An electronic search was performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases via OVID using the keywords mentioned in the PubMed and MeSH headings regarding the role of angiogenesis in implant dentistry from January 2000-April 2014. Results Of the 2,691 articles identified in our initial search results, only 30 met the inclusion criteria set for this review. The hydrophilicity and topography of dental implants are the most important and effective surface characteristics in angiogenesis and osteogenesis processes. The surface treatments or modifications of dental implants are mainly directed through the enhancement of biological activity and functionalization in order to promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis, and accelerate the osseointegration procedure. Conclusions Angiogenesis is of great importance in implant dentistry in a manner that most of the surface characteristics and treatments of dental implants are directed toward creating a more pro-angiogenic surface on dental implants. A number of studies discussed the effect of titanium alloys, dental implant surface characteristic and treatments on agiogenesis process. However, clinical trials and in-vivo studies delineating the mechanisms of dental implants, and their surface characteristics or treatments, action in angiogenesis processes are lagging. Key words:Angiogenesis, dental implant, osseointergration. PMID:27031073

  9. Effect of high pressure treatment on the aging characteristics of Chinese liquor as evaluated by electronic nose and chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S. M.; Xu, M. L.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Yang, M. Y.; Yu, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Several high pressure (HP) treatments (100–400 MPa 15 and 30 min) were applied to Chinese “Junchang” liquor, and aging characteristics of the liquor were evaluated. Results from the principal component analysis and the discriminant factor analysis of E-Nose demonstrated that HP treatment at 300 and 400 MPa resulted in significant (p natural aging process of Chinese liquor. However, HP treatment caused a slight increase in solid content, which might be somewhat undesirable. Sensory evaluation results confirmed that favorable changes in color and flavor of Chinese liquor were induced by HP treatment; however, overall gaps still existed between the quality of treated and six-year aged samples. HP treatment demonstrated a potential to accelerate the natural aging process for Chinese liquor, but long term studies may be needed further to realize the full potential.

  10. Pre-treatment child and family characteristics as predictors of outcome in cognitive behavioural therapy for youth anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundkvist-Houndoumadi, Irene; Hougaard, Esben; Thastum, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective for children and adolescents (6-18 years) with anxiety disorders, but the non-response rate is high-a fact that may argue for the importance of studies on pre-treatment characteristics of children and their families...... that predict treatment outcome. AIMS: To provide a systematic review of clinical and demographic pre-treatment child and family predictors of treatment outcome in CBT for anxiety disorders in youth. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted based on electronic databases (PsycINFO, Embase and Pub......-treatment child and family predictors of outcome in CBT for youth anxiety disorders have until now resulted in few findings of clinical or theoretical significance....

  11. Geochemically structural characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash particles and mineralogical surface conversions by chelate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Hiroki; Sawada, Takaya; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Fumitake

    2016-01-01

    Leaching behaviors of heavy metals contained in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been studied well. However, micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles are still uncertain and might be non-negligible to describe their leaching behaviors. Therefore, this study investigated micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles, especially their structural properties and impacts of chelate treatment on surface characteristics. According to SEM observations, raw fly ash particles could be categorized into four types based on their shapes. Because chelate treatment changed the surface of fly ash particles dramatically owing to secondary mineral formations like ettringite, two more types could be categorized for chelate-treated fly ash particles. Acid extraction experiments suggest that fly ash particles, tested in this study, consist of Si-base insoluble core structure, Al/Ca/Si-base semi-soluble matrices inside the body, and KCl/NaCl-base soluble aggregates on the surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the same fly ash particles during twice moistening treatments showed that KCl/NaCl moved under wet condition and concentrated at different places on the particle surface. However, element mobility depended on secondary mineral formations. When insoluble mineral like gypsum was generated and covered the particle surface, it inhibited element transfer under wet condition. Surface characteristics including secondary mineral formation of MSWI fly ash particles are likely non-negligible to describe trace element leaching behaviors.

  12. A Single Centre Analysis of Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Endocrine Pancreatic Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Adil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endocrine Pancreatic Tumours (PENs are rare and can be nonfunctioning or functioning. They carry a good prognosis overall though high grade lesions show a relatively shorter survival. The aim of the current study is to describe a single centre analysis of the clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of PENs. Patients and Methods. This is a cohort analysis of 40 patients of PENs who underwent surgery at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India, from 1995 to 2013. Patient particulars, clinical features, surgical interventions, postoperative outcome, and followup were done and reviewed. The study group was divided based on grade (G1, G2, and G3 and functionality (nonfunctioning versus functioning for comparison. Results. PENs comprised 6.3% of all pancreatic neoplasms (40 of 634. Twenty-eight patients (70% had nonfunctioning tumours. Eighteen PENs (45% were carcinomas (G3, all of which were nonfunctioning. 14 (78% of these were located in the pancreatic head and uncinate process (P=0.09. The high grade (G3 lesions were significantly larger in size than the lower grade (G1 + G2 tumours (7.0 ± 3.5 cms versus 3.1 ± 1.6 cms, P=0.007. Pancreatoduodenectomy was performed in 18 (45%, distal pancreatectomy in 10 (25%, and local resection in 8 (20% and nonresective procedures were performed in 4 patients (10%. Fourteen patients (35% had postoperative complications. All G3 grade tumours which were resected had positive lymph nodes (100% and 10 had angioinvasion (71%. Eight neoplasms (20% were cystic, all being grade G3 carcinomas, while the rest were solid. The overall disease related mortality attributable to PEN was 14.3% (4 of 28 and for malignant PENs was 33.3% (4 of 12 after a mean follow-up period of 49.6 months (range: 2–137 months. Conclusion. Majority of PENs are nonfunctioning. They are more likely malignant if they are nonfunctioning and large in size, show cystic appearance, and are situated in the pancreatic head

  13. Rheological and fractal characteristics of unconditioned and conditioned water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y J; Wang, Y L; Feng, J

    2011-07-01

    The rheological and fractal characteristics of raw (unconditioned) and conditioned water treatment residuals (WTRs) were investigated in this study. Variations in morphology, size, and image fractal dimensions of the flocs/aggregates in these WTR systems with increasing polymer doses were analyzed. The results showed that when the raw WTRs were conditioned with the polymer CZ8688, the optimum polymer dosage was observed at 24 kg/ton dry sludge. The average diameter of irregularly shaped flocs/aggregates in the WTR suspensions increased from 42.54 μm to several hundred micrometers with increasing polymer doses. Furthermore, the aggregates in the conditioned WTR system displayed boundary/surface and mass fractals. At the optimum polymer dosage, the aggregates formed had a volumetric average diameter of about 820.7 μm, with a one-dimensional fractal dimension of 1.01 and a mass fractal dimension of 2.74 on the basis of the image analysis. Rheological tests indicated that the conditioned WTRs at the optimum polymer dosage showed higher levels of shear-thinning behavior than the raw WTRs. Variations in the limiting viscosity (η(∞)) of conditioned WTRs with sludge content could be described by a linear equation, which were different from the often-observed empirical exponential relationship for most municipal sludge. With increasing temperature, the η(∞) of the raw WTRs decreased more rapidly than that of the raw WTRs. Good fitting results for the relationships between lgη(∞)∼T using the Arrhenius equation indicate that the WTRs had a much higher activation energy for viscosity of about 17.86-26.91 J/mol compared with that of anaerobic granular sludge (2.51 J/mol) (Mu and Yu, 2006). In addition, the Bingham plastic model adequately described the rheological behavior of the conditioned WTRs, whereas the rheology of the raw WTRs fit the Herschel-Bulkley model well at only certain sludge contents. Considering the good power-law relationships between the

  14. Borderline Personality Characteristics and Treatment Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for PTSD in Female Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Stephanie B.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies report that comorbid borderline personality pathology is associated with poorer outcomes in the treatment of Axis I disorders. Given the high rates of comorbidity between borderline personality pathology and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it is essential to determine whether borderline symptomatology affects PTSD treatment…

  15. Characteristics of U.S. substance abuse treatment facilities adopting buprenorphine in its initial stage of availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alison L; Arfken, Cynthia L; Schuster, Charles R

    2006-07-27

    This study examined the adoption of buprenorphine for the treatment of opiate dependence among U.S. substance abuse treatment facilities and their characteristics at the time of the initial availability of the medication. Data come from a 2003 national survey of all substance abuse treatment facilities in the U.S. Out of our sample of 13,060 facilities, 5.5% of facilities reported they offered buprenorphine. Not unexpectedly, the prevalence was higher in certified opioid treatment programs (11.3%) compared to other facilities (4.6%). For opioid treatment programs, offering Naltrexone (OR=8.34, 95% CI=5.53, 12.58) and offering medically supervised withdrawal (OR=2.76, 95% CI=1.38, 5.52) were independent and robust predictors of offering buprenorphine. These same variables were independent predictors for the non-opioid treatment programs as well (Naltrexone, OR=14.32, 95% CI=7.85, 26.10; and medically supervised withdrawal services, OR=4.42, 95% CI=3.01, 6.49). Our results suggest that the adoption of buprenorphine soon after the Food and Drug Administration approved its use for treatment of opioid dependence and the shipping of the medication commenced was associated with facilities already offering pharmacotherapies such as Naltrexone and medically assisted withdrawal. These findings provide baseline data to track the adoption of buprenorphine by substance abuse treatment programs in future years.

  16. Investigation on the characteristics of liquid wastes depending on their generation sources and study on optimum treatment method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Guk; Kim, Dong Chan; Shin, Dae Hyun; Son, Seung Geun; Roh, Nam Sun; Woo, Je Kyung [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The major research contents conducted this year are as follows: (1) environmental regulation with respect to the treatment of the liquid waste in the U.S.A., (2) the present status of the generation and treatment of liquid wastes for large producers(>1,000 ton/year), (3) analysis for heating value element, heavy metal content, halogenated species on collected samples, (4) investigation on estimation method of energy recovery rate from liquid waste, (5) design of a lab. scale reactor which could be capable of conducting thermal decomposition test with small quantity of sample. In this study, present status of liquid waste generation and treatment is investigated, and thermal decomposition characteristics are studied using a lab. scale thermal reactor. The purpose of this research is to divide liquid waste into groups and to present best treatment method for their each group. (author). 24 refs., 21 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility and Musculoskeletal Complaints: State of the Art on Diagnostics, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Scheper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To provide a state of the art on diagnostics, clinical characteristics, and treatment of paediatric generalised joint hypermobility (GJH and joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS. Method. A narrative review was performed regarding diagnostics and clinical characteristics. Effectiveness of treatment was evaluated by systematic review. Searches of Medline and Central were performed and included nonsymptomatic and symptomatic forms of GJH (JHS, collagen diseases. Results. In the last decade, scientific research has accumulated on all domains of the ICF. GJH/JHS can be considered as a clinical entity, which can have serious effects during all stages of life. However research regarding the pathological mechanism has resulted in new potential opportunities for treatment. When regarding the effectiveness of current treatments, the search identified 1318 studies, from which three were included (JHS: n=2, Osteogenesis Imperfecta: n=1. According to the best evidence synthesis, there was strong evidence that enhancing physical fitness is an effective treatment for children with JHS. However this was based on only two studies. Conclusion. Based on the sparsely available knowledge on intervention studies, future longitudinal studies should focus on the effect of physical activity, fitness, and joint stabilisation. In JHS and chronic pain, the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary approach should be investigated.

  18. Clinical Characteristics and Pharmacological Treatment of Psychotic Patients Attending the Mental Health Services of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Sabina Roméu; Daimí Sarmiento González; Mario Isaías Alzuri Falcato; Anais Leyva Madrigales

    2016-01-01

    Background: the mental health services of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos receive all patients in the province that need to be hospitalized. Among them, children and adolescents functioning at the psychotic level are of great clinical and social importance. Objective: to describe the clinical characteristics and pharmacological treatment of psychotic patients treated in the mental health services. Methods: a case series study of 35 psychotic patients admitted to the mental health unit of...

  19. Effects of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam as seed treatments on the early seedling characteristics and aphid-resistance of oilseed rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Liang; ZHAO Chun-lin; HUANG Fang; BAI Run-e; L Yao-bin; YAN Feng-ming; HAO Zhong-ping

    2015-01-01

    Seed treatments with the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were evaluated to determine whether the chemicals at effective concentrations for aphid control would inlfuence the germination and early growth of oilseed rape,Brassica napus. Treatment with imidacloprid or thiamethoxam did not affect the cumulative germination rate, but signiifcantly inhibited establishment potential by suppressing root system development in the cotyledon stage. However, these alterations in seedling development in the thiamethoxam-treated seeds appeared not to be detrimental as leaves developed; in contrast, for the seedlings with imidacloprid as seed treatment agent, a signiifcantly decreased shoot/root ratio was stil evident at the late two-leaf stage. After two leaves developed, chlorophyl content per leaf in the thiamethoxam treatment was signiifcantly higher than that of the control, while chlorophyl content per leaf in the imidacloprid treatment remained close to that in the control. Most other parameters, i.e., height, leaf area, weight of stem, leaf or root, and other growth indexes, between the treatments and the control showed no signiifcant difference. Additionaly, it was found that storage time of the treated seeds had a signiifcant effect on cumulative germination rate. Treatment 30 d before planting signiifcantly reduced germination relative to that of the control. Al of the plants treated with neonicotinoids were shown to have signiifcant anti-aphid characteristics that persisted until the end of the trial.

  20. Improvement on the concentrated grape juice physico-chemical characteristics by an enzymatic treatment and Membrane Separation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLÍNIO R.F. CAMPOS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this work, the improvement on the concentrated grape juice physico-chemical characteristics by using an enzymatic treatment followed by Membrane Separation Process (MSP has been investigated. By using Novozym 33095(r and Ultrazym AFP L(r enzymes varying three operating parameters, the best result on the grape pulp characteristics was attained for the Novozym 33095(r performed at 35oC, 15 min. and 50 mgL-1. In micro/ultra filtration processes after enzymatic pretreatment, the best performance of the MSP with high permeate flux value and suitable grape juice characteristics was attained using 0.05 mm membrane pore size, 1 bar pressure and 40 oC treatment temperature. When reverse osmosis process is operated at 40 bar and 40oC, high soluble solid and low turbidity values are attained. An enzymatic treatment along with MSP has shown an alternative and efficient grape juice processing system, being possible to extend to other foods.

  1. Prognostic significance of tympanosclerotic plaques localization and their morphological and histological characteristics for the outcome of surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Milanko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Tympanosclerosis is a sequela of inflammation of the middle ear usually causing conductive hearing loss. The aim of the study was to determine the significance of tympanosclerotic plaques localization in the middle ear and their morphological and histological characteristics for surgical treatment outcome. Methods. This retrospective study included a total of 73 patients operated on for tympanosclerosis in the Clinic for Otorhinolaryngology, Military Medical Academy (MMA in a period 1996-2010. The results of surgical treatment as well as the last audiometry findings were analyzed. considering follow-up periods of 6 months to 8 years. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to tympanosclerotic plaques localization in the middle ear and the classification suggested by Wieling and Kerr. The patients were also divided based on intraoperatively noticed morphological characteristics of tympanosclerotic plaques, while the third division was done as per histological findings. Surgical success was assessed using the suggestions of the Japan Otological Society. Results. The analyzed results showed the surgical success especially in the group II according to Wieling and Kerr, while histological findings had no impact on the outcome of the surgery. Conclusion. Surgical treatment has good results especially in patients with the mobile stapes. Results are satisfactory in other localizations, while various morphological and histological characteristics do not have impact on the surgery outcome.

  2. Characteristics of breast cancer patients who experience menopausal transition due to treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F.A. Duijts; A.C. Stolk-Vos; H.S.A. Oldenburg; M. van Beurden; N.K. Aaronson

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify patient-related and treatment-related factors associated significantly with climacteric symptoms in young patients who experience menopausal transition due to adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Methods This cross-sectional study used questionnaire data collected to screen br

  3. Characteristics of problem drinkers in e-therapy versus face-to-face treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postel, M.G.; Haan, H.A. de; Huurne, E.D. Ter; Becker, E.S.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of online treatment programs offers the potential to reach more problem drinkers. This study compared the client populations of an e-therapy program (asynchronous client-therapist communication via the Internet) and a face-to-face treatment program. OBJECTIVE: To determi

  4. Characteristics of Problem Drinkers in E-therapy versus Face-to-Face Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postel, M.G.; Haan, H.A. de; Huurne, E.D. ter; Becker, E.S.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    Background: The availability of online treatment programs offers the potential to reach more problem drinkers. This study compared the client populations of an e-therapy program (asynchronous client–therapist communication via the Internet) and a face-to-face treatment program. Objective: To determi

  5. Characteristics and programme-defined treatment outcomes among childhood tuberculosis (TB patients under the national TB programme in Delhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinath Satyanarayana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB patients under India's Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP are managed using diagnostic algorithms and directly observed treatment with intermittent thrice-weekly short-course treatment regimens for 6-8 months. The assignment into pre-treatment weight bands leads to drug doses (milligram per kilogram that are lower than current World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for some patients. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of our study was to describe the baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes reported under RNTCP for registered childhood (age <15 years TB patients in Delhi. Additionally, we compared the reported programmatic treatment completion rates between children treated as per WHO recommended anti-TB drug doses with those children treated with anti-TB drug doses below that recommended in WHO guidelines. METHODS: For this cross-sectional retrospective study, we reviewed programme records of all 1089 TB patients aged <15 years registered for TB treatment from January to June, 2008 in 6 randomly selected districts of Delhi. WHO disease classification and treatment outcome definitions are used by RNTCP, and these were extracted as reported in programme records. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Among 1074 patients with records available, 651 (61% were females, 122 (11% were <5 years of age, 1000 (93% were new cases, and 680 (63% had extra-pulmonary TB (EP-TB--most commonly peripheral lymph node disease [310 (46%]. Among 394 pulmonary TB (PTB cases, 165 (42% were sputum smear-positive. The overall reported treatment completion rate was 95%. Similar reported treatment completion rates were found in all subgroups assessed, including those patients whose drug dosages were lower than that currently recommended by WHO. Further studies are needed to assess the reasons for the low proportion of under-5 years of age TB case notifications, address challenges in reaching all childhood TB patients by RNTCP, the

  6. [Intensified insulin treatment is cost-effective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, P; Alm, C; Andersson, E; Wärn, I; Rosenqvist, U

    1999-01-20

    Both the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) in USA/Canada, and Stockholm Diabetes Intervention Study (SDIS) showed intensified insulin treatment and reduced glycaemia to prevent complications in patients with insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes mellitus. In the DCCT, the intensified treatment was considered cost-effective. In the SDIS, investigation of the direct increase in costs due to the intensified insulin treatment showed the saving in direct costs due to the reduction in photocoagulation requirements, and in the prevalence of renal insufficiency and of amputation, to correspond to 10 years' intensive insulin treatment. Thus, as intensified insulin treatment in type I diabetes reduces direct suffering at a low cost, it may be regarded as 'evidence-based' and mandatory.

  7. Characteristics of ITO films with oxygen plasma treatment for thin film solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Seob [Department of Photoelectronics Information, Chosun College of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eungkwon [Digital Broadcasting Examination, Korean Intellectual Property Office, Daejeon, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Byungyou [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong, 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehyoeng, E-mail: jaehyeong@skku.edu [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong, 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The effect of O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the surface and the work function of ITO films. - Highlights: • ITO films were prepared on the glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering method. • Effects of O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the properties of ITO films were investigated. • The work function of ITO film was changed from 4.67 to 5.66 eV by plasma treatment. - Abstract: The influence of oxygen plasma treatment on the electro-optical and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method were investigated. The films were exposed at different O{sub 2} plasma powers and for various durations by using the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The resistivity of the ITO films was almost constant, regardless of the plasma treatment conditions. Although the optical transmittance of ITO films was little changed by the plasma power, the prolonged treatment slightly increased the transmittance. The work function of ITO film was changed from 4.67 eV to 5.66 eV at the plasma treatment conditions of 300 W and 60 min.

  8. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TREATMENT OF QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AT THE INTERNATIONAL LEVEL AND IN VARIOUS NATIONAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Cristina Breahna Pravat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative characteristics of accounting information presented by financial-accounting reports represent a concept which was subsequently introduced in the national legal accounting framework and, as a rule, the national conceptual frameworks represent the documents by means of which these quality criteria are established. At a worldwide level, there are more international or national organisms that have an important role in the elaboration of accounting standards in general and more specifically in the formulation of qualitative characteristics of financial reporting. We find two important ones among them, and these are: International Accounting Standards Board, which creates and promotes International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, and Financial Accounting Standards Board, which elaborates Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP. However, at the level of each country a standardizing authority decides the rules for producing the financial reports and the qualitative characteristics that must be respected by the information contained in these documents. In this context, this paper aims to present a few general considerations concerning the treatment of the qualitative characteristics of the financial-accounting information in different accounting systems, such as the American one, or the British, French, German, Romanian ones, with insistence on the international approach to qualitative characteristics.

  9. Effect of Thermal Treatment and Acid Leaching Process on Pore Characteristics of Nanometer Porous Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jianjun; XU Feng; LIU Jiandang; ZHAO Xiujian

    2007-01-01

    Porous glass was prepared by thermally treating sodium borosilicate glass for different time,the effect of thermal treatment on pore size distribution was discussed and the pore size of the prepared porous glass was measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results show that the optimum porous glass with an average diameter of 80 nm can be prepared by thermal treatment at 600 ℃ for 12 h and then acid treatment for 12 h in 2 mol· L-1 hydrochloric acid solution.

  10. [Comparative characteristic of methods for operative treatment of patients suffering varicocele].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, M I; Pasiechnikov, S P; Boĭko, O M

    2014-04-01

    Efficacy and security of treatment of varicocele constitute a complex issues in urology, necessitating the additional investigations conduction. The results of surgical treatment of 280 patients, suffering left-sided varicocele and operated using three different methods--retroperitoneal varicocelectomy, laparoscopic varicocelectomy and subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (SMV)--were analyzed. The advantages and faults of these methods were estimated, basing on the recurrence rate, complications by hidrocele occurrence and changes in the patients quality of life. SMV was determined as most effective and secure method of varicocele correction. The data obtained may be useful for choice of tactics for the disease treatment.

  11. Change in the electrical characteristics of single-walled carbon nanotube networks under photoresist treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Mi-Suk; Kim, Ju-Jin; Choi, Won Jin; Lee, Jeong-O.

    2016-08-01

    The electrical properties of a single-walled carbon nanotube network were investigated after photoresist treatment with the pristine device. Atomic force microscopy found that the diameters of the single-walled carbon nanotubes were increased after photoresist treatment and that the photoresist could not be completely removed from nanotube surfaces by using a simple cleaning process with an organic solvent. Although the presence of a residual photoresist had no noticeable effects on the Raman spectrum of single-walled carbon nanotubes in our devices, the charge carrier mobilities and the on/off ratios of the single-walled carbon nanotube devices were lowered due to the photoresist treatment, and the gate-hysteresis behavior in the devices that had undergone photoresist treatment was found to be different from that of pristine devices.

  12. Can subjective characteristics of benign headache predict manipulative physiotherapy treatment outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, Ken

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to identify whether particular subjective reports of headache sufferers were predictive of outcome with manipulative physiotherapy treatment. One hundred and twelve subjects presenting for manipulative physiotherapy completed questionnaires relating to headache frequency, intensity, duration, pain quality, area, history and aggravating factors. Classification of treatment response was made using data collected two months after the initial visit. Diet as an aggravating factor, affective and autonomic pain descriptors, unilateral headaches and low frequencies each predicted a negative response to treatment. High frequencies predicted a positive response. If it is assumed that the treatment addressed cervical dysfunction then the cervical spine could have a varying component in a range of headache types rather than occupying a strict diagnostic category.

  13. Clinical characteristics of hypertrophic herpes simplex genitalis and treatment outcomes of imiquimod: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charussri Leeyaphan

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Atypical manifestations of herpes simplex genitalis require careful consideration because their frequency is rising, particularly in patients with HIV infection. Although acyclovir is important in their treatment, imiquimod provides an additional benefit in resistant cases.

  14. Interfacial Adhesion Characteristics of Kenaf Fibres Subjected to Different Polymer Matrices and Fibre Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Nirmal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at determining the interfacial adhesion strength (IAS of kenaf fibres using different chemical treatments in hydrochloric (HCl and sodium hydroxide (NaOH with different concentrations. Single fibre pullout tests (SFPT were carried out for both untreated and treated fibres partially embedded into three different polymer matrices; polyester, epoxy, and polyurethane (PU as reinforcement blocks and tested under dry loading conditions. The study revealed that kenaf fibres treated with 6% NaOH subjected to polyester, epoxy, and PU matrices exhibits excellent IAS while poor in acidic treatment. The effect of SFPT results was mainly attributed to chemical composition of the fibres, types of fibre treatments, and variation in resin viscosities. By scanning electron microscopy examination of the material failure morphology, the fibres experienced brittle and ductile fibre breakage mechanisms after treatment with acidic and alkaline solutions.

  15. Alcohol in Primary Care. Differential characteristics between alcohol-dependent patients who are receiving or not receiving treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Pablo; Miquel, Laia; Moreno-España, Jose; Martínez, Alicia; Ortega, Lluisa; Teixidor, Lidia; Manthey, Jakob; Rehm, Jürgen; Gual, Antoni

    2016-03-02

    primary health care services for other reasons. The aim of the present study is to describe the differential characteristics of AD patients in primary care, distinguishing between those who receive treatment and those who do not, and their reasons for not seeking it. In a cross-sectional study patients were evaluated by their general practitioner (GP) and interviewed by a member of the research team. Sociodemographic, diagnostic and clinical data were collected. From 1,372 patients interviewed in Catalonia, 118 (8.6%) were diagnosed as AD. These patients showed a lower socioeconomic status (48.3% vs 33.3%, odds ratio 2.02), higher unemployment rates (32.2% vs 19.2 %, odds ratio 2.11), and greater psychological distress and disability. Patients with AD receiving treatment (16.9%), were older (44 vs 36 years of age), reported higher unemployment rates (66% vs 25.5%, odds ratio 6.32) and higher daily alcohol consumption (61.5 vs 23.7 grams), suggesting a more advanced disease. Patients with AD in general showed a higher degree of comorbidity compared to other patients, with patients in treatment showing the most elevated level. The main reasons given for not seeking treatment were shame, fear of giving up drinking and barriers to treatment. Taken together, the data suggest the need to implement earlier strategies for the detection and treatment of AD.

  16. Influences of NOM composition and bacteriological characteristics on biological stability in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Won; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Meyer, Anne S; Kim, Sungpyo; Maeng, Sung Kyu

    2016-10-01

    The influences of natural organic matter (NOM) and bacteriological characteristics on the biological stability of water were investigated in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. We found that prechlorination decreased the hydrophobicity of the organic matter and significantly increased the high-molecular-weight (MW) dissolved organic matter, such as biopolymers and humic substances. High-MW organic matter and structurally complex compounds are known to be relatively slowly biodegradable; however, because of the prechlorination step, the indigenous bacteria could readily utilise these fractions as assimilable organic carbon. Sequential coagulation and sedimentation resulted in the substantial removal of biopolymer (74%), humic substance (33%), bacterial cells (79%), and assimilable organic carbon (67%). Rapid sand and granular activated carbon filtration induced an increase in the low-nucleic-acid content bacteria; however, these bacteria were biologically less active in relation to enzymatic activity and ATP. The granular activated carbon step was essential to securing biological stability (the ability to prevent bacterial growth) by removing the residual assimilable organic carbon that had formed during the ozone treatment. The growth potential of Escherichia coli and indigenous bacteria were found to differ in respect to NOM characteristics. In comparison with E. coli, the indigenous bacteria utilised a broader range of NOM as a carbon source. Principal component analysis demonstrated that the measured biological stability of water could differ, depending on the NOM characteristics, as well as on the bacterial inoculum selected for the analysis.

  17. Combustion characteristics of Athabasca froth treatment tailings in a simulated fluidilized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili, P.; Ghosh, M.; Speirs, B. C. [Imperial Oil Resources (Canada); Leon, M. A.; Rao, S.; Dutta, A.; Basu, P. [Greenfield Research Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In surface-mined oil sands, a stream of water, asphaltenes, solids and residual bitumen/solvent, known as PFT tailings, is created during the bitumen production process. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of this PFT tailings stream as a fuel source for combustion in a fluidized bed for energy recovery. To do so, physical and fluidization characteristics of the fuel as well as combustion kinetics were assessed through laboratory analysis. In addition, the fuel's combustion characteristics were investigated through experiments in a quartz wool matrix tubular reactor and theoretical calculations at various moisture contents. Results showed that this fuel can be burned in a fluidized bed with a reactivity comparable to that of coal samples. This research found that PFT tailings could be used to generate energy during disposal but further work will have to be undertaken in a hot CFB combustor to confirm this.

  18. [Subglottic stenosis in the first year of life. Characteristics and treatment options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittel, C

    2012-07-01

    Subglottic stenosis of congenital origin or acquired within the first 12 months of life are challenging in many aspects. Surgical reconstruction is difficult due to the small anatomic dimensions. Tracheostomy is an additional risk factor attributing to mortality and should be avoided, if possible. In this paper, the most important types of subglottic stenosis in the first year of life are discussed. Conservative, endoscopic, and open surgical treatment options are presented and evaluated. Laryngotracheal reconstruction with autologous thyroid cartilage is the treatment of choice for the majority of significant subglottic stenosis cases in this age group. This technique is comparatively less invasive, versatile, and allows all options for open reconstruction using other techniques in case of recurrent stenosis. Subglottic stenosis in early infancy requires expertise and experience in diagnosis and treatment. Considering the limited incidence, these cases should be managed in a referral center.

  19. Characteristics of PAHs adsorption on inorganic particles and activated sludge in domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J J; Wang, X C; Fan, B

    2011-05-01

    The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was investigated in a 1 year period. In order to understand how PAHs were removed at different stages of the treatment process, adsorption experiments were conducted using quartz sand, kaolinite, and natural clay as inorganic adsorbents and activated sludge as organic adsorbent for adsorbing naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. As a result, the adsorption of PAHs by the inorganic adsorbents well followed the Langmuir isotherm while that by the activated sludge well followed the Freundlich isotherm. By bridging equilibrium partitioning coefficient with the parameters of adsorption isotherm, a set of mathematical models were developed. Under an assumption that in the primary settler PAHs removal was by adsorption onto inorganic particles and in the biological treatment unit it was by adsorption onto activated sludge, the model calculation results fairly reflected the practical condition in the WWTP.

  20. [Chronic tics and Tourette syndrome in children and adolescents: diagnostic and treatment characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadenko, N N; Doronina, O B; Nesterovsky, Yu E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic tics (CT) are observed in 3-4% population, Tourette syndrome (TS) in 0.1-3.0%. In most cases, tic disorders start at age 2-15 years, but frequently they are diagnosed late. Clinical presentations of tics and comorbid disorders are various and depend on child's age. Difficulties in treatment of CT are associated with their persistence and those for TS with the fluctuating course of tics and probable onset of the disease in the form of behavioral disorders. Treatment of CT and TS is individual. Methods of behavioral and psychotherapy are recommended for a certain period of time if tics do not hamper everyday life. Increase in tick frequency and severity indicate the necessity of using pharmacological treatment. The European recommendations on pharmacotherapy of tic disorders and the drugs available in Russia are considered. Results of the studies on the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs and tenoten children in CT and TS are presented.

  1. Personality characteristics and disorders in multiple sclerosis patients: assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, Anastasia; Christopoulos, Platon; Soubasi, Evanthia; Gourzis, Philippos

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a major inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although a significant incidence and prevalence of psychological disorders in MS has been reported there is limited data on the prevalence of personality disorders (PD) in these patients. Recent findings indicate the need for early diagnosis and treatment of PD in MS patients in the interests of prognosis, conformity to treatment and patient's quality of life improvement. This article summarizes existing evidence on prevalence, types and diagnostic criteria of PD in MS, clinical manifestations of personality pathology or changes in MS patients, and instruments currently used for diagnosis and assessment of PD in this group of patients. Underlying mechanisms suggested as causes of personality changes in MS patients are also discussed. The article reviews therapeutic strategies, including pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy interventions and emphasizes the need for a multidisciplinary approach to patient's treatment.

  2. [Odor Emission Characteristics from Biochemical Treatment Facilities of Kichen Waste in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yuan-gang; Lu, Zhi-qiang; Han, Meng; Shang, Xi-bin; Cao, Yan; Zhang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Xining, Ningbo and Beijing were closen as the representative cities about biochemical treatment of kichen waste. The treatment facilities of these cities were investigated and set as the sampling points. The main compositions and the material contents were analyzed by GC/MS, the odor concertration was obtained by the Triangle odor bag method. The results showed that oxygenated hydrocarbons including alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, ester were higher than others in the odor gases, however, the largest contribution to odor pollution were sulfocompounds and the 2nd materials were terpenes; According to the research of the three enterprises, ethyl alcohol, limonene, sulfuretted hydrogen, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate were likely to be considered as the typical odorants from the biochemical treatment facilities of kichen waste.

  3. Hydration Characteristics and Immobilization of Cr (VI) in Slag Cement-CKD Pastes under Hydrothermal Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M R Shatat; Gomaa A M Ali; M A Tantawy

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hydrothermal curing regimes on the hydration characteristics of slag cement containing different ratios of cement kiln dust has been studied. The samples for this study were combination of slag cement and cement kiln dust (5%-25%) without and with immobilization of 5% Cr (VI) by mass. Pastes were hydrothermally treated at 180℃ for different periods (2-24 h) in well closed stainless steel capsule. The hydration characteristics of these pastes were studied by measuring the compressive strength, bulk density, total porosity and combined water content. The findings were further supported by XRD and SEM analysis. The results indicated that the hydration characteristics of slag cement paste containing cement kiln dust 10% by mass were enhanced, especially at later ages (24 h) of hydration. That is due to the hydrothermal curing regimes of immobilized pastes accelerating hydration reactions and precipitation of CaCrO4, indicating that Cr (VI) can be solidiifed in the cement paste. This precipitation leads to pore formation in hydrated slag cement pastes.

  4. Analysis of Acupuncture Treatment Characteristics of Epigastric Pain in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-gong; GU Jie; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Epigastric pain involves the inflammation, ulcer,spasm and tumor in the stomach, esophagus,diaphragm and the like. The heart, liver, gallbladder and spleen are near to the epigastrium, so the pain associated with these organs is mistakenly taken as epigastric pain. Consequently, some of these organs' disorders are inevitably included in this study. With the help of computer, we have statistically analyzed the information concerning the treatment of epigastric pain by acupuncture in 93 ancient medical books. Results show that 66 pieces of information and 60 acupoints (139 times in frequency) are involved in the treatment of epigastric pain.

  5. Effect of atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment on the adhesion characteristics of screen-printed Ag nanoparticles on polyimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bum-Geun; Kim, Kwang-Seok; Jung, Kwang-Ho; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the adhesion characteristics of screen-printed silver (Ag) tracks on polyimide (PI) treated by atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP). Oxygen plasma was applied to the PI surface, and the APP-treated surface was exposed to air for various periods of time in order to evaluate the sustainability of the APP treatment. The adhesion of the Ag/PI interface was measured using a roll-type 90 degrees peel test. The peel strength was dramatically increased by the APP treatment, but the strength decreased by around 62.7% when the APP-treated PI surface was exposed to air for 2 h. The peeled PI surface showed ductile fracture immediately after the APP treatment; however, after 2 h of exposure to air, the fracture behavior returned what was observed before the APP treatment. To analyze the deterioration of adhesion, the interface between the printed Ag track and the APP-treated PI was investigated physically and chemically. The surface morphology became rougher after the APP treatment, but the roughness slightly decreased after being exposed to air for 2 h. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the chemical bonding of the printed Ag and the PI interface. XPS analyses show that the concentration of oxygen-containing groups decreased as the exposure time to air increased.

  6. Surface modification of polypropylene microporous membrane to improve its antifouling characteristics in an SMBR: N2 plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Yin; He, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Lan-Qin; Gu, Jia-Shan; Wei, Xian-Wen

    2007-12-01

    Fouling is the major obstacle in membrane processes applied in water and wastewater treatment. The polypropylene hollow fiber microporous membranes (PPHFMMs) were surface modified by N(2) low-temperature plasma treatment to improve the antifouling characteristics. Morphological changes on the membrane surface were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The change of surface wettability was monitored by contact angle measurements. The static water contact angle of the modified membrane reduced obviously; the relative pure water flux of the modified membranes increased with the increase of plasma treatment time. To assess the relation between plasma treatment and membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR), filtration of activated sludge was carried out by using synthetic wastewater. After continuous operation in the SMBR for about 90 h, flux recoveries for the N(2) plasma-treated PPHFMM for 8 min were 62.9% and 67.8% higher than those of the virgin membrane after water and NaOH cleaning. The irreversible fouling resistance decreased after plasma treatment.

  7. The Structure Characteristics and Air Permeability of PA and PES Plain and Plated Knits Influenced of Antimicrobial Treatment Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne MICKEVIČIENĖ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Textile materials are usually exposed to thermal, physical and mechanical effects during treatment processes. These influence the changes of material dimensions. Designing knitted products it is important to predict direction and rate of dimensions change, because this can affect physical properties such as air permeability of knits. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of antimicrobial treatment conditions on the structure characteristics, thickness and air permeability of plain and plaited knits. The investigations were carried out with two groups of plain and plated single jersey knits. The face yarns of these groups were cotton, bamboo viscose yarn and polyester (Dacron® thread. 10 tex × 2 textured polyamide (PA and 20 tex textured polyester (PES threads were used as the base threads in plated knits. Knitted samples were treated with antimicrobial material Isys AG and organic-inorganic binder Isys MTX (CHT, Germany. It was established that blank and antimicrobial treated knits changed structure parameters, thickness and air permeability. The changes of structure parameters, thickness and air permeability were more associated with conditions of treatment (temperature, treatment in solution, mechanical action rather than with antimicrobial and sol-gel substances used in treatment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.3196

  8. Nickel super alloy INCONEL 713LC - structural characteristics after heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nickel super alloy’s products are mainly using for construction parts of jet engines, gas turbines and turbo-blowers.Design/methodology/approach: Super alloy was commercially produced and was investigated by using the light microscopy (OLYMPUS IX 71 and local chemical microanalysis and by the scanning electron microscopy (JEOL JSM 50AFindings: We found a mode of optimum heat treatment. On the basis of obtained results it is possible to recommend a following regime of heat treatment: heating and dwell at the temperature exceeding 1240 °C (min. 1260 °C, so that precipitates at the grain boundaries dissolve completely, with subsequent slow cooling down to the temperature of approx. 940-950 °C, so that there occurs intensive intra-granular precipitation of intermetallic phase γ’.Research limitations/implications: The experiment was limited by occurrence a void in cast alloys.Practical implications: Nickel super alloy’s products are mainly using for construction parts of jet engines, gas turbines and turbo-blowers.Originality/value: Mode of optimum heat treatment was proposed. On the basis of obtained results it is possible to recommend the most suitable heat treatment, which produce intensive intra-granular precipitation of inter-metallic phase γ’. It was received a new know-how in this field.

  9. Characteristics of patients who suffer major osteoporotic fractures despite adhering to alendronate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B; Rubin, Katrine Hass; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2013-01-01

    Antiresorptive treatment reduces the risk of fractures, but most patients remain at elevated risk. We used health registers to identify predictors of new major osteoporotic fractures in patients adhering to alendronate. Risk factors showed a different pattern than in the general population and in...

  10. Characteristics of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kum-Lok; Bang, Cheon-Hee; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2016-08-01

    The nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions were measured from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using a flux chamber to determine the emission factors. The WWTP treats sewage using both the activated-sludge treatment and anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (A(2)O) methods. Measurements were performed in the first settling, aeration, and secondary settling basins, as well as in the sludge thickener, sludge digestion tank, and A(2)O basins. The total emission factors of N2O and CH4 from the activated-sludge treatment were 1.256gN2O/kg total nitrogen (TN) and 3.734gCH4/kg biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), respectively. Those of the advanced treatment (A(2)O) were 1.605gN2O/kg TN and 4.022gCH4/kgBOD5, respectively. These values are applicable as basic data to estimate greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Dentist and practice characteristics associated with restorative treatment of enamel caries in permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellows, Jeffrey L; Gordan, Valeria V; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Current evidence in dentistry recommends non-surgical treatment to manage enamel caries lesions. However, surveyed practitioners report they would restore enamel lesions that are confined to the enamel. Actual clinical data were used to evaluate patient, dentist, and practice characteris...

  12. [The post-discectomy syndrome: clinical and electroneuromyographic characteristics and methods of treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaev, A V; Guseĭnova, S G; Musaeva, I R

    2008-01-01

    The data of the Azerbaijan Neurosurgical Center, including 2618 case-reports of patients operated on for low back discal hernia between 1997 and 2002, have been analyzed. The retrospective analysis of the data reveals that 26,4% of patients need further restorative treatment due to the presence of various neurological disturbances: pain syndromes of different intensity, motor deficits (pareses), sensory disorders and functional disorders of pelvic organs. The retrospective analysis of the data reveals that 26,4% of patients need further restorative treatment due to the presence of various neurological disturbances: pain syndromes of different intensity, motor deficits (pareses), sensory disorders and functional disorders of pelvic organs. Along with these data, the results of our own clinical and neurophysiological study of 110 patients have been summarized as well. Along with these data, the results of our own clinical and neurophysiological study of 110 patients have been summarized as well. A high effectiveness of electrostimulation and naphthalan therapy alone and in combination with massage and medical gymnastics has been revealed. A high effectiveness of electrostimulation and naphthalan therapy alone and in combination with massage and medical gymnastics has been revealed. Electroneuromyographic data revealing the positive dynamics as a result of the treatment of patients with the post-discectomy syndrome are presented. Electroneuromyographic data revealing the positive dynamics as a result of the treatment of patients with the post-discectomy syndrome are presented.

  13. Pre-treatment preferences and characteristics among patients seeking in vitro fertilisation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Anthony Ph

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study sought to describe patient features before beginning fertility treatment, and to ascertain their perceptions relative to risk of twin pregnancy outcomes associated with such therapy. METHODS: Data on readiness for twin pregnancy outcome from in vitro fertilisation (IVF) was gathered from men and women before initiating fertility treatment by anonymous questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 206 women and 204 men were sampled. Mean (+\\/- SD) age for women and men being 35.5 +\\/- 5 and 37.3 +\\/- 7 yrs, respectively. At least one IVF cycle had been attempted by 27.2% of patients and 33.9% of this subgroup had initiated >\\/=3 cycles, reflecting an increase in previous failed cycles over five years. Good agreement was noted between husbands and wives with respect to readiness for twins from IVF (77% agreement; Cohen\\'s K = 0.61; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.70). CONCLUSION: Most patients contemplating IVF already have ideas about particular outcomes even before treatment begins, and suggests that husbands & wives are in general agreement on their readiness for twin pregnancy from IVF. However, fertility patients now may represent a more refractory population and therefore carry a more guarded prognosis. Patient preferences identified before IVF remain important, but further studies comparing pre- and post-treatment perceptions are needed.

  14. Influence of vacuum carburizing treatment on fatigue crack growth characteristic in DSG2

    OpenAIRE

    K. Nambu; Egami, N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to clarify the influence of vacuum carburizing on the fatigue-crack progress characteristics of DSG2 steel. The test specimen tempering material (QT material) and vacuum carburizing material (VC material) has been used. The fatigue-crack progress was examined by subjecting the samples to four-point bending. The loading-capacity fixed experiment was done using a maximum load of Pmax = 4000– 7000 N. The ΔK fixed experiment was done using a load of ΔK = 18...

  15. INFLUENCE ОF MODIFIER THERMAL TREATMENT ОN CHARACTERISTICS ОF COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR PROTECTIVE COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ivashko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results that reveal influence of modifiers characterized by different nature and composition and subjected to heat treatment on operational characteristics of single and binary compositions. Interaction between dispersed clay particles and dependence of  coating properties on  their mass content in oligomeric and polymeric matrices have been justified in the paper. The paper contains data that prove an increase of coating hardness by 15–20 %. The coating composition includes thermally-treated dispersed clay particles.

  16. Effect of T6 heat treatment on damping characteristics of Al/RHA composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Siva Prasad; A Rama Krishna

    2012-11-01

    In the present work, effect of T6 heat treatment on the damping behaviour of aluminum/rice husk ash (RHA) composites fabricated by vortex method was studied using dynamic mechanical analyser (DMA) at frequencies ranging from 1 Hz to 25 Hz at room temperature under three-point bending test mode. The matrix material for the present work was A356.2 and reinforced with different weight % of 4, 6 and 8 rice husk ash particles. It was observed that composite exhibits high damping capacities than unreinforced alloy and increases with increase in weight % and the storage modulus increases with the addition of RHA particles but decreases with the increase in weight %. The heat treated composites exhibit higher damping capacity than the composites without heat treatment and increases with the increase in weight % of the reinforcement and loss in the storage modulus was observed and further decreases with the increase in the weight %of reinforcement. The related mechanisms were also discussed.

  17. Analyses of the Characteristics of Diarrhea by Acupuncture Treatment in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-gong; GU Jie; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    The data concerning the treatment of diarrhea by acupuncture in 62 ancient books are computerized and thus show that the ancient acupuncturists primarily used the acupoints of the conception vessel, stomach meridian, bladder meridian, and the foot yin meridians.As to the location, the acupoints on the abdomen, back,exterior side of leg and the hands and feet are used. The common techniques are moxibustion, hot compression,needling, blood letting, navel application and so on.

  18. Relationship Between Depressive State and Treatment Characteristics of Acute Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have assessed whether treatment of acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) patients contributes to depression. Methods Using an administrative database, we assessed patients for whom the diagnosis was unspecified injuries of cervical spinal cord (International Classification of Diseases and Injuries-10th (ICD-10) code; S14.1). We categorized patients with codes for depressive episode (ICD-10 code; F32) or recurrent depressive disorder (F33), or those prescribed antidepr...

  19. Treatment Characteristics of Polysaccharides and Endotoxin Using Oxygen Plasma Produced by RF Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Hayashi, Nobuya; Goto, Masaaki

    2010-10-01

    Treatment of polysaccharides and endotoxin were attempted using oxygen plasma produced by RF discharge. Oxygen radicals observed by optical light emission spectra are factors of decomposition of polysaccharides and endotoxin. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicate that most of chemical bonds in the polysaccharides are dissociated after irradiation of the oxygen plasma. Also, the decomposition rate of endotoxin was approximately 90% after irradiation of the oxygen plasma for 180 min.

  20. Relationship Between Depressive State and Treatment Characteristics of Acute Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yasufumi; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Matsuda, Shinya; Wada, Futoshi; Sugita, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have assessed whether treatment of acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) patients contributes to depression. Methods Using an administrative database, we assessed patients for whom the diagnosis was unspecified injuries of cervical spinal cord (International Classification of Diseases and Injuries-10th (ICD-10) code; S14.1). We categorized patients with codes for depressive episode (ICD-10 code; F32) or recurrent depressive disorder (F33), or those prescribed antidepressants (tricyclic, tetracyclic, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, Serotonin Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors, Trazodone, Sulpiride, or Mirtazapine) as having a depressive state. We compared the rate of each acute treatment between the depressive state group and the non-depressive state group using chi-square tests, and a multiple logistic regression model was used to identify the association between the acute treatment and depressive state. Results There were 151 patients who were judged to be in a depressive state, and the other 2115 patients were categorized into the non-depressive state group. Intervention of intravenous anesthesia, tracheostomy, artificial respiration, and gastrostomy had a significant positive correlation with depressive state. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that tracheostomy (odds ratio [OR] 2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–4.38) and artificial respiration (OR 2.28; 95% CI, 1.32–3.93) were significantly associated with depressive state, and men had a 36% reduction in the risk of depressive state compared with women (OR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44–0.94), whereas age, wound-treatment, all of the orthopedic procedures, intravenous anesthesia, and gastrostomy were not associated with depressive state. Conclusions These findings suggest that tracheostomy, artificial respiration and female gender in the acute phase after cervical SCI might be associated with the development of depression. PMID:26567604

  1. Effect of the chemical treatments on the characteristics of natural cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosiati, H., E-mail: hsosiati@ugm.ac.id [Nanomaterials Research Group, Integrated Research and Testing Laboratory (LPPT), Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Muhaimin, M.; Abdilah, P.; Wijayanti, D. A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural of Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Harsojo; Triyana, K. [Nanomaterials Research Group, Integrated Research and Testing Laboratory (LPPT), Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia and Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural of Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    In order to characterize the morphology and size distribution of the cellulose fibers, natural cellulose from kenaf bast fibers was extracted using two chemical treatments; (1) alkali-bleaching-ultrasonic treatment and (2) alkali-bleaching-hydrolysis. Solutions of NaOH, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were used for alkalization, bleaching and hydrolysis, respectively. The hydrolyzed fibers were centrifuged at a rotation speed of 10000 rpm for 10 min to separate the nanofibers from the microfibers. The separation was repeated in 7 steps by controlling pH of the solution in each step until neutrality was reached. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed on the fibers at the final step of each treatment: i.e. either ultrasonic treated- or hydrolyzed microfibers. Their FTIR spectra were compared with FTIR spectrum of a reference commercial α-cellulose. Changes in morphology and size distribution of the treated fibers were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR spectra of ultrasonic treated- and hydrolyzed microfibers nearly coincided with the FTIR spectrum of commercial α-cellulose, suggesting successful extraction of cellulose. Ultrasonic treatment for 6 h resulted in a specific morphology in which cellulose nanofibers (≥100 nm) were distributed across the entire surface of cellulose microfibers (∼5 μm). Constant magnetic stirring combined with acid hydrolysis resulted in an inhomogeneous size distribution of both cellulose rods (500 nm-3 μm length, 100–200 nm diameter) and particles 100–200 nm in size. Changes in morphology of the cellulose fibers depended upon the stirring time; longer stirring time resulted in shorter fiber lengths.

  2. Distal posterior cerebral artery aneurysms: Retrospective review of characteristics and endovascular treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jin Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Bae Woong [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Seung, Won Bae [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kosin University College of Medicine, Gospel Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The objective of this study was to review the clinical outcome after treatment of distal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms via endovascular approach. Eleven patients with 11 distal PCA aneurysms who were treated via endovascular approach in Inje University Busan Paik Hospital and Kosin University Gospel Hospital from December 2002 to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Among the 11 patients, there were 3 males (27.3%) and 8 females (72.7%). The mean age was 56.6 years (range 44 -72 years) and the mean aneurysm size was 8.45 mm (3 - 30 mm). Four (36.4%) aneurysms were located in the P2 segment, 6 (54.5%) in the P3 segment and 1 (9.1%) in the P1/2 junction. Seven (63.6%) aneurysms were treated with preservation of the parent artery; and the remaining 4 (36.4%) aneurysms were treated with parent artery occlusion. After treatment, the overall complication rate was 27% with the morbidity rate of 9.1% and the mortality rate of 18%. Endovascular treatment of distal PCA aneurysm might be used to minimize neurologic deficit, considering the diverse and rich collaterals of posterior cerebral artery.

  3. [INVITED] Laser gas assisted treatment of Ti-alloy: Analysis of surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Karatas, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser gas assisted treatment of Ti6Al4V alloy surface is carried out and nitrogen/oxygen mixture with partial pressure of PO2/PN2=1/3 is introduced during the surface treatment process. Analytical tools are used to characterize the laser treated surfaces. The fracture toughness at the surface and the residual stress in the surface region of the laser treated layer are measured. Scratch tests are carried out to determine the friction coefficient of the treated surface. It is found that closely spaced regular laser scanning tracks generates a self-annealing effect in the laser treated layer while lowering the stress levels in the treated region. Introducing high pressure gas mixture impingement at the surface results in formation of oxide and nitride species including, TiO, TiO2, TiN and TiOxNy in the surface region. A dense layer consisting of fine size grains are formed in the surface region of the laser treated layer, which enhances the microhardness at the surface. The fracture toughness reduces after the laser treatment process because of the microhardness enhancement at the surface. The residual stress formed is comprehensive, which is in the order of -350 MPa.

  4. Anxiety, splint treatment and clinical characteristics of patients with osteoarthritis of temporomandibular joint and dental students – a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Badel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of splint treatment for therapy of osteoarthritis of temporomandibular joint, and to compare the level of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory,STAI and clinical characteristics between 16 patients and 20 asymptomatic dental school students. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used for all subjects. Dental students showed a statistically signiicant higher capacity of mouth opening (p<0.05, and lower level of anxiety (p<0.05 for STAI 1, and p<0.001 for STAI 2 than patients. Patients who had suffered chronic pain before splint treatment had a higher value of anxiety by STAI 1 test (p<0.05.

  5. Characteristics of Non-Opioid Substance Misusers Among Patients Enrolling in Opioid Treatment Programs: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Chunki; Matusow, Harlan; Cleland, Charles M; Rosenblum, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Using latent class analysis, this study examined the pattern of non-opioid substance misuse among 19,101 enrollees into 85 opioid treatment programs. The most frequent non-opioid drugs were cannabis, anti-anxiety medications, and cocaine. Four non-opioid drug use latent classes were identified: low-use (73%), prescription drug use (16%), marijuana and cocaine use (8.5%), and poly-drug use (2.5%). Compared to the low-use class, participants in the other classes were more likely to be female, Caucasian, use tobacco, have chronic pain, and use prescription opioids either with or without heroin. Recognition of characteristics derived from these classes can improve opioid treatment program services.

  6. The impact of graves' disease and its treatment on handwriting characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papi, Giampaolo; Botti, Cristina; Corsello, Salvatore Maria

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones are crucial for metabolism in all tissues in humans, including the nervous system and muscles, and could thus affect handwriting, which is the synthesis of complex and fine movements. Hyperthyroidism, characterized by symptoms such as tremor and weakness, could affect...... handwriting, although this has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate handwriting characteristics before and after therapy for hyperthyroid Graves' disease (GD). METHODS: Twenty-two patients (15 women, 7 men) with untreated GD (median age: 44 years; range: 20-70 years) were asked to write.......01), distance between words (216.2±3.2 vs. 198.7±2.4 mm; pHyperthyroid GD was associated with significant changes in handwriting in all...

  7. Effect of moderate inlet temperatures in ultra-high-pressure homogenization treatments on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Espejo, G G; Suàrez-Berencia, A; Juan, B; Bárcenas, M E; Trujillo, A J

    2014-02-01

    The effect of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) on raw whole milk (3.5% fat) was evaluated to obtain processing conditions for the sterilization of milk. Ultra-high-pressure homogenization treatments of 200 and 300 MPa at inlet temperatures (Ti) of 55, 65, 75, and 85 °C were compared with a UHT treatment (138 °C for 4s) in terms of microbial inactivation, particle size and microstructure, viscosity, color, buffering capacity, ethanol stability, propensity to proteolysis, and sensory evaluation. The UHPH-treated milks presented a high level of microbial reduction, under the detection limit, for treatments at 300 MPa with Ti of 55, 65, 75, and 85 °C, and at 200 MPa with Ti = 85 °C, and few survivors in milks treated at 200 MPa with Ti of 55, 65, and 75 °C. Furthermore, UHPH treatments performed at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 and 85 °C produced sterile milk after sample incubation (30 and 45 °C), obtaining similar or better characteristics than UHT milk in color, particle size, viscosity, buffer capacity, ethanol stability, propensity to protein hydrolysis, and lower scores in sensory evaluation for cooked flavor.

  8. Tuberculosis in hospitalized patients: clinical characteristics of patients receiving treatment within the first 24 h after admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Rossato Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients hospitalized for tuberculosis, comparing those in whom tuberculosis treatment was started within the first 24 h after admission with those who did not. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving new tuberculosis cases in patients aged ≥ 18 years who were hospitalized after seeking treatment in the emergency room. Results: We included 305 hospitalized patients, of whom 67 (22.0% received tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission ( ≤24h group and 238 (88.0% did not (>24h group. Initiation of tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission was associated with being female (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.06-3.74; p = 0.032 and with an AFB-positive spontaneous sputum smear (OR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.94-9.00; p 24h groups, respectively, the ICU admission rate was 22.4% and 15.5% (p = 0.258; mechanical ventilation was used in 22.4% and 13.9% (p = 0.133; in-hospital mortality was 22.4% and 14.7% (p = 0.189; and a cure was achieved in 44.8% and 52.5% (p = 0.326. Conclusions: Although tuberculosis treatment was initiated promptly in a considerable proportion of the inpatients evaluated, the rates of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation use remained high. Strategies for the control of tuberculosis in primary care should consider that patients who seek medical attention at hospitals arrive too late and with advanced disease. It is therefore necessary to implement active surveillance measures in the community for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Pain in the cancer patient: different pain characteristics CHANGE pharmacological treatment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Schwefe, Gerhard; Ahlbeck, Karsten; Aldington, Dominic; Alon, Eli; Coaccioli, Stefano; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Huygen, Frank; Jaksch, Wolfgang; Kalso, Eija; Kocot-Kępska, Magdalena; Kress, Hans-Georg; Mangas, Ana Cristina; Ferri, Cesar Margarit; Morlion, Bart; Nicolaou, Andrew; Hernández, Concepción Pérez; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Schäfer, Michael; Sichère, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Twenty years ago, the main barriers to successful cancer pain management were poor assessment by physicians, and patients' reluctance to report pain and take opioids. Those barriers are almost exactly the same today. Cancer pain remains under-treated; in Europe, almost three-quarters of cancer patients experience pain, and almost a quarter of those with moderate to severe pain do not receive any analgesic medication. Yet it has been suggested that pain management could be improved simply by ensuring that every consultation includes the patient's rating of pain, that the physician pays attention to this rating, and a plan is agreed to increase analgesia when it is inadequate. After outlining current concepts of carcinogenesis in some detail, this paper describes different methods of classifying and diagnosing cancer pain and the extent of current under-treatment. Key points are made regarding cancer pain management. Firstly, the pain may be caused by multiple different mechanisms and therapy should reflect those underlying mechanisms - rather than being simply based on pain intensity as recommended by the WHO three-step ladder. Secondly, a multidisciplinary approach is required which combines both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, such as psychotherapy, exercise therapy and electrostimulation. The choice of analgesic agent and its route of administration are considered, along with various interventional procedures and the requirements of palliative care. Special attention is paid to the treatment of breakthrough pain (particularly with fast-acting fentanyl formulations, which have pharmacokinetic profiles that closely match those of breakthrough pain episodes) and chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain, which affects around one third of patients who receive chemotherapy. Finally, the point is made that medical education should place a greater emphasis on pain therapy, both at undergraduate and postgraduate level.

  10. Lichen planopilaris: Demographic, clinical and histopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of 25 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deren Özcan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Lichen planopilaris (LPP is a type of cicatricial alopecia characterized by autoreactive lymphocytic destruction of the hair follicle. We aimed to evaluate the demographic, clinical and histopathological features, and treatment outcomes of patients with LPP. Materials and Methods: Medical reports of 25 patients, who have been diagnosed with LPP according to the clinical and histopathological findings between January 2006 and June 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. The transverse and vertical sections of scalp biopsy specimens were re-evaluated by a pathologist, and the findings were noted. Results: Of the 25 patients, 18 were female and 7 were male, the mean age was 49.8±12.4 years. Eighteen patients had been diagnosed with classic LPP and 7 patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA. The alopecia has begun in postmenopausal period in 5 patients with FFA. Alopecia was associated with pruritus, pain and/or burning in 19 patients. Extra-scalp involvement was observed in 11 patients. The most common clinical findings were follicular hyperkeratosis (92%, perifollicular erythema (48%, perifollicular lichenoid papules, and positive hair-pull test (44%. Dermatoscopic examination was performed in 14 patients, and most commonly, absence of follicular openings (100%, perifollicular scales (92.9% and perifollicular erythema (50% were noted. The most common diagnostic histopathological findingsmwere follicular vacuolar and lichenoid degeneration (88% and vacuolar and lichenoid interface changes (56%. Twenty-three patients who were started on treatment received topical, intramuscular and intralesional corticosteroids, topical minoxidil, oral tetracycline, cyclosporine A, and hydroxychloroquine either alone or in combination. Progression of alopecia was prevented and the symptoms and/or signs were reduced in 12 (75% of 16 patients whose follow-up data were available. Conclusion: LPP can be diagnosed accurately through a detailed

  11. Early-Stage Breast Cancer in the Octogenarian: Tumor Characteristics, Treatment Choices, and Clinical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtani, Anita; Gonzalez, Julie J.; Neo, Dayna; Slanetz, Priscilla J.; Houlihan, Mary Jane; Herold, Christina I.; Recht, Abram; Hacker, Michele R.; Sharma, Ranjna

    2016-01-01

    Background Nodal staging with sentinel node biopsy (SLNB), post-lumpectomy radiotherapy (RT), and endocrine therapy (ET) for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors is valuable in the treatment of early-stage (stages 1 or 2) breast cancer but used less often for elderly women. Methods This retrospective study investigated women referred for surgical evaluation of biopsy-proven primary early-stage invasive breast cancer from January 2001 to December 2010. Clinicopathologic features, treatment course, and outcomes for women ages 80–89 years and 50–59 years were compared. Results The study identified 178 eligible women ages 80–89 years and 169 women ages 50–59 years. The elderly women more often had grade 1 or 2 disease (p = 0.003) and ER+ tumors (p = 0.007) and less frequently had undergone adjuvant therapies (all p ≤ 0.001). Lumpectomy was performed more commonly for the elderly (92 vs. 83 %, p = 0.02), and axillary surgery was less commonly performed (46 vs. 96 %; p < 0.001). Fewer elderly women had undergone post-lumpectomy RT (42 vs. 89 %; p < 0.001) and ET for ER+ tumors (72 vs. 95 %; p < 0.001). During the median follow-up period of 56 months for the 80- to 89-year old group and 98 months for the 50- to 59-year-old group, death from breast cancer was similar (4 vs. 5 %; p = 0.5). The two groups respectively experienced 7 versus 6 locoregional recurrences and 11 versus 13 distant recurrences. Conclusions The octogenarians had disease survivorship similar to that of the younger women despite less frequent use of adjuvant therapies, likely reflecting lower-risk disease features. Whether increased use of axillary surgery, post-lumpectomy RT, and/or ET for ER+ tumors would further improve outcomes is an important area for further study, but treatment should not be deferred solely on the basis of age. PMID:27364507

  12. Clinicopathological characteristics and treatment of carcinosarcoma of the female genital tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhu; Hao Wen; Xiaohua Wu

    2015-01-01

    Carcinosarcomas of the female genital tract are highly aggressive and rare tumors, differing from other malignant gynecological tumors in that they contain both malignant carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. Because carcinosarcomas are rapidly progressive, less sensitive to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and have a high probability of recurrence, patients with advanced uterine and ovarian carcinosarcomas have poorer survival than those with endometrial or high-grade serous carcinomas. Although the treatment strategies are controversial, a comprehensive management approach is recommended, which involves complete debulking surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Molecular-targeted therapies are promising for the management and improvement in the overall survival of patients with car-cinosarcomas.

  13. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Gopalan; Prabhu, Narayan Kotekar

    2011-04-14

    The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

  14. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Gopalan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

  15. Effects of thermal treatment on the physicochemical characteristics of giant bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandivaldi Antonio Colla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite countless use possibilities for bamboo, this material has two major disadvantages. One drawback is the low natural durability of most bamboo species due to presence of starch in their parenchyma cells. The other equally important drawback is the tendency bamboo has to present dimensional variations if subjected to environmental change conditions. In an attempt to minimize these inconveniences, strips (laths of Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro were taken from different portions of the culm and subjected to several temperatures, namely 140 °C, 180 °C, 220 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C under laboratory conditions, at the ESALQ-USP college of agriculture. The thermal treatment process was conducted in noninert and inert atmospheres (with nitrogen, depending on temperature Specimens were then subjected to physicomechanical characterization tests in order to determine optimum thermal treatment conditions in which to preserve to the extent possible the original bamboo properties. Results revealed that there is an optimum temperature range, between 140 ° and 220 °C, whereby thermally treated bamboo does not significantly lose its mechanical properties while at the same time showing greater dimensional stability in the presence of moisture.

  16. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and treatment characteristics of spondyloarthritis patients with and without acute anterior uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gehlen

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Acute anterior uveitis is a common extra-articular manifestation in spondyloarthritis patients. The aim of this study was to compare demographic, clinical, laboratory and treatment data among spondyloarthritis patients with and without acute anterior uveitis. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional analytical study at the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic of the Evangelical University Hospital, Curitiba, Brazil. METHODS: Spondyloarthritis patients with without acute anterior uveitis were compared regarding demographic data, spondyloarthritis subtype, peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, disease activity, functional index, physical examination, radiological involvement, HLA-B27 and treatment. RESULTS: Presence of acute anterior uveitis was not found to have any relationship with functional index, degree of radiological involvement, peripheral arthritis or enthesitis. Acute anterior uveitis showed a negative association with skin manifestations (P = 0.04 and a trend towards higher disease activity (P = 0.06. CONCLUSION: In the study sample, it could not be shown that AAU had any association with the functional and radiological prognoses. The patients with spondyloarthritis with and without acute anterior uveitis did not differ clinically except for a higher proportion of ankylosing spondylitis and smaller presence of skin involvement in those with uveitis.

  17. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcome of 485 Patients with Nonfunctioning Pituitary Macroadenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Vargas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs are the most common benign lesions of the pituitary gland. Objective. To describe our experience with the management of NFPA. Study Design and Methods. Retrospective evaluation of NFPA patients managed between 2008 and 2013. We analyzed data regarding clinical presentation, imaging diagnosis, hormonal status, surgical, radiotherapeutic, and pharmacological treatment, and outcome. Results. 485 patients (54% men, mean age 53±14 years were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Visual field abnormalities and headaches were the presenting complaints in 87% and 66%, respectively. The diagnosis of NFPA was made incidentally in 6.2%, and 8% presented with clinical evidence of apoplexy. All patients harbored macroadenomas, with a median volume of 10306 mm3; 57.9% had supra- or parasellar invasion and 19.6% had tumors larger than 4 cm. Central hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, and hypocortisolism were present in 47.2%, 35.9%, and 27.4%, respectively. Surgical resection was performed at least once in 85.7%. Tumor persistence was documented in 27% and was related to the size and invasiveness of the lesion. In selected cases, radiotherapy proved to be effective in controlling or preventing tumor growth. Conclusions. The diagnosis and treatment of NFPA are complex and require a multidisciplinary approach.

  18. Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Two Strawberry Cultivars in Response to Furostanol Glycosides Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Petronela CĂULEŢ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Furostanol glycosides represent a large group of steroid compounds of plant origin with a broad spectrum of biological activities (anabolic, antioxidant, anti-fungal and nematicidal. Most of the research exhibits this effect in stress induced response on different pathogen attacks and only a few studies show the effect of glycoside on plants growth and development. In order to investigate the effects of furostanol glycoside treatment on rooting, growth performance and photosynthetic system efficiency, young unrooted strawberry plants (cv. ‘Real’ and ‘Magic’ were immersed in different concentrations (0.03 mM, 0.3 mM, 3 mM of G1 solution (glycoside extracted from Lycopersicon sp. and G2 (extracted from Digitalis sp. and morphometric parameters were determined. The results showed that immersion in 0.3 mM glycoside solution improved the quality of strawberry planting material by increasing the number and length of roots, as well as by stimulating formation of new leaves. Moreover, the influence of foliar spraying with G1 and G2 on plants growth, assimilator pigments content and photosynthesis was determined. Foliar spraying with both glycosides solutions improved radicular growth and development, but dimensions of foliar apparatus increased only in G1 treated variants. Although both glycoside treatments induced an increase in assimilator pigments content, photosynthetic rate decreased as a consequence of stomatal limitations associated with better efficiency of water use and of internal CO2, which suggests that these chemicals may have an antitranspirant action.

  19. Direct Care Workers in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network: Characteristics, Opinions, and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Dennis; Fuller, Bret E.; Arfken, Cynthia; Miller, Michael; Nunes, Edward V.; Edmundson, Eldon; Copersino, Marc; Floyd, Anthony; Forman, Robert; Laws, Reesa; Magruder, Kathy M.; Oyama, Mark; Sindelar, Jody; Wendt, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Individuals with direct care responsibilities in 348 drug abuse treatment units were surveyed to obtain a description of the workforce and to assess support for evidence-based therapies. Methods Surveys were distributed to 112 programs participating in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Descriptive analyses characterized the workforce. Analyses of covariance tested the effects of job category (counselors, medical staff, manager-supervisors, and support staff) on opinions about evidence-based practices and controlled for the effects of education, modality (outpatient or residential), race, and gender. Results Women made up two-thirds of the CTN workforce. One-third of the workforce had a master’s or doctoral degree. Responses from 1,757 counselors, 908 support staff, 522 managers-supervisors, and 511 medical staff (71% of eligible participants) suggested that the variables that most consistently influenced responses were job category (19 of 22 items) and education (20 of 22 items). Managers-supervisors were the most supportive of evidence-based therapies, and support staff were the least supportive. Generally, individuals with graduate degrees had more positive opinions about evidence-based therapies. Support for using medications and contingency management was modest across job categories. Conclusions The relatively traditional beliefs of support staff could inhibit the introduction of evidence-based practices. Programs initiating changes in therapeutic approaches may benefit from including all employees in change efforts. PMID:17287373

  20. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers – effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000. The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology, turbulence, instruments and techniques

  1. Characteristics of meso-particles formed in coagulation process causing irreversible membrane fouling in the coagulation-microfiltration water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Q; Yamamura, H; Murata, N; Aoki, N; Yonekawa, H; Hafuka, A; Watanabe, Y

    2016-09-15

    In coagulation-membrane filtration water treatment processes, it is still difficult to determine the optimal coagulation condition to minimize irreversible membrane fouling. In microfiltration (MF), meso-particles (i.e., 20 nm-0.5 μm) are thought to play an important role in irreversible membrane fouling, especially their characteristics of particle number (PN) and zeta potential (ZP). In this study, a new nanoparticle tracker combined a high-output violet laser with a microscope was developed to identify the physicochemical characteristics of these microscopic and widely dispersed meso-particles. The effects of pH and coagulant dose on ZP and PN of micro-particles (i.e., >0.5 μm) and meso-particles were investigated, and then coagulation-MF tests were conducted. As the result, irreversible membrane fouling was best controlled for both types of membranes, while meso-particle ZP approached zero at around pH 5.5 for both types of natural water. Since PN was greatest under these conditions, ZP is more important in determining the extent of irreversible membrane fouling than PN. However, the acidic condition to neutralize meso-particles is not suitable for actual operation, as considering residual aluminum concentration, pipe corrosion, and chlorination efficiency. It is therefore necessary to investigate coagulants or other methods for the appropriate modification of meso-particle characteristics.

  2. An atomic force microscopy study on fouling characteristics of modified PES membrane in submerged membrane bioreactor for domestic wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Han, Hongjun; Liu, Yanping; Wang, Baozhen

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the fouling characteristics of modified PES membrane in submerged Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) for domestic wastewater treatment, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) study was conducted to analyze the microstructure characteristics of PES membrane. Surface roughness and section analysis of both virgin and fouled membrane were achieved by software of NanoScope 6.12. Compared to the virgin membrane, the average roughness (Ra), square average roughness (Rms) and ten points average roughness (Rz) of fouled membrane were increased by 100.6nm, 133.7nm and 330.7nm respectively. The section analysis results indicated that the cake layer formed and membrane pore blocked were the main causes for the increase of TMP. Micro-filtration resistance analysis was conducted to support the results of AFM analysis. It is showed that membrane resistance, cake resistance, pore blocking and irreversible fouling resistance is 0.755, 1.721 and 1.386 respectively, which contributed 20%, 44%, and 36%, respectively, to total resistance of submerged MBR (at MLSS 6000mg/L and flux 21.9L/m2Â.h). The results proved that AFM could be used to properly describe the fouling characteristics of modified PES membrane in submerged MBR through roughness and section analysis.

  3. [Comparative characteristics of the open and endovascular methods of treatment for carotid artery stenoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotovskiĭ, G S; Uchkin, I G; Shugushev, Z Kh; Zudin, A M; Kagdasarian, A G

    2010-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the problem concerning treatment for stenoses of the extracranial portions of carotid arteries. From March 2004 to November 2009 at the Department of Vascular Surgery No 2 of the N. A. Semashko Central Clinical Hospital No 2 we treated a total of 364 patients presenting with stenotic lesions of the extracranial portion of the carotid arteries. Of these, 176 patients underwent revascularization of the carotid basin: 120 patients endured open carotid endarterectomy (CEAE), 56 patients sustained carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS), with a total of 128 CEAE and 67 CAS interventions performed. The following conclusion was made: with high skill of surgeons and broad experience in carrying out revascularization of the carotid basin, the CEAE and CAS procedures possess comparable efficacy and safety with CEAE possessing reliable advantage in terms of the parameters of the patient's quality of life.

  4. Do patient characteristics, disease, or treatment explain social inequality in survival from colorectal cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Osler, Merete; Harling, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between individually measured socioeconomic status (SES) and all-cause survival in colorectal cancer patients, and explores whether factors related to the patient, the disease, or the surgical treatment mediate the observed social gradient. The data were...... on comorbidity from previous hospitalizations and use of medication. Only patients with colorectal cancer as their first primary tumour and those born after 1920 were included. A total of 8763 patients were included in the study. Cox proportional hazard regression models revealed a positive social gradient...... derived from a nationwide clinical database of all adenocarcinomas of the colon or rectum diagnosed in Denmark between 2001 and 2004 (inclusive). These data were linked to those from several central registries providing information on income, education, and housing status, as well as to data...

  5. Characteristic of COD removal and sludge settleability in biological treatment of hypersaline wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Gui-bing; PENG Yong-zhen; MENG Xiang-sheng; CUI You-wei; SUN Ya-nan

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of biological treatment of hypersaline wastewater produced from toilet flushing with seawater at low temperature, pilot-scale studies were established with plug-flow activated sludge process at low temperature (5-9℃) based on bench-scale experiments. The critical salinity concentration of 30 g/L, which resulted from the cooperation results of the non-halophilic bacteria and the halophilic bacteria, was drawn in bench-scale experiment. Pilot-scale studies showed that high COD removal efficiency, higher than 85 %, was obtained at low temperature when 30 percent seawater [ seawater/( seawater + sewage) ] was introduced. The salinity improved the settleability of activated sludge, and average SV dropped down from 38%to 22. 5% after adding seawater. Sludge bulking could be forborne effectively because filamentous bacteria couldn' t subsist under high salinity concentration.

  6. Influence of vacuum carburizing treatment on fatigue crack growth characteristic in DSG2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nambu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to clarify the influence of vacuum carburizing on the fatigue-crack progress characteristics of DSG2 steel. The test specimen tempering material (QT material and vacuum carburizing material (VC material has been used. The fatigue-crack progress was examined by subjecting the samples to four-point bending. The loading-capacity fixed experiment was done using a maximum load of Pmax = 4000– 7000 N. The ΔK fixed experiment was done using a load of ΔK = 18–36 MPa√m. The crack progress speed of VC material fell, after the high crack progress speed was shown, and after it showed the minimum, it showed the tendency to go up again. This is considered to be what is depended on the compressive residual stress given to the carburizing layer. From this, it is thinkable that there is a crack progress depression effect in a carburizing layer. In VC material, a carburizing layer has a crack progress depression effect from a plunger-helix bottom to about 2.6 mm, and it turned out that it is larger than an effective carburizing layer. Moreover, in each ΔK, it was shown that depression effect revelation differs and the crack progress process accompanying it was able to be shown typically.

  7. Modification of tooth and enamel characteristics following the Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, Fatanah M.; Aziz, N. Afifah; Jaafar, M. S.; Azizan, Nur Syazana; Zali, Nurulakma; Razak, N. A. Abd

    2016-12-01

    Lasers have been widely used in the dental field to treat a number of applications in dentistry. The main objective of this study is to analyse the modification of tooth composition following the Er,Cr:YSGG laser procedure. In this study, human premolar teeth were collected and prepared. The samples were sectioned and molded. 3M Unitek Transbond™ Plus Self Etching Primer adhesive materials were applied to the tooth surface. Er,Cr:YSGG laser with a wavelength of 2790 nm was used in this study to remove the adhesive materials on the enamel surface. The irradiation process was done with four different output powers that are 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 W. The change of tooth characteristics was analysed by observing the morphology of the enamel surface and the elemental composition usinga Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Electron Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDX). Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), oxygen (O), and carbon (C) were the elementsidentified by EDX in the samples. Additionally, oxygen was the most abundant element found in the sample. The level of oxygen composition decreased after laser irradiation while the carbon element increased. Another element, calcium was found to be decreasing due to the process of applying adhesive materials on the enamel surface.

  8. Mixing characteristics and whey wastewater treatment of a novel moving anaerobic biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael; Zhan, Xin-Min; Dolan, Brian

    2004-01-01

    A novel moving anaerobic biofilm reactor was used to treat whey wastewater. In this process, biofilm was grown on a plastic biofilm media module, which was vertically moved up and down in the bulk fluid. The objectives of the study were to investigate the mixing and performance characteristics of the new process in treating whey wastewater. The mixing efficiency was indicated by a dispersion number, D(L)/uL. D(L)/uL was up to 1.34, showing that the anaerobic reactor can be taken as a completely mixed reactor. At mesophilic conditions (35+/-2 degrees C), the admissible volumetric COD loading rate up to 11.6kg COD m(-3) day(-1) was achieved with the COD removal efficiency of 89% and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day. When the HRT was 0.6 days, the volumetric COD loading rate was 15.2 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), but COD removal efficiency decreased to 81%. The percentage of methane (CH4) in the biogas was 63% on average and the yield of methane was 333.4 L CH4 kg(-1) COD removal at ambient conditions.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on pre-treatment on the drying characteristics and qualities of wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun [Zhejiang University (China). Dept. of Biosystems Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Wheat, pretreated by {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation, was dried by hot-air with irradiation dosage 0-3 kGy, drying temperature 40-60 deg C, and initial moisture contents 19-25% (drying basis). The drying characteristics and dried qualities of wheat were evaluated based on drying time, average dehydration rate, wet gluten content (WGC), moisture content of wet gluten (MCWG)and titratable acidity (TA). A quadratic rotation-orthogonal composite experimental design, with three variables (at five levels) and five response functions, and analysis method were employed to study the effect of three variables on the individual response functions. The five response functions (drying time, average dehydration rate, WGC, MCWG, TA) correlated with these variables by second order polynomials consisting of linear, quadratic and interaction terms. A high correlation coefficient indicated the suitability of the second order polynomial to predict these response functions. The linear, interaction and quadratic effects of three variables on the five response functions were all studied. (author)

  10. Characteristics of PAH tar oil contaminated soils-Black particles, resins and implications for treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trellu, Clément; Miltner, Anja; Gallo, Rosita; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A; Kästner, Matthias

    2017-04-05

    Tar oil contamination is a major environmental concern due to health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the difficulty of reaching acceptable remediation end-points. Six tar oil-contaminated soils with different industrial histories were compared to investigate contamination characteristics by black particles. Here we provide a simple method tested on 6 soils to visualize and identify large amounts of black particles (BP) as either solid aggregates of resinified and weathered tar oil or various wood/coke/coal-like materials derived from the contamination history. These materials contain 2-10 times higher PAH concentrations than the average soil and were dominantly found in the sand fraction containing 42-86% of the total PAH. The PAH contamination in the different granulometric fractions was directly proportional to the respective total organic carbon content, since the PAH were associated to the carbonaceous particulate materials. Significantly lower (bio)availability of PAH associated to these carbonaceous phases is widely recognized, thus limiting the efficiency of remediation techniques. We provide a conceptual model of the limited mass transfer of PAH from resinated tar oil phases to the water phase and emphasize the options to physically separate BP based on their lower bulk density and slower settling velocity.

  11. SU-E-T-755: Timing Characteristics of Proton and Carbon Ion Treatments Using a Synchrotron and Modulated Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J [Fudan university Shanghai Cancer center, Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Li, Y; Huang, Z; Deng, Y [Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center, Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Sun, L [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Moyers, M [Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center, Colton, CA (China); Hsi, W [Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center, Shanghai (China); Wu, X [University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The time required to deliver a treatment impacts not only the number of patients that can be treated each day but also the accuracy of delivery due to potential movements of patient tissues. Both macroscopic and microscopic timing characteristics of a beam delivery system were studied to examine their impacts on patient treatments. Methods: 35 patients were treated during a clinical trial to demonstrate safety and efficacy of a Siemens Iontris system prior to receiving approval from the Chinese Food and Drug Administration. The system has a variable cycle time and can provide proton beams from 48 to 221 MeV/n and carbon ions from 86 to 430 MeV/n. A modulated scanning beam delivery technique is used where the beam remains stationary at each spot aiming location and is not turned off while the spot quickly moves from one aiming location to the next. The treatment log files for 28 of the trial patients were analyzed to determine several timing characteristics. Results: The average portal time per target dose was 172.5 s/Gy for protons and 150.7 s/Gy for carbon ions. The maximum delivery time for any portal was less than 300 s. The average dwell time per spot was 12 ms for protons and 3.0 ms for carbon ions. The number of aiming positions per energy layer varied from 1 to 258 for protons and 1 to 621 for carbon ions. The average spill time and cycle time per energy layer were 1.20 and 2.68 s for protons and 0.95 and 4.73 s for carbon ions respectively. For 3 of the patients, the beam was gated on and off to reduce the effects of respiration. Conclusion: For a typical target volume of 153 cc as used in this clinical trial, the portal delivery times were acceptable.

  12. Etiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment outcome of maxillofacial injuries in a Tanzanian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanumba Emanuel S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maxillofacial injuries pose a therapeutic challenges to trauma, maxillofacial and plastic surgeons practicing in developing countries. This study was carried out to determine the etiology, injury characteristics and management outcome of maxillofacial injuries at our teaching hospital. Patients and Methods A prospective hospital based study of maxillofacial injury patients was carried out at Bugando Medical Centre from November 2008 to October 2009. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPPS computer software version 11.5. Results A total of 154 patients were studied. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 2.7:1. Their mean age was 28.32 ± 16.48 years and the modal age group was 21-30 years. Most injuries were caused by road traffic crushes (57.1%, followed by assault and falls in 16.2% and 14.3% respectively. Soft tissue injuries and mandibular fractures were the most common type of injuries. Head/neck (53.1% and limb injuries (28.1% were the most prevalent associated injuries. Surgical debridement (95.1% was the most common surgical procedures. Closed reduction of maxillofacial fractures was employed in 81.5% of patients. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed in 6.8% of cases. Complications occurred in 24% of patients, mainly due to infection and malocclusion. The mean duration of hospital stay was 18.12 ± 12.24 days. Mortality rate was 11.7%. Conclusion Road traffic crashes remain the major etiological factor of maxillofacial injuries in our setting. Measures on prevention of road traffic crashes should be strongly emphasized in order to reduce the occurrence of these injuries.

  13. TO DETERMINATION OF INFLUENCE FOR VARIATIONS IN LASER TREATMENT MODES ON TRIBOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CUTTING TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Diachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to higher durability and reliability of a cutting tool for cutting gastronomic products while using laser processing that leads to resistance increase of material operating surfaces against impact forces. Influence of laser fusion with additional doping on structure, microhardness, wear resistance for adhesive coatings of Fe–B–Cr–Si system has been studied in the paper. In order to solve a problem for selection of optimal qualitative and subsequently quantitative composition of a multi-component coating a mathematical modeling method using Scheffe’s simplex lattices has been used in the paper. Similar tendency for measuring micro-structure of all adhesive coatings fused by laser beams has been established in the paper. Increase in beam speed has caused the following microstructure changes: cast equilibrium, dendrite, supersaturated boride, carbide and boride. Response surface models have been found and they provide the possibility to assess influence quantity of laser processing parameters on microhardness of adhesive coatings obtained by laser doping and intensity of their wear under various conditions for all investigated compositions.It has been ascertained that there is no strict correlation between hardness and intensity of coating wear after laser doping used for adhesive coatings. This testifies to the fact that hardening has taken place not only due to an increase of carbide-boride phase, but also due to matrix hardening.In addition, a regression model for coating composition effect on tribological characteristics of the adhesive coatings has revealed that an optimal composition of a multicomponent coating ensuring maximum wear resistance of coatings constitutes B4C is 2/3 and 1/3 TaB. It has been determined that hardening of the adhesive coating after laser doping while using multicomponent coating occurs not only due to increase of carbide-boridnoy phase, but also due to matrix hardening.

  14. Effect of single-, dual-, and triple-retrogradation treatments on in vitro digestibility and structural characteristics of waxy wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Pei; Xie, Yao-Yu; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2014-08-15

    The effects of single-retrogradation (SR), dual-retrogradation (DR) and triple-retrogradation (TR) treatments on in vitro digestibility and structural characteristics of waxy wheat starch were investigated. The yield of slowly digestible starch in a DR-treated starch with retrogradation time interval of 48 h reached a maximum of 44.41%. The gelatinization temperature range and gelatinization enthalpy of DR-treated starch samples were the lowest. Moreover, compared with native starch, X-ray diffraction patterns of treated starches were altered from A-type to B-type and relative crystallinity was significantly decreased, which was responsible for the interaction between amylose-amylose and/or amylose-amylopectin chains that may generate more imperfect structures. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that compared with SR-treated and TR-treated starches, the surface of DR-treated starch with a retrogradation time interval of 48 h exhibited a net-like structure with numerous cavities. These results suggest that structural changes of waxy wheat starch by cycled retrogradation treatment significantly affect digestibility, and DR treatment can be used for preparing SDS product.

  15. Effect of supercritical water treatment on porous structure, liquid-phase adsorption and regeneration characteristics of activated anthracite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanthapanichakoon, W.; Sittipraneed, S.; Japthong, P.; Charinpanitkul, T.; Boon-Amnuayvitaya, V.; Nakagawa, K.; Tamon, H. [National Nanotechnological Centre, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2006-06-15

    Microporous activated anthracite was produced from waste anthracite powders by the conventional steam activation. The activated anthracite was also treated by supercritical water reaction (SWR) by using distilled water and hydrogen peroxide solution as a liquid medium for SWR treatment. It was found that SWR treatment can improve the mesoporosity of the activated anthracite though the micropore volume was reduced by the treatment. In liquid-phase adsorption and supercritical water regeneration studies, phenol and organic dye RED 31 were selected as the representative adsorbates. The adsorption and regeneration characteristics of activated anthracite were compared with those of a commercial activated carbon. The results indicate that the activated anthracite prepared showed comparable phenol adsorption capacity but significantly lower dye adsorption capacity than the commercial one. However, supercritical water regeneration efficiency was remarkably high. The first/second regeneration efficiencies of commercial activated carbon and activated anthracite exhausted with phenol were 55/55 and 65/65%, respectively, and in the case of RED 31, 78/79 and 338/317%, respectively, with losses of activated carbon less than 4% per regeneration. Because of little loss of activated carbon during successive regenerations, this SWR regeneration method was suitable for regenerating spent activated carbon or anthracite.

  16. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymamí, N.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Granero, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.; Claes, L.; Sauvaget, A.; Grall-Bronnec, M.; Gómez-Peña, M.; Savvidou, L. G.; Fagundo, A. B.; del Pino-Gutierrez, A.; Moragas, L.; Casas, M.; Penelo, E.; Menchón, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits. PMID:26229967

  17. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aymamí

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2 to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3 to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4 to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits.

  18. Clinicopathological Characteristics and Surgical Treatment Analysis for Gastric Carcinoma in Stage Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuonlongQin; ChaohongLin

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the clinicopathological and surgical treatment ofgastric carcinoma in stage Ⅲ.METHODS A total of 484 cases ot gastric carcfnoma were treateo with different methods and their efficacy evaluated. These included 114 and 102 cases with D2 and D3 lymphadenectomy, respectively, 48 with intraoperative radiation therapy (IQRT) and 18 with peritoneal infusingchemotherapy combined with TIL.RESULTS The total rate of lymph nodes metastasis (LNM) was 79.5% (384/484) and the degree of LNM 41.2% (4169/10121). The incidence of LNM of N1, N2, N3 and N4 was 68.8%, 34.6%, 19.6% and 3.5%, respectively. The rate of serosa linking to peripheral tissues or organs was 23.15% (112/484) including 12.5% cancerous linkage. The survival rates for patients treated with D3 lymphadenectomy at 1 -, 3- 5- 8- and 10-years were significantlyhigher than that for D2 lymphadenectomy. The 5-year survival rate with application of IORT increased remarkably compared to the operation-alone group. Peritoneal lavage with 2000 ml of 43~C distilled water before closure of the abdominachemotherapy withmetastasis.ncision and postoperative peritoneal infusing TIL significantly decreased the rate of peritonea metastasis.CONCLUSION Due to the specificity of gastric carcinoma in stage Ⅲ, the surgical principles are to perform an extensive radical operation, in combination with IORT plus different peritoneal infusing therapy to improve the long term survival rate.

  19. Characteristics of materials and thermal treatments applied to gearwheels obtained by plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, I.; Dulgheru, V.; Trifan, N.

    2016-08-01

    A variety of materials are used in the manufacture of gearwheels. These materials satisfy various working conditions for gears. Such gears are made of metallic materials - ferrous, non-ferrous and from plastic materials. Among ferrous materials the following are used: irons; cast, forged and rolled steels; among non-ferrous materials the following are used: bronze, aluminium alloys, brass, etc., and of plastics the following are used: textolite, polyamide, polyacetal. In the practice of exploitation and in the process of special research it was established that the permissible load, according to teeth contact resistance, is generally determined by the hardness of the material. The highest hardness and respectively, the smallest sizes and reduced mass of the transmission can be obtained in the manufacture of steel gears via thermal treatment. It is obvious that by plastic deformation at cold it cannot be obtained gearwheels with complicated configuration as deformed plastic metal will form cracks caused by low plasticity. To improve processability by plastic deformation the mouldings for gearwheels are heated. With increasing the heating temperature, plasticity increases and resistance to deformation decreases.

  20. Study of coagulant development and the characteristics for the treatment of tire remanufacturing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, E.S.; Yoon, I.M. [School of Natural Sciences, Honam Univ., Gwangju (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    This study was conducted to test the performance of various combinations of coagulants for effective wastewater treatment of the tire recycling industry. From the jar-test results, two kinds of coagulants, namely AlSi-1 and PASi-1, were found to be effective in decreasing BOD and COD{sub Cr} values from the polluted wastewater among various combinations of coagulants. In comparison to Al-based or Si-based singular salts, the Si-Al combined salts (PASi-1) exhibited a higher removal efficiency of 90% turbidity, 93% SS, 70 {proportional_to} 85% BOD{sub 5} and 85 {proportional_to} 91% COD{sub Cr} at 15 {+-} 2 C, pH7.5 {proportional_to} 9.5 and 2.0 mM of coagulant dosage. At 30 {+-} 2 C of tire recycling effluents, the combination effect was clearly shown in the removal of COD{sub Cr} over a wider range of pH. The reaction mechanisms of AlSi-1 and PASi-1 were also schematically studied. (orig.)

  1. Physician personal characteristics influencing long-term treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strokova E.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify the peculiarities of a doctor personality, affecting long-term therapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Materials and methods: To determine the type of temperament, the presence and intensity of the syndrome of emotional burnout and capacity for empathy therapists and cardiologists were asked to fill in a number of questionnaires. Each doctor had a group of patients contacting by telephone for a year after the discharge from the hospital. During the telephone contact, the patients were asked about the continuation of their therapy recommended in the hospital, the regularity of therapy, the frequency of absence, and the assessment of a physician by the patients. Results: 35 questionnaires were suitable for interpretation. Through one year after the discharge from the hospital it was able to contact with 147 patients, 18.4% (27 of patients completely stopped the treatment by recommended drugs. Positive assessment of physicians was associated with the continuation of the therapy by recommended drugs and regularity of drug taking (p=0,03. Patients assessed physicians positively more often in cases of low level of emotional state, high level of depersonalization (cynicism and the reduction of personal accomplishment (feeling of professional inefficiency in a doctor. Conclusion: Assessment of physicians by patients is reliably and significantly influenced by continuation of long-term therapy and regularity of drug taking.

  2. Influencing effect of heat-treatment on radon emanation and exhalation characteristic of red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas, Zoltán; Szántó, János; Kovács, János; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2015-10-01

    The reuse of industrial by-products is important for members of numerous industrial sectors. However, though the benefits of reuse are evident from an economical point of view, some compounds in these materials can have a negative effect on users' health. In this study, the radon emanation and exhalation features of red mud were surveyed using heat-treatment (100-1200 °C). As a result of the 1200°C-treated samples, massic radon exhalation capacity reduced from 75 ± 10 mBq kg(-1) h(-1) to 7 ± 4 mBq kg(-1) h(-1), approximately 10% of the initial exhalation rate. To find an explanation for internal structural changes, the porosity features of the heat-treated samples were also investigated. It was found that the cumulative pore volume reduced significantly in less than 100 nm, which can explain the reduced massic exhalation capacity in the high temperature treated range mentioned above. SEM snapshots were taken of the surfaces of the samples as visual evidence for superficial morphological changes. It was found that the surface of the high temperature treated samples had changed, proving the decrement of open pores on the surface.

  3. Occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants linked to wastewater characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, C; Beutel, S; Scheper, T; Rosenwinkel, K H; Nogueira, R

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has often been reported. However, until now there is limited knowledge about the factors that promote Legionella's growth in such systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical wastewater parameters that might be correlated to the concentration of Legionella spp. in WWTP receiving industrial effluents. For this purpose, samples were collected at different processes in three WWTP. In 100 % of the samples taken from the activated sludge tanks Legionella spp. were detected at varying concentrations (4.8 to 5.6 log GU/mL) by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method, but not by the culture method. Statistical analysis with various parameters yielded positive correlations of Legionella spp. concentration with particulate chemical oxygen demand, Kjeldahl nitrogen and protein concentration. Amino acids were quantified in wastewater and activated sludge samples at concentrations that may not support the growth of Legionella, suggesting that in activated sludge tanks this bacterium multiplied in protozoan hosts.

  4. Patient characteristics, treatment and survival in pulmonary carcinoid tumours: an analysis from the UK National Lung Cancer Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, Stephanie; West, Doug; Peake, Michael; Beckett, Paul; Woolhouse, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pulmonary carcinoid (PC) is a rare tumour with good prognosis following surgical resection. However, little is known regarding patient characteristics and use of other treatments modalities. Our objective was to review patient characteristics, treatment and survival for patients with PC and contrast these results with other forms of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Setting Audit data from UK National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA) 2008–2013. Participants 184 906 lung cancer cases were submitted to the NLCA. Outcome measures Primary outcome—survival rates between PC and NSCLC. Secondary outcome—differences in performance status, lung function and treatment modality between PC and NSCLC. Results PC histology was recorded in 1341 (0.73%) patients and non-carcinoid NSCLC histology in 162 959 (87.4%) cases. 91% of patients with PC had good performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 0–1), compared with only 53% of NSCLC. 66% of PC had localised disease. Of all PC cases, 77% were treated with surgery, 6.2% received chemotherapy and 3.6% received radiotherapy, with the remainder treated with best supportive care. Overall 1-year and 3-year survival rates for PC were 92% and 84.7%, respectively. In contrast, 1-year and 3-year survival rates for NSCLC were 36.2% and 15.6%, However, 3-year survival for PC markedly decreased with worsening performance status and advanced disease to 23.8% for performance status ECOG 3–4 and 33.6% for stage IV disease. Conclusions In contrast to other forms of NSCLC, the majority of patients with PC present with good performance status, preserved lung function and early stage disease amenable to surgical resection. However, 1 in 5 patients with PC has metastatic disease which is associated with poor prognosis, as is poor performance status at presentation. We believe these data will help clinicians provide accurate prognostic predictions stratified according to patient characteristics at presentation, as

  5. Clinical Characteristics of 42 SARS Patients and Their Treatment of Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹金盘; 花宝金; 陈长怀; 徐贵成; 苏浩; 王寅; 李光熙; 杨宗艳; 何夏秀; 刘喜明; 倪青; 李辉; 赵宏; 张丽娜; 汪卫东

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To understand the clinical manifestation of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and explore its effective treatment with integrative Chinese and western medicine (ICWM).Methods: The data of patients, whose diagnosis of SARS had been confirmed were summarized and analyzed, and clinical observation was conducted when the patients were treated with ICWM. Results: In the early stage of the 42 patients, the symptoms revealed were fever in 100% of SARS patients, headache in 92.9%, aversion to cold in 76.2%, chest stuffiness in 76.2%, cough in 73.8% and myalgia in 88. 1% ;pulmonary lesion involves ≥3 lobes in 42. 9%, 2 lobes in 47. 6% and 1 lobe in 9. 5%; 61.9% of them showed liver function abnormality (increase of ALT or AST), 47.6 % showed elevated myocardial enzyme (CK or CK-MB), 0.48% showed an inclination of renal function (higher of BUN or Cr) ; in their T lymphocyte subsets, 91.2% (31/34 patients) had lowered CD3 and 76.5% (26/34 patients) lowered CD4/CD8 ratio. In the mid-late stage, the symptoms were lassitude and weakness in 85.7%, scare in 81.0%, short of breath or chest stuffiness in 71.4%, loss of appetite in 64. 3%; light dark tongue proper in 52.4%,yellow and white tongue coating in 45.2 %, and yellow thick coating on the middle-root part of the tongue in 21.4%. Most of them were asymptomatic when discharged from hospital, with 92. 8% of their pulmonary lesion, according to chest film, completely absorbed and liver function, myocardial enzyme and renal function all normalized. However, of the 30 patients who had CD3 reexamination, 70% of the CD3 showed lower than normal range and 36.7% showed their CD4/CD8 inclined to lower margin, follow-up should be done for these patients. Of the 42 patients, who received western medicine (WM) alone in the early stage and ICWM in the mid-late stage, 10 were severe cases and 3 critical cases, but none of them died. The mean defervescent time was 3. 52±0.85 days, the time for complete absorption of

  6. [Atrial fibrillation registered for the first time: characteristics of clinical course, treatment, prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiarintsev, V V; Alekseeva, L A; Stazhadze, L L; Bulanova, N A; Bazarova, M B; Mikhaĭlovskaia, I V

    2013-01-01

    To study the clinical presentation of the first episode of atrial fibrillation (AF), treatment tactics and its compliance with current recommendations, features of the further clinical course and prognosis in patients with AF we performed a retrospective study on data of Polyclinic No 1 of the General Management Department of the President of RF . We analyzed data from 58 patients (36 men, 22 women) from January 2009 to September 2011 inclusive. The first episode of AF was recorded in the age from 48 to 90 years (in 39.7% of patients - aged 80 to 90 years old), mostly had paroxysmal character (84.5%), in 82.1% of cases was accompanied by marked clinical symptoms: sense of disruption of the heart (50%), feeling short of breath (28.6%), weakness (17.9%). In 87% of cases clinical symptomatology required calls for medical emergencies. In 42.9% of cases uncontrolled hypertension was possible predisposing factor for developing AF. Paroxysmal AF moved to constant in 38.8% of patients during the period from 1 year to 18 years. Due to the high risk of thromboembolic complications (2 to 5 on a scale of CHADS2), after the detection AF warfarin was shown to 96.6% of patients, because of the high risk of bleeding in practice was appointed only 37.9%. Complications of therapy in the form of bleeding were 9.1%. Tactics of rhythm control by antiarrhythmic drugs I and III classes has remained in 36.7% of patients with paroxysmal AF. -adrenoblockers were constantly taken by 63.3% of the patients using antiarrhythmic drugs I and III classes for relief of arrhythmia during her recurrence (the strategy of "pill in pocket").

  7. Evaluation of characteristics on titanium surface treatment for absorption of functional groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Guang-chun; PARK Rl-song; PARK Hyeoung-ho; SEO Jae-min; LEE Sook-jeong; LEE Min-ho

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to bind or fix bioactive materials directly to the surface of a Ti implant, the prior binding process of functional groups (FGs, -COOH and -OH) to the implant surface is necessary. Conventional binding processes are so high-cost and complex, so it is essential to find a simple and effective procedure for Ti-FG binding.Methods Various electrolyte compositions and electrochemical processing were adopted in this study to develop a relatively simple and effective Ti-FG binding process. The ability of Ti-FG binding and calcium (Ca)/phosphorous (P)absorption and corrosion resistance were evaluated according to various titanium surface treatment in electrolyte involving -COOH and -OH ion by using X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and potentiodynamic scan method respectively.Results In cases of -COOH, the anodic oxidation process (AN) showed an effective binding ability between -COOH and Ti surface. On the other hand, in cases of -OH, there were no significant differences in the result between the conditions used. In regard to the absorption of Ca and P on Ti surface, there was a minimal amount of Ca absorbed but no P was absorbed. The anodic oxidation series showed homogenous corrosion, whereas the electrolyte immersion (EL)series showed unstable corrosion. Although EL-OH showed a novel corrosion potential, the EL-COOH series showed good corrosion resistance over the anodic potential range.Conclusions The ability of binding between FG and the Ti surface and Ca/P absorption were strongly associated with the surface potential (ξ, potential), which was dependent on the pH of the electrolyte. Accordingly, in order to achieve the effective absorption of various FGs on the Ti surface, it is needed to develop the combination process in addition to the electric affinity, relation with the ξ, potential.

  8. Patient Characteristics and Prescribing Patterns Associated with Sofosbuvir Treatment for Chronic HCV Infection in a Commercially Insured Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambourine, Brent M.; Sadeghi, Arash; Yang, Jianing; Stockl, Karen M.; Lew, Heidi C.; Solow, Brian K.; Tran, Josephine N.

    2016-01-01

    Background In December 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved sofosbuvir (Sovaldi) for the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Given the potential “warehousing” of patients before the launch of sofosbuvir and the possibility that some patients and providers may have elected to continue deferring treatment in anticipation of more promising, interferon-free therapies in the pipeline, the early landscape for sofosbuvir treatment is difficult to ascertain. Objective To describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, and prescribing patterns associated with members requesting treatment with sofosbuvir in a commercially insured population in the United States. Methods A descriptive analysis was conducted using a randomly selected sample of commercially insured members who were identified as having a prior authorization request for sofosbuvir between March and June 2014. Member and provider characteristics, as well as treatment information, were collected using a prior authorization database from OptumRx, a national pharmacy care services company. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 338 members were selected for inclusion in the analysis. Chronic HCV genotype 1 infection was present in 74.3% of the members. Chronic HCV genotype 2, 3, or 4 was identified in 13.9%, 9.5%, and 1.2% of the members, respectively. Gastroenterologists and hepatologists accounted for 90% of providers. Among the 251 members with chronic HCV genotype 1, an interferon-free regimen was requested for 59.4% (N = 149) of them; the most frequently requested (51.4%) regimen for members with chronic HCV genotype 1 was the off-label combination of sofosbuvir plus simeprevir. Of the members with chronic HCV genotype 1, 19.1% had liver fibrosis equivalent to METAVIR stage F0 to F2 fibrosis, and 24.7% had liver fibrosis equivalent to METAVIR stage F3 to F4 fibrosis. For the remaining 56.2%, the degree of liver

  9. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duda, Stephany N; Farr, Amanda M; Lindegren, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcom...

  10. A comparison of patient characteristics and rehabilitation treatment content of chronic low back pain (CLBP) and stroke patients across six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engbers, L.H.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M.M.R.; Harten, van W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: So far no studies have been conducted on the issue of comparability of rehabilitation treatment profiles and patient characteristics across countries. These aspects might have implications for the feasibility of treating patients abroad but also for the comparison of treatment outcome on

  11. Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Richard H.; Margolis, Karen L.; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Cushman, William C.; Ford, Charles E.; Bettencourt, Judy; Alderman, Michael H.; Basile, Jan N.; Black, Henry R.; DeQuattro, Vincent; Eckfeldt, John; Hawkins, C. Morton; Perry, H. Mitchell; Proschan, Michael

    2001-01-01

    -Diuretics and ss-blockers have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with hypertension in long-term clinical trials. No study has compared newer more costly antihypertensive agents (calcium antagonists, ACE inhibitors, and alpha-adrenergic blockers) with diuretics for reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease in an ethnically diverse group of middle-aged and elderly hypertensive patients. The study is a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial designed to determine whether the incidence of the primary outcome, fatal coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction, differs between treatment initiation with a diuretic versus each of 3 other antihypertensive drugs. Men and women aged >/=55 years with at least 1 other cardiovascular disease risk factor were randomly assigned to chlorthalidone (12.5 to 25 mg/d), amlodipine (2.5 to 10 mg/d), lisinopril (10 to 40 mg/d), or doxazosin (2 to 8 mg/d) for planned follow-up of 4 to 8 years. This report describes the baseline characteristics of the Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) participants. A total of 42 448 participants were randomized from 625 sites in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. The mean age was 67 years, with 35% aged >/=70 years. Among those randomized, 36% were black, 19% were Hispanic, and 47% were women. The sample includes a high proportion of people with diabetes (36%), patients with existing cardiovascular disease (47%), and smokers (22%). There were no important differences between the randomized treatment groups at baseline. ALLHAT will add greatly to our understanding of the management of hypertension by providing an answer to the following question: are newer antihypertensive agents similar, superior, or inferior to traditional treatment with diuretics?

  12. Gait Characteristics and Treatment of Cerebral Palsy%脑瘫步态特征及治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄斌; 姜淑云; 孙武权; 孙克兴; 朱高峰

    2013-01-01

    脑性瘫痪是自受孕开始至婴儿期非进行性脑损伤和发育缺陷所导致的综合征,主要表现为运动功能障碍及姿势异常.步态异常是阻碍患几生活自理的最大障碍.本文将总结脑瘫的步态特征及对于传统医学治疗的展望.%Cerebral palsy is from the moment of conception to infant caused by damage of brain and developmental defects,mainly characterized with motor dysfunction and abnormal posture.Gait abnormalities are major obstacles to children living.This paper summarized the gait characteristics of cerebral palsy and prospects for traditional medical treatment.

  13. Exploring characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization of mixed and pure bacterial cultures from wine-bearing wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing-Long; Liu, Ying; Chang, Chang-Tang; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chen, Wen-Ming; Xu, Hui-Zhong

    2011-04-01

    This study uncovered microbial characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization in single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using activated sludge for wine-containing wastewater treatment. Phylogenetic tree analysis on 16S rRNA gene fragments indicated that the predominant strains on anodic biofilm in acclimatized MFCs were Gamma-Proteobacteria Aeromonas punctata NIU-P9, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida NIU-Y3, Pseudomonas koreensis NIU-X8, Acinetobacter junii NIU-Y8, Stenotrophomonas maltophila NIU-X2. Our findings showed that the current production capabilities of these pure strains were only ca. 10% of those of their mother activated sludge, indicating that synergistic interactions among microbes might be the most influential factor to maximize power generation in MFCs. Plus, these electrochemically active strains also performed reductive decolorization of C.I. reactive blue 160, suggesting that bioelectricity generation might be directly associated to azo dye decolorization to deal with electron transfer on anodic biofilm in MFCs.

  14. Women, men, and rheumatoid arthritis: analyses of disease activity, disease characteristics, and treatments in the QUEST-RA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Toloza, Sergio; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    different therapies. CONCLUSIONS : In this large multinational cohort, RA disease activity measures appear to be worse in women than in men. However, most of the gender differences in RA disease activity may originate from the measures of disease activity rather than from RA disease activity itself....... remission. Therefore, we aimed to study possible associations of gender and disease activity, disease characteristics, and treatments of RA in a large multinational cross-sectional cohort of patients with RA called Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA). METHODS : The cohort...... includes clinical and questionnaire data from patients who were seen in usual care, including 6,004 patients at 70 sites in 25 countries as of April 2008. Gender differences were analyzed for American College of Rheumatology Core Data Set measures of disease activity, DAS28 (disease activity score using 28...

  15. Linking the mobilization of dissolved organic matter in catchments and its removal in drinking water treatment to its molecular characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeke, Julia; Lechtenfeld, Oliver J; Tittel, Jörg; Oosterwoud, Marieke R; Bornmann, Katrin; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2017-04-15

    Drinking water reservoirs in the Northern Hemisphere are largely affected by the decadal-long increase in riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. The removal of DOC in drinking water treatment is costly and predictions are needed to link DOC removal efficiency to its mobilization in catchments, both of which are determined by the molecular composition. To study the effect of hydrological events and land use on the molecular characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM), 36 samples from three different catchment areas in the German low mountain ranges, with DOC concentrations ranging from 3 to 32 mg L(-1), were examined. Additionally, nine pairs of samples from downstream drinking water reservoirs were analyzed before and after flocculation. The molecular composition and the age of DOM were analyzed using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and radiocarbon ((14)C) analysis. At elevated discharge in a forested catchment comparatively younger, more oxygenated and unsaturated molecules of higher molecular weight were preferentially mobilized, likely linked to the reductive mobilization of iron. DOM with highly similar molecular characteristics (O/C ratio > 0.5, m/z > 500) could also be efficiently removed through flocculation in drinking water treatment. The proportion of DOM removed through flocculation ranged between 43% and 73% of DOC and was highest at elevated discharge. In catchment areas with a higher percentage of grassland and agriculture a higher proportion of DOM molecules containing sulfur and nitrogen was detected, which in turn could be less efficiently flocculated. Altogether, it was shown that DOM that is released during large hydrological events can be efficiently flocculated again, suggesting a reversal of similar chemical mechanisms in both processes. Since the occurrence of heavy rainfall events is predicted to increase in the future, event-driven mobilization of DOC

  16. DPP-4 inhibitor therapy: new directions in the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F; Carr, Richard D; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    Many patients with type 2 diabetes fail to achieve adequate glycaemic control with available treatments, even when used in combination, and eventually develop microvascular and macrovascular diabetic complications. Even intensive interventions to control glycaemia reduce macrovascular complications...... of type 2 diabetes; long-acting stable analogues of GLP-1, the so-called incretin mimetics, and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4, the enzyme responsible for the rapid degradation of the incretin hormones), the so-called incretin enhancers. This article focuses on DPP-4 inhibitors....

  17. Coagulation efficiency and flocs characteristics of recycling sludge during treatment of low temperature and micro-polluted water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei Zhou; Yanling Yang; Xing Li; Wei Gao; Heng Liang; Guibai Li

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water treatment sludge,characterized as accumulated suspended solids and organic and inorganic matter,is produced in large quantities during the coagulation process.The proper disposal,regeneration or reuse of sludge is,therefore,a significant environmental issue.Reused sludge at low temperatures is an alternative method to enhance traditional coagulation efficiency.In the present study,the recycling mass of mixed sludge and properties of raw water (such as pH and turbidity) were systematically investigated to optimize coagulation efficiency.We determined that the appropriate dosage of mixed sludge was 60 mL/L,effective initial turbidity ranges were below 45.0 NTU,and optimal pH for DOMs and turbidity removal was 6.5-7.0 and 8.0,respectively.Furthermore,by comparing the flocs characteristics with and without recycling sludge,we found that floc structures with sludge were more irregular with average size growth to 64.7 μm from 48.1 μm.Recycling sludge was a feasible and successful method for enhancing pollutants removal,and the more irregular flocs structure after recycling might be caused by breakage of reused flocs and incorporation of powdered activated carbon into larger flocs structure.Applied during the coagulation process,recycling sludge could be significant for the treatment of low temperature and micro-polluted source water.

  18. Cytotoxic characteristics of biodegradable EW10X04 Mg alloy after Nd coating and subsequent heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarivas Levy, Galit; Ventura, Yvonne; Goldman, Jeremy; Vago, Razi; Aghion, Eli

    2016-05-01

    Porous Mg scaffolds are considered as potential bone growth promoting materials. Unfortunately, the high rate of biocorrosion inherent to Mg alloys may cause a premature loss of mechanical strength, excessive evolution of hydrogen gas, and a rapidly shifting surface topography, all of which may hinder the ability of native cells to attach and grow on the implant surface. Here we investigated the cell cytotoxicity effects during corrosion of a novel magnesium alloy, EW10X04 (Mg-1.2%Nd-0.5%Y-0.5%Zr-0.4%Ca), following diffusion coating (DC) and heat treatment to reduce the corrosion rate. Cells were exposed either to corrosion products or to the corroding scaffold surface, in vitro. The microstructure characterization of the scaffold surface was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with a Noran energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Phase analyses were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). We found that cell viability, growth, and adhesion were all improved when cultured on the EW10X04+DC surface or under corrosion product extracts due to lower corrosion rates relative to the EW10X04 control samples. It is therefore believed that the tested alloy after Nd coating and heat treatment may introduce a good balance between its biodegradation characteristics and cytotoxic effects towards cells.

  19. Characteristics of epoxy resin/SiO2 nanocomposite insulation: effects of plasma surface treatment on the nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Phung, B T; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2013-05-01

    The present study compares the effects of two different material processing techniques on modifying hydrophilic SiO2 nanoparticles. In one method, the nanoparticles undergo plasma treatment by using a custom-developed atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma reactor. With the other method, they undergo chemical treatment which grafts silane groups onto their surface and turns them into hydrophobic. The treated nanoparticles are then used to synthesize epoxy resin-based nanocomposites for electrical insulation applications. Their characteristics are investigated and compared with the pure epoxy resin and nanocomposite fabricated with unmodified nanofillers counterparts. The dispersion features of the nanoparticles in the epoxy resin matrix are examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. All samples show evidence that the agglomerations are smaller than 30 nm in their diameters. This indicates good dispersion uniformity. The Weibull plot of breakdown strength and the recorded partial discharge (PD) events of the epoxy resin/plasma-treated hydrophilic SiO2 nanocomposite (ER/PTI) suggest that the plasma-treated specimen yields higher breakdown strength and lower PD magnitude as compared to the untreated ones. In contrast, surprisingly, lower breakdown strength is found for the nanocomposite made by the chemically treated hydrophobic particles, whereas the PD magnitude and PD numbers remain at a similar level as the plasma-treated ones.

  20. Characteristics of immigrant and non-immigrant patients in a dual-diagnosis psychiatric ward and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sophie D; Blass, David; Bensimon-Braverman, Meital; Barak, Lee Topaz; Delayahu, Yael

    2014-12-01

    Two studies were conducted among patients in a male dual diagnosis (severe mental illness [SMI] with substance use) ward. The research examined the following questions: (1) Do immigrant and non-immigrant dual diagnosis patients exhibit similar or different socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics? (2) What are the implications for treatment of immigrant (and non-immigrant) patients? Study one analyzed computerized hospital records of 413 male patients; Study two examined patient files of a subgroup of 141 (70 immigrant) male patients. Alongside similarities, non-immigrant patients reported higher numbers of repeat and involuntary hospitalizations and more drug use while immigrants showed longer hospitalizations, more suicide attempts, more violent suicide attempts, more violent offenses and more alcohol use. Among non-immigrants significant relationships were found between severity of SMI and crime/violence while among immigrants a significant relationship was found between suicidality and crime/violence. Implications for treatment include need for awareness of suicide risk among immigrant dual-diagnosis patients and an understanding of the differential relationship with crime/violence for the two populations.

  1. Effects of microwave and oxygen plasma treatments on capacitive characteristics of supercapacitor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulyaseree, Paweena; Yordsri, Visittapong; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda

    2016-02-01

    The effects of microwave and oxygen plasma treatments on the capacitive characteristics of a supercapacitor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were investigated. MWNTs were heat-treated under air ambient at 500 °C for 1 h, and subsequently microwave-treated at 650 W for 70 s (m-MWNTs). Another batch of MWNTs was treated by oxygen plasma for 30 min (p-MWNTs). Pristine MWNTs, m-MWNTs, and p-MWNTs were separately used as electrode materials for supercapacitors. Their cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results were analyzed. The p-MWNTs show the best performance with a specific capacitance of 238.23 F·g-1. The capacitance improvement is attributed to the increase in the number of oxygen-containing functional groups, as evidenced by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurement. These results suggest that oxygen plasma treatment is a rapid and efficient method for oxygen functionalization.

  2. Scoliosis detection, patient characteristics, referral patterns and treatment in the absence of a screening program in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adobor Raphael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis allows for observation and timely initiation of brace treatment in order to halt progression. School scoliosis screening programs were abolished in Norway in 1994 for lack of evidence that the programs improved outcome and for the costs involved. The consequences of this decision are discussed. Objectives To describe the detection, patient characteristics, referral patterns and treatment of idiopathic scoliosis at a scoliosis clinic during the period 2003–2011, when there was no screening and to compare treatment modalities to the period 1976–1988 when screening was performed. Methods Patient demographics, age at detection, family history, clinical and radiological charts of consecutive patients referred for scoliosis evaluation during the period 2003–2011, were prospectively registered. Patients were recruited from a catchment area of about 500000 teenagers. Maturity was estimated according to Risser sign and menarcheal status. Severity of pain was recorded by a verbal 5-point scale from no pain to pain at all times. Physical and neurological examinations were conducted. The detector and patient characteristics were recorded. Referral patterns of orthopedic surgeons at local hospitals and other health care providers were recorded. Patient data was obtained by spine surgeons. Treatment modalities in the current period were compared to the period 1976–1988. Results We registered 752 patients with late onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis from 2003–2011. There were 644 (86% girls and 108 (14% boys. Mean age at detection was 14.6 (7–19 years. Sixty percent had Risser sign ≥ 3, whilst 74% were post menarche with a mean age at menarche of 13.2 years. Thirty-one percent had a family history of scoliosis. The mean major curve at first consultation at our clinic was 38° (10°-95°. About 40% had a major curve >40°. Seventy-one percent were detected by patients

  3. Improving Nanofiber Membrane Characteristics and Membrane Distillation Performance of Heat-Pressed Membranes via Annealing Post-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minwei Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun membranes are gaining interest for use in membrane distillation (MD due to their high porosity and interconnected pore structure; however, they are still susceptible to wetting during MD operation because of their relatively low liquid entry pressure (LEP. In this study, post-treatment had been applied to improve the LEP, as well as its permeation and salt rejection efficiency. The post-treatment included two continuous procedures: heat-pressing and annealing. In this study, annealing was applied on the membranes that had been heat-pressed. It was found that annealing improved the MD performance as the average flux reached 35 L/m2·h or LMH (>10% improvement of the ones without annealing while still maintaining 99.99% salt rejection. Further tests on LEP, contact angle, and pore size distribution explain the improvement due to annealing well. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses of the membranes showed that there was an increase in the crystallinity of the polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP membrane; also, peaks indicating the α phase of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF became noticeable after annealing, indicating some β and amorphous states of polymer were converted into the α phase. The changes were favorable for membrane distillation as the non-polar α phase of PVDF reduces the dipolar attraction force between the membrane and water molecules, and the increase in crystallinity would result in higher thermal stability. The present results indicate the positive effect of the heat-press followed by an annealing post-treatment on the membrane characteristics and MD performance.

  4. Evaluation of operating characteristics for a chabazite zeolite system for treatment of process wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, T.E.; Perona, J.J.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-02-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing were performed for development and design of a chabazite zeolite ion-exchange system to replace existing treatment systems at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The process wastewater treatment systems at ORNL need upgrading to improve efficiency, reduce waste generation, and remove greater quantities of contaminants from the wastewater. Previous study indicated that replacement of the existing PWTP systems with an ion-exchange system using chabazite zeolite will satisfy these upgrade objectives. Pilot-scale testing of the zeolite system was performed using a commercially available ion-exchange system to evaluate physical operating characteristics and to validate smaller-scale column test results. Results of this test program indicate that (1) spent zeolite can be sluiced easily and completely from a commercially designed vessel, (2) clarification followed by granular anthracite prefilters is adequate pretreatment for the zeolite system, and (3) the length of the mass transfer zone was comparable with that obtained in smaller-scale column tests. Laboratory studies were performed to determine the loading capacity of the zeolite for selected heavy metals. These test results indicated fairly effective removal of silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc from simple water solutions. Heavy-metals data collected during pilot-scale testing of actual wastewater indicated marginal removal of iron, copper, and zinc. Reduced effectiveness for other heavy metals during pilot testing can be attributed to the presence of interfering cations and the relatively short zeolite/wastewater contact time. Flocculating agents (polyelectrolytes) were tested for pretreatment of wastewater prior to the zeolite flow-through column system. Several commercially available polyelectrolytes were effective in flocculation and settling of suspended solids in process wastewater.

  5. Clinical characteristics and treatment of burn wound sepsis in extensive burn patients: successful experience with eight cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴家科; 盛志勇; 杨红明

    2000-01-01

    Eight burn wound sepsis patients, in which 6 cases were diagnosed as MODS and two as septic shock, were treated consecutively in our hospital from September 1997 to October 1998. The plasma concentration of IL-6, IL-8, TNFα and LPS were assayed before and after surgical intervention, as well as when the patients' vital signs became stable. The results showed: ①The patients' conditions abruptly deteriorated when the burn wound sepsis emerged;②The major cause related to burn wound sepsis was extensive burn injuries, with large areas of deep burn remaining open; ③Although wound swabs taken on admission revealed the presence of colonization by many pathogenic bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was one of the most frequent bacteria isolated from the subeschar tissue; ④The plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, TNF and LPS before surgical intervention were significantly higher than that after surgical intervention (P<0.05) ;⑤The lowest level of the inflammatory mediators was observed when the patients' conditions became stable, as compared with before surgical intervention (P<0. 001).These findings suggest that the clinical characteristics of burn wound sepsis are abrupt deterioration of the general condition and prominent septic symptoms, often complicated by MODS. The main cause of burn wound sepsis is the presence of a large area of open deep burn wounds, which should be excised and covered early. LPS and pro-inflammatory mediators play an important role in the pathogenesis of burn wound sepsis. Although success in treating these patients is the result of appropriate application of multiple treatments, early, aggressive and thorough surgical excision of invasive burn infectious tissue and closure of wound play a crucial role in the successful treatment of patients complicated by burn wound sepsis. Other treatments are adjuvant but also important.

  6. Propensity score-matched analysis of effects of clinical characteristics and treatment on gender difference in outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, François; Meneveau, Nicolas; Seronde, Marie-France; Descotes-Genon, Vincent; Chopard, Romain; Janin, Sebastien; Briand, Florent; Guignier, Alexandre; Ecarnot, Fiona; Bassand, Jean-Pierre

    2011-09-15

    The greater mortality observed in women compared to men after acute myocardial infarction remains unexplained. Using an analysis of pairs, matched on a conditional probability of being male (propensity score), we assessed the effect of the baseline characteristics and management on 30-day mortality. Consecutive patients were included from January 2006 to December 2007. Two propensity scores (for being male) were calculated, 1 from the baseline characteristics and 1 from both the baseline characteristics and treatment. Two matched cohorts were composed using 1:1 matching and computed using the best 8 digits of the propensity score. Paired analyses were performed using conditional regression analysis. During the study period, 3,510 patients were included in the registry; 1,119 (32%) were women. Compared to the men, the women were 10 years older, had more co-morbidities, less often underwent angiography and reperfusion, and received less medical treatment. The 30-day mortality rate was 12.3% (130 of 1,060) for the women and 7.2% (167 of 2,324) for the men (p <0.001). The 2 matched populations represented 1,298 and 1,168 patients. After matching using the baseline characteristics, the only difference in treatment was a lower rate of angiography and reperfusion, with a trend toward greater 30-day mortality in women. After matching using both baseline characteristics and treatment, the 30-day mortality was similar for the men and women, suggesting that the increased use of invasive procedures in women could potentially be beneficial. In conclusion, compared to men, the 30-day mortality is greater in women and explained primarily by differences in baseline characteristics and to a lesser degree by differences in management. The difference in the use of invasive procedures persisted after matching by characteristics. In contrast, after matching using the baseline characteristics and treatment, the 30-day mortality was comparable across the genders.

  7. Effects of surface treatment with coupling agents of PVDF-HFP fibers on the improvement of the adhesion characteristics on PDMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, O. M.; See, S. J.; Kim, S. S.; Hwang, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Surface treatment of polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) fibers was conducted with coupling agents such as epoxy silane, amino silane, and titanate to improve the adhesion characteristics of PVDF-HFP fibers and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The adhesion strength was largest when 4 wt% amino silane was used for surface treatment, showing a 250% improvement compared to the untreated case. Surface roughening and shrinking of the PVDF-HFP fibers were observed after surface treatment, but no chemical bonding occurred between the PVDF-HFP fibers and the coupling agents. It was thus concluded that the improvement of the adhesion characteristics of the PVDF-HFP fibers and PDMS was caused by the physical bonding between them due to the surface treatment with coupling agents. In addition, for the surface roughening mechanism, amino silane infiltration into the PVDF-HFP fibers during the surface treatment, followed by extraction during the drying process, was suggested.

  8. Total skin electron therapy treatment verification: Monte Carlo simulation and beam characteristics of large non-standard electron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavon, Ester Carrasco [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Sanchez-Doblado, Francisco [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Leal, Antonio [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Capote, Roberto [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Lagares, Juan Ignacio [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Perucha, Maria [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Arrans, Rafael [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain)

    2003-09-07

    Total skin electron therapy (TSET) is a complex technique which requires non-standard measurements and dosimetric procedures. This paper investigates an essential first step towards TSET Monte Carlo (MC) verification. The non-standard 6 MeV 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} electron beam at a source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm as well as its horizontal projection behind a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) screen to SSD = 380 cm were evaluated. The EGS4 OMEGA-BEAM code package running on a Linux home made 47 PCs cluster was used for the MC simulations. Percentage depth-dose curves and profiles were calculated and measured experimentally for the 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} field at both SSD = 100 cm and patient surface SSD = 380 cm. The output factor (OF) between the reference 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} open field and its horizontal projection as TSET beam at SSD = 380 cm was also measured for comparison with MC results. The accuracy of the simulated beam was validated by the good agreement to within 2% between measured relative dose distributions, including the beam characteristic parameters (R{sub 50}, R{sub 80}, R{sub 100}, R{sub p}, E{sub 0}) and the MC calculated results. The energy spectrum, fluence and angular distribution at different stages of the beam (at SSD = 100 cm, at SSD = 364.2 cm, behind the PMMA beam spoiler screen and at treatment surface SSD = 380 cm) were derived from MC simulations. Results showed a final decrease in mean energy of almost 56% from the exit window to the treatment surface. A broader angular distribution (FWHM of the angular distribution increased from 13deg at SSD 100 cm to more than 30deg at the treatment surface) was fully attributable to the PMMA beam spoiler screen. OF calculations and measurements agreed to less than 1%. The effect of changing the electron energy cut-off from 0.7 MeV to 0.521 MeV and air density fluctuations in the bunker which could affect the MC results were shown to have a negligible impact on the beam fluence distributions. Results

  9. Characteristics and outcomes of initial virologic suppressors during analytic treatment interruption in a therapeutic HIV-1 gag vaccine trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Z Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the placebo-controlled trial ACTG A5197, a trend favoring viral suppression was seen in the HIV-1-infected subjects who received a recombinant Ad5 HIV-1 gag vaccine. OBJECTIVE: To identify individuals with initial viral suppression (plasma HIV-1 RNA set point <3.0 log(10 copies/ml during the analytic treatment interruption (ATI and evaluate the durability and correlates of virologic control and characteristics of HIV sequence evolution. METHODS: HIV-1 gag and pol RNA were amplified and sequenced from plasma obtained during the ATI. Immune responses were measured by flow cytometric analysis and intracellular cytokine expression assays. Characteristics of those with and without initial viral suppression were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum and Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Eleven out of 104 participants (10.6% were classified as initial virologic suppressors, nine of whom had received the vaccine. Initial virologic suppressors had significantly less CD4+ cell decline by ATI week 16 as compared to non-suppressors (median 7 CD4+ cell gain vs. 247 CD4+ cell loss, P = 0.04. However, of the ten initial virologic suppressors with a pVL at ATI week 49, only three maintained pVL <3.0 log(10 copies/ml. HIV-1 Gag-specific CD4+ interferon-γ responses were not associated with initial virologic suppression and no evidence of vaccine-driven HIV sequence evolution was detected. Participants with initial virologic suppression were found to have a lower percentage of CD4+ CTLA-4+ cells prior to treatment interruption, but a greater proportion of HIV-1 Gag-reactive CD4+ TNF-α+ cells expressing either CTLA-4 or PD-1. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals participating in a rAd5 therapeutic HIV-1 gag vaccine trial, initial viral suppression was found in a subset of patients, but this response was not sustained. The association between CTLA-4 and PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells and virologic outcome warrants further study in trials of other

  10. Cytotoxic characteristics of biodegradable EW10X04 Mg alloy after Nd coating and subsequent heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katarivas Levy, Galit [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Ventura, Yvonne [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Goldman, Jeremy [Biomedical Engineering Department, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Vago, Razi [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Aghion, Eli [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-05-01

    Porous Mg scaffolds are considered as potential bone growth promoting materials. Unfortunately, the high rate of biocorrosion inherent to Mg alloys may cause a premature loss of mechanical strength, excessive evolution of hydrogen gas, and a rapidly shifting surface topography, all of which may hinder the ability of native cells to attach and grow on the implant surface. Here we investigated the cell cytotoxicity effects during corrosion of a novel magnesium alloy, EW10X04 (Mg–1.2%Nd–0.5%Y–0.5%Zr–0.4%Ca), following diffusion coating (DC) and heat treatment to reduce the corrosion rate. Cells were exposed either to corrosion products or to the corroding scaffold surface, in vitro. The microstructure characterization of the scaffold surface was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with a Noran energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Phase analyses were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). We found that cell viability, growth, and adhesion were all improved when cultured on the EW10X04 + DC surface or under corrosion product extracts due to lower corrosion rates relative to the EW10X04 control samples. It is therefore believed that the tested alloy after Nd coating and heat treatment may introduce a good balance between its biodegradation characteristics and cytotoxic effects towards cells. - Highlights: • The effects of a diffusion coating (DC) with Nd on cell cytotoxicity is shown. • A novel EW10X04 (Mg–1.2%Nd–0.5%Y–0.5%Zr–0.4%Ca) magnesium alloy with DC was tested. • Cell viability, growth, and adhesion were reduced on the control vs. DC surface. • The DC alloy may introduce a good balance between biodegradation and cytotoxicity.

  11. Oilfield water treatment by electrocoagulation-reverse osmosis for agricultural use: effects on germination and early growth characteristics of sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo S A; Cerqueira, Alexandre A; Rigo, Michelle M; de Paiva, Julieta L; Couto, Rafael S P; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel V; Marques, Monica R C

    2016-08-22

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of oilfield water (OW), treated by a hybrid process of electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis (EC-RO), on seed germination and early growth characteristics of sunflower (Heliantus annus L.). In the EC step, tests were conducted with 28.6 A m(-2) current density and 4 min. reaction time. In the RO step, the system was operated with 1 L min(-1) constant flow and 2 MPa, 2.5 MPa and 3 MPa feed pressures. In all feed pressures, RO polymeric membranes achieved very high removals of chemical oxygen demand (up to 89%) and oils and greases (100%) from EC-treated effluent. In best feed pressure (2.5 MPa), turbidity, total dissolved salts, electrical conductivity, salinity, toxic ions and sodium adsorption ratio values attained internationally recognized standards for irrigation water. Using EC-RO (feed pressure:2.5 MPa) treated OW, germinated sunflower seeds percentage (86 ± 6%), speed of germination (30 ± 2) and biomass production (49 ± 5 mg) were statistically similar to control (distilled water) results. Vigor index average values obtained using OW treated by EC-RO (3871)were higher than that obtained by OW water treated by EC (3300). The results of this study indicate that EC-RO seems to be a promising alternative for treatment of OW aiming sunflower crops irrigation, since the use of this treated effluent did not affect adversely seed germination and seedling development, and improved seedling vigor. Furthermore, OW treatment by EC-RO reduces sodium levels into acceptable standards values avoiding soil degradation.

  12. The removal characteristics of natural organic matter in the recycling of drinking water treatment sludge: Role of solubilized organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing; Ji, Siyang; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Shuai; Zeng, Qingping; Han, Xinghang

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the role of solubilized organics derived from drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) in the elimination of natural organic matter (NOM) in the DWTS recycling process, a probe sonoreactor at a frequency of 25 kHz was used to solubilize the organics at varied specific energies. The coagulation behavior related to NOM removal in recycling the sonicated DWTS with and without solubilized organics was evaluated, and the effect on organic fractionations in coagulated water was determined. The study results could provide useful implications in designing DWTS recycling processes that avoid the enrichment of organic matter. Our results indicate that DWTS was disrupted through a low release of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and proteins, which could deteriorate the coagulated water quality under the specific energy of 37.87-1212.1 kW h/kg TS. The optimal coagulation behavior for NOM removal was achieved by recycling the sonicated DWTS without solubilized organics at 151.5 kW h/kg TS specific energy. Recycling the sonicated DWTS could increase the enrichment potential of weakly hydrophobic acid, hydrophilic matter, and <3 kDa fractions; the enrichment risks could be reduced by discharging the solubilized organics. Fluorescent characteristic analysis indicated that when recycling the sonicated DWTS without solubilized organics, the removal of humic-like substances was limited, whereas removal of protein-like substances was enhanced, lowering the enrichment potential of protein-like substances.

  13. Effects of carbon fiber surface characteristics on interfacial bonding of epoxy resin composite subjected to hygrothermal treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Liu, Hongxin; Gu, Yizhuo; Li, Yanxia; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2014-01-01

    The changes of interfacial bonding of three types of carbon fibers/epoxy resin composite as well as their corresponding desized carbon fiber composites subjecting to hygrothermal conditions were investigated by means of single fiber fragmentation test. The interfacial fracture energy was obtained to evaluate the interfacial bonding before and after boiling water aging. The surface characteristics of the studied carbon fiber were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effects of activated carbon atoms and silicon element at carbon fiber surface on the interfacial hygrothermal resistance were further discussed. The results show that the three carbon fiber composites with the same resin matrix possess different hygrothermal resistances of interface and the interfacial fracture energy after water aging can not recovery to the level of raw dry sample (irreversible changes) for the carbon fiber composites containing silicon. Furthermore, the activated carbon atoms have little impact on the interfacial hygrothermal resistance. The irreversible variations of interfacial bonding and the differences among different carbon fiber composites are attributed to the silicon element on the carbon fiber bodies, which might result in hydrolyzation in boiling water treatment and degrade interfacial hygrothermal resistance.

  14. Main morphological characteristics of the vascular pedicle of latissimus dorsi muscle and their relevance in operative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Marko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Considering operative treatment of various pathological conditions and traumatic injuries of extremities latissimus dorsi flap presents the most frequently used flap in reconstructive surgery. Objective. The aim of this paper was to analyze anatomical characteristics of the vascular pedicle of the latissimus dorsi muscle followed by morphometric analyzes of vascular elements. Methods. This paper was carried out in cooperation with the Institute of Anatomy of the School of Medicine, University of Belgrade. The study was based on 40 cadaver dissections followed by anatomical and morphometric analyzes. The first analysis included the determination of thoracodorsal artery (TDA origin and its lateral and terminal branches, and the second one the observation of artery path. Furthermore the same features were analyzed on the thoracodorsal vein. During morphometric analyzes artery and vein length and diameter were recorded. Results. Our results showed that TDA always contains one lateral branch, while three other lateral branches were inconstant. In most cases TDA terminated in two branches, upper and lower, with average distance of 3.4 cm from the muscle. The mean recorded pedicle length was 9.9 cm. The average inner diameter of TDA was 1.85 mm. In further analyses the average observed thoracodorsal vein length was 10.5 cm with mean diameter of 2.93 mm. The result showed that vein origin was usually represented with two branches. Conclusion. The thoracodorsal artery is a blood vessel of considerable length and diameter which represents a great advantage in reconstructive flap surgery.

  15. Clinical Characteristics and Pharmacological Treatment of Psychotic Patients Attending the Mental Health Services of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sabina Roméu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the mental health services of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos receive all patients in the province that need to be hospitalized. Among them, children and adolescents functioning at the psychotic level are of great clinical and social importance. Objective: to describe the clinical characteristics and pharmacological treatment of psychotic patients treated in the mental health services. Methods: a case series study of 35 psychotic patients admitted to the mental health unit of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos was conducted between 2008 and 2012. Demographic variables, in addition to variables related to clinical data and pharmacotherapeutic aspects were analyzed. Results: sixty five point seven percent of patients were adolescents and 77.1% were of urban origin. The most common diagnoses were acute and transient psychotic disorder and schizophrenia. Sixty three percent had a family history of psychiatric disorder. Forty percent were treated with trifluoperazine and an equal percent took haloperidol. Psychotic symptoms were controlled in 58% of patients during the first weeks. Conclusion: white adolescent patients from urban areas with a family history of psychiatric illness predominated. They received regular psychiatric attention and experienced the symptoms for a short time before being treated. The most frequently prescribed medications were typical antipsychotic drugs, which caused adverse reactions in a third of the patients. In the first few weeks, psychotic symptoms were controlled in most patients, although half of them experienced a recurrence of symptoms, which evolved into conditions with worse prognosis.

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli in Dutch recreational waters influenced by wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaak, Hetty; de Kruijf, Patrick; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; van Hoek, Angela H A M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Schets, Franciska M

    2014-07-16

    Outside health care settings, people may acquire ESBL-producing bacteria through different exposure routes, including contact with human or animal carriers or consumption of contaminated food. However, contact with faecally contaminated surface water may also represent a possible exposure route. The current study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in four Dutch recreational waters and the possible role of nearby waste water treatment plants (WWTP) as contamination source. Isolates from recreational waters were compared with isolates from WWTP effluents, from surface water upstream of the WWTPs, at WWTP discharge points, and in connecting water bodies not influenced by the studied WWTPs. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in all four recreational waters, with an average concentration of 1.3 colony forming units/100ml, and in 62% of all samples. In surface waters not influenced by the studied WWTPs, ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in similar concentrations, indicating the existence of additional ESBL-E. coli contamination sources. Isolates with identical ESBL-genes, phylogenetic background, antibiotic resistance profiles, and sequence type, were obtained from effluent and different surface water sites in the same watershed, on the same day; occasionally this included isolates from recreational waters. Recreational waters were identified as a potential exposure source of ESBL-producing E. coli. WWTPs were shown to contribute to the presence of these bacteria in surface waters, but other (yet unidentified) sources likely co-contribute.

  17. A retrospective analysis of the characteristics, treatment and follow-up of 26 odontomas in Greek children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatrou, Ioannis; Vardas, Emmanouil; Theologie-Lygidakis, Nadia; Leventis, Minas

    2010-09-01

    Odontomas represent the most common type of odontogenic jaw tumors among patients younger than 20 years of age. Clinically, they are often associated with eruption failure of adjacent permanent teeth, and are classified as compound and complex. The aim of the present retrospective study was to present the characteristics, treatment approach and outcome of odontomas in Greek children, over a ten-year period. Twenty six patients, 2 to 14 years of age (mean 9.3 years), with odontomas treated during the years 1999-2008 at the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery of a Children's Hospital, were included in the study. Data from patients' files were retrieved and they were recalled for review. Odontomas were equally distributed in the maxilla and mandible and 42.3% of them were located in the anterior maxilla. Of the odontomas, 80.7% were related to disturbances in tooth eruption. Bone expansion was observed in 65.3% of the cases. All odontomas were surgically removed, and related impacted permanent teeth were either left to erupt spontaneously, orthodontically guided into occlusion or were removed. Orthodontic intervention appeared to be necessary in older children, while in younger children spontaneous eruption was frequent. In the present study, odontomas were associated with unerupted or impacted teeth. Radiographic examination was essential to verify the presence of the tumor and early removal prevented tooth eruption failure and disturbances in a majority of the cases.

  18. A nationwide study on hospital admissions due to dehydration in exclusively breastfed infants in the Netherlands : Its incidence, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelleboer, R.A.A.; Bontemps, S.T.H.; Verkerk, P.H.; Dommelen, P. van; Pereira, R.R.; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the incidence and clinical characteristics in hospital admissions due to dehydration or undernutrition and their laboratory evaluation and treatment outcome in exclusively breastfed infants. Methods: All hospital admissions during the first 3 months of life assessed by the Dutch Pa

  19. Clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome in adults: A national retrospective strobe-compliant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Mathieu; Devilliers, Hervé; Perard, Laurent; Groh, Matthieu; Nefti, Habdelamid; Dussol, Bertrand; Trad, Salim; Touré, Fatouma; Abad, Sébastien; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Frimat, Luc; Torner, Stéphane; Seidowsky, Alexandre; Massy, Ziad André; Saadoun, David; Rieu, Virginie; Schoindre, Yoland; Heron, Emmanuel; Frouget, Thierry; Lionet, Arnaud; Glowacki, François; Arnaud, Laurent; Mousson, Christiane; Besancenot, Jean-François; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Bielefeld, Philip

    2016-06-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome is a rare disease, defined by the association of idiopathic acute TINU. The aim of our work was to determine the characteristics of adult TINU syndrome in France, and to assess factors (including treatment) influencing medium-term prognosis.We conducted a nationwide study including 20 French hospitals. Clinical, laboratory, and renal histopathologic data of 41 biopsy-proven TINU syndromes were retrospectively collected. The patients were diagnosed between January 1, 1999 and December 1, 2015.Twenty-five females and 16 males were included (F/M ratio: 1.6:1). The median age at disease onset was 46.8 years (range 16.8-77.4) with a median serum creatinine level at 207 μmol/L (range 100-1687) and a median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 27 mL/min per 1.73 m (range 2-73). Twenty-nine patients (71%) had a bilateral anterior uveitis and 24 (59%) had deterioration in general health at presentation. Moderate proteinuria was found in 32 patients (78%) (median proteinuria 0.52 g/24 h; range 0.10-2.10), aseptic leukocyturia in 25/36 patients (70%). The evaluation of renal biopsies revealed 41 patients (100%) with an acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, 19/39 patients (49%) with light to moderate fibrosis and 5 patients (12%) with an acute tubular necrosis. Thirty-six patients (88%) were treated with oral corticosteroids. After 1 year of follow-up, the median eGFR was 76 mL/min per 1.73 m (range 17-119) and 32% of the patients suffered from moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. Serum creatinine (P uveitis relapses. The use of oral corticosteroids was not associated with a better kidney function but was associated with fewer uveitis relapses (P = 0.44 and 0.02, respectively).In our study, 32% of patients were suffering from moderate to severe chronic kidney disease after 1 year of follow-up, and 40% had uveitis relapses during this follow-up. This work also suggests that oral

  20. Pathologic Characteristics and Treatment Outcome of Patients with Malignant Brain Tumors: A Single Institutional Experience from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolazim Sedighi Pashaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central nervous system tumors account for 2%-5% of all malignancies in humans. These tumors account for 2% of all pediatric cancers. The worldwide incidence of primary central nervous system tumors is estimated at 3.9 (males and 3.2 (females per 100000 person-years. The incidence of brain tumor cases has been reported as 3.67% of all malignancies and 4% of all cancer mortalities in Iran. The five most common histological types of brain tumor in Iran according to different case studies are; meningioma, astrocytoma, glioblastoma, pituitary adenoma and ependymoma. The aim of this study is to determine the histopathological pattern and characteristics of patients with brain tumors who have referred to the Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department, Hamadan, Iran. Methods: This descriptive, retrospective study was performed at the Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department, between 2005 and 2012. We included 220 patients who referred to the Radiotherapy Department with diagnoses of primary brain tumor in this study. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, we treated 220 new cases of primary brain tumor at Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department. The mean age at diagnosis was 39.95±15.48 years with a median age of 39 years. Patients' ages ranged from 4 to 75 years. Among the 220 patients, 138 were male and 82 were female with a male to female ratio of 1.68. For most tumors there was a male predominance, with the exception of meningioma (M/F: 0.23, ependymoma (M/F: 1 and pituitary adenoma (M/F: 0.6. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, high grade meningiomas and oligodendrogliomas were the four most common pathologies treated in this department. The best treatment results were achieved in patients with astrocytomas. Conclusion: The present study is a retrospective radiotherapy centre-based study designed in a pioneer radiotherapy centre in Western Iran, not a prospective population study. These data have provided a baseline for further epidemiological studies. Our encouraging results

  1. Cleft characteristics and treatment outcomes in hemifacial microsomia compared to non-syndromic cleft lip/palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentino, K M; Valstar, A; Padwa, B L

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with hemifacial microsomia (HFM) and cleft lip/palate (CL/P), and to compare them to a historic cohort of patients with non-syndromic CL/P treated at the same centre. A retrospective review of patients with HFM and CL/P was performed; the main outcome measures assessed were cleft type/side, surgical outcome, midfacial retrusion, and speech. Twenty-six patients (13 male, 13 female; mean age 22.7±14.9, range 1-52 years) with cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL±P) were identified: three with cleft lip (12%), two with cleft lip and alveolus and an intact secondary palate (8%), and 21 with cleft lip and palate (CLP) (81%; 15 unilateral and six bilateral). Four patients (19%) had a palatal fistula after palatoplasty. Twelve of 22 patients aged >5 years (55%) had midfacial retrusion and two (9%) required a pharyngeal flap for velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Fisher's exact test demonstrated a higher frequency of complete labial clefting (P=0.004), CLP (P=0.009), midfacial retrusion (P=0.0009), and postoperative palatal fistula (P=0.03) in HFM compared to non-syndromic CL±P. There was no difference in VPI prevalence. This study revealed that patients with HFM and CL±P have more severe forms of orofacial clefting than patients with non-syndromic CL±P. Patients with HFM and CL±P have more severe midfacial retrusion and a higher palatal fistula rate compared to patients with non-syndromic CL±P.

  2. Changes in the functional characteristics of tumor and normal cells after treatment with extracts of white dead-nettle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veleva, Ralitsa; Petkova, Bela; Moskova-Doumanova, Veselina; Doumanov, Jordan; Dimitrova, Milena; Koleva, Petya; Mladenova, Kirilka; Petrova, Svetla; Yordanova, Zhenya; Kapchina-Toteva, Veneta; Topouzova-Hristova, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Lamium album L. is a perennial herb widely used in folk medicine. It possesses a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities (anti-inflammatory, astringent, antiseptic, antibiotic, antispasmodic, antioxidant and anti-proliferative). Preservation of medicinal plant could be done by in vitro propagation to avoid depletion from their natural habitat. It is important to know whether extracts from L. album plants grown in vitro possess similar properties as extracts from plants grown in vivo. For these reasons, it is important to examine changes in the composition of secondary metabolites during in vitro cultivation of the plant and how they affect the biological activity. We used A549 human cancer cell line and normal kidney epithelial cells MDCKII (Madin–Darby canine kidney cells II) as controls in assessing the anti-cancer effect of plant extracts. To elucidate changes in some key functional characteristics, adhesion test, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), transepithelial resistance (TER), immunofluorescence staining and trypan blue exclusion test were performed. Methanol and chloroform extracts of in vivo and in vitro propagated plants affected differently cancerous and non-cancerous cells. The most pronounced differences were observed in the morphological analysis and in the cell adhesive properties. We also detected suppressed epithelial transmembrane electrical resistance of MDCK II cells, by treatment with plant extracts, compared to non-treated MDCK II cells. A549 cells did not polarize under the same conditions. Altered organization of actin filaments in both cell types were noticed suggesting that extracts from L. album L. change TER and actin filaments, and somehow may block cell mechanisms, leading to the polarization of MDCK II cells. PMID:26019631

  3. Effect of thermal treatment on the chemical characteristics of wood from Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden under different atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Moura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment (thermal rectification is a process in which technological properties of wood are modified using thermal energy, the result of which is often value-added wood. Thermally treated wood takes on similar color shades to tropical woods and offers considerable resistance to destructive microorganisms and climate action, in addition to having high dimensional stability and low hygroscopicity. Wood samples of Eucalyptus grandis were subjected to various thermal treatments, as performed in presence (140ºC; 160ºC; 180ºC or in absence of oxygen (160ºC; 180ºC; 200ºC inside a thermal treatment chamber, and then studied as to their chemical characteristics. Increasing the maximum treatment temperatures led to a reduction in the holocellulose content of samples as a result of the degradation and volatilization of hemicelluloses, also leading to an increase in the relative lignin content. Except for glucose, all monosaccharide levels were found to decrease in samples after the thermal treatment at a maximum temperature of 200ºC. The thermal treatment above 160ºC led to increased levels of total extractives in the wood samples, probably ascribed to the emergence of low molecular weight substances as a result of thermal degradation. Overall, it was not possible to clearly determine the effect of presence or absence of oxygen in the air during thermal treatment on the chemical characteristics of the relevant wood samples.

  4. Polymer Surface Treatment by Atmospheric Pressure Low Temperature Surface Discharge Plasma:Its Characteristics and Comparison with Low Pressure Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsushi KUWABARA; Shin-ichi KURODA; Hitoshi KUBOTA

    2007-01-01

    The polymer treatment with a low-temperature plasma jet generated on the atmospheric pressure surface discharge (SD) plasma is performed.The change of the surface property over time,in comparison with low pressure oxygen (O2) plasma treatment,is examined.As one compares the treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma to that by the low pressure O2 plasma of PS (polystyrene) the treatment effects were almost in complete agreement.However,when the atmospheric pressure plasma was used for PP(polypropylene),it produced remarkable hydrophilic effects.

  5. Clinical characteristics, complications, comorbidities and treatment patterns among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a large integrated health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantalone, Kevin M; Hobbs, Todd M; Wells, Brian J; Kong, Sheldon X; Kattan, Michael W; Bouchard, Jonathan; Yu, Changhong; Sakurada, Brian; Milinovich, Alex; Weng, Wayne; Bauman, Janine M; Zimmerman, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the prevalence of diabetes-related complications and comorbidities, clinical characteristics, glycemic control, and treatment patterns in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) within a large integrated healthcare system in 2008 vs 2013. Methods An electronic health record system was used to create a cross-sectional summary of all patients with T2D as on 1 July 2008 and 1 July 2013. Differences between the two data sets were assessed after adjusting for age, gender, race, and household income. Results In 2008 and 2013, 24 493 and 41 582 patients with T2D were identified, respectively, of which the majority were male (52.3% and 50.1%) and Caucasian (79% and 75.2%). The mean ages (years) were 64.8 and 64.3. The percentages of patients across the defined A1C categories were 64.3 and 66.7 for <7%, 21.1 and 18.8 for 7–7.9%, 7.8 and 7.5 for 8–8.9%, and 6.8 and 7.0 for ≥9% in 2008 and 2013, respectively. The most prevalent T2D-related comorbidities were hypertension (82.5% and 87.2%) and cardiovascular disease (26.9% and 22.3%) in 2008 and 2013, respectively. Thiazolidinedione and sulfonylurea use decreased, whereas metformin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor use increased in the 5-year period. Conclusions Patients with T2D are characterized by a high number of comorbidities. Over 85% of the patients had an A1C<8% within our integrated health delivery system in 2008 and 2013. In 2008 and 2013, metformin therapy was the most commonly utilized antidiabetic agent, and sulfonylureas were the most commonly utilized oral antidiabetic agent in combination with metformin. As integrated health systems assume greater shared financial risk in newer payment models, achieving glycemic targets (A1C) and the management of comorbidities will become ever-more important, for preventing diabetes-related complications, as well as to ensure reimbursement for the medical care that is rendered to patients with diabetes. PMID:26217493

  6. Tumor characteristics and metastatic sites may predict bevacizumab efficacy in the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Varol, Umut; Oktay, Esin; YILDIRIM, Mustafa; SURMELI, ZEKI GOKHAN; Dirican, Ahmet; Meydan, Nezih; KARACA, BURCAK; Karabulut, Bulent; Uslu, Ruchan

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most frequently diagnosed cancers and a major cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there was an improvement in the time to disease progression (TTP) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with first-line bevacizumab plus chemotherapy, according to tumor characteristics and metastatic sites. Tumor characteristics and tumor burden were considered to be predictive markers of t...

  7. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite-hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-07-01

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants.

  8. Improvement of Strength Characteristics of Aerospace Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Graft Polymerization Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Tatsuji; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Tahara, Mitsuru; Okubo, Masaaki

    The atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasma-graft polymerization treatment is applied for the surface modification of the organic fibers in order to enhance the strength of the aerospace structural composite material consisting of the laminated textiles. The influence of the treatment on the composite materials' strength properties is examined. As a result, the plasma-graft polymerization surface treatment is effective for the compression and bend of the composite materials. Because the interfacial bonding between each fiber and matrix resin is strengthened by the treatment, the strengths of the composite materials are increased.

  9. Differences in characteristics and patient-reported questionnaire responses in patients who choose non-surgical versus surgical treatment for severe hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Mads; Overgaard, Søren; Jensen, Carsten

    Background: Preoperative patient characteristics may influence patient choice for participating in RCT’s. Purpose / Aim of Study: This study aimed to compare patient characteristics, level of pain, physical function and joint space width in patients with severe hip osteoarthritis (OA) who accepted...... or refused to participate in a RCT. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study a total of 137 patients with primary hip OA were asked to choose between surgical or non- surgical treatment. We then compared the characteristics of each patient cohort (demographics, pain level and duration......, analgesic use, exercise habits), the radiographic hip OA state and their responses to Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS, 0-100) and European Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaires. Findings / Results: The between-group HOOS scores were significantly different in three out...

  10. Clinical Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Response to Treatment of Veterans With Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Cincinnati Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2005-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Pamela; Casey, Kenneth R.; Knepler, James; Panos, Ralph J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder that is associated with significant morbidity. Veterans may be at an elevated risk for OSA because of increased prevalence of factors associated with the development and progression of OSA. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics, comorbidities, polysomnographic findings, and response to treatment of veterans with OSA. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 596 patients undergoing p...

  11. Impact of medical treatment on lung diffusion capacity in elderly patients with heart failure. Baseline characteristics and 1-year follow up after medical treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Claus Leth; Kjaer, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this investigation was (1) to study the effect of untreated chronic heart failure (CHF) on alveolar membrane diffusion capacity (transfer coefficient, K(CO)) in elderly patients and (2) to study the impact of the standard regime of medical treatment with diuretics and ACE-inhibito......AIM: The aim of this investigation was (1) to study the effect of untreated chronic heart failure (CHF) on alveolar membrane diffusion capacity (transfer coefficient, K(CO)) in elderly patients and (2) to study the impact of the standard regime of medical treatment with diuretics and ACE...... treatment (baseline) and after 1 year of treatment with diuretics and ACE-inhibitors/angiotensin-II receptor antagonists. Age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were included as control group. RESULTS: (mean+/-S.E.M.): K(CO) at baseline was 0.95+/-0.06 and 1.25+/-0.04 mmol/min x kPa/l in HF patients...

  12. Differences in Characteristics and Treatment Received among Depressed Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients with and without Co-Occuring Alcohol Misuse: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiia Pirkola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed at examining the differences between depressed psychiatric adolescent outpatients with and without cooccurring alcohol misuse in psychosocial background, clinical characteristics, and treatment received during one-year followup. Furthermore, we investigated factors related to nonattendance at treatment. Materials and Methods. Consecutive 156 adolescent (13–19 years psychiatric outpatients with a unipolar depressive disorder at baseline were interviewed using structured measures at baseline and at 12 months. Alcohol misuse was defined as having an AUDIT score of 8 or more points. The outpatients received “treatment as usual” of clinically defined duration. Results. Among depressive outpatients, poor parental support, parental alcohol use and decreased attendance at treatment associated with alcohol misuse. The severity of alcohol use as measured by AUDIT-score was the strongest factor independently predicting nonattendance at treatment in multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Alcohol misuse indicates family problems, has a deleterious effect on treatment attendance, and should be taken into account when managing treatment for depressive adolescent outpatients.

  13. Predicting dropout from intensive outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy for binge eating disorder using pre-treatment characteristics: A naturalistic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroling, M.S.; Wiersma, F.E.; Lammers, M.W.; Noorthoorn, E.O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dropout rates in binge eating disorder (BED) treatment are high (17-30%), and predictors of dropout are unknown. Method: Participants were 376 patients following an intensive outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy programme for BED, 82 of whom (21.8%) dropped out of treatment. An explo

  14. Effects of ultrasound pretreatment on the characteristic evolutions of drinking water treatment sludge and its impact on coagulation property of sludge recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing

    2015-11-01

    Large amounts of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) are produced during the flocculation or flotation process. The recycling of DWTS is important for reducing and reclaiming the waste residues from drinking water treatment. To improve the coagulation step of the DWTS recycling process, power ultrasound was used as a pretreatment to disintegrate the DWTS and degrade or inactivate the constituents that are difficult to remove by coagulation. The effects of ultrasound pretreatment on the characteristics of DWTS, including the extent of disintegration, variation in DWTS floc characteristics, and DWTS dewaterability, were investigated. The capacity of the recycling process to remove particulates and organic matter from low-turbidity surface water compared to a control treatment process without DWTS was subsequently evaluated. The coagulation mechanism was further investigated by analyzing the formation, breakage, and re-growth of re-coagulated flocs. Our results indicated that under the low energy density applied (0.03-0.033 W/mL) for less than 15 min at a frequency of 160 kHz, the level of organic solubilization was less elevated, which was evidenced by the lower release of proteins and polysaccharides and lower fluorescence intensities of humic- and protein-like substances. The applied ultrasound conditions had an adverse effect on the dewaterability of the DWTS. Ultrasound pretreatment had no significant impact on the pH or surface charge of the DWTS flocs, whereas particle size decreased slightly and the specific surface area was moderately increased. The pollution removal capacity decreased somewhat for the recycled sonicated DWTS treatment, which was primarily ascribed to organic solubilization rather than variability in the floc characteristics of sonicated DWTS. The main coagulation mechanism was floc sweeping and physical adsorption. The breakage process of the flocs formed by the recycling process displayed distinct irreversibility, and the flocs were

  15. Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis patients who “transfer-in” to health facilities in Harare City, Zimbabwe: a descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takarinda Kudakwashe C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zimbabwe is among the 22 Tuberculosis (TB high burden countries worldwide and runs a well-established, standardized recording and reporting system on case finding and treatment outcomes. During TB treatment, patients transfer-out and transfer-in to different health facilities, but there are few data from any national TB programmes about whether this process happens and if so to what extent. The aim of this study therefore was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of TB patients that transferred into Harare City health department clinics under the national TB programme. Specific objectives were to determine i the proportion of a cohort of TB patients registered as transfer-in, ii the characteristics and treatment outcomes of these transfer-in patients and iii whether their treatment outcomes had been communicated back to their respective referral districts after completion of TB treatment. Methods Data were abstracted from patient files and district TB registers for all transfer-in TB patients registered from January to December 2010 within Harare City. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Of the 7,742 registered TB patients in 2010, 263 (3.5% had transferred-in: 148 (56% were males and overall median age was 33 years (IQR, 26–40. Most transfer-in patients (74% came during the intensive phase of TB treatment, and 58% were from rural health-facilities. Of 176 patients with complete data on the time period between transfer-in and transfer-out, only 85 (48% arrived for registration in Harare from referral districts within 1 week of being transferred-out. Transfer-in patients had 69% treatment success, but in 21% treatment outcome status was not evaluated. Overall, 3/212 (1.4% transfer-in TB patients had their TB treatment outcomes reported back to their referral districts. Conclusion There is need to devise better strategies of following up TB patients to their referral Directly Observed Treatment (DOT centres

  16. Effect of high pressure--low temperature treatments on structural characteristics of whey proteins and micellar caseins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Daniel; Purschke, Benedict; Schmitt, Christophe; Rawel, Harshadrai M; Knorr, Dietrich

    2015-11-15

    In this study, structural changes in micellar caseins and whey proteins due to high pressure--low temperature treatments (HPLT) were investigated and compared to changes caused by high pressure treatments at room temperature. Whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions as well as micellar casein (MC) dispersions and mixtures were treated at 500 MPa (pH 7.0 and 5.8) at room temperature, -15 °C and -35 °C. Surface hydrophobicity and accessible thiol groups remained nearly unchanged after HPLT treatments whereas HP treatments at room temperature caused an unfolding of the WPI, resulting in an increase in surface hydrophobicity and exposure of the thiol groups. For HPLT treatments, distinct changes in the secondary structure (increase in the amount of β-sheets) were observed while the tertiary structure remained unchanged. Large flocs, stabilized by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds, were formed in casein containing samples due to HPLT treatments. Depending on the pH and the applied HPLT treatment parameters, these interactions differed significantly from the interactions determined in native micelles.

  17. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grey water for reuse requirements and treatment alternatives: the case of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; van Lier, Jules; Fayyed, Manar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the potentials and requirements for grey water reuse in Jordan. The results revealed that urban, rural and dormitory grey water production rate and concentration of TS, BOD(5), COD and pathogens varied between 18-66 L cap(-1)d(-1), 848-1,919, 200-1,056, and 560-2,568 mg L(-1) and 6.9E2-2.7E5 CFU mL(-1), respectively. The grey water compromises 64 to 85% of the total water flow in the rural and urban areas. Storing grey water is inevitable to meet reuse requirements in terms of volume and timing. All the studied grey waters need treatment, in terms of solids, BOD(5), COD and pathogens, before storage and reuse. Storage and physical treatment, as a pretreatment step should be avoided, since it produces unstable effluents and non-stabilized sludge. However, extensive biological treatment can combine storage and physical treatments. Furthermore, a batch-fed biological treatment system combining anaerobic and aerobic processes copes with the fluctuations in the hydrographs and pollutographs as well as the present nutrients. The inorganic content of grey water in Jordan is about drinking water quality and does not need treatment. Moreover, the grey water SAR values were 3-7, revealing that the concentrations of monovalent and divalent cations comply with agricultural demand in Jordan. The observed patterns in the hydrographs and pollutographs showed that the hydraulic load could be used for the design of both physical and biological treatment units for dormitories and hotels. For family houses the hydraulic load was identified as the key design parameter for physical treatment units and the organic load is the key design parameter for biological treatment units.

  18. Real-life Data on Patient Characteristics, Cost and Effectiveness of Field-directed Treatment for Actinic Keratoses: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijsingen, Margit C J; Seubring, Inge; Grutters, Janneke P C; Maessen-Visch, M Birgitte; Alkemade, Hans A C; van Doorn, Remco; Groenewoud, Hans; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Gerritsen, Marie-Jeanne P

    2016-03-01

    Actinic keratoses (AK) occur frequently; however, real-life clinical data on personalized treatment choice and costs are scarce. This multicentre one-year observational study investigated patient-characteristics, cost and effectiveness of methylaminolaevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT), imiquimod (IMI) and 5-fluorour-acil (5-FU) in patients with AKs on the face/scalp. A total of 104 patients preferred MAL-PDT, 106 preferred IMI and 110 preferred 5-FU. At baseline, significant differences between treatment groups were found; most patients were severely affected (mean 32.5 AK in PDT-group, 20.2 in IMI-group, 22.8 in 5-FU-group). A mean reduction in lesions of 81% after MAL-PDT, 82% after IMI and 88% after 5-FU was found after one year. Annual costs were €1,950 for MAL-PDT, €877 for IMI and €738 for 5-FU. These results show that, compared with clinical trials, in the real-life clinical setting AK patients are usually more severely affected and treatment costs are much higher. Furthermore, patient characteristics are important factors in treatment choice.

  19. Effect of thermal treatment of anaerobic sludge on the bioavailability and biodegradability characteristics of the organic fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. M. Borges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Most works reported in the literature focus on thermal treatment of waste activated sludge at temperatures in the range of 160 to 180ºC. This research aimed at evaluating the thermal treatment of excess anaerobic sludge at much lower temperatures, using biogas generated in the wastewater treatment process as the energy source for heating a simplified thermal reactor. Direct burning of the biogas allowed an increase in the sludge temperature up to values close to 75ºC, for a 7-hour heating period. Sludge samples taken at different heating times showed that the thermal disintegration of the organic fraction allowed increases in the concentration of protein, carbohydrate, lipid and COD parameters by 30 to 35 times, as well as a 50% increase in the biogas production. Moreover, the simplified thermal treatment system proved to be an effective alternative for recovering energy from biogas and for controlling methane emissions to the atmosphere.

  20. The characteristic and changes of the event-related potentials (ERP and brain topographic maps before and after treatment with rTMS in subjective tinnitus patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidi Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS treatment. METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. RESULTS: Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating soundsin control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN and late discriminative negativity (LDNcomponent at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. CONCLUSIONS: The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect.

  1. The Characteristic and Changes of the Event-Related Potentials (ERP) and Brain Topographic Maps before and after Treatment with rTMS in Subjective Tinnitus Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changming; Zheng, Yiqing; Zhang, Xueyuan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment. Methods and Participants The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. Results Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating sounds)in control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN)component at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. Conclusions The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect. PMID:23951019

  2. Advances in methods of commercial FBR core characteristics analyses. Investigations of a treatment of the double-heterogeneity and a method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugino, Kazuteru [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Iwai, Takehiko

    1998-07-01

    A standard data base for FBR core nuclear design is under development in order to improve the accuracy of FBR design calculation. As a part of the development, we investigated an improved treatment of double-heterogeneity and a method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections in a commercial reactor geometry, for the betterment of the analytical accuracy of commercial FBR core characteristics. As an improvement in the treatment of double-heterogeneity, we derived a new method (the direct method) and compared both this and conventional methods with continuous energy Monte-Carlo calculations. In addition, we investigated the applicability of the reaction rate ratio preservation method as a advanced method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections. The present studies gave the following information: (1) An improved treatment of double-heterogeneity: for criticality the conventional method showed good agreement with Monte-Carlo result within one sigma standard deviation; the direct method was consistent with conventional one. Preliminary evaluation of effects in core characteristics other than criticality showed that the effect of sodium void reactivity (coolant reactivity) due to the double-heterogeneity was large. (2) An advanced method to calculate homogenize control rod cross sections: for control rod worths the reaction rate ratio preservation method agreed with those produced by the calculations with the control rod heterogeneity included in the core geometry; in Monju control rod worth analysis, the present method overestimated control rod worths by 1 to 2% compared with the conventional method, but these differences were caused by more accurate model in the present method and it is considered that this method is more reliable than the conventional one. These two methods investigated in this study can be directly applied to core characteristics other than criticality or control rod worth. Thus it is concluded that these methods will

  3. Are the Clinical Characteristics of Anxious Youths Participating in Non-Treatment-Related Research Comparable to Those of Youths Receiving Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Alfano, Candice A.; Clementi, Michelle A.; Viana, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Background: A key element of the evidence-based assessment and treatment movements is ensuring an adequate representation of clients across the different settings in which they receive mental health care (e.g., research and routine or usual care settings). Prior work has focused on comparing clients from research settings to those from usual care…

  4. Patient Characteristics Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Default: A Cohort Study in a High-Incidence Area of Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Lackey

    Full Text Available Although tuberculosis (TB is usually curable with antibiotics, poor adherence to medication can lead to increased transmission, drug resistance, and death. Prior research has shown several factors to be associated with poor adherence, but this problem remains a substantial barrier to global TB control. We studied patients in a high-incidence district of Lima, Peru to identify factors associated with premature termination of treatment (treatment default.We conducted a prospective cohort study of adult smear-positive TB patients enrolled between January 2010 and December 2011 with no history of TB disease. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine risk factors associated with treatment default.Of the 1233 patients studied, 127 (10% defaulted from treatment. Patients who defaulted were more likely to have used illegal drugs (OR = 4.78, 95% CI: 3.05-7.49, have multidrug-resistant TB (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.58-5.85, not have been tested for HIV (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.50-3.54, drink alcohol at least weekly (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.40-3.52, be underweight (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.21-3.56, or not have completed secondary education (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.03-2.33.Our study identified several factors associated with defaulting from treatment, suggesting a complex set of causes that might lead to default. Addressing these factors individually would be difficult, but they might help to identify certain high-risk patients for supplemental intervention prior to treatment interruption. Treatment adherence remains a barrier to successful TB care and reducing the frequency of default is important for both the patients' health and the health of the community.

  5. [Comparative characteristic of the local application of anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of otitis externa and otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magomedov, M M; Starostina, A E; Magomedov, M G

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was the clinical study of candibiotic exhibitic antibacterial, antimycotic, anti-inflammatory, and anesthetic properties when applied for the treatment of otitis externa and otitis media. This agent was included together with traditionally used systemic medications in the combined treatment of 26 patients. It was applied in the form of endoaural drops, transtubal administration through a catheter, and transtympanic pumping by the Politzer balloon technique (in case of perforation). In the patients with otomycosys, the preparation was used for the treatment of the external acoustic canal after the removal of fungal masses thrice daily for 1 month. Good clinical effect achieved in all the patients was manifest as the normal otoscopic picture and less frequent complaints on days 8-10 after the onset of therapy. Its maximum duration was 21 days. Positive dynamics (pain relief) was apparent within the first 2 days of the treatment. Fungal mycelium was absent after 14-16 days of the treatment in 100% of the patients initially presenting with yeast-like fungi.

  6. Demographic characteristics and rates of progress of deaf and hard of hearing persons receiving substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dennis; McAweeney, Mary

    A lack of demographic information and data related to the achievement of short-term goals during substance abuse treatment among persons who are deaf or hard of hearing dictated the need for the study. New York State maintains a database on all individuals who participate in treatment. Within this database, 1.8% of persons in treatment for substance use disorder (SUD) were also deaf or hard of hearing. As hypothesized, members of the deaf and hard of hearing sample were older, likelier to be white, and likelier to be female, relative to the SUD-only group. For both groups, alcohol, heroin, and cocaine had the highest rates of reported use. Achievement of short-term goals in the areas of alcohol use, drug use, vocational/educational goals, and overall goals indicated no differences between the deaf and hard of hearing group and the SUD-only group. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. A Systematic Review on the Characteristics, Treatments and Outcomes of the Patients with Primary Spinal Glioblastomas or Gliosarcomas Reported in Literature until March 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Beyer

    Full Text Available Our aim was to determine the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with primary spinal glioblastomas (GB or gliosarcomas (GS reported in literature until March 2015. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for peer-reviewed articles pertaining to cases of glioblastomas / gliosarcomas with primary spinal origin, using predefined search terms. Furthermore we performed hand searches tracking the references from the selected papers. Eighty-two articles published between 1938 and March 2015 were eligible. They reported on 157 patients. Median age at diagnosis was 22 years. The proportion of patients who received adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy clearly increased from the time before 1980 until present. Median overall survival from diagnosis was 8.0 ± 0.9 months. On univariate analysis age influenced overall survival, whereas tumor location, gender and the extent of initial resection did not. Outcomes did not differ between children (< 18 years and adults. However, the patients who were treated after 1980 achieved longer survival times than the patients treated before. On multivariable analysis only age (< 60 years and the time period of treatment (≥ 1980 were confirmed as positive independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, primary spinal GB / GS mainly affect younger patients and are associated with a dismal prognosis. However, most likely due to the increasing use of adjuvant treatment, modest therapeutic progress has been achieved over recent decades. The characteristics and treatments of primary spinal glioblastomas should be entered into a central registry in order to gain more information about the ideal treatment approach in the future.

  8. Treatment for Osteoporosis among Women in Japan: Associations with Patient Characteristics and Patient-Reported Outcomes in the 2008–2011 Japan National Health and Wellness Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Sato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify characteristics associated with treatment for osteoporosis among women aged 50 years and older in Japan and to explore differences among patients according to treatment regimen. Data were provided by a large annual survey representative of Japanese aged 18 and older; all measures were by self-report. Women aged 50 and older who reported diagnosed osteoporosis (N=900 were compared based on current treatment status using bivariate statistics and logistic regression. Approximately 1 in 3 women in this study reporting diagnosed osteoporosis were currently untreated. Factors associated with current treatment for osteoporosis included having ≥1 physician visit in the prior 6 months (OR = 5.4, P<0.001, self-rated moderate or severe osteoporosis (OR = 2.8, P<0.001, completion of menopause (OR = 1.6, P<0.05, and family history of osteoporosis (OR = 1.5, P<0.05, while longer duration of osteoporosis diagnosis (OR = 0.9, P<0.05 and arthritis (OR = 0.7, P<0.05 were associated with lower odds of treatment. These findings suggest that diagnosed patients are not being actively managed in the longer term, and efforts need to be made to ensure that patients stay engaged with their healthcare providers.

  9. Seasonal variation of diclofenac concentration and its relation with wastewater characteristics at two municipal wastewater treatment plants in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Sevgi; Ozdemir, Gamze; Yangin-Gomec, Cigdem; Zengin, Gulsum Emel; Topuz, Emel; Aydin, Egemen; Pehlivanoglu-Mantas, Elif; Okutman Tas, Didem

    2014-05-15

    The pharmaceutically active compound diclofenac has been monitored during one year at separate treatment units of two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to evaluate its seasonal variation and the removal efficiency. Conventional wastewater characterization was also performed to assess the possible relationship between conventional parameters and diclofenac. Diclofenac concentrations in the influent and effluent of both WWTPs were detected in the range of 295-1376 and 119-1012ng/L, respectively. Results indicated that the higher diclofenac removal efficiency was observed in summer season in both WWTPs. Although a consistency in diclofenac removal was observed in WWTP_1, significant fluctuation was observed at WWTP_2 based on seasonal evaluation. The main removal mechanism of diclofenac in the WWTPs was most often biological (55%), followed by UV disinfection (27%). When diclofenac removal was evaluated in terms of the treatment units in WWTPs, a significant increase was achieved at the treatment plant including UV disinfection unit. Based on the statistical analysis, higher correlation was observed between diclofenac and suspended solids concentrations among conventional parameters in the influent whereas the removal of diclofenac was highly correlated with nitrogen removal efficiency.

  10. TEMPOROMANDIBULAR-JOINT OSTEOARTHROSIS - CLINICAL AND RADIOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS 30 YEARS AFTER NONSURGICAL TREATMENT - A PRELIMINARY-REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DELEEUW, R; BOERING, G; STEGENGA, B; DEBONT, LGM

    1993-01-01

    Thirty years after being treated nonsurgically for osteoarthrosis and internal derangement, 14 women and seven men were re-examined clinically and radiographically. The results of this examination were compared with those recorded before and after treatment 30 years ago, and with those of a matched

  11. What Drives Juvenile Probation Officers? Relating Organizational Contexts, Status Characteristics, and Personal Convictions to Treatment and Punishment Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Geoff; Kupchik, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Data from surveys of juvenile court probation officers in four states are analyzed to understand professional orientations toward two seemingly contrasting goals of contemporary juvenile justice systems: punishment and treatment. These self-reported juvenile probation officer orientations are considered in relation to three clusters of variables…

  12. Characteristics of atomic layer deposition grown HfO{sub 2} films after exposure to plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.W. [Kookje Electric Korea Co. LTD, 4-2 Chaam-Dong, Chonan-Si, Chungcheongnam-Do (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ywkim@kekorea.co.kr; Roh, Y. [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ji-Beom [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jibyoo@skku.ac.kr; Kim, Hyoungsub [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-01-22

    Ultra thin HfO{sub 2} films were grown by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using tetrakismethylethylaminohafnium (Hf[N(CH){sub 3}(C{sub 2}H{sub 5})]{sub 4}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) as the precursors and subsequently exposed to various plasma conditions, i.e., CCP (capacitively coupled plasma) and MMT (modified magnetron typed plasma) in N{sub 2} or N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ambient. The conventional CCP treatment was not effective in removing the carbon impurities, which were incorporated during the ALD process, from the HfO{sub 2} films. However, according to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, the MMT treated films exhibited a significant reduction in their carbon contents and the efficient incorporation of nitrogen atoms. Although the incorporated nitrogen was easily released during the post-thermal annealing of the MMT treated samples, it was more effective than the CCP treatment in removing the film impurities. Consequently, the MMT treated samples exhibited excellent electrical properties as compared to the as-deposited HfO{sub 2} films, including negligible hysteresis (flatband voltage shift), a low leakage current, and the reduced equivalent oxide thickness of the gate stack. In conclusion, MMT post treatment is more effective than conventional CCP treatment in improving the electrical properties of high-k films by reducing the carbon contamination and densifying the as-deposited defective films.

  13. A systems BIOlogy Study to TAilored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure : rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of BIOSTAT-CHF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, Adriaan A.; Anker, Stefan D.; Cleland, John G.; Dickstein, Kenneth; Filippatos, Gerasimos; van der Harst, Pim; Hillege, Hans L.; Lang, Chim C.; ter Maaten, Jozine M.; Ng, Leong; Ponikowski, Piotr; Samani, Nilesh J.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Zannad, Faiz; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Metra, Marco

    2016-01-01

    AimsDespite major improvements in pharmacological and device treatments, heart failure remains a syndrome with high morbidity and mortality, poor quality of life, and high health-care costs. Given the extensive heterogeneity among patients with heart failure, substantial differences in the response

  14. Heat-treatment of colostrum on commercial dairy farms: Effects on colostrum characteristics and calf health and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to describe the effect of heat-treatment, at 60 deg C for 60 minutes, on colostrum bacteria counts and IgG concentration, and describe the effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on preweaning calf health and performance. The study design was a randomized controlled clinical tri...

  15. Effect of lime addition during sewage sludge treatment on characteristics of resulting SSA when it is used in cementitious materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouk, D; Nakic, D; Štirmer, N; Baricevic, A

    2017-02-01

    Final disposal of sewage sludge is important not only in terms of satisfying the regulations, but the aspect of choosing the optimal wastewater treatment technology, including the sludge treatment. In most EU countries, significant amounts of stabilized and dewatered sludge are incinerated, and sewage sludge ash (SSA) is generated as a by product. At the same time, lime is one of the commonly used additives in the sewage sludge treatment primarily to stabilize the sludge. In doing so, the question arose how desirable is such addition of lime if the sludge is subsequently incinerated, and the generated ash is further used in the production of cementitious materials. A series of mortars were prepared where 10-20% of the cement fraction was replaced by SSA. Since all three types of analyzed SSA (without lime, with lime added during sludge stabilization and with extra lime added during sludge incineration) yielded nearly same results, it can be concluded that if sludge incineration is accepted solution, lime addition during sludge treatment is unnecessary even from the standpoint of preserving the pozzolanic properties of the resulting SSA. Results of the research carried out on cement mortars point to the great possibilities of using SSA in concrete industry.

  16. Effects of heat treatment on characteristics of porous Ni-rich NiTi SMA prepared by SHS technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and compressive properties of porous Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) fabricated by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) were investigated. The solution treatment at 1050℃ has little effects on stable Ti2Ni second phase, however, it decreases the amount of Ni4Ti3 phase derived from the SHS process and results in the improvement of the ductility of porous NiTi SMA. The subsequent aging treatment after solution treatment could lead to the precipitation of the discrete Ni4Ti3 phase in NiTi matrix grains, which increases the brittleness of porous NiTi SMA. Porous NiTi SMA presents a composite fracture behavior consisting of a ductile fracture of NiTi matrix and a cleavage fracture of second phase particles. Many cracks existing on the interfaces indicate that the bonding of the matrix with second phase particles is weak.

  17. Early Childhood Interventionists' Perceptions of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act: Provider Characteristics and Organizational Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Smith, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…

  18. Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy and antiquitin deficiency: clinical and molecular characteristics and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockler, Sylvia; Plecko, Barbara; Gospe, Sidney M; Coulter-Mackie, Marion; Connolly, Mary; van Karnebeek, Clara; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet; Hartmann, Hans; Scharer, Gunter; Struijs, Eduard; Tein, Ingrid; Jakobs, Cornelis; Clayton, Peter; Van Hove, Johan L K

    2011-01-01

    Antiquitin (ATQ) deficiency is the main cause of pyridoxine dependent epilepsy characterized by early onset epileptic encephalopathy responsive to large dosages of pyridoxine. Despite seizure control most patients have intellectual disability. Folinic acid responsive seizures (FARS) are genetically identical to ATQ deficiency. ATQ functions as an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH7A1) in the lysine degradation pathway. Its deficiency results in accumulation of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AASA), piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C) and pipecolic acid, which serve as diagnostic markers in urine, plasma, and CSF. To interrupt seizures a dose of 100 mg of pyridoxine-HCl is given intravenously, or orally/enterally with 30 mg/kg/day. First administration may result in respiratory arrest in responders, and thus treatment should be performed with support of respiratory management. To make sure that late and masked response is not missed, treatment with oral/enteral pyridoxine should be continued until ATQ deficiency is excluded by negative biochemical or genetic testing. Long-term treatment dosages vary between 15 and 30 mg/kg/day in infants or up to 200 mg/day in neonates, and 500 mg/day in adults. Oral or enteral pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), up to 30 mg/kg/day can be given alternatively. Prenatal treatment with maternal pyridoxine supplementation possibly improves outcome. PDE is an organic aciduria caused by a deficiency in the catabolic breakdown of lysine. A lysine restricted diet might address the potential toxicity of accumulating αAASA, P6C and pipecolic acid. A multicenter study on long term outcomes is needed to document potential benefits of this additional treatment. The differential diagnosis of pyridoxine or PLP responsive seizure disorders includes PLP-responsive epileptic encephalopathy due to PNPO deficiency, neonatal/infantile hypophosphatasia (TNSALP deficiency), familial hyperphosphatasia (PIGV deficiency), as well as yet unidentified conditions and nutritional

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE AND CHRONIC LARYNGITIS DEPENDING ON RESULTS OF BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF LARYNX MICROFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Chuikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes study of larynx microflora in patients with acute laryngtis and exacerbations of chronic laryngitis. Therapeutic algorithm based on bacteriologic examination data was developed reduce. New algorithm helps reduce sickness terms and to decrease prevalence of desease.123 patients of age from 18 to 60 were under observation: 43 patients with acute laryngitis and 80 patients with exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. 22 patients with acute laryngitis and 58 patients with exacerbation of chronic laryngitis underwent etiotropic treatment with antibiotics. The group of comparison with acute laryngitis (21 patients and chronic laryngitis (22 patients received treatment according to the conventional scheme.Bacteriologic examination of larynx mucous, clinical study and functional voice test (time of maximum vowels phonation before and after treatment were carried out.As a result of the research it was established that the most common causative agent of acute and chronic inflammatory larynx diseases is S. aureus as a mono culture or combined with other bacterial associations (S. аnhemolyticus, Str. viridans etc..After the end of antibacterial therapy we found symptoms as hoarseness, irritation, dry laryngopharynx, hyperemia and swelling of larynx mucous reduced eather in new treatment group than controlled group. Time of maximum vowels phonation (in seconds also increased significantly.Sickness terms after prescription of new treatment was shorter than in comparison groups: (10.9 ± 7.9 days for acute laryngitis and (12.6 ± 7.3 days for chronic laryngitis respectively. Health index was 20.8 and 19.5% respectively.

  20. Treatment-time regimen of hypertension medications significantly affects ambulatory blood pressure and clinical characteristics of patients with resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ríos, María T; Crespo, Juan J; Moyá, Ana; Domínguez-Sardiña, Manuel; Otero, Alfonso; Sánchez, Juan J; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R; Ayala, Diana E

    2013-03-01

    Patients with resistant hypertension (RH) are at greater risk for stroke, renal insufficiency, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events than are those for whom blood pressure (BP) is responsive to and well controlled by therapeutic interventions. Although all chronotherapy trials have compared the effects on BP regulation of full daily doses of medications when ingested in the morning versus at bedtime, prescription of the same medications in divided doses twice daily (BID) is frequent. Here, we investigated the influence of hypertension treatment-time regimen on the circadian BP pattern, degree of BP control, and relevant clinical and laboratory medicine parameters of RH patients evaluated by 48-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). This cross-sectional study evaluated 2899 such patients (1701 men/1198 women), 64.2 ± 11.8 (mean ± SD) yrs of age, enrolled in the Hygia Project. Among the participants, 1084 were ingesting all hypertension medications upon awakening (upon-awakening regimen), 1436 patients were ingesting the full daily dose of ≥1 of them at bedtime (bedtime regimen), and 379 were ingesting split doses of ≥1 medications BID upon awakening and at bedtime (BID regimen). Patients of the bedtime regimen compared with the other two treatment-time regimens had lower likelihood of microalbuminuria and chronic kidney disease; significantly lower albumin/creatinine ratio, glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; plus higher estimated glomerular filtration rate and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The bedtime regimen was also significantly associated with lower asleep systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP means than the upon-awakening and BID regimens. The sleep-time relative SBP and DBP decline was significantly attenuated by the upon-awakening and BID regimens (p treatment-time regimen groups (80.5% and 77.3%, respectively) than in the bedtime regimen (54.4%; p treatment regimens, compared with the

  1. 抚生村公路崩塌体特征及治理措施%Characteristics of Fusheng country road collapse and its treatment method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帅

    2016-01-01

    崩塌是常见的地质灾害,公路两侧的崩塌严重影响了人们的财产与生命安全,本文针对抚生村公路地质情况及崩塌体特征做了分析研究,提出相应的治理措施。%Collapse is a common geological hazard. The collapse of the road has seriously affected people's property and life safety. This paper describes the geological conditions and the collapse characteristics of the Fusheng country road, and analysis the research. Put forward corresponding treatment method.

  2. Most Trial Eligibility Criteria and Patient Baseline Characteristics Do Not Modify Treatment Effect in Trials Using Targeted Therapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anton Wulf; Tarp, Simon; Furst, Daniel E;

    2015-01-01

    )) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We conducted a meta-epidemiological study of all trials evaluating a targeted therapy approved by regulatory authorities for treating RA. The database search was completed on December 11th 2013. Eligible trials reported ACR20 data at months 3-6 and used an add-on design......OBJECTIVE: To determine if variations in trial eligibility criteria and patient baseline characteristics could be considered effect modifiers of the treatment response when testing targeted therapies (biological agents and targeted synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs...

  3. Effects of substrate temperature and annealing treatment on the microstructure and magnetic characteristics of TbDyFe films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A series of TbDyFe films were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. The effects of substrate temperature and annealing temperature on the phase structure and the magnetic properties of the sample films were investigated. The annealing treatment has a significant influence on the microstructure and the magnetic properties of the sample. The results obtained by XRD indicate that the films deposited at a temperature lower than 525℃ are amorphous and have an easy magnetization direction perpendicular to the film plane. An RFe2 phase is formed in the sample annealed at 550℃ and the residual phases observed are Fe and rare earth oxide. The magnetic properties Hc and Mr/Ms of the film annealed at 550℃ obtain the maximum values, for which the formation of the RFe2 phase is mainly responsible. An annealing treatment leads to a rotation of the sample's easy axis from being parallel to the film surface to becoming vertical.

  4. Effect of pre-treatment of cheese milk on the composition and characteristics of whey and whey products

    OpenAIRE

    Outinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Cheese producers want to increase cheese yield. The yield is improved by enhanced transfer of milk proteins and fat to cheese. This requires modifications to the traditional cheese process. During high-temperature heat treatment (HH), whey proteins are partially denaturated and co-precipitated with the cheese matrix. Elevation of the protein concentration of milk enhances the formation of the protein network in which whey proteins and fat are enclosed. The protein concentration is usually inc...

  5. Physical and Chemical Properties of Water Treatment Residue and the Characteristics of Red Pepper Growth by Using it

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seok-Gon; Yahata, Hisashi; Kurosawa, Kiyoshi; Shin, Hyun-Tak

    2010-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of the water treatment residue (WTR) and the WTR_, which contained compost (CP), were measured, and the effect of the properties on growth of the red pepper (Capsicum annuum‘Takanotsume’) was studied to reuse the WTR as an alternative material for decomposed granite soil (DGS). The physical properties of relative gas diffusivity (D/D_0), saturated hydraulic conductivity (K_s), water retention curve, porosity and plant-available water, and the chemical propert...

  6. Enhancement of Gas Sensing Characteristics of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes by CF4 Plasma Treatment for SF6 Decomposition Component Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available H2S and SO2 are important gas components of decomposed SF6 of partial discharge generated by insulation defects in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS. Therefore, H2S and SO2 detection is important in the state evaluation and fault diagnosis of GIS. In this study, dielectric barrier discharge was used to generate CF4 plasma and modify multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs. The nanotubes were plasma-treated at optimum discharge conditions under different treatment times (0.5, 1, 2, 5, 8, 10, and 12 min. Pristine and treated MWNTs were used as gas sensors to detect H2S and SO2. The effects of treatment time on gas sensitivity were analyzed. Results showed that the sensitivity, response, and recovery time of modified MWNTs to H2S were improved, but the recovery time of SO2 was almost unchanged. At 10 min treatment time, the MWNTs showed good stability and reproducibility with better gas sensing properties compared with the other nanotubes.

  7. Surface modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) through oxygen and nitrogen plasma treatment to improve its characteristics towards biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomathi, N.; Mishra, I.; Varma, S.; Neogi, S.

    2015-09-01

    Polymeric materials successfully applied in biomedical applications have an issue of poor surface properties which may restrict their applications as biomaterials. The present paper aims to study the effect of oxygen and nitrogen plasma treatment on physico-chemical properties of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and enhancement in its biocompatibility. Various characterization techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy were used to evaluate the changes in surface chemistry and morphology of plasma treated PDMS. Changes in the wettability after plasma treatments and the effects of ageing on wettability were studied by contact angle measurement. Ageing studies showed that the contact angle was stable after two hours. The effect of plasma treatment on biocompatibility was studied through cell adhesion and MTT using 3T3 fibroblast cells. Morphology of cells obtained through SEM was analyzed using ImageJ software. Among the different treated and untreated samples, substantial enhancement in biocompatibility was observed for nitrogen plasma treated PDMS for 5 min in terms of highest cell area observed from cell adhesion test and highest cell viability observed from MTT test. This may be probably due to its highest polarity (0.4) and surface energy (33.3 N mm-2) with a moderate surface roughness (Rrms = 100.24 nm) among the other treated and untreated samples.

  8. Carcinogenicity and teratogenicity vs. psychogenicity: Psychological characteristics associated with self-reported Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam combat veterans who seek treatment for substance abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinowitz, R.; Roberts, W.R.; Dolan, M.P.; Patterson, E.T.; Charles, H.L.; Atkins, H.G.; Penk, W.E. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Dallas (USA))

    1989-09-01

    This study asked, What are the psychological characteristics of Vietnam combat veterans who claim Agent Orange exposure when compared with combat-experienced cohorts who do not report such contamination The question was researched among 153 heroin addicts, polydrug abusers, and chronic alcoholics who were seeking treatment: 58 reported moderate to high defoliant exposure while in combat; 95 reported minimal to no exposure while in Vietnam. The null hypothesis was accepted for measures of childhood and present family social climate, premilitary backgrounds, reasons for seeking treatment, patterns and types of illicit drug and alcohol use, interpersonal problems, intellectual functioning, and short-term memory. The null hypothesis was rejected for personality differences, however, those who self-reported high Agent Orange exposure scored significantly higher on MMPI scales F, Hypochondriasis, Depression, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Mania, and Social interoversion. The results suggest that clinicians carefully assess attributional processing of those who report traumatic experience.

  9. Most Trial Eligibility Criteria and Patient Baseline Characteristics Do Not Modify Treatment Effect in Trials Using Targeted Therapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-Epidemiological Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Wulf Christensen

    Full Text Available To determine if variations in trial eligibility criteria and patient baseline characteristics could be considered effect modifiers of the treatment response when testing targeted therapies (biological agents and targeted synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs for rheumatoid arthritis (RA.We conducted a meta-epidemiological study of all trials evaluating a targeted therapy approved by regulatory authorities for treating RA. The database search was completed on December 11th 2013. Eligible trials reported ACR20 data at months 3-6 and used an add-on design. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated from the response rates and compared among the trial eligibility criteria/patient baseline characteristics of interest. Comparisons are presented as the Ratio of Odds Ratios (ROR.Sixty-two trials (19,923 RA patients were included in the primary analyses using ACR20 response. Overall, targeted therapies constituted an effective treatment (OR 3.96 95% confidence interval (CI 3.41 to 4.60. The majority of the trial eligibility criteria and patient baseline characteristics did not modify treatment effect. The added benefit of targeted therapies was lower in trials including "DMARD-naïve" patients compared with trials including "DMARD inadequate responders" (ROR = 0.45, 95%CI 0.31 to 0.66 and trials including "targeted therapy inadequate responders" (0.50, 95%CI 0.29 to 0.87, test for interaction: p = 0.0002. Longer mean disease duration was associated with a higher likelihood of responding to treatment (β = 1.05, 95%CI 1.00 to 1.11 OR's per year; p = 0.03. Analyses conducted using DAS28-remission as the outcome supported the above-mentioned findings.Our results suggest that a highly selective inclusion is not associated with greater treatment effect, as might otherwise be expected. The added benefit of a targeted therapy was lower in trials including patients who were DMARD-naïve and trials including patients with shorter disease durations.

  10. 老年人阑尾炎的特点及治疗%The Characteristics and Treatment of Elderly Patients with Appendicitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于绍鹏

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨老年人阑尾炎患者临床特点及治疗体会。方法选取2012年1月~2014年6月收治的老年人阑尾炎患者40例临床手术治疗进行分析。结果40例老年人阑尾炎患者平均住院8 d,经手术治疗均治愈,无感染病例发生。结论老年人急性阑尾炎的诊断一经确立,就应积极采取手术治疗。%Objective The clinical characteristics and treatment realize of elderly patients with appendicitis are to be investigated.Methods The clinical surgery treatments of 40 cases of elderly patients with appendicitis from January 2012 to June 2014 were selected for analysis. ResultsThe average hospitalization stay of the 40 cases of elderly patients with appendicitis was 8 days. After surgery treatment, they were all cured with no case of infection.Conclusion Once the elderly patients with acute appendicitis were diagnosed, surgery treatment should be adopted actively.

  11. Characteristics and treatment interests among individuals with substance use disorders and a history of past six-month violence: Findings from an emergency department study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermack, Stephen T.; Murray, Regan; Kraus, Shane; Walton, Maureen A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Barry, Kristen L.; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined clinical characteristics and treatment interests of individuals identified to have substance use disorders (SUDs) in an urban emergency department (ED) who reported past six-month history of violence or victimization. Specifically, participants were 1441 ED patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of interventions designed to link those with SUDs to treatment. To examine factors related to violence type, four groups based on participants’ reports of violence toward others were created: no violence (46.8%), partner violence only (17.3%), non-partner violence only (20.2%), and both partner and non-partner violence (15.7%). Four groups based on participants’ reports of victimization were also created: no violence (42.1%), victimization from partner only (18.7%), victimization from non-partner only (20.2%), and both partner and non-partner victimization (17.7%). Separate multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine which variables distinguished the violence and victimization groups from those reporting no violence or victimization. For violence toward others, demographic variables, alcohol and cocaine disorders, and rating treatment for psychological problems were higher for violence groups, with some differences depending on type of violence. For victimization, demographic variables, having an alcohol disorder, and rating treatment for family/social problems were higher for violence groups, also with some differences depending on type of violence. Findings from the present study could be useful for designing effective brief interventions and services for ED settings. PMID:24148140

  12. Characteristic and in vitro bioactivity of a microarc-oxidized TiO(2)-based coating after chemical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Daqing; Zhou, Yu; Jia, Dechang; Wang, Yaming

    2007-09-01

    Microarc oxidation (MAO) was used to prepare a TiO(2)-based coating containing Ca and P on titanium alloy. An alkali treatment was developed to modify the surface of the MAO coating to improve the apatite-forming ability of the coating. The chemically treated MAO coating exhibits a modified layer, with the main constituents being O, Ti, Ca and Na, showing anatase. The modified MAO coating shows a rough and porous morphology containing numerous nanoflakes of approximately 100nm thickness. During the alkali treatment process, P on the surface of the MAO coating shows a main dynamic process of dissolution; however, Ca exhibits a re-deposition process as well as dissolution. The formation of the modified layer could be explained by this mechanism: negatively charged HTiO(3)(-) ions are formed on the MAO coating due to the attack of OH(-) ions on the TiO(2) phase. The HTiO(3)(-) ions could incorporate sodium from the alkali solution and calcium from the alkali solution and MAO coating. The apatite-forming ability of the MAO coating is improved remarkably by the simple chemical treatment, since the surface of the alkali-treated MAO coating could provide abundant Ti-OH groups probably formed by ionic exchanges between (Ca2+, Na+) ions of the alkali-treated MAO coating and H3O+ ions of a simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, Ca released from the alkali-treated MAO coating increases the degree of supersaturation of SBF, promoting the formation of apatite. The apatite induced by the alkali-treated MAO coating possesses carbonated structure and pore networks on the nanometer scale.

  13. Characteristics of back corona discharge in a honeycomb catalyst and its application for treatment of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fada; Zheng, Yanyan; Shen, Xinjun; Zheng, Qinzhen; Dai, Shaolong; Zhang, Xuming; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Zhen; Yan, Keping

    2015-06-02

    The main technical challenges for the treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with plasma-assisted catalysis in industrial applications are large volume plasma generation under atmospheric pressure, byproduct control, and aerosol collection. To solve these problems, a back corona discharge (BCD) configuration has been designed to evenly generate nonthermal plasma in a honeycomb catalyst. Voltage-current curves, discharge images, and emission spectra have been used to characterize the plasma. Grade particle collection results and flow field visualization in the discharge zones show not only that the particles can be collected efficiently, but also that the pressure drop of the catalyst layer is relatively low. A three-stage plasma-assisted catalysis system, comprising a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) stage, BCD stage, and catalyst stage, was built to evaluate toluene treatment performance by BCD. The ozone analysis results indicate that BCD enhances the ozone decomposition by collecting aerosols and protecting the Ag-Mn-O catalyst downstream from aerosol contamination. The GC and FTIR results show that BCD contributes to toluene removal, especially when the specific energy input is low, and the total removal efficiency reaches almost 100%. Furthermore, this removal results in the emission of fewer byproducts.

  14. Development and analysis of microbial characteristics of an acidulocomposting system for the treatment of garbage and cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Ryoki; Otawa, Kenichi; Ozutsumi, Yuhei; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Abdel-Mohsein, Hosnia Swafy; Nakai, Yutaka

    2010-10-01

    An acidulocomposting system for the treatment of cattle manure with little emission of ammonia gas was developed, and the structure of its microbial community was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library construction. An acidulocomposting apparatus (BC20, 20 L) was operated for 79 days to treat 2 kg (wet wt) of garbage per 1 or 2 days. On day 80 of operation, the substrate was changed from garbage to cattle manure (1 kg of beef cattle manure was added to the apparatus every 2 or 3 days), and the system continued operating from days 80 to 158. The compost in the vessel was under acidic conditions at pH 5.2-5.8, and ammonia emission was below the detectable level (culturing method with MRS agar, we isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) related to Pediococcus acidilactici, Weissella paramesenteroides, and Lactobacillus salivarius, indicating the existence of LAB in the system. These results indicate that acidulocomposting treatment of cattle manure is not accompanied by ammonia emission and that Bacillus and LAB may be the key components in the system.

  15. Effect of temperature and biomass-water ratio to yield and product characteristics of hydrothermal treatment of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviananda, Cyrilla; Rahmawati, Ria F.; Prasetya, Agus; Purnomo, Chandra W.; Yuliansyah, Ahmad T.; Cahyono, Rochim B.

    2017-03-01

    Hydrothemal treatment is a thermochemical process that converts biomass into a coal-like materials called hydrochar by applying elevated temperature to biomass in a suspension with water under saturated pressure for a certain time. With this conversion process, easy to handle fuel with well-defined properties can be created from biomass residues, even with high moisture content. In this research, the effects of temperature (200-330°C) and biomass to water ratio (5%-20%) at initial pressure of 1.0 MPa to hydrothermal treatment of biomass (in the form of sawdust) were examined. All samples were then characterized in terms of yield, proximate analysis, calorific value,and changes in functional groups by FTIR. Approximately 52-69% of the original material was recovered as hydrochar. The gross calorific value ranged from 5472-7032 cal/g compared 5180 cal/g in the raw material. Fixed carbon ranged from 26.035-wt% compared with 26.269 wt% in the raw material.

  16. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers A~é effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, S.; Frangi, J. P.; Richard, D. C.

    2003-10-01

    This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain). The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL) measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc.), and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000). The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m) and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale) increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.

  17. [Morphological characteristics of the macula in patients with retinal vein occlusion before and after the treatment: preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, A A; Burladinova, A A; Lebenkova, O A

    2014-01-01

    The article presents examination results of 26 patients with macular edema (ME) due to retinal vein occlusion (RVO) before and 1 month after an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (Lucentis). Besides routine assessment, retinal spectral-domain optical coherent tomography (OCT) was performed in all cases. In accordance with derived OCT patterns of macular edema the patients were devided into two groups: swelling of the inner and outer retinal layers with serous detachment of neuroepithelium (group 1) and intraretinal edema with pseudocysts (group 2). It is shown that initial OCT features of retina in patients with ME due to RVO are prognostic for treatment results (serous retinal detachment may serve as a preventing factor of photoreceptor damage) and that visual improvement in patients with ME and serous detachment of neuroepithelium anticipates morphological changes.

  18. Effect of Aging Treatment on Microstructural and Mechanical Characteristics of PEO Coatings on Mg-Al Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cast Mg-6 wt pct Al alloy solution-treated at 683 K for 16 h and aged at 498 K was coated by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. The Mg-6 wt pct Al alloy aged for 16 h exhibited the highest microhardness and wear resistance. After PEO coating, however, the microhardness and wear resistance of coatings on Mg-6 wt pct Al alloy showed a tendency to decrease with increasing aging time, which was in aggrement with the change of thickness with aging time. In addition, the coatings on solution-treated Mg-6 wt pct Al alloy had better microhardness and wear resistance than those on aged Mg-6 wt pct Al alloys. Consequently, it can be understood that the aging treatment has a deleterious influence on the mechanical properties of coatings on Mg-6 wt pct Al alloy.

  19. Study on the treatment of photovoltaic wastewater using electrocoagulation: fluoride removal with aluminium electrodes--characteristics of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouiche, N; Aoudj, S; Hecini, M; Ghaffour, N; Lounici, H; Mameri, N

    2009-09-30

    In this work, treatment of synthetic fluoride-containing solutions by electrocoagulation method using aluminium electrodes has been studied. Electrocoagulation was investigated for applied potential (10-30 V), electrolysis time and supporting electrolyte (NaCl) concentration (0-100mg/L). The results showed that with increasing applied potential and electrolysis time, the Al(3+) dosage increases, and thereby favouring the fluoride ions removal. It was also observed that defluoridation is dependant on the concentration of supporting electrolyte. Finally, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy of X-rays and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the solid products formed by aluminium electrodes during the EC process.

  20. Study on the treatment of photovoltaic wastewater using electrocoagulation: Fluoride removal with aluminium electrodes-Characteristics of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS), 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7-merveilles, 16200 (Algeria); Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnologies, Ecole Polytechnique d' Alger - 10, Avenue Pasteur El-Harrach (Algeria); Aoudj, S.; Hecini, M. [Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS), 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7-merveilles, 16200 (Algeria); Ghaffour, N. [Middle East Desalination Research Center, P.O. Box 21, P.C.133, Muscat (Oman); Lounici, H.; Mameri, N. [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnologies, Ecole Polytechnique d' Alger - 10, Avenue Pasteur El-Harrach (Algeria)

    2009-09-30

    In this work, treatment of synthetic fluoride-containing solutions by electrocoagulation method using aluminium electrodes has been studied. Electrocoagulation was investigated for applied potential (10-30 V), electrolysis time and supporting electrolyte (NaCl) concentration (0-100 mg/L). The results showed that with increasing applied potential and electrolysis time, the Al{sup 3+} dosage increases, and thereby favouring the fluoride ions removal. It was also observed that defluoridation is dependant on the concentration of supporting electrolyte. Finally, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy of X-rays and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the solid products formed by aluminium electrodes during the EC process.

  1. Clinical characteristics and evaluation of LDL-cholesterol treatment of the Spanish Familial Hypercholesterolemia Longitudinal Cohort Study (SAFEHEART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedecausa Mar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH patients are at high risk for premature coronary heart disease (CHD. Despite the use of statins, most patients do not achieve an optimal LDL-cholesterol goal. The aims of this study are to describe baseline characteristics and to evaluate Lipid Lowering Therapy (LLT in FH patients recruited in SAFEHEART. Methods and Results A cross-sectional analysis of cases recruited in the Spanish FH cohort at inclusion was performed. Demographic, lifestyle, medical and therapeutic data were collected by specific surveys. Blood samples for lipid profile and DNA were obtained. Genetic test for FH was performed through DNA-microarray. Data from 1852 subjects (47.5% males over 19 years old were analyzed: 1262 (68.1%, mean age 45.6 years had genetic diagnosis of FH and 590 (31.9%, mean age 41.3 years were non-FH. Cardiovascular disease was present in 14% of FH and in 3.2% of non-FH subjects (P Conclusion Although most of this high risk population is receiving LLT, prevalence of cardiovascular disease and LDL-c levels are still high and far from the optimum LDL-c therapeutic goal. However, LDL-c levels could be reduced by using more intensive LLT such as combined therapy with maximum statin dose and ezetimibe.

  2. Effect of operating parameters and membrane characteristics on air gap membrane distillation performance for the treatment of highly saline water

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jingli

    2016-04-07

    In this study, ten different commercially available PTFE, PP and PVDF membranes were tested in desalination of highly saline water by air gap membrane distillation (AGMD). Process performance was investigated under different operating parameters, such as feed temperatures, feed flow velocities and salt concentrations reaching 120 g/L, and different membrane characteristics, such as membrane material, thickness, pore size and support layer, using a locally designed and fabricatd AGMD module and spacer. Results showed that increasing feed temperature increases permeate flux regardless of the feed concentration. However, feed flow velocity does not significantly affect the flux, especially at low feed temperatures. The PP membrane showed a better performance than the PVDF and PTFE membranes. Permeate flux decreases with the increase of salt concentration of feed solution, especially at higher concentrations above 90 g/L. The existence of membrane support layer led to a slight decrease of permeate flux. Membranes with pore sizes of 0.2 and 0.45 μm gave the best performance. Smaller pore size led to lower flux and larger pore size led to pore wetting due to lower LEP values. The effect of concentration polarization and temperature polarization has also been studied and compared.

  3. Emission characteristics of shape-engineered InAs/InAlGaAs quantum dots subjected to thermal treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hamin; Lee, Cheul-Ro; Ahn, Haeng-Keun; Kim, Jin Soo; Ryu, Mee-Yi

    2016-07-01

    We indirectly evaluated the inter-diffusion behaviors of group-III elements at the interface between shape-engineered (SE)-InAs/In0.52Al0.24Ga0.24As quantum dots (QDs) and In0.52Al0.24Ga0.24As (InAlGaAs) barriers by investigating the optical properties. Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was carried out for five stacks of SE-InAs/InAlGaAs QDs separated by an InAlGaAs spacer under temperatures ranging from 650 to 800 ° C. The emission wavelength of the SE-QDs subjected to thermal treatment was red-shifted from that for the as-grown QDs. For a RTA temperature of 700 ° C, the emission wavelength was measured to be 1507 nm at room temperature (RT), which was red-shifted by 3 nm compared to that of the as-grown sample (1504 nm). At an annealing temperature of 800 ° C, the emission wavelength was 1506 nm, which is still longer than that of the as-grown sample. This behavior is quite different from that of an InAs/GaAs QD system. The RT photoluminescence (PL) yield of the SE-InAs/InAlGaAs QDs subjected to thermal treatment was first enhanced at temperature up to 700 ° C and then decreased slightly with further increasing RTA temperature. The PL intensity of the QDs for a RTA temperature of 700 ° C was 8.8 times stronger than that of the as-grown sample.

  4. Characteristics of UV-MicroO3 Reactor and Its Application to Microcystins Degradation during Surface Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangcan Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The UV-ozone (UV-O3 process is not widely applied in wastewater and potable water treatment partly for the relatively high cost since complicated UV radiation and ozone generating systems are utilized. The UV-microozone (UV-microO3, a new advanced process that can solve the abovementioned problems, was introduced in this study. The effects of air flux, air pressure, and air humidity on generation and concentration of O3 in UV-microO3 reactor were investigated. The utilization of this UV-microO3 reactor in microcystins (MCs degradation was also carried out. Experimental results indicated that the optimum air flux in the reactor equipped with 37 mm diameter quartz tube was determined to be 18∼25 L/h for efficient O3 generation. The air pressure and humidity in UV-microO3 reactor should be low enough in order to get optimum O3 output. Moreover, microcystin-RR, YR, and LR (MC-RR, MC-YR, and MC-LR could be degraded effectively by UV-microO3 process. The degradation of different MCs was characterized by first-order reaction kinetics. The pseudofirst-order kinetic constants for MC-RR, MC-YR, and MC-LR degradation were 0.0093, 0.0215, and 0.0286 min−1, respectively. Glucose had no influence on MC degradation through UV-microO3. The UV-microO3 process is hence recommended as a suitable advanced treatment method for dissolved MCs degradation.

  5. Clinical characteristics and risk behavior as a function of HIV status among heroin users enrolled in methadone treatment in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Chien-Yu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methadone treatment was introduced in Taiwan in 2006 as a harm-reduction program in response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, which is endemic among Taiwanese heroin users. The present study was aimed at examining the clinical and behavioral characteristics of methadone patients in northern Taiwan according to their HIV status. Methods The study was conducted at four methadone clinics. Participants were patients who had undergone methadone treatment at the clinics and who voluntarily signed a consent form. Between August and November 2008, each participant completed a face-to-face interview that included questions on demographics, risk behavior, quality of life, and psychiatric symptoms. Data on HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections, methadone dosage, and morphine in the urine were retrieved from patient files on the clinical premises, with permission of the participants. Results Of 576 participants, 71 were HIV positive, and 514 had hepatitis C. There were significant differences between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups on source of treatment payment, HCV infection, urine test results, methadone dosage, and treatment duration. The results indicate that HIV-negative heroin users were more likely to have sexual intercourse and not use condoms during the 6 months prior to the study. A substantial percent of the sample reported anxiety (21.0%, depression (27.2%, memory loss (32.7%, attempted suicide (32.7%, and administration of psychiatric medications (16.1%. There were no significant differences between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients on psychiatric symptoms or quality of life. Conclusions HIV-positive IDUs were comorbid with HCV, indicating the need to refer both HIV- and HCV-infected individuals for treatment in methadone clinics. Currently, there is a gap between psychiatric/psychosocial services and patient symptoms, and more integrated medical services should be provided to heroin

  6. Treatment Outcomes and Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Report from Cancer Institute of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzania, Mehrzad; Safaee, Seyed Reza; Shahi, Farhad; Jahanzad, Issa; Zahedi, Ghazal; Mehdizadeh, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) have a more aggressive course and are associated with poorer prognosis in comparison with other subtypes of breast cancer. One of the most common subtypes of TNBC is basal-like. The aim of this study was to investigate clinicopathological characteristics and clinical course of TNBC in Iranian women and compare them with other studies. Subjects and Methods: Between March 2009 and February 2011, patients with breast cancer in Cancer Institute of Iran were selected and then followed-up for 2 years. Paraffin-embedded tumor block of all TNBC patients were evaluated for CK5/6 and EGFR using IHC method. Results: Among 267 breast cancer patients, 60 cases with TNBC were identified (22.5%), 31 patients (51.7%) had basal-like and 29 patients (48.3%) had non-basal-like tumors. The median age of participants with TNBC was 49.6 years. Among our patients, 70% had positive lymph nodes.93.4% of all patients at the time of diagnosis were stage II or III and tumor size was at least 3 centimeters. No grade 1 TNBC was found in this study. During the follow-up period, there were 26 recurrences and 7 deaths. Conclusion: The percentage of basal-like subtype among Iranian women with TNBC was lower compared to other studies, while bone metastases, clinical stage, lymph node involvement and tumor size were higher. Clinicopathological findings in basal and non-basal-like subgroups were not different, but the probability of lymph node involvement was more common in patients who were EGFR positive.

  7. SU-E-T-655: Quantifying the Dosimetric Characteristics of a Calypso Compatible Radiotherapy Treatment Couch with Angular Transmission Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, J; Shen, S; Wu, X; Popple, R; Cardan, R; Huang, M; Tannazi, F; Brezovich, I [Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantified the dosimetric characteristics of a Calypso compatible radiotherapy couch using continuously scanned transmission factor as a function of gantry angle. Methods: Radiation dose as a function of gantry angle was measured with an ionization chamber at the center of a 30 cm diameter cylindrical phantom placed on Qfix kVue Calypso compatible couch. A 3-D scanner was employed to continuously scan the dose during an arc rotation delivery. Nearly continuous transmission curves of 0.03° step size were obtained from IEC gantry angle 90° to180° for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams at three couch longitudinal positions (due to longitudinally non-uniform shape of the couch rails) with rails both at the center and on sides. The transmission curves were evaluated to assess the attenuation by the couch. They were also compared to those of a carbon fiber couch top. Results: The scanned transmission curves of the Calypso comptible couch showed fine details of the couch transmission as a function of gantry angle. The attenuation by the couch varied from 2.4% to 12.9% for the 6 MV photo beam and from 1.8% to 8.9% for the 15 MV photon beam depending on the gantry angle. The attenuation by the flat couch top is only approximately 2 to 3%, but by the rail is much more significant. Because the rails are not uniformly shaped in the longitudinal direction, attenuation by the rail for the same gantry angle varied with the rail longitudinal position. The transmission curves of the carbon fiber couch top are nearly identical to those of the Calypso compatible couch top. Conclusion: The Calypso compatible couch attenuates radiation by 2.4%–12.9% and 1.8%–8.9% for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams, respectively. The attenuation by the rails is much more significant than the flat couch top.

  8. Treatment Outcomes and Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Report from Cancer Institute of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzania, Mehrzad; Safaee, Seyed Reza; Shahi, Farhad; Jahanzad, Issa; Zahedi, Ghazal; Mehdizadeh, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) have a more aggressive course and are associated with poorer prognosis in comparison with other subtypes of breast cancer. One of the most common subtypes of TNBC is basal-like. The aim of this study was to investigate clinicopathological characteristics and clinical course of TNBC in Iranian women and compare them with other studies. Subjects and Methods: Between March 2009 and February 2011, patients with breast cancer in Cancer Institute of Iran were selected and then followed-up for 2 years. Paraffin-embedded tumor block of all TNBC patients were evaluated for CK5/6 and EGFR using IHC method. Results: Among 267 breast cancer patients, 60 cases with TNBC were identified (22.5%), 31 patients (51.7%) had basal-like and 29 patients (48.3%) had non-basal-like tumors. The median age of participants with TNBC was 49.6 years. Among our patients, 70% had positive lymph nodes.93.4% of all patients at the time of diagnosis were stage II or III and tumor size was at least 3 centimeters. No grade 1 TNBC was found in this study. During the follow-up period, there were 26 recurrences and 7 deaths. Conclusion: The percentage of basal-like subtype among Iranian women with TNBC was lower compared to other studies, while bone metastases, clinical stage, lymph node involvement and tumor size were higher. Clinicopathological findings in basal and non-basal-like subgroups were not different, but the probability of lymph node involvement was more common in patients who were EGFR positive. PMID:28286613

  9. [Characteristics of central nervous system activity in patients with complications of arterial hypertension and dependence on psychomotor status and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, A G; Velichko, N P; Usenko, G A; Nishcheta, O V; Kozyreva, T Iu; Demin, A A

    2013-01-01

    Changes in certain CNS characteristics were used as indicators of the efficacy of antihypertensive therapy (AHT) both targeted (T-AHT) and empirical (E-AHT) designed to suppress activity of the sympathetic component of vegetative nervous system (VNS) and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in patients of different psychic status and AH. A group of 835 men (mean age 54.2+-1.8yr) was divided into cholerics, sanguinics, melancholics and phlegmatics with a high and low anxiety level (HA and LA). 416 healthy men served as controls. The following parameters were estimated: mobility of cortical processes, balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, blood corrisol and aldosterone levels, oxygen utilization coefficient, resistance to breath holding, severity of dyscirculatory encephalopathy and the fraction of patients with AH complications during 12 month T-AHT for the suppression of sympathetic activity in cholerics and sanguinics by beta-adrenoblockers and PAA C- ACE inhibitors in phlegmatics and melancholics and during E-AHT (ACE inhibitors in cholerics and sanguinics, BAB in phlegmatics and melancholics). The functional activity of CNS in phlegmatics and melancholics before and during AHT was lower and severity of encephalopathy and the number ofAH complications higher than in cholerics and sanguinics. . The changes wiere more pronounced in patients with HA than in those with LA. Unlike E-AHT T-AHT (anxiolytics for cholerics and sanguinics with HA, antidepressants for phlegmatics and melancholics with HA) normalized the study parameters and decreased the frequency of complications by 2-3 times.

  10. Diabetes treatment patterns and goal achievement in primary diabetes care (DiaRegis - study protocol and patient characteristics at baseline

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    Deeg Evelin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for disease and treatment related complications after the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data from clinical practice with respect to this patient group are however scarce. Therefore we set up a registry in primary care documenting the course and outcomes of this patient group. Methods Diabetes Treatment Patterns and Goal Achievement in Primary Diabetes Care (DiaRegis is a prospective, observational, German, multicenter registry including patients with type-2 diabetes in which oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data were recorded at baseline and will be prospectively documented during visits at 6 ± 1, 12 ± 2 and 24 ± 2 months. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of patients with at least 1 episode of severe hypoglycemia within one year. Results 313 primary care offices included 4,048 patients between June 2009 and March 2010 of which 3,810 patients fulfilled the in- and exclusion criteria. 46.7% of patients were female; patients had a median diabetes duration of 5.5 years and most were obese with respect to BMI or waist circumference. HbA1c at baseline was 7.4%, fasting plasma glucose 142 mg/dl and postprandial glucose 185 mg/dl. Co-morbidity in this patient population was substantial with 17.9% having coronary artery disease, 14.4% peripheral neuropathy, 9.9% heart failure and 6.0% peripheral arterial disease. 68.6% of patients received oral monotherapy, 31.4% dual oral combination therapy. The most frequent antidiabetic agent used as monotherapy was metformin (79.0% followed by sulfonylureas (14.8%. Conclusions DiaRegis is a large, prospective registry in primary diabetes care to document the course and outcomes of patients with type-2 diabetes in which the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. The two year follow-up will allow for a prospective evaluation of these patients

  11. An individual patient data meta-analysis on characteristics, treatments and outcomes of the glioblastoma/gliosarcoma patients with central nervous system metastases reported in literature until 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschmann, Sophie; von Bueren, André O; Henke, Guido; Kerber, Michael Josef; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Müller, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Dissemination of high-grade gliomas (WHO IV) has been investigated poorly so far. We conducted an extensive analysis of the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)/gliosarcoma (GS) patients with central nervous system (CNS) metastases reported in literature until April 2013. PubMed and Web of Science searches for peer-reviewed articles pertaining to GBM/GS patients with metastatic disease were conducted using predefined keywords. Additionally, we performed hand search following the references from the selected papers. Cases in which the metastases exclusively occurred outside the CNS were excluded. 110 publications reporting on 189 patients were eligible. There was a significant increase in the number of reported cases over the last decades. We calculated a median overall survival from diagnosis of metastasis (from initial diagnosis of GBM/GS) of 3.0 ± 0.3 (11 ± 0.7) months. On univariate analyses, gender, age, the histological subtype, the time interval between initial diagnosis and the occurrence of metastases and the location of CNS metastasis (intracranial versus spinal and parenchymal versus leptomeningeal, respectively) did not influence survival after diagnosis of metastasis. There was no substantial treatment progress over the recent decades. GBM/GS with CNS metastasis are associated with a dismal prognosis. Crucial treatment progress is not evident. A central registry should be considered to consecutively gain more information about the ideal therapeutic approach.

  12. Adsorption characteristics of multiple microcystins and cylindrospermopsin on sediment: Implications for toxin monitoring and drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Ehsan; Prévost, Michèle; Vo Duy, Sung; Sauvé, Sébastien; Dorner, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Adsorption of mixtures of cyanotoxins onto sediment as a dominant mechanism in the elimination of cyanotoxins from the aqueous phase has not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate adsorption and desorption behavior of six microcystins including microcystin (MC)-LR, RR, YR, LY, LW and LF and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) on natural sediment. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms could be fitted for MC-LR, RR, YR and CYN. Sorption kinetics showed immediate rapid adsorption for all cyanotoxins: CYN, MCLW and MCLF were adsorbed 72.6%, 56.7% and 55.3% respectively within 2 h. Results of desorption experiments demonstrated that less than 9% of cyanotoxins desorbed from sediment within 96 h. Adsorption of cyanotoxins onto three fractionated sediments particles, clay-silt (<75 μm), find sand (75-315 μm) and coarse sand (315-2000 μm) demonstrated that adsorption capacity of coarse sand fraction for all the tested cyanotoxins was less than 4% of the clay-silt fraction. Results of this study revealed that there is a potential for cyanotoxins to accumulate in the sediments of lakes, as well as in drinking water treatment plants. Monitoring programs must consider cyanotoxins in the particulate phase to avoid largely underestimating toxin concentrations following their release from blooms.

  13. Evaluation of the characteristics of vineyard pruning residues for energy applications: effect of different copper-based treatments

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    Daniele Duca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of biomass for increasing renewable energy sources mix is considered fundamental, despite some negative environmental impact of first-generation biofuels. The use of biomass obtained in a more sustainable way, as represented by agricultural wastes, should be favoured. The Mediterranean area and Italy in particular offer a large amount of vineyard pruning residues that can be converted into bioenergy. Since vineyards are exposed to treatments based on copper (Cu and zinc, these metals last in wood residues during pruning and accumulate in the soil. In this study an evaluation of the concentrations of copper and other heavy metals in grapevine pruning wastes, when treated with common plant protection products, was carried out. The study was also extended to the soil, being potentially mixed to the biomass in the case of mechanical collection of pruning residues. The grapevine residues free of impurities that were collected during this study have typical values of copper in pruning wood, varying from 8.5 mg kg–1 when treated with low Cu product, to 19.2 mg kg–1 when treated with high Cu product. It was observed that contaminations during pruning with soil could increase the amount of copper in the residues. More in detail, every percentage point of soil that winds up on pruning residues involves an increase of 1 mg of Cu every kg of biomass. For this reason, we recommend the use of appropriate systems for the harvest of grapevine residues, particularly mechanical systems that avoid soil lifting. Moreover, we suggest the use of pruning residues preferably in large-scale power plants with appropriate emission filters instead of small-scale domestic boilers.

  14. Epidemiological analysis of demographic characteristics and type of injuries in patients with multiple trauma with respect to conclusive treatment outcome

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    Zagorac Slaviša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Multiple trauma is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the population of people under 45 years of age. The consequences of multiple trauma have huge epidemiological, social and economic significance. Objective The aim of the paper was to analyze the conclusive treatment outcome of multiply traumatized patients with respect to their sex, age, injury mechanism and type. METHOD This retrospective study included 100 patients with multiple injuries (ISS>16 treated in the Emergency Room of the Clinical Centre of Serbia in the course of 2004. Clinical, X-ray, laboratory and numerical presentation methods - scores (ISS and GCS were used to show the injury severity. Results Most of the injured were males (80%, and the average age was 40±20 (5-83. Out of the total number of patients who died, 23 (82% were males, and 5 (18% were females. The average age of the patients with fatal outcomes was 48±21 (8-86. Traffic accidents were the leading cause of injury (59%. The median GCS was 10±3 (3-15. The average ISS was 30 (20-66 in the surviving patients, and 53 (27-77 in those who died. Conclusion With respect to sex, in most cases multiple trauma affects males (p<0.01, with the average age of about 40. With respect to injury mechanism, the main cause of the occurrence of multiple trauma is traffic accidents (p<0.01. There is a statistically significant difference in the values of GCS and ISS relative to the definitive outcome (p<0.01. Statistical data processing indicated that there was a statistically significant correlation between mortality and type of injury in a given organic system (p<0.01, but that there was no statistically significant correlation between mortality and age. .

  15. Biogeochemical mineralogical, and hydrological characteristics of an iron reactive barrier used for treatment of uranium and other contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Phillips, Debra H. [Queen' s University, Belfast; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL

    2002-05-01

    A permeable iron reactive barrier was installed in late November, 1997 at the U.S. Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The overall goal of this research was to determine the effectiveness of the use of zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) to retain or remove uranium and other contaminants such as technetium and nitrate in groundwater. The long-term performance issues were investigated by studying the biogeochemical interactions between Fe{sup 0} and groundwater constituents and the mineralogical and biological characteristics over an extended field operation. Results from nearly 3 years of monitoring indicated that the Fe{sup 0} barrier was performing effectively in removing contaminant radionuclides such as uranium and technetium. In addition, a number of groundwater constituents such as bicarbonates, nitrate, and sulfate were found to react with the Fe{sup 0}. Both nitrate and sulfate were reduced within or in the influence zone of the Fe{sup 0} with a low redox potential (i.e., low Eh). An increased anaerobic microbial population was also observed within and in the vicinity of the Fe{sup 0} barrier, and these microorganisms were at least partially responsible for the reduction of nitrate and sulfate in groundwater. Decreased concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and bicarbonate in groundwater occurred as a result of the formation of minerals such as aragonite (CaCO{sub 3}) and siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), which coincided with the Fe{sup 0} corrosion and an increased groundwater pH. A suite of mineral precipitates was identified in the Fe{sup 0} barrier system, including amorphous iron oxyhydroxides, goethite, ferrous carbonates and sulfides, aragonite, and green rusts. These minerals were found to be responsible for the cementation and possibly clogging of Fe{sup 0} filings observed in a number of core samples from the barrier. Significant increases in cementation of the Fe{sup 0} occurred between two coring events conducted at {approx

  16. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Extremity Chronic Osteomyelitis in Southern China: A Retrospective Analysis of 394 Consecutive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Ma, Yun-Fei; Jiang, Yi; Zhao, Xing-Qi; Xie, Guo-Ping; Hu, Yan-Jun; Qin, Cheng-He; Yu, Bin

    2015-10-01

    indicators of the disease. Most patients achieved a favorable clinical efficacy after appropriate treatment.

  17. BK Virus-Hemorrhagic Cystitis Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Clinical Characteristics and Utility of Leflunomide Treatment

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    Young Hoon Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: BK virus-hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC is a potential cause of morbidity and mortality in patients having undergone allogeneic stem cell transplantation (Allo-SCT. We analyzed the clinical features of BKV-HC following Allo-SCT and reported the utility of leflunomide therapy for BKV-HC. Materials and methods: From January 2005 to June 2014, among the 69 patients underwent Allo-SCT in our institution, the patients who experienced BKV-HC were investigated retrospectively. Results: Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC was observed in 30 patients (43.5%, and among them, 18 patients (26.1% were identified as BKV-HC. The median age of the patients (12 males and 6 females was 45 years (range, 13-63. Patients received Allo-SCT from acute myeloid leukemia (n=11, aplastic anemia (n=4, myelodysplastic syndrome (n=2, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n=1.The donor types were a HLA-matched sibling donor for 6 patients, HLA-matched unrelated donor for 9, and a haploidentical familial donor for 2. The median onset and duration of BKV-HC was on day 21 (range, 7-97 after transplantation and 22 days (range, 6-107. Eleven patients (62.1% had grade I-II HC and seven patients (38.9% had grade III-IV (high-grade HC. Among the seven patients who had high-grade HC, one had complete response (CR, one partial response (PR, and five no response (NR. Among the five non-responders, one died of BKV-HC associated complications. The remaining four patients were treated with leflunomide, with achieving CR (n=2 and PR (n=2. The median duration from the start of leflunomide therapy to response was 13 days (range, 8–17 days. All patients tolerated the leflunomide treatment well, with three patients having mild gastrointestinal symptoms, including anorexia and abdominal bloating. Conclusion: BKV-HC was commonly observed in patients with HC following Allo-SCT. In high-grade BKV-HC patients who fail supportive care, leflunomide may be a feasible option without significant toxicity. Materials

  18. Clinical characteristics and treatment of Ebola virus disease%埃博拉病毒病临床特征与治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 苏海滨

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a fatal disease caused by Ebola virus infection with high morbidity rate. Clinical manifestations of EVD are not specific and the diagnosis of EVD is confirmed mainly by etiology examination. So far, the mainstay therapy is supportive care, and efforts to develop other potential therapies are ongoing. This article focuses on the clinical characteristics and treatment of EVD.%埃博拉病毒病(Ebola virus disease, EVD)是由埃博拉病毒引起的烈性传染病,致死率高.EVD 临床表现无特异性,确诊主要依靠病原学检查.目前以对症支持治疗为主,其他可能的治疗方案在不断研究探索中.本文对 EVD 的临床特征及治疗进行综述.

  19. Assessing Hepatitis C Burden and Treatment Effectiveness through the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC: Design and Characteristics of Linked and Unlinked Participants.

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    Naveed Zafar Janjua

    Full Text Available The British Columbia (BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC was established to assess and monitor hepatitis C (HCV epidemiology, cost of illness and treatment effectiveness in BC, Canada. In this paper, we describe the cohort construction, data linkage process, linkage yields, and comparison of the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals.The BC-HTC includes all individuals tested for HCV and/or HIV or reported as a case of HCV, hepatitis B (HBV, HIV or active tuberculosis (TB in BC linked with the provincial health insurance client roster, medical visits, hospitalizations, drug prescriptions, the cancer registry and mortality data using unique personal health numbers. The cohort includes data since inception (1990/1992 of each database until 2012/2013 with plans for annual updates. We computed linkage rates by year and compared the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals.Of 2,656,323 unique individuals available in the laboratory and surveillance data, 1,427,917(54% were included in the final linked cohort, including about 1.15 million tested for HCV and about 1.02 million tested for HIV. The linkage rate was 86% for HCV tests, 89% for HCV cases, 95% for active TB cases, 48% for HIV tests and 36% for HIV cases. Linkage rates increased from 40% for HCV negatives and 70% for HCV positives in 1992 to ~90% after 2005. Linkage rates were lower for males, younger age at testing, and those with unknown residence location. Linkage rates for HCV testers co-infected with HIV, HBV or TB were very high (90-100%.Linkage rates increased over time related to improvements in completeness of identifiers in laboratory, surveillance, and registry databases. Linkage rates were higher for HCV than HIV testers, those testing positive, older individuals, and females. Data from the cohort provide essential information to support the development of prevention, care and treatment initiatives for those infected with HCV.

  20. Effect of chemical treatment on surface characteristics of sputter deposited Ti-rich NiTi shape memory alloy thin-films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.K., E-mail: drsudhirsharma@gmail.com; Mohan, S.

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: FTIR spectra recorded for sputter deposited (a) untreated and (b) chemically treated NiTi SMA thin-films. - Highlights: • The effect of chemical treatment on surface properties of NiTi films demonstrated. • Chemically treated films offer strong ability to form protective TiO{sub 2} layer. • TiO{sub 2} layer formation offer great application prospects in biomedical fields. - Abstract: NiTi thin-films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering from single alloy target (Ni/Ti:45/55 at.%). The rate of deposition and thickness of sputter deposited films were maintained to ∼35 nm min{sup −1} and 4 μm respectively. A set of sputter deposited NiTi films were selected for specific chemical treatment with the solution comprising of de-ionized water, HF and HNO{sub 3} respectively. The influence of chemical treatment on surface characteristics of NiTi films before and after chemical treatment was investigated for their structure, micro-structure and composition using different analytical techniques. Prior to chemical treatment, the composition of NiTi films using energy dispersive X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), were found to be 51.8 atomic percent of Ti and 48.2 atomic percent of Ni. The structure and morphology of these films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD investigations, demonstrated the presence of dominant Austenite (1 1 0) phase along with Martensite phase, for untreated NiTi films whereas some additional diffraction peaks viz. (1 0 0), (1 0 1), and (2 0 0) corresponding to Rutile and Anatase phase of Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) along with parent Austenite (1 1 0) phase were observed for chemically treated NiTi films. FTIR studies, it can be concluded that chemically treated films have higher tendency to form metal oxide/hydroxide than the untreated NiTi films. XPS investigations, demonstrated the presence of Ni-free surface and formation of a protective metal oxide (TiO{sub 2

  1. Characteristics of hemodynamics in abdominal aortic aneurysm and its treatment%腹主动脉瘤血流动力学特点和对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒畅; 王暾

    2012-01-01

    The research of hemodynamic characteristics in abdominal aortic aneurysm focuses on blood pressure, blood flow, aortic wall stress, shear stress, as well as the physiopathologic changes caused by the specific hemodynamic situations. The hemodynamic characteristics lead to aortic aneurysm progressing, asymmetry and mural thrombosis. Meanwhile, the spatial structure of abdominal aortic aneurysm results in the particular hemodynamic characteristics. Researching of the hemodynamic status is an important method of analyzing the development and rupture risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm, and make prevention and treatment strategies.%腹主动脉瘤内的血流动力学主要研究瘤体内的动脉压、血流的状况,以及血流作用于主动脉壁的张力和剪切力的分布情况,同时研究主动脉壁随血流动力学改变发生的相应的结构和功能改变.血流动力学因素导致腹主动脉瘤发生并逐渐增大,呈不规则形态生长,瘤体内形成附壁血栓;而瘤体的形态改变同时也改变其内血流动力学特点.明确腹主动脉瘤内的血流动力学特点,有助于分析疾病进程,评估腹主动脉瘤破裂的风险,指导临床治疗工作,同时为早期预防腹主动脉瘤的发生和发展提供理论依据.

  2. Influence of heat treatment on the sensory and physical characteristics and carbohydrate fractions of french-fried potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Carvalho Montenegro de VASCONCELOS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to analyze the impact that heat treatment with salts and freezing processes on the sensory, instrumental, and physico-chemical characteristics of fried potatoes of the Monalisa cultivar. The potatoes were blanched in distilled water (P; sodium chloride solution (B1; calcium chloride solution (B2, and a solution with both of these salts (B3. They were then pre-cooked and frozen for 24 hours and for 30 days. After frying, sensory characteristics were analyzed (color, texture, flavor, oiliness, along with overall preference and instrumental determinations of texture, color, and oil content. Further tests were conducted on the sample with the best results in the sensory analysis (B1, along with sample P as a control, to determine granule microstructure, carbohydrate fractions, glycemic index, and glycemic load. Blanching B3, despite reducing oil absorption and providing less oiliness, obtained lesser overall preference. Freezing for 30 days increased the lightness, except for when sodium chloride was used, which intensified the color yellow. The use of sodium chloride did not interfere with the type of starch granules, nor with the formation of resistant starch; however, longer freezing time reduced the glycemic index and concentrated the dietary fiber content. All samples exhibited low glycemic index and moderate glycemic loads.

  3. TECHNIQUE OF ESTIMATION OF ERROR IN THE REFERENCE VALUE OF THE DOSE DURING THE LINEAR ACCELERATOR RADIATION OUTPUT CALIBRATION PROCEDURE. Part 2. Dependence on the characteristics of collimator, optical sourse-distance indicator, treatment field, lasers and treatment couch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Tsitovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of radiation oncology patients needed to provide consistent functional characteristics of the medical linear accelerators, which affect the accuracy of dose delivery. To this end, their quality control procedures, which include the calibration of radiation output of the linac, the error in determining the dose reference value during which must not exceed 2 %, is provided. The aim is to develop a methodology for determining the error (difference between a measured value of quantity and its true value in determining this value, depending on the characteristics of the collimator, the source to surface distance pointer, lasers, radiation field and treatment table. To achieve the objectives have been carried out dosimetric measurements of Trilogy S/N 3567 linac dose distributions, on the basis of which dose errors depending on the accuracy setting the zero position of the collimator, the deviation of the collimator rotation isocenter, the sourcesurface distance pointer accuracy, field size accuracy, the accuracy of lasers and treatment table positioning were obtained. It was found that the greatest impact on the value of the error has the error in the optical SSD indication and the error in the lasers position in the plane perpendicular to the plane of incidence of the radiation beam (up to 3.64 % for the energy of 6 MV. Dose errors caused by error in the field size were different for two photon energies, and reached 2.54 % for 6 MeV and 1.33% for 18 MeV. Errors caused by the rest of the characteristic do not exceed 1 %. Thus, it is possible to express the results of periodic quality control of these devices integrated in linac in terms of dose and use them to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the possibility of clinical use of a linear accelerator for oncology patients irradiation on the basis of the calibration of radiation output in case of development of techniques that allow to analyze the influence dosimetric

  4. Imaging Characteristics of Driver Mutations in EGFR, KRAS, and ALK among Treatment-Naïve Patients with Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jangchul; Kobayashi, Yoshihisa; Urayama, Kevin Y.; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hida, Toyoaki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the computed tomography characteristics of treatment-naïve patients with lung adenocarcinoma and known driver mutations in EGFR, KRAS, or ALK. Patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma (stage IIIB–IV) and known mutations in EGFR, KRAS, or ALK were assessed. The radiological findings for the main tumor and intra-thoracic status were retrospectively analyzed in each group, and the groups’ characteristics were compared. We identified 265 treatment-naïve patients with non-small-cell carcinoma, who had EGFR mutations (n = 159), KRAS mutations (n = 55), or ALK rearrangements (n = 51). Among the three groups, we evaluated only patients with stage IIIB–IV lung adenocarcinoma who had EGFR mutations (n = 126), KRAS mutations (n = 35), or ALK rearrangements (n = 47). We found that ground-glass opacity at the main tumor was significantly more common among EGFR-positive patients, compared to ALK-positive patients (p = 0.009). Lymphadenopathy was significantly more common among ALK-positive patients, compared to EGFR-positive patients (p = 0.003). Extranodal invasion was significantly more common among ALK-positive patients, compared to EGFR-positive patients and KRAS-positive patients (p = 0.001 and p = 0.049, respectively). Lymphangitis was significantly more common among ALK-positive patients, compared to EGFR-positive patients (p = 0.049). Pleural effusion was significantly less common among KRAS-positive patients, compared to EGFR-positive patients and ALK-positive patients (p = 0.046 and p = 0.026, respectively). Lung metastases were significantly more common among EGFR-positive patients, compared to KRAS-positive patients and ALK-positive patients (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively). In conclusion, EGFR mutations were associated with ground-glass opacity, KRAS-positive tumors were generally solid and less likely to metastasize to the lung and pleura, and ALK-positive tumors tended to present with lymphadenopathy, extranodal

  5. Disease characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of follicular lymphoma in patients 40 years of age and younger: an analysis from the National Lymphocare Study†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casulo, C.; Day, B.; Dawson, K. L.; Zhou, X.; Flowers, C. R.; Farber, C. M.; Hainsworth, J. D.; Cerhan, J. R.; Link, B. K.; Zelenetz, A. D.; Friedberg, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with median age at diagnosis in the seventh decade. FL in young adults (YAs), defined as diagnosis at ≤40 years, is uncommon. No standard approaches exist guiding the treatment of YA FL, and little is known about their disease characteristics and outcomes. To gain further insights into YA FL, we analyzed the National LymphoCare Study (NLCS) to describe characteristics, initial treatments, and outcomes in this population versus patients aged >40 years. Patients and methods Using the NLCS database, we stratified FL patients by age: 18–40 (YA), 41–60, 61–70, 71–80, and >80 years. Survival probability was estimated using Kaplan–Meier methodology. We examined associations between age and survival using hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from multivariable Cox models. Results Of 2652 eligible FL patients in the NLCS, 164 (6%) were YAs. Of YA patients, 69% had advanced disease, 80% had low-grade histology, and 50% had good-risk disease according to the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI). Nineteen percent underwent observation, 12% received rituximab monotherapy, and 46% received chemoimmunotherapy [in 59% of these: R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone)]. With a median follow-up of 8 years, overall survival (OS) at 2, 5, and 8 years was 98% (95% CI 93–99), 94% (95% CI 89–97), and 90% (95% CI 83–94), respectively. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.3 years (95% CI 5.6–not reached). Conclusions In one of the largest cohorts of YA FL patients treated in the rituximab era, disease characteristics and outcomes were similar to patients aged 41–60 years, with favorable OS and PFS in YAs. Longer-term outcomes and YA-specific survivorship concerns should be considered when defining management. These data may not support the need for more aggressive therapies in YA FL. Clinical trial

  6. The effect of non-standard heat treatment of sheep's milk on physico-chemical properties, sensory characteristics, and the bacterial viability of classical and probiotic yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamberlin, Šimun; Samaržija, Dubravka

    2017-06-15

    Classical and probiotic set yogurt were made using non-standard heat treatment of sheep's milk at 60°C/5min. Physico-chemical properties, sensory characteristics, and the viability of bacteria that originated from cultures in classical and probiotic yogurt were analysed during 21days of storage at 4°C. For the production of yogurt, a standard yogurt culture and a probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were used. At the end of storage time of the classical and probiotic yogurt the totals of non-denatured whey proteins were 92.31 and 91.03%. The viability of yogurt culture bacteria and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were higher than 10(6)cfu/g. The total sensory score (maximum - 20) was 18.49 for the classical and 18.53 for the probiotic. In nutritional and functional terms it is possible to produce classical and probiotic sheep's milk yogurt by using a non-standard temperature of heat treatment with a shelf life of 21days.

  7. Effect of annealing treatment on the electrical characteristics of Pt/Cr-embedded ZnO/Pt resistance random access memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Li-Chun, E-mail: lcchang@mail.mcut.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, No. 84, Gongzhuan Rd., Taishan Dist., New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan and Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Ming Chi University of Technology, No. 84, Gongzhuan Rd., Taishan Dist., New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China); Kao, Hsuan-Ling [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, No. 259, Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kwei-Shan Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Liu, Keng-Hao [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-15

    ZnO/Cr/ZnO trilayer films sandwiched with Pt electrodes were prepared for nonvolatile resistive memory applications. The threshold voltage of a ZnO device embedded with a 3-nm Cr interlayer was approximately 50% lower than that of a ZnO monolayer device. This study investigated threshold voltage as a function of Cr thickness. Both the ZnO monolayer device and the Cr-embedded ZnO device structures exhibited resistance switching under electrical bias both before and after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment, but resistive switching effects in the two cases exhibited distinct characteristics. Compared with the as-fabricated device, the memory cell after RTA demonstrated remarkable device parameter improvements, including a lower threshold voltage, a lower write current, and a higher R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio. Both transmission electron microscope observations and Auger electron spectroscopy revealed that the Cr charge trapping layer in Cr-embedded ZnO dispersed uniformly into the storage medium after RTA, and x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that the Cr atoms lost electrons to become Cr{sup 3+} ions after dispersion. These results indicated that the altered status of Cr in ZnO/Cr/ZnO trilayer films during RTA treatment was responsible for the switching mechanism transition.

  8. CHLORINE DIOXIDE TREATMENT OF SISAL FIBRE: SURFACE LIGNIN AND ITS INFLUENCES ON FIBRE SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS AND INTERFACIAL BEHAVIOUR OF SISAL FIBRE/PHENOLIC RESIN COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxin Zhong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation of the influences of chlorine dioxide treatment on fibre surface lignin. The fibre surface characteristics and the interfacial behaviour of the sisal fibre/phenolic resin composites were also studied by SEM, AFM, and XPS. The results show that the surface of the untreated fibre contains a large amount of lignin with granular structure and non-granular structure. The surface lignin concentration is up to 51% for the untreated fibre, and then it decreases to 24% and 20% for fibres treated with 1.5 % and 2.0% chlorine dioxide, respectively. The removal of lignin from the fibre surface can enhance the interfacial strength of the composites, giving rise to increases by 36% and 28% in tensile strength and internal bonding strength. These results indicate that the surface properties of single sisal fibres can be tailored to improve the fibre/resin interface. Chlorine dioxide treatment has potential for surface modification of sisal fibre in engineering the interfacial behaviour of composites.

  9. 青年期直肠癌的诊治特点%Characteristics of Diagnosis and Treatment for Rectal Cancer in The Young Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿茹晗; 汪晓东; 李立

    2012-01-01

    目的 总结青年期直肠癌的诊治特点.方法 就目前国内、外对青年期直肠癌的研究进展的文献进行综述,并对青年期直肠癌患者及其他年龄段直肠癌患者的临床资料进行对比,总结青年期直肠癌的诊治特点.结果 青年期直肠癌患者(≤40岁)的发病与饮食、生活习惯和遗传因素都有一定的关系;相对于中老年患者来讲其分期更晚,低分化比例较高,淋巴结转移较早;青年期直肠癌常易误诊,预后差,目前公认以手术治疗为佳,并辅以新辅助治疗.结论 青年期直肠癌在流行病学、病理学、治疗、预后等方面有其特殊性,但其手术治疗方面还需要进一步进行研究.%Objective To explore the characteristics of diagnosis and treatment for the rectal cancer in the young patients (≤ 40 years). Methods The domestic and abroad literatures about the research on the progress of rectal cancer in the young patients were reviewed, the clinical data of patients with rectal cancer were compared between the young patients and the other age patients, the characteristics of diagnosis and treatment for the rectal cancer in the young patients were summarized. Results The onsets of the young patients with rectal cancer were related to the diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors. Compared with the older patients, more later stage, higher percentage of poor differentiation, earlier lymph node metastasis were found in the young patients with rectal cancer. Rectal cancer of the young patients was often misdiagnosed and with a poor prognosis. Currently, surgery assisted with neoadjuvant therapy was generally acknowledged as a better method. Conclusions It has specificity in epidemiology, pathology, treatment, prognosis, and so on for rectal cancer in the young patients, but surgery needs further research.

  10. Effects of straw treatment and nitrogen supplementation on digestibility, intake and physiological responses of water intake as well as urine and faecal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, E; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Elmamouz, F

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of feeding diet based on untreated (UT) or ensiled alkali-treated (ET) barley straw with either urea or casein supplementation, on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal pH, water intake and faecal and urinary characteristics. Four sheep fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Barley straw was treated by the dry (spraying) method in pH adjusted of hydrogen peroxide (pH 11.5), ensiled for 6 weeks and included at 65% of the diet dry matter (DM). The results showed that straw pH reduced from 11.58 to 8.60 after 6 weeks of ensilage. The ET diet increased average DM digestibility and intake by 19% and 43% respectively. Total water intake was similar across treatments, while the water/DM intake ratio was 23% higher with the UT diet than with the ET one. Ruminal (6.73 vs. 6.84) and faecal (8.67 vs. 9.05) pH decreased but urinary pH (6.14 vs. 8.13) increased as a result of feeding animals on the ET diet compared with the UT diet. Compared with the UT diet, the ET one decreased faecal fibre (12%), moisture (32%) and water holding capacity, while it increased faecal ash (10%) and density (20%). The volume of urine excreted by the sheep fed with the ET diet increased by 67%, but their urine specific gravity (SG) decreased. No significant effects were observed for the dietary N supplementation and interactions between straw type × N supplementation with regard to any of the measured characteristics except for DM intake, which reduced due to the casein supplementation in the ET diet. These results indicate that the alkali treatment and ensilage of barley straw increased digestibility, intake, faecal consistency and urinary pH and dilution but decreased straw alkalinity as well as ruminal and faecal pH.

  11. Clinical characteristics,diagnosis and treatment of children liver cirrhosis%小儿肝硬化临床特点及诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆增强

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical characteristics,diagnosis and treatment of children liver cirrhosis.Methods:The etiology,clinical characteristic,treatment and outcome of 40 cases of children liver cirrhosis were summarized and analyzed,and they were compared with adult liver cirrhosis in the same period.Results:25 cases(62.5% ) were viral children liver cirrhosis, including 20 cases were hepatitis B.Followed by 6 cases(15%) were biliary cirrhosis,4 cases(10.0%) were prospective vein spongy degeneration.The main symptoms of patients with children liver cirrhosis were fatigue and edema.The main signs were liver and spleen ascites,enlargement,jaundice and so on.Conclusion:The laboratory examination has no specific diagnostic value in children liver cirrhosis.Combined with the physiological features of children,early diagnosis and treatment are the keys to prevent or reverse the disease.%目的:探究小儿肝硬化的临床特点及其诊治。方法:对40例小儿肝硬化的病因、临床特点、治疗和转归进行总结和分析,并与同时期的成人肝硬化进行对比。结果:病毒性小儿肝硬化25例(62.5%),其中乙型肝炎20例;其次是胆汁性肝硬化6例(15.0%),前瞻性静脉海绵样变性4例(10.0%)。小儿肝硬化患者的主要症状为乏力、浮肿,其主要体征为肝脾腹水、肿大、黄疸等。结论:实验室检查对小儿肝硬化并没有特异性的诊断价值;结合小儿的生理学特点,尽早诊断与治疗是防止和逆转该病的关键。

  12. Use of Self-Matching to Control for Stable Patient Characteristics While Addressing Time-Varying Confounding on Treatment Effect: A Case Study of Older Intensive Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ling; Pisani, M A; Araujo, K L B; Allore, Heather G

    Exposure-crossover design offers a non-experimental option to control for stable baseline confounding through self-matching while examining causal effect of an exposure on an acute outcome. This study extends this approach to longitudinal data with repeated measures of exposure and outcome using data from a cohort of 340 older medical patients in an intensive care unit (ICU). The analytic sample included 92 patients who received ≥1 dose of haloperidol, an antipsychotic medication often used for patients with delirium. Exposure-crossover design was implemented by sampling the 3-day time segments prior (Induction) and posterior (Subsequent) to each treatment episode of receiving haloperidol. In the full cohort, there was a trend of increasing delirium severity scores (Mean±SD: 4.4±1.7) over the course of the ICU stay. After exposure-crossover sampling, the delirium severity score decreased from the Induction (4.9) to the Subsequent (4.1) intervals, with the treatment episode falling in-between (4.5). Based on a GEE Poisson model accounting for self-matching and within-subject correlation, the unadjusted mean delirium severity scores was -0.55 (95% CI: -1.10, -0.01) points lower for the Subsequent than the Induction intervals. The association diminished by 32% (-0.38, 95%CI: -0.99, 0.24) after adjusting only for ICU confounding, while being slightly increased by 7% (-0.60, 95%CI: -1.15, -0.04) when adjusting only for baseline characteristics. These results suggest that longitudinal exposure-crossover design is feasible and capable of partially removing stable baseline confounding through self-matching. Loss of power due to eliminating treatment-irrelevant person-time and uncertainty around allocating person-time to comparison intervals remain methodological challenges.

  13. Effect of large cold deformation after solution treatment on precipitation characteristic and deformation strengthening of 2024 and 7A04 aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Ai-lin; LIU Zhi-yi; ZENG Su-min

    2006-01-01

    The effects of large cold deformation after solution treatment on the precipitation characteristic and deformation strength of 2024 and 7A04 Al alloys were investigated. The tensile property tests indicate that the ageing response of the 2024 aluminum alloy is accelerated when treated by cold deformation after solution treatment, and the tensile strength is increased to about 140 MPa while the elongation still keeps above 8%. However, compared with the 2024 alloys, although the aging response of the cold deformed 7A04 aluminum alloy is accelerated, the tensile strength has not changed obviously and the elongation is even decreased drastically. The results of TEM observation show that the S' phase inside the dislocation cells and at the boundaries of the dislocation cells of the 2024 aluminum alloy has a uniform distribution. But in 7A04 aluminum alloy the club-shaped η' phase forms at the boundaries of dislocation cells even on dislocation lines, while there still exists small spheric GP zone in the region with less dislocation. In addition the precipitates in 7A04 alloy with cold rolling present more obvious tendency of growth and coarsening than those without cold rolling. It is indicated that the coherent strain energy of the cylinder formed G.P zones with matrix in the 2024alloy is smaller than that of the spherical G.P zone in 7A04 alloy, for which a different distribution of precipitates and different effect of strengthening are caused in artificial ageing after resolution treatment and large cold deformation.

  14. SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE AND BASAL METABOLIC INDEX CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AND THEIR TREATMENT OUTCOME IN MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, AMRITSAR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is an ancient disease associated with high degree of morbidity and mortality worldwide, more so in developing countries having overwhelming problems of poverty, poor living conditions, illiteracy, malnutrition, drug addiction. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio - demographic profile and BMI characteristics of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and their treatment outcome. MATERIAL & METHOD: This prospective study was conducted on 200 new sputum smear positive patients having ag e >15 years. OBSERVATIONS & RESULT: The present study (n= 200 with 121 males and 79 female revealed that 75.8% of males and 87.5% of females were in the age group of 15 - 45 years, being the most productive years of life. 60.5% cases lived in overcrowded houses with inadequate ventilation (7 3%, poor lighting (68.5%, majority with lower socio - economic status (72.5%. 66% were from medium to large sized families, 65% joint family while 35% with nuclear families. 57.5% were working & thus were included in income generating activity group. illi teracy was observed in 40% & addiction in 47%. 69.5% of the cases were underweight (BMI < 18.5kg/m2 at initiation of treatment and percentage improved to 62.5% at the end of anti - tubercular treatment. CONCLUSION: The study findings emphasise the associati on of the socio - demographic profile including overcrowding, inadequate ventilation of the dwellings, ill - ventilated kitchens, under - nutrition with poor BMI, poor level of education (illiteracy, ignorance, poor knowledge about the disease, low socio - econom ic status with poverty contributing as significant risk factors for tuberculosis & its spread in family & community.

  15. Occlusal characteristics and orthodontic treatment need in black adolescents in Salvador/BA (Brazil: an epidemiologic study using the Dental Aesthetics Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Costa Rodrigues Farias

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to evaluate the need of orthodontic treatment, prevalence and severity of the malocclusions in individuals of black ethnicity in a representative sample of schoolchildren of the city of Salvador/Brazil, as well as to verify if the malocclusion was affected by socio-demographic conditions such as age and gender. METHODS: The reference population was constituted of schoolchildren with age between 12 and 15 years, enrolled in public and private schools. The malocclusion was evaluated in 486 students of black ethnicity, with ages varying from 12 to 15 years, selected in random sample in multiple stages. The adopted significance level was 1% and the power of the test was 90%. A questionnaire registering demographic characteristics was filled out by each individual. The Dental Aesthetics Index (DAI was used by previously calibrated examiners (kappa 0.89, according to criteria of the World Health Organization. RESULTS: It was verified that most of the individuals (76% had little or any need for orthodontic treatment. About 24% showed a condition of severe malocclusion, culminating in a vital need for orthodontic treatment. The main occlusal characteristics found in the group with high need of orthodontic treatment were dental crowding and accentuated overjet. The age was positively related to the improvement of the maxillary overjet and to the presence of crowding. CONCLUSION: The development of public politics that aim the insertion of orthodontic treatment among the procedures of health programs, with the implementation and development of specialized centers, is fundamental.OBJETIVO: averiguar a necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico, prevalência e severidade das más oclusões em indivíduos negros numa amostra representativa de escolares da cidade de Salvador/BA (Brasil, além de determinar se as más oclusões eram afetadas por condições sociodemográficas como idade e sexo. MÉTODOS: o desenho

  16. Dyscalculia: Characteristics, Causes, and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Price

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental Dyscalculia (DD is a learning disorder affecting the ability to acquire school-level arithmetic skills, affecting approximately 3-6% of individuals. Progress in understanding the root causes of DD and how best to treat it have been impeded by lack of widespread research and variation in characterizations of the disorder across studies. However, recent years have witnessed significant growth in the field, and a growing body of behavioral and neuroimaging evidence now points to an underlying deficit in the representation and processing of numerical magnitude information as a potential core deficit in DD. An additional product of the recent progress in understanding DD is the resurgence of a distinction between ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ developmental dyscalculia. The first appears related to impaired development of brain mechanisms for processing numerical magnitude information, while the latter refers to mathematical deficits stemming from external factors such as poor teaching, low socio-economic status, and behavioral attention problems or domain-general cognitive deficits. Increased awareness of this distinction going forward, in combination with longitudinal empirical research, offers great potential for deepening our understanding of the disorder and developing effective educational interventions.

  17. Characteristics and Countermeasures about Sewage Treatment Facilities in Small Towns%小城镇污水处理设施的特点及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 徐国勋; 鲁剑; 何利平; 杨坤

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of investigation of the situation of sewage treatment facilities in small towns in China, the characteristics of small wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were summarized. The result for 157 WWTPs with treatment capacity of below 1 x 104 mVd indicated that the constructed wetland was most widely applied, its utilization rate was about 45. 96% , and oxidation ditch was the second, its utilization rate was 21.74%. However, the constructed wetland had some problems, such as climate influence on treatment efficiency, large footprint, secondary pollution of groundwater, inconvenient reaping and cleaning of plants and so on. Therefore, the process flows of small WWTPs were analyzed, and it was recommended that oxidation ditch and SBR should be preferentially used to enable small WWTPs to operate continuously and stably. Constructive and operational countermeasures about power source, automatization, structural materials, cost control, equipment type selection, management and so on were put forward.%在调查全国小城镇污水处理设施现状的基础上,总结了目前我国小型污水处理厂的特点.对157座规模在1×104 m3/d以下的小型污水厂的调查表明,人工湿地的使用率最高,为45.96%;其次为氧化沟,所占比例达21.74%.但是人工湿地存在较多问题,如处理效果易受气候影响、占地大、易对地下水造成二次污染、植物收割及清理麻烦等.为此分析了小型污水处理厂的工艺流程,提出优先采用氧化沟和SBR工艺,以使污水处理设施能持续、稳定的运行.此外,还从小型污水处理厂的电源、自动化、结构材料、成本控制、设备造型和管理等方面提出了建议和运行的对策.

  18. Study on the effect of prostaglandin F2α treatment on semen characteristics and enzymatic activates of Awassi rams in breeding and non breeding seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Ibrahim Azawi,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work was to determine the effects of PGF2α, given immediately before semen collection, on semen characteristics and libido in Awassi rams during breeding and non breeding season. The experiment was conducted in late summer to early autumn when major breeding activities commence and winter during the non breeding season at Mosul region in northern Iraq at the Animal Research and Practice Farm of the College of The Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul. Twelve mature Awassi rams were used in this study. Animals were randomly allocated into two equal groups, the first group was administered 7.5 mg IM of PGF2αweekly and the second group as a control group received 1 ml of N-saline solution. Semen samples were collected from the Awassi rams 24 h after IM administration. Scrotal circumference (SC and testicular volume were measured weekly during the study period. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm concentration/ejaculate, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm, sperm abnormalities, and sperm acrosomal defects. Samples of seminal plasma were analyzed for the estimation of alanine amino transferase (ALT, aspartate amino transferase (AST, acid phosphatase (ACP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH. Results of the present showed that PGF2α treatment to Awassi rams did not improve most semen characteristics in both breeding and non breeding seasons compared with the group. The only improvement of Awassi semen quality observed was in sperm concentration in the breeding season. The testicular volume showed a significant increase (P<0.05 in Awassi rams treated with PGF2α in breeding season compared to the control group and PGF2α treated group in the non breeding season. The mean activity of LDH enzyme estimated in the PGF2αtreated group and control group showed a significant difference (P<0.05 between the two groups in the breeding season and

  19. Analysis of Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Senile Patients with Hyperthyroidism%老年甲亢患者临床特点及治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:对老年甲亢患者的临床表现及甲状腺激素等进行研究,探讨老年甲亢的临床及治疗特点。方法随机选取2013年1月—2014年1月来该院就诊的甲亢患者50例,回顾性分析患者的临床治疗,对比患者治疗前后临床特点及治疗。结果治疗前,患者甲亢患者的甲状腺结节、心悸、腹泻症状等不良的临床症状比较多,且多甲状腺弥漫性肿大、突眼症状。而治疗后,50例患者的TSH、T4水平变化不明显,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);但T3水平得到了明显改善,治疗前后对比,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);but the T3 level has been significantly improved, compared to before and after treatment, the difference was significant (P<0.05), with a statistically significant. Conclusion This study found that the main characteristics of elderly hyperthyroidism thyroid nodules, heartache, but lack of clinical symptoms are not typical, monitoring thyroid function and hormone levels contribute to the diagnosis and treatment, T3 levels were significantly decreased the likelihood of prompt hyperthyroidism.

  20. Heat treatment effects on the characteristics and sonocatalytic performance of TiO2 in the degradation of organic dyes in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Ling, Pang Yean

    2010-01-15

    The ambient sonocatalytic degradation of congo red, methyl orange, and methylene blue by titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) catalyst at initial concentrations between 10 and 50mg/L, catalyst loadings between 1.0 and 3.0mg/L and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) concentrations up to 600 mg/L is reported. A 20 kHz ultrasonic processor at 50 W was used to accelerate the reaction. The catalysts were exposed to heat treatments between 400 and 1000 degrees C for up to 4h to induce phase change. Sonocatalysts with small amount of rutile phase showed better sonocatalytic activity but excessive rutile phase should be avoided. TiO(2) heated to 800 degrees C for 2h showed the highest sonocatalytic activity and the degradation of dyes was influenced by their chemical structures, chemical phases and characteristics of the catalysts. Congo red exhibited the highest degradation rate, attributed to multiple labile azo bonds to cause highest reactivity with the free radicals generated. An initial concentration of 10mg/L, 1.5 g/L of catalyst loading and 450 ppm of H(2)O(2) gave the best congo red removal efficiency of above 80% in 180 min. Rate coefficients for the sonocatalytic process was successfully established and the reused catalyst showed an activity drop by merely 10%.

  1. Changes in Characteristics and Treatment Patterns of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in a Large United States Integrated Health System between 2008 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantalone, Kevin M.; Hobbs, Todd M.; Wells, Brian J.; Kong, Sheldon X.; Kattan, Michael W.; Bouchard, Jonathan; Chagin, Kevin M.; Yu, Changhong; Sakurada, Brian; Milinovich, Alex; Weng, Wayne; Bauman, Janine M.; Zimmerman, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    To assess changes in the clinical characteristics and treatment patterns of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D), the electronic health record system at Cleveland Clinic was used to create cross-sectional summaries of all patients with new-onset T2D in 2008 and 2013. Differences between the 2008 and 2013 data sets were assessed after adjusting for age, gender, race, and income. Approximately one-third of patients with newly diagnosed T2D in 2008 and 2013 had an A1C ≥8%, suggesting the continued presence of a delayed recognition of the disease. Patients with newly diagnosed T2D in 2008 were older than those in 2013. Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and neuropathy were highly prevalent among patients diagnosed with T2D. The prevalence of neuropathy, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease increased from 2008 to 2013. Metformin was the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic medication. Sulfonylurea usage remained unchanged, while use of thiazolidinediones decreased considerably. PMID:27398040

  2. Characteristics and treatment of mine geologicalhazards in Yunnan province%云南矿山地质灾害主要特征与防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程先锋; 徐俊; 马宏杰; 张博

    2013-01-01

    云南省矿产资源丰富,但由于地质环境条件的脆弱性和人类工程活动的强烈性,在开发过程难免诱发或遭受地质灾害。矿山地质灾害已成为云南矿产资源开发中最突出的环境地质问题。本文总结了云南矿山地质灾害的基本特征,并提出了有针对性的防治对策,对防灾减灾有一定意义。%Yunnan province is rich in mineral resources ,but due to the strong geological environment vulnerability and human engineering activities ,in the development process will inevitably induce or suffer from geological hazards .Mine geological hazards have become the most prominent environmental geological problems in development of mineral resources in Yunnan .In this paper ,characteristics of mine geological hazards in Yunnan were summarized ,and treatments were proposed .It is helpful for protecting and reducing mine geological hazards .

  3. Fabrication and Electrical Characteristics of Graphite/Carbon Nanotube/Polyvinyl Butyral Composite Film via Tape-Casting and Heat-Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Young; Choi, Seung-Woo; Boo, Seong Jae; Lee, Jong-Ho; Noh, Hee Sook; Kim, Ho-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Composite stacking films, which can be applied as the bipolar plates of redox flow batteries, were fabricated via a tape-casting process that used slurry of graphite, CNT, and resin materials. The slurry was made of 25~45 wt% conductive filler (graphite, CNT) and 55~75 wt% polyvinyl butyral (PVB) binder solution (binder, dispersant, plasticizer, and solvent). The sheet thickness of the composite films was controlled to 70~150 μm, and composite films of about 1 mm in thickness were also fabricated by stacking and laminating the sheet film, including the conductive filler of above 85 wt%. The effects of the shape and physical properties of the graphite were investigated with regard to the dispersion behavior and flow of the slurry on the carrier film of the tape-casting device. As a result, the acicular graphite showed a good dispersion property with the resin of the PVB binder, as compared to spherical graphite. The composite film with acicular graphite showed a lower resistivity than that of a film with spherical graphite. Furthermore, the effects of adding a small amount of CNT and the heat-treatment to the composite stacking film were also studied. Finally, the composite film showed an electrical characteristic of below 50 mΩ·cm and a high bending strength of above 20 MPa.

  4. The Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Research of Postpartum Hemorrhage%产后出血的临床特点及诊治研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文丹

    2013-01-01

    Objective Research the clinical characteristics and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage. Methods Selected 64 postpartum hemorrhage maternity patients, cured by different ways respectively according to the bleeding reason, and then compared bleeding causes and treatment of the cesarean section and vaginal natural childbirth puerpera, and analysed the clinical features of postpartum hemorrhage. Results Cesarean section and vaginal natural childbirth puerpera appeared postpartum hemorrhage were mainly caused by weak contractions; Cesarean section on placenta factor ratio was relative taller, the natural childbirth pregnant on birth canal damage ratiows was relative taller. All maternity were successfully cured; the whole amount of bleeding of vaginal natural childbirth puerpera was relatively less. Conclusion Strengthen understanding of the clinical features of postpartum hemorrhage, once happens instantly find the reasons and treatment symptomaticly, which can effectively treat postpartum hemorrhage.%  目的研究产后出血的临床特点及诊治情况。方法选取64例产后出血产妇,根据出血原因分别采用不同方式治疗,对剖宫产与阴道自然分娩产妇的出血原因和治疗情况进行对比,并对产后出血的临床特点予以整体分析。结果剖宫产和阴道自然分娩产妇均主要因宫缩乏力致产后出血;剖宫产妇中胎盘因素比率相对更高,自然分娩的产妇中产道受损比率相对更高。所有产妇均成功治愈;阴道自然分娩产妇的整体出血量相对更少。结论对产后出血的临床特点加强认识,一旦发生后即刻查找原因并对症处理,可有效治疗产后出血。

  5. Who Should We Target? The Impact of Individual and Family Characteristics on the Expressed Need for Community-Based Treatment Support in HIV Patients in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Edwin; Booysen, Frederik le Roux; Masquillier, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Reviews of impact evaluations of community-based health workers and peer support groups highlight the considerable variability in the effectiveness of such support in improving antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes. Evidence indicates that community-based support interventions targeting patients known to be at risk will probably display better results than generic interventions aimed at the entire population of people living with HIV. It is however difficult to identify these at-risk populations, rendering knowledge on the characteristics of patients groups who are in need of community-based support a clear research priority. The current study aims to address the knowledge gap by exploring the predictors of the willingness to (1) receive the support from a community-based health worker or (2) to participate in a support group in public sector ART programme of the Free State Province of South Africa. Based on the Individual-Family-Community framework for HIV research, the study employs a comprehensive approach by not only testing classical individual-level but also family-level predictors of the willingness to receive community-based support. In addition to individual-level predictors—such as age, health status and coping styles—our analysis demonstrated the importance of family characteristics. The results indicated that discrepancies in the family’s changeability level were an important predictor of the demand for community-based support services. Conversely, the findings indicated that patients living in a family more flexible than deemed ideal are more likely to require the support of a community health worker. The current study expands theory by indicating the need to acknowledge all social ecological levels in the study of chronic HIV care. The detection of both individual level and family level determinants of the expressed need for community-based support can inform health policy to devise strategies to target scarce resources to those vulnerable

  6. 外伤性脑梗塞的临床特点及防治%The Clinical Characteristics, Prophylaxis and Treatment of Traumatic Cere-bral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福录; 高廷军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of traumatic cerebral infarction (TCI) and early positive prevention, detection and treatment of the disease should be done. Methods A review was conducted on the diagnosis and treatment of 51 TCI patients among the hospitalized patients with craniocerebral trauma in the Department of Neurosurgery of our hospital from January 2009 to March 2014. Results 3.9% of the patients with craniocerebral trauma hospitalized during the same period had TCI. 12 months after injury, GOS was 1 point in 7 patients, 2 points in 5 patients, 3 points in 10 cases, 4 points in 12 patients, and 5 points in 12 patients. The mortality and disability rate (MADR) was 43%. Conclusion TCI is a major complication that causes the increase of MADR in craniocerebral trauma patients. The early prophylaxis of TCI based on its special occurrence and progression pattern is the key to reducing the incidence of traumatic cerebral infarction and its MADR.%目的:探讨外伤性脑梗塞的临床特点,做到积极预防、早期发现、早期治疗。方法回顾性分析该院2009年1月-2014年3月,神经外科颅脑外伤住院患者中,51例发生外伤性脑梗塞患者的诊治经过。结果外伤性脑梗塞发生率占同期颅脑创伤住院患者总数的3.9%。伤后12个月GOS评分1分7例;2分5例;3分10例;4分12例;5分17例。死亡及重残比率为43%。结论外伤性脑梗塞是导致颅脑外伤患者死残率增高的主要并发症,依据其发生、发展的特有规律早期预防,是减少外伤性脑梗塞发生率,降低死亡及重残比率的关键。

  7. Low prevalence of liver disease but regional differences in HBV treatment characteristics mark HIV/HBV co-infection in a South African HIV clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Ive

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is endemic in South Africa however, there is limited data on the degree of liver disease and geographic variation in HIV/HBV coinfected individuals. In this study, we analysed data from the CIPRA-SA 'Safeguard the household study' in order to assess baseline HBV characteristics in HIV/HBV co-infection participants prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation. METHODS: 812 participants from two South African townships Soweto and Masiphumelele were enrolled in a randomized trial of ART (CIPRA-SA. Participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, and HBV DNA. FIB-4 scores were calculated at baseline. RESULTS: Forty-eight (5.9% were HBsAg positive, of whom 28 (58.3% were HBeAg positive. Of those with HBV, 29.8% had an HBV DNA<2000 IU/ml and ALT<40 IU/ml ; 83.0% had a FIB-4 score <1.45, consistent with absent or minimal liver disease. HBV prevalence was 8.5% in Masiphumelele compared to 3.8% in Soweto (relative risk 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3-4.0. More participants in Masiphumelele had HBeAg-negative disease (58% vs. 12%, p = 0.002 and HBV DNA levels ≤2000 IU/ml, (43% vs. 6% p<0.007. CONCLUSION: One third of HIV/HBV co-infected subjects had low HBV DNA levels and ALT while the majority had indicators of only mild liver disease. There were substantial regional differences in HBsAg and HbeAg prevalence in HIV/HBV co-infection between two regions in South Africa. This study highlights the absence of severe liver disease and the marked regional differences in HIV/HBV co-infection in South Africa and will inform treatment decisions in these populations.

  8. 老年支气管哮喘临床特点及治疗体会%Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Elderly Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈根; 朱芸

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨老年人哮喘的临床特点,提高诊治水平。方法回顾性分析我院收治的76例老年支气管哮喘患者的临床资料,并分析治疗效果。结果老年哮喘患者发病年龄大,病程长,易反复、变化大,易并发冠心病、糖尿病、高血压病等疾病,中、重度发作患者易致心功能不全、呼吸衰竭,甚至死亡。结论老年人支气管哮喘症状复杂,伴发症多,预后差,针对个体实施有针对性的治疗,可有效提高患者的生命质量。%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of elderly patients with asthma,and to improve the level of diagnosis and treatment. Methods The clinical data of 50 elderly patients with bronchial asthma in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed and the therapeutic effect was analyzed.Results Elderly asthma patients in age of onset,course of disease is long,easily repeated,in a big way to change,I complicated with coronary heart disease,diabetes,hypertension and so on disease,severe attack patients prone to cause heart function failure,respiratory failure and even death. Conclusion Bronchial asthma in the elderly is complex,with many complications and poor prognosis.It can effectively improve the life quality of the patients with targeted therapy.

  9. Characteristics of high-sulfate wastewater treatment by two-phase anaerobic digestion process with Jet-loop anaerobic fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Chao-hai; WANG Wen-xiang; DENG Zhi-yi; WU Chao-fei

    2007-01-01

    A new anaerobic reactor,Jet-loop anaerobic fluidized bed(JLAFB),was designed for treating high-sulfate wastewater.The treatment characteristics,including the effect of influent COD/SO42- ratio and alkalinity and sulfide inhibition in reactors,were discussed for a JLAFB and a general anaerobic fluidized bed(AFB)reactor used as sulfate-reducing phase and methane-producing phase,respectively,in two-phase anaerobic digestion process.The formation of granules in the two reactors was also examined.The results indicated that COD and sulfate removal had different demand of influent COD/S042- ratios.When total COD removal Was up to 85%,the ratio was only required up to 1.2,whereas,total sulfate removal up to 95%required it exceeding 3.0.The alkalinity in the two reactors increased linearly with the growth of influent alkalinity.Moreover,the change of influent alkalinity had no significant effect on pH and volatile fatty acids(VFA)in the two reactors.Influent alkalinity kept at 400-500 mg/t,could meet the requirement of the treating process.The JLAFB reactor had great advantage in avoiding sulfide and free-H2S accumulation and toxicity inhibition on microorganisms.When sulfate loading rate was up to 8.1 kg/(m3·d),the sulfide and free-H2S concentrations in JLAFB reactor were 58.6 and 49.7 mg/L,respectively.Furthermore,the granules,with offwhite color,ellipse shape and diameters of 1.0-3.0 mm,could be developed in JLAFB reactor.In granules,different groups of bacteria were distributed in different layers,and some inorganic metal compounds such as Fe,Ca,Mg etc.were found.

  10. The Dental Health of Army Family Members: 1987-1988. Volume 1. Introduction and Methods/Characteristics of Study Sample/Dental Treatment Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-07

    health status and treatment needs were collected. Need for orthodontic care and sealants was included. Restorative needs were identified as recurrent ...and Source of Patient 4.1.5 Intensity and Severity of Periodontal Treatment Needs by Demographics and Source of Patient 4.1.6 Orthodontic Treatment...Severity of Restorative Treatment Needs by Demographics 4.4.2 Prevalence of Sealant Needs by Demographics 4.4.3 Orthodontic Treatment Needs by Demographics

  11. Características da clientela de um centro de tratamento para dependência de drogas Client characteristics at a center for treatment of drug dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia R. L. Passos

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as características sociodemográficas e psicopatológicas, bem como as abordagens de tratamento de indivíduos de uma clínica ambulatorial para dependentes de droga. MÉTODO: Estudo descritivo baseado em dados de prontuários de uma amostra aleatória dos pacientes atendidos no período 1986-1993. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes em sua maioria eram homens, jovens, solteiros ou que viviam sós, da raça branca e com baixa inserção profissional. A média de idade de início do consumo de droga foi de 17,4 anos, e a proporção de indivíduos com mais de 9 anos de escolaridade foi de 51,8%. Trinta e seis porcento eram filhos de pais separados, 14% foram abandonados pelos pais na infância e 14% perderam os pais por morte. Abuso físico na infância foi referido por 16% dos pacientes, e o pai era o perpretrador em 68% dos casos. A cocaína foi a droga mais consumida, seja isoladamente (34% ou com outras drogas (52%. Observou-se redução do consumo de maconha e de usuários de drogas por via injetável e aumento na proporção de consumidores de cocaína. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados forneceram subsídios para a avaliação do serviço e para modificações na organização do atendimento ao dependente de drogas.OBJECTIVE: Sociodemographic and psychopathological characteristics as well as treatment approaches to patients at an outpatient clinic for drug addicts are described. METHODS: Descriptive study based on randomly sampled medical charts and registration forms of subjects presenting for treatment from 1986 to 1993. RESULTS: The sample was made up predominantly of young white unmarried men, with low occupational status. The number of years of schooling was greater than that of individuals of the same age group in the general population. Thirty-six percent of the subjects were sons of broken-down marriages, 14% had been abandoned by parents during childhood and 14% had lost one of their parents by death. Fifty percent complained of

  12. 中医药治疗肿瘤特点分析%Analysis on characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玲; 王洪琦; 邢海伦

    2005-01-01

    AIM: It was to propose the initial ideas of Chinese medicine in treatment of carcinoma by comparing the different characteristics and analyzing the advantages and disadvantages between Chinese and western medicine.METHODS: Pubmed and the relevant papers in biological medical jourment of carcinoma with Chinese-western medicine published from 2003 to 2004. The discussion was carried out among relevant information.RESULTS: It was viewed that western medicine receives rather high recent therapeutic effective rate, but it only achieved complete relief in clinic rather than eliminates cancer cell thoroughly; for which, it was difficult to avoid the reoccurrence and metastasis terminally. In recent years, the aroused genetic therapy was still at the experimental phase and had not be applied formally in clinic since some of questions had not been solved completely yet, such as being susceptible to lose activity, poor targeting treatment, transfective carcinogenesis, etc. Chinese medicine was characterized as the holistic regulation by improving clinical symptoms, enhancing life quality and prolonging survival span. Although its recent effective rate was low, the remote stability rate was high. But, in Chinese medicine,the criterion of relevant syndromes and evaluation on therapeutic effects were still lack of objectivity and standardization; besides, the discussion on functional mechanism was not deep enough.CONCLUSION: It was proposed initially by analysis that the prevention and treatment of Chinese medicine for carcinoma should emphasize on standardization of syndromes, stress on stability rate, pay attention to mass observation, carry on actively the 2nd grade prevention, strength mechanic research and screen and develop effective new drugs.%目的:通过比较中、西医治疗肿瘤的不同特点,分析中、西药在治疗肿瘤方面的优势与不足,提出中药防治肿瘤的初步思路.方法:检索Pubmed和中文生物医学期刊中的相关论文,以2003

  13. Impacts of Alkaline Thermal Treatment on Characteristics of Sludge from Sewage Treatment Plant%热碱处理对污水处理厂污泥特性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世东; 陈霞; 刘操; 肖本益

    2015-01-01

    AIkaIine thermaI treatment is an important pretreatment method for sewage sIudge. In this paper, in order to optimize the aIkaIine thermaI treatment conditions for sIudge pretreatment, four pretreatment parameters ( sIudge concentration, pH, temperature and treatment time) were investigated through orthogonaI eXperiments to determine their effects on the sIudge disintegration, sIudge concentration and sIudge morphoIogy of sewage sIudge. The eXperimentaI resuIts showed that the significance of the four factors on sIudge characteristics was in the order of pH﹥temperature﹥treatment time﹥sIudge concentration. AdditionaIIy, the optimaI conditions of the four factors for the reIease of soIubIe chemicaI oXygen demand ( SCOD ) of unit sIudge and decrease of sIudge concentration were as foIIows36. 55 g.L-1 , pH 12. 45, 175℃ and 60 min. WhiIe the optimaI conditions for the decrease of particIe size and fractaI dimension were 36. 55 g.L-1 , pH 12. 5, 175℃ and 45 min.%热碱处理是一种重要的污泥预处理方法.选取污泥浓度﹑pH﹑温度和处理时间这4个因素,采用正交试验,研究了这些因素对污水处理厂污泥融胞﹑污泥浓度及污泥形态等污泥特性的影响,以对污泥热碱处理的条件进行优化.结果表明,这4个因素对污泥融胞﹑污泥浓度和污泥形态特征影响的显著性均为pH﹥温度﹥时间﹥污泥浓度.此外,这4个因素对释放单位污泥溶解性化学需氧量( SCOD)和减小污泥浓度的最佳组合条件为污泥浓度36.55 g.L-1﹑pH 12.45﹑温度175℃和处理时间60 min,而对减小污泥粒径和分形维数的最佳组合条件为污泥浓度36.55 g.L-1﹑pH 12.5﹑温度175℃和处理时间45 min.

  14. 甲状腺功能亢进性肝损害的临床特点及治疗%Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Hyperthyroidism Liver Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鸣; 邓力珲; 唐红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment of hyperthyroidism liver injury (HLI). Methods Data of 49 patients with HLI who were treated in our hospital from January 2008 to December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the different treatment regime, the patients were divided into two groups: the group of anti-thyroid treatment and the group of simple liver-protection. We compared the condition of liver function recovery after treatment between the two groups. Results All patients had hepatic insufficiency with unknown reasons at the admission to the hospital, and later were diagnosed to have HLI. There were 29 (59.2%) female and 20 (40.8%) male patients with their age ranging from 10 to 70 years old, averaging 45.08 ± 1.90. Weight loss (65.3%) was the most frequent symptom, followed by heart palpitations (51.1%), hotness and hydrosis (49.0%), and being sick of fat and anorexia (44.9%). The main signs included 18 cases (36.7%) of thyroid enlargement, 12 (24.5%) of lower lamb edema, 8 (16.3%) of heart enlargement, 7 (14.3%) of jaundice, and 6 (12.2%) of hepatosplenomegaly. The elevations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (68.9%) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (57.8%) were most frequently detected, followed by increased gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) (69.4%), direct bilirubin (DB) (59.2%), total bilirubin (TB) (44.9%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (42.9%) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) (26.5%), and decreased albumin (ALB) (32.7%). The total mortality was 6.1% (3/49). The results of Wilcoxon test indicated that TB and DB values of the thyroid treatment group were significantly lower than those of the simple liver-protection group (P < 0.05). Conclusions These patients present the clinical manifestations of both hyperthyroidism and liver dysfunction, and the results of liver functions were characterized by cholestatic hepatitis. The disease has a relatively good prognosis, and the anti-thyroid medication is the key to the

  15. A systematic review of the frequency, duration, type and effect of involuntary treatment for people with anorexia nervosa, and an analysis of patient characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Loa; Jones, Allan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Involuntary treatment of anorexia nervosa is controversial and costly. A better understanding of the conditions that determine involuntary treatment, as well as the effect of such treatment is needed in order to adequately assess the legitimacy of this model of care. The aim of the pre...

  16. 蒿芩清胆汤之证治特点浅析%Brief Analysis on the Treatment Characteristics with Haoqin Qingdan Decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 邓虎; 陈彩丽; 梁丽君; 冯明

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and sixty medical cases met the inclusive criteria were collected. After the normalization of the symptoms and medicines in the medical cases,the related data sheet was set up for the frequency statistical analysis and the summarization of the characteristics in symptoms,pulse condition and medicines,etc. By the frequency statistical analysis on the common symptoms,tongue condition,pulse condi-tion,original formula and supplementary medicines in 160 cases of the medical masters in contemporary era, the treatment characteristics with haoqin qingdan decoction in clinic were analyzed. The study discovered that in the clinical application of haoqin qingdan decoction,the common symptoms included chest oppression,dis-tention and pain in the chest and hypochondriac region,retching,hiccup,alternative chills and fever,no desire of hungry,yellow urine,dry stool,fever,hesitant sweating,acid reflux with bitter taste in the mouth,red tongue with sticky coating,wiry,rolling and rapid pulse. The ingredients included artemisia apiacea,scutellaria ba-icalensis,caulis bambusae in taeniam,fructus aurantii,pericarpium citri reticulatae,pinellia ternate and poria cocos. The common supplementary herbs were fructus gardenia,radix bupleuri,rhizome atractylodis,trichosan-thes kirilowii maxim,gypsum,schizonepeta,etc.%选取符合标准的160例医案,对医案中的症状、药物进行规范后,建立相关数据表,进行频数统计,总结症状、脉象、药物等方面的特点。通过对160例当代医家临床验案中的常见症状、舌象脉象、原方药物及加味药物等资料进行频数统计,分析蒿芩清胆汤现代临床应用的证治特点。研究发现蒿芩清胆汤在现代临床应用中,常见症状有胸闷、胸胁胀疼、干呕呃逆、寒热如疟、不饥、小便黄、大便干、发热、汗出不畅、吐酸苦水,舌红苔腻,脉弦滑数。原方药物多用青蒿、黄芩、竹茹、枳壳、陈皮、半夏、茯苓

  17. Tuberculosis in HIV-negative and HIV-infected patients in a low-incidence country: clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Fenner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Switzerland and other developed countries, the number of tuberculosis (TB cases has been decreasing for decades, but HIV-infected patients and migrants remain risk groups. The aim of this study was to compare characteristics of TB in HIV-negative and HIV-infected patients diagnosed in Switzerland, and between coinfected patients enrolled and not enrolled in the national Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All patients diagnosed with culture-confirmed TB in the SHCS and a random sample of culture-confirmed cases reported to the national TB registry 2000-2008 were included. Outcomes were assessed in HIV-infected patients and considered successful in case of cure or treatment completion. Ninety-three SHCS patients and 288 patients selected randomly from 4221 registered patients were analyzed. The registry sample included 10 (3.5% coinfected patients not enrolled in the SHCS: the estimated number of HIV-infected patients not enrolled in the SHCS but reported to the registry 2000-2008 was 146 (95% CI 122-173. Coinfected patients were more likely to be from sub-Saharan Africa (51.5% versus 15.8%, P<0.0001 and to present disseminated disease (23.9% vs. 3.4%, P<0.0001 than HIV-negative patients. Coinfected patients not enrolled in the SHCS were asylum seekers or migrant workers, with lower CD4 cell counts at TB diagnosis (median CD4 count 79 cells/µL compared to 149 cells/µL among SHCS patients, P = 0.07. There were 6 patients (60.0% with successful outcomes compared to 82 (88.2% patients in the SHCS (P = 0.023. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical presentation of coinfected patients differed from HIV-negative TB patients. The number of HIV-infected patients diagnosed with TB outside the SHCS is similar to the number diagnosed within the cohort but outcomes are poorer in patients not followed up in the national cohort. Special efforts are required to address the needs of this vulnerable population.

  18. Characteristics of PAHs adsorption in sewage treatment%城市污水中多环芳烃的吸附去除特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范波; 王晓昌; 刘俊建

    2011-01-01

    Through a series of adsorption experiments, and by using quartz, kaolin, and natural clay as inorganic adsorbents and laboratory-cultured activated sludge as organic adsorbent for adsorbing model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of NAPT, PHEN and PYR, this paper is aimed to find the characteristics of PAHs adsorption in the sewage treatment and analyze its main influential factors. Besides, we have also been trying to describe the inorganic suspended solids in sewage treatment by using the inorganic adsorbents and the activated sludge as adsorbent and adding NaN3 to suppress the interference of biodegradation process. The results of our experiments show that the power of adsorption of PAHs with the above said three inorganic adsorbents, whose order of adsorption can be seen as follows : natural clay > kaolin > quartz. The adsorption isotherms of the above mentioned three inorganic adsorbents tends to well follow the Langmuir isotherm, indicating a single-layer adsorption nature. As for the activated sludge, its adsorption isotherm reveals a multi-molecular-level adsorption nature well following the Freundlich isotherm. Furthermore, we have also found that the adsorption capacity of the activated sludge for PAHs turns to be higher than that of the inorganic particles. Moreover, for all the absorbents with no exception , the adsorption capabilities are all closely related to the octanol/ water partition coefficient of the PAHs, which was found to be ordered as: PYR > PHEN > NAPT. In addition, we have also investigated the effects of temperature, pH, and the competitive adsorption properties between the different PAHs. The results of our investigation help us to conclude that the adsorption capacity of NAPT by kaolin turns to be falling with the temperature rising (10 ℃, 25 ℃, 30 ℃), an exothermic reaction feature, as it were named. However, while the adsorption process of activated sludge turns to be at odds, it reveals an endothermic reaction

  19. 糖尿病并发泌尿系统感染特点与治疗%Infection Characteristics and Treatments on Diabetic Urinary Tract Infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玉梅; 靳桂明

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes complicated with urinary tract infection is influenced by many factors, such as low immune function, high blood and urine glucose environment prone for bacterial growth, and nervous lesion.Diabetic urinary tract infections are characterized by insidious onset, high recurrence rate, correlation with high blood glucose and difficulty to control.The related bacterial pathogens are mainly gram-negative bacillus genus ( 58. 59%-76. 19%) , in which the detection rates of extended spectrum β lactamases( ESBLs) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were the highest, followed by Enterobacter cloacae. Gram-positive bacteria only accounted for 23%. Drug-resistant bacteria and fungi would increase under the condition of repeated infection and irrational usage of antibiotics.In recent years, the urine-derived sepsis caused by urinary tract infection had become a popular clinical research topic because of its concealed symptoms, acute onset, rapid development and high mortality. By reviewing domestic and foreign literatures and expert consensus, this article is intended to explore the characteristics and treatment of diabetic urinary tract infections to supply reference for early prevention, correct diagnosis and effective treatments.%糖尿病并发泌尿系统感染受诸多因素的影响,一般而言,糖尿病患者的机体防疫功能减弱,高血糖、高尿糖环境有利于细菌生长繁殖,血管神经病变等因素是导致发生感染的原因。糖尿病并发泌尿系统感染具有起病隐匿、易反复、高血糖的程度与感染呈正相关,并发感染后难以控制等特点。糖尿病并发泌尿系统感染的病原菌以革兰阴性杆菌属为主,占58.59%~76.19%,其中以产超广谱β-内酰胺酶( ESBLs)大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷白杆菌检出率高,其次是阴沟肠杆菌,革兰阳性菌约占23%。如果反复感染,大量使用抗菌药物可以导致耐药细菌和真菌增加。近年来由尿

  20. Occurrence Characteristics and Comprehensive Treatment Techniques of Wheat Armyworm%小麦粘虫的发生特点与综合治理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金安

    2014-01-01

    为了有效地控制小麦粘虫的发生和危害,采用田间系统调查的方法对小麦粘虫的发生特点进行了调查,在此基础上进行了小麦粘虫综合治理技术和不同生物药剂对小麦粘虫幼虫的控制效果研究。结果表明:该虫在孝感市北部地区1年发生4~5代,以幼虫或蛹在麦田土中、稻桩和杂草堆等处越冬;第1代卵孵化盛期在3月下旬至4月上旬,为幼虫最重危害代。综合防治措施以农业防治和生态防治为主,重视保护和利用本地天敌,加强稻草把及糖醋诱剂诱杀成虫,推广使用生物药剂防治,控制使用化学防治的小麦粘虫综合治理策略。生物药剂对小麦粘虫幼虫的控制效果最好的是60 g/L乙基多杀菌素 SC 2000倍液,药后7 d校正防效达95.96%;其次是2.0%阿维菌素 EC 2000倍液,校正防效为95.12%;20%三唑磷 EC 1000倍液的持效性较差,校正防效仅为78.72%;其余3种生物药剂的校正防效均超过89%。%To effectively control the occurrence and hazard of the wheat armyworm,a field system investigation was conducted to explore the occurrence characteristics of wheat armyworm,and based on this the control effects of comprehensive treatment techniques and different biological insecticides.The results showed that this worn existed in the north of Xiaogan City for 4~5 generations,and passed the winter when it is in the generation of larva or insect pupa in wheat field soil,rice stub,a mass of weeds or other places.The first generation egg hatched in late March to early April,this generation of larvae was of the most hazard.Through the study on comprehensive treatment techniques of wheat armyworm,the authors put forward to control agricultural and ecological prevention,protection and pay much attention on local natural enemy,strengthen the straw and sweet and sour attractant for adults worms.At the same time,we should promote the use of bio

  1. Technological characteristics and selected bioactive compounds of Opuntia dillenii cactus fruit juice following the impact of pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa-Ayoub, Tamer E; Jaeger, Henry; Youssef, Khaled; Knorr, Dietrich; El-Samahy, Salah; Kroh, Lothar W; Rohn, Sascha

    2016-11-01

    Selected technological characteristics and bioactive compounds of juice pressed directly from the mash of whole Opuntia dillenii cactus fruits have been investigated. The impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) for a non-thermal disintegration on the important juice characteristics has been evaluated in comparison to microwave heating and use of pectinases. Results showed that the cactus juice exhibited desirable technological characteristics. Besides, it also contained a high amount of phenolic compounds being the major contributors to the overall antioxidant activity of juice. HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) measurements in the fruits' peel and pulp showed that isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside was determined as the single flavonol found only in the fruit's peel. Treating fruit mash with a moderate electric field strength increased juice yield and improved juice characteristics. Promisingly, the highest release of isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside from fruit's peel into juice was maximally achieved by PEF.

  2. Effect of post weld heat treatment on tensile properties and microstructure characteristics of friction stir welded armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. SIVARAJ; D. KANAGARAJAN; V. BALASUBRAMANIAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of post weld heat treatments, namely artificial ageing and solution treatment followed by artificial ageing, on microstructure and mechanical properties of 12 mm thick friction stir welded joints of precipitation hardenable high strength armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy. The tensile properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation and notch tensile strength, are evaluated and correlated with the microhardness and microstructural features. The scanning electron microscope is used to characterie the fracture surfaces. The solution treatment followed by ageing heat treatment cycle is found to be marginally beneficial in improving the tensile properties of friction stir welds of AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy.

  3. Clinical characteristics surgical treatment and outcome of biliary atresia%胆道闭锁的临床现状与思索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施诚仁; 施佳; 蔡威; 吴晔明; 陈其民; 王俊; 王捍平; 严志龙; 张弛; 潘伟华

    2010-01-01

    目的 回顾性分析1999年至2008年十年间收治的胆道闭锁患儿临床资料,为今后临床诊断、防治提供有益资料.方法 收集共184例胆道闭锁患儿,其中34例放弃治疗(18.47%),余150例作基本概况,临床表现、诊断、外科处理和转归等分析.男86例,女64例,求医时年龄(56.20±39.44)d,其中55例>90 d(36.67%),诉大便转白时间为(22.33±20.3)d.均疑黄疸消退迟缓>2周,有进行性血胆红素增高;临床诊断方法有B超检查(91.33%),同位素闪烁检查(53.33%),血胆红素、酶测定(100%),影像学检查(58.66%).结果 手术探查时年龄(81.11±31.01)d,行Kasai手术率仅66%(99/150),随访率77.33%(116/150),随访9个月~8.2年,平均(23.77±16.4)个月,死亡56例(48.27%),肝移植6例(5.17%),正常生活30例(25.86%),带门脉高压等合并症生存24例(20.69%).结论 胆道闭锁是新生儿高胆红素血症中常见疾病.①其病因学说多种多样,大便转白在出生后(22.33±20.3)d,此现象以Schreiber提出的观点能较合理解释;②诊断无特异敏感的方法,还是以多种检查综合评估为好.腹部B超无创,值得进一步探索;③本组病死率较高48.27%,与文献报告有差距;④终末期肝移植是唯一有效方法,但本组仅6例,可能与经济、传统观念、供肝者条件不好等有关.%Objective To retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics,surgical treatment and outcome of biliary atresia(BA)during the last decade Methods From 1999 to 2008,the clinical data of 184 patients with BA were collected.Among them,34 patients gave up further treatment.The basic conditions,clinical manifestations,diagnosis,surgical treatment and outcome of the other 150 patients were retrospectively analyzed.Results The 150 patients with a mean age of 56.02±39.44 days included 86 males and 64 females.Fifty five patients were older than 90 days at the time of diagnose.Common complaints were presented with jaundice longer than 2 weeks,white stools and

  4. 炭质岩地区公路工程地质病害特征与处治技术探讨%On Characteristics and Treatment of Geological Diseases of Highway Projects in Areas of Carbonaceous Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文秀

    2013-01-01

    Through project cases, this paper analyzes and summarizes characteristics of geological diseases of highway projects in areas of carbonaceous rocks, proposing relative treatment measures for reference.%  根据工程经验,分析和总结炭质岩地区公路工程的地质病害特征,提出工程处治技术措施。

  5. Efeitos do consumo prévio de carboidratos sobre a resposta glicêmica e desempenho Efectos del consumo previo de carbohidratos sobre la respuesta de glicemia y desempeño Effect of prior consumption of carbohydrate on the glycaemia and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuce Borges Sapata

    2006-08-01

    ocasionó alteraciones en la glicemia y en la frecuencia cardiaca durante el ejercicio. Aunque se especule que oscilaciones en la glicemia durante el ejercicio puedan perjudicar el desempeño en ejercicios de larga duración, este hecho no fue verificado en nuestro presente estudio.BASES AND OBJECTIVE: Nutrition is an important tool for the sport practice. Among the nutrients, the carbohydrates are one of the most important. In that way the aim of this study was analyze the influence of glycaemic response on performance of healthy subjects, after intake of different carbohydrate solutions. METHODS: Ten healthy male subjects, 23 ± 2.1 years old, were asked to answer a three days nutritional and physical activity recordatory. Anthropometric data were collected and a progressive test in cycle ergometer was performed to measure the maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory thresholds. Each subject performed three submaximal tests at the intensity of second ventilatory threshold. Thirty minutes before each submaximal test, 250 ml of each drink: maltodextrin (Malto, glucose (Glicose plus sport drink or dietetic juice (Placebo was ingested. Venous blood was collected to determine the glycaemic index and lactate. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was a significant increase after 30 minutes when the subjects ingested maltodextrin solution (87.4 ± 11.2 to 116.9 ± 19.6 ml.dl¹. After 15 minutes of exercise, there was a decrease in the glycaemia after the consumption of Malto (116.9 ± 19.6 to 77.6 ± 14.5 ml.dl¹ and Glicose (113.2 ± 23.5 to 81.8 ± 13.1 ml.dl¹ plus sport drink solutions when compared with Placebo solution. The glucose plus sport drink solution induced a significant increase in the heart rate during exercise (167.7 ± 14.2 and 177.1 ± 10.4 bpm. The consumption of different carbohydrate solutions with high glycaemic index before exercise was not capable to change the performance of the volunteers. However it induced changes in the glycaemia and heart rate during

  6. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Lupus Mesenteric Vasculitis%狼疮肠系膜血管炎的临床特征及治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆翠; 胡喜梅; 张娟; 戴岷; 胡大伟

    2014-01-01

    corticosteroid treatment,symptoms improved in 26 patients(92. 9% )after treatment with median to large dosage of corticosteroid,however the other 2 patients (7. 1% )died from severe infection. Conclusion The clinical characteristics of LMV includes abdominal pain,diarrhea,vom-iting;LMV frequently coexists with other system damages in active SLE patients. Increased level of ESR,dyslipidemia,de-creased level of complement C3 and C4 existed in most patients. Enhanced abdominal CT examination is helpful for early diagnosis of LMV,and anti - SSA antibody may be related to IPO and hydronephrosis. The curative effect of large dosage corticosteroid in treatment of most LMV patients is good.

  7. Demographic and HIV-specific characteristics of participants enrolled in the INSIGHT Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, S; Babiker, A G; Emery, S;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The risks and benefits of initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) at high CD4 cell counts have not been reliably quantified. The Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study is a randomized international clinical trial that compares immediate with deferred initiation...

  8. Clinical characteristics and outcomes in familial adenomatous polyposis patients with a long-term treatment of celecoxib: a matched cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Kui; Gutierrez, Lia P; Bülow, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a rare genetic disease. Without treatment, FAP patients have a 100% lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of celecoxib treatment in prolonging the time to FAP-related events and to document the safety...

  9. Clinical characteristics and treatment of purulent meningitis in adults%成人化脓性脑膜炎临床特点与诊治分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄宇清; 王智勇; 吴景录

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析探讨成人化脓性脑膜炎的临床特点,提高成人化脓性脑膜炎的诊治水平.方法 回顾性分析医院2007年1月—2011年12月收治的26例成人化脓性脑膜炎患者的临床资料.结果 患者入院后根据脑脊液生化检查结果诊断化脓性脑膜炎,脑脊液细菌培养阳性16例,其中肺炎链球菌感染9例,大肠埃希菌及肺炎杆菌感染各2例,金黄色葡萄球菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、表皮葡萄球菌感染各1例;经抗感染治疗后,患者住院3~25 d,平均住院天数12 d;好转23例,死亡3例.结论 成人化脓性脑膜炎的多有明确的病因,临床表现不特异,脑脊液及颅脑影像学检查有助于诊断,根据脑脊液细菌培养及药敏结果给予抗菌药物治疗,可以取得一定效果.%OBJECTIVE To analyze the clinical characteristics of purulent meningitis in adults so as to improve the level of diagnosis and treatment of the purulent meningitis in the adults.METHODS A total of 26 cases of adult patients with purulent meningitis,who were treated in the hospital from Jan 2007 to Dec 2011,were ebrolled in the study,then the clinical data of the patients were retrospectively analyzed.RESULTS The purulent meningitis was diagnosed with cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) biochemical test results after the patient were enrolled,the bacterial culture of cerebrospinal fluid was positive in 16 cases,among which there were 9 cases with Streptococcus pneumoniae infections,2 cases with Escherichia coli infections,2 cases with Pneumobacillus infections,1 case with Staphylococcus aureus infections,1 case with Klebsiella pneumoniae infections,and 1 case with Staphylococcus epidermidis infections.After the anti-infection therapy,the hospitalization duration varied from 3 days to 25 days with the mean time of 12 days,23 cases improved,and 3 cases died.CONCLUSION There are many definite causes of purulent meningitis in the adults,and the clinical manifestations are atypical

  10. Influences of post weld heat treatment on tensile strength and microstructure characteristics of friction stir welded butt joints of AA2014-T6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, C.; Srinivasan, K.; Balasubramanian, V.; Balaji, H.; Selvaraj, P.

    2016-08-01

    Friction stir welded (FSWed) joints of aluminum alloys exhibited a hardness drop in both the advancing side (AS) and retreating side (RS) of the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) due to the thermal cycle involved in the FSW process. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to overcome this problem by post weld heat treatment (PWHT) methods. FSW butt (FSWB) joints of Al-Cu (AA2014-T6) alloy were PWHT by two methods such as simple artificial aging (AA) and solution treatment followed by artificial aging (STA). Of these two treatments, STA was found to be more beneficial than the simple aging treatment to improve the tensile properties of the FSW joints of AA2014 aluminum alloy.

  11. Effect of post weld heat treatment on tensile properties and microstructure characteristics of friction stir welded armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sivaraj

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effects of post weld heat treatments, namely artificial ageing and solution treatment followed by artificial ageing, on microstructure and mechanical properties of 12 mm thick friction stir welded joints of precipitation hardenable high strength armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy. The tensile properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation and notch tensile strength, are evaluated and correlated with the microhardness and microstructural features. The scanning electron microscope is used to characterie the fracture surfaces. The solution treatment followed by ageing heat treatment cycle is found to be marginally beneficial in improving the tensile properties of friction stir welds of AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy.

  12. Puberty induction in Turner syndrome: Results of oestrogen treatment on development of secondary sexual characteristics, uterine dimensions and serum hormone levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, E.M.N.; Sassen, C. van; Buuren, S. van; Jong, F.H. de; Lequin, M.; Mulder, P.G.H.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de

    2009-01-01

    Background: Besides short stature, gonadal dysgenesis leading to a lack of oestrogen is one of the main characteristics of Turner syndrome (TS). In most TS girls, puberty is induced with exogenous oestrogens. Objective: To describe the pubertal development and uterine dimensions achieved by low-dose

  13. Concentration and Distribution Characteristics of Airborne Fungi in the Ambient Air of Milad Hospital, Blood Transfusion Organization and Tehran’s Shahrake Ghods Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Recently contact with bioaerosols has been presented as an important problem which endangers human being’s health. The aim of this investigation is to compare potential of separation of fungal aerosols in the air around Tehran’s Milad hospital, blood transfusion organization and waste water treatment plant of Tehran’s Shahrake Ghods. methods: this cross-sectional investigation was done in Milad hospital, blood transfusion organization and Tehran’s Shahrake Ghods waste water treatment plant within for 4 months. The sampling was done passively for 1 hour and once in 6 days. The culture medium was Sabouraud dextrose agar. Results: comparing selected sampling stations the most fungal density was for 100 meters after the last unit of waste water treatment plant (67 CFU and the least density was for Milad hospital (30 CFU. Dominant genera of fungal in waste water treatment plant and blood transfusion organization was related to Cladosporium (in order of 49% and 84% and in air around Milad hospital was related to Alternaria (47%. Conclusion: according to the results processing and operating sections in waste water treatment plant can be effective in fungal density and separation of bioaerosols. Therefore it seems to be vital that the responsible organizations should do necessary actions to develop guidelines and standards related to bioaerosols. Also appropriate administration of environmental health in waste water treatment plant can be an important factor in reduction of aerosol separation.

  14. Towards clinically useful neuroimaging in depression treatment: Is subgenual cingulate activity robustly prognostic for depression outcome in Cognitive Therapy across studies, scanners, and patient characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Greg J.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Collier, Amanda; Berman, Susan R.; Feldmiller, Joshua; Thase, Michael E.; Friedman, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Context 40–60% of unmedicated depressed individuals respond to Cognitive Therapy (CT) in controlled trials. Multiple previous studies suggest that activity in the subgenual anterior cingulate predicts outcome in CT for depression, but there have been no prospective replications. Objective This study prospectively examined whether subgenual cingulate activity is a reliable and robust prognostic outcome marker for CT for depression and whether its activity changes in treatment. Design Two inception cohorts were assessed with fMRI on different scanners on a task sensitive to sustained emotional information processing before and after 16–20 sessions of CT, along with a sample of control participants tested at comparable intervals. Setting Therapy took place in a hospital outpatient clinic. Patients Participants included 49 unmedicated depressed adults and 35 healthy control participants. Main Outcome Measures Pre-treatment subgenual anterior cingulate activity in an a priori region in response to negative words was correlated with residual severity and used to classify response and remission. Results As expected, in both samples, participants with the lowest pre-treatment sustained subgenual cingulate (sgACC; BA25) reactivity in response to negative words displayed the most improvement in CT (R2=.29, >75% correct classification of response, >70% correct classification of remission). Other a priori regions explained additional variance. Response/Remission in Cohort 2 was predicted based on thresholds from Cohort 1. sgACC activity remained low for remitters following treatment. Conclusions Neuroimaging provides a quick, valid, and clinically applicable way of assessing neural systems associated with treatment response/remission. sgACC activity, in particular, may reflect processes which interfere with treatment, e.g,. emotion generation in addition to its putative regulatory role; alternately, its absence may facilitate treatment response. PMID:22945620

  15. Safety considerations with pharmacological treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, David

    2015-01-01

    The number of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM: diabetes first diagnosed in pregnancy) continues to grow, as do the associated risks of antenatal and postnatal complications and the chance of future diabetes and obesity in both mother and offspring. Recent randomised controlled trials have demonstrated clear benefits for intensive management of GDM using lifestyle modification, self blood glucose monitoring, close clinical supervision and, where glycaemia remains inadequately controlled, insulin therapy. More recently, metformin and glibenclamide have been shown to adequately reduce hyperglycaemia as part of a stepped approach to GDM management, with a switch to insulin therapy where necessary. Other oral medications have not been shown to be safe in pregnancy. Human insulin therapy is safe within the limits of hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Most insulin analogues are also now considered safe for use in pregnancy (insulin lispro, aspart and detemir). Metformin therapy is oral, and therefore preferred to insulin, but is associated with more gastrointestinal adverse effects, although not hypoglycaemia or weight gain. Conversely, glibenclamide is also an oral therapy but is associated with hypoglycaemia and weight gain. However, metformin crosses the placenta and it remains unclear whether glibenclamide crosses the placenta or not: long-term risks have not been shown, and are thought to be minimal, but further studies are needed. Metformin is seen by some as the treatment of choice where weight gain is an issue, providing that the unanswered questions over the long-term safety of oral agents have been discussed.

  16. Curative Effect Observation of Yishenjiangzhuo Tang Combined with TCM Characteristic Treatment in the Treatment of Chronic Renal Failure%益肾降浊汤联合中医特色疗法治疗慢性肾衰竭临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玲; 王志良

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察中医特色疗法治疗慢性肾功能衰竭的临床疗效.方法:42例慢性肾功能衰竭患者采用益肾降浊汤配合中医特色疗法治疗.结果:42例患者中显效22例,有效10例,稳定5例,无效5例,有效率为88.1%.结论:该中医特色综合疗法治疗慢性肾功能衰竭疗效显著.%Objective: To observe the clinical curative effect of TCM characteristic treatment in the treatment of chronic renal failure. Methods :42 cases with chronic renal failure were given Yishenjiangzhuo Tang combined with TCM characteristic treatment. Results :22 cases excellence, 10 cases effective,5 cases in stable,5 cases ineffective,the effective rate was 88. 1%. Conclusion:This TCM characteristics comprehensive therapy in the treatment of chronic renal failure has distinct curative effect.

  17. The Analysis of Risk Factors and Clinical-Demographic Characteristics of Patients with Clostridium Dificille Infection as Well as The Outcome of Their Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raković Ivana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomembranous colitis is a frequent nosocomial infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Clostridium difficile infection incidence most frequently increases due to unreasonable antibiotic use and the appearance of new hypervirulent bacterial strains, which leads to prolonged hospitalization and an increase in the total cost of hospital treatment.

  18. Characteristics and risk factors of major and clinically relevant non-major bleeding in cancer patients receiving anticoagulant treatment for acute venous thromboembolism-the CATCH study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuisen, P.W.; Lee, A.Y.Y.; Meyer, Guy; Bauersachs, R.; Janas, M.S.; Jarner, M.F.; Khorana, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) receiving anticoagulant treatment have a substantial risk of bleeding complications. Aims: To assess the rate, site and risk factors of clinically relevant bleeding (CRB; major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding) in cancer pa

  19. Applied research of pediatric pneumonia serum CK, CTnT levels and ECG change characteristics in diagnosis and treatment of disease and prognostic evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zhang; Yan-Lin Xiao; Xian-Bin Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study pneumonia infant's serum creatine kinase and troponin T level changes and combined with electrocardiogram analysis to discuss its meaning to pneumonia infant's clinical diagnosis and treatment.Method: 73 cases of pneumonia infants were selected as study group in our hospital from January 2014 to June 2014, meanwhile select 58 cases of healthy infants as control group, to proceed serum CK and CTnT and electrocardiogram examination of both groups.Results: Before treatment, ordinary pneumonia group's CK level rised, CK-MB and CTnT levels significantly rised, 65.71% of children with pneumonia appeared abnormal electrocardiogram, mainly showed atrial premature beats and sinus tachycardia; severe pneumonia group's CK level significantly rised, CK-MB and CTnT levels highly significantly rised, 86.84% of children with pneumonia appeared abnormal electrocardiogram, mainly showed atrial premature beats, sinus tachycardia, bundle-branch block, P-wave high point and so on. After treatment, ordinary pneumonia group's CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels recovered to normal range, ECG returned to normal mostly; severe pneumonia group's CK level obviously returned to normal range, but CK-MB and CTnT levels still exist significant difference. After treatment, severe pneumonia group's CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels were highly significantly lower than before treatment; Compared with ordinary group after treatment, its CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels were higher, but no significant difference, electrocardiogram also returned to normal, only sinus tachycardia and bundle branch block were difficult to return to normal. Conclusion: Serum CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels of pneumonia infants rise along with the aggravation of disease, and ECG level is abnormal, after treatment, most pneumonia infants are cured. This illustrates infant pneumonia could easily cause multiple organ system damage, especially myocardial injury, monitoring CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels, combined with electrocardiogram data

  20. 从小儿体质特点探讨性早熟防治的重要性%Importance investigation of prevention and treatment of precocious puberty based on the physical characteristics of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚君; 琚玮; 郑宏

    2013-01-01

    With the development of society, the incidence of precocious puberty in children was significantly higher than before. This paper analyzes the correlation of precocious puberty and physical characteristics that explore the importance of prevention and treatment of precocious puberty.%随着社会的发展,小儿性早熟的发病率明显增高,本文通过分析性早熟与体质特征的相关性,探讨防治性早熟的重要性。

  1. Results of the Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS-Middle East: clinical perspective on the prevalence and characteristics of lipid abnormalities in the setting of chronic statin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud N Al Sifri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic intervention with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering agents known as statins has been demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, many patients on statin treatment have persistent dyslipidemia and remain at a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the frequency of lipid abnormalities in patients receiving chronic statin treatment. METHODS: As part of an international, cross-sectional, observational study, DYSIS-Middle East enrolled 2,182 patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon and Jordan. All patients were over 45 years of age and had been on statin treatment for at least three months. Data on demographics, lipid parameters and cardiovascular risk profile were recorded. Cardiovascular risk was defined according the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology. RESULTS: The majority of patients (82.6% were classified as being at very high risk of cardiovascular events, and 61.8% of all patients did not attain LDL-C target levels. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and elevated triglyceride levels were noted in 55.5% and 48.5% of patients, respectively. Multivariate logistical regression modeling indicated that factors independently associated with LDL-C levels not being at goal were lifestyle choices, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, and blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Almost two-thirds of statin-treated patients in the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon and Jordan had inadequately controlled lipid levels. More comprehensive surveillance, awareness and treatment regimens, as well as modification of lifestyle choices, is necessary to halt the rise in cardiovascular disease-related mortality.

  2. Applied research of pediatric pneumonia serum CK, CTnT levels andECG change characteristics in diagnosis and treatment of disease and prognostic evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Ma

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Through studying pneumonia infant's serum creatine kinase and troponin T level changes and combined with electrocardiogram analysis to discuss its meaning to pneumonia infant's clinical diagnosis and treatment. Method: 73 cases of pneumonia infants were selected as the study group in our hospital from January 2014 to June 2014, meanwhile 58 cases of healthy infants were selected as the control group, to proceed serum CK and CTnT and electrocardiogram examination of both groups. Results: Before treatment, ordinary pneumonia group's CK level raised (P>0.05),CK-MB and CTnT levels significantly raised (P0.05), ECG returned to normal; severe pneumonia group's CK level obviously returned to normal range (P>0.05), but CK-MB and CTnT levels still exist significant difference (P0.05), electrocardiogram also returned to normal, only sinus tachycardia and bundle branch block were difficult to return to normal. Conclusion: Serum CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels of pneumonia infants rise along with the aggravation of disease, and ECG level is abnormal, after treatment, most pneumonia infants are cured. This illustrates infant pneumonia could easily cause multiple organ system damage, especially myocardial injury, monitoring CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels, combined with electrocardiogram data has important reference value to the diagnosis of pneumonia.

  3. Influence of maternal dexamethasone treatment on morphometric characteristics of pituitary GH cells and body weight in near-term rat fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Milosević

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH and glucocorticoids have a powerful influence on controlling fetal growth, differentiation and maturation of numerous tissues. In the present study, the effect of maternal dexamethasone (Dx treatment on GH cells and body weight in 19- and 21-day-old rat fetuses was investigated using immunocytochemical and morphometric methods. Pregnant female rats received daily injections of 1.0-0.5-0.5 mg Dx/kg b.w. on days 16-18 of pregnancy (experimental group, while the control group received an equal volume of saline. Dx treatment of pregnant rats enhanced immunostaining intensity and significantly increased (p<0.05 GH nuclear and cell volume, as well as volume density and number of GH cells per square millimeter in 19-day-old fetuses compared to the controls. In 21-day-old fetuses after maternal Dx administration, immunoreactivity, volume density and number of GH cells remained significantly increased (p<0.05. Dx treatment of pregnant rats resulted in marked body weight reduction of 21-day-old but not 19 days old fetuses in comparison with the corresponding controls. The presented results demonstrate that maternal Dx application has pronounced effect on morphometric parameters of GH cells of 19- and 21-day-old fetuses. Also, in near-term rat fetuses body weight was largely independent of pituitary GH cell activity.

  4. Adsorption characteristics of ammonium exchange by zeolite and the optimal application in the tertiary treatment of coking wastewater using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cui; Zheng, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Jing; Wen, Donghui; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Natural zeolite is a favorable NH(4)(+)-ion exchanger in the tertiary wastewater treatment. In this study, a natural Chinese zeolite was anatomized using the mercury injection method, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron micrographs. The kinetic process of ammonium adsorption onto the zeolite was best described by the pseudo second order model; the adsorption equilibrium data fitted better to the Freundlich isotherm; and the exchange between ammonium and alkali/alkaline earth cations was in the order of Na(+) > Ca(2+) > K(+) > Mg(2+). Finally, the zeolite powder was applied for the tertiary treatment of coking wastewater, which still contained high concentration of ammonium after the secondary treatment by a sequencing batch reactor. The Box-Behnken design was used to design the experimental protocol, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization of adsorption factors. The RSM analysis showed the optimal adsorption factors as particle size, 0.03 mm; initial dosage of zeolite powder, 50.0 g/L; and contact time, 24 h. The highest ammonium removal rate was 75.0% predicted by the RMS. Considering settleability of the zeolite powder, the particle size of 0.25 mm was recommended in practice with a little loss of the ammonium removal: 70.9% as the RMS predicted.

  5. Chlorine treatment effectiveness and physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics of treated water supplies in distribution networks of Accra-Tema Metropolis, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, A. Y.; Ampofo, J. A.

    2013-06-01

    Drinking water quality from two major treatment plants in Ghana; Kpong and Weija Plants, and distribution networks in the Accra-Tema Metropolis were monitored monthly for a year at fifteen different locations. The study determined the relationship between chlorine residual, other physico-chemical qualities of the treated water, and, bacteria regrowth. Results indicated that the treated water at the Kpong and Weija Treatment Plants conformed to WHO guidelines for potable water. However, the water quality deteriorated bacteriologically, from the plants to the delivery points with high numbers of indicator and opportunistic pathogens. This could be due to inadequate disinfection residual, biofilms or accidental point source contamination by broken pipes, installation and repair works. The mean turbidity ranged from 1.6 to 2.4 NTU; pH varied from 6.8 to 7.4; conductivity fluctuated from 71.1 to 293 μS/cm. Chlorine residual ranged from 0.13 to 1.35 mg/l. High residual chlorine was observed at the treatment plants, which decreased further from the plants. Results showed that additional chlorination does not take place at the booster stations. Chlorine showed inverse relationship with microbial counts. Total coliform bacteria ranged from 0 to 248 cfu/100 ml, and faecal coliform values varied from 0 to 128 cfu/100 ml. Other microorganisms observed in the treated water included Aeromonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Boiling water in the household before consumption will reduce water-related health risks.

  6. A Retrospective Analysis of 5,195 Patient Treatment Sessions in an Integrative Veterinary Medicine Service: Patient Characteristics, Presenting Complaints, and Therapeutic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Shmalberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrative veterinary medicine, the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care, is increasingly prevalent in veterinary practice and a focus of clinical instruction in many academic teaching institutions. However, the presenting complaints, therapeutic modalities, and patient population in an integrative medicine service have not been described. A retrospective analysis of 5,195 integrative patient treatment sessions in a veterinary academic teaching hospital demonstrated that patients most commonly received a combination of therapeutic modalities (39% of all treatment sessions. The 274 patients receiving multiple modalities were most frequently treated for neurologic and orthopedic disease (50.7% versus 49.6% of all presenting complaints, resp.. Older neutered or spayed dogs (mean age = 9.0 years and Dachshunds were treated more often than expected based on general population statistics. Acupuncture, laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and hydrotherapy were frequently administered (>50% patients. Neurologic patients were more likely to receive acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and therapeutic exercises but less likely than orthopedic patients to receive laser, hydrotherapy, or therapeutic ultrasound treatments (P<0.05. The results suggest that the application of these specific modalities to orthopedic and neurologic diseases should be subjected to increased evidence-based investigations. A review of current knowledge in core areas is presented.

  7. Quality Characteristics of Wholemeal Flour and Bread from Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L subsp. durum Desf.) after Field Treatment with Plant Water Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrubba, Alessandra; Comparato, Andrea; Labruzzo, Andrea; Muccilli, Serena; Giannone, Virgilio; Spina, Alfio

    2016-09-01

    The use of selected plant water extracts to control pests and weeds is gaining growing attention in organic and sustainable agriculture, but the effects that such extracts may exert on the quality aspects of durum wheat are still unexplored. In 2014, 5 plant water extracts (Artemisia arborescens, Euphorbia characias, Rhus coriaria, Thymus vulgaris, Lantana camara) were prepared and distributed on durum wheat cv Valbelice to evaluate their potential herbicidal effects. After crop harvesting, the major physicochemical and technological parameters of wholemeal flours obtained from each treatment were measured and compared with those from chemical weeding and untreated controls. A baking test was also performed to evaluate the breadmaking quality. In wholemeal flours obtained after the treatment with plant extracts protein and dry gluten content were higher than in control and chemical weeding. Wholemeal flours obtained after chemical weeding reached the highest Mixograph parameters, and that from durum wheat treated with R. coriaria extract demonstrated a very high α-amylase activity. We concluded that the treatments with plant water extracts may influence many quality traits of durum wheat. This occurrence must be taken into account in overall decisions concerning the use of plant extracts in pest and weed management practice.

  8. Clinical characteristics,complications and rehabilitation treatment of myocardial infarcti among elders%老年心肌梗死特点、并发症分析及康复对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季瑞芬; 江少生; 刘映霞

    2002-01-01

    Objective In order to determine correct rehabilitation treatment,we analyze characteristics,complications of myocardial infarcti in elders.Method Regression analysis method was used to evaluate pathogenesis,complications and prognosis.After comparison with control group,rehabilitation treatment was determined.Result Risk factors such as hypertension,hyperlipemia,diabetes mellitus were more severe than control group.Compared with control group,hypertension was more apparent in study group.Incidence of untypical angina pectoris,complications such as cardiogenicshock,conduction block,cerebrovascular event of study group was higher than control group.So healthy education,exercise,heart scanning and use of drugs should be strengthened in elders.Conclusion Heart infarction of elders involved many risk factors,its clinical symptoms is untypical.Complications are more common.and mortality is high.So strengthening of healthy education,exercise is necessary.

  9. 宁河县芦台桥北污水处理厂设计参数及特点%Design parameters and characteristics of north sewage treatment plant of Lutai bridge in Ninghe county

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍贞; 王舜和; 卢凯

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces Qiaobei sewage treatment plant engineering condition and technical procedure, specifically describes main architectures and design parameters, and summarizes the technical design characteristics, which has certain guiding meaning for the construction of other sewage treatment plant.%介绍了桥北污水处理厂工程概况及工艺流程,详细阐述了主要构筑物及设计参数,总结出本工程的工艺设计特点,积累的相关经验对其他污水处理厂的建设具有指导意义。

  10. Effects of time-of-day of hypertension treatment on ambulatory blood pressure and clinical characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyá, Ana; Crespo, Juan J; Ayala, Diana E; Ríos, María T; Pousa, Lorenzo; Callejas, Pedro A; Salgado, José L; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R; Hermida, Ramón C

    2013-03-01

    Generally, hypertensive patients ingest all their blood pressure (BP)-lowering agents in the morning. However, many published prospective trials have reported clinically meaningful morning-evening, treatment-time differences in BP-lowering efficacy, duration of action, and safety of most classes of hypertension medications, and it was recently documented that routine ingestion of ≥1 hypertension medications at bedtime, compared with ingestion of all of them upon awakening, significantly reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Non-dipping (hypertension treatment-time regimen on the circadian BP pattern, degree of BP control, and relevant clinical and analytical parameters of hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes evaluated by 48-h ABPM. This cross-sectional study involved 2429 such patients (1465 men/964 women), 65.9 ± 10.6 (mean ± SD) yrs of age, enrolled in the Hygia Project, involving primary care centers of northwest Spain and designed to evaluate prospectively CVD risk by ABPM. Among the participants, 1176 were ingesting all BP-lowering medications upon awakening, whereas 1253 patients were ingesting ≥1 medications at bedtime. Among the latter, 336 patients were ingesting all BP-lowering medications at bedtime, whereas 917 were ingesting the full daily dose of some hypertension medications upon awakening and the full dose of others at bedtime. Those ingesting ≥1 medications at bedtime versus those ingesting all medications upon awakening had lower likelihood of metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease (CKD); had significantly lower albumin/creatinine ratio, glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; and had higher estimated glomerular filtration rate and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Moreover, patients ingesting all medications at bedtime had lowest fasting glucose, serum creatinine, uric acid, and prevalence of proteinuria and CKD. Ingestion of ≥1 medications at bedtime was also

  11. Efecto del secado térmico y el tratamiento alcalino en las características microbiológicas y químicas de biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas Effect of thermal drying and alkaline treatment on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Silva-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of thermal drying (60 to 75 ºC and times from 0 to 12.58 h and alkaline treatment (Ca(OH2 and CaO at doses from 8 to 10%. on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of biosolids from the Cañaveralejo WWTP. The results showed that in thermal drying all temperatures studied were sufficient to achieve the sanitation of biosolids. In the alkaline treatment the two types of lime showed the total elimination of fecal coliforms, E. coli and helminth eggs, however, the process of alkalization of biosolids had significant influences on organic carbon and calcium.

  12. Endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals of concern in surface water, wastewater-treatment plant effluent, and bed sediment, and biological characteristics in selected streams, Minnesota-design, methods, and data, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Ferrey, Mark L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Martinovic, Dalma; Woodruff, Olivia R.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Brown, Greg K.; Taylor, Howard E.; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the study design, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for an integrated chemical and biological study of selected streams or lakes that receive wastewater-treatment plant effluent in Minnesota. This study was a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Cloud State University, the University of St. Thomas, and the University of Colorado. The objective of the study was to identify distribution patterns of endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other organic and inorganic chemicals of concern indicative of wastewater effluent, and to identify biological characteristics of estrogenicity and fish responses in the same streams. The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water, bed-sediment, and quality-assurance samples, and measured or recorded streamflow once at each sampling location from September through November 2009. Sampling locations included surface water and wastewater-treatment plant effluent. Twenty-five wastewater-treatment plants were selected to include continuous flow and periodic release facilities with differing processing steps (activated sludge or trickling filters) and plant design flows ranging from 0.002 to 10.9 cubic meters per second (0.04 to 251 million gallons per day) throughout Minnesota in varying land-use settings. Water samples were collected from the treated effluent of the 25 wastewater-treatment plants and at one point upstream from and one point downstream from wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges. Bed-sediment samples also were collected at each of the stream or lake locations. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, phytoestrogens and pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and other neutral organic chemicals, carboxylic acids, and steroidal hormones. A subset (25 samples) of the bed-sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, wastewater-indicator chemicals, and steroidal hormones; the

  13. 《慈航集》痢疾辨治特色发微%Cihangji's Characteristics on Diagnosis and Treatment of Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伟; 黄莉

    2015-01-01

    [目的]探究新安医家王勋所著《慈航集》一书中痢疾相关理论思想,以期更全面地认识痢疾,从而拓宽思路,提高临床疗效。[方法]研读《慈航集》全书,并结合相关中医经典理论,从病因病机、辨证论治、组方遣药以及妇人、小儿痢疾等方面,对王氏有关痢疾治疗思想作出研讨。[结果]王氏临证诊治,善辨寒热虚实;不拘古人,顺四时之气,创制春、夏、秋、冬四季治痢之方:畅肝清痢汤、解暑清痢汤、清金止痢汤、固阴清痢汤;对妇人妊娠、产后及小儿痘疹后病痢的诊治规律亦进行了总结,认为孕妇患痢,调治最难,当务之急就是固胎,胎定方能清痢,而痢疾务必速清,不可迟缓,缓者痢热存中,胎气不安;认为小儿多稚阴稚阳,小儿痘后,痘疹热毒未清,同时多伤脾胃,所以必须辨明伤脾胃之痢,治宜补脾清痢,理法方药完备。[结论]王勋《慈航集》内容丰富,其对痢疾一症的辨治颇有心得体会,时值今日,其论治思想对临床痢疾治疗仍有重要指导意义。%Objective]To study Xin'an physician Wang Xun diarrhea related theory of ideas in Cihangji, in order to more comprehensively understand diarrhea, to broaden the thinking, enhance the clinical curative effect. [Method] From the disease history, etiology and pathogenesis, syndrome differentiation and treatment,prescription drugs,and women,children with dysentery,make research on Wang's thought about diarrhea treatment. [Result] Wang's clinical diagnosis and treatment,well distinguished cold and heat; Not stick to the ancients,along seasons gas; Wang Xun created the prescription treatment of diarrhea for spring,summer,autumn,creation of winter season; on the pregnancy,postpartum woman and children with pox disease after the treatment of dysentery is summarized,with complete prescription. [Conclusion] Wang Xun "Cihangji" rich in content and

  14. Effect of Improved access to Antiretroviral Therapy on clinical characteristics of patients enrolled in the HIV care and treatment clinic, at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swai Andrew B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa has been severely affected by the HIV and AIDS pandemic. Global efforts at improving care and treatment has included scaling up use of antiretroviral therapy (ART. In Tanzania, HIV care and treatment program, including the provision of free ART started in 2004 with a pilot program at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam. This study describes the socio-demographic and clinical features of patients enrolled at the care and treatment clinic at MNH, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study looking at baseline characteristics of patients enrolled at the HIV clinic at MNH between June 2004 - Dec 2005 compared to those enrolled between 2006 and September 2008. Results Of all enrolled patients, 2408 (58.5% were used for analysis. More females than males were attending the clinic. Their baseline median CD4 cell count was low (136 cells/μl with 65.7% having below 200 cells/μl. Females had higher CD4 cell counts (150 cells/μl than males (109 cells/μl p Conclusion Patients enrolled to the MNH HIV clinic were predominantly females, and presented with advanced immune-deficiency. Improved access to HIV care and treatment services seems to be associated with patients' early presentation to the clinics in the course of HIV disease.

  15. 微波辐照技术的工艺特性及其在水处理中的应用%Characteristics of microwave irradiation technology and its application to water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚峰; 王景新; 李志成; 冯朋

    2012-01-01

    The technological characteristics of microwave irradiation technology and its applied mechanisms in water treatment are analyzed. The research situation and application situation of microwave irradiation technology applied to wastewater treatment are introduced. The technological types of microwave irradiation technology used for treating wastewater and their reaction effects are summarized. Some problems existing in the developing stage of water treatment are analyzed, too. Corresponding opinion and suggestion are put forward. The development tendency of microwave irradiation technology of water treatment is forecast.%分析了微波辐照技术的工艺特性及其在水处理中的作用机理,介绍了微波辐照技术用于废水处理领域中的研究状况与应用情况,综述了微波辐照技术用于废水处理的工艺类型及反应效果.结合相关研究与工程应用情况,分析了微波辐照技术在水处理应用中存在的问题,并提出了相应的意见和建议.展望了微波辐照技术在水处理中的发展方向.

  16. Mechanical properties of NiTi and CuNiTi wires used in orthodontic treatment. Part 2: Microscopic surface appraisal and metallurgical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Abdo Gravina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This research aimed at comparing the qualitative chemical compositions and the surface morphology of fracture regions of eight types of Nickel (Ni Titanium (Ti conventional wires, superelastic and heat-activated (GAC, TP, Ormco, Masel, Morelli and Unitek, to the wires with addition of copper (CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC, Ormco after traction test. METHODS: The analyses were performed in a scanning electronic microscope (JEOL, model JSM-5800 LV with EDS system of microanalysis (energy dispersive spectroscopy. RESULTS : The results showed that NiTi wires presented Ni and Ti as the main elements of the alloy with minimum differences in their composition. The CuNiTi wires, however, presented Ni and Ti with a significant percentage of copper (Cu. As for surface morphology, the wires that presented the lowest wire-surface roughness were the superelastic ones by Masel and Morelli, while those that presented the greatest wire-surface roughness were the CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC ones by Ormco, due to presence of microcavity formed as a result of pulling out some particles, possibly of NiTi. 4 The fracture surfaces presented characteristics of ductile fracture, with presence of microcavities. The superelastic wires by GAC and the CuNiTi 27oC and the heat-activated ones by Unitek presented the smallest microcavities and the lowest wire-surface roughness with regard to fracture, while the CuNiTi 35oC wires presented inadequate wire-surface roughness in the fracture region. CONCLUSION: CuNiTi 35oC wires did not present better morphologic characteristics in comparison to the other wires with regard to surfaces and fracture region.

  17. Application of CAO Lingxian's Characteristic Couplet Medicinals in Treatment of Gynecological Diseases%曹玲仙应用特色药对治疗妇科疾病经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾薇薇; 殷岫绮

    2016-01-01

    总结妇科名医曹玲仙教授临床运用特色药对治疗妇科疾病经验,分别有茜草配乌贼骨,主治月经量少、月经后期及闭经;葛根配知母,治疗卵巢早衰或卵巢储备功能下降患者;炒酸枣仁配茯神,治疗肝血亏虚之失眠患者;半夏配北秫米,治疗不寐伴有胃不和、大便欠畅患者;地骨皮配桑白皮,瓜蒌配石斛,分别治疗多囊卵巢综合征有高雄激素临床表现及胰岛素抵抗患者;石菖蒲配远志,主治低促性腺激素性闭经.并举案例加以说明.%Professor CAO Lingxian's experience in treating gynecological diseases with characteristic couplet medicinals is summarized as follows:madder root combined with cuttlefish bone for treatment of hypomenorrhea,delayed menstrual cycle and amenorrhea,kudzuvine root combined with common anemarrhena rhizome for treatment of premature ovarian failure and diminished ovarian reserve,spine date seed combined with poria with hostwood for treatment of insomnia caused by deficiency of liver blood,pinellia combined with north husked sorghum for treatment of insomnia accompanied by symptoms like stomach disharmony and inhibited defecation,wolfberry bark combined with white mulberry root-bark and snakegourd fruit combined with dendrobium respectively for treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome patients with high androgen and insulin resistance,grassleaf sweetflag rhizome combined with polygala root for treatment of hypogonadotropic amenorrhea.To illustrate the experience,some examples are given.

  18. Clinical characteristics of tuberculous meningitis and correlated treatment%结核性脑膜炎的临床特点观察与治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋贵军; 尹琳; 曹云鹏; 刘文静

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To summarize and analyze the clinical manifestations of tuberculous meningitis and related treatments.METHODS The clinical data of 87 patients with tuberculous meningitis were summarized, and the incidence, clinical manifestation, and clinical treatment were analyzed.RESULTS Totally 87 patients with tuberculous meningitis mainly occurred in childhood, youth, and senile patients, among which 57 cases were cured, 2 cases died, the effective rate was 87.36%.CONCLUSION The clinical manifestations of tuberculous meningitis are complex, early diagnosis and standardized treatment can effectively reduce brain edema and complications thus to improve the cure rate of tuberculous meningitis.%目的 对结核性脑膜炎的临床表现和相关治疗进行总结分析.方法 总结87例结核性脑膜炎患者的临床资料,对其发病情况、临床表现、临床治疗进行分析.结果 87例结核性脑膜炎患者主要分布于幼年、青年和老年,其中痊愈57例,死亡2例,有效率为87.36%.结论 结核性脑膜炎的临床表现错综复杂,早期诊断、规范治疗能有效减轻脑水肿,减少并发症,提高结核性脑膜炎治愈率.

  19. Yoga as a complementary treatment for smoking cessation: rationale, study design and participant characteristics of the Quitting-in-Balance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Ernestine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death among American women. Exercise has shown promise as an aid to smoking cessation because it reduces weight gain and weight concerns, improves affect, and reduces nicotine withdrawal symptoms and cigarette craving. Studies have shown that the practice of yoga improves weight control, and reduces perceived stress and negative affect. Yoga practice also includes regulation of breathing and focused attention, both of which may enhance stress reduction and improve mood and well-being and may improve cessation outcomes. Methods/Design This pilot efficacy study is designed to examine the rates of cessation among women randomized to either a novel, 8-week Yoga plus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT smoking cessation intervention versus a Wellness program plus the same CBT smoking cessation intervention. Outcome measures include 7-day point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment, 3 and 6 months follow up and potential mediating variables (e.g., confidence in quitting smoking, self-efficacy. Other assessments include measures of mindfulness, spirituality, depressive symptoms, anxiety and perceived health (SF-36. Discussion Innovative treatments are needed that address barriers to successful smoking cessation among men and women. The design chosen for this study will allow us to explore potential mediators of intervention efficacy so that we may better understand the mechanism(s by which yoga may act as an effective complementary treatment for smoking cessation. If shown to be effective, yoga can offer an alternative to traditional exercise for reducing negative symptoms that often accompany smoking cessation and predict relapse to smoking among recent quitters. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials NCT00492310

  20. Performance characteristics of a conformal ultra-wideband multilayer applicator (CUMLA) for hyperthermia in veterinary patients: a pilot evaluation of its use in the adjuvant treatment of non-resectable tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrkovski, O A; Koo, Y; Kazemi, R; Lembcke, L M; Fathy, A; Liu, Q; Phillips, J C

    2013-03-01

    Performance and clinical characteristics of a novel hyperthermia antenna operating at 434 MHz were evaluated for the adjuvant treatment of locally advanced superficial tumours in cats, dogs and horses. Electromagnetic simulations were performed to determine electric field characteristics and compared to simulations for a flat microwave antenna with similar dimensions. Simulation results show a reduced skin surface and backfield irradiation and improved directional irradiation (at broadside) compared to a flat antenna. Radiated power and penetration is notably increased with a penetration depth of 4.59 cm compared to 2.74 cm for the flat antenna. Clinical use of the antenna was then evaluated in six animals with locoregionally advanced solid tumours receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. During clinical applications, therapeutic temperatures were achieved at depths ≥4 cm. Objective responses were seen in all patients; tissue toxicity in one case limited further therapy. This antenna provides compact, efficient, focused and deep-penetrating clinical hyperthermia for the treatment of solid tumours in veterinary patients.

  1. Utilization as solid fuel and its physicochemical characteristic of hydroponic cultured plants for wastewater treatment; Suiko saibai shokubutsutai no kotai nenryoka to butsurigakuteki tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, M.; Hirano, K. [Kanagawa Environmental Research Center, Kanagawa (Japan); Inamori, Y. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-10

    A treatment of the wasted flower plants used for the waste water treatment process by the indoor drying and pressing method was studied for their effective reuse as columnar solid fuel. Three kinds of wasted flower plants were processed for making samples by indoor drying method for about two months. The samples which were chop plants about 10cm long, half powdery ones and powdery ones were made into the columnar solid fuels under 1-5 t{center_dot}cm{sup -2} pressure. According to the drop`s strength test for the solid fuels, it was investigated that they lost their physical strength rapidly in proportion to the elapsed time. The solid fuel made of powdery processed plants particularly lost its strength most rapidly. In the case of solid fuels made of chops, when they were pressed by the method that the trunk and the branches filled into the press`s vessel in the same direction against the press`s one, their physical strength were maintained for a long time. Furthermore, the form of solid fuels processed by this method looked like keeping their original one for a relatively long term. It was found that their combustible efficiency was excellent because the combustible calorie of the wasted plants ranged from 3,600 cal{center_dot}g{sup -1} to 3,800 cal{center_dot}g{sup -1}. 18 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Influence of wastewater sludge treatment using combined peroxyacetic acid oxidation and inorganic coagulants re-flocculation on characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijun; Cao, Bingdi; Wang, Dongsheng; Ma, Teng; Xia, Hua; Yu, Dehong

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are highly hydrated biopolymers and play important roles in bioflocculation, floc stability, and solid-water separation processes. Destroying EPS structure will result in sludge reduction and release of trapped water. In this study, the effects of combined process of peracetic acid (PAA) pre-oxidation and chemical re-flocculation on morphological properties and distribution and composition of EPS of the resultant sludge flocs were investigated in detail to gain insights into the mechanism involved in sludge treatment. It was found that sludge particles were effectively solubilized and protein-like substances were degraded into small molecules after PAA oxidation. A higher degradation of protein-like substances was observed at acid environments under PAA oxidation. Microscopic analysis revealed that no integral sludge floc was observed after oxidation with PAA at high doses. The floc was reconstructed with addition of inorganic coagulants (polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FeCl3)) and PACl performed better in flocculation due to its higher charge neutralization and bridging ability. Combined oxidative lysis and chemical re-flocculation provide a novel solution for sludge treatment.

  3. The effects of mischmetal, cooling rate and heat treatment on the eutectic Si particle characteristics of A319.1, A356.2 and A413.1 Al-Si casting alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebaie, O. El; Samuel, A.M. [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Samuel, F.H. [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada)], E-mail: fhsamuel@uqac.ca; Doty, H.W. [GM Powertrain Group, Metal Casting Technology, Inc., Milford, NH 03055 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The effects of mischmetal, cooling rate and heat treatment on the eutectic Si particle characteristics of A319.1, A356.2 and A413.1 Al-Si casting alloys were investigated and recorded for this study. Mischmetal was added to the alloys in the form of Al-20% mischmetal master alloy to produce four levels of mischmetal addition (0, 2, 4 and 6 wt%). The alloys were also modified with strontium ({approx}250 ppm) to study the combined modification effect of Sr and mischmetal at both high and low cooling rates corresponding to dendrite arm spacings of {approx}40 and 120 {mu}m, respectively. The alloys were subjected to solution heat treatment (495 deg. C/8 h for A319.1 and A413.1 alloys, and 540 deg. C/8 h for A356.2 alloy) to investigate its effect on the eutectic Si particle morphology. An optical microscope-image analyzer system was used to measure the characteristics of eutectic Si particles such as area, length, roundness ratio and aspect ratio, in order to monitor the modifying effect of mischmetal, as well as the combined modification effect of mischmetal and Sr. For each alloy sample examined, the Si particle characteristics were measured over an area of 50 fields and the average particle characteristics were thus determined. The eutectic Si particle measurements revealed that partial modification was obtained with the addition of mischmetal while full modification was achieved with the addition of Sr in the as-cast condition, at both high and low cooling rates. The interaction between Sr and mischmetal was observed to weaken the effectiveness of Sr as a Si particle-modifying agent. This effect was particularly evident at the low cooling rate. During solution heat treatment, the eutectic Si particles in the non-modified alloys underwent rapid coarsening, otherwise known as Ostwald ripening, whereas those in the Sr-modified alloys exhibited a high spheroidization rate. The coarsening was evidenced by an increase in the thickness of the Si particles, clearly

  4. Learner Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Drachsler, H., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012). Learner Characteristics. In N. M. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning, Volume 4 (pp. 1743-1745). New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_347

  5. Photodynamic therapy with conventional and PEGylated liposomal formulations of mTHPC (temoporfin: comparison of treatment efficacy and distribution characteristics in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshetov V

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vadzim Reshetov,1–3 Henri-Pierre Lassalle,1,2 Aurélie François,1,2,4 Dominique Dumas,5 Sebastien Hupont,5 Susanna Gräfe,6 Vasco Filipe,7 Wim Jiskoot,7 François Guillemin,1,2,4 Vladimir Zorin,3 Lina Bezdetnaya1,2,41Université de Lorraine, Centre de Recherche en Automatique de Nancy, Campus Sciences, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France; 2Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre de Recherche en Automatique de Nancy, France; 3Laboratory of Biophysics and Biotechnology, Physics Faculty, Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus; 4Lorraine Cancer Institute, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; 5Université de Lorraine, Plate forme d'Imagerie et de Biophysique Cellulaire Plate Forme IBiSA d'Imagerie et de Biophysique Cellulaire de Nancy, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France; 6Biolitec Research GmbH, Research and Development, Jena, Germany; 7Division of Drug Delivery Technology, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, Leiden, the NetherlandsAbstract: A major challenge in the application of a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for anticancer agents is the knowledge of the critical properties that influence their in vivo behavior and the therapeutic performance of the drug. The effect of a liposomal formulation, as an example of a widely-used delivery system, on all aspects of the drug delivery process, including the drug's behavior in blood and in the tumor, has to be considered when optimizing treatment with liposomal drugs, but that is rarely done. This article presents a comparison of conventional (Foslip® and polyethylene glycosylated (Fospeg® liposomal formulations of temoporfin (meta-tetra[hydroxyphenyl]chlorin in tumor-grafted mice, with a set of comparison parameters not reported before in one model. Foslip® and Fospeg® pharmacokinetics, drug release, liposome stability, tumor uptake, and intratumoral distribution are evaluated, and their influence on the efficacy of

  6. Microstructural characteristics and mechanism of toughness improvement of laser and electron-beam welds of V-4Cr-4Ti following postwelding heat-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Park, J.H.; Gazda, J.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The authors are conducting a program to develop an optimal laser welding procedure for large-scale fusion-reactor structural components to be fabricated from vanadium-base alloys. Microstructural characteristics were investigated by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and chemical analysis to provide an understanding of the mechanism of the drastic improvement of impact toughness of laser and electron-beam (EB) welds of V-4Cr-4Ti following postwelding annealing at 1000{degrees}C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that annealed weld zones were characterized by extensive networks of fine V(C,O,N) precipitates, which appear to clean away O, C, and N from grain matrices. This process is accompanied by simultaneous annealing-out of the dense dislocations present in the weld fusion zone. It seems possible to produce high-quality welds under practical conditions by controlling and adjusting the cooling rate of the weld zone by some innovative method to maximize the precipitation of V(C,O,N).

  7. Distribution characteristics of clarithromycin and azithromycin, macrolide antimicrobial agents used for treatment of respiratory infections, in lung epithelial lining fluid and alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togami, Kohei; Chono, Sumio; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2011-10-01

    The distribution characteristics of clarithromycin (CAM) and azithromycin (AZM), macrolide antimicrobial agents, in lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and alveolar macrophages (AMs) were evaluated. In the in vivo animal experiments, the time-courses of the concentrations of CAM and AZM in ELF and AMs following oral administration (50 mg/kg) to rats were markedly higher than those in plasma, and the area under the drug concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios of ELF/plasma of CAM and AZM were 12 and 2.2, and the AUC ratios of AMs/ELF were 37 and 291, respectively. In the in vitro transport experiments, the basolateral-to-apical transport of CAM and AZM through model lung epithelial cell (Calu-3) monolayers were greater than the apical-to-basolateral transport. MDR1 substrates reduced the basolateral-to-apical transport of CAM and AZM. In the in vitro uptake experiments, the intracellular concentrations of CAM and AZM in cultured AMs (NR8383) were greater than the extracellular concentrations. The uptake of CAM and AZM by NR8383 was inhibited by ATP depletors. These data suggest that the high distribution of CAM and AZM to AMs is due to the sustained distribution to ELF via MDR1 as well as the high uptake by the AMs themselves via active transport mechanisms.

  8. Distribution characteristics of telithromycin, a novel ketolide antimicrobial agent applied for treatment of respiratory infection, in lung epithelial lining fluid and alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togami, Kohei; Chono, Sumio; Seki, Toshinobu; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The distribution characteristics of telithromycin (TEL), a novel ketolide antimicrobial agent, in lung epithelial fluid (ELF) and alveolar macrophages (AMs) were evaluated. In vivo animal experiments, the time-courses of the concentrations of TEL in ELF and AMs following oral administration of TEL solution (50 mg/4 mL/kg) to rats were markedly higher than in plasma, and areas under drug concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios of ELF/plasma and AMs/plasma were 2.4 and 65.3, respectively. In vitro transport experiments, the basolateral-to-apical transport of TEL through model lung epithelial cell (Calu-3) monolayers was greater than apical-to-basolateral transport. Rhodamine123 and verapamil, MDR1 substrates, reduced the basolateral-to-apical transport of TEL. In vitro uptake experiments, the intracellular equilibrated concentration of TEL in cultured AMs (NR8383) was approximately 40 times the extracellular concentration. The uptake of TEL by NR8383 was inhibited by rotenone and FCCP, ATP depletors and was temperature-dependent. These data suggest that the high distribution of TEL to AMs is due to the sustained distribution to ELF via MDR1 as well as the high uptake by AMs themselves via active transport mechanisms.

  9. Características do tratamento medicamentoso de pacientes diabéticos de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde Diabetic patient’s drug treatment characteristics in a Basic Health Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Otero Miyar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever as características e a complexidade de associações do tratamento medicamentoso de pacientes diabéticos em seguimento por equipe multiprofissional na Unidade Básica de Saúde da Universidade Federal do Amapá (UBS/UNIFAP. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, descritivo e transversal. Sua população foi constituída por 40 pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão, realizado de maio de 2007 a abril de 2008. As variáveis investigadas foram as características do tratamento (medicação prescrita e a medicação mencionada pelo paciente e a complexidade do tratamento (a associação de medicações, a quantidade de comprimidos que o paciente toma por dia, o quantitativo de vezes que esses comprimidos são utilizados por dia e o tempo de uso do medicamento. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se formulário e para análise o programa estatístico SPSS 9.0. Resultados: Os resultados mostraram que 85,0% dos pacientes relataram fazer tratamento medicamentoso, 82,5% seguiram um plano alimentar e 42,5% realizaram um plano de atividades físicas. Sobre as características do tratamento, obteve-se quanto aos medicamentos que a prevalência é dos que fazem uso de Sulfoniluréias com 67,7% e Biguanidas com 41,2%, sendo que 20,6% utilizam Insulina. Conclusão: Nas características do tratamento investigadas, foram encontradas diferenças entre medicamentos prescritos e referidos pelos pacientes. Na complexidade, encontrou-se que 54,5% deles utilizam associação de medicações. Alguns pacientes que utilizavam Biguanida e Sulfoniluréia relataram quantidades incorretas de números de comprimidos que deveriam tomar/dia e declararam valores errôneos de vezes que deveriam tomar os medicamentos/dia.Objective: This study aimed to describe the characteristics and complexity of associations in the medical treatment of diabetic patients being followed by the

  10. Characteristics of treatment naive chronic hepatitis B in Bangladesh: Younger populations are more affected; HBeAg-negatives are more advanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Shahinul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Bangladesh is a densely populated country with intermediate endemicity for chronic hepatitis B (CHB. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical, virological and histological character of CHB patients and to examine the relationship between these indices. Materials and Methods: One thousand and twenty-two patients of CHB fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria were (1 HBsAg positive for at least 6 months, (2 HBeAg-positive or negative and (3 hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA positive. Patients with detectable antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis Delta virus (HDV or hepatitis C virus (HCV, with previous antiviral treatment, overt cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, were excluded. Of these, 191 patients were randomly selected for liver biopsy and were evaluated for analysis. Results: In the 191 patients, male to female ratio was 4.6:1; age distribution was 26.5 ± 8.5 (mean ± standard deviation years. One hundred and seventy-eight (93.2% patients were under 40 years. Sixty-eight (35.6% patients were HBeAg-negative, had less DNA load, and were significantly older, more fibrotic and cirrhotic ( P < 0.001. Correlation was not found between DNA level and histological activity. Histological activity was not correlated with ALT level in HBeAg-positive patients ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: CHB affects the younger population in Bangladesh. HBeAg-positive CHB was associated with more fibrosis and cirrhosis. Serum HBV DNA levels do not correlate with the severity of histological lesions in all patients. Evaluation by liver biopsy remains gold standard for taking decision of treatment.

  11. A prospective, multicenter, observational study of complicated skin and soft tissue infections in hospitalized patients: clinical characteristics, medical treatment, and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipsky Benjamin A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs occur frequently, but limited data do not allow any consensus on an optimal treatment strategy. We designed this prospective, multicenter, observational study to to explore the current epidemiology, treatment, and resulting clinical outcomes of cSSTIs to help develop strategies to potentially improve outcomes. Methods From June 2008 to December 2009 we enrolled a pre-specified number of adults treated in 56 U.S. hospitals with intravenous antibiotic(s for any of the following cSSTIs: diabetic foot infection (DFI; surgical site infection (SSI; deep soft tissue abscess (DSTA; or, cellulitis. Investigators treated all patients per their usual practice during the study and collected data on a standardized form. Results We enrolled 1,033 patients (DFI 27%; SSI 32%; DSTA 14%; cellulitis 27%; mean age 54 years; 54% male, of which 74% had healthcare-associated risk factors. At presentation, 89% of patients received initial empiric therapy with intravenous antibiotics; ~20% of these patients had this empiric regimen changed or discontinued based on culture and sensitivity results. Vancomycin was the most frequently used initial intravenous antibiotic, ordered in 61% of cases. During their stay 44% of patients underwent a surgical procedure related to the study infection, usually incision and drainage or debridement. The mean length of stay was 7.1 days, ranging from 5.8 (DSTA to 8.1 (SSI. Conclusion Our findings from this large prospective observational study that characterized patients with cSSTIs from diverse US inpatient populations provide useful information on the current epidemiology, clinical management practices and outcomes of this common infection.

  12. 正常压力脑积水的临床特征和手术治疗%Clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵希敏; 刘勇; 刘霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨正常压力脑积水(NPH)的临床特征和手术治疗效果.方法 NPH患者32例,其中17例应用中压分流管、15例用可调压分流管行脑室-腹腔分流术治疗.结果 应用可调压分流管分流者的症状改善率为86.7%(13/15),应用中压分流管者为41.2%(7/17),两者相差显著(P<0.01).结论 应用可调压分流管行脑室-腹腔分流是治疗NPH的有效方法.%Objective To study the clinical characteristics, surgical strategy of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) based on our experience. Method The clinical data of 32 patients with NPH who were treated by ventriculo-peritoneal (V-P) shunt were analyzed respectively. Results Of 32 patients, 15 received V-P shunt with adjustable valves and 17 with middle pressure and non-adjustable valves. The effective rate (86.7%, 13/15) of patients undergoing the adjustable valve shunt was significantly higher than that (42.1%, 7/ 17) in the patients undergoing middle pressure and non-adjustable valve shunt (P<0.05). Conclusion V-P shunt with an adjustable valve is an effective method to treat normal pressure hydrocephalus.

  13. Thermal treatment of stabilized air pollution control residues in a waste incinerator pilot plant. Part 2: Leaching characteristics of bottom ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baun, Dorthe L; Christensen, Thomas H; Bergfeldt, Brita; Vehlow, Jürgen; Mogensen, Erhardt P B

    2004-02-01

    With the perspective of generating only one solid residue from waste incineration, co-feeding of municipal solid waste and air pollution control residues stabilized by the Ferrox process was investigated in the TAMARA pilot plant incinerator as described in Bergfeldt et al. (Waste Management Research, 22, 49-57, 2004). This paper reports on leaching from the combined bottom ashes. Batch leaching test, pH-static leaching tests, availability tests and column leaching tests were used to characterize the leaching properties. The leaching properties are key information in the context of reuse in construction or in landfilling of the combined residue. In general, the combined bottom ashes had leaching characteristics similar to the reference bottom ash, which contained no APC residue. However, As and Pb showed slightly elevated leaching from the combined bottom ashes, while Cr showed less leaching. The investigated combined bottom ashes had contents of metals comparable to what is expected at steady state after continuous co-feeding of APC residues. Only Cd and Pb were partly volatilized (30-40%) during the incineration process and thus the combined bottom ashes had lower contents of Cd and Pb than expected at steady state. Furthermore, a major loss of Hg was, not surprisingly, seen and co-feeding of Ferrox-products together with municipal solid waste will require dedicated removal of Hg in the flue gas to prevent a build up of Hg in the system. In spite of this, a combined single solid residue from waste incineration seems to be a significant environmental improvement to current technology.

  14. Study on Friction and Wear Characteristics and Structure of Compound Layer from Combined Treatment of Ion Nitrocarburizing-Ion Sulphurizing of CrMoCu Alloy Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shi-ning; HU Chun-hua; LI Xin; QIU Ji

    2004-01-01

    The technics of combined treatment of ion nitrocarburizing-ion sulphurizing of CrMoCu alloy cast iron has been investigated and the compound layer with nitrocarbonide and sulphide has been made on the surface of CrMoCu alloy cast iron. The compound layer is composed of sulfide surface layer and the nitrocarbonide hypo-surface layer and its diffusing layer. The size of sulfide globular grains distributing equably on the surface is in nano-micron-scale, and the phase structure of the compound layer is composed of FeS、 FeS2、 Fe2C and Fe3N. Under dry sliding condition, the friction-reducing of sulphurized surface is good, but its function time can't last very long. The nitrocarbonided+sulphurized surface can greatly improve the wear-resistance and the friction-reducing of CrMoCu alloy cast iron, and its integrated friction and wear properties are better than plain and sulphurized surfaces'.

  15. Study on Friction and Wear Characteristics and Structure of Compound Layer from Combined Treatment of Ion Nitrocarburizing-Ion Sulphurizing of CrMoCu Alloy Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAShi-ning; HUChun-hua; LIXin; QIUJi

    2004-01-01

    The technics of combined treatment of ion nitrocarburizing-ion sulpburizing of CrMoCu alloy cast iron has been investigated and the compound layer with nitrocabonide and sulphide has been made on the surface of CrMoCu alloy cast iron. The compound layer is composed of sulfide surface layer and the nitrocarbonide hypo-surface layer and its diffusing laye. The size of sulfide globular grains distributing equably on the surface is in nano-micmn-scale, and the phase structure of the compound layer is composed of FeS, FeS2, Fe2C and FerN. Under dry sliding condition, the friction-reducing of sulphurized surface is good, but its function time can't last vet3. long, The nitrocarbonided+sulphurized surface can gready improve the wear-resistance and the friction-reducing of CrMoCu alloy cast iron, and its integrated friction and wear properties are better than plain and sulphurized surfaces.

  16. [The characteristics or urolithiasis in flight personnel and the treatment results using a method of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy on the Russian lithotripter Urat-P2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garilevich, B A; Avdeĭchuk, Iu I

    1995-01-01

    Urolithiasis occurs more frequently in the pilots than in the ground-service personnel. To decrease a damaging effect of the focused shock waves on the renal tissue while using remote lithotripsy technique, a new domestic-certified lithotriptor "URAT-P2" which shows a significantly low energy of shock wave with sufficient effectiveness of crushing the renal stones, is devised. Urolithiasis in the pilots is apparent at the early stages of its development and its complicated forms are less common than in the subjects of other professions. The stones are predominantly located in the renal calyces (73,3% of cases), in the left kidney and urethra in 63,3% of cases and there were urate stones in 40% of cases. The clinical use of the URAT-P2 complex in 30 pilots indicated that it holds advantages over the production domestic-certified lithotriptor. The stones are crushed in all the patients but the complications associated with a negative effect of the focused shock waves on the renal tissue are absent. The use of the new lithotriptor for treating urolithiasis in the pilots will allow one to improve the treatment response and to maintain professional worthiness of the pilots for a long time.

  17. Evaluation of blood pressure reduction response and responder characteristics to fixed-dose combination treatment of amlodipine and losartan: a post hoc analysis of pooled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unniachan, Sreevalsa; Wu, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Hanson, Mary E; Fujita, Kenji P

    2014-09-01

    Data from four clinical trials compared reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) among patients treated with amlodipine/losartan 5/50 mg vs 5/100 mg and amlodipine/losartan 5/50 mg vs amlodipine 5 mg and 10 mg. Response rate was assessed as reduction in SBP or DBP (>20/10 mm Hg) and proportion of patients achieving SBP SBP and DBP. Mean SBP and DBP were reduced in amlodipine/losartan 5/50 mg (n=182) and amlodipine/losartan 5/100 mg (n=95) users across all baseline quartiles. Patients using amlodipine/losartan 5/50 mg had significantly greater SBP and DBP reductions vs amlodipine 5 mg (P=.001 and P=.02, respectively). Amlodipine/losartan 5/50 mg users had significantly greater SBP reduction vs amlodipine 10 mg (SBP P=.02; DBP P=not significant). The odds of responding to therapy were significantly greater with amlodipine/losartan 5/50 mg vs amlodipine 5 mg (odds ratio, 5.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-25.5) and were similar vs amlodipine 10 mg (odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.017-9.51). These results support the use of combination therapy early in the treatment of hypertension.

  18. Characteristics of DOM and Removal of DBPs Precursors across O3-BAC Integrated Treatment for the Micro-Polluted Raw Water of the Huangpu River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwu Lu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the impact upon dissolved organic matter (DOM and removal of disinfection by-product (DBP precursors of adding an ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC process after the conventional treatment process (CTP using water from the Huangpu River in Shanghai, east China. Several metrics, including size fractionation, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP, were employed to accomplish this goal. In the raw water collected from the Huangpu River, the low molecular weight (MW molecules (MW 10 kDa by 61% and the low MW molecules (MW <3 kDa by only 8%. The O3-BAC presented an accumulated DOC removal efficiency of approximately 50%, in particular, showing a high degree of the removal effectiveness of low MW molecules. Samplings from the CTP, ozone and BAC were subjected to excessive chlorination to determine the THMFP, and the measured concentrations were 211.89 ± 4.58 µg/L, 169.52 ± 4.55 µg/L, and 124.42 ± 4.27 µg/L, respectively. Therefore, coupled with the THMFP removal rate of 74%, the addition of the O3-BAC process after an existing CTP improved the water quality of the effluent, particularly, in terms of the improved reduction in the precursors of DBPs.

  19. 口腔颌面部蜂窝织炎临床特点及治疗探讨%Clinical characteristics and investigation of treatment of oral and maxillofacial cellulitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琼

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical characteristics and treatment of oral and maxillofacial cellulitis.Methods:50 patients with oral and maxillofacial cellulitis were selected.We developed a standard treatment plan for each patient according to the characteristics.Results:In 50 patients of this group,49 cases(98%) were cured,1 case was invalid and transferred to other hospital. The average course of disease was 15.8±2.1 days;among them,the course of disease of patients complicated with diabetic patients was relatively longer,some were more than one month.Conclusion:Early attention and diagnosis and treatment,anti-infection,local incision drainage and operation according to the clinical characteristics of oral and maxillofacial cellulitis,can significantly improve the prognosis,and it is very important to improve the quality of life of patients.%目的:探讨口腔颌面部蜂窝织炎临床特点及治疗。方法:收治口腔颌面部蜂窝织炎患者50例作为研究对象,依据临床特点,制定规范方案治疗。结果:本组50例患者,治愈49例(98%),无效转院1例,平均病程(15.8±2.1)天,其中有糖尿病合并者病程相对较长,部分超过1个月。结论:针对口腔颌面部蜂窝织炎,依据临床特点,早重视及诊治,行抗感染、局部切开引流及手术等,可明显改善预后,对提高患者生存质量有非常重要的意义。

  20. ПРОГНОСТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗНАЧЕНИЕ УРОВНЕЙ ГЛИКЕМИИ, ЗАРЕГИСТРИРОВАННЫЙ У ПАЦИЕНТОВ С ИНФАРКТОМ МИОКАРДА ПРИ ПОСТУПЛЕНИИ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. К. Холматова

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Admission hyperglycaemia is common in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with myocardial infarction and has negative influence on prognosis. The value of admission glycaemia as risk factor is underappreciated, that causes untimely monitoring of glycaemia, infrequent treatment and inappropriate therapeutic strategy in patients without diabetes. The article shows the results of analysis of association between admission glycaemia and short-term and long-term prognosis in patients with myocardial infarction.

  1. 指状突树突细胞肉瘤的特征及诊断治疗%Characteristics,diagnosis and treatment of interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊萍; 赵如森; 王永涛; 李兵; 张桂芝

    2014-01-01

    Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS)is a rare malignant tumor of the dendritic cell, derived from the hematopoietic tissue.The major clinical manifestation of IDCS is superficial lymphadenopathy, and the enlarged lymph nodes may appear in some atypical ereas,such as the lung,kidney,bladder and the pleura,etc.With the development of the pathological diagnosis and the application of immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopes,the case detection rate is apparently improved.With the high degree of malignant,rapid progress and poor prognosis of the disease,currently,surgical therapy is still the main approach to the treatment of IDCS.%指状突树突细胞肉瘤(IDCS)是一种极罕见的造血组织来源的树突细胞恶性肿瘤,主要表现为浅表淋巴结肿大,也可以发生于肺脏、肾脏、膀胱、胸膜等不典型的部位。随着病理诊断水平提高、免疫组织化学及电镜的应用,该病诊断检出率明显升高。目前手术仍是该病治疗的主要手段,但由于疾病恶性程度高、进展迅速,具有不良的预后。

  2. Diagnostic and treatment characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome: descriptive measurements of patient perception and awareness from 657 confidential self-reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genton Marc

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation was undertaken to describe patient perception and awareness of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, the most common cause of anovulation/oligoovulation among women of reproductive age. Methods Fifteen parameters were evaluated by a computer-based research instrument accessed by a large, unscreened population. Incomplete questionnaires were not entered, and responses were electronically tabulated to block duplicate submissions. Results From 657 participants, the majority (63% were between 26–34 years old; mean BMI was 30.4 kg/m2. 343 of 657 had at least one pregnancy and 61% of the study group had taken fertility medicine (any type at least once. Physicians were the most common provider of PCOS information for all study participants, irrespective of age. Patient emotions associated with the diagnosis of PCOS included "frustration" (67%, "anxiety" (16%, "sadness" (10%, and "indifference" (2%. Self-reported patient aptitude regarding PCOS was scored as high or "very aware" in >60% of women. Respondents were also asked: "If your PCOS could be safely and effectively helped by something else besides fertility drugs or birth control pills, would that interest you?" Interest in alternative PCOS treatments was expressed by 99% of the sample (n = 648. Conclusions In our study population, most women associated negative emotions with PCOS although the self-reported knowledge level for the disorder was high. While these women regarded their obstetrician-gynecologist as integral to their PCOS education, traditional PCOS therapies based on oral contraceptives or ovulation induction agents were regarded as unsatisfactory by most women.

  3. 放射性视神经病变的诊疗特征%Diagnosis and treatment characteristics of radioactive optic neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 李红阳; 彭春霞; 郭楠楠; 魏世辉

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To explore the diagnosis and treatment methods of radioaction-induced optic neuritis ( RION) through the clinical dates of 17 patients. METHODS: It was a retrospective case series study. From August 2008 to October 2013, 17 cases (24 eyes) of Rion clinical dates from Chinese PLA General Hospital were studied. The diagnosis methods including visual acuity, pupil, fundus, visual field, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), visual electrophysiological testing, and head MRI. To analysis the clinical date of patients with diagnosis of RION by statistical description. RESULTS: The deterioration degree of vision: 13 eyes were classified as Ⅳ, 9 eyes as Ⅲ, 2 eyes as II. Ten eyes RAPD ( + ) , visual electrophysiology is extinguished. The retina of 5 eyes showed flame hemorrhages and cotton wool spots exudation. Optic nerve head edema in one eye. T1 - weighted MRI enhanced in 19 eyes which showed optic nerve of the intracranial and intratubal segments abnormal changed, optic chiasm and pituitary stalk signal abnormalities and enhancement of the optic nerve. Tortuous optic nerves and rough edges were observed in 5 eyes. Treatment effect: 4 eyes of visual acuity improved, 1 eye from blindness to light perception,1 eye from 0. 08 to 0. 2, 1 eye from 0. 4 to 0. 6,1 eye from 0. 04 to 0. 15, the rest of the cases did not see any improvement. CONCLUSION: The unique clinical manifestation of RION can provide objective basis for clinical diagnosis in time, but there have not been proven any effective treatments.%目的:通过17例放射性视神经病变( radiation-induced optic neuritis,RION)患者的临床资料探讨其诊疗特征及方法。  方法:回顾性病例分析研究,对2008-08/2013-10中国人民解放军总医院17例经视力、瞳孔、眼底、视野、造影、视觉电生理、头颅核磁等检查确诊的17例24眼RION患者的临床资料进行分析。对确诊为RION患者的临床资料数据进行统计学描述。  结

  4. Test and verification of dosimetric characteristics of Monaco treatment planning system%Monaco治疗计划系统的剂量学性能测试验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭跃信; 王海洋; 马阳光; 贾飞; 刘乐乐; 王芳娜

    2016-01-01

    目的:对Monaco治疗计划系统(Treatment Planning System,TPS)进行临床使用前的剂量学性能测试,验证TPS不同类型射野计划计算剂量与计划执行时加速器的实际递送剂量间的差异是否符合标准.方法:所用设备为医科达公司Axesse直线加速器,配置Agility型多叶光栅;Monaco TPS版本号5.0,剂量计算模型为Monto Carlo;IBA公司Dose 1剂 量仪、0.6 cc电离室和Matrixx电离室矩阵.依据IAEA 430号和AAPM TG-53号报告、科室设备和验证工具,从医科达公司网站下载ExpressQA Plan测试包,其中的测试例涵盖规则野、不规则野和模拟病人头颈部肿瘤调强野.在MonacoTPS系统中分别调用测试例,将计划分别移植到模体上,创建验证计划,将计算验证计划所得剂量分布输出到Matrixx软件OmniPro I'mRT,将计划计算剂量与Matrixx实际所测剂量进行比对和分析.剂量验证通过标准是绝对量3mm/3%,γ通过率超过90%.结果:所有测试例剂量验证结果均达到了93%以上.结论:Monaco TPS可以安全地用于临床.

  5. Characteristics of acute poisoning in children and advances in the diagnosis and treatment%小儿急性中毒的特点和诊治进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱素云

    2010-01-01

    Acute poisoning in children is closely related with the surrounding environment. In China,acute poisoning in children,mainly caused by wrong intake of pesticides,drugs and rodenticide,still leads to high mortality in severe acute poisoning cases. Particular emphasis on safe storage of drugs and toxic chemicals mentioned above may reduce poisoning accidents at the source. Of the suspected poisoning cases, besides the detailed medical history and physical examination, poison identification is the most direct and objective method to confirm the diagnosis and evaluate the poisoning severity. Timely diagnosis, appropriate antidote use, extensive application of blood purification therapy, and emphasis on supportive therapy remain critical for the successful treatment. Accurate and comprehensive clinical epidemiological data are considered to be of informative value to identifying poisoning of different regions, ages and sexes.%儿童急性中毒的发生与周围环境密切相关.我国儿童急性中毒以农药、药物和灭鼠药为主,主要因误服误食所致,重症急性中毒的病死率仍较高.加强对药物和上述毒物的管理,可以从源头减少中毒机会.对疑似中毒的患儿,除详细询问病史和查体外,多数情况下毒物鉴定是明确有元中毒和病情严重程度最直接、客观的方法.及时诊断、合理使用解毒药物、普及血液净化治疗技术、重视支持疗法是成功救治的关键.准确而全面的临床流行病学资料有助于对地区性、年龄阶段性及不同性别的中毒起到警示作用.

  6. 儿童分泌性中耳炎的临床特点及治疗方案的探讨%investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment programs of secretory otitis media in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨讨儿童分泌性中耳炎的临床特点及不同治疗方案的治疗效果。方法:选择2009年至2013年收入住院治疗的308名分泌性中耳炎儿童,其中运用药物治疗的106例,传统开刀手术手术治疗96例,微创腔镜手术治疗106例。收集308例患者的临床资料,回顾性分析其临床特点及三种治疗后的效果。结果:儿童渗出性中耳炎易反复发作,本组患儿每年发作2次以上者有156例(50.7%),通过三中不同的治疗方案处理后,患儿的听力显著提高(P<0.05)。结论:认识儿童分泌性中耳炎的临床特点,了解药物治疗和外科治疗皆对儿童分泌性中耳炎有效。%Objective:To investigate the characteristic of secretory otitis media(SOM)in children and to evaluate therapeutic ef2ficacy of different treatment plans.Methods Select the 2009-2013 income of 308 hospitalized children with secretory otitis media.Of which 106 cases of the use medication.96 cases use traditional surgery.106 cases use minimal y invasive endoscopic surgery.Col ected 308 cases of patients with clinical data were retrospectively analyzed the clinical features and results of the three treatment.Results Children with recurrent otitis media with effusioneasily, this group of children with seizures were more than two times a year there are 156 cases (50.7%),after the passage of three different treatment regimens, hearing of children significantly increased (P<0.05) Conclusion Recognizing the clinical characteristics of children with secretory otitis media, understanding medication and surgical treatment are effective in children with secretory otitis media.

  7. 《丹溪心法》气血痰郁四伤学说在杂病治疗中的运用特色%"Danxi Xinfa" the Main Academic Point of View and Medication Characteristics of Miscellaneous Diseases Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄爱文; 王英; 江凌圳; 李荣群

    2015-01-01

    Objective] In this paper, it makes a discussion about the main academic point of view and medication characteristics of miscellaneous diseases treatment of "Danxi Xinfa". [Methods] This article analyzes Zhu Danxi's main academic point of view and medication characteristics of miscellaneous diseases treatment from the theory of qi, blood, phlegm, stagnation in detail, combined with the original text of "Danxi Xinfa".[Results] The theory of qi, blood, phlegm, stagnation reflects the exact pathological changes of miscellaneous diseases, and it has some representation in the diagnosis and treatment of miscellaneous diseases. "Danxi Xinfa" reflects this academic point of view. [Conclusion] The book "Danxi Xinfa" fully reflects the experiences of miscellaneous diseases treatment, and it has important guidance to physicians.%[目的]探析《丹溪心法》气血痰郁四伤学说治疗杂病的学术观点及用药特色。[方法]从气血论治、痰证论治、郁证论治三个方面分别进行详细论述,并结合《丹溪心法》原文对朱丹溪气血痰郁四伤学说治疗杂病的学术观点及用药特色进行探究。[结果]气、血、痰、郁四伤学说能确切地反映杂病的病理变化,因而在杂病的辨证论治中具有一定的代表性,《丹溪心法》中较好地体现了这一学术观点。[结论]《丹溪心法》一书全面反映了朱丹溪气血痰郁四伤学说治疗杂病的经验,对后世医家治疗杂病有着重要的指导作用。

  8. Clinical characteristics and treatment of primary hepatic lymphoma%原发性肝淋巴瘤的临床特点及治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翠翠; 王华庆; 钱正子; 张会来; 邱立华; 周世勇

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨原发性肝淋巴瘤(primary hepatic lymphoma,PHL)的临床特征、诊治要点及预后.方法 回顾性分析天津市肿瘤医院2005年4月至2010年9月收治的6例PHL患者的临床资料,并结合国内外文献进行分析.结果 6例患者中位发病年龄为57岁,男女之比为2:1.首发症状主要为上腹部疼痛、发热.6例均经病理学诊断为非霍奇金淋巴瘤.1例单纯手术治疗(术后失访).5例术后行CHOP或CHOP样方案化疗,2例健在,2例死亡,1例失访.结论 PHL极罕见,临床和影像学表现不典型,易误诊.对肝脏占位性病变伴上腹部不适或发热者,应警惕PHL的可能.其最终确诊依赖组织病理学检查.PHL病理类型主要为非霍奇金淋巴瘤,其中以弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤最常见.目前尚缺乏标准治疗方法.可选择包括手术、化放疗、生物治疗等在内的综合治疗模式.%Objectives To investigate the clinical features,diagnosis,treatment and prognosis of primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL).Methods A retrospective study was carried out on the clinical records of 6 patients with primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) treated at the Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital from April 2005 to September 2010.The domestic and foreign medical literatures were reviewed.Results For the 6 patients with PHL,the median age was 57 years (range 31-78 years).The male-to-female ratio was 2: 1.The most common initial symptoms were abdominal pain and fever.Serum transaminase,lactate dehydrogenase and β2-microglobulin levels were elevated in 4 of 6 patients.For the 3 patients who were tested for alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen levels,the results were normal.None of the patients had a history of hepatitis or cirrhosis.The diagnosis was non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.A R0 resection was carried out in 1 patient who was lost to follow-up soon after surgery.A R2 resection was carried out in another patient.The remaining 4 patients received liver biopsy.Five patients were

  9. Treatment Characteristics of Saline Domestic Wastewater by Constructed Wetland%人工湿地处理含盐生活污水的特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高锋; 杨朝晖; 李晨; 金卫红; 邓一兵

    2012-01-01

    将人工湿地应用于含盐生活污水处理,在0%、0.5%、1.0%、1.5%、2.0%等不同进水NaCl盐度水平下,研究了进水盐度对人工湿地运行效果及基质微生物数量和酶活性的影响,结果表明,当进水盐度在1.5%及以下时,人工湿地运行受盐度的影响较小,对COD的去除率保持在68.3%以上,对NH4^+-N的去除率保持在66.1%以上.当进水盐度达到2.0%,人工湿地基质中细菌、真菌、放线菌和硝化细菌的数量明显减少,基质脲酶、纤维素酶活性也相应下降,导致人工湿地对污染物的去除率也随之下降,其中COD去除率降低至52.9%,NH4^+-N去除率降低至50.3%.实验进一步研究了在1.5%进水盐度下人工湿地的水力条件对净化效果的影响.结果表明,相对于有机物,氮的去除受HRT的影响更大,当人工湿地的HRT由3~5 d降低至2 d时,NH4^+-N的去除率从65.1%~78.2%降至47.1%.%A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetland(CW) to remove pollutants from saline domestic sewage.The experimental results indicated that the effects of salinity on the contaminant removal were insignificant when the influent salinities of the CWs were less than or equal to 1.5%.For the influent salinity of 0%,0.5%,1.0% and 1.5%,the average removal rates of the CWs were found to be above 68.3% for COD and above 66.1% for NH+4-N.When the influent salinity was increased to 2.0%,the individual numbers of microorganisms in the CW reduced obviously.It was similar to the change of the soil enzyme activity in the CW.Then the removal efficiency of the CW also dropped significantly.The average removal rate of COD and NH+4-N dropped to 52.9% and 50.3%,respectively.The effects of HRT on the treatment performance of CW under the saline condition of 1.5% were also investigated in this study.And the results showed that nitrogen removal was more greatly affected by HRT than organic matter removal.The NH+4-N removal

  10. 中耳畸形10例临床特点及治疗%Clinical characteristics and treatment of 10 patients with malformation of middle ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 张建; 俞杰; 沈志森

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析中耳畸形的临床和听力学特征,手术探查明确中耳畸形具体形式,观察重建听骨链改善听力的效果。方法10例中耳畸形患者均行鼓室探查术。8例同时行听骨链重建(2例放弃),其中5例采用植入部分人工听骨( PORP)的鼓室成形术,2例采用植入全人工听骨( TORP)的鼓室成形术,1例采用镫骨足板开窗+人工镫骨植入术,1例行鼓岬开窗+人工听骨植入。结果术中发现砧骨畸形最多见,共9例,表现为砧骨长脚发育不全、豆状突缺失;其次是镫骨结构畸形并固定1例,镫骨仅存底板但可正常活动2例,镫骨畸形伴面神经畸形2例,另有1例前庭窗及面神经不能辨认。听力重建后患者听力满意,言语频率气导平均提高27.79 dB。结论中耳畸形的明确诊断依靠鼓室探查术,一定条件下植入PORP的手术效果最为理想。(中国眼耳鼻喉科杂志,2015,15:25-27)%Objective To analyze the diagnosis and treatment of malformation of middle ear .Methods Ten patients were involved in the study .Exploratory tympanotomy was undergone in all patients and 8 patients of which accepted the reconstruction of ossicular chain .Partial replacement prosthesis ( PORP) was used in 5 patients, total replacement prosthesis(TORP) was used in 2 patients, fenestration of stapes footplate with stapes prosthesis in 1 patient and fenestration of promontory of tympanum with prosthesis in 1 patient.Results Exploratory tympanotomy showed a variety of abnormalities of the middle ear which were difficult to identify preoperatively , despite of the modern imaging techniques.Hearing thresholds were obtained without severe complication occurrence . Conclusions Exploratory tympanotomy is essential to identify congenital conductive hearing loss and PORP implantation provides the optimal way for reconstruction of ossicular chain .

  11. 豆浆处理工艺改善内酯豆腐的质构特性%Treatment technology of soy milk improving texture characteristics of lactone tofu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于滨; 王喜波

    2014-01-01

    Tofu is a nutritional, gel-like soy food. Its preparation generally includes soaking and grinding of soybeans in water, filtering, boiling and coagulation of soy milk, molding and pressing in the same basic methods. It is consumed in significant amounts in Asian countries like China and Japan because of their inexpensive, high quality protein. Because of its bland taste, the textural properties markedly influence its food quality and consumer acceptability. The textural properties are governed by soy milk concentration, coagulant type and concentration, gelation pressure and temperature, and gelation time. The textural properties of tofu also varied with the density of the gel network, the size of protein granules in the network from microscopic view. The particle size of soy milk was changed by some treatments to improve the texture characteristics of lactone tofu. Effect of plate gap (10-30μm), ultrasound power (1-3 W/g) and homogenate speed (1 000-5 000 r/min) on texture characteristics of lactone tofu were studied in this article. The results showed that treatment with colloid mill significantly (p<0.05) increased elasticity and cohesion of lactone tofu. However, grinding for longer time lowered hardness of lactone tofu under the condition of plate gap of 10μm. Treatment of soy milk for 2 min under the plate gap of 10μm effectively improved the quality and texture characteristics of lactone tofu. Hardness and elasticity of lactone tofu all offered upgrade firstly then descending latter tendency under different intensities of ultrasound power. Cohesion of lactone tofu was decreased significantly (p<0.05) by ultrasound treatments. Treatment with ultrasound powder of 2 W/g for 3 min exhibited better quality of lactone tofu. All texture characteristics of lactone tofu showed descending following its ascending under homogenate conditions. Soy milk treated by homogenate at 1 000 r/min for 8 min was better choice. By multi-index comprehensive evaluation of Topsis

  12. Enterocutaneous fistulas and Crohn's disease: Clinical characteristics and response to treatment Fístulas enterocutáneas en la enfermedad de Crohn: características clínicas y respuesta al tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gómez-Senent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the low prevalence of enterocutaneous fistulas (ECF in patients with Crohn's disease (CD justifies the scarcity of studies that analyze the effect of medical treatment and the need for surgery in these patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with CD who have ECF and the response to different treatments. Materials and methods: patients with CD who presented ECF fistula between 1970 and 2009 in three tertiary centers in Spain were analyzed retrospectively for their clinical characteristics, response to treatment as well as the correlation between the response to biological therapies for ECF and perianal disease. The inflammatory activity of the disease was measured using the Harvey-Bradshaw index. The definitions of partial or complete response were based on the treating physician's judgment. Results: twenty six patients were included (18 women; in more than half of cases (67%, anti-TNF treatment improved fistula drainage. Postoperative fistulas responded better to anti-TNF treatment than did spontaneous fistulas (80 versus 57%. One hundred percent and 60% of spontaneous and postoperative fistulas closed after surgery, respectively. Conclusions: although the majority of patients required surgery as the ultimate treatment, anti-TNF drugs improved fistula output in an acceptable percentage of patients who were treated. Therefore, this may be a treatment strategy prior to surgery in a select group of patients.Introducción: la baja prevalencia de las fístulas enterocutáneas (FEC en los pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn (EC justifica la escasez de estudios que analicen el efecto del tratamiento médico y la necesidad de cirugía en estos pacientes. El objetivo del presente estudio ha sido evaluar las características clínicas de los pacientes con EC que presentan FEC y la repuesta a los distintos tratamientos. Material y métodos: se analizaron retrospectivamente los pacientes con

  13. 原发性卵巢淋巴瘤的临床特点及治疗%Clinical characteristics and treatment of primary ovarian malignant lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 王华庆; 王平

    2013-01-01

    to 5 pa-tients. Until now, 5 patients were alive, 6 patients died, and only one patient was lost to follow up after therapy. Conclusion:POL is an extremely rare lymphoma. The ultimate diagnosis depends on histopathologic examination. Primary ovarian non-Hodgkin lymphoma should be treated with multi-modality strategies. Treatment with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy after oophorotomy is recommended. B cell lymphoma preferred to use rituximab combination chemotherapy. Abdominal cavity chemotherapy prophylaxis and irradiation can decrease the probability for recurrence .

  14. High-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the US Department of Energy eenvironmental management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S.M.; Conzelmann, G.; Gillette, J.L.; Kier, P.H.; Poch, L.A.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides data and information needed to support the risk and impact assessments of high-level waste (HLW) management alternatives in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Available data on the physical form, chemical and isotopic composition, storage locations, and other waste characteristics of interest are presented. High-level waste management follows six implementation phases: current storage, retrieval, pretreatment, treatment, interim canister storage, and geologic repository disposal; pretreatment, treatment, and repository disposal are outside the scope of the WM PEIS. Brief descriptions of current and planned HLW management facilities are provided, including information on the type of waste managed in the facility, costs, product form, resource requirements, emissions, and current and future status. Data sources and technical and regulatory assumptions are identified. The range of HLW management alternatives (including decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches) is described. The required waste management facilities include expanded interim storage facilities under the various alternatives. Resource requirements for construction (e.g., land and materials) and operation (e.g., energy and process chemicals), work force, costs, effluents, design capacities, and emissions are presented for each alternative.

  15. 脑膜炎并脑积水临床特点及治疗措施分析%Analysis of clinical characteristics and treatment measures of meningitis complicating with hydrocephalus

    Institute of Scienti