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Sample records for characteristics glycaemia treatment

  1. Intraperitoneal insulin infusion : treatment option for type 1 diabetes resulting in beneficial endocrine effects beyond glycaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, P R; Logtenberg, S J J; Gans, R O B; Bilo, H J G; Kleefstra, N

    2014-01-01

    Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) is a treatment option for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who fail to reach adequate glycaemic control despite intensive subcutaneous (SC) insulin therapy. CIPII has clear advantages over SC insulin administration in terms of pharmacokinetic

  2. Optimizing management of glycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sudesna; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J

    2016-06-01

    The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) continues largely unabated due to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle and obesogenic environment. A cost-effective patient-centred approach, incorporating glucose-lowering therapy and modification of cardiovascular risk factors, could help prevent the inevitable development and progression of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Glycaemic optimization requires patient structured education, self-management and empowerment, and psychological support along with early and proactive use of glucose lowering therapies, which should be delivered in a system of care as shown by the Chronic Care Model. From diagnosis, intensive glycaemic control and individualised care is aimed at reducing complications. In older people, the goal is maintaining quality of life and minimizing morbidity, especially as overtreatment increases hypoglycaemia risk. Maintaining durable glycaemic control is challenging and complex to achieve without hypoglycaemia, weight gain and other significant adverse effects. Overcoming patient and physician barriers can help ensure adequate treatment initiation and intensification. Cardiovascular safety studies with newer glucose-lowering agents are now mandatory, with a sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (empagliflozin), and two glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (liraglutide and semaglutide) being the first to demonstrate superior CV outcomes compared with placebo. PMID:27432074

  3. Evolution of glycaemia during irradiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of glycaemia following irradiation has been followed in the rat and pig. The results concerning a case of human accidental exposure have also been included. The author has tried to see whether the observed variations are reproducible and have a prognostic value. (author)

  4. Impact of postprandial glycaemia on health and prevention of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaak, E E; Antoine, J-M; Benton, D;

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial glucose, together with related hyperinsulinemia and lipidaemia, has been implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, available evidence is discussed on postprandial glucose......, or the duration of the measurement of postprandial glycaemia is limited. It is evident that more randomized controlled dietary intervention trials using effective low vs. high glucose response diets are necessary in order to draw more definite conclusions on the role of postprandial glycaemia in relation...... to health and disease. Also of importance is the evaluation of the potential role of the time course of postprandial glycaemia....

  5. Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Whole Body Vibration on Glycaemia Control in Type 2 Diabetic Males

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyar Salavati; Hamid Aghaalinejad; Lale Behboudi; Mohammad-Ali Azarbayjani

    2011-01-01

    Purpose aerobic exercise has been identified as the main treatment for type 2 diabetic patients. Such an exercise, however, is usually repined by some of patients who suffer from lack of stamina. Therefore, whole body vibration has recently been introduced as a passive intervention. The present study aimed at comparing how aerobic exercise and whole body vibration affect glycaemia control in type 2 diabetic males. Methods Thirty diabetic males were divided into three groups, namely aerobic ex...

  6. Characteristics of Empirically Supported Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donohue, William; Buchanan, Jeffrey A.; Fisher, Jane E

    2000-01-01

    This study presents a survey of general characteristics of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) identified by the American Psychological Association Division 12 Task Force on the Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Results indicate that the ESTs share the following characteristics: they involve skill building, have a specific problem focus, incorporate continuous assessment of client progress, and involve brief treatment contact, requiring 20 or fewer sessions. Traditi...

  7. Cumulative glycaemia as measured by lens fluorometry: association with retinopathy in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, I C; Larsen, M; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Glümer, C; Lund-Andersen, H; Kessel, L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between lifelong cumulative glycaemia estimated by lens fluorometry and the presence of retinopathy in individuals with type 2 diabetes.......The aim of this study was to assess the association between lifelong cumulative glycaemia estimated by lens fluorometry and the presence of retinopathy in individuals with type 2 diabetes....

  8. Profile of cortisol, glycaemia, and blood parameters of American Bullfrog tadpoles Lithobates catesbeianus exposed to density and hypoxia stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C. Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations to the physiological profile (cortisol, glycaemia, and blood parameters of Lithobates catesbeianus caused by the stressors density and hypoxia. The organisms were in the prometamorphosis stage and exposed to different tadpole densities: 1 tadpole/L (T1, 5 tadpoles/L (T2, and 10 tadpoles/L (T3 for 12 days. The blood was collected through the rupture of the caudal blood vessel and collected under normoxia (immediate collection and hypoxia (after 15 minutes of air exposure conditions. Cortisol levels rose on the fourth and eighth days of treatment and returned to basal levels by the end of the experiment. The stressor mechanisms tested did not affect glycaemia. White blood cells (total number of lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils showed a significant difference at the twelfth day of the experiment when compared with the start of the experiment. We concluded that, under controlled conditions, a density of up to 10 tadpoles/L and air exposure for 15 minutes did not cause harmful physiological alterations during the experimental period. The answer to these stressors maybe was in another hormonal level (corticosterone.

  9. Risk scores for diabetes and impaired glycaemia in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Witte, Daniel Rinse; Almdal, Thomas Peter;

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To develop risk scores for diabetes and diabetes or impaired glycaemia for individuals living in the Middle East and North Africa region. In addition, to derive national risk scores for Algeria, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates and to compare the performance of the regional risk...... between 50% and 57%. The regional and the national risk scores performed equally well in the three national samples. CONCLUSIONS: Two regional risk scores for diabetes and diabetes or impaired glycaemia applicable to the Middle East and North Africa region were identified. The regional risk scores...

  10. Effect of atorvastatin on glycaemia progression in patients with diabetes: an analysis from the Collaborative Atorvastatin in Diabetes Trial (CARDS)

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Shona J.; Looker, Helen C.; Akbar, Tahira; Betteridge, D. John; Durrington, Paul N.; Hitman, Graham A.; Neil, H Andrew W; Fuller, John H.; Colhoun, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis In an individual-level analysis we examined the effect of atorvastatin on glycaemia progression in type 2 diabetes and whether glycaemia effects reduce the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with atorvastatin. Methods The study population comprised 2,739 people taking part in the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS) who were randomised to receive atorvastatin 10 mg or placebo and who had post-randomisation HbA1c data. This secondary analysis used Cox regre...

  11. Glycaemic control: The role of nutritional intake, postprandial glycaemia, nutrition therapy adherence, and diabetes complications

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Ezequiel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analysed the associations between several clinical and psychometric variables that can determine glycaemic control: nutritional intake, barriers to nutrition therapy adherence, postprandial glycaemia, and diabetes complications perception. A group of 66 patients previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus was recruited and categorized into patients with HbA1c below 7% (proper glycaemic control) and patients with HbA1c of 7% or above (poor glycaemic control). All subje...

  12. Psoriasis: characteristics, psychosocial effects and treatment options.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Sheila

    2012-02-01

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic non-infectious inflammatory skin disease with a variety of different presentations. The classic presentation is of well-defined red plaques with silver scale. The characteristic scale makes the disorder highly visible and intrusive on the patient\\'s lifestyle. The visible nature of the disease ensures that psoriasis has both physical and psychosocial effects. In normal skin, epidermal cell reproduction and proliferation takes 28 days. In psoriasis this process is considerably accelerated to approximately 4 days, resulting in the deposit of immature cells on the skin. While the exact cause of this process is unknown, certain environmental and genetic factors are known to be triggers. Disease management depends on disease severity, psychosocial effects and the patient\\'s lifestyle. To effectively treat this disease the nurse must be skilled in psoriasis management, and in patient education and motivation. This article reviews the characteristics, aetiology, psychosocial effects and treatment strategies of psoriasis.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Characteristics, Prevention, Treatment and Long Term Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Cynthia A.; Barber, William H.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) including causes, common characteristics, secondary characteristics, prevention, and treatment. Economic implications are noted which suggest that treatment costs are 100 times the cost of prevention programs. (DB)

  14. Effects of PGX, a novel functional fibre, on acute and delayed postprandial glycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Brand-Miller, J C; Atkinson, F S; Gahler, R J; Kacinik, V; Lyon, M R; Wood, S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Viscous fibre in food has established health benefits, but few functional fibre preparations are both effective and palatable. Our objective was to determine the most effective dose, formulation and timing of consumption of a novel fibre supplement (PolyGlycopleX (PGX)) in reducing postprandial glycaemia. Subjects/methods: Three trials were undertaken, each with 10 subjects (8M and 8F; age 24.4±2.6 years). Granular supplement was tested at four doses (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g) with b...

  15. Postprandial Levels of Branch Chained and Aromatic Amino Acids Associate with Fasting Glycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosson, Filip; Ericson, Ulrika; Almgren, Peter; Nilsson, Jeanette; Magnusson, Martin; Fernandez, Céline; Melander, Olle

    2016-01-01

    High fasting plasma concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine have been associated with increased risk of hyperglycaemia and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Whether these associations are diet or metabolism driven is unknown. We examined how the dietary protein source affects the postprandial circulating profile of these three diabetes associated amino acids (DMAAs) and tested whether the postprandial DMAA profiles are associated with fasting glycaemia. We used a crossover design with twenty-one healthy individuals and four different isocaloric test meals, containing proteins from different dietary sources (dairy, fish, meat, and plants). Analysis of the postprandial DMAAs concentrations was performed using targeted mass spectrometry. A DMAA score was defined as the sum of all the three amino acid concentrations. The postprandial area under the curve (AUC) of all the three amino acids and the DMAA score was significantly greater after intake of the meal with dairy protein compared to intake of the three other meals. The postprandial AUC for the DMAA score and all the three amino acids strongly associated with fasting glucose level and insulin resistance. This indicates the importance of the postprandial kinetics and metabolism of DMAAs in understanding the overall association between DMAAs and glycaemia. PMID:27274867

  16. Adolescent female murderers: characteristics and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique

    2007-07-01

    This study examines individual and family characteristics of a population of 29 adolescent females charged with homicide or attempted homicide in the juvenile justice system. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the limited knowledge about adolescent females charged with homicide. Data were collected including the MAYSI-2, a risk classification instrument, and social, educational and family histories. Findings include high rates of reported substance use, delinquent peers, early indicators of mental health problems, and limited control and supervision by parents. The most common weapon used was a car and the most common victim was a known person. A comparison was conducted on girls charged with homicide during the commission of another crime or committed during a conflict. The conflict group was found to victimize friends and family significantly more often than the crime group. The crime group showed higher use of alcohol and drugs, used a gun more and had co-offenders at a higher rate. A profile was developed to describe the typical adolescent female homicide offender found in this study. Treatment recommendations and future research were discussed. PMID:17696677

  17. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Malignant Granuloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjin Feng; Junbing Guo; Yong Chen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyse the clinical characteristics of malignant granuloma(MG) and evaluate its treatment.METHODS From March 1985 to May 1998, 101 cases of malignant granuloma were treated with radiation (RT) alone or radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy or chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. For chemotherapy, a CCNU, COMP (CTX, VCR, MTX, PDN) or CHOP (CTX,ADM, VCR, PDN) regimen was given. Radiation was directed through the anterior field of the nose mainly for nasal and paranasal sinus malignant granuloma, and through the faciocervical field for malignant granuloma of Walderyer's ring or for patients with cervical lymphadenectasis. Total dose was 45-65 Gy over 5-6 weeks.RESULTS The overall 3-year, 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 78.2%, 56.1% and 39.7% respectively. The 5-year survival rate was: RT group 60.3%, RT + CHOP or CHOP + RT group 64.7% (P >0.05), RT +CCNU group 40%, and RT + COMP group 33.3%. The 5-year survival rates of patients with one involved focus and more than 2 involved foci were 75.6%(34/45) and 39.3% (22/56) (P<0.001). The 5-year survival rates of patients with or without body symptoms were 39.6% (18/48) and 67.9%(36/53) (P<0.05). The 5-year survival rate of the 50-60 Gy group and the <50Gy group were 60.1% (40/66) and 20% (1/5)(P <0.05). The local and regional recurrence rate was 20.8 % (21/101 ).CONCLUSION Radiotherapy alone should be the treatment of choice for patients with one site involvement and without body symptoms. Radiation fields should be large enough to include the potentially involved sites. The recommended dose is 50-60 Gy over 5-6 weeks. It is suggested that patients with more than 2 foci involvement and those with body symptoms should receive the combination therapy.

  18. Berries and anthocyanins: promising functional food ingredients with postprandial glycaemia-lowering effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Acosta, Monica L; Lenihan-Geels, Georgia N; Corpe, Christopher P; Hall, Wendy L

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is predicted to reach unprecedented levels in the next few decades. In addition to excess body weight, there may be other overlapping dietary drivers of impaired glucose homeostasis that are associated with an obesogenic diet, such as regular exposure to postprandial spikes in blood glucose arising from diets dominated by highly refined starches and added sugars. Strategies to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia by optimising the functionality of foods would strengthen efforts to reduce the risk of T2D. Berry bioactives, including anthocyanins, are recognised for their inhibitory effects on carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption. Regular consumption of berries has been associated with a reduction in the risk of T2D. This review aims to examine the evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies, showing that berries and berry anthocyanins may act in the gut to modulate postprandial glycaemia. Specifically, berry extracts and anthocyanins inhibit the activities of pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase in the gut lumen, and interact with intestinal sugar transporters, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and GLUT2, to reduce the rate of glucose uptake into the circulation. Growing evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that berry extracts, purées and nectars acutely inhibit postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia following oral carbohydrate loads. Evidence to date presents a sound basis for exploring the potential for using berries/berry extracts as an additional stratagem to weight loss, adherence to dietary guidelines and increasing physical exercise, for the prevention of T2D. PMID:27170557

  19. Etiological characteristics and treatment of tardive dyskinesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Li; Xueli Sun; Che Zhou

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The pathogenesis of tardive dyskinesia(TD)is complicated and uncertain.Thus,there is not any effective treatment for it.The psychiatrists pay more and more attention to TD,which lasts for a long time and is difficult to treat.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of Medline database was undertaken to jdentify articles about the feature of etiology and the progression of treatment for TD published in English by using the keywords of"TD,etiology.pathogenesis"and"TD,therapy,drug treatment".Meanwhile,Chinese articles about the feature of etiologY and the progression of treatment for TD were searched in Wanfang database and China joumal full-text database,and the keywords were"TD,etiology,pathogenesis"and"TD,therapy,drug Treatment".-in Chinese.STUDY SELECTION:Articles met the following inclusion cdteda were selected in this paper.Inclusion cdteda:①Researches of randomized blind control design,before and after control design and retrospective.②Researches of the feature of etiology and the progression of treatment for TD.Exclusion cdteda:the repetitive researches and individual reports,DATA EXTRACTION:Totally 65 articles related the feature of etiology and the progression of treatment for TD of randomized blind control design,before and after control design and retrospective studies were collected,and 53 of them were accorded with the inclusion criteda.Of the 12 excluded ones,8 were concerning with genetics,4 were repetitive researches.DATA SYNTHESIS:The feature of etiology for TD includes:①Hypothesis of dopamine receptor super-sensitivity:The dopamine recaptor is persistently blocked,so it wi¨result in functional disorder in CNS,and then TD may take place.②Hypothesis of neuronal degeneration:The concentration of aminosucoinic acid and glutamic acid wi¨;ncrease after the antipsychotic used for a Iong time and this wilI result in neuronal degeneration through glutamic acid receptor in the postsynaptic membrane;meanwhile with free radical

  20. [Comparative study of the effect of fasting during Ramadan on the glycaemia at rest in sportsmen and sedentaries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, A; Samb, A; Seck, D; Kane, M O; Seck, M B; Sarr, F B; Ciss, M; Gueye, L; Cisse, F

    2005-01-01

    The fast of Ramadan submits body to transient metabolic modifications; and decrease of glycaemia can be one of results. Physical exercise modifies rate of plasmatic hormones responsible for its regulation. The purpose of this study is to appreciate the influence of the fast on this biologic parameter in sportsmen and sedentaries. Thirty (30) healthy subjects (15 sportsmen of stamina and 15 sedentaries), with 25 years of average age were recruited. They have all a comparable diet. We excluded subjects having practised a physical exercise the day of the test. Capillary glycaemia was measured after weighed and physical exam, in 2 periods: in second Ramadan's fortnight, 15 minutes before food intake, two (2) months after Ramadan at least 4 hours at distance of the last meal. Comparisons were remitted in the test of Student, significant for p value lower than 0.05. During Ramadan, the glycaemia of the sportsmen at rest, is at one exception always superior or equal to that of the sedentaries. However, there is non significant difference as much during the fast as in normal food intake. Respective averages are 4.6 mmol/l, 0.15 and 4.5 mmol/l, 0.01 during Ramadan. They cross then in 4.8 mmol/l, 0.2 and 4.8 mmol/l, 0.4 in normal food intake. Landmark, the comparison of the averages from period to the other one in every group shows a significant difference only for the sedentaries. The return to normal food intake was expressed by an important gain in weight for all subjects. The fast of Ramadan has no notorious influence on sportsman's glycaemia contrary to that of sedentary. In other words, the sportsman administers better his stocks of glucose. Previous works however strongly advised against sports practice during Ramadan and more particularly the competitions, because, exercises of strong intensity can induce dehydration. PMID:16190121

  1. Chronic migraine--classification, characteristics and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Dodick, David W; Goadsby, Peter J;

    2012-01-01

    According to the revised 2nd Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, primary headaches can be categorized as chronic or episodic; chronic migraine is defined as headaches in the absence of medication overuse, occurring on =15 days per month for =3 months, of which...... headaches on =8 days must fulfill the criteria for migraine without aura. Prevalence and incidence data for chronic migraine are still uncertain, owing to the heterogeneous definitions used to identify the condition in population-based studies over the past two decades. Chronic migraine is severely...... disabling and difficult to manage, as affected patients experience substantially more-frequent headaches, comorbid pain and affective disorders, and fewer pain-free intervals, than do those with episodic migraine. Data on the treatment of chronic migraine are scarce because most migraine-prevention trials...

  2. Improving sewage wastewater characteristics using radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raw and treated sewage wastewater, collected from El-Gabal El-Asfar wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), irradiated and non-irradiated, were tested in order to determine the lethal radiation dose for total coliform and the effect of radiation on biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Various gamma radiation and electron beam doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 KGy) were used in this study. A negative relationship between the radiation dose and the total coliform population was recorded. The increase in the radiation dose was accompanied by a decrease in total coliform count. The lethal doses of gamma radiation for total coliform in raw and treated sewage wastewater were 1.5 and 1.0 KGy, respectively, whereas the lethal doses of the electron beam for total coliform in raw and treated sewage wastewater were 3.0 and 2.0 KGy, respectively. Gamma radiation resulted in a reduction of BOD and COD by about 70% whereas the electron beam resulted in 55% reduction in BOD and COD at a dose of 4 KGy. The different sources of radiation (gamma and electron beam) used in this study caused variations in the magnitude of total coliform elimination. At any radiation dose received, gamma radiation proved to be more efficient than electron beam in total coliform elimination

  3. The influence of maternal glycaemia and dietary glycaemic index on pregnancy outcome in healthy mothers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, Ciara A

    2010-07-01

    Infant birth weight has increased in Ireland in recent years along with levels of childhood overweight and obesity. The present article reviews the current literature on maternal glycaemia and the role of the dietary glycaemic index (GI) and its impact on pregnancy outcomes. It is known that maternal weight and weight gain significantly influence infant birth weight. Fetal macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal trauma to both mother and infant. Furthermore, macrosomic infants have greater risk of being obese in childhood, adolescence and adulthood compared to normal-sized infants. There is evidence that there is a direct relationship between maternal blood glucose levels during pregnancy and fetal growth and size at birth, even when maternal blood glucose levels are within their normal range. Thus, maintaining blood glucose concentrations within normal parameters during pregnancy may reduce the incidence of fetal macrosomia. Maternal diet, and particularly its carbohydrate (CHO) type and content, influences maternal blood glucose concentrations. However, different CHO foods produce different glycaemic responses. The GI was conceived by Jenkins in 1981 as a method for assessing the glycaemic responses of different CHO. Data from clinical studies in healthy pregnant women have documented that consuming a low-GI diet during pregnancy reduces peaks in postprandial glucose levels and normalises infant birth weight. Pregnancy is a physiological condition where the GI may be of particular relevance as glucose is the primary fuel for fetal growth.

  4. Client Engagement Characteristics Associated with Problem Gambling Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki A.; Cosic, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Previous research examining the factors associated with problem gambling treatment outcomes has examined client factors and to date, treatment characteristics, therapist factors, and client-therapist interactions have essentially remained unexplored. This study aimed to investigate how client engagement variables (client-rated therapeutic…

  5. Characteristics of Transgender Individuals Entering Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Flentje, A; Heck, NC; Sorensen, JL

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13,440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007 to 2009 using logistic and linear...

  6. Characteristics of Transgender Individuals Entering Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C.; Sorensen, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007–2009 using logistic and linear reg...

  7. Characteristics of transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Flentje, A; Heck, NC; Sorensen, JL

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13,440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007 to 2009 using logistic and linear...

  8. Patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, drug treatment history and characteristics of addicts in methadone maintenance treatment in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shekarchizadeh Hajar; Ekhtiari Hamed; Khami Mohammad R; Virtanen Jorma I

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form w...

  9. General characteristics of dental morbidity in children against orthodontic treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Kovach I.V.; Lavrenyuk Y.V.

    2016-01-01

    A wide spread of orthodontic treatment showed a fairly high risk of complications developed from the use of various devices. The aim of our study was to determine the general characteristics of dental morbidity in children with orthodontic treatment. According to the survey the most common pathologies in children with orthodontic problems are dental caries (87,8-92,9%) and chronic catarrhal gingivitis (81.2-84.1%). The prevalence of different types of diseases of the mucous membrane and soft ...

  10. Evolution of glycaemia during irradiation syndrome; Evolution de la glycemie au cours du syndrome d'irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisonnier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-15

    The evolution of glycaemia following irradiation has been followed in the rat and pig. The results concerning a case of human accidental exposure have also been included. The author has tried to see whether the observed variations are reproducible and have a prognostic value. (author) [French] L'evolution de la glycemie a ete suivie, chez le rat et le porc, apres irradiation. Les resultats relatifs a une irradiation accidentelle humaine sont egalement rapportes. L'auteur cherche a definir si les variations observees sont reproductibles et ont une valeur pronostique. (auteur)

  11. [Comparative study of postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients after consumption of mono- and disaccharides and sweeteners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Meshcheriakova, V A; Plotnikova, O A; Gapparov, M G

    2002-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of mono- and disaccharides, sugar alcohols, honey, corn patoka and products with nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners on dynamic of postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients. After ingestion of 30 g fructose, blood glucose did not show a marked increase in comparison with sucrose or honey. After ingestion of 30 g sorbitol or isomalt, blood glucose curve was not significantly different. It was indicated that corn patoka in chewing candies with isomalt has a high hyperglycaemic effect whereas drink with nonnutritive sweeteners did not change blood glucose from fasting levels. PMID:12125470

  12. [Influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Gapparov, M M; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Shlelenko, L A; Tiurina, O E; Rabotkin, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was shown that consumption of breads with use of barley and buckwheat flours is accompanied less marked postprandial glycaemic reaction in compared with standard loading of carbohydrates (wheat bread). Also it was noted greater increase of postprandial glycaemia in consumption of bread with use of barley flakes in compared with consumption of wheat bread inclusive equivalent amount of carbohydrates. PMID:19999818

  13. Clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment for pelvic cryptorchid seminoma

    OpenAIRE

    Li; Coucke, Philippe; Qian,, S.J..; Huang, Yi-Rong; Gu, Da-Zhong; Mirimanoff, René-Olivier; Yu, Zi-Hao

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the clinical characteristics, prognosis, and treatment outcome of pelvic cryptorchid seminoma (PCS), and to determine whether whole abdominal-pelvic irradiation for Stage I disease is necessary. Methods and Materials: From 1958 to 1991,60 patients with PCS were treated at the Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing. They presented with a lower abdominal mass and showed a predominance for the right side. A high proportion of patients with...

  14. Characteristics and Treatment Programmes of Adolescent Sexual Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    CANKURTARAN ÖNTAŞ, Doç. Dr. Özlem

    2010-01-01

    Modern childhood approach provided that juvenile offenders are treated different form adult. This article is given information about theoritical expalanation, characteristics, treatment programmes of adolescent sexual offenders. There are two explanation about causes of juvenile sexual offenders. One of model is Ryan, Lane, Davis ve Lsaac (1987)’s sexual abuse cycle. This model assert that when adolescent meet negative reflections, He has negative self concept then has negative coping strateg...

  15. Characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimen and treatment adherence

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimens and treatment adherence was studied in adolescent and adult patients who underwent antiretroviral therapy from January 1998 to September 2000, at the Service for Specialized Assistance in Pelotas. The patients were interviewed on two occasions, and the use of antiretrovirals during the previous 48 hours was investigated by a self-report. Adherence was defined as use of 95% or more of the prescribed medication. Social-demo...

  16. Characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimen and treatment adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia da Silveira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimens and treatment adherence was studied in adolescent and adult patients who underwent antiretroviral therapy from January 1998 to September 2000, at the Service for Specialized Assistance in Pelotas. The patients were interviewed on two occasions, and the use of antiretrovirals during the previous 48 hours was investigated by a self-report. Adherence was defined as use of 95% or more of the prescribed medication. Social-demographic variables were collected through direct questionnaires. The antiretroviral regimen and clinical data were copied from the patients' records. Associations between the independent variables and adherence were analyzed by means of logistic regression. The multivariate analysis included characteristics of the antiretroviral regimens, social-demographic variables, as well as perception of negative effects, negative physiological states, and adverse effects of the treatment. Among the 224 selected patients, 194 participated in our study. Their ages varied from 17 to 67 years; most patients were men, with few years of schooling and a low family income. Only 49% adhered to the treatment. Adherence to treatment regimens was reduced when more daily doses were indicated: three to four doses (odds ratio of adherence to treatment (OR=0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.22-1.01 and five to six (OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.09-0.62; two or more doses taken in a fasting state (OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.11-0.68, and for patients who reported adverse effects to the treatment (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.19-0.77. Most of the regimens with more than two daily doses of medication included at least one dose apart from mealtimes. The results suggest that, if possible, regimens with a reduced number of doses should be chosen, with no compulsory fasting, and with few adverse effects. Strategies to minimize these effects should be discussed with the patients.

  17. A review of greywater characteristics and treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyjoo, Yash; Pareek, Vishnu K; Ang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of different characteristics of greywater (GW) and current treatment methods. GW is domestic wastewater excluding toilet waste and can be classified as either low-load GW (excluding kitchen and laundry GW) or high-load GW (including kitchen and/or laundry). This review provides information on the quantity of GW produced, its constituents (macro and micro), existing guidelines for wastewater reuse, current treatment methods (from storage to disinfection) as well as related costs and environmental impacts. Moreover some successful examples from various countries around the world are examined. The current preferred treatments for GW use physical and biological/natural systems. Recently, chemical systems like coagulation, adsorption and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been considered and have been successful for low to moderate strength GW. The presence of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOC), which are hazardous micropollutants in GW, is emphasised. Since conventional treatments are not efficient at removing XOC, it is recommended that future studies look at chemical treatment, especially AOPs that have been found to be successful at mineralising recalcitrant organic compounds in wastewater. PMID:23552228

  18. Neuroendocrine disruption in the shore crab Carcinus maenas: Effects of serotonin and fluoxetine on chh- and mih-gene expression, glycaemia and ecdysteroid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandrine; Monsinjon, Tiphaine; Delbecque, Jean-Paul; Olivier, Stéphanie; Poret, Agnès; Foll, Frank Le; Durand, Fabrice; Knigge, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Serotonin, a highly conserved neurotransmitter, controls many biological functions in vertebrates, but also in invertebrates. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine, are commonly used in human medication to ease depression by affecting serotonin levels. Their residues and metabolites can be detected in the aquatic environment and its biota. They may also alter serotonin levels in aquatic invertebrates, thereby perturbing physiological functions. To investigate whether such perturbations can indeed be expected, shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) were injected either with serotonin, fluoxetine or a combination of both. Dose-dependent effects of fluoxetine ranging from 250 to 750nM were investigated. Gene expression of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) as well as moult inhibiting hormone (mih) was assessed by RT-qPCR at 2h and 12h after injection. Glucose and ecdysteroid levels in the haemolymph were monitored in regular intervals until 12h. Serotonin led to a rapid increase of chh and mih expression. On the contrary, fluoxetine only affected chh and mih expression after several hours, but kept expression levels significantly elevated. Correspondingly, serotonin rapidly increased glycaemia, which returned to normal or below normal levels after 12h. Fluoxetine, however, resulted in a persistent low-level increase of glycaemia, notably during the period when negative feedback regulation reduced glycaemia in the serotonin treated animals. Ecdysteroid levels were significantly decreased by serotonin and fluoxetine, with the latter showing less pronounced and less rapid, but longer lasting effects. Impacts of fluoxetine on glycaemia and ecdysteroids were mostly observed at higher doses (500 and 750nM) and affected principally the response dynamics, but not the amplitude of glycaemia and ecdysteroid-levels. These results suggest that psychoactive drugs are able to disrupt neuroendocrine control in decapod crustaceans, as they interfere with the

  19. Characteristics of integrated biological aerated filter in municipal wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qiang; ZHANG Yu-ping; XU Jian-bin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of integrated biological aerated filter (IBAF) applied to municipal wastewater treatment were studied in a pilot scale experiment. The experimental results showed that IBAF has high efficiencies in removing organic pollutants, such as CODCr and SS, in municipal wastewater. The removal rates of CODCr and SS can reach over 90% and 80%, respectively, when COD and SS in the influent are 234 mg L-1 and 112 mg L-1, hydraulic retention time (HRT) is 8 h, and the aerated intensity is in the range of (0.5 to 0.6) L m-2 s-1.

  20. General characteristics of dental morbidity in children against orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovach I.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A wide spread of orthodontic treatment showed a fairly high risk of complications developed from the use of various devices. The aim of our study was to determine the general characteristics of dental morbidity in children with orthodontic treatment. According to the survey the most common pathologies in children with orthodontic problems are dental caries (87,8-92,9% and chronic catarrhal gingivitis (81.2-84.1%. The prevalence of different types of diseases of the mucous membrane and soft tissues of the oral cavity in children surveyed was 30.5-32.9%. Non-caries lesions of dental hard tissues occurred in 39.5-40.9% of the children surveyed, local enamel hypoplasia was observed in 42.9%, systemic enamel hypoplasia made up 17.8%, signs of hypersensitivity of enamel were found in 9.6%, and the wedge defects – in two children.

  1. CHARACTERISTIC AND TREATMENT OF ISOLATED TUBERCULOSIS OF THE PANCREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Isolated tuberculosis of pancreas is very rare clinical entity. Since 1970, we have treated 9 patients, 3 men and 6 women (average 48.3 years), with isolated tuberculosis of pancreas. 2 patients were diagnosed as pancreatic tuberculosis, 1 patient pancreatic cyst and 6 patients pancreatic carcinoma before operation. They all underwent exploratory laparotomy, and were confirmed to be pancreatic tuberculosis by histopathology. Their common characteristics were that tuberculosis was only localized in pancreas without tuberculosis at extrapancreatic sites and that the treatment of anti-TB drugs had much effect on them. By analysis, it was considered that isolated tuberculosis of pancreas was usually mistaken for pancreatic carcinoma because it localized in pancreas, the contents of masses in pancreas should be noted carefully in order to avoid misdiagnosis and treatment of anti-TB drugs should be taken in time.

  2. Characteristics of transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C; Sorensen, James L

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13,440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007 to 2009 using logistic and linear regression analyses (run separately by identified gender). Transgender men (assigned birth sex of female) differed from cisgender men across many psychosocial factors, including having more recent employment, less legal system involvement, greater incidence of living with a substance abuser, and greater family conflict, while transgender women (assigned birth sex of male) were less likely to have minor children than cisgender women. Transgender women reported greater needle use, and HIV testing rates were greater among transgender women. Transgender men and women reported higher rates of physical health problems, mental health diagnoses, and psychiatric medications, but there were no differences in service utilization. There were no differences in substance use behaviors except that transgender women were more likely to endorse primary methamphetamine use. Transgender individuals evidence unique strengths and challenges that could inform targeted services in substance abuse treatment. PMID:24561017

  3. Characteristics of demand and psychological treatments in a university clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Labrador

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to describe the most common characteristics of patients receiving psychological treatment and the treatments administered. We analyzed a sample of 856 patients at the University Psychology Clinic of the Complutense University of Madrid. Five diagnostic categories accounted for 78.4% of demand: anxiety disorders (31.9%, no diagnosis (15.4%, other problems requiring clinical attention (14.2%, mood disorders (9.5% and adaptive disorders (7.4%. A total of 17.7% presented a comorbid diagnosis and 49.3% had received treatment previously. The mean of assessment and treatment sessions was 3.5 and 12.7, respectively. The most commonly applied techniques included psychoeducation (95.1%, cognitive restructuring (74.8%, relaxation (74.4%, and control of internal dialogue (68.1%.Of the patients that had finished contact with the clinic, 68.3% were a therapeutic success. We discuss the generalization of the results and the implications for the profession and clinical practice.

  4. Characteristics of Treatment Seeking Finnish Pathological Gamblers: Baseline Data from a Treatment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical…

  5. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Geothermal power plants use geothermal fluids as a resource and create waste residuals as part of the power generation process. Both the geofluid resource and the waste stream are considered produced fluids. The chemical and physical nature of produced fluids can have a major impact on the geothermal power industry and can influence the feasibility of geothermal power development, exploration approaches, power plant design, operating practices, and the reuse or disposal of residuals. In general, produced fluids include anything that comes out of a geothermal field and that subsequently must be managed on the surface. These fluids vary greatly depending on the geothermal reservoir being harnessed, power plant design, and the life cycle stage in which the fluid exists, but generally include water and fluids used to drill geothermal wells, fluids used to stimulate wells in enhanced geothermal systems, and makeup and/or cooling water used during operation of a geothermal power plant. Additional geothermal-related produced fluids include many substances that are similar to waste streams from the oil and gas industry, such as scale, flash tank solids, precipitated solids from brine treatment, hydrogen sulfide, and cooling-tower-related waste. This review paper aims to provide baseline knowledge on specific technologies and technology areas associated with geothermal power production. Specifically, this research focused on the management techniques related to fluids produced and used during the operational stage of a geothermal power plant; the vast majority of which are employed in the generation of electricity. The general characteristics of produced fluids are discussed. Constituents of interest that tend to drive the selection of treatment technologies are described, including total dissolved solids, noncondensable gases, scale and corrosion, silicon dioxide, metal sulfides, calcium carbonate, corrosion, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive material. Management

  6. On the possibility to affect the course of glycaemia, insulinaemia, and perceived hunger/satiety to bread meals in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Linda M N K; Björck, Inger M E; Ostman, Elin M

    2013-04-25

    Frequent hyperglycaemia is associated with oxidative stress and subclinical inflammation, and thus increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Possibilities of modulating glycaemia, insulinaemia and perceived satiety for bread products were investigated, with emphasis on the course of glycaemia expressed as a glycaemic profile (defined as the duration of the glucose curve above the fasting concentration divided by the incremental glucose peak). For this purpose white wheat bread was supplemented with whole grain corn flour with an elevated amylose content and different types and levels of guar gum. The bread products were characterised in vitro for release of starch degradation products and content of resistant starch. Fibre related fluidity following enzyme hydrolysis was also studied. By combining medium weight guar gum and whole grain corn flour with an elevated amylose content, the course of glycaemia, insulinaemia and subjective appetite ratings were improved compared to the reference white wheat bread. In addition, the combination beneficially influenced the content of resistant starch. Fluidity measurements showed potential to predict the glycaemic profile. PMID:23334658

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  8. Residential Treatment Following Outpatient Treatment for Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities: A Study of Child and Family Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embregts, Petri J. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the question was explored whether children with a mild intellectual disability (MID) who were placed in residential treatment following outpatient treatment differ significantly on child and family characteristics from children with MID and not placed in residential treatment following outpatient treatment. The records of the…

  9. Association of Admission Glycaemia With High Grade Atrioventricular Block in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Reperfusion Therapy: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bi; Wang, Xinjie; Yang, Yanmin; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Yan; Tan, Huiqiong; Yu, Litian; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Han; Wang, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the association between elevated admission glycaemia (AG) and the occurrence of some arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation after myocardial infarction. However, the impact of elevated AG on the high grade atrioventricular block (AVB) occurrence after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains unclear. Included were 3359 consecutive patients with STEMI who received reperfusion therapy. The primary endpoint was the development of high grade AVB during hospital course. Patients were divided into non-diabetes mellitus (DM), newly diagnosed DM, and previously known DM according to the hemoglobin A1c level. The optimal AG value was determined by receiver operating characteristic curves analysis with AG predicting the high grade AVB occurrence. The best cut-off value of AG for predicting the high grade AVB occurrence was 10.05 mmol/L by ROC curve analysis. The prevalence of AG ≥ 10.05 mmol/L in non-DM, newly diagnosed DM, and previously known DM was 15.7%, 34.1%, and 68.5%, respectively. The incidence of high grade AVB was significantly higher in patients with AG ≥ 10.05  mmol/L than risk of high grade AVB occurrence in non-DM (HR = 1.826, 95% CI 1.073-3.107, P = 0.027) and in newly diagnosed DM (HR = 5.252, 95% CI 1.890-14.597, P = 0.001). Moreover, both AG ≥ 10.05  mmol/L and high grade AVB were independent risk factors of 30-day all cause-mortality (HR = 1.362, 95% CI 1.006-1.844, P = 0.046 and HR = 2.122, 95% CI 1.154-3.903, P = 0.015, respectively). Our study suggested that elevated AG level (≥10.05  mmol/L) might be an indicator of increased risk of high grade AVB occurrence in patients with STEMI. PMID:26181562

  10. Patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, drug treatment history and characteristics of addicts in methadone maintenance treatment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekarchizadeh Hajar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810 in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%, more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education, and employed (>70%. The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69% and crystalline heroin (24%. The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%, crystalline heroin (28%, cannabis (16%, amphetamines (15%, and other drugs (33%. Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men.

  11. Differences by sex in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esayas Haregot Hilawe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess differences between men and women in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods In September 2011, the PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for community-based, cross-sectional studies providing sex-specific prevalences of any of the three study conditions among adults living in parts of sub-Saharan Africa (i.e. in Eastern, Middle and Southern Africa according to the United Nations subregional classification for African countries. A random-effects model was then used to calculate and compare the odds of men and women having each condition. Findings In a meta-analysis of the 36 relevant, cross-sectional data sets that were identified, impaired fasting glycaemia was found to be more common in men than in women (OR: 1.56; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.20–2.03, whereas impaired glucose tolerance was found to be less common in men than in women (OR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.72–0.98. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus – which was generally similar in both sexes (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.91–1.11 – was higher among the women in Southern Africa than among the men from the same subregion and lower among the women from Eastern and Middle Africa and from low-income countries of sub-Saharan Africa than among the corresponding men. Conclusion Compared with women in the same subregions, men in Eastern, Middle and Southern Africa were found to have a similar overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus but were more likely to have impaired fasting glycaemia and less likely to have impaired glucose tolerance.

  12. [Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: characteristics, diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istenes, Ildikó; Nagy, Zsolt; Demeter, Judit

    2016-06-01

    Longer remissions and better overall survival rates can be achieved with the introduction of new, effective treatments and targeted therapies in the past 1-2 decades, however, the incidence of side effects is also increasing parallelly. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common and potentially debilitating side effect due to peripheral somatic or autonomic nerve dysfunction. CIPN becomes increasingly important, as it affects patients' quality of life, and it is very often a dose limiting factor with the potential for reduced treatment efficacy. The pathomechanism, diagnosis, prevention and treatment possibilities are described in this review with special attention to the different groups of drugs. PMID:27275643

  13. Consumption of the Soluble Dietary Fibre Complex PolyGlycopleX® Reduces Glycaemia and Increases Satiety of a Standard Meal Postprandially

    OpenAIRE

    Solah, Vicky A.; Babette O’Mara-Wallace; Xingqiong Meng; Gahler, Roland J.; Deborah A. Kerr; James, Anthony P; Fenton, Haelee K.; Stuart K. Johnson; Simon Wood

    2016-01-01

    The effect of consumption of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®) was compared to wheat dextrin (WD) in combination with a standard meal, on postprandial satiety and glycaemia in a double-blind, randomised crossover trial, of 14 healthy subjects trained as a satiety panel. At each of six two-hour satiety sessions, subjects consumed one of three different test meals on two separate occasions. The test meals were: a standard meal plus 5 g PGX; a standard meal plus 4.5 g of PGX as softgels; and a standard meal...

  14. Characteristics of biosolids from sludge treatment wetlands for agricultural reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggetti, Enrica; Ferrer, Ivet; Nielsen, Steen;

    2012-01-01

    Sludge treatment wetlands (STW) consist of constructed wetlands systems specifically developed for sludge treatment over the last decades. Sludge dewatering and stabilisation are the main features of this technology, leading to a final product which may be recycled as an organic fertiliser or soi...... legal limits for land application of the sludge. Our results suggest that biosolids from the studied STW can be valorised in agriculture, especially as soil conditioner.......Sludge treatment wetlands (STW) consist of constructed wetlands systems specifically developed for sludge treatment over the last decades. Sludge dewatering and stabilisation are the main features of this technology, leading to a final product which may be recycled as an organic fertiliser or soil...... conditioner. In this study, biosolids from full-scale STW were characterised in order to evaluate the quality of the final product for land application, even without composting post-treatment. Samples of influent and treated sludge were analysed for pH, electrical conductivity, total solids (TS), volatile...

  15. Degradation Characteristics of Aniline with Ozonation and Subsequent Treatment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoqian Jing; Shiwei Cao; Ting Yu; Jing Hu

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the toxicity and low biodegradability of aniline in water, its removal usually needs high cost processes such as adsorption and advanced oxidation. The degradation characteristics of aniline during ozonation were studied. The influence of operation parameters such as contact time, initial concentration, ozone dosage, temperature, and pH was also investigated. With ozone dosage of 22 mg/L, neutral pH, and room temperature, the ozonation removed aniline efficiently. After two hours’ oz...

  16. Effect of Different Tumbling Marination Treatments on the Quality Characteristics of Prepared Pork Chops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tian; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Yun; Ma, Ruixue; Song, Lei; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different tumbling marination treatments (control group, CG; conventional static marination, SM; vacuum continuous tumbling marination, CT; vacuum intermittent tumbling marination, IT) on the quality characteristics of prepared pork chops was investigated under simulated commercial conditions. The CT treatment increased (ptenderness, overall flavor, sensory juiciness and overall acceptability in comparison to other treatments for prepared boneless pork chops. The CT treatment decreased (p<0.05) cooking loss, shear force value, hardness, gumminess and chewiness compared with other treatments. In addition, CT treatment effectively improved springiness and sensory color more than other treatments. However, IT treatment achieved the numerically highest (p<0.05) L* and a* values. These results suggested that CT treatment obtained the best quality characteristics of prepared pork chops and should be adopted as the optimal commercial processing method for this prepared boneless pork chops. PMID:25557823

  17. The WIMS characteristics method in a subgroup resonance treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview is given of the subgroup resonance capture as implemented in the WIMS code. Recent developments to the general geometry characteristics solution module in WIMS, known as CACTUS, may be used in combination with WIMS, subgroup modules to derive broad group shielded cross sections for almost any geometry in two dimension. This application is described, together with some sensitivity studies for simple pin cell case, and also an example of its use for a more complex geometry. (author). 9 tabs., 4 figs

  18. Internalisation and multiple phosphorylation of γ-Conglutin, the lupin seed glycaemia-lowering protein, in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •A glycaemia-reducing lupin seed protein is internalized by HepG2 cells. •The protein accumulates in the cytosol in an intact form. •The internalized protein is multiply phosphorylated. -- Abstract: Lupin seed γ-Conglutin is a protein capable of reducing glycaemia in mammalians and increasing glucose uptake by model cells. This work investigated whether γ-Conglutin is internalised into the target cells and undergoes any covalent change during the process, as a first step to understanding its mechanism of action. To this purpose, γ-Conglutin-treated and untreated HepG2 cells were submitted to confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Immune-revelation of γ-Conglutin at various intervals revealed its accumulation inside the cytosol. In parallel, 2D-electrophoresis of the cell lysates and antibody reaction of the blotted maps showed the presence of the protein intact subunits inside the treated cells, whilest no trace of the protein was found in the control cells. However, γ-Conglutin-related spots with an unexpectedly low pI were also observed in the maps. These spots were excised, trypsin-treated and submitted to MS/MS spectrometric analysis. The presence of phosphorylated amino acids was detected. These findings, by showing that γ-Conglutin is internalised by HepG2 cells in an intact form and is modified by multiple phosphorylation, open the way to the understanding of the lupin γ-Conglutin insulin-mimetic activity

  19. Internalisation and multiple phosphorylation of γ-Conglutin, the lupin seed glycaemia-lowering protein, in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capraro, Jessica [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy); Magni, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.magni@unimi.it [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy); Faoro, Franco; Maffi, Dario [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, UNIMI (Italy); Scarafoni, Alessio [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy); Tedeschi, Gabriella; Maffioli, Elisa [Department of Veterinary Science and Public Health, UNIMI (Italy); Parolari, Anna; Manzoni, Cristina; Lovati, Maria Rosa [Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, UNIMI (Italy); Duranti, Marcello [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •A glycaemia-reducing lupin seed protein is internalized by HepG2 cells. •The protein accumulates in the cytosol in an intact form. •The internalized protein is multiply phosphorylated. -- Abstract: Lupin seed γ-Conglutin is a protein capable of reducing glycaemia in mammalians and increasing glucose uptake by model cells. This work investigated whether γ-Conglutin is internalised into the target cells and undergoes any covalent change during the process, as a first step to understanding its mechanism of action. To this purpose, γ-Conglutin-treated and untreated HepG2 cells were submitted to confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Immune-revelation of γ-Conglutin at various intervals revealed its accumulation inside the cytosol. In parallel, 2D-electrophoresis of the cell lysates and antibody reaction of the blotted maps showed the presence of the protein intact subunits inside the treated cells, whilest no trace of the protein was found in the control cells. However, γ-Conglutin-related spots with an unexpectedly low pI were also observed in the maps. These spots were excised, trypsin-treated and submitted to MS/MS spectrometric analysis. The presence of phosphorylated amino acids was detected. These findings, by showing that γ-Conglutin is internalised by HepG2 cells in an intact form and is modified by multiple phosphorylation, open the way to the understanding of the lupin γ-Conglutin insulin-mimetic activity.

  20. Dairy shed effluent treatment and recycling: Effluent characteristics and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Julian; Hagare, Dharma; Sivakumar, Muttucumaru

    2016-09-15

    Dairy farm milking operations produce considerable amounts of carbon- and nutrient-rich effluent that can be a vital source of nutrients for pasture and crops. The study aim was to characterise dairy shed effluent from a commercial farm and examine the changes produced by treatment, storage and recycling of the effluent through a two-stage stabilisation pond system. The data and insights from the study are broadly applicable to passive pond systems servicing intensive dairy and other livestock operations. Raw effluent contained mostly poorly biodegradable particulate organic material and organically bound nutrients, as well as a large fraction of fixed solids due to effluent recycling. The anaerobic pond provided effective sedimentation and biological treatment, but hydrolysis of organic material occurred predominantly in the sludge and continually added to effluent soluble COD, nutrients and cations. Sludge digestion also suppressed pH in the pond and increased salt levels through formation of alkalinity. High sludge levels significantly impaired pond treatment performance. In the facultative pond, BOD5 concentrations were halved; however smaller reductions in COD showed the refractory nature of incoming organic material. Reductions in soluble N and P were proportional to reductions in respective particulate forms, suggesting that respective removal mechanisms were not independent. Conditions in the ponds were unlikely to support biological nutrient removal. Recycling caused conservative inert constituents to accumulate within the pond system. Material leaving the system was mostly soluble (86% TS) and inert (65% TS), but salt concentrations remained below thresholds for safe land application. PMID:27213866

  1. Wastewater Treatment in a Hybrid Biological Reactor (HBR) :Nitrification Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONG WANG; LI-BO WU

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the nitrifying characteristics of both suspended- and attached- biomass in a hybrid bioreactor. Methods The hybrid biological reactor was developed by introducing porous ceramic particles into the reactor to provide the surface for biomass attachment. Microorganisms immobilized on the ceramics were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All chemical analyses were performed in accordance with standard methods. Results The suspended- and attached-biomass had approximately the same nitrification activity. The nitrifying kinetic was independent of the initial biomass concentration, and the attached-biomass had a stronger ability to resist the nitrification inhibitor. Conclusion The attached biomass is superior to suspended-biomass for nitrifying wastewater, especially that containing toxic organic compounds. The hybrid biological reactor consisting of suspended- and attached-biomass is advantageous in such cases.

  2. Characteristics of Acupuncture Treatment of Dementia in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-gong; GU Jie; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    This paper makes a statistical analysis on the acupuncture treatment of dementia recorded in 93 ancient books. The statistics show that the common acupoints are Shenmen ( HT 7), Shaoshang ( LU 11 ),Dazhong ( KI4), Yinbai ( SP 1 ), Houxi ( SI 3 ), Xinshu (BL 15), Yongquan (KI 1), Jiuwei (CV 15) and Baihui (GV 20); the common meridians are the Heart Meridian, Bladder Meridian and Kidney Meridian; the common areas are palm, medial side of leg, upper back and head; the acupoints of the heart meridian are frequently used, especially those in the distal end;heavy moxibustion functions to open orifices and needling to regulate qi.

  3. Characteristics, Detection Methods and Treatment of Questionable Occlusal Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, S.K.; Gilbert, G.H.; Funkhouser, E.;

    2014-01-01

    Questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC) can be defined as an occlusal tooth surface with no cavitation and no radiographic radiolucencies, but caries is suspected due to roughness, surface opacities or staining. An earlier analysis of data from this study indicates 1/3 of patients have a QOC...... consenting patients presented with a QOC, information was recorded about the patient, tooth, lesion and treatments. A total of 2,603 QOC from 1,732 patients were analyzed. The lesions were usually associated with a fissure, on molars, and varied from yellow to black in color. Half presented with a chalky...

  4. [INVITED] Laser treatment of Inconel 718 alloy and surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Karatas, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser surface texturing of Inconel 718 alloy is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas. The combination of evaporation and melting at the irradiated surface is achieved by controlling the laser scanning speed and the laser output power. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the treated surface are analyzed using the analytical tools including optical, electron scanning, and atomic force microscopes, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Microhardnes and friction coefficient of the laser treated surface are measured. Residual stress formed in the surface region is determined from the X-ray diffraction data. Surface hydrophobicity of the laser treated layer is assessed incorporating the sessile drop method. It is found that laser treated surface is free from large size asperities including cracks and the voids. Surface microhardness increases significantly after the laser treatment process, which is attributed to the dense layer formation at the surface under the high cooling rates, dissolution of Laves phase in the surface region, and formation of nitride species at the surface. Residual stress formed is compressive in the laser treated surface and friction coefficient reduces at the surface after the laser treatment process. The combination of evaporation and melting at the irradiated surface results in surface texture composes of micro/nano-poles and pillars, which enhance the surface hydrophobicity.

  5. Characteristics of Mg-Al-Zn alloys after laser treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The structure and the properties of casting magnesium alloy EN-MCMgAl3Zn1, EN-MCMgAl6Zn1,EN-MCMgAl9Zn1 and EN-MCMgAl12Zn1 after laser surface treatment are presented in this paper. The aim ofthis work was to improve the surface layer cast magnesium Mg-Al-Zn by melting and feeding of TiC particle onthe surface. The purpose of this work was to determine the laser treatment parameter.Design/methodology/approach: The experiments were performed using high power diode laser. The laser treatmentof an EN-MCMgAl3Zn1, EN-MCMgAl6Zn1, EN-MCMgAl9Zn1, EN-MCMgAl12Zn1 magnesium alloy with alloyingTiC powders was carried out using a high power diode laser (HPDL. The resulting microstructure in the modified surfacelayer was examinated using scanning electron microscopy. Phase composition was determined by the X-ray diffractionmethod using the XPert device. The measurements of hardness of the modified surface layer was also studied.Findings: The alloyed region has a fine microstructure with hard carbide particles. Hardness of laser surfacealloyed layer with TiC particles was significantly improved as compared to alloy without laser treatment forEN-MCMgAl3Zn1 and EN-MCMgAl6Zn1 alloys.Research limitations/implications: In this research one powder - TiC was used with the particle size over 6 μm.This investigation presents different speed rates feed and different laser power value for four type of magnesium alloys.Practical implications: The results obtained in this investigation were promising compared to otherconventional processes. High Power Diode Laser can be used as an economical substitute of Nd:YAG and CO2 toimprove the surface magnesium alloy by feeding the carbide particles.Originality/value: The originality of this work is applying of High Power Diode Laser for alloying ofmagnesium alloy using titanium carbide.

  6. Clinical characteristics and treatment of ovarian serous borderline tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Li-jian; Guo Li-na

    2004-01-01

    Ovarian serous borderline tumors (SBTs) are characterized by good prognosis and occasional late recurrence. The 5-year and 10-year survival rates are all more than 90%. But traditionally patients with SBTs used to be treated with bilateral oophorectomy, hysterectomy and postoperative chemotherapy. A high proportion of SBTs occurred in young patients. The traditional treatment with complete excision of reproductive organs seemed to be too aggressive for young patients. It is imperative that conservative surgical procedures with fertility sparing should be employed to them. In this paper the literatures in regard to the final outcome of the conservative surgical therapy for SBTs were reviewed and the appropriate extent of conservative surgical procedures was discussed in detail.

  7. Characteristics and performance of anaerobic wastewater treatment (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: Pakistan's current population of 180 million is expected to grow to about 221 million by the year 2025. In developing countries such as Pakistan water pollution is a major threat to the livelihood of people. Pakistan is also currently experiencing profound demographic, economic changes and energy crisis that have major implications for water management. The contamination of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with heavy metals is a major environmental problem. Each pollution problem calls for specific optimal and cost effective solution so if one technology proves less or ineffective other takes its place. Every day the vast amounts of the municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes are released in to the environment and create serious problems. Anaerobic digestion is very attractive and cost-effective option and technology for the highly loaded waste water treatment and energy conversion. The anaerobic process is in many ways ideal for waste treatment. It has several significant advantages over other available methods. In this process organic matter is utilized as source of electron donor to reduce carbon dioxide to produce methane gas. It involves three bacterial groups namely: hydrolytic, acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria that work optimally at pH and temperature ranges of 6.8 to 7.5 and 30-35 degree C, respectively. The residence time in a digester varies with the amount and type of feed material, the configuration of the digestion system, and whether it be one-stage or two-stage. It is ideal for all kinds of wastewaters. Currently anaerobic technology is being operated at full scale in many industrialized nations. (author)

  8. Degradation Characteristics of Aniline with Ozonation and Subsequent Treatment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqian Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the toxicity and low biodegradability of aniline in water, its removal usually needs high cost processes such as adsorption and advanced oxidation. The degradation characteristics of aniline during ozonation were studied. The influence of operation parameters such as contact time, initial concentration, ozone dosage, temperature, and pH was also investigated. With ozone dosage of 22 mg/L, neutral pH, and room temperature, the ozonation removed aniline efficiently. After two hours’ ozonation, aniline removal reached 93.57%, and the corresponding COD removal was 31.03%, which indicated most of aniline was transformed into intermediates. At alkaline conditions, the aniline was more susceptible to being removed by ozonation owing to more hydroxyl radicals’ production. The results of GC-MS indicated many intermediates appeared during the process of ozonation such as butane diacid, oxalic acid, and formic acid. The intermediates produced during ozonation were more biodegradable than aniline; thus the ozonation of such organic compounds as aniline could be integrated with biological processes for further removal.

  9. Dielectric characteristics of food-stuff in the process of their thermal treatment with microwave field

    OpenAIRE

    Zhirnov, V. V.; Dokhov, A. I.; Solonskaya, S. V.; Strelchenko, V. I.

    2003-01-01

    Results of investigations into dynamics of dielectric characteristics volumetric distribution variation in the process of food-stuff thermal treatment under microwave-band electromagnetic fields action are given. The calculated relations for defining distribution of temperature variations, moisture content and excessive pressure in the food-stuff volume at thermal treatment under the microwave radiation action exerting the main effect on ε' and ε" dielectric characteristics' variation in the ...

  10. Heat strokes: aetiopathogenesis, neurological characteristics, treatment and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqub, B; Al Deeb, S

    1998-04-01

    Heat stroke is a thermal insult to the cerebral thermoregulatory system controlling heat production and heat dissipation. The thermal insult may be environmental as in 'classic heat stroke' or endogenous as in 'exertional heat stroke' in joggers or runners. The insult will lead to a steady rise in body core temperature to 40 degrees C or more, exhaustion of sweating with hot dry skin and central nervous system disturbances ranging from confusion to deep coma. Multisystem insult will follow leading to a fatal outcome, if not diagnosed and treated promptly. Rapid evaporative cooling and support of vital organs are the essential factors in the management of this condition. If treated early, no sequelae results, however, pancerebellar syndrome and spastic or flaccid paraparesis have been described in a few cases. Limited sun exposure, proper use of sunscreens, adequate fluid and electrolyte replacement and acclimatization are the key factors for prevention. Despite appropriate prevention and prompt treatment, heat stroke is unlikely to be totally prevented, but the mortality has improved dramatically to less than 10%. PMID:9588849

  11. [Treatment characteristics of saline domestic wastewater by constructed wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Li, Chen; Jin, Wei-Hong; Deng, Yi-Bing

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetland (CW) to remove pollutants from saline domestic sewage. The experimental results indicated that the effects of salinity on the contaminant removal were insignificant when the influent salinities of the CWs were less than or equal to 1.5%. For the influent salinity of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%, the average removal rates of the CWs were found to be above 68.3% for COD and above 66.1% for NH4(+) -N. When the influent salinity was increased to 2.0%, the individual numbers of microorganisms in the CW reduced obviously. It was similar to the change of the soil enzyme activity in the CW. Then the removal efficiency of the CW also dropped significantly. The average removal rate of COD and NH4(+) -N dropped to 52.9% and 50.3%, respectively. The effects of HRT on the treatment performance of CW under the saline condition of 1.5% were also investigated in this study. And the results showed that nitrogen removal was more greatly affected by HRT than organic matter removal. The NH4(+) -N removal efficiency in CW decreased from 65.1% -78.2% to 47.1% when the HRT of the CW varied from 3-5 d to 2 d. PMID:23323411

  12. [Neuropsychological performance and demographic characteristics in alcoholic patients in treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Rigoni, Maisa; Quarti Irigaray, Tatiana; Feliz Duarte de Moraes, João; Ferrão, Ygor; da Silva Oliveira, Margareth

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive performance of alcoholics (AG) and participants from the general population (CG) without alcohol dependence. The sample consisted of 141 men, aged 18 and 59. Divided into two groups, 101 alcoholic patients without comorbidities, hospitalized for drug abuse treatment, and 40 healthy individuals from the general population, matched for age and socioeconomic status. The instruments assessed the sociodemographics data and economic classification, alcohol dependence, psychiatric comorbidities, cognitive performance, executive functions, memory and perception. The results showed that the AG group presented severe dependence on alcohol and 92.1% indicated having a family with problems associated with alcohol for only 41.5 % of the CG. At the moment of the evaluation, 59.4 % of the participants of the AG group were abstinent between 8 and 15 days, and the in CG, 43.9%, were more than 60 days alcohol free. The neuropsychological performance verified that there was a decline in cognitive functions in alcoholics’ participants, whereas the AG suggests psychomotor retardation. Thus, it can be inferred that alcohol greatly affects cognitive functions of people who depend on this substance. In addition, there was a greater number of family stories with prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression and nicotine addiction in alcoholic patients compared with the general population. PMID:25314037

  13. Treatment utilisation and trauma characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    A. Traut

    2003-01-01

    Objective. Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on treatment utilisation and outcome in South African youth. This study was undertaken to document demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with PTSD.

  14. Treatment utilisation and trauma characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Traut

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on treatment utilisation and outcome in South African youth. This study was undertaken to document demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with PTSD.

  15. Social Network Characteristics of Urban Adolescents in Brief Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the social network characteristics of 102 urban adolescents in brief substance abuse treatment are described and analyzed longitudinally to examine risk and protective mechanisms. The treatment intervention had one session devoted to social support and networks. Social networks were conceptualized and measured along two dimensions…

  16. An improved course of glycaemia after a bread based breakfast is associated with beneficial effects on acute and semi-acute markers of appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Linda M N K; Björck, Inger M E; Östman, Elin M

    2016-02-17

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing all over the world and a diet promoting reduced glycaemic excursions in the postprandial phase may help to prevent the disease. In the present study guar gum (GG) and whole grain rye flour or high amylose maize starch (HAM) was combined to design bread products giving low and sustained glycaemia. A meal study was performed with young, healthy subjects and in addition to glucose and insulin, also subjective appetite ratings and biomarkers of appetite, voluntary energy intake at a second meal and markers of fermentation were studied. The combination of GG and rye was superior with improvements in subjective appetite whereas both test products lead to improvements in biomarkers of appetite compared to the white wheat bread reference. The inclusion of GG, rye and/or HAM in bread products show great potential in lowering risk factors associated with insulin resistance and improving acute and semi-acute appetite. PMID:26762720

  17. Children and adolescents referred for treatment of anxiety disorders: differences in clinical characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Waite, Polly; Creswell, Catharine

    2014-01-01

    Background Reports of the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders are typically based on community populations or from clinical samples with exclusion criterion applied. Little is known about the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents routinely referred for treatment for anxiety disorders. Furthermore, children and adolescents are typically treated as one homogeneous group although they may differ in ways that are clinically meaningful. Method...

  18. A Characteristic Non-Reflecting Boundary Treatment in Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Dehee; KIM Hyung Min; JHON Myung S.; VINAY Ⅲ Stephen J.; BUCHANAN John

    2008-01-01

    In lattice Boltzmann methods, disturbances develop at the initial stages of the simulation, the decay characteristics depend mainly on boundary treatment methods; open boundary conditions such as equilibrium and bounce-back schemes potentially generate uncontrollable disturbances. Excessive disturbances originate from non-physical reflecting waves at boundaries. Characteristic boundary conditions utilizing the signs of waves at boundaries which suppress these reflecting waves, as well as their implementation in the lattice Boltzmann method, are introduced herein. The performance of our novel boundary treatment method to effectively suppress excessive disturbances is verified by three different numerical experiments.

  19. Characteristics and Outcomes of Young Adult Opiate Users Receiving Residential Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Siobhan; MacMaster, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Opiate use patterns, user characteristics, and treatment response among young adults are of interest due to current high use prevalence and historical low levels of treatment engagement relative to older populations. Prior research in this population suggests that overall, young adults present at treatment with different issues. In this study the authors investigated potential differences between young adult (18-25 years of age) and older adult (26 and older) opiate users and the impact of differences relative to treatment motivation, length and outcomes. Data for this study was drawn from 760 individuals who entered voluntary, private, residential treatment. Study measures included the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), the Treatment Service Review (TSR), and University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA). Interviews were conducted at program intake and 6-month post-discharge. Results indicate that older adults with a history of opiate use present at treatment with higher levels of severity for alcohol, medical, and psychological problems and young adults present at treatment with greater drug use and more legal issues. Significant improvement for both groups was noted at 6 months post treatment; there were also fewer differences between the two age groups of opiate users. Results suggest different strategies within treatment programs may provide benefit in targeting the disparate needs of younger opiate users. Overall, however, results suggest that individualized treatment within a standard, abstinence-based, residential treatment model can be effective across opiate users at different ages and with different issues, levels of severity, and impairment at intake. PMID:25879396

  20. Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Treatment Practices of Known Adult Hypertensive Patients in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    N. Al-Hamdan; Saeed, A; Kutbi, A.; Choudhry, A. J.; Nooh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence, risk factors, characteristics, and treatment practices of known adult hypertensives in Saudi Arabia. Methods. Cross-sectional community-based study using the WHO stepwise approach. Saudi adults were randomly chosen from Primary Health Care Centers catchment areas. Data was collected using a questionnaire which included sociodemographic data, history of hypertension, risk factors, treatment practices, biochemical and anthropometric measurements. Collecte...

  1. Treatment utilisation and trauma characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Traut, A.; Kaminer, D; Boshoff, D; Seedat, S; S. Hawkridge; Stein, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on treatment utilisation and outcome in South African youth. This study was undertaken to document demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with PTSD. Design. A retrospective chart study of all patients presenting to a child and adolescent inpatient unit was conducted between 1994-1996. For children and adolescents diagnosed with...

  2. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern, Biochemical Characteristics and Biotyping of Salmonella paratyphi A: An Impact of Biofield Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Enteric fever is a major global problem. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens to render current treatments ineffective. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A) in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. S. paratyphi A strain were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9150). The study was conducte...

  3. COMPARISON OF CRYO TREATMENT EFFECT ON MACHINING CHARACTERISTICS OF TITANIUM IN ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINING

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupinder Singh; Rupinder Singh

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies on cryogenic treatment highlighted that certain metals, after being cryogenically treated, show a significant increase in tool life when used in manufacturing, cutting and shaping processes. The present work deals with experimental investigation of the role of cryogenic treatment on the machining characteristics of titanium in electric discharge machining (EDM). EDM is a potential process to commercially machine tough materials like titanium alloys, due to the properties of no...

  4. Herd and cow characteristics affecting the odds of veterinary treatment for disease – a multilevel analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vågsholm Ivar; Lindberg Ann; Emanuelson Ulf; Mörk Marie; Egenvall Agneta

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Research has indicated that a number of different factors affect whether an animal receives treatment or not when diseased. The aim of this paper was to evaluate if herd or individual animal characteristics influence whether cattle receives veterinary treatment for disease, and thereby also introduce misclassification in the disease recording system. Methods The data consisted mainly of disease events reported by farmers during 2004. We modelled odds of receiving veterinar...

  5. A literature review to investigate the link between psychosocial characteristics and treatment adherence in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Theofilou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to medication has been recognized as a key issue in health outcomes and efforts to improve patients’ adherence are being made by the pharmaceutical industry, experts, and government bodies alike. This paper presents a review of these issues according to previous descriptive findings. Relevant studies written in English, published in 1976 or later, were identified through Medline, Embase and PsycInfo databases and reviewed. Review articles and clinical trials were excluded; all observational studies and surveys were considered. Articles were reviewed for any discussion of patients’ characteristics and psychosocial characteristics affecting adherence to cancer treatment. The search strategy included a combination of key words adherence and cancer in titles. The major findings are summarized and presented under two main headings: i patients’ characteristics; and ii psychosocial characteristics. In general, factors associated with increased likelihood of adherence to cancer treatment included younger age, higher education, higher income and Caucasian ethnicity. With regards to the psychosocial factors, lower levels of depression and anxiety, optimism as well as social support seemed to have a positive effect on treatment adherence. Studies of patterns of care in cancer treatment can help identify challenges in health care provided to particular subgroups of cancer patients and can aid researchers in designing studies that account for such factors in clinical and outcomes’ research.

  6. Still Struggling: Characteristics of Youth with OCD Who Are Partial Responders to Medication Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J.; Sapyta, J.; Garcia, A.; Fitzgerald, D.; Khanna, M.; Choate-Summers, M.; Moore, P.; Chrisman, A.; Haff, N.; Naeem, A.; March, J.; Franklin, M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to examine the characteristics of a large sample of youth with OCD who are partial responders (i.e., still have clinically significant symptoms) to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) medication. The sample will be described with regard to: demographics, treatment history, OCD symptoms/severity, family history and…

  7. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Biochemical Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus: Impact of Bio field Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    Study background: Staphylococci are widespread in nature, mainly found on the skin and mucous membranes. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the key organism for food poisoning due to massive production of heat stable exotoxins. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and biochemical characteristics of S. aureus (ATCC 25923).

  8. Mothers in Substance Abuse Treatment: Differences in Characteristics Based on Involvement with Child Welfare Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grella, Christine E.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang; Yu-Chuang

    2006-01-01

    Problem: Greater awareness of the role of parental substance abuse in child maltreatment makes it imperative that the substance abuse treatment and child welfare systems coordinate services for these parents. Yet little is known about the characteristics of child-welfare involved parents (primarily mothers) who enter into substance abuse…

  9. The clinical characteristics,treatment and outcome of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the drug resistance of My-coplasma pneumoniae among children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) ,and to explore the clinical and radiological characteristics of and the role of azithromycin in the treatment of of macrolide-resistant (MR) Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.Methods Cases of CAP in children (n=179) were prospectively enrolled in

  10. The Role of Psychosocial Characteristics in Criminal Convictions among Cocaine and Gambling Clients in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gina; Macdonald, Scott; Ishiguro, Sonya

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the relative importance of problem gambling, cocaine use and selected psychosocial characteristics in predicting criminal convictions. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by clients when admitted to a treatment program for a primary problem with cocaine (n = 300), gambling (n = 199), or tobacco (n = 249). The…

  11. [Physical-mechanical and functional characteristics of xenograft during various methods of stabilization and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratenko, Zh E; Kostava, V T; Bakuleva, N P; Tereshchenkova, I A; Antipas, D B

    1998-01-01

    The paper gives the results of experimental studies of the elastic-strength and functional characteristics of xenotissue samples (the pericardium of the calf, pig and Glisson's capsule) stabilized with glutaric aldehyde and polyepoxy compounds. The paper discusses various treatments of biological materials (including Glisson's capsule) anticalcified with additives (sodium dodecyl sulfate, complexes of copper and zinc) and shows that their use improves proteolytic and calcinotic resistance without deteriorating the mechanical parameters of xenotissues. Comparative analysis of the physical-mechanic and functional characteristics of xenotissues treated in different ways allows one to make anticalcifying treatment of biological tissues with copper and zinc complexes physical-mechanic and functional characteristics of xenotissues (Glisson's capsule) for clinical application. PMID:9791850

  12. Characteristics of middle-aged women in inpatient treatment for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Maryelizabeth; Davis, William N

    2005-01-01

    The current study examined descriptive characteristics of women 35 years and older seeking inpatient treatment for an eating disorder. A second purpose was to compare characteristics and treatment experiences of midlife patients to young adult patients. Participants were 193 women admitted for treatment to a residential eating disorders facility. All of the women received the standard inpatient treatment package offered by the treatment facility. Participants completed measures of eating attitudes, depression, anxiety, body image, and media influence at admission and discharge and a program assessment measure at discharge. Results revealed comparable scores on measures of eating attitudes, anxiety, and depression at admission, although younger patients scored significantly higher on measures of body image and media influence at admission. With regard to treatment experience, midlife patients experienced greater change with regard to depression and body image dissatisfaction and described family therapy and grief and loss group therapy as being significantly more helpful than young adult patients. There appears to be a number of similarities across age cohorts in terms of clinical presentation, but underlying causal factors may differ between age groups. In general, midlife patients and young patients describe the standard treatment package as equally helpful, although midlife patients might also benefit from groups addressing grief and loss. PMID:16864530

  13. Radiation-induced thermoluminescence characteristics of feldspar upon different heat and microwave treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jae-Jun; Akram, Kashif; Kwak, Ji-Young; Jeong, Mi-Seon [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yun-Deuk [Department of Geology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho, E-mail: jhkwon@knu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Feldspar minerals are well-known markers for thermoluminescence (TL)-based identification of irradiated foodstuff because of their high TL sensitivity and characteristic TL glow curves. Post-irradiation processing, particularly heating, may affect luminescence properties. In the present study, the effect of boiling, roasting, and microwave treatments on TL properties of irradiated (0, 5, and 10 kGy) feldspar was investigated. The TL glow peak faded (TL peak maxima shift towards higher temperature) upon boiling or roasting, which was mainly dependent upon treatment temperature and time. This effect was most apparent in the roasted samples. Liquid samples showed more changes in TL characteristics than solid samples upon microwave treatment; however, the effect was less prominent compared to those of roasting and boiling. TL ratios could not confirm the TL results when boiled and roasted samples were treated at {>=}100 Degree-Sign C, whereas the microwave treatment showed a negligible effect on the TL ratio. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Processing effect on TL properties of irradiated feldspar was evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boiling lowered the TL intensity with negligible effect on TL glow curve shape. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Roasting showed the most drastic effect on radiation-induced TL characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave treatment revealed the least effect on TL properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glow curve intensity and shape gave key information to conclude irradiation history.

  14. Radiation-induced thermoluminescence characteristics of feldspar upon different heat and microwave treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldspar minerals are well-known markers for thermoluminescence (TL)-based identification of irradiated foodstuff because of their high TL sensitivity and characteristic TL glow curves. Post-irradiation processing, particularly heating, may affect luminescence properties. In the present study, the effect of boiling, roasting, and microwave treatments on TL properties of irradiated (0, 5, and 10 kGy) feldspar was investigated. The TL glow peak faded (TL peak maxima shift towards higher temperature) upon boiling or roasting, which was mainly dependent upon treatment temperature and time. This effect was most apparent in the roasted samples. Liquid samples showed more changes in TL characteristics than solid samples upon microwave treatment; however, the effect was less prominent compared to those of roasting and boiling. TL ratios could not confirm the TL results when boiled and roasted samples were treated at ≥100 °C, whereas the microwave treatment showed a negligible effect on the TL ratio. - Highlights: ► Processing effect on TL properties of irradiated feldspar was evaluated. ► Boiling lowered the TL intensity with negligible effect on TL glow curve shape. ► Roasting showed the most drastic effect on radiation-induced TL characteristics. ► Microwave treatment revealed the least effect on TL properties. ► Glow curve intensity and shape gave key information to conclude irradiation history.

  15. Fresh Kills leachate treatment and minimization study. Volume 1, Characteristics and treatment alternatives: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillos, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    1993-09-01

    The New York City Department of Sanitation is developing a comprehensive landfill leachate management plan for the Fresh Kills Landfill. The leachate was first analyzed for conventional and priority pollutants. The leachate was well buffered at pH 7 to 8 with an alkalinity of 5,000 to 6,000 mg/L. The BOD was low, usually less than 100 mg/L, but the COD was as high as 1,800 mg/L. Ammonia concentrations were around 700 mg/L and the color resembled strong tea at 3,000 colorimetric units. Only few of the priority pollutants were present, and at extremely low concentrations. Based on the chemical characteristics of the leachate, the primary environmental impact would be on the oxygen balance of the receiving surface waters.

  16. Modification of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber Characteristics Using Superheated Steam Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbian Karuppuchamy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF was treated with superheated steam (SHS in order to modify its characteristics for biocomposite applications. Treatment was conducted at temperatures 190–230 °C for 1, 2 and 3 h. SHS-treated OPMF was evaluated for its chemical composition, thermal stability, morphology and crystallinity. OPMF treated at 230 °C exhibited lower hemicellulose content (9% compared to the untreated OPMF (33%. Improved thermal stability of OPMF was found after the SHS treatment. Moreover, SEM and ICP analyses of SHS-treated OPMF showed that silica bodies were removed from OPMF after the SHS treatment. XRD results exhibited that OPMF crystallinity increased after SHS treatment, indicating tougher fiber properties. Hemicellulose removal makes the fiber surface more hydrophobic, whereby silica removal increases the surface roughness of the fiber. Overall, the results obtained herewith suggested that SHS is an effective treatment method for surface modification and subsequently improving the characteristics of the natural fiber. Most importantly, the use of novel, eco-friendly SHS may contribute to the green and sustainable treatment for surface modification of natural fiber.

  17. Modification of oil palm mesocarp fiber characteristics using superheated steam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Noor Ida Amalina Ahamad; Ariffin, Hidayah; Andou, Yoshito; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Nishida, Haruo; Yunus, Wan Zin Wan; Karuppuchamy, Subbian; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2013-01-01

    In this study, oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) was treated with superheated steam (SHS) in order to modify its characteristics for biocomposite applications. Treatment was conducted at temperatures 190-230 °C for 1, 2 and 3 h. SHS-treated OPMF was evaluated for its chemical composition, thermal stability, morphology and crystallinity. OPMF treated at 230 °C exhibited lower hemicellulose content (9%) compared to the untreated OPMF (33%). Improved thermal stability of OPMF was found after the SHS treatment. Moreover, SEM and ICP analyses of SHS-treated OPMF showed that silica bodies were removed from OPMF after the SHS treatment. XRD results exhibited that OPMF crystallinity increased after SHS treatment, indicating tougher fiber properties. Hemicellulose removal makes the fiber surface more hydrophobic, whereby silica removal increases the surface roughness of the fiber. Overall, the results obtained herewith suggested that SHS is an effective treatment method for surface modification and subsequently improving the characteristics of the natural fiber. Most importantly, the use of novel, eco-friendly SHS may contribute to the green and sustainable treatment for surface modification of natural fiber. PMID:23903185

  18. Influence of parents’ and caregivers’ characteristics on the outcomes of antiretroviral treatment in Ugandan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntambwe Malangu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was an association between characteristics of parents and caregivers, and the outcomes of antiretroviral treatment in children younger than 6 years treated at Mildmay Centre in Uganda. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study based on the review of records. The records of children treated from January 2000 to July 2005 were included in the analysis as part of a larger study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis of data.Results: Of the 179 children, 57.3% were male, 53.4% were 4–5 years, and their median age was 4 years. The majority of children were cared for, in descending order, by their mothers, aunts, grandmothers, and fathers. Whilst 16.0% were orphans of both parents, 56.9% had one of their parents still alive. With regard to outcomes of antiretroviral treatment, it was found that a CD4 count of less than 15% was the most significant predictor of death, when treatment was initiated only at that late stage. When the influence of caregivers’ and parents’ characteristics on the outcomes of treatment were considered, the only factor that was associated significantly with clinical improvement was the ‘father’s unknown human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status’. The data show that when the father was alive, as well as when both parents were alive, the children had a better chance of survival.Conclusion: The nature of the relationship between caregivers and children on antiretroviral treatment, as well as the HIV and living status of their parents seem to have little positive influence on the clinical, immunological, and survival outcomes of the children on treatment. More studies are needed to investigate other characteristics and relationships that may influence the outcomes of treatment.

  19. Efficacy and imaging characteristics of high intensity focused ultrasound in treatment of uterine fibroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan HUA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the efficacy and imaging characteristics of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU in treatment of uterine fibroid. Methods  Forty seven patients with fifty three uterine fibroids were treated with HIFU from Jan. 2010 to Dec. 2012. UFS-QOL, a disease-specific symptom and health-related quality of life questionnaire for fibroid, enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and Doppler ultrasound were performed before and 1, 3, 6, 12 months after the treatment. Scores of symptoms and UFS-QOL of patients, and the size of uterine fibroid detected by MRI and Doppler ultrasound were assessed to study the efficacy of the treatment. The relationship between the shrinkage of the uterine fibroid, and the imaging characteristics of the MRI and ultrasound were also assessed. Results  The symptoms in 38 patients were improved as reflected by the scores of symptoms and UFS-QOL after treatment with HIFU (P0.05. The low signal intensity in the target fibroids on MRI and the decrease of blood flow on Doppler ultrasound before the treatment were associated with the shrinkage of the fibroids. The more enhanced signal in MRI and the more blood flow in fibroids detected by Doppler ultrasound before treatment were, the less degree of shrinkage after the treatment was (P<0.05. The non-perfusion area in the fibroids increased if there was less enhanced signal on MRI before treatment or intensity change as monitored by real-time ultrasound (P<0.05. Conclusion  HIFU could reduce the fibroid volume and improve the patients' symptoms and life quality, and it may be used as an effective treatment for uterine fibroid. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.03.09

  20. Influence of casting conditions and heat treatment on the fatigue characteristics of IN 100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different proceedings in the case of casting and heat treatment of power unit turbine rotor blades of IN 100 lead to clearly differing collectives of the creep strength depending on time which was determined in construction component tests. A comparison of the microstructures uncovers significant differences. It is possible to derive structural characteristics from this which are in a causal relation with the creep strength or which show at least sensitive reactions as for the changes in production conditions. Such characteristics include arrangement, distribution, fraction and form of the γ' phase, the carbide morphology, the development of the eutectics, dentrite configuration and the porosity. (orig./MM)

  1. Clinical characteristics and treatment response to SSRI in a female pedophile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eva W C; Choy, Alberto L

    2002-04-01

    Although much investigation has been done with male sex offenders, there have been few studies on female sex offenders. Female sex offenders have been reported as having a high incidence of psychiatric disorders, but female paraphilics were rarely described. The literature on the treatment of female sex offenders is also limited and treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) has not been reported. This paper presents the case of a woman with DSM-IV pedophilia. Her clinical characteristics, her offense history, and her positive response to treatment with sertraline (a SSRI) are described. This case adds to the limited literature on female pedophiles and suggests that SSRIs may be an effective treatment for paraphilic disorders in female sex offenders. PMID:11974646

  2. Influence of heat treatment regimes on microstructures and fracture characteristics of 7055Al alloy containing Ag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海; 郑子樵; 王芝秀

    2004-01-01

    Tensile properties, fracture characteristics and microstructures of 7055 aluminum-based alloy containing Ag after T6, T73 and RRA treatment were investigated. The results show that RRA treatment retains strength of 7055-T6 with higher electrical conductivity close to that of 7055-T73 alloy, but its elongation decreases greatly.SEM fractographs reveal that intergranular cracking and shear-type transgranular cracking are both presented on the fracture appearance of 7055-T6 specimen. After T73 treatment, the fractographs mainly consist of dimple-type transgranular cracking with minor intergranular cracking. For 7055-RRA specimen, intergranular cracking dominates with minor dimples on the fracture surface. The type and size of precipitates, width of grain boundary and the ability of precipitates to impede dislocation motion vary with heat treatment regimes. Three frature models were built on the basis of microstructural analyses.

  3. Descriptive characteristics of children with autism at Autism Treatment Center, KSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shirian, Sarah; Al Dera, Hussain

    2015-11-01

    Autism characteristics in sixty children (aged from 2 to 8) were assed. Their behavioral symptoms were evaluated using the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). ATEC has four main domains of autistic disorders (Speech/Language/Communication, Sociability, Sensory/Cognitive Awareness, and Health/Physical/Behavior) in children with clinical diagnosis by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Utilizing ATEC checklist, our study describes significant behavioral observations between autistic children which could effectively contribute to better understanding and treatment during their early intervention stage. PMID:26343774

  4. Consumption of the Soluble Dietary Fibre Complex PolyGlycopleX® Reduces Glycaemia and Increases Satiety of a Standard Meal Postprandially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky A. Solah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of consumption of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX® was compared to wheat dextrin (WD in combination with a standard meal, on postprandial satiety and glycaemia in a double-blind, randomised crossover trial, of 14 healthy subjects trained as a satiety panel. At each of six two-hour satiety sessions, subjects consumed one of three different test meals on two separate occasions. The test meals were: a standard meal plus 5 g PGX; a standard meal plus 4.5 g of PGX as softgels; and a standard meal plus 5 g of WD. Subjects recorded fullness using a labelled magnitude scale at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and the total area under the curve (AUC, mean fullness vs. time was calculated. The meals with PGX (in granular and softgel form gave higher satiety (AUC (477 ± 121 and 454 ± 242 cm·min, than the meal with WD (215 ± 261 cm·min (p < 0.001. Subjects had blood glucose levels measured after the meals with PGX (granules and WD. Glucose response (AUC was significantly lower (p < 0.001 after the PGX meal than for the WD meal.  The high viscosity reported for PGX is a likely mechanism behind the significant satiety and blood glucose modulating effects observed in this study.

  5. Predictors of psychological distress in patients starting IVF treatment: infertility-specific versus general psychological characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Broeck, Uschi; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Enzlin, Paul; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The distress that couples experience in IVF treatment is well-documented though research exploring factors that might contribute to the distress is scarce and the role of infertility-specific versus more general psychological characteristics in predicting psychological distress remains unexplored. This exploratory study aimed to describe, explore and test a self-constructed conceptual framework designed to understand the relative impact of infertility-specific and general psycholog...

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PATIENT FOR THE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Zavrazhnyh; E.N. Smirnova

    2014-01-01

    The aim – the identification of hormonal and psychological characteristics of patients with metabolic syndrome (MS), determining the effectivenessof drug-free weight loss.Materials and methods. The study included 180 patients with MS (according to the criteria of ATP III), received dietary treatment and thermal bath at the spa. Anthropometric measures, the data of the daily blood pressure monitoring, blood levels of hormones (insulin, leptin), were assessed , following surveys were conducted ...

  7. Antimicrobial Sensitivity, Biochemical Characteristics and Biotyping of Staphylococcus saprophyticus: An Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus (S. saprophyticus) is a frequent cause of urinary tract infection in the young women. The current study was designed to analyze the effect of biofield energy treatment on S. saprophyticus for evaluation of its antibiogram profile, biochemical reactions pattern and biotyping characteristics. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. Sample A was revived and divided into two parts Group (Gr.I) (control) and Gr.II (revived); likew...

  8. Modification of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber Characteristics Using Superheated Steam Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Subbian Karuppuchamy; Nor Azowa Ibrahim; Haruo Nishida; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus; Yoshihito Shirai; Yoshito Andou; Mohd Ali Hassan; Hidayah Ariffin; Noor Ida Amalina Ahamad Nordin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) was treated with superheated steam (SHS) in order to modify its characteristics for biocomposite applications. Treatment was conducted at temperatures 190–230 °C for 1, 2 and 3 h. SHS-treated OPMF was evaluated for its chemical composition, thermal stability, morphology and crystallinity. OPMF treated at 230 °C exhibited lower hemicellulose content (9%) compared to the untreated OPMF (33%). Improved thermal stability of OPMF was found after the SH...

  9. Clinical Characteristics of Men Interested in Seeking Treatment for Use of Pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane W; Martino, Steve; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study examined the prevalence of, and factors associated with, men's interest in seeking treatment for use of pornography. Methods Using an Internet-based data-collection procedure, we recruited 1,298 male pornography users to complete questionnaires assessing demographic and sexual behaviors, hypersexuality, pornography-use characteristics, and current interest in seeking treatment for use of pornography. Results Approximately 14% of men reported an interest in seeking treatment for use of pornography, whereas only 6.4% of men had previously sought treatment for use of pornography. Treatment-interested men were 9.5 times more likely to report clinically significant levels of hypersexuality compared with treatment-disinterested men (OR = 9.52, 95% CI = 6.72-13.49). Bivariate analyses indicated that interest-in-seeking-treatment status was associated with being single/unmarried, viewing more pornography per week, engaging in more solitary masturbation in the past month, having had less dyadic oral sex in the past month, reporting a history of seeking treatment for use of pornography, and having had more past attempts to either "cut back" or quit using pornography completely. Results from a binary logistic regression analysis indicated that more frequent cut back/quit attempts with pornography and scores on the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory - Control subscale were significant predictors of interest-in-seeking-treatment status. Discussion and conclusions Study findings could be used to inform current screening practices aimed at identifying specific aspects of sexual self-control, impulsivity, and/or compulsivity associated with problematic use of pornography among treatment-seeking individuals. PMID:27348557

  10. Characteristics of gated treatment using an optical surface imaging and gating system on an Elekta linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowing the technical characteristics of gated radiotherapy equipment is crucial for ensuring precise and accurate treatment when using techniques such as Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold and gating under free breathing. With one of the first installations of the novel surface imaging system Catalyst™ (C-RAD AB, Sweden) in connection with an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator (Elekta AB, Sweden) via the Elekta Response Interface, characteristics like dose delivery accuracy and time delay were investigated prior to clinical implementation of gated treatments in our institution. In this study a moving phantom was used to simulate respiratory motion which was registered by the Catalyst™ system. The gating level was set manually. Within this gating window a trigger signal is automatically sent to the linac initiating treatment delivery. Dose measurements of gated linac treatment beams with different gating levels were recorded with a static 2D-Diode Array (MapCheck2, Sun Nuclear Co., USA) and compared to ungated reference measurements for different field sizes. In addition, the time delay of gated treatment beams was measured using radiographic film. The difference in dose delivery between gated and ungated treatment decreases with the size of the chosen gating level. For clinically relevant gating levels of about 30%, the differences in dose delivery accuracy remain below 1%. In comparison with other system configurations in literature, the beam-on time delay shows a large deviation of 851 ms ± 100 ms. When performing gated treatment, especially for free-breathing gating, factors as time delay and dose delivery have to be evaluated regularly in terms of a quality assurance process. Once these parameters are known they can be accounted and compensated for, e.g. by adjusting the pre-selected gating level or the internal target volume margins and by using prediction algorithms for breathing curves. The usage of prediction algorithms becomes inevitable with the high beam

  11. A preliminary evaluation of synthetic cannabinoid use among adolescent cannabis users: Characteristics and treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Claire E; Banes, Kelsey E; Stephens, Robert S; Walker, Denise D; Roffman, Roger A

    2016-12-01

    Little is known regarding the use of synthetic cannabinoids (SC), particularly use among adolescent substance users who may be at higher risk. The present exploratory study seeks to describe SC use and subjective effects among cannabis-using adolescents as well as compare the characteristics of cannabis users who do and do not use SC. Exploratory analyses evaluated cannabis treatment outcomes among SC users and non-users. Participants enrolled in a randomized, controlled intervention for cannabis-using high school students aged 14-19 (N=252) completed questionnaires regarding their use of SC and other substances. Those who used SC in the past 60days reported subjective effects of SC, consequences, and SC use disorder symptoms. Baseline characteristics, alcohol and other drug use, and treatment outcomes of SC users were compared to participants who never tried SC. Within this sample 29% had tried SC, and 6% used SC recently. Although most reported use at a relatively low rate, 43% of recent SC users reported SC use-disorder symptoms. Positive and negative subjective effects of SC were endorsed, with positive subjective effects reported more often. SC use was associated with more cannabis use, but not more alcohol or other (non-SC and non-cannabis) drug use. SC users did not differ from non-users on cannabis treatment outcomes. This exploratory study described SC use, and compared characteristics and treatment outcomes among SC users and non-users. Negative subjective effects of SC were reported as occurring less often, but SC use was associated with use disorder psychopathology. SC use was associated with more problematic cannabis use at baseline, but was not associated with use of other substances or differences in treatment outcome. PMID:27454353

  12. Clinical characteristics as a function of referral status among substance users in residential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banducci, Anne N; Dahne, Jennifer; Magidson, Jessica F; Chen, Kevin; Daughters, Stacey B; Lejuez, C W

    2013-04-01

    In the United States, substance users who voluntarily (VO) elect to receive treatment and substance users who are court-mandated (CM) to receive treatment typically obtain care within the same facilities. Little is known about the clinical characteristics that differentiate these individuals. The current study provides rates of specific DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II psychiatric and substance use disorders, comorbidities, childhood trauma, motivation, and other clinical and demographic characteristics as a function of referral status, among individuals in residential substance use treatment (463 participants, M age=43.3; 69.7% male; 88.4% African American). Participants were interviewed and diagnosed using the Structure Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Diagnostic Interview for Personality Disorders. Within our sample, VO individuals, as compared to CM individuals had significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders (68.7% versus 55.2%, respectively), including mood disorders, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Additionally, they were significantly more likely to have alcohol dependence (43.0% versus 20.8%) and cocaine dependence (66.5% versus 48.9%). Elevated rates of comorbidities and childhood abuse were also observed among VO individuals, while motivation did not differ as a function of referral status. Overall, VO individuals appeared to have more severe problems than their CM counterparts which may suggest that they require more intensive or different types of treatment. PMID:23380487

  13. Laser treatment of a neodymium magnet and analysis of surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Rizwan, M.; Kassas, M.

    2016-08-01

    Laser treatment of neodymium magnet (Nd2Fe14B) surface is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas. A thin carbon film containing 12% WC carbide particles with 400 nm sizes are formed at the surface prior to the laser treatment process. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer are examined using the analytical tools. The corrosion resistance of the laser treated surface is analyzed incorporating the potentiodynamic tests carried out in 0.05 M NaCl+0.1 M H2SO4 solution. The friction coefficient of the laser treated surface is measured using the micro-scratch tester. The wetting characteristics of the treated surface are assessed incorporating the sessile water drop measurements. It is found that a dense layer consisting of fine size grains and WC particles is formed in the surface region of the laser treated layer. Corrosion resistance of the surface improves significantly after the laser treatment process. Friction coefficient of laser treated surface is lower than that of the as received surface. Laser treatment results in superhydrophobic characteristics at the substrate surface. The formation of hematite and grain size variation in the treated layer slightly lowers the magnetic strength of the laser treated workpiece.

  14. [Pollution characteristics of microbial aerosols generated from a municipal sewage treatment plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiong-Hui; Li, Yan-Peng; Niu, Tie-Jun; Li, Mei-Ling; Ma, Zhi-Hui; Miao, Ying; Wang, Xiang-Jun

    2012-07-01

    To characterize the pollution characteristics of microbial aerosols emitted from municipal sewage treatment plants, microbial aerosols were sampled with an Andersen 6-stage impactor at different treatment units of a Xi'an sewage treatment plant between June 2011 and July 2011. The plate-culture and colony-counting methods were employed to determine the concentrations, particle size distributions and median diameters of the airborne bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The results showed that the highest concentrations of bacteria (7 866 CFU x m(-3) +/- 960 CFU x m(-3)) and actinomycetes (2 139 CFU x m(-3) +/- 227 CFU x m(-3)) were found in the sludge-dewatering house while the highest fungi concentration (2156 CFU x m(-3) +/- 119 CFU x m(-3)) in the oxidation ditch. The airborne bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes all showed a skewed distribution in particle size. The peaks of bacteria and fungi were in the size range of 2.1-3.3 microm, whereas the peak of airborne actinomycetes was between 1. 1-2.1 microm in size. In general, the order of the median diameters of different microbial aerosols generated from the sewage treatment plant was airborne bacteria > airborne fungi > airborne actinomycetes. In addition, the spatial variation characteristics of microbial aerosols showed that the larger the particle size of the microorganism, the faster the reducing rate of the aerosol concentration. The variations in the reducing rate of concentration with particle sizes can be ordered as airborne bacteria > airborne fungi > airborne actinomycetes. PMID:23002590

  15. COMPARISON OF CRYO TREATMENT EFFECT ON MACHINING CHARACTERISTICS OF TITANIUM IN ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder Singh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies on cryogenic treatment highlighted that certain metals, after being cryogenically treated, show a significant increase in tool life when used in manufacturing, cutting and shaping processes. The present work deals with experimental investigation of the role of cryogenic treatment on the machining characteristics of titanium in electric discharge machining (EDM. EDM is a potential process to commercially machine tough materials like titanium alloys, due to the properties of non-mechanical contact between the tool and workpiece and the capability to machine intricate shapes. In this research work an effort has been made to compare the machining characteristics of titanium with EDM, before and after cryogenic treatment of the tool and workpiece using a Taguchi design approach. The output parameters for study are material removal rate (MRR, tool wear rate (TWR, surface roughness (SR and dimensional accuracy (Δd. The results of the study suggest that with cryogenic treatment MRR, TWR, SR and Δd show an improvement of 60.39%, 58.77%, 7.99% and 80.00% respectively.

  16. [Immunohistochemical characteristic of myoma tissue in patients with uterine leiomyoma after treatment with ulipristal acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuryk E.G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Uterine leiomyoma is one of the most common benign tumors of the female genital organs. The main conservative treatment of leiomyoma is progesterone receptor blockers that suppress myoma growth and may lead to its regression. Objective. To study the immunohistochemical features of myoma tissue in patients with uterine leiomyoma after treatment with selective progesterone modulator - ulipristal acetate. Methods. Leiomyoma tissue obtained from 9 patients after ulipristal acetate treatment were investigated. Group for comparison - leiomyoma from patients without hormonal therapy. Immunohistochemical study of progesterone and estrogen receptors, proliferative activity marker Ki-67 and inhibitor of apoptosis Bcl-2 was performed. Results. In the group of patients without preoperative hormonal treatment progesterone receptors were expressed in 76,4±6,8% of the nuclei, estrogen receptors - in 32,8±2,6%. In the group of patients after treatment with ulipristal acetate there was a significant decrease of progesterone receptor expression – 36,8±1,28% (p 0,05 . Bcl-2 in the control group was found in 65,4±7,2% cells, in leiomyoma after treatment there was a significant decrease of bcl-2 – 42,6±3,2% (p <0, 05. In leiomyomas without hormonal treatment Ki-67 was determined in 11,8% of the nuclei of smooth muscle cells, and in leiomyomas after ulipristal acetate – in 7,2% leiomyoma cells. Conclusions. In patients after three months of ulipristal acetate treatment there was a significant decrease of expression of progesterone receptor, bcl-2, and Ki-67. Taken together these data evidence reduced action of progesterone on leiomyoma cells, induction of apoptosis and decreased proliferation processes that may cause involution of fibroids. Citation: Kuryk EG, Litvak EO, Chabrat BV, Lysenko BM. [Immunohistochemical characteristic of myoma tissue in patients with uterine leiomyoma after treatment with ulipristal acetate]. Morphologia. 2015

  17. Effect of active treatments on photovoltaic characteristics of structures based on CdTe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoelectric characteristics of ITO/CdTe structures fabricated by the thermal evaporation in vacuum followed by their deposition in a quasi closed volume have been studied before and after treatments of various kinds. Some specimens were subjected to a 'chloride' treatment, the others were annealed in air. Afterward, the specimens were treated in hydrogen plasma, and they were covered with a thin diamond-like carbon film. The 'chloride' treatment of ITO/CdTe structures is shown to result in an increase of the diffusion length of charge carriers in the CdTe layer. The thermal annealing did not affect this parameter, but significantly enhanced the photosensitivity, which means a reduction of the surface recombination rate in the surface CdTe layer. For all considered ITO/CdTe structures obtained by the thermal evaporation in vacuum, the following treatment in hydrogen plasma and the deposition of thin diamondlike films brought about a substantial increase in the diffusion length of charge carriers in the CdTe layer. The ITO/CdTe structures obtained by the thermal vacuum evaporation and treated with hydrogen plasma demonstrated a significant enhancement of their spectral sensitivity in a wavelength range of 400-800 nm, whereas the same effect for structures subjected to the 'chloride' treatment was obtained after the sequential hydrogen plasma treatment and the diamond-like carbon film deposition.

  18. Herd and cow characteristics affecting the odds of veterinary treatment for disease – a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vågsholm Ivar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that a number of different factors affect whether an animal receives treatment or not when diseased. The aim of this paper was to evaluate if herd or individual animal characteristics influence whether cattle receives veterinary treatment for disease, and thereby also introduce misclassification in the disease recording system. Methods The data consisted mainly of disease events reported by farmers during 2004. We modelled odds of receiving veterinary treatment when diseased, using two-level logistic regression models for cows and young animals (calves and heifers, respectively. Model parameters were estimated using three procedures, because these procedures have been shown, under some conditions, to produce biased estimates for multi-level models with binary outcomes. Results Cows located in herds mainly consisting of Swedish Holstein cows had higher odds for veterinary treatment than cows in herds mainly consisting of Swedish Red cows. Cows with a disease event early in lactation had higher odds for treatment than when the event occurred later in lactation. There were also higher odds for veterinary treatment of events for cows in January and April than in July and October. The odds for veterinary treatment of events in young animals were higher if the farmer appeared to be good at keeping records. Having a disease event at the same date as another animal increased the odds for veterinary treatment for all events in young animals, and for lameness, metabolic, udder and other disorders, but not for peripartum disorders, in cows. There were also differences in the odds for veterinary treatment between disease complexes, both for cows and young animals. The random effect of herd was significant in both models and accounted for 40–44% of the variation in the cow model and 30–46% in the young animal model. Conclusion We conclude that cow and herd characteristics influence the odds for veterinary

  19. The suggestion of common cause of disease, characteristics of human body, and medical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Jun Cho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives & Methods: This suggestion was attempted to be elevated the recognition of common characteristics in disease. So, we performed to analyze the correlation of common cause of disease, characteristics of human body, and medical treatment. And the results are as follows. Results: 1. The cause of disease is consist of genetic factor, aging, habit, food of not good in health, weather, environment, deficit of the physical activity, stress and so on. 2. Generally, human has common and individual weakness. Individual weakness is appeared similar to the occurrence of volcano and lapse. 3. The correlation of disease and medical treatments is possible to explain using the quotation of the law of motion made by Isaac Newton, the great physicist. 4. When the process of the medical treatment was not progressed, the prognosis is determined by the correlation of the homeostasis(H' in human body and the homeostasis(H of disease. 5. The prognosis of disease is determined by the relationship between the energy of disease(F and medical treatment(F'. 6. The exact diagnosis is possible to predict the treatment sequence, and the facts that homeostasis in human body and disease, relationship between the energy of disease(F and medical treatment(F', action and reaction are important to determine the prognosis. 7. The careful observation of improving response and worsening action of disease becomes available for exact prognosis. Conclusion: The above described contents may be useful in clinical studies, and the concrete clinical reports about this will be made afterward.

  20. Treatment utilisation and trauma characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Traut

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on treatment utilisation and outcome in South African youth. This study was undertaken to document demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with PTSD. Design. A retrospective chart study of all patients presenting to a child and adolescent inpatient unit was conducted between 1994-1996. For children and adolescents diagnosed with PTSD; demographic, diagnostic and treatment variables, including trauma type, family history, and delays in treatment seeking, were documented. Setting. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatient Unit, Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town. Subjects. Children and adolescents (2 to 18 years presenting to an inpatient unit (n=737. Results. 10.3% (n=76 met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Gender differences were clearly evident: PTSD was six times more prevalent in girls (65 with PTSD were female and 11 were male; girls were most likely to have experienced rape or sexual abuse while boys were most likely to have witnessed a killing. Psychotherapy was the most common intervention for PTSD, followed by treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant. 97.4% of children and adolescents who were treated demonstrated significant improvement. Delays in seeking treatment and problems with the primary support group were highly prevalent. Conclusion. PTSD is a common disorder that is responsive to treatment with psychotherapy and/or tricyclic antidepressants in child and adolescent inpatients. These findings underscore the importance of early identification and treatment of childhood PTSD in mental health settings, in particular tertiary service institutions.

  1. Characteristics of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Bryan N; Cauce, Ana Mari

    2006-03-01

    Previous research has suggested that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals enter treatment for substance abuse with more severe problems than heterosexual individuals. However, methodological difficulties, particularly the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample, have limited the ability to draw conclusions about LGBT individuals who receive services for substance abuse. This study took advantage of a unique opportunity to examine a representative sample of openly LGBT clients receiving publicly funded substance abuse treatment by using data gathered by treatment providers in Washington State. Baseline differences between openly LGBT and heterosexual clients were compared in a variety of domains. Results demonstrated that openly LGBT clients enter treatment with more severe substance abuse problems, greater psychopathology, and greater medical service utilization when compared with heterosexual clients. When the analyses were stratified based on sex, different patterns of substance use and associated psychosocial characteristics emerged for the LGBT clients. Implications for provision of appropriate services and recommendations to treatment agencies are discussed in this article. PMID:16490677

  2. Structural characteristics of nickel super alloy INCONEL 713LC after heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Aircraft industry often uses nickel super-alloys for blades of jet engine turbines. This paper summarises analysis of influence of heat treatment on structural characteristics of nickel super-alloy INCONEL 713LC.Design/methodology/approach: Experimental investigation castings made of commercially produced nickel super-alloy INCONEL 713LC. Material was after heat treatment subjected to detailed structural analysis with use of methods of light microscopy (LM, or scanning electron microscopy (SEM on microscopes OLYMPUS IX71 and JEOL JSM 50A.Findings: Mode of optimum heat treatment was proposed. On the basis of obtained results it is possible to recommend a heat treatment, which would consist of heating and dwell at the temperature exceeding 1240°C (min. 1260°C, so that precipitates at the grain boundaries dissolve completely, with subsequent slow cooling down to the temperature of approx. 940-950°C, so that there occurs intensive intra-granular precipitation of inter-metallic phase γ’.Research limitations/implications: The experiment was limited by occurrence a void in cast alloys.Practical implications: Aircraft industry often uses nickel super-alloys for blades of jet engine turbines.Originality/value: On the basis of obtained results it is possible to recommend the most suitable heat treatment, which produce intensive intra-granular precipitation of inter-metallic phase γ’. It was received a new know-how in this field.

  3. Differences in legal characteristics between Caucasian and African-American women diverted into substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Melanie C; Edwards, Laurie; Lussier, Lauren R; Devine, Susan; Easton, Caroline J

    2011-01-01

    In this exploratory study, we examined differences in the legal characteristics of Caucasian and African-American female offenders (n = 122) who were diverted into substance abuse treatment, to identify any racial disparities. We also examined the differences between groups in demographics and in substance abuse, family, and violence histories. In terms of legal characteristics, the results showed that African-American female offenders were significantly more likely to have been incarcerated at the time of their substance dependency evaluation than were Caucasian female offenders. Also, African-American women were more likely to have served 13 months for the current legal charge in comparison to the 4 months served by Caucasian women, although no differences were found between groups in the severity of the current legal charge. Comparison of demographics and substance abuse, family, and violence histories indicated that African-American women were more likely to be undereducated, crack cocaine dependent, and overly exposed to violence. Overall, the sample of female offenders evidenced severe substance dependency problems, a strong need for inpatient substance abuse treatment, and chronic legal and social difficulties. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to unbalanced sentencing policies and increasing awareness of the treatment needs of this unique population. PMID:21389168

  4. Comparison of the influence of heat treatment and magnetic-pulse treatment on the mechanical characteristics of 65G steel upon instrumental indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, R. A.; Dubinskii, V. N.

    2015-11-01

    It has been shown that the magnetic-pulse treatment can exert various effects on the behavior of lattice defects and the microstructure of 65G steel and, consequently, on its mechanical properties depending on the conditions of treatment. The mechanical characteristics of 65G steel obtained by the method of instru-mental indentation after heat treatment and magnetic-pulse treatment are compared.

  5. Effects of microwave irradiation treatment on physicochemical characteristics of Chinese low-rank coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Typical Chinese lignites with various ranks are upgraded through microwave. • The pore distribution extends to micropore region, BET area and volume increase. • FTIR show the change of microstructure and improvement in coal rank after upgrading. • Upgraded coals exhibit weak combustion similar to Da Tong bituminous coal. • More evident effects are obtained for raw brown coal with relative lower rank. - Abstract: This study investigates the effects of microwave irradiation treatment on coal composition, pore structure, coal rank, function groups, and combustion characteristics of typical Chinese low-rank coals. Results showed that the upgrading process (microwave irradiation treatment) significantly reduced the coals’ inherent moisture, and increased their calorific value and fixed carbon content. It was also found that the upgrading process generated micropores and increased pore volume and surface area of the coals. Results on the oxygen/carbon ratio parameter indicated that the low-rank coals were upgraded to high-rank coals after the upgrading process, which is in agreement with the findings from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Unstable components in the coal were converted into stable components during the upgrading process. Thermo-gravimetric analysis showed that the combustion processes of upgraded coals were delayed toward the high-temperature region, the ignition and burnout temperatures increased, and the comprehensive combustion parameter decreased. Compared with raw brown coals, the upgraded coals exhibited weak combustion characteristics similar to bituminous coal. The changes in physicochemical characteristics became more notable when processing temperature increased from 130 °C to 160 °C or the rank of raw brown coal was lower. Microwave irradiation treatment could be considered as an effective dewatering and upgrading process

  6. Characteristics, treatment patterns, and unmet needs of Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koretsune Y

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yukihiro Koretsune,1 Bruno Rossi,2 Kazuya Iwamoto,3 Edward CY Wang,4 Marco DiBonaventura,5 Jean-Baptiste Briere41Institute for Clinical Research, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka, Japan; 2Market Access, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd., Osaka, Japan; 3Medical Affairs Cardiovascular and Neurology, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd., Osaka, Japan; 4Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd., Osaka, Japan; 5Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, New York, NY, USABackground: Data on characteristics, comorbidities, health outcomes, and treatment patterns of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF in Japan are scarce. The aim of this study was to address this gap in order to better understand the characteristics of Japanese AF patients.Methods and results: The 2008-2010 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey data sets were used in this study (N = 60,015. Demographics, health characteristics, stroke risk (using the CHA2DS2-VASc score, comorbidities, and health outcomes were all assessed. A total of 565 patients (0.94% self-reported a physician diagnosis of AF. Patients with AF reported a number of comorbidities, including another cardiovascular condition (87.08%, a urological condition (67.79%, and dyspepsia (37.35%. Patients with AF also reported significantly worse health status and significantly more resource use than did controls. Based on the CHA2DS2-VASc score, most patients (88.50% were at either moderate or high risk, yet only 64.25% of patients were currently being treated. Among those not currently treated, 42.57% had discontinued previous treatment. Among those currently treated, over a third reported nonadherent behaviors.Conclusion: Despite the disease burden and the high risk for a future stroke, not all patients are being treated according to guidelines. This treatment gap highlights the need for better therapeutic alternatives, in order to improve the management of patients with AF, in Japan.Keywords: stroke risk, health status, adherence

  7. Effect of climate change on stormwater characteristics and treatment efficiencies of stormwater retention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Vezzaro, Luca; Birch, Heidi; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of climate changes on stormwater characteristics and treatment efficiency of retention ponds. This was performed by using an integrated model for two scenarios representing the current situations and a climate change scenario with...... pond removal performance with an overall increase in the particulate concentrations discharged to the environment. The changes in the two scenarios affected only the particulate phase, so no major impact on toxicity due to stormwater discharge is expected due to climate change. Further research is...

  8. Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks’ sucrose-rich diet compared to an artificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Astrup

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of exchanging sucrose for artificial sweeteners on risk factors for developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. Objective: To investigate the effects of a diet high in sucrose versus a diet high in artificial sweeteners on fasting and postprandial metabolic profiles after 10 weeks.Healthy overweight subjects were randomised to consume drinks and foods sweetened with either sucrose (∼2 g/kg body weight (n = 12 or artificial sweeteners (n = 11 as supplements to their usual diet. Supplements were similar on the two diets and consisted of beverages (∼80 weight% and solid foods (yoghurts, marmalade, ice cream, stewed fruits. The rest of the diet was free of choice and ad libitum. Before (week 0 and after the intervention (week 10 fasting blood samples were drawn and in week 10, postprandial blood was sampled during an 8-hour meal test (breakfast and lunch.After 10 weeks postprandial glucose, insulin, lactate, triglyceride, leptin, glucagon, and GLP-1 were all significantly higher in the sucrose compared with the sweetener group. After adjusting for differences in body weight changes and fasting values (week 10, postprandial glucose, lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 were significantly higher and after further adjusting for differences in energy and sucrose intake, postprandial lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were still significantly higher on the sucrose-rich diet.A sucrose-rich diet consumed for 10 weeks resulted in significant elevations of postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia compared to a diet rich in artificial sweeteners in slightly overweight healthy subjects.

  9. Concurrent management of postprandial glycaemia and nutrient intake using glycaemic glucose equivalents, food composition data and computer-assisted meal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, J A; Williams, M

    2000-06-01

    A computer system, called SERVE-NZ Nutririon Management System, for use in diabetes management, addresses the problem of concurrently controlling postprandial glycaemic response and nutrient intake in meals containing a number of foods, is described. It converts the weight and relative glycaemic potency of each food to its content of glycaemic glucose equivalents (GGE) - the amount of glucose theoretically inducing the same blood glucose response as would the specified quantity of food. Glycaemic glucose equivalents in a meal can be simply obtained by adding the GGE content of all foods in the meal to give a figure for the maximal glycaemic impact of the meal. Glycaemic glucose equivalents may be calculated using food composition databases that include available carbohydrate, common standard measure weights and glycaemic index values. If GGE is treated as a nutrient, an output of the total nutrient profile of a food or meal, and its glycaemic impact as GGE, can be obtained simultaneously. Application of a nutritional software system incorporating GGE values to management of glycaemic loadings and nutrient intakes over five meals within a day is demonstrated. The system may be a useful aid in self-management of glycaemia, as it will identify quantities of foods that can be consumed without exceeding the predetermined glucose tolerances of individuals. The graphical presentation of GGE and nutrient composition of meals may be a useful visual aid in educating clients with diabetes. The GGE values on food labels would provide easily understood guidance, not obtained from glycaemic index values, to the maximum number of items or quantity of a food that an individual should eat at a time. In its present basic form the calculation of GGE is most likely to slightly overestimate glycaemic impact, so it presents a worst-case prediction. PMID:24394390

  10. Study on treatment of miscellaneous solid waste by plasma melting. Melting characteristics of plasma heating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The melting treatment is of great promise as treatment technology of volume reduction and stabilization for low-level radioactive miscellaneous solid wastes generated from nuclear facilities. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing plasma melting method and carrying out melting tests of simulated miscellaneous solid wastes by this method. This paper describes heating characteristic, distribution behavior of radioactive tracer and volatilization behavior of slag component n the plasma melting. Thermal property of waste material had a great influence on heating efficiency of plasma heating. Uniformity of molten products was confirmed by radioactivity measurements. Residual fraction of Cs-137 in solidified product decreased with increasing of heating times. On the contrary, almost all of Eu-152 remained in solidified product. Volatilization of chemical components from molten slag was observed. (author)

  11. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy in Children: A Review of Clinical Characteristics and Recommendations for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Karimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy (CIDP is an acquired and autoimmune neuropathy, characterized by a chronic, rapidly progressive, symmetric weakness. In children, abnormal gait is as a first symptom of muscle weakness. Evidence Acquisition: The diagnosis of CIDP is on the basis of clinical characteristics, electrodiagnostic that shows the severity of the disease, lumbar puncture and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Results: The first-line treatments in childhood CIDP are intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG, corticosteroids, and plasmapheresis. Response to first-line therapies is usually satisfactory; nevertheless, recommendations regarding the choice of second-line therapy can only be prepared on the basis of the existing practice described in some of the case reports. Conclusions: This review demonstrated the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of childhood CIDP.

  12. Effect of Surface Treatment on the Surface Characteristics of AISI 316L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steve; Selvaduray, Guna

    2005-01-01

    The ability of 316L stainless steel to maintain biocompatibility, which is dependent upon the surface characteristics, is critical to its effectiveness as an implant material. The surfaces of mechanically polished (MP), electropolished (EP) and plasma treated 316L stainless steel coupons were characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) for chemical composition, Atomic Force Microscopy for surface roughness, and contact angle measurements for critical surface tension. All surfaces had a Ni concentration that was significantly lower than the bulk concentration of -43%. The Cr content of the surface was increased significantly by electropolishing. The surface roughness was also improved significantly by electropolishing. Plasma treatment had the reverse effect - the surface Cr content was decreased. It was also found that the Cr and Fe in the surface exist in both the oxide and hydroxide states, with the ratios varying according to surface treatment.

  13. Characteristics and transformations of dissolved organic nitrogen in municipal biological nitrogen removal wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Yu, Honglei; Qin, Yanwen; Zan, Fengyu; Zhang, Jingtian

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents most of the dissolved nitrogen in the effluent of biological nitrogen removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The characteristics of wastewater-derived DON in two different WWTPs were investigated by several different methods. The major removals of DON and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) along the treatment train were observed in the anaerobic process. Dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA) and dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) in the effluent accounted approximately for less than 4% and 1% of the effluent DON, respectively. Approximately half of wastewater-derived DON was capable of passing through a 1 kDa ultrafilter, and low MW DON cannot effectively be removed by BNR processes. More than 80% of effluent DON was composed of hydrophilic compounds, which stimulate algal growth. The study provided important information for future upgrading of WWTPs or the selection of DON removal systems to meet more demanding nitrogen discharge limits.

  14. Characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of hypoglossal canal dural arteriovenous fistula: report of nine cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) of the hypoglossal canal in nine patients with this relatively rare vascular disorder. Of 248 patients with intracranial DAVFs managed at our institution, nine patients (3.6%; four men, five women; mean age 62 years) were diagnosed with hypoglossal canal DAVF. We investigated patient characteristics with respect to clinical symptoms, neuroradiological findings, efficacy and complications related to endovascular treatment. Seven patients had experienced head injury. All patients presented with pulsatile tinnitus. One patient displayed ipsilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy before treatment. MR angiography showed a ''magic wand'' appearance between the affected hypoglossal canal and the internal jugular vein in four patients. Angiography demonstrated an AV fistula on the medial aspect of the superior jugular bulb, mostly arising from the bilateral occipital, ascending pharyngeal and vertebral arteries with drainage to the internal jugular vein via the anterior condylar vein. Contralateral carotid injection accurately clarified the shunting point. Five patients underwent endovascular treatment: transarterial embolization (TAE; n=2), transvenous embolization (TVE; n=2), and TAE/TVE (n=1). Complete shunt obliteration was achieved in four patients and shunt reduction in one. The remaining four patients were treated conservatively and the shunt had disappeared at follow-up. Postoperative hypoglossal nerve palsy occurred in one patient after TVE, possibly due to coil overpacking. The incidence of hypoglossal canal DAVF was not very low in our series. Contralateral carotid injection is an essential examination to provide an accurate diagnosis. TVE should be considered when access is available, although TAE is also appropriate for shunt reduction. (orig.)

  15. Characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of hypoglossal canal dural arteriovenous fistula: report of nine cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, Shinji; Satoh, Koichi; Matsubara, Shunji; Satomi, Junichiro; Hanaoka, Mami; Nagahiro, Shinji [University of Tokushima, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokushima (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    We report the characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) of the hypoglossal canal in nine patients with this relatively rare vascular disorder. Of 248 patients with intracranial DAVFs managed at our institution, nine patients (3.6%; four men, five women; mean age 62 years) were diagnosed with hypoglossal canal DAVF. We investigated patient characteristics with respect to clinical symptoms, neuroradiological findings, efficacy and complications related to endovascular treatment. Seven patients had experienced head injury. All patients presented with pulsatile tinnitus. One patient displayed ipsilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy before treatment. MR angiography showed a 'magic wand' appearance between the affected hypoglossal canal and the internal jugular vein in four patients. Angiography demonstrated an AV fistula on the medial aspect of the superior jugular bulb, mostly arising from the bilateral occipital, ascending pharyngeal and vertebral arteries with drainage to the internal jugular vein via the anterior condylar vein. Contralateral carotid injection accurately clarified the shunting point. Five patients underwent endovascular treatment: transarterial embolization (TAE; n=2), transvenous embolization (TVE; n=2), and TAE/TVE (n=1). Complete shunt obliteration was achieved in four patients and shunt reduction in one. The remaining four patients were treated conservatively and the shunt had disappeared at follow-up. Postoperative hypoglossal nerve palsy occurred in one patient after TVE, possibly due to coil overpacking. The incidence of hypoglossal canal DAVF was not very low in our series. Contralateral carotid injection is an essential examination to provide an accurate diagnosis. TVE should be considered when access is available, although TAE is also appropriate for shunt reduction. (orig.)

  16. Improvement of Plating Characteristics Between Nickel and PEEK by Plasma Treatment and Chemical Etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface of PEEK(poly-ether-ether-ketone) was modified by chemical etching, plasma treatment and mechanical grinding to improve the plating adhesion. The plating characteristics of these samples were studied by the contact angle, plating thickness, gloss and adhesion. Chemical etching and plasma treatment increased wettability, adhesion and gloss. The contact angle of as-received PEEK was 61 .deg. . The contact angles of chemical etched, plasma treated or both were improved to the range of 15∼33 .deg. . In the case of electroless plating, the thickest layer without blister was 1.6 μm. The adhesion strengths by chemical etching, plasma treatment or both chemical etching and plasma treatment were 75 kgf/cm2, 102 kgf/cm2, 113 kgf/cm2, respectively, comparing to the 24 kgf/cm2 of as-received. In the case of mechanically ground PEEKs, the adhesion strengths were higher than those unground, with the sacrifice of surface gloss. The gloss of untreated PEEK were greater than mechanically ground PEEKs. Plating thickness increased linearly with the plating times

  17. Influence of wastewater treatment plants' operational conditions on activated sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tzelios, Dimitrios; Michailidis, Avraam

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wastewater composition and operating conditions in activated sludge (AS) microbiological and morphological characteristics was studied in three AS wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): (a) a high organic load slaughterhouse AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and for 425 days; (b) a seasonally operational, low nitrogen load fruit canning industry AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and until the end of the season (87 days); (c) a municipal AS WWTP, treating wastewater from a semi-combined sewer system, monitored during the transitions from dry to rainy and again to dry periods of operation. The sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics were correlated to nutrients' availability, solids retention time, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS), organic load (F/M) and substrate utilization rate. The AS WWTPs' operation was distinguished in periods based on biomass growth phase, characterized by different biological and morphological characteristics and on operational conditions. An anoxic/aerobic selector minimizes the readily biodegradable compounds in influent, inhibiting filamentous growth. Plant performance controlling is presented in a logic flowchart in which operational parameters are linked to microbial manipulation, resulting in a useful tool for researchers and engineers. PMID:26145184

  18. Patient and parent preferences for characteristics of prophylactic treatment in hemophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlan R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Furlan,1 Sangeeta Krishnan,2 Jeffrey Vietri3 1Advanced Methods, Kantar Health, Epsom, Surrey, UK; 2Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Biogen, MA, USA; 3Health Outcomes, Kantar Health, Milan, Italy Introduction: New longer-acting factor products will potentially allow for less frequent infusion in prophylactic treatment of hemophilia. However, the role of administration frequency relative to other treatment attributes in determining preferences for prophylactic hemophilia treatment regimens is not well understood. Aim: To identify the relative importance of frequency of administration, efficacy, and other treatment characteristics among candidates for prophylactic treatment for hemophilia A and B. Method: An Internet survey was conducted among hemophilia patients and the parents of pediatric hemophilia patients in Australia, Canada, and the US. A monadic conjoint task was included in the survey, which varied frequency of administration (three, two, or one time per week for hemophilia A; twice weekly, weekly, or biweekly for hemophilia B, efficacy (no bleeding or breakthrough bleeding once every 4 months, 6 months, or 12 months, diluent volume (3 mL vs 2.5 mL for hemophilia A; 5 mL vs 3 mL for hemophilia B, vials per infusion (2 vs 1, reconstitution device (assembly required vs not, and manufacturer (established in hemophilia vs not. Respondents were asked their likelihood to switch from their current regimen to the presented treatment. Respondents were told to assume that other aspects of treatment, such as risk of inhibitor development, cost, and method of distribution, would remain the same. Results: A total of 89 patients and/or parents of children with hemophilia A participated; another 32 were included in the exercise for hemophilia B. Relative importance was 47%, 24%, and 18% for frequency of administration, efficacy, and manufacturer, respectively, in hemophilia A; analogous values were 48%, 26%, and 21% in

  19. The Effects of Macerating Enzyme Treat Treatments and Aging on Phenolic Content and Chromatic Characteristics in Vranec Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro; Janevski, Aco; Andronikov, Darko; Jordeva, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of using of pectolytic enzyme preparations on the phenolic content and chromatic characteristics of young red wines produced from Vranec (Vitis vinifera L.), the important grape variety in Macedonia. Phenolic compounds and chromatic characteristics of young red wines were investigated by means of enzyme treatments with diverse enzyme preparations (Vinozym Vintage FCE, Rohapect), with urdoses and time of aging (6 months).Enzyme treatments and maceration time inf...

  20. Children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility and Musculoskeletal Complaints: State of the Art on Diagnostics, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Scheper, M. C.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; E. A. A. Rameckers; J. Verbunt; Remvig, L.; Juul-Kristensen, B

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. To provide a state of the art on diagnostics, clinical characteristics, and treatment of paediatric generalised joint hypermobility (GJH) and joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS). Method. A narrative review was performed regarding diagnostics and clinical characteristics. Effectiveness of treatment was evaluated by systematic review. Searches of Medline and Central were performed and included nonsymptomatic and symptomatic forms of GJH (JHS, collagen diseases). Results. In the las...

  1. Characteristics, Treatment, and Long-Term Outcome of Gastrointestinal Involvement in Behcet's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Ibrahim; Esatoglu, Sinem Nihal; Hatemi, Gulen; Erzin, Yusuf; Yazici, Hasan; Celik, Aykut Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastrointestinal involvement is rare in Behçet's syndrome (BS) patients from the Mediterranean basin. We report the demographic and disease characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcome of patients with gastrointestinal involvement in BS (GIBS). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all BS patients in our BS clinic with a diagnosis of GIBS. Patients were invited to the clinic to assess their outcome. Among 8763 BS patients, we identified 60 with GIBS (M/F: 32/28, mean age at diagnosis: 34 ± 10, mean follow-up: 7.5 ± 4 years), after excluding 22 patients with mimicking symptoms. Six (10%) had juvenile-onset BS. The most common intestinal localization was ileocecal region (36/59, 61%) mainly as big oval ulcer/s. Initial treatment was azathioprine for moderate to severe (n = 37) and 5-ASA for mild cases (n = 16). Anti-TNFs and/or thalidomide provided remission in 12 of 18 (67%) refractory patients. Emergency surgery was required in 22 patients. Nine patients did not receive postoperative immunomodulators and 8 relapsed. Overall, 48 of 60 (80%) patients were in remission (29/48 without treatment) at the time of survey. Three recently treated and 2 refractory patients were still active, 3 had died due to non-GI-related reasons, and 4 were lost to follow-up. Careful evaluation for excluding mimickers is important during the diagnosis of GIBS. Azathioprine seems to be a good choice as first-line treatment with high remission rates and few adverse events. Thalidomide and/or TNF-alpha antagonists may be preferred in resistant cases. Surgery may be required for perforations or massive bleeding, and postoperative immunosuppressive treatment is necessary for preventing postoperative recurrences. PMID:27100417

  2. Tuberculosis notifications, characteristics and treatment outcomes: urban vs. rural Solomon Islands, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P. C.; Bissell, K.; Harries, A. D.; Viney, K.; Gounder, S.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: All provincial tuberculosis (TB) management units in the Solomon Islands. Objective: To compare TB notifications, characteristics and treatment outcomes in urban vs. rural areas. Design: A retrospective descriptive cohort study involving record review and data extraction from provincial TB and laboratory registers and treatment charts from 2000 to 2011. Results: Of 4137 TB cases notified, 1364 (33%) were from urban and 3227 (67%) from rural areas. Notification rates per year of study were consistently higher in urban areas (104–150 per 100 000 population) than in rural areas (49–70/100 000). Cases in rural areas were more likely to have smear-negative pulmonary TB and less likely to have extra-pulmonary TB (P < 0.001). TB cases in rural areas were more likely to die from TB than those from urban areas (3.2% vs. 5.9%). In contrast, TB cases in rural areas were less likely to default (2.8% vs. 1.8%). Conclusion: TB notification rates were much higher in urban than in rural areas in the Solomon Islands. Rural patients are more likely to die from the disease but are slightly less likely to default. Further research is required to explore the possibility of under-reporting in rural areas and to improve treatment outcomes. PMID:26477283

  3. Releasing characteristics of phosphorus and other substances during thermal treatment of excess sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The releasing characteristics of phosphorus, nitrogen compounds, organics, and some metal cations during thermal treatment of excess sludge were investigated. It was found that during heating not only phosphorus, but also nitrogen compounds, organics, and some metal cations could be released in abundance. The maximum orthophosphate (ortho-P) release of about 90 mg/L in concentration was observed at 50℃ in 1 h. Except for volatile fatty acids (VFAs), comparatively little total nitrogen (TN), total organic carbon(TOC), and metal cations were released at the same time. Such results might favor further process of phosphorus recovery. VFAs were considerably released only at 50℃. Acetic, butyric, and propionic acid were the most abundant components in turn and their releasing profiles exhibited good linear relationship with time (R2 = 0.9977, 0.9624, and 0.8908, respectively). The concentrations of Mg2+ and K+ increased with time and temperature during thermal treatment, but Ca2+ decreased. The release of Mg2+ and K+ agreed well with TP release (R2 = 0.9892 and 0.9476, respectively). Temperature in the experimental range had very little impact on the linear relationships,especially of Mg2+. Moreover, the parameter of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) was found to be an important factor for thermal sludge treatment as the released ortho-P and total phosphorus (TP) at 50℃ increased more than one-fold when MLSS was increased from 4000 to 8000 mg/L.

  4. Combat-related PTSD nightmares and imagery rehearsal: nightmare characteristics and relation to treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Gerlinde C; Thompson, Richard; Ross, Richard J; Cook, Joan M

    2012-10-01

    The characteristics of nightmares of 48 male U.S. Vietnam war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as revised dream scripts developed in the course of Imagery Rehearsal therapy, were examined in relation to pretreatment symptomatology and treatment outcome. Features, content, and themes of nightmares and rescripted dreams were coded by 2 independent raters. Nightmares were replete with scenes of death and violence and were predominantly replays of actual combat events in which the veteran was under attack and feared for his life. Although addressing or resolving the nightmare theme with rescripting was associated with a reduction in sleep disturbance, references to violence in the rescripted dream were related to poorer treatment outcome in nightmare frequency; B  = 5.69 (SE = 1.14). The experience of olfactory sensations in nightmares, a possible index of nightmare intensity, was also related to poorer treatment response; B  = 2.95 (SE = 1.06). Imagery rehearsal for individuals with severe, chronic PTSD and fairly replicative nightmares may be most effective when the rescripted dream incorporates a resolution of the nightmare theme and excludes violent details. PMID:23047646

  5. Waste Sludge Characteristics of a Wastewater Treatment Plant Compared with Environmental Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Mesdaghinia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensive health hazards. On the other hand, this sludge has benefits for plants and soils. Thereupon, land application of sludge has received much attention over the traditional incineration and dump in sea. The comprehensive regulations of U.S.EPA title 40 CFR parts 503 include criteria and standards for land application of sludge. One of the most important wastewater treatment plants in Tehran, Iran is Shoosh Plant, which applies its waste sludge in agricultural lands after dewatering in drying beds. In this research, waste sludge from drying beds was examined according to 40 CFR parts 503. Results indicate that the dehydrated sludge has not the characteristics required for final discharge. If the dewatering process in the existing beds of the plant would be modified according to title 40 CFR part 503, the standard of Pathogen Reduction class B would be achieved. Waste sludge of drying bed must be applied in agricultural land with respect to the conditions of application method that is presented in vector attraction reduction. Concentration of this waste sludge is less than ceiling concentration limits identified by title 40 CFR parts 503.

  6. Characteristics of an ideal nebulized antibiotic for the treatment of pneumonia in the intubated patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Matteo; Luyt, Charles-Edouard; Nicolau, David P; Pugin, Jérôme

    2016-12-01

    Gram-negative pneumonia in patients who are intubated and mechanically ventilated is associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as higher healthcare costs compared with those who do not have the disease. Intravenous antibiotics are currently the standard of care for pneumonia; however, increasing rates of multidrug resistance and limited penetration of some classes of antimicrobials into the lungs reduce the effectiveness of this treatment option, and current clinical cure rates are variable, while recurrence rates remain high. Inhaled antibiotics may have the potential to improve outcomes in this patient population, but their use is currently restricted by a lack of specifically formulated solutions for inhalation and a limited number of devices designed for the nebulization of antibiotics. In this article, we review the challenges clinicians face in the treatment of pneumonia and discuss the characteristics that would constitute an ideal inhaled drug/device combination. We also review inhaled antibiotic options currently in development for the treatment of pneumonia in patients who are intubated and mechanically ventilated. PMID:27090532

  7. A descriptive survey of types, spread and characteristics of substance abuse treatment centers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinhanmi Akinwande O

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa and the 8th most populous in the world with a population of over 154 million, does not have current data on substance abuse treatment demand and treatment facilities; however, the country has the highest one-year prevalence rate of Cannabis use (14.3% in Africa and ranks third in Africa with respect to the one-year prevalence rate of cocaine (0.7% and Opioids (0.7% use. This study aimed to determine the types, spread and characteristics of the substance abuse treatment centers in Nigeria. Methods The study was a cross sectional survey of substance abuse treatment centers in Nigeria. Thirty-one units were invited and participated in filling an online questionnaire, adapted from the European Treatment Unit/Program Form (June 1997 version. Results All the units completed the online questionnaire. A large proportion (48% was located in the South-West geopolitical zone of the country. Most (58% were run by Non-Governmental Organizations. Half of them performed internal or external evaluation of treatment process or outcome. There were a total of 1043 for all categories of paid and volunteer staff, with an average of 33 staff per unit. Most of the funding came from charitable donations (30%. No unit provided drug substitution/maintenance therapy. The units had a total residential capacity of 566 beds. New client admissions in the past one year totalled 765 (mean = 48, median = 26.5, min = 0, max = 147 and 2478 clients received services in the non-residential units in the past year. No unit provided syringe exchange services. Conclusions The study revealed a dearth of substance abuse treatment units (and of funds for the available ones in a country with a large population size and one of the highest prevalence rates of substance abuse in Africa. The available units were not networked and lacked a directory or an evaluation framework. To provide an environment for effective monitoring

  8. Translational validation of personalized treatment strategy based on genetic characteristics of glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Taek Oh

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM heterogeneity in the genomic and phenotypic properties has potentiated personalized approach against specific therapeutic targets of each GBM patient. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA Research Network has been established the comprehensive genomic abnormalities of GBM, which sub-classified GBMs into 4 different molecular subtypes. The molecular subtypes could be utilized to develop personalized treatment strategy for each subtype. We applied a classifying method, NTP (Nearest Template Prediction method to determine molecular subtype of each GBM patient and corresponding orthotopic xenograft animal model. The models were derived from GBM cells dissociated from patient's surgical sample. Specific drug candidates for each subtype were selected using an integrated pharmacological network database (PharmDB, which link drugs with subtype specific genes. Treatment effects of the drug candidates were determined by in vitro limiting dilution assay using patient-derived GBM cells primarily cultured from orthotopic xenograft tumors. The consistent identification of molecular subtype by the NTP method was validated using TCGA database. When subtypes were determined by the NTP method, orthotopic xenograft animal models faithfully maintained the molecular subtypes of parental tumors. Subtype specific drugs not only showed significant inhibition effects on the in vitro clonogenicity of patient-derived GBM cells but also synergistically reversed temozolomide resistance of MGMT-unmethylated patient-derived GBM cells. However, inhibitory effects on the clonogenicity were not totally subtype-specific. Personalized treatment approach based on genetic characteristics of each GBM could make better treatment outcomes of GBMs, although more sophisticated classifying techniques and subtype specific drugs need to be further elucidated.

  9. The effect of surface treatments on the field emission characteristics of patterned carbon nanotubes on KOVAR substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keunsoo; Lee, Yang Doo; Kang, Byung Hyun; Dong, Ki-Young; Baek, Jinho; Fai, Vincent Lau Chun [Korea University, Display and Nanosystem Laboratory, College of Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won-Seok [Electronic Materials Research Group, Hyosung Corporation, R and D Business Laboratory (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Cheol-Min [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Byeong-Kwon, E-mail: bkju@korea.ac.kr [Korea University, Display and Nanosystem Laboratory, College of Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    The field emission characteristics of patterned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) the average diameter of which is 16 nm cathodes on substrates with different surface treatments were investigated. The surface treatments of the substrate were performed by nickel electroless plating and palladium coating, which is an activation procedure of electroless plating. CNTs were patterned on the surface-treated substrate with radius of 200 {mu}m through conventional photolithography process. Two deposition methods, electrophoresis deposition and spray deposition, were used to investigate the effects of deposition methods on field emission characteristics of the cathodes. It was revealed that the two deposition methods showed similar turn-on field trends, which means that the different surface morphologies of the substrates have more influence on the field emission characteristics than the different deposition methods performed in this study. Through the surface treatments, the roughness of the surface increased and cathodes with a high roughness factor showed better field emission characteristics compared to non-treated ones.

  10. THE IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PATIENT FOR THE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zavrazhnyh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim – the identification of hormonal and psychological characteristics of patients with metabolic syndrome (MS, determining the effectivenessof drug-free weight loss.Materials and methods. The study included 180 patients with MS (according to the criteria of ATP III, received dietary treatment and thermal bath at the spa. Anthropometric measures, the data of the daily blood pressure monitoring, blood levels of hormones (insulin, leptin, were assessed , following surveys were conducted – the definition of eating disorders (PP tests SANT (estimate well-being, activity, mood,anxiety and LOBI (diagnosis related to types of illness. According to the results of the course non-drug treatment, all patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 – with a positive effect of therapy (n = 87 and 2nd – no effect (n = 93. The criterion for the division served as the simultaneous presence of four factors: decrease in body weight by 2 kg or more, reduction in waist circumference by 2 cm or more, decreasedlevels of triglycerides and blood glucose.Results. The group of patients therapy who proved to be ineffective, characterized by significantly higher levels of insulin and leptin, a predominance of emotiogenic PP, high self-esteem of his being. In relation to the state of neglect of the disease, its denial, indifference to the fate were prevailing. A correlation of levels of insulin and leptin levels with parameters of arterial pressure, PP, test results SANT.Conclusion. In patients with MS psychological and behavioral pattern that has adverse effects on weight loss and associated with the levels of leptin and insulin are diagnosed. Taking into account of these characteristics will increase the effectiveness of therapy.

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PATIENT FOR THE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zavrazhnyh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim – the identification of hormonal and psychological characteristics of patients with metabolic syndrome (MS, determining the effectivenessof drug-free weight loss.Materials and methods. The study included 180 patients with MS (according to the criteria of ATP III, received dietary treatment and thermal bath at the spa. Anthropometric measures, the data of the daily blood pressure monitoring, blood levels of hormones (insulin, leptin, were assessed , following surveys were conducted – the definition of eating disorders (PP tests SANT (estimate well-being, activity, mood,anxiety and LOBI (diagnosis related to types of illness. According to the results of the course non-drug treatment, all patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 – with a positive effect of therapy (n = 87 and 2nd – no effect (n = 93. The criterion for the division served as the simultaneous presence of four factors: decrease in body weight by 2 kg or more, reduction in waist circumference by 2 cm or more, decreasedlevels of triglycerides and blood glucose.Results. The group of patients therapy who proved to be ineffective, characterized by significantly higher levels of insulin and leptin, a predominance of emotiogenic PP, high self-esteem of his being. In relation to the state of neglect of the disease, its denial, indifference to the fate were prevailing. A correlation of levels of insulin and leptin levels with parameters of arterial pressure, PP, test results SANT.Conclusion. In patients with MS psychological and behavioral pattern that has adverse effects on weight loss and associated with the levels of leptin and insulin are diagnosed. Taking into account of these characteristics will increase the effectiveness of therapy.

  12. Effects of Tin Content and Heat Treatment on the Anodic Characteristics of Al-Sn Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anodic characteristics of specifically prepared laboratory Al-Sn binary alloys in 3% NaCl aqueous solution have been studied to clarify the effect of Sn addition to Al sacrificial anode. Five nine grade pure Al and reagent grade Sn were melted in a high purity graphite crucible in a glove box under Ar atmosphere. The amount of Sn addition to Al was varied in the range of 0.05 to 0.8% by weight. Alloys thus prepared were fashioned into electrode specimens as cast or after different heat-treatments. Distribution of Sn in alloy specimens was examined by EPMA method, which revealed that only the alloy specimens containing less than 0.2% w/o Sn maintain the Al-Sn solid solution after homogenizing heat-treatment at 620 .deg. C for 18 hrs. Segregation of Sn at grain boundaries and even within grains occurs in other specimens. Only the Sn dissolved within aluminum grains appeared to have a major effect on the anodic characteristics of alloy. Most Al-Sn alloy containing more than 0.05 w/o Sn exhibited very low corrosion potential of -1450 ± 20mV vs. SCE except those heat-treated at 500 .deg. C. In potentiostatic anodic polarization measurements for alloy specimens, the largest polarized currents at each set potentials were observed in the alloy specimen which contains 0.2 w/o Sn and homogenized at 620 .deg. C as well. Galvanic couples of the latter alloy specimen coupled to mild steel cathode with the apparent area ratio of anode to cathode 1:63 gave steady state galvanic current of 17 mA and exhibited electrode potential of -1190 mV vs. SCE in 3% NaCl solution, completely protecting the steel cathode even after 72 hours passed

  13. Experimental Study of the Effects of Blade Treatments on the Tip Vortex Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchenko, Vera

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigates the effects of blade tip treatments on the characteristics of a wind turbine blade tip vortex. Three blade tip shapes including a blunt edge, leading edge comb, and a winglet were designed and tested in a low speed wind tunnel. The rotor with a blunt edge was considered to be a baseline case corresponding to an untreated blade tip. The leading-edge comb rotor was designed with leading edge tubercles extending from the tip of the blade inward, 6 percent of rotor diameter. The winglet located at the tip of the winglet rotor had a cant angle of 45 degrees. The wind turbine operated at a tip speed ratio of 5 and a tip Reynolds number of 14,000. The tip treatments were intended to weaken the tip vortices by encouraging dissipation (leading edge comb) or promoting the formation of weaker vortices (winglet). Time-resolved and phase-averaged PIV was used to measure the velocity field behind the rotor. The time-averaged velocity field was subtracted from the phase-averaged velocity field to isolate the time-varying components of the flow. The vorticity of the phase-averaged time-varying field was calculated, and the tip vortices were identified using a vortex identification method. Vortex characteristics such as core radius and vortex strength were calculated and compared for the three rotors. The analysis of the vorticity showed that the winglet rotor had weaker tip vortices with a larger core radius, while the serrated tip rotor had strong tip vortices with the same core radius as the baseline case.

  14. Patient Characteristics Associated with HCV Treatment Adherence, Treatment Completion, and Sustained Virologic Response in HIV Coinfected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wagner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis C (HCV treatment efficacy among HIV patients is limited by poor treatment adherence and tolerance, but few studies have examined the psychosocial determinants of treatment adherence and outcomes. Methods. Chart abstracted and survey data were collected on 72 HIV patients who had received pegylated interferon and ribavirin to assess correlates of treatment adherence, completion, and sustained virologic response (SVR. Results. Nearly half (46% the sample had active psychiatric problems and 13% had illicit drug use at treatment onset; 28% reported <100% treatment adherence, 38% did not complete treatment (mostly due to virologic nonresponse, and intent to treat SVR rate was 49%. Having a psychiatric diagnosis was associated with nonadherence, while better HCV adherence was associated with both treatment completion and SVR. Conclusions. Good mental health may be an indicator of HCV treatment adherence readiness, which is in turn associated with treatment completion and response, but further research is needed with new HCV treatments emerging.

  15. [Women in outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse: sociodemographic and clinical characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Larissa Horta; Corradi-Webster, Clarissa Mendonça; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta; Furtado, Erikson Felipe

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative and descriptive study aimed to identify sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women undergoing outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse. Data were collected from medical records of women with alcohol-related disorders who were treated at a psychiatric outpatient service We performed a reading and descriptive analysis of such data. The sample was composed of 27 medical records, the average age of women was 50 years, mostly married (59.6%), not working (70.4%) with incomplete primary education (70.4%), with an alcoholic family (81.5%) and other psychiatric diagnoses (70.3%). Losses physical, social and emotional was the most common symptoms resulting from alcohol withdrawal syndrome (66.7%), family conflicts (72%) and "sadness" (79.2%). Family violence was recorded in 11 records (40.7%). There was low education, unemployment, psychiatric comorbidities and the presence of other family members with alcohol abuse as common characteristics. We emphasize the importance of professional knowledge about the peculiarities of female alcoholism for health activities more effective. PMID:24015467

  16. Mercury leaching characteristics of waste treatment residues generated from various sources in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Han; Eom, Yujin; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Sang-Bo; Hong, Ji-Hyung; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2013-07-01

    In this study, mercury (Hg) leaching characteristics of the waste treatment residues (fly ash, bottom ash, sludge, and phosphor powder) generated from various sources (municipal, industrial, medical waste incinerators, sewage sludge incinerator, oil refinery, coal-fired power plant, steel manufacturing plant, fluorescent lamp recycler, and cement kiln) in Korea were investigated. First, both Hg content analysis and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) testing was conducted for 31 collected residue samples. The Hg content analysis showed that fly ash from waste incinerators contained more Hg than the other residue samples. However, the TCLP values of fly ash samples with similar Hg content varied widely based on the residue type. Fly ash samples with low and high Hg leaching ratios (RL) were further analyzed to identify the major factors that influence the Hg leaching potential. Buffering capacity of the low-RL fly ash was higher than that of the high-RL fly ash. The Hg speciation results suggest that the low-RL fly ashes consisted primarily of low-solubility Hg compounds (Hg2Cl2, Hg(0) or HgS), whereas the high-RL fly ashes contain more than 20% high-solubility Hg compounds (HgCl2 or HgSO4). PMID:23680269

  17. Left Main Coronary Artery Disease: Secular Trends in Patient Characteristics, Treatments, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pil Hyung; Ahn, Jung-Min; Chang, Mineok; Baek, Seunghee; Yoon, Sung-Han; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Cheol Whan; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Duk-Woo; Park, Seung-Jung

    2016-09-13

    Left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease is the highest-risk lesion subset of ischemic heart disease, and has traditionally been an indication for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Recent evidence suggests comparable clinical outcomes between percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and CABG for LMCA disease, with similar rates of mortality and serious composite outcomes, a higher rate of stroke with CABG, and a higher rate of repeat revascularization with PCI. These results have been translated to the current guideline recommendation that PCI is a reasonable alternative to CABG in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity. However, how the characteristics, treatment, and clinical outcomes of patients with unprotected LMCA disease have evolved over time has not yet been fully evaluated. We therefore described secular trends in the characteristics and long-term outcomes of unprotected LMCA disease using "real-world" clinical experience from the IRIS-MAIN (Interventional Research Incorporation Society-Left MAIN Revascularization) registry together with a broad review of this topic. PMID:27609687

  18. Quality control of dose volume histogram computation characteristics of 3D treatment planning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitsa, E.; Rosenwald, J. C.; Kappas, C.

    1998-10-01

    Detailed quality control (QC) protocols are a necessity for modern radiotherapy departments. The established QC protocols for treatment planning systems (TPS) do not include recommendations on the advanced features of three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning, like the dose volume histograms (DVH). In this study, a test protocol for DVH characteristics was developed. The protocol assesses the consistency of the DVH computation to the dose distribution calculated by the same TPS by comparing DVH parameters with values obtained by the isodose distributions. The computation parameters (such as the dimension of the computation grid) that are applied to the TPS during the tests are not fixed but set by the user as if the test represents a typical clinical case. Six commercial TPS were examined with this protocol within the frame of the EC project Dynarad (Biomed I). The results of the intercomparison prove the consistency of the DVH results to the isodose values for most of the examined TPS. However, special attention should be paid when working with cases of adverse conditions such as high dose gradient regions. In these cases, higher errors are derived, especially when an insufficient number of dose calculation points are used for the DVH computation.

  19. Extra-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor:Clinical Characteristics, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵善峰; 闫丙健; 周岩冰

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinicopathological characteristics,treatment and prognosis of extrogastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST). Methods:In our study,Clinicopathological data of EGISTs from January 2010 to October 2014 were systematically investigated.Pathology results were rechecked.Patients also were followed Up.Prognostic factors were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models and univariate and multivariate with Log-rank test. Results:An amount of EGISTs cases were selected due to inclusion criteria,including 28males and 26Females,with age from 18 To 78 years(median,58).Patients were follwed up.12cases were dead. The 1-,3-,5-year survival rates were 91%,75%,66%. Patients undergoing R0 resection had a better 5-year overall survival rate than those undergoing R1 resection(75%vs46%,P<0.05).For patients with high risk of recurrence after surgery, the 5-year overall survival rate was 62%and 40%respectively(P<0.05). Conclusions:Tumor size,mitotic count and tumor rupture affect the prognosis of patients after re-section of primary EGISTs independently.Adjuvant imatinib can effectively improve the prognosis of the patients with high risk of recurrence, and the survival rate of patients after surgery.Surgical resection is the main treatment of EGIST, and R0 resection helps to prolong the survival time.

  20. Impact of aerobic stabilization on the characteristics of treatment sludge in the leather tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokgor, Emine Ubay; Aydinli, Ebru; Tas, Didem Okutman; Zengin, Gulsum Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of aerobic stabilization on the treatment sludge generated from the leather industry was investigated to meet the expected characteristics and conditions of sludge prior to landfill. The sludge types subjected to aerobic stabilization were chemical treatment sludge, biological excess sludge, and the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges. At the end of 23 days of stabilization, suspended solids, volatile suspended solids and total organic carbon removal efficiencies were determined as 17%, 19% and 23% for biological sludge 31%, 35% and 54% for chemical sludge, and 32%, 34% and 63% for the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges, respectively. Model simulations of the respirometric oxygen uptake rate measurements showed that the ratio of active biomass remained the same at the end of the stabilization for all the sludge samples. Although mixing the chemical and biological sludges resulted in a relatively effective organic carbon and solids removal, the level of stabilization achieved remained clearly below the required level of organic carbon content for landfill. These findings indicate the potential risk of setting numerical restrictions without referring to proper scientific support. PMID:24645452

  1. Dentist and practice characteristics associated with restorative treatment of enamel caries in permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellows, Jeffrey L; Gordan, Valeria V; Gilbert, Gregg H;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Current evidence in dentistry recommends non-surgical treatment to manage enamel caries lesions. However, surveyed practitioners report they would restore enamel lesions that are confined to the enamel. Actual clinical data were used to evaluate patient, dentist, and practice characteris......PURPOSE: Current evidence in dentistry recommends non-surgical treatment to manage enamel caries lesions. However, surveyed practitioners report they would restore enamel lesions that are confined to the enamel. Actual clinical data were used to evaluate patient, dentist, and practice...... participating network dentists were combined. ANOVA and logistic regression, using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and variable selection within blocks, were used to test the hypothesis that patient, dentist, and practice characteristics were associated with variations in enamel restorations of occlusal...... and proximal caries compared to dentin lesions, accounting for dentist and patient clustering. RESULTS: Network dentists from five regions placed 6,891 restorations involving occlusal and/or proximal caries lesions. Enamel restorations accounted for 16% of enrolled occlusal caries lesions and 6% of enrolled...

  2. Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: clinical characteristics and feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang X

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Jiang, Ying Jin, Yan Li, Hui-Fang Huang, Ming Wu, Keng Shen, Ling-Ya Pan Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: The objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA in the post-diethylstilbestrol (DES era and to evaluate the feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment. The records of 32 patients with CCAs who were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from August 1986 to June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Three of the patients had undergone fertility-preserving treatment. The incidence of CCA among cervical adenocarcinomas was 15.2%. The median age was 38 years: 11 patients (34.4% were diagnosed before 30 years of age and two (6.3% after 70 years of age. Ten patients (31.2% were nulliparous. No patient had been exposed to DES. Twenty-nine patients (90.6% presented with obvious symptoms, and the cervix appeared abnormal in 26 patients (81.3%. Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap tests were abnormal in all four patients in whom they were performed (three had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and one had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. The distribution by stage was 56.3% stage I, 34.4% stage II, 6.3% stage III, and 3.1% stage IV. Treatments mainly included surgery for patients with stage I to IIA CCA and radiochemotherapy for patients with advanced CCA. The overall 5-year progression-free survival was 72.2%. Patients with stage I to IIA CCA had better 5-year progression-free survival than did patients with stage IIB to IV CCA (81.5% versus 40.0%, P=0.003. The three patients who had undergone fertility-preserving treatment had no recurrences. CCA may also affect adolescents and children without prior DES exposure, who are often misdiagnosed as having functional uterine

  3. Clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of patients with giant intracranial aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Wei; WANG Shuo; ZHAO Yuan-li; YANG Hai-bo; ZHAO Ji-zong

    2008-01-01

    Background Compared with smaller aneurysms,giant intracranial aneurysms (GICAs) have a poorer prognosis and require more meticulous surgical planning and techniques to exclude them from the circulation.GICAs continue to challenge the limits of neurosurgical techniques.A series of 170 patients with GICAs were reviewed for understanding the clinical characteristics.surgical treatment and outcomes of patients with GICAs.Methods Collected data of 170 consecutive patients with GICAs from January 1995 to July 2007 were analyzed.The clinicaI Characteristics in this study included age,sex,intracranial aneurysms size,the first presentations,locations and Hunt & Hess grade.Surgical methods included direct clipping of the aneurysm neck,parent artery reconstruction,proximal artery ligation,trapping and wrapping.Surgical results were evaluated postOperatively by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS).Results GICAs were more commonly diagnosed at age 30 to 50 years with a mean age of 39.3 years and without obvious gender preponderance in our study (88 male and 82 female patients).The size of the GlCAs ranged from 2.5 cm to 8.0 cm(mean,2.9 cm).Hemorrhage (41%),mass effect (34%) and headache (12%) were the first 3 most common presentations.Regarding the Hunt & Hess classification,at admission there were 1 00 cases in grade 0,24 in grade 1,21 in grade 2,16 in grade 3,8 in grade 4 and 1 in grade 5.There were 84 cases of GICAs treated by direct neck-clipping,47 by parent artery reconstruction,19 by proximal artery occlusion(with 4 combined with reVascuIarization),18 by trapping and 2 by wrapping.The follow-up study (ranging from 6 to 115 months,mean 32 months)showed good results in 108 cases.moderate disability in 26 and severe disability in 15 according to GOS.Six cases died.Conclusions Surgical treatment is an effective treatment for GICAs.SurgicaI strategies should be made carefully and individually.Doppler ultrasonography,neuroendoscope and intraoperative angiography are useful to

  4. Impact of preoperative patient characteristics on posturethroplasty recurrence: The significance of stricture length and prior treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibril Oyekunle Bello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urethral strictures are common in urologic practice of Sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. We determine the rate of stricture recurrence following urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures and evaluate preoperative variables that predict of stricture recurrence in our practice. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-six men who had urethroplasty for proven anterior urethral stricture disease between February 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative factors including age, socioeconomic factors, comorbidities, etiology of strictures, stricture location, stricture length, periurethral spongiofibrosis, and prior stricture treatments were assessed for independent predictors of stricture recurrence. Results: The median age was 49.5 years (range 21-90, median stricture length was 4 cm (range 1-18 cm and the overall recurrence rate was 27.8%. Postinfectious strictures, pan urethral strictures or multiple strictures involving the penile and bulbar urethra were more common. Most patients had penile circular fasciocutaneous flap urethroplasty. Following univariate analysis of potential preoperative predictors of stricture recurrence, stricture length, and prior treatments with dilations or urethrotomies were found to be significantly associated with stricture recurrence. On multivariate analysis, they both remained statistically significant. Patients who had prior treatments had greater odds of having a recurrent stricture (odds ratio 18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-224.3. Stricture length was dichotomized based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis, and strictures of length ≥5 cm had significantly greater recurrence (area under ROC curve of 0.825, 95% CI 0.690-0.960, P = 0.032. Conclusion: Patients who had prior dilatations or urethrotomies and those with long strictures particularly strictures ≥5 cm have significantly greater odds of developing a recurrence following urethroplasty in Nigerian

  5. Settleability and characteristics of ferrate(VI)-induced particles in advanced wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Deng, Yang

    2016-04-15

    Ferrate(VI) as an emerging water treatment agent has recently recaptured interests for advanced wastewater treatment. A large number of studies were published to report ferrate(VI)-driven oxidation for various water contaminants. In contrast, very few efforts were made to characterize ferrate(VI) resultant particles in water and wastewater. In this study, jar tests were performed to examine the settleability and characteristics of ferrate(VI)-induced iron oxide particles, particularly the non-settable fraction of these particles, after ferrate(VI) reduction in a biologically treated municipal wastewater. The particle settleability was evaluated through the measurement of turbidity and particulate iron concentration in the supernatant with the settling time. Results showed that a majority of ferrate(VI)-induced iron oxide aggregates remained suspended and caused an increased turbidity. For example, at a Fe(VI) dose of 5.0 mg/L and pH 7.50, 82% of the added iron remained in the supernatant and the turbidity was 8.97 NTU against the untreated sample turbidity (2.33 NTU) after 72-h settling. The poor settling property of these particles suggested that coagulation and flocculation did not perform well in the ferrate(VI) treatment. Particle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that nano-scale particles were produced after ferrate(VI) decomposition, and gradually aggregated to form micro-scale larger particles in the secondary effluent. Zeta potentials of the non-settable ferrate(VI) resultant aggregates varied between -7.36 and -8.01 mV at pH 7.50 during the 72-h settling. The negative surface charges made the aggregates to be relatively stable in the wastewater matrix. PMID:26900976

  6. Clinical characteristics and recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment for langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the clinical characteristics, reactivation, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) based on the new progress. Methods: Fifty-five such patients treated from Jan. 1974 to May 1998 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients aged from 2 to 67 years at the time of diagnosis, with a median age of 31 years, male 47, female 8. Forty patients had single system disease and the other 15 with multisystem disease. Partial or total excision and/or local radiotherapy were the main treatments. The involved irradiation field was given, with a median dose of 30 Gy. Results: The soft tissue of head and neck was the most frequently involved (63.6%), followed by the bone (23.6%). Patients ≤15 years had more bony involvement (66.7%) compared to those aged > 15 years (11.6%) ( P 15 years were 58.3% and 74.4%, respectively, (P=0.830); whereas it was 75.0% for single system disease and 60.0% for multisystem disease (P=0.130). The total reactivation for all patients was 43.6%. Two thirds of these patients developed recurrence within 5 years after treatment with 75% developing new foci. At the time of the last follow-up, 74.5% of the patients have survived without disease, while 27.6% of survivors still had active disease. Conclusions: Langerhans cell histiocytosis, not being confined to children, involves the head and neck area most commonly. The frequency of bony invasion is associated with age. Reactivation is very frequent. Patients without risk organs involvement usually carry a favorable prognosis. (authors)

  7. [Pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds from wastewater treatment system of vitamin C production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Lu, Guo-Li; Ren, Ai-Ling; Du, Zhao; Xing, Zhi-Xian; Han, Peng; Gao, Bo; Liu, Shu-Ya

    2013-12-01

    Using a portable gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution in each unit of the wastewater treatment system for vitamin C production was studied, and the species characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed and summarized. The results showed that 32 kinds of volatile organic compounds were identified, and the total mass concentration range of volatilizing VOCs was 0.9629-32.0970 mg x m(-3). The most species and the largest concentration (25 and 32.0970 mg x m(-3)) of volatilizing VOCs were found in grit chamber, which was located in the most front-end of the wastewater treatment system and was in semi-closed state. The proportion of molecular sulfide in the grit chamber was as high as 30.02%; Higher proportions of aromatic hydrocarbons were monitored in the subsequent processing units, with percentages of 21.06%-31.48%. The main types of VOCs monitored were chlorinated hydrocarbons and ketones, accounting for 6.39%-55.80% and 10.40%-58.08% of the total amount, respectively; 14 kinds of VOCs were detected in every unit of the wastewater treatment system: acetone, 2-butanone, n-hexane, chloroform, chlorobenzene etc, among which, vinyl chloride, styrene and 1,3-butadiene belong to the highly toxic substances. The vinyl chloride concentration exceeded the standard of "atmospheric pollutants emission standards" (GB 16297-1996), while 1,3-butadiene and other pollutants have no national standard limits. The results of this study provide a scientific basis for the revision of China's pharmaceutical wastewater VOCs emission standards. PMID:24640904

  8. Pathophysiology and aetiology of impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: does it matter for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, K; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    sensitivity as well as a progressive loss of beta cell function. The aetiologies of i-IFG and i-IGT also seem to differ, with i-IFG being predominantly related to genetic factors, smoking and male sex, while i-IGT is predominantly related to physical inactivity, unhealthy diet and short stature. Since...... the transition from the prediabetic states to overt type 2 diabetes is characterised by a non-reversible vicious cycle that includes severe deleterious effects on glucose metabolism, there are good reasons to use the well-established aetiological and pathophysiological differences in i-IFG, i-IGT and IFG...

  9. Epidemiological and Clinical Baseline Characteristics as Predictive Biomarkers of Response to Anti-VEGF Treatment in Patients with Neovascular AMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis K. Tsilimbaris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review the current literature investigating patient response to antivascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF therapy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD and to identify baseline characteristics that might predict response. Method. A literature search of the PubMed database was performed, using the keywords: AMD, anti-VEGF, biomarker, optical coherence tomography, treatment outcome, and predictor. The search was limited to articles published from 2006 to date. Exclusion criteria included phase 1 trials, case reports, studies focusing on indications other than nAMD, and oncology. Results. A total of 1467 articles were identified, of which 845 were excluded. Of the 622 remaining references, 47 met all the search criteria and were included in this review. Conclusion. Several baseline characteristics correlated with anti-VEGF treatment response, including best-corrected visual acuity, age, lesion size, and retinal thickness. The majority of factors were associated with disease duration, suggesting that longer disease duration before treatment results in worse treatment outcomes. This highlights the need for early treatment for patients with nAMD to gain optimal treatment outcomes. Many of the identified baseline characteristics are interconnected and cannot be evaluated in isolation; therefore multivariate analyses will be required to determine any specific relationship with treatment response.

  10. Slaughterhouse wastewater characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry: A review on trends and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2015-09-15

    A thorough review of advancement in slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry is presented. This study also provides a general review of the environmental impacts, health effects, and regulatory frameworks relevant to the SWW management. A significant progress in high-rate anaerobic treatment, nutrient removal, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), and the combination of biological treatment and AOPs for SWW treatment is highlighted. The treatment processes are described and few examples of their applications are given. Conversely, few advances are accounted in terms of waste minimization and water use reduction, reuse, and recycle in slaughterhouses, which may offer new alternatives for cost-effective waste management. An overview of the most frequently applied technologies and combined processes for organic and nutrient removal during the last decade is also summarized. Several types of individual and combined processes have been used for the SWW treatment. Nevertheless, the selection of a particular technology depends on the characteristics of the wastewater, the available technology, and the compliance with regulations. This review facilitates a better understanding of current difficulties that can be found during production and management of the SWW, including treatment and characteristics of the final effluent. PMID:26197423

  11. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment for Patients with Occult Chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical manifestations and assess direct antiviral effect for patients with occult hepatitis B in China. Methods The study includes 15 patients with occult hepatitis B and their medical history, family history, ifrst-diagnosis time, conifrmed-diagnosis time, laboratory report, anti-viral therapy and outcomes were analyzed. Results The average age of the patients is 38.67-year old (6 males and 9 females), 2 with acute hepatitis B (2/15, 13.3%), 13 with no hepatitis history (13/15, 86.6%), 8 with family history (8/15, 53.3%), 6 with no family history (6/15, 40%), 1 with unknown family history (1/15, 6.6%). Eight patients were treated with entecavir (0.5 mg/day, taken orally), with effective results and steady conditions;3 patients were treated with lamivudine (0.1 g/day, taken orally), 2 of them were prescribed to take adefovir dipivoxil additionally due to drug-resistance, the other one was treated with lamivudine continuously without drug-resistance;4 cases refused anti-viral therapy. One patient’s condition remained steady, 1 patient died of cirrhosis with portal hypertension and liver failure 5 years after ifrst-diagnosis, 1 patient progressed to hepatocellular carcinoma and accepted surgery operation treatment 5 years after ifrst-diagnosis, the other 1 patient progressed to compensatory cirrhosis 2 years after ifrst-diagnosis and is steady from then, which indicates that occult chronic hepatitis B can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma without therapy in time. Conclusions The clinical characteristics of 15 cases with occult chronic hepatitis B showed that these patients with short latency, younger age when being-struck, and light damage to liver function. The efifcacy and drug-resistance of nucleos(t)ide-analogue (entecavir, lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil) in treatment of patients with occult chronic hepatitis B are similar to chronic hepatitis B.

  12. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections in a general hospital: patient characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility, and treatment outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Samonis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is acquiring increasing importance as a nosocomial pathogen. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the characteristics and outcome of patients with any type of S. maltophilia infection at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, between 1/2005-12/2010. S. maltophilia antimicrobial susceptibility was tested with the agar dilution method. Prognostic factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality were assessed with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients (median age: 70.5 years; 64.7% males with S. maltophilia infection, not related to cystic fibrosis, were included. The 68 patients were hospitalized in medical (29.4%, surgical (26.5%, hematology/oncology departments (23.5%, or the intensive care units (ICU; 20.6%. The most frequent infection types were respiratory tract (54.4%, bloodstream (16.2%, skin/soft tissue (10.3%, and intra-abdominal (8.8% infection. The S. maltophilia-associated infection was polymicrobial in 33.8% of the cases. In vitro susceptibility was higher to colistin (91.2%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and netilmicin (85.3% each, and ciprofloxacin (82.4%. The empirical and the targeted treatment regimens were microbiologically appropriate for 47.3% and 63.6% of the 55 patients with data available, respectively. Most patients received targeted therapy with a combination of agents other than trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The crude mortality and the mortality and the S. maltophilia infection-related mortality were 14.7% and 4.4%, respectively. ICU hospitalization was the only independent prognostic factor for mortality. CONCLUSION: S. maltophilia infection in a general hospital can be associated with a good prognosis, except for the patients hospitalized in the ICU. Combination reigmens with fluoroquinolones, colistin, or tigecycline could be alternative treatment options to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

  13. Enhancement of Hydrophilic Characteristics of Non-Wetting Porous Substrates by Kaolinite Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Lutful I.; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2007-01-01

    The use of porous media has enormous potential for thermal management and phase separation in terrestrial, micro, Lunar and Marian gravity environments. Recently, a porous media based gravity insensitive condensing heat exchanger for humidity control has been proposed and successfully demonstrated by the authors. A strongly hydrophilic porous substrate is essential for condensing and trapping water vapor from the airstreams. However, most porous media which have good thermal characteristics are poorly wetting to water. This poses a significant obstacle in the development of the porous media based condensing heat exchanger. In response to this problem, a clay based process was developed for improving the wettability of non-wetting and partially wetting porous media. It was demonstrated that poorly wetting porous graphite as well as porous stainless steel could be converted to a completely wetting porous substrate by kaolinite treatment. The process enhances the wettability of both the surface and the interior pores. The paper presents experimental results of enhanced wettability of the treated substrate in terms of imbibition rate and capillary pressure as a function of saturation. The long term stability of the treated surface is also investigated and discussed.

  14. A profile of pedophilia: definition, characteristics of offenders, recidivism, treatment outcomes, and forensic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ryan C W; Hall, Richard C W

    2007-04-01

    Pedophilia has become a topic of increased interest, awareness, and concern for both the medical community and the public at large. Increased media exposure, new sexual offender disclosure laws, Web sites that list the names and addresses of convicted sexual offenders, politicians taking a 'get tough' stance on sexual offenders, and increased investigations of sexual acts with children have increased public awareness about pedophilia. Because of this increased awareness, it is important for physicians to understand pedophilia, its rate of occurrence, and the characteristics of pedophiles and sexually abused children. In this article, we address research that defines the various types and categories of pedophilia, review available federal data on child molestation and pornography, and briefly discuss the theories on what makes an individual develop a sexual orientation toward children. This article also examines how researchers determine if someone is a pedophile, potential treatments for pedophiles and sexually abused children, the risk of additional sexual offenses, the effect of mandatory reporting laws on both physicians and pedophiles, and limitations of the current pedophilic literature. PMID:17418075

  15. Characteristics and Outcomes of Second Malignant Neoplasms after Childhood Cancer Treatment: Multi-Center Retrospective Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung-Nam; Yoo, Keon Hee; Im, Ho Joon; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Kim, Hyo Sun; Han, Jung Woo; Yoon, Jong Hyung; Park, Hyeon Jin; Park, Byung-Kiu; Baek, Hee Jo; Kook, Hoon; Lee, Jun Ah; Lee, Jae Min; Lee, Kwang Chul; Kim, Soon Ki; Park, Meerim; Lee, Young-Ho; Lyu, Chuhl Joo; Seo, Jong Jin

    2016-08-01

    This retrospective study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in survivors of childhood cancer from multiple institutions in Korea. A total of 102 patients from 11 institutions who developed SMN after childhood cancer treatment between 1998 and 2011 were retrospectively enrolled. The most common primary malignant neoplasms (PMNs) were central nervous system (CNS) tumors (n = 17), followed by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 16), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 13), and osteosarcoma (n = 12). The most common SMNs were therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs; acute myeloid leukemia [AML], 29 cases; myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS], 12 cases), followed by thyroid carcinomas (n = 15) and CNS tumors (n = 10). The median latency period was 4.9 years (range, 0.5-18.5 years). Among 45 patients with solid tumors defined as an SMN, 15 (33%) developed the lesion in a field previously subjected to radiation. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of patients with an SMN was 45% with a median follow-up time of 8.6 years. Patients with AML, MDS, and CNS tumors exhibited the poorest outcomes with 5-year OS rates of 18%, 33%, and 32%, respectively, whereas those with second osteosarcoma showed comparable outcomes (64%) to patients with primary counterpart and those with second thyroid carcinoma had a 100% OS rate. Further therapeutic efforts are recommended to improve the survival outcomes in patients with SMNs, especially in cases with t-MNs and CNS tumors. PMID:27478336

  16. Effect of different post harvest treatments on physical characteristics of custard apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted with the objective to see the effect of different post harvest treatments on physical characteristics of custard apple fruits. Fruits were treated with different doses of gamma radiation ranging from 0.25 to 1.75 kGy in combination with antioxidant i.e. Benzyl Adenine (BA) at the rate of 50 and 100 ppm and stored for 12 days at ambient temperature (25 ± 5 deg C, RH 90 ± 2 %) during winter season. Fruits treated with low doses of gamma radiation i.e. upto 1.00 kGy along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine extended the shelf life of fruits up to 6 days as compared to untreated fruits as well as fruits treated with higher doses of radiation. A decreasing trend in physiological weight loss (PLW) and percentage of marketable fruits was observed with increase in radiation doses. This promises to provide advantage to producers for transhipment of custard apple fruits in good and acceptable condition. (author)

  17. [Characteristics of orthophosphate adsorption on ferric-alum residuals (FARs) from drinking water treatment plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang-Hui; Pei, Yuan-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Batch tests have been used to investigate the characteristics of orthophosphate adsorption on ferric-alum residuals (FARs) from drinking water treatment plant. ICP, SEM and XRD analyses confirm that the FARs enriched in Fe and Al elements and presented amorphism structure. Orthophosphate sorption by the FARs can be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics equation. Fine adsorption effects of the FARs were found under lower pH values, particularly a 40.13% drop of the adsorptive capacity from pH 4.6 to pH 7.6. The FARs with grain sizes of 0.6-0.9 mm had the highest adsorption capacity of orthophosphate. Experimental data could be better fitted by the isotherm models of Langmuir (R2 = 0.9736) and Freundlich (R2 = 0.9916). The maximal adsorptive capacity reached 45.45 mg x g(-1) estimated from Langmuir isotherm model. Compared with other natural and industrial materials, FARs has relatively higher adsorption capacity. Under similar testing conditions, it was found that only about 10% orthophosphate could be desorbed from the FARs. Further study demonstrated that the mean energy of orthophosphate sorption on the FARs was 13.36 kJ x mol(-1) and the deltaH0 > 0, deltaS0 > 0 and deltaG0 wastewater and surface water. PMID:22619965

  18. A novel ammonia-oxidizing archaeon from wastewater treatment plant: Its enrichment, physiological and genomic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuyang; Ding, Kun; Wen, Xianghua; Zhang, Bing; Shen, Bo; Yang, Yunfeng

    2016-03-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are recently found to participate in the ammonia removal processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), similar to their bacterial counterparts. However, due to lack of cultivated AOA strains from WWTPs, their functions and contributions in these systems remain unclear. Here we report a novel AOA strain SAT1 enriched from activated sludge, with its physiological and genomic characteristics investigated. The maximal 16S rRNA gene similarity between SAT1 and other reported AOA strain is 96% (with “Ca. Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis”), and it is affiliated with Wastewater Cluster B (WWC-B) based on amoA gene phylogeny, a cluster within group I.1a and specific for activated sludge. Our strain is autotrophic, mesophilic (25 °C–33 °C) and neutrophilic (pH 5.0–7.0). Its genome size is 1.62 Mb, with a large fragment inversion (accounted for 68% genomic size) inside. The strain could not utilize urea due to truncation of the urea transporter gene. The lack of the pathways to synthesize usual compatible solutes makes it intolerant to high salinity (>0.03%), but could adapt to low salinity (0.005%) environments. This adaptation, together with possibly enhanced cell-biofilm attachment ability, makes it suitable for WWTPs environment. We propose the name “Candidatus Nitrosotenuis cloacae” for the strain SAT1.

  19. Nitrate removal and denitrification affected by soil characteristics in nitrate treatment wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan; Chang, Yih-Feng; Shih, Kai-Chung

    2007-03-01

    Several small-scale surface flow constructed wetlands unplanted and planted (monoculture) with various macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis, Pennisetum purpureum, Ipomoea aquatica, and Pistia stratiotes) were established to continuously receive nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Soil characteristics and their effects on nitrate removal and soil denitrification were investigated. The results showed that planted wetland cells exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitrate removal efficiencies (70-99%) and soil denitrification rates (3.78-15.02 microg N2O-N/g dry soil/h) than an unplanted covered wetland cell (1%, 0.11 microg N2O-N/g/h). However, the unplanted uncovered wetland cell showed a nitrate removal efficiency (55%) lower than but a soil denitrification rate (9.12 microg N2O-N/g/h) comparable to the planted cells. The nitrate removal rate correlated closely and positively with the soil denitrification rate for the planted cells, indicating that soil denitrification is an important process for removing nitrate in constructed wetlands. The results of nitrogen budget revealed that around 68.9-90.7% of the overall nitrogen removal could be attributed to the total denitrification. The soil denitrification rate was found to correlate significantly (P < 0.01) with the extractable organic carbon, organic matter, and in situ-measured redox potential of wetland soil, which accordingly were concluded as suitable indicators of soil denitrification rate and nitrate removal rate in nitrate treatment wetlands. PMID:17365317

  20. Treatment of 817 patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage: characteristics, predictive factors and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homajoun Maslehaty

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the data of a large cohort of patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, who were treated in our department and give a current overview considering special clinical characteristics, performed therapy and different predictive factors for morbidity and mortality. We reviewed the data of all patients with spontaneous ICH, who were treated in our department in a time span of 11 years through an analysis of our prospective database. Patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH were included in the study. Patients with hemorrhage associated to vascular malformation or to cerebral ischemic stroke were excluded. The clinical performance at time of admission and discharge were scored using the Glasgow coma scale (GCS and the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS respectively. The patients’ cohort was divided into surgically and conservatively treated groups. Statistical analysis [Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and ?²-test] was done for various parameters to analyze their impact on morbidity and mortality. In total, we analyzed the data of 817 patients (364 female and 453 male. Two hundred and sixty-nine patients (32% were treated conservatively and 556 patients (68% underwent surgical procedures, i.e. cerebrospinal fluid drainage in 110 (19.8%, craniotomy in 338 (60.7% and application of both methods in 108 patients (19.4%. Total mortality rate was estimated with 23.5%. GCS<8, age over 70 years, intraventricular and basal ganglia hemorrhage, coumadin medication, combination of co-morbidities, hypertensive hemorrhage and postoperative re-bleeding were statistically significant risk factors for worse outcome (GOS 1 and 2 in the operated group. Similar to the observations of the operated group, GCS<8, age over 70 years and coumadin medication were statistically significant for worse outcome in the conservative group. In contrast, lobar plus basal ganglia ICH and multi-lobar hemorrhages were the most

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions during MSW landfilling in China: influence of waste characteristics and LFG treatment measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; Lü, Fan; He, Pin-Jing

    2013-11-15

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can be highly cost-effective in terms of GHG mitigation. This study investigated GHG emissions during MSW landfilling in China under four existing scenarios and in terms of seven different categories: waste collection and transportation, landfill management, leachate treatment, fugitive CH4 (FM) emissions, substitution of electricity production, carbon sequestration and N2O and CO emissions. GHG emissions from simple sanitary landfilling technology where no landfill gas (LFG) extraction took place (Scenario 1) were higher (641-998 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww) than those from open dump (Scenario 0, 480-734 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww). This was due to the strictly anaerobic conditions in Scenario 1. LFG collection and treatment reduced GHG emissions to 448-684 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 2 (with LFG flare) and 214-277 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 3 (using LFG for electricity production). Amongst the seven categories, FM was the predominant contributor to GHG emissions. Global sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the parameters associated with waste characteristics (i.e. CH4 potential and carbon sequestered faction) and LFG management (i.e. LFG collection efficiency and CH4 oxidation efficiency) were of great importance. A further learning on the MSW in China indicated that water content and dry matter content of food waste were the basic factors affecting GHG emissions. Source separation of food waste, as well as increasing the incineration ratio of mixed collected MSW, could effectively mitigate the overall GHG emissions from landfilling in a specific city. To increase the LFG collection and CH4 oxidation efficiencies could considerably reduce GHG emissions on the landfill site level. While, the improvement in the LFG utilization measures had an insignificant impact as long as the LFG is recovered for energy generation. PMID:24018116

  2. Prevalence, Demographics, and Treatment Characteristics of Visual Impairment due to Diabetic Macular Edema in a Representative Canadian Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Petrella, Robert J.; Julie Blouin; Brian Davies; Martin Barbeau

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the leading cause of blindness in the diabetic population. However, there is limited understanding of the epidemiology of DME with visual impairment (VI) and treatment in patients with diabetes in Canada. This observational, retrospective study used records from the Southwestern Ontario database to observe the demographics, prevalence, and treatment characteristics of VI due to DME compared to a healthy population in a real-world Canadian setting. Data was comp...

  3. Cannabis use history and characteristics of quit attempts: a comparison study of treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacek, Lauren R; Vandrey, Ryan

    2014-12-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance worldwide, and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) are correspondingly high. Increased demand for treatment and relatively low rates of positive clinical outcomes has led to a large scientific investment in the development of interventions for the treatment of CUD. Much of this research is conducted with cannabis users who are not seeking treatment at the time of study participation, and it is unknown whether these individuals are representative of those who seek treatment. This study contrasted samples of cannabis users participating in screening interviews for treatment and nontreatment research studies. Several differences between groups emerged: Treatment-seekers were more likely to be female (43% vs. 29%), older (33.4 vs. 29.7 years), and have longer cannabis use histories compared with non-treatment-seekers (p = .007). Treatment-seekers were more likely to report experiencing guilt after using cannabis and to feel that cannabis use has been a problem for them. Additionally, treatment-seekers reported a greater mean number of reasons for making a quit attempt, experiencing a greater number of withdrawal symptoms, and employing more coping strategies during prior quit attempts. Despite the aforementioned differences, the 2 groups were similar on several key characteristics, particularly with regards to current levels of cannabis use and related problems. PMID:25150537

  4. Effect of high pressure treatment on the aging characteristics of Chinese liquor as evaluated by electronic nose and chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S. M.; Xu, M. L.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Yang, M. Y.; Yu, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Several high pressure (HP) treatments (100–400 MPa 15 and 30 min) were applied to Chinese “Junchang” liquor, and aging characteristics of the liquor were evaluated. Results from the principal component analysis and the discriminant factor analysis of E-Nose demonstrated that HP treatment at 300 and 400 MPa resulted in significant (p gaps still existed between the quality of treated and six-year aged samples. HP treatment demonstrated a potential to accelerate the natural aging process for Chinese liquor, but long term studies may be needed further to realize the full potential.

  5. Cleptomania: características clínicas e tratamento Kleptomania: clinical characteristics and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon E Grant

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A cleptomania, um transtorno incapacitante do controle dos impulsos, caracteriza-se pelo furto repetitivo e incontrolável de itens que são de pequena utilidade para a pessoa acometida por esse transtorno. Apesar de seu histórico relativamente longo, a cleptomania continua sendo pouco entendida pelo público geral, pelos clínicos e pelos que dela sofrem. MÉTODO: Este artigo revisa a literatura sobre o que se sabe a respeito das características clínicas, histórico familiar, neurobiologia e opções de tratamento para indivíduos com cleptomania. RESULTADOS: A cleptomania geralmente tem seu início no final da adolescência ou no início da vida adulta, e parece ser mais comum em mulheres. A comorbidade psiquiátrica ao longo da vida com outros transtornos de controle de impulsos (20-46%, de uso de substâncias (23-50% e de humor (45-100% é freqüente. Indivíduos com cleptomania sofrem de prejuízo significativo em sua capacidade de funcionamento social e ocupacional. A cleptomania pode responder ao tratamento com terapia cognitivo-comportamental e com várias farmacoterapias (lítio, antiepilépticos e antagonistas de opióides. CONCLUSÕES: A cleptomania é um transtorno incapacitante que resulta em uma vergonha intensa, bem como problemas legais, sociais, familiares e ocupacionais. São necessários estudos de tratamento em ampla escala.OBJECTIVES: Kleptomania, a disabling impulse control disorder, is characterized by the repetitive and uncontrollable theft of items that are of little use to the afflicted person. Despite its relatively long history, kleptomania remains poorly understood to the general public, clinicians, and sufferers. METHOD: This article reviews the literature for what is known about the clinical characteristics, family history, neurobiology, and treatment options for individuals with kleptomania. RESULTS: Kleptomania generally has its onset in late adolescence or early adulthood and appears to be more

  6. Spinal cord injury in patients with systemic lupus Erythematosus Clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yamei Tang; Fusheng Zhang; Qingyu Shen; Xiangpen Li; Yigang Xing

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are fewer reports on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) related myelitis, and definite and uniform therapeutic program is not available.OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, results of laboratory examination and treatment of SLE.DESIGN: A retrospective case analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 1 052 SLE inpatients were selected from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 1995 to May 2005, and they all accorded with the diagnostic standards for SLE set by American Rheumatism Association in 1982. 124 of them were diagnosed to have damage of central nervous system. Inclusive criteria: Patients with one of the focal physical signs, including mental and behavior disorders, headache, seizure and involvement of nervous system. Exclusive criteria: Patients with hypertensive encephalopathy, damage of nervous system due to uremia and infection of central nervous system. Spinal cord lesion occurred in 15 female cases of 23 - 51 years old. Informed consents were obtained from all the participants.METHODS: The physical signs, laboratory examinations, therapeutic program and prognosis were recorded in the 15 patients with symptoms of spinal cord lesions. All the patients underwent MRI scan of brain or lesioned segment of spinal cord, and 8 cases of them underwent lumbar puncture to determine intracranial pressure, routine and biochemical examinations were cerebrospinal fluid were performed. The disease activity of SLE in systems beyond central nervous system was evaluated with modified lupus activity criteria count (LACC).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Incidence of SLE related myelitis, attack age distribution and its association with the activity of SLE; ② Comparisons of the clinical characteristics, cranial and spinal cord MRI manifestations, different therapeutic program and prognosis.RESULTS: All the 15 SLE

  7. The characteristics of keratomycosis by Beauveria bassiana and its successful treatment with antimycotic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Sonoyama

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiroko Sonoyama1, Kaoru Araki-Sasaki1, Shigeyasu Kazama1, Tsutomu Kawasaki1, Hidenao Ideta1, Atsuko Sunada2, Seishi Asari2, Yoshitsugu Inoue3, Kozaburo Hayashi41Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Laboratory for Clinical Investigation, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 3Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organ, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, Japan; 4Immunology and Virology Section Lab, Immunology, NEI, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Clinical findings and treatment of keratomycosis caused by Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic filamentous fungus, are described for an 80-year-old woman, who was referred to the hospital for ocular pain and redness on the 9th day after an ocular injury caused by the frame of her glasses. She had a long history of recurrent diabetic iritis and continuously used topical antibiotics and corticosteroids. At her first visit, a slit-lamp examination indicated a corneal ulcer confined within the superficial stromal layer, along with a slight infiltration and edema. Only a very few inflammatory cells were seen in the anterior chamber. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings revealed septate fungal hyphae with zig-zag rachis and budding that was subsequently identified as B. bassiana by slide culture. Topical voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin and oral itraconazole were effective and the lesion disappeared leaving only a mild scar at 2 months. The sensitivity of B. bassiana to various antimycotic agents was confirmed by broth microdilution, agar dilution with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute standard, and a disk method using topically applied concentrations. B. bassiana, which exhibits a characteristic appearance in smears and causes superficial keratomycosis, is sensitive to voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin, and itraconazole.Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, keratomycosis, filamentous

  8. Characteristics of Hosta plantaginea mutants derived from γ-ray treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosta (Hosta plantaginea) is a flowering plant with excellent fragrance, which has been widely used as a bedding and pot plant worldwide. However, its flower and leaf color is simple and leaf shapes are monotonous, which hinders customers' choice. To increase plant's diversity in morphology and color, Hosta seeds were treated with a γ-ray in the dose ranges of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30Gy in 2003. A preliminary result indicated that LD50 at which 50 % of the treated plants are lethal was around 30Gy for the Hosta. A first screening of variants was obtained among the survived plants treated with doses around the LD50 level. In the following M1V1 generation, 12 mutants were selected, which had characteristics of short plant height and leaf variations in color and shapes. Based on observation up to a M1V4 generation, 8 mutants out of the selected 12 variants were found to maintain their mutated traits Those 8 mutants include one from each 15 or 20 Gy, four from 25 Gy, and two from 30 Gy treatments. Leaf length and width were 15 and 12 cm, respectively for the non-irradiated plant, while the selected mutants exhibited relatively narrow leaf width and long leaf length. In order to verify their genetic modification, a random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) approach is being applied by using the selected mutants and original plant materials, which will be reported and updated. This work was supported by a grant (Code No. 20070301034033) from BioGreen 21 Program, Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea. (author)

  9. Relief of Residual Stress and Estimation of Heat-Treatment Characteristics for Al6061 Alloy by Cryogenic Heat Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to relieve the residual stress of Al6061 using cryogenic heat treatment. Experimental T6 and cryogenic heat treatments were carried out to define the convective heat-transfer coefficient, which was then applied in the finite-element method (FEM) to predict the residual stress. The predicted residual stress was compared with the residual stress measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the results were in good agreement. The mechanical properties were estimated by measuring the electrical conductivity and hardness. In addition, the size and formation of the precipitations were observed by TEM and XRD analysis for both T6 and cryogenic heat treatments. The effects of the cryogenic heat treatment on the residual stress, mechanical properties, and precipitation of Al6061 alloys were thus confirmed

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ASSESSED RISK AREAS WITH INDIVIDUAL, FAMILY AND OTHER CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE MINORS FROM DIFFERENT TREATMENT PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonija Žižak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is familiarizing with, so far insuffi ciently explored, specifi c characteristics of female children and youthwith behavioral disorders in the Republic of Croatia. The study was conducted on a sample of 237 female children and youth withbehaviour disorders who, at the time of research, were included in institutional treatment, day treatment or community treatmentprograms (three subsamples. Specifi c goals of the paper are related to determination of the level and specifi c areas of risk and thesignifi cance of differences in the assessed risk levels for benefi ciaries across multiple types of treatment. Further goal is to researchrelationships between the estimated areas of risk with other, for treatment important areas, such as strengths, needs, family life circumstancesand individual characteristics of minors. The instrument Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMIwas applied. It’s intention is to assess level of risk and needs of children and youth in order to determine required level of service aswell as prediction of treatment outcome and future behavior. To process the obtained data, robust discriminant analysis and quasicorrelation analysis were used. Robust discriminatory analysis fortifi es statistically signifi cant difference in almost all observed riskareas between examinees from three subsamples. Results of quasy correlation analysis indicate the existence of signifi cant relationshipsbetween assessed areas of risk and other assessed and for treatment important areas. The highest correlation among quasycanonical factors is obtained for the association of areas of risk and characteristics of minors, what indicates the extreme complexityof the population of female minors with behavioral disorders, as seen entirety and by subsamples. In accordance with levels of risk,treatment needs and responsiveness, suggestions about the components of treatment for each of the three groups of female

  11. Effect of high pressure treatment on the aging characteristics of Chinese liquor as evaluated by electronic nose and chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S. M.; Xu, M. L.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Yang, M. Y.; Yu, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Several high pressure (HP) treatments (100–400 MPa 15 and 30 min) were applied to Chinese “Junchang” liquor, and aging characteristics of the liquor were evaluated. Results from the principal component analysis and the discriminant factor analysis of E-Nose demonstrated that HP treatment at 300 and 400 MPa resulted in significant (p aging process of Chinese liquor. However, HP treatment caused a slight increase in solid content, which might be somewhat undesirable. Sensory evaluation results confirmed that favorable changes in color and flavor of Chinese liquor were induced by HP treatment; however, overall gaps still existed between the quality of treated and six-year aged samples. HP treatment demonstrated a potential to accelerate the natural aging process for Chinese liquor, but long term studies may be needed further to realize the full potential.

  12. Fractionation of wastewater characteristics for modelling of Firle Sewage Treatment Works, Harare, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muserere, Simon Takawira; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Nhapi, Innocent

    Varying conditions are required for different species of microorganisms for the complex biological processes taking place within the activated sludge treatment system. It is against the requirement to manage this complex dynamic system that computer simulators were developed to aid in optimising activated sludge treatment processes. These computer simulators require calibration with quality data input that include wastewater fractionation among others. Thus, this research fractionated raw sewage, at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW), for calibration of the BioWin simulation model. Firle STW is a 3-stage activated sludge system. Wastewater characteristics of importance for activated sludge process design can be grouped into carbonaceous, nitrogenous and phosphorus compounds. Division of the substrates and compounds into their constituent fractions is called fractionation and is a valuable tool for process assessment. Fractionation can be carried out using bioassay methods or much simpler physico-chemical methods. The bioassay methods require considerable experience with experimental activated sludge systems and associated measurement techniques while the physico-chemical methods are straight forward. Plant raw wastewater fractionation was carried out through two 14-day campaign periods, the first being from 3 to 16 July 2013 and the second was from 1 to 14 October 2013. According to the Zimbabwean Environmental Management Act, and based on the sensitivity of its catchment, Firle STW effluent discharge regulatory standards in mg/L are COD (<60), TN (<10), ammonia (<0.2), and TP (<1). On the other hand Firle STW Unit 4 effluent quality results based on City of Harare records in mg/L during the period of study were COD (90 ± 35), TN (9.0 ± 3.0), ammonia (0.2 ± 0.4) and TP (3.0 ± 1.0). The raw sewage parameter concentrations measured during the study in mg/L and fractions for raw sewage respectively were as follows total COD (680 ± 37), slowly biodegradable COD

  13. Potential Impact of BioField Treatment on Atomic and Physical Characteristics of Magnesium

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra; Branton, Alice; Trivedi, Dahryn; Nayak, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg), present in every cell of all living organisms, is an essential nutrient and primarily responsible for catalytic reaction of over 300 enzymes. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on atomic and physical properties of magnesium powder. Magnesium powder was divided into two parts denoted as control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treatment part received biofield treatment. Both control and treated magnesium samples we...

  14. Potential Impact of BioField Treatment on Atomic and Physical Characteristics of Magnesium

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg), present in every cell of all living organisms, is an essential nutrient and primarily responsible for catalytic reaction of over 300 enzymes. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on atomic and physical properties of magnesium powder. Magnesium powder was divided into two parts denoted as control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treatment part received biofield treatment. Both control and treated ...

  15. Geochemically structural characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash particles and mineralogical surface conversions by chelate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Hiroki; Sawada, Takaya; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Fumitake

    2016-01-01

    Leaching behaviors of heavy metals contained in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been studied well. However, micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles are still uncertain and might be non-negligible to describe their leaching behaviors. Therefore, this study investigated micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles, especially their structural properties and impacts of chelate treatment on surface characteristics. According to SEM observations, raw fly ash particles could be categorized into four types based on their shapes. Because chelate treatment changed the surface of fly ash particles dramatically owing to secondary mineral formations like ettringite, two more types could be categorized for chelate-treated fly ash particles. Acid extraction experiments suggest that fly ash particles, tested in this study, consist of Si-base insoluble core structure, Al/Ca/Si-base semi-soluble matrices inside the body, and KCl/NaCl-base soluble aggregates on the surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the same fly ash particles during twice moistening treatments showed that KCl/NaCl moved under wet condition and concentrated at different places on the particle surface. However, element mobility depended on secondary mineral formations. When insoluble mineral like gypsum was generated and covered the particle surface, it inhibited element transfer under wet condition. Surface characteristics including secondary mineral formation of MSWI fly ash particles are likely non-negligible to describe trace element leaching behaviors. PMID:26336844

  16. On the effects of sealing treatment and micro-structural grading upon corrosion characteristics of plasma-sprayed ceramic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present authors have been investigating the corrosion characteristics of plasma-spray ceramic coated stainless steel through conducting various testing employing electrochemical methods. It was indicated that microcracks and micropores in ZrO2 top coated layer play important role as the path through which aqueous solution comes into inner layers. And, intense corrosion was recognized on the interface regions between the ZrO2 top coat and NiCrAlY undercoated layer. In some cases, this corrosion brought about peeling of the top coated layer. Therefore in this paper, to improve corrosion characteristics of plasma-sprayed ceramic coating in aqueous solution environment, sealing treatment and microstructural grading were conducted employing NiCrAlY and ZrO2 systems. Then, several investigations concerning corrosion characteristics of these plasma-sprayed ceramic coating system, were conducted from electro-chemical view points. As a result, it was recognized that microstructural graded coating shows little improvement in the corrosion properties. on the contrary, sealing treatment shows much improvement in corrosion characteristics especially in the case after heat treatment of 300 C for 2 hours was conducted

  17. Borderline Personality Characteristics and Treatment Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for PTSD in Female Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Stephanie B.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies report that comorbid borderline personality pathology is associated with poorer outcomes in the treatment of Axis I disorders. Given the high rates of comorbidity between borderline personality pathology and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it is essential to determine whether borderline symptomatology affects PTSD treatment…

  18. Investigation on the characteristics of liquid wastes depending on their generation sources and study on optimum treatment method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Guk; Kim, Dong Chan; Shin, Dae Hyun; Son, Seung Geun; Roh, Nam Sun; Woo, Je Kyung [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The major research contents conducted this year are as follows: (1) environmental regulation with respect to the treatment of the liquid waste in the U.S.A., (2) the present status of the generation and treatment of liquid wastes for large producers(>1,000 ton/year), (3) analysis for heating value element, heavy metal content, halogenated species on collected samples, (4) investigation on estimation method of energy recovery rate from liquid waste, (5) design of a lab. scale reactor which could be capable of conducting thermal decomposition test with small quantity of sample. In this study, present status of liquid waste generation and treatment is investigated, and thermal decomposition characteristics are studied using a lab. scale thermal reactor. The purpose of this research is to divide liquid waste into groups and to present best treatment method for their each group. (author). 24 refs., 21 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. Effect of well-established plasma treatment technology on some physiological characteristics in maize leaves during seedling stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to provide theoretical references and technical support for application of plasma treatment technology in agriculture, the seeds of maize were treated by well-established plasma treatment technology, then the changes of physiological characteristics of maize leaves during seedling stage were studied. The results indicated that the stress resistance of maize was improved by plasma treatment. The SOD, POD and CAT activities, soluble protein content and soluble sugar content of leaves at two-leave stage, four-leave stage, six-leave stage and eight-leave stage treated by plasma were higher than that of CK, but the MDA content was lower than CK. Although NR activity in leaves at twoleave stage and four-leave stage was slightly lower than CK, but higher than CK at six-leave stage (26.81%) and eightleaves stage (26.75%). Plasma treatment enhanced the nitrogen metabolism capacity, and this tendency was increased remarkable with the growth stages processes. (authors)

  20. The acceptability of Internet-based treatment and characteristics of an adult sample with obsessive compulsive disorder: an Internet survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany M Wootton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a disabling anxiety disorder, but most individuals delay seeking treatment. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT is an innovative service delivery method that may help to improve access to care, but the acceptability to consumers of such programs has not yet been established. METHODOLOGY: People with symptoms of OCD were invited to complete an online survey enquiring about demographic characteristics, symptom severity, and acceptability of Internet-based treatment. Demographic and symptom severity data were compared with people with OCD identified in a national epidemiological survey and with a sample of patients with OCD from a specialist outpatient anxiety clinic. PARTICIPANTS: 129 volunteers to an online Internet survey, 135 patients at a specialist anxiety disorders outpatient clinic, and 297 cases identified in a national epidemiological survey. MAIN MEASURES: Demographic characteristics, and severity of symptoms as measured by the Kessler 10-Item scale, the 12-item World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule-Second Edition and the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Self Report Version. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Internet sample was similar demographically but reported more severe symptoms than the comparison groups, although had similar severity of symptoms of OCD compared with other clinical samples reported in the literature. Participants reported Internet-based treatment for OCD would be highly acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Internet-based treatment may reduce barriers to accessing treatment to people with OCD. Individuals in this study were similar demographically to other samples and had similar severity of symptoms as those identified in other clinical samples, suggesting that Internet-based treatment using techniques employed in face-to-face treatment may be effective in this group. Internet-based treatments for OCD need to be developed and evaluated.

  1. Children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility and Musculoskeletal Complaints: State of the Art on Diagnostics, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Scheper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To provide a state of the art on diagnostics, clinical characteristics, and treatment of paediatric generalised joint hypermobility (GJH and joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS. Method. A narrative review was performed regarding diagnostics and clinical characteristics. Effectiveness of treatment was evaluated by systematic review. Searches of Medline and Central were performed and included nonsymptomatic and symptomatic forms of GJH (JHS, collagen diseases. Results. In the last decade, scientific research has accumulated on all domains of the ICF. GJH/JHS can be considered as a clinical entity, which can have serious effects during all stages of life. However research regarding the pathological mechanism has resulted in new potential opportunities for treatment. When regarding the effectiveness of current treatments, the search identified 1318 studies, from which three were included (JHS: n=2, Osteogenesis Imperfecta: n=1. According to the best evidence synthesis, there was strong evidence that enhancing physical fitness is an effective treatment for children with JHS. However this was based on only two studies. Conclusion. Based on the sparsely available knowledge on intervention studies, future longitudinal studies should focus on the effect of physical activity, fitness, and joint stabilisation. In JHS and chronic pain, the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary approach should be investigated.

  2. Carpal valgus in llamas and alpacas: Retrospective evaluation of patient characteristics, radiographic features and outcomes following surgical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Barbara; Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F.; Huber, Michael J.; Parker, Jill E.; Semevolos, Stacy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated outcomes of surgical treatment for carpal valgus in New World camelids and correlated successful outcome (absence of carpal valgus determined by a veterinarian) with patient characteristics and radiographic features. Univariable and multivariable analyses of retrospective case data in 19 camelids (33 limbs) treated for carpal valgus between 1987 and 2010 revealed that procedures incorporating a distal radial transphyseal bridge were more likely (P = 0.03) to result in suc...

  3. Linguistic characteristics of patients with bulimic symptomatology in an online post-treatment program: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Mezei, Ágnes; Gulec, Hayriye; Czeglédi, Edit; Fritz, Adorján; Túry, Ferenc

    2014-01-01

    Background No former investigation has been performed related to the linguistic characteristics of patients with eating disorders using online synchronous communication mediums like chats. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the linguistic predictors of improvement in eating disorder-related attitudes, behaviours and emotional distress of patients with eating disorders. Methods Thirty-nine women, who had received treatment for bulimia nervosa or related eating disorders not...

  4. Breast Cancer Disparities: A Multicenter Comparison of Tumor Diagnosis, Characteristics, and Surgical Treatment in China and the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasubramaniam, Priya G.; Zhang, Bai-Lin; Zhang, Qian; Smith, Jennifer S.; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Guo-Ji; Xie, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xiao-Zhou; Yang, Hong-jian; He, Jian-Jun; Hui LI; Li, Jia-Yuan; Fan, Jin-Hu; Qiao, You-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates for breast cancer continue to rise in the People’s Republic of China. The purpose of this study was to analyze differences in characteristics of breast malignancies between China and the U.S. Chinese women were diagnosed at younger ages with higher stage and larger tumors and underwent more aggressive surgical treatment. Prospective trials should be conducted to address screening, surgical, and tumor discrepancies between China and the U.S.

  5. Effects of lime and cement treatment on the physicochemical, microstructural and mechanical characteristics of a plastic silt

    OpenAIRE

    LEMAIRE, Kevin; Deneele, Dimitri; BONNET, Stéphanie; LEGRET, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Stabilization using lime and cement is a widespread technique that provides civil engineering applications for soils with poor geotechnical performance. This article describes the effects of a combined lime+cement treatment on both the characteristics and properties of a plastic silt. A multi-scale approach was implemented and themechanical, microstructural and physicochemical changeswere investigated. To carry out these tasks, unconfined compressive strength measurements were conducted. The ...

  6. Effect of vacuum ion-plasma treatment on the electrochemical corrosion characteristics of titanium-alloy implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, A. A.; Skvortsova, S. V.; Petrov, L. M.; Chernyshova, Yu. V.; Lukina, E. A.

    2007-10-01

    The effect of mechanical polishing and various types of vacuum ion-plasma treatment of model implants made of VT1-0, VT20, and VT6 titanium alloys on their electrochemical corrosion characteristics in a 0.9% NaCl solution (Ringer’s solution) is studied. Ion nitriding and the evaporation of a titanium nitride coating are shown to form a surface structure that provides an increase in the hardness, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance of these implants.

  7. Characteristics of ion spectrum in a low energy nitrogen operated plasma focus: application to the metallic substrates thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This work presents the nitrogen ion spectrum characteristics in a Plasma Focus device, determined using a Thomson spectrometer and a Faraday cup, operated in the secondary electron collective mode. It is also discussed the thermal treatment and the re coating induce by ions incident on a metallic surface (AISI 304 steel) placed in front of the coaxial gun, when the device is operated with a Ti implant at the end of the central electrode

  8. 40 CFR 63.1582 - What are the characteristics of an industrial POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulated industrial waste streams as part of compliance with one or more other NESHAP, then you are subject... industrial POTW treatment plant? 63.1582 Section 63.1582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Works Industrial Potw Treatment Plant Description and Requirements § 63.1582 What are...

  9. Effects of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam as seed treatments on the early seedling characteristics and aphid-resistance of oilseed rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Liang; ZHAO Chun-lin; HUANG Fang; BAI Run-e; L Yao-bin; YAN Feng-ming; HAO Zhong-ping

    2015-01-01

    Seed treatments with the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were evaluated to determine whether the chemicals at effective concentrations for aphid control would inlfuence the germination and early growth of oilseed rape,Brassica napus. Treatment with imidacloprid or thiamethoxam did not affect the cumulative germination rate, but signiifcantly inhibited establishment potential by suppressing root system development in the cotyledon stage. However, these alterations in seedling development in the thiamethoxam-treated seeds appeared not to be detrimental as leaves developed; in contrast, for the seedlings with imidacloprid as seed treatment agent, a signiifcantly decreased shoot/root ratio was stil evident at the late two-leaf stage. After two leaves developed, chlorophyl content per leaf in the thiamethoxam treatment was signiifcantly higher than that of the control, while chlorophyl content per leaf in the imidacloprid treatment remained close to that in the control. Most other parameters, i.e., height, leaf area, weight of stem, leaf or root, and other growth indexes, between the treatments and the control showed no signiifcant difference. Additionaly, it was found that storage time of the treated seeds had a signiifcant effect on cumulative germination rate. Treatment 30 d before planting signiifcantly reduced germination relative to that of the control. Al of the plants treated with neonicotinoids were shown to have signiifcant anti-aphid characteristics that persisted until the end of the trial.

  10. Influences of different UV-B radiation treatments in short time on some physiological characteristics of winter wheat seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [Objective] studying the influences of different UV-B radiation treatments in short time on some physiological characteristics of winter wheat seedlings was to provide reference for the mechanism of plant response to ultraviolet irradiation in short time. [Method] The winter wheat taken as materials were treated with 15 and 30μW/cm2 UV-B radiation, then the physiological indexes such as pigment content and photosynthetic rate were determined. [Results] The UV-B treatment caused the declines of chlorophyll content, soluble protein content and water content of leaves, besides, dose-effect was existed. The decline of 30 μW/cm2 treatment was bigger than that of 15 μW/cm2 treatment. The influences of UV-B radiation on carotenoid content and anthocyanidin content were similar; the change trends were declined firstly then increased. The UV-B treatment with two doses restrained the electron transport of PSⅡ, particularly; the inhibitory effect was biggest after treated 2h, and then this effect was declined in 4, 6 and 8h, so the dose-effect was existed. The UV-B radiation with two doses restricted photosynthetic rate and the inhibitory effect increased with the increase of treatment time. The high dose treatment caused huge damage to membrane system, while the result of low dose treatment was not obvious. [Conclusion] UV-B radiation treatment had dose-effect on winter wheat seedlings in short time and the influence of high dose was bigger than that of low dose. With the increase of treatment time, the damage was alleviated; besides, the result was not similar to that of UV-B radiation in long time

  11. Characteristics of ITO films with oxygen plasma treatment for thin film solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Seob [Department of Photoelectronics Information, Chosun College of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eungkwon [Digital Broadcasting Examination, Korean Intellectual Property Office, Daejeon, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Byungyou [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong, 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehyoeng, E-mail: jaehyeong@skku.edu [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong, 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The effect of O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the surface and the work function of ITO films. - Highlights: • ITO films were prepared on the glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering method. • Effects of O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the properties of ITO films were investigated. • The work function of ITO film was changed from 4.67 to 5.66 eV by plasma treatment. - Abstract: The influence of oxygen plasma treatment on the electro-optical and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method were investigated. The films were exposed at different O{sub 2} plasma powers and for various durations by using the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The resistivity of the ITO films was almost constant, regardless of the plasma treatment conditions. Although the optical transmittance of ITO films was little changed by the plasma power, the prolonged treatment slightly increased the transmittance. The work function of ITO film was changed from 4.67 eV to 5.66 eV at the plasma treatment conditions of 300 W and 60 min.

  12. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TREATMENT OF QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AT THE INTERNATIONAL LEVEL AND IN VARIOUS NATIONAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Cristina Breahna Pravat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative characteristics of accounting information presented by financial-accounting reports represent a concept which was subsequently introduced in the national legal accounting framework and, as a rule, the national conceptual frameworks represent the documents by means of which these quality criteria are established. At a worldwide level, there are more international or national organisms that have an important role in the elaboration of accounting standards in general and more specifically in the formulation of qualitative characteristics of financial reporting. We find two important ones among them, and these are: International Accounting Standards Board, which creates and promotes International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, and Financial Accounting Standards Board, which elaborates Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP. However, at the level of each country a standardizing authority decides the rules for producing the financial reports and the qualitative characteristics that must be respected by the information contained in these documents. In this context, this paper aims to present a few general considerations concerning the treatment of the qualitative characteristics of the financial-accounting information in different accounting systems, such as the American one, or the British, French, German, Romanian ones, with insistence on the international approach to qualitative characteristics.

  13. Influence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide treatment on the electrical characteristics of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky barrier diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes have been investigated by current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) techniques. The barrier heights and ideality factors measured from I–V characteristics are found to be 0.70 eV and 1.32 for without TMAH treatment, and 0.78 eV and 1.14 for with TMAH treatment, respectively. Cheung method is used to measure the series resistance and barrier height of the Schottky diodes, and the barrier height consistency is checked using the Norde method. The magnitude of interface state density for the diodes without and with TMAH treatment are varied from 7.45 × 1013 eV−1 cm−2 to 6.09 × 1012 eV−1 cm−2 and 4.03 × 1013 eV−1 cm−2 to 1.79 × 1012 eV−1 cm−2 in the below the conduction band from EC-0.19 eV to EC-0.63 eV and EC-0.22 eV to EC-0.73 eV. Based on the results, the TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (GaxOy) layer, formed due to the incorporation of the residual oxygen with Ga atom at the GaN surface during the plasma etching. The decrease in interface state density at the Ni/Au/GaN interface could be the reason for the improvement in the electrical properties. - Highlights: • The effect of TMAH treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes is studied. • The magnitude of NSS for the diode with TMAH treatment is low compared to without treatment. • The TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (GaxOy) layer

  14. Birth characteristics in a clinical sample of women seeking infertility treatment: a case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Vikström, Josefin; Hammar, Mats; Josefsson, Ann; Bladh, Marie; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the distribution of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) by main cause of infertility (female, combined, male, unexplained) in women seeking infertility treatment. Design A case-control study. Setting A Centre for Reproductive Medicine in Sweden. Participants All women (n=1293) born in Sweden in 1973 or later and who were part of heterosexual couples seeking infertility treatment at a Centre of Reprod...

  15. CHARACTERISTIC OF BINDERLESS COMPLY MADE FROM SENGON WOOD USING OXIDATION TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Suhasman; Yunianti, A.D.; Saad, S.

    2014-01-01

    Comply is one type of composites product that has several advantages including high modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity. Technology for producing binderless comply has been developed by using oxidation treatment. The treatment was used to produce free radical in chemical component of particle and veneer that can form bond formation between particle or veneer when hot pressing was applicated. Produced comply will free from formaldehyde emission because it was produced without adhesive...

  16. Impact of Biofield Treatment on Growth and Anatomical Characteristics of Pogostemoncablin (Benth.)

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Pogostemoncablin is a known aromatic plant which is cultivated for its essential oil widely applicated in perfumery and cosmetic industries. In the present study, the effect of biofield treatment was studied on the growth of P. cablin. For this study an in-vitro culture system was set up in two groups, viz., control and treatment, each of which was derived from three different explant sources, namely leaf, node and petiole. Further these in-vitro plantlets were hardened and transferred to ext...

  17. Effects of heat treatment on dynamic compressive properties and energy absorption characteristics of open-cell aluminum alloy foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of heat treatment on the dynamic compressive properties and energy absorption characteristics of open cell aluminum alloy foams (Al-Mg-Si alloy foam and Al-Cu-Mg alloy foam) produced by infiltrating process were studied. Two kinds of heat treatment were exploited: age-hardening and solution heat treating plus age-hardening (T6). The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB)was used for high strain rate compression test. The results show that both age-hardened and T6-strengthened foams exhibit improved compression strength and shortened plateau region compared with tnat of foams in as-fabricated state under high strain rate compression,and the energy absorption capacity is also influenced significantly by heat treatment. It is worthy to note that omitting the solution treating can also improve the strength and energy absorbed much.

  18. Electrical Characteristics of Carbon Nanotubes by Plasma and Microwave Surface Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sangjin; Lee, Soonbo; Boo, Jinhyo [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shrestha, Shankar Prasad [Tribhuvan Univ., Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2014-03-15

    The plasma and microwave surface treatments of carbon nanotubes that loaded on plastic substrates were carried out with expecting a change of carbon nanotube dispersion by increasing treatment time. The microwave treatment process was undergone by commercial microwave oven (800 W). The electrical property was measured by hall measurement and resistance was increased by increasing O{sub 2} flow rate of plasma, suggesting an improvement of carbon nanotube dispersion and a possibility of controlling the resistances of carbon nanotubes by plasma surface treatment. The resistance was increased in both polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide substrates by increasing O{sub 2} flow rate. Resistance changes only slightly with different O{sub 2} flow treatment in measure rho for all polyimide samples. Sheet resistance is lowest in polyimide substrate not due to high carbon nanotube loading but due to tendency to remain in elongated structure. O{sub 2} or N{sub 2} plasma treatments on both polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide substrates lead to increase in sheet resistance.

  19. Alcohol in Primary Care. Differential characteristics between alcohol-dependent patients who are receiving or not receiving treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Pablo; Miquel, Laia; Moreno-España, Jose; Martínez, Alicia; Ortega, Lluisa; Teixidor, Lidia; Manthey, Jakob; Rehm, Jürgen; Gual, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    primary health care services for other reasons. The aim of the present study is to describe the differential characteristics of AD patients in primary care, distinguishing between those who receive treatment and those who do not, and their reasons for not seeking it. In a cross-sectional study patients were evaluated by their general practitioner (GP) and interviewed by a member of the research team. Sociodemographic, diagnostic and clinical data were collected. From 1,372 patients interviewed in Catalonia, 118 (8.6%) were diagnosed as AD. These patients showed a lower socioeconomic status (48.3% vs 33.3%, odds ratio 2.02), higher unemployment rates (32.2% vs 19.2 %, odds ratio 2.11), and greater psychological distress and disability. Patients with AD receiving treatment (16.9%), were older (44 vs 36 years of age), reported higher unemployment rates (66% vs 25.5%, odds ratio 6.32) and higher daily alcohol consumption (61.5 vs 23.7 grams), suggesting a more advanced disease. Patients with AD in general showed a higher degree of comorbidity compared to other patients, with patients in treatment showing the most elevated level. The main reasons given for not seeking treatment were shame, fear of giving up drinking and barriers to treatment. Taken together, the data suggest the need to implement earlier strategies for the detection and treatment of AD. PMID:26990264

  20. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy in Children: A Review of Clinical Characteristics and Recommendations for Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Narges Karimi; Athena Sharifi; Ashraf Zarvani; Hamed Cheraghmakani

    2015-01-01

    Context: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy (CIDP) is an acquired and autoimmune neuropathy, characterized by a chronic, rapidly progressive, symmetric weakness. In children, abnormal gait is as a first symptom of muscle weakness. Evidence Acquisition: The diagnosis of CIDP is on the basis of clinical characteristics, electrodiagnostic that shows the severity of the disease, lumbar puncture and spine magnetic res...

  1. The Pain System in Oesophageal Disorders: Mechanisms, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lottrup

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is common in gastroenterology. This review aims at giving an overview of pain mechanisms, clinical features, and treatment options in oesophageal disorders. The oesophagus has sensory receptors specific for different stimuli. Painful stimuli are encoded by nociceptors and communicated via afferent nerves to the central nervous system. The pain stimulus is further processed and modulated in specific pain centres in the brain, which may undergo plastic alterations. Hence, tissue inflammation and long-term exposure to pain can cause sensitisation and hypersensitivity. Oesophageal sensitivity can be evaluated ,for example, with the oesophageal multimodal probe. Treatment should target the cause of the patient's symptoms. In gastro-oesophageal reflux diseases, proton pump inhibitors are the primary treatment option, surgery being reserved for patients with severe disease resistant to drug therapy. Functional oesophageal disorders are treated with analgesics, antidepressants, and psychological therapy. Lifestyle changes are another option with less documentation.

  2. [Analysis on characteristics of ancient acupuncture and moxibustion treatment of tuberculosis consumptive diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yao-jie; Gu, Jie; Liu, Li-gong

    2005-02-01

    Systematical and comprehensive statistics, induction and analysis on literature and data of acupuncture and moxibustion treatment of tuberculosis in incunabula are carried out by computer. The results indicate that in treatment of tuberculosis, most select acupoints of the upper back, chest-epigastrium and The Yangming Channel on the leg to promote dispersing function of the lung, strength the spleen and anti-tuberculosis; select acupoints of The Conception Vessel on the lower abdomen and Shenshu (BL 23) and others on the lower back to tonify the kidney and anti-tuberculosis. Clinically, most select moxibustion and acupuncture with reinforcing-reducing manipulation and pricking blood therapy. And referential recipes for clinical treatment are raised. PMID:16312901

  3. Dentigerous cyst: clinical and radiographic characteristics and criteria for treatment planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Guilherme Matiazi Vaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The dentigerous cyst is the second most frequent odontogenic cyst in jaws. They are always radiolucent and commonly unilocular. They are usually found in routine exams or when a permanent tooth does not erupt. The third molars followed by maxillary canines and occasionally supernumerary teeth and odontomas may be involved with the formation of the dentigerous cyst, but its etiology is not yet completely known. The dentigerous cyst occurs mainly in the first three decades of life, and its growth is slow and asymptomatic, however, it may reach considerable dimensions causing facial deformity, impaction and displacement of teeth and/or adjacent structures. Decompression, marsupialization and enucleation are the most frequent forms of treatment used, nevertheless, some important criteria must be considered for the treatment plan such as cyst size, age, proximity to anatomical structures and clinical importance of the tooth involved. Despite the clinical peculiarities of each case and the treatment method chosen, prognosis of these lesions is favorable.

  4. Combustion characteristics of Athabasca froth treatment tailings in a simulated fluidilized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili, P.; Ghosh, M.; Speirs, B. C. [Imperial Oil Resources (Canada); Leon, M. A.; Rao, S.; Dutta, A.; Basu, P. [Greenfield Research Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In surface-mined oil sands, a stream of water, asphaltenes, solids and residual bitumen/solvent, known as PFT tailings, is created during the bitumen production process. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of this PFT tailings stream as a fuel source for combustion in a fluidized bed for energy recovery. To do so, physical and fluidization characteristics of the fuel as well as combustion kinetics were assessed through laboratory analysis. In addition, the fuel's combustion characteristics were investigated through experiments in a quartz wool matrix tubular reactor and theoretical calculations at various moisture contents. Results showed that this fuel can be burned in a fluidized bed with a reactivity comparable to that of coal samples. This research found that PFT tailings could be used to generate energy during disposal but further work will have to be undertaken in a hot CFB combustor to confirm this.

  5. Influences of NOM composition and bacteriological characteristics on biological stability in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Won; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Meyer, Anne S; Kim, Sungpyo; Maeng, Sung Kyu

    2016-10-01

    The influences of natural organic matter (NOM) and bacteriological characteristics on the biological stability of water were investigated in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. We found that prechlorination decreased the hydrophobicity of the organic matter and significantly increased the high-molecular-weight (MW) dissolved organic matter, such as biopolymers and humic substances. High-MW organic matter and structurally complex compounds are known to be relatively slowly biodegradable; however, because of the prechlorination step, the indigenous bacteria could readily utilise these fractions as assimilable organic carbon. Sequential coagulation and sedimentation resulted in the substantial removal of biopolymer (74%), humic substance (33%), bacterial cells (79%), and assimilable organic carbon (67%). Rapid sand and granular activated carbon filtration induced an increase in the low-nucleic-acid content bacteria; however, these bacteria were biologically less active in relation to enzymatic activity and ATP. The granular activated carbon step was essential to securing biological stability (the ability to prevent bacterial growth) by removing the residual assimilable organic carbon that had formed during the ozone treatment. The growth potential of Escherichia coli and indigenous bacteria were found to differ in respect to NOM characteristics. In comparison with E. coli, the indigenous bacteria utilised a broader range of NOM as a carbon source. Principal component analysis demonstrated that the measured biological stability of water could differ, depending on the NOM characteristics, as well as on the bacterial inoculum selected for the analysis. PMID:27376858

  6. Effect of treatment with adsorbent resin on the volatile profile and physicochemical characteristics of clarified cashew apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dutra Sousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased preference for healthy and functional foods could be an opportunity to increase the consumption of clarified cashew apple juice. Given its level of fructose, glucose, and vitamin C, it can be used as a base in blends. However, its characteristic odor can interfere with the acceptance of these formulations, especially by consumers who are not familiar with cashew aroma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with macroporous resins (FPA54, FPX66, XAD761, and XAD4 on the volatile profile and physicochemical characteristics of clarified cashew apple juice. After the treatment with the resins, the volatile profile was evaluated using solid-phase microextraction (SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The physicochemical analyses performed were: pH, soluble solids (ºBrix, total titrable acidity, reducing sugars, and vitamin C. Gas chromatography analyses showed that XAD4 and FPX66 led to a reduction of the initial amount of volatile compounds to 14.05% and 15.72%, respectively. These two resins also did not affect the physicochemical characteristics of the clarified cashew apple juice.

  7. Effect of Malic Acid and Calcium Treatments on Quality Characteristics of Apple Fruits During Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, M; Shirzadeh, E

    2011-01-01

    -1) or at three calcium concentrations (0, 0.35 and 0.7% w/v). Results showed that fruit weight loss significantly decreased in malic acid+calcium treatments in comparison to control. Also, results showed that malic acid+calcium treatments increase fruit firmness, Catalase activity (CAT), Titratable acidity (TA) and Perlim index while decreasing of pH, Total soluble solids/Titratable acidity ratio and Peroxidase activity (POD) during cold storage at 0-2C for 5 month (p=0.05). The results show...

  8. Analysis of Acupuncture Treatment Characteristics of Epigastric Pain in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-gong; GU Jie; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Epigastric pain involves the inflammation, ulcer,spasm and tumor in the stomach, esophagus,diaphragm and the like. The heart, liver, gallbladder and spleen are near to the epigastrium, so the pain associated with these organs is mistakenly taken as epigastric pain. Consequently, some of these organs' disorders are inevitably included in this study. With the help of computer, we have statistically analyzed the information concerning the treatment of epigastric pain by acupuncture in 93 ancient medical books. Results show that 66 pieces of information and 60 acupoints (139 times in frequency) are involved in the treatment of epigastric pain.

  9. Endometrial Serous Carcinoma: Its Molecular Characteristics and Histology-Specific Treatment Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endometrial cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women, with most cases being classified as early stage endometrioid tumors that carry a favorable prognosis. The endometrial serous histological subtype (ESC), however, while only accounting for 10% of all endometrial cancers is responsible for a disproportionate number of deaths. Unlike the estrogen-dependent, well differentiated endometrioid tumors, which are commonly associated with a younger age of onset, ESCs are estrogen-independent and tend to present at an advanced stage and in older women. Treatment for ESC entails aggressive surgery and multimodal adjuvant therapy. In this review, we describe the clinical behavior, molecular aspects, and treatment strategies for ESC

  10. Influence of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Structural Characteristics of Barium Oxide and Zinc Sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton

    2015-01-01

    Barium oxide (BaO) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) are well known for their applications in electrical, optical and chemical industries. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on the structural and physical properties of BaO and ZnS powder. The study was carried out in two groups, one was set to control, and another group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples of BaO and ZnS were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier t...

  11. Impact of post-harvest radiation treatment timing on shelf life and quality characteristics of potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaee, Mehdi; ALMASSI, Morteza; MINAEI, Saeed; Paknejad, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation treatment (50 and 100 Gy) on potato tubers irradiated at different days (10th, 30th and 50th) after harvest were studied during 5 months of storage at 10°C using Agria and Marfona varieties. A factorial experiment was done, based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The 100 Gy radiation treatments on 10th and 30th days after harvest completely prevented sprouting at both varieties studied but on 50th day only Agria tubers not sprouted. T...

  12. Characteristics and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of complicated febrile convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemoto, K.; Takuji, N.; Kawasaki, J.; Kawai, I.

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the close correlation between complicated febrile convulsions (CFC) and medial temporal lobe epilepsy and to delineate characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with CFC. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were divided into those with a prior episode of CFC (n=52), those with febrile convulsions other than CFC, and those witout either (n=345). Clinical constellations, neuroimaging, drug resistance, and effects of temporal lobectomy of the three gro...

  13. Analysis of racial variations in disease characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhan, Chadi; Chaffee, Kari G; Slager, Susan L; Galanina, Natalie; Achenbach, Sara J; Schwager, Susan M; Kay, Neil E; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-07-01

    The impact of race on outcomes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common leukemia in the west, is not well studied. We aimed to understand racial variations in clinical and disease characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes in patients with CLL. We utilized the Mayo Clinic CLL database to perform an analysis of these characteristics and natural history of non-white (NW) compared to white (W) CLL patients. Differences by race in median overall survival (OS) and time-to-first-treatment (TTFT) were investigated. Of the 4215 CLL patients, 4114 (97.6%) were W and 101 (2.4%) were NW. NW patients were younger (median age at diagnosis 59.4 vs. 63.4; P = 0.003) and more likely to have an elevated LDH (28.0% vs. 16.2%; P = 0.02). No differences in prognostic parameters were noted. No major differences were observed in treatment selection. OS and TTFT were similar between both groups. In the largest analysis of NW-CLL patients in North America, and contrary to historical retrospective reports, W and NW patients appear to have comparable outcomes when treated similarly. These findings suggest previously noted outcome differences may be due to disparities in access to care and management rather than differences in disease biology. Am. J. Hematol. 91:677-680, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27013143

  14. Effect of ultrasound treatment on the morpho-structural and luminescent characteristics of cerium doped yttrium silicate phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muresan, L.E., E-mail: laura_muresan2003@yahoo.com [“Raluca Ripan” Institute for Research in Chemistry, Babeş Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cadis, A.I.; Perhaita, I. [“Raluca Ripan” Institute for Research in Chemistry, Babeş Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Silipas, D.T. [National Institute for R& D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Donath 67-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tudoran, L. Barbu [Electronic Microscopy Centre, Babeş Bolyai University, Clinicilor 37, 400006 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce is prepared by gel combustion in ultrasound conditions (US). • Morpho-structural characteristics are revealed based on FTIR, SEM, XRD, BET. • Incorporation of Ce{sup 3+} in X1/X2 type centers depends on preparative conditions. • US treatment increases the luminescent performances up to 151%. - Abstract: Cerium activated yttrium silicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce) phosphors were prepared by gel-combustion, using yttrium–cerium nitrate as oxidizer, aspartic acid as fuel and TEOS as source of silicon. Two modalities for samples preparation were approached namely: the classical gel-combustion and sonication gel-combustion. The ultrasound treatment during the gelling stage has a positive effect on the structural and luminescent characteristics of the final product. Therefore, a well crystallized single X2–Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} phase phosphor was obtained at 1200 °C. Based on FT-IR and XRD investigations, conversion of X1 to X2–Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} phases is observed as the firing temperature is varied (1100 °C, 1200 °C, 1300 °C 1400 °C). The ultrasound treatment leads to smaller particle size and enhances the luminescent performances up to 151% in comparison with samples prepared by classical way.

  15. [The post-discectomy syndrome: clinical and electroneuromyographic characteristics and methods of treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaev, A V; Guseĭnova, S G; Musaeva, I R

    2008-01-01

    The data of the Azerbaijan Neurosurgical Center, including 2618 case-reports of patients operated on for low back discal hernia between 1997 and 2002, have been analyzed. The retrospective analysis of the data reveals that 26,4% of patients need further restorative treatment due to the presence of various neurological disturbances: pain syndromes of different intensity, motor deficits (pareses), sensory disorders and functional disorders of pelvic organs. The retrospective analysis of the data reveals that 26,4% of patients need further restorative treatment due to the presence of various neurological disturbances: pain syndromes of different intensity, motor deficits (pareses), sensory disorders and functional disorders of pelvic organs. Along with these data, the results of our own clinical and neurophysiological study of 110 patients have been summarized as well. Along with these data, the results of our own clinical and neurophysiological study of 110 patients have been summarized as well. A high effectiveness of electrostimulation and naphthalan therapy alone and in combination with massage and medical gymnastics has been revealed. A high effectiveness of electrostimulation and naphthalan therapy alone and in combination with massage and medical gymnastics has been revealed. Electroneuromyographic data revealing the positive dynamics as a result of the treatment of patients with the post-discectomy syndrome are presented. Electroneuromyographic data revealing the positive dynamics as a result of the treatment of patients with the post-discectomy syndrome are presented. PMID:18689008

  16. Characteristics of patients who suffer major osteoporotic fractures despite adhering to alendronate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B; Rubin, Katrine Hass; Eiken, Pia Agnete;

    2013-01-01

    Antiresorptive treatment reduces the risk of fractures, but most patients remain at elevated risk. We used health registers to identify predictors of new major osteoporotic fractures in patients adhering to alendronate. Risk factors showed a different pattern than in the general population and in...

  17. Pre-treatment preferences and characteristics among patients seeking in vitro fertilisation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Anthony Ph

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study sought to describe patient features before beginning fertility treatment, and to ascertain their perceptions relative to risk of twin pregnancy outcomes associated with such therapy. METHODS: Data on readiness for twin pregnancy outcome from in vitro fertilisation (IVF) was gathered from men and women before initiating fertility treatment by anonymous questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 206 women and 204 men were sampled. Mean (+\\/- SD) age for women and men being 35.5 +\\/- 5 and 37.3 +\\/- 7 yrs, respectively. At least one IVF cycle had been attempted by 27.2% of patients and 33.9% of this subgroup had initiated >\\/=3 cycles, reflecting an increase in previous failed cycles over five years. Good agreement was noted between husbands and wives with respect to readiness for twins from IVF (77% agreement; Cohen\\'s K = 0.61; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.70). CONCLUSION: Most patients contemplating IVF already have ideas about particular outcomes even before treatment begins, and suggests that husbands & wives are in general agreement on their readiness for twin pregnancy from IVF. However, fertility patients now may represent a more refractory population and therefore carry a more guarded prognosis. Patient preferences identified before IVF remain important, but further studies comparing pre- and post-treatment perceptions are needed.

  18. Nickel super alloy INCONEL 713LC - structural characteristics after heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nickel super alloy’s products are mainly using for construction parts of jet engines, gas turbines and turbo-blowers.Design/methodology/approach: Super alloy was commercially produced and was investigated by using the light microscopy (OLYMPUS IX 71 and local chemical microanalysis and by the scanning electron microscopy (JEOL JSM 50AFindings: We found a mode of optimum heat treatment. On the basis of obtained results it is possible to recommend a following regime of heat treatment: heating and dwell at the temperature exceeding 1240 °C (min. 1260 °C, so that precipitates at the grain boundaries dissolve completely, with subsequent slow cooling down to the temperature of approx. 940-950 °C, so that there occurs intensive intra-granular precipitation of intermetallic phase γ’.Research limitations/implications: The experiment was limited by occurrence a void in cast alloys.Practical implications: Nickel super alloy’s products are mainly using for construction parts of jet engines, gas turbines and turbo-blowers.Originality/value: Mode of optimum heat treatment was proposed. On the basis of obtained results it is possible to recommend the most suitable heat treatment, which produce intensive intra-granular precipitation of inter-metallic phase γ’. It was received a new know-how in this field.

  19. Characteristics of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kum-Lok; Bang, Cheon-Hee; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2016-08-01

    The nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions were measured from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using a flux chamber to determine the emission factors. The WWTP treats sewage using both the activated-sludge treatment and anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (A(2)O) methods. Measurements were performed in the first settling, aeration, and secondary settling basins, as well as in the sludge thickener, sludge digestion tank, and A(2)O basins. The total emission factors of N2O and CH4 from the activated-sludge treatment were 1.256gN2O/kg total nitrogen (TN) and 3.734gCH4/kg biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), respectively. Those of the advanced treatment (A(2)O) were 1.605gN2O/kg TN and 4.022gCH4/kgBOD5, respectively. These values are applicable as basic data to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:27237575

  20. Influence of ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation pre-treatment on rheological characteristics of wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, T T H; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation as physico-chemical pre-treatment processes on the change of rheology of wastewater sludge was investigated in this study. Pre-treated and raw sludges displayed non-Newtonian rheological behaviour with shear thinning as well as thixotropic properties for total solids ranging from 10 g/L to 40 g/L. The rheological models, namely, Bingham plastic, Casson law, NCA/CMA Casson, IPC Paste, and power law were also studied to characterize flow of raw and pre-treated sludges. Among all rheological models, the power law was more prominent in describing the rheology of the sludges. Pre-treatment processes resulted in a decrease in pseudoplasticity of sludge due to the decrease in consistency index K varying from 42.4 to 1188, 25.6 to 620.4 and 52.5 to 317.9; and increase in flow behaviour index n changing from 0.5 to 0.35, 0.62 to 0.55 and 0.63 to 0.58, for RS, UlS and FS, respectively at solids concentration 10-40 g/L. The correlation between improvement of biodegradability and dewaterability, decrease in viscosity, and change in particle size as a function of sludge pre-treatment process was also investigated. Fenton oxidation facilitated sludge filterability resulting in capillary suction time values which were approximately 50% of the raw sludges, whereas ultrasonication with high input energy deteriorated the filterability. Biodegradability was also enhanced by the pre-treatment processes and the maximum value was obtained (64%, 77% and 73% for raw, ultrasonicated and Fenton oxidized sludges, respectively) at total solids concentration of 25 g/L. Hence, pre-treatment of wastewater sludge modified the rheological properties so that: (1) the flowability of sludge was improved for transport through the treatment train (via pipes and pumps); (2) the dewaterability of wastewater sludge was enhanced for eventual disposal and; (3) the assimilation of nutrients by microorganisms for further value-addition was increased. PMID

  1. Enhancement in characteristics of sewage sludge and anaerobic treatability by electron beam pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam was studied to enhance the biodegradability of sewage sludge. Changes in physicochemical characteristics of the sludge were examined with various irradiation doses, sludge thicknesses and exposure times. Irradiation thickness was suggested as the key factor affecting the efficiency of solublization of solid organic matter, whereas exposure time would be the most critical parameter in inducing cell lysis in sewage sludge. In addition, biogas production was improved as much as 22% when the sludge thickness was 0.5 cm with a dose of 7 kGy

  2. Characteristics, detection methods and treatment of questionable occlusal carious lesions: findings from the national dental practice-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, S K; Gilbert, G H; Funkhouser, E; Bader, J D; Gordan, V V; Rindal, D B; Pihlstrom, D J; Qvist, V

    2014-01-01

    Questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC) can be defined as an occlusal tooth surface with no cavitation and no radiographic radiolucencies, but caries is suspected due to roughness, surface opacities or staining. An earlier analysis of data from this study indicates 1/3 of patients have a QOC. The objective of this report has been to quantify the characteristics of these common lesions, the diagnostic aids used and the treatment of QOC. A total of 82 dentist and hygienist practitioner-investigators from the USA and Denmark in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network participated. When consenting patients presented with a QOC, information was recorded about the patient, tooth, lesion and treatments. A total of 2,603 QOC from 1,732 patients were analyzed. The lesions were usually associated with a fissure, on molars, and varied from yellow to black in color. Half presented with a chalky luster and had a rough surface when examined with an explorer. There was an association between color and luster: 10% were chalky-light, 47% were shiny-dark and 42% were mixtures. A higher proportion of chalky than of shiny lesions were light (22 vs. 9%; p < 0.001). Lesions light in color were less common in adults than in pediatric patients (9 vs. 32%; p < 0.001). Lesions that were chalky and light were more common among pediatric than among adult patients (22 vs. 6%; p < 0.001). This is the first study to investigate characteristics of QOC in routine clinical practice. Clinicians commonly face this diagnostic uncertainty. Determining the characteristics of these lesions is relevant when making diagnostic and treatment decisions. PMID:24480989

  3. Effect of T6 heat treatment on damping characteristics of Al/RHA composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Siva Prasad; A Rama Krishna

    2012-11-01

    In the present work, effect of T6 heat treatment on the damping behaviour of aluminum/rice husk ash (RHA) composites fabricated by vortex method was studied using dynamic mechanical analyser (DMA) at frequencies ranging from 1 Hz to 25 Hz at room temperature under three-point bending test mode. The matrix material for the present work was A356.2 and reinforced with different weight % of 4, 6 and 8 rice husk ash particles. It was observed that composite exhibits high damping capacities than unreinforced alloy and increases with increase in weight % and the storage modulus increases with the addition of RHA particles but decreases with the increase in weight %. The heat treated composites exhibit higher damping capacity than the composites without heat treatment and increases with the increase in weight % of the reinforcement and loss in the storage modulus was observed and further decreases with the increase in the weight %of reinforcement. The related mechanisms were also discussed.

  4. Characteristics of the photoneutron contamination present in a high-energy radiotherapy treatment room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnica-Garza, H M [Coordinacion de Posgrado, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan S/N, Toluca, Estado de Mexico 50180 (Mexico)

    2005-02-07

    The photoneutron contamination arising from a high-energy medical lineal accelerator is calculated using Monte Carlo simulation, as a function of the radiation field size. The information is used to model the neutron propagation in a radiotherapy treatment room and the transmission across concrete mazes. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4C is used to model the main components of a medical lineal accelerator. Simulations were performed to calculate the photoneutron yields and spectra as a function of the radiation field size. The yield of contaminant photoneutrons is observed to increase with the size of the radiation beam, but the energy spectra remain the same, suggesting that the contamination arises from above the movable collimator. The transport of the photoneutrons across a treatment room corroborates the validity of empirical models, but the transmission across a concrete maze produces a dose-equivalent tenth-value layer that differs from previous data.

  5. Effect of the chemical treatments on the characteristics of natural cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to characterize the morphology and size distribution of the cellulose fibers, natural cellulose from kenaf bast fibers was extracted using two chemical treatments; (1) alkali-bleaching-ultrasonic treatment and (2) alkali-bleaching-hydrolysis. Solutions of NaOH, H2O2 and H2SO4 were used for alkalization, bleaching and hydrolysis, respectively. The hydrolyzed fibers were centrifuged at a rotation speed of 10000 rpm for 10 min to separate the nanofibers from the microfibers. The separation was repeated in 7 steps by controlling pH of the solution in each step until neutrality was reached. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed on the fibers at the final step of each treatment: i.e. either ultrasonic treated- or hydrolyzed microfibers. Their FTIR spectra were compared with FTIR spectrum of a reference commercial α-cellulose. Changes in morphology and size distribution of the treated fibers were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR spectra of ultrasonic treated- and hydrolyzed microfibers nearly coincided with the FTIR spectrum of commercial α-cellulose, suggesting successful extraction of cellulose. Ultrasonic treatment for 6 h resulted in a specific morphology in which cellulose nanofibers (≥100 nm) were distributed across the entire surface of cellulose microfibers (∼5 μm). Constant magnetic stirring combined with acid hydrolysis resulted in an inhomogeneous size distribution of both cellulose rods (500 nm-3 μm length, 100–200 nm diameter) and particles 100–200 nm in size. Changes in morphology of the cellulose fibers depended upon the stirring time; longer stirring time resulted in shorter fiber lengths

  6. The characteristics of keratomycosis by Beauveria bassiana and its successful treatment with antimycotic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoyama, Hiroko; Araki-Sasaki, Kaoru; Kazama, Shigeyasu; Kawasaki, Tsutomu; Ideta, Hidenao; Sunada, Atsuko; Asari, Seishi; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Hayashi, Kozaburo

    2008-01-01

    Clinical findings and treatment of keratomycosis caused by Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic filamentous fungus, are described for an 80-year-old woman, who was referred to the hospital for ocular pain and redness on the 9th day after an ocular injury caused by the frame of her glasses. She had a long history of recurrent diabetic iritis and continuously used topical antibiotics and corticosteroids. At her first visit, a slit-lamp examination indicated a corneal ulcer confined within th...

  7. Effect of Biofield Treatment on Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristic of Provindencia rettgeri

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Providencia rettgeri (P. rettgeri) is a clinically significant Gram-negative bacterium of genus Providencia, and commonly associated with hospital-acquired infection like urinary tract infection (UTI), gastroenteritis, and ocular infections. Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on P. rettgeri against antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reaction pattern, biotype number, and 16S rDNA sequence. The samples of P. rettgeri (ATCC 9250) were divided into thre...

  8. Studies of the Atomic and Crystalline Characteristics of Ceramic Oxide Nano Powders after Bio field Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra; Nayak, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) have been known for their extraordinary electrical and magnetic properties. In the present study, some transition metal oxides (Zinc oxide, iron oxide and copper oxide) which are widely used in the fabrication of electronic devices were selected and subjected to biofield treatment. The atomic and crystal structures of TMOs were carefully studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. XRD analysis reveals that biof...

  9. Evaluation of Biofield Energy Treatment on Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Selenium Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element, and its deficiency in the humans leads to increase the risk of various diseases, such as cancer and heart diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of the selenium powder. The selenium powder was divided into two parts denoted as control and treated. The Control part was remained as untreated and treated part received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy...

  10. Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Manganese (II, III) Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In Mn3O4, the crystal structure, dislocation density, particle size and spin of the electrons plays crucial role in modulating its magnetic properties. Present study investigates impact of Biofield treatment on physical and atomic properties of Mn3O4. X-ray diffraction revealed the significant effect of biofield on lattice parameter, unit cell volume, molecular weight, crystallite sizes and densities of treated Mn3O4. XRD analysis confirmed that crystallinity was enhanced and dislocation dens...

  11. Impact of Biofield Treatment on Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Barium Titanate Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra; Nayak, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Barium titanate, perovskite structure is known for its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric properties, which makes it interesting material for fabricating capacitors, transducer, actuator, and sensors. The perovskite crystal structure and lattice vibrations play a crucial role in its piezoelectric and ferroelectric behavior. In the present study, the barium titanate powder was subjected to biofield treatment. Further, the control and treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffr...

  12. The characteristics of bacterial nanocellulose gel releasing silk sericin for facial treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Bang, Nipaporn

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, naturally derived facial masks with beneficial biological properties have received increasing interest. In this study, silk sericin-releasing bacterial nanocellulose gel was developed to be applied as a bioactive mask for facial treatment. Results The silk sericin-releasing bacterial nanocellulose gel produced at a pH of 4.5 had an ultrafine and extremely pure fiber network structure. The mechanical properties and moisture absorption ability of the gel were improved, comp...

  13. Analyses of the Characteristics of Diarrhea by Acupuncture Treatment in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-gong; GU Jie; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    The data concerning the treatment of diarrhea by acupuncture in 62 ancient books are computerized and thus show that the ancient acupuncturists primarily used the acupoints of the conception vessel, stomach meridian, bladder meridian, and the foot yin meridians.As to the location, the acupoints on the abdomen, back,exterior side of leg and the hands and feet are used. The common techniques are moxibustion, hot compression,needling, blood letting, navel application and so on.

  14. Treatment of industrial wastewaters by anaerobic membrane bioreactors: implications of substrate characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Dereli, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    The success of anaerobic digestion relies on the presence of highly active methanogenic biomass, requiring effective retention of slow growing anaerobic microorganisms inside bioreactor by decoupling the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from solids residence time (SRT) or the employment of long SRTs in fully mixed systems. So far, flow through systems, i.e. completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) digesters, and granular sludge bed reactors have been commonly applied for anaerobic treatment of sl...

  15. INFLUENCE ОF MODIFIER THERMAL TREATMENT ОN CHARACTERISTICS ОF COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR PROTECTIVE COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ivashko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results that reveal influence of modifiers characterized by different nature and composition and subjected to heat treatment on operational characteristics of single and binary compositions. Interaction between dispersed clay particles and dependence of  coating properties on  their mass content in oligomeric and polymeric matrices have been justified in the paper. The paper contains data that prove an increase of coating hardness by 15–20 %. The coating composition includes thermally-treated dispersed clay particles.

  16. Characteristics, Immunological Response & Treatment Outcomes of HIV-2 Compared with HIV-1 & Dual Infections (HIV 1/2) in Mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara, Montaldo; Rony, Zachariah; Homa, Mansoor; Bhanumati, Varghese; Ladomirska, Joanna; Manzi, M.; Wilson, N; Alaka, Deshpande; Harries, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    Background & objectives: Information available on HIV-2 and dual infection (HIV-1/2) is limited. This study was carried out among HIV positive individuals in an urban referral clinic in Khar, Mumbai, India, to report on relative proportions of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 and baseline characteristics, response to and outcomes on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Methods: Retrospective analysis of programme data (May 2006-May 2009) at Khar HIV/AIDS clinic at Mumbai, India was done. Three test algori...

  17. [INVITED] Laser gas assisted treatment of Ti-alloy: Analysis of surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Karatas, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser gas assisted treatment of Ti6Al4V alloy surface is carried out and nitrogen/oxygen mixture with partial pressure of PO2/PN2=1/3 is introduced during the surface treatment process. Analytical tools are used to characterize the laser treated surfaces. The fracture toughness at the surface and the residual stress in the surface region of the laser treated layer are measured. Scratch tests are carried out to determine the friction coefficient of the treated surface. It is found that closely spaced regular laser scanning tracks generates a self-annealing effect in the laser treated layer while lowering the stress levels in the treated region. Introducing high pressure gas mixture impingement at the surface results in formation of oxide and nitride species including, TiO, TiO2, TiN and TiOxNy in the surface region. A dense layer consisting of fine size grains are formed in the surface region of the laser treated layer, which enhances the microhardness at the surface. The fracture toughness reduces after the laser treatment process because of the microhardness enhancement at the surface. The residual stress formed is comprehensive, which is in the order of -350 MPa.

  18. Bioactivity and Surface Characteristics of Titanium Implants Following Various Surface Treatments: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar K, Aswini; Bhatt, Vinaya; Balakrishnan, Manilal; Hashem, Mohamed; Vellappally, Sajith; Aziz A Al Kheraif, Abdul; Halawany, Hassan Suliman; Abraham, Nimmi Biju; Jacob, Vimal; Anil, Sukumaran

    2015-10-01

    This study compared the surface topography, hydrophilicity, and bioactivity of titanium implants after 3 different surface treatments (sandblasting and acid etching, modified sandblasting and acid etching, and thermal oxidation) with those of machined implants. One hundred indigenously manufactured threaded titanium implants were subjected to 3 methods of surface treatment. The surface roughness of the nontreated (Group A) and treated samples (Groups B through D) was evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and profilometer. The wettability was visually examined using a colored dye solution. The calcium ions attached to the implant surface after immersing in simulated body fluid (SBF) were assessed on days 1, 2, and 7 with an atomic electron spectroscope. The data were analyzed statistically. The SBF test allowed the precipitation of a calcium phosphate layer on all surface-treated samples, as evidenced in the SEM analysis. A significantly higher amount of calcium ions and increased wettability were achieved in the thermally oxidized samples. The mean roughness was significantly lower in Group A (0.85 ± 0.07) compared to Group B (1.35 ± 0.17), Group C (1.40 ± 0.14), and Group D (1.36 ± 0.18). The observations from this in vitro study indicated that surface treatment of titanium improved the bioactivity. Moreover, results identified the implants that were sandblasted, acid etched, and then oxidized attracted more calcium ions. PMID:25105748

  19. Clinicopathological characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of melanoma in Serbia: The Melanoma Focus Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandolf-Sekulović Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Treatment options for metastatic melanoma in Serbia are limited due to the lack of newly approved biologic agents and the lack of clinical studies. Also, there is a paucity of data regarding the treatment approaches in different tertiary centers and efficacy of available chemotherapy protocols. The aim of this study was to obtain more detailed data about treatment protocols in Serbia based on structured survey in tertiary oncology centers. Methods. Data about the melanoma patients treated in 2011 were analyzed from hospital databases in 6 referent oncology centers in Serbia, based on the structured survey, with the focus on metastatic melanoma patients (unresectable stage IIIC and IV. Results. A total of 986 (79-315 in different centers patients were treated, with 320 (32.45% newly diagnosed patients. There were 317 patients in stage IIIC/IV, 77/317 aged 60 years. At initial diagnosis 12.5% of patients were in stage III and 4.5% in stage IV. The most common type was superficial spreading melanoma (50-66%, followed by nodular melanoma (23.5-50%. Apart from the regional and distant lymph node metastases, the most frequent organs involved in stage IV disease were distant skin and soft tissues (12-55%, lungs (19-55.5%, liver (10-60%, and bones (3-10%. The first line therapy in stage IV metastatic melanoma was dacarbazine (DTIC dimethyl-triazeno-imidozole-carboxamide in 61-93% of the patients, while the second line varied between the centers. Disease control (complete response + partial response + stable disease was achieved in 25.7% of the patients treated with the first line chemotherapy and 23.1% of the patients treated with the second line therapy, but the duration of response was short, in first-line therapy 6.66 ± 3.36 months (median 6.75 months. More than 90% of patients were treated outside the clinical trials. Conclusion. Based on this survey, there is a large unmet need for the new treatment options for metastatic melanoma

  20. Anxiety, splint treatment and clinical characteristics of patients with osteoarthritis of temporomandibular joint and dental students – a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Badel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of splint treatment for therapy of osteoarthritis of temporomandibular joint, and to compare the level of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory,STAI and clinical characteristics between 16 patients and 20 asymptomatic dental school students. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used for all subjects. Dental students showed a statistically signiicant higher capacity of mouth opening (p<0.05, and lower level of anxiety (p<0.05 for STAI 1, and p<0.001 for STAI 2 than patients. Patients who had suffered chronic pain before splint treatment had a higher value of anxiety by STAI 1 test (p<0.05.

  1. Effect of tetraethyl orthosilicate treatment on zirconium-based material characteristic for 99Mo/99mTc radioisotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of 99Mo/99mTc radioisotope generator using irradiated natural molybdenum requires a sorbent with high sorption capacity. Zirconium-based materials (ZBM), sorbent with sorption capacity of about 183 mg Mo/g ZBM, has been successfully synthesized. However, the sorbent was easily broken in the Mo sorption process due to many fractures in the grain. To increase the hardness, the material was immersed in tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), drained and then heated. The hardness test results showed that the ZBM with TEOS treatment was not broken when immersed into the Mo solution. Observations using SEM showed that the fractures formed on the ZBM were successfully removed by TEOS treatment. Measurements using EDS showed that after TEOS treatment, the silicon was detected and the oxygen content increased in the material surface. Sorption test results showed that the TEOS treatment decreased the sorption capacity of molybdenum from 183 to 79.8 mg of Mo per gram of sorbent. It is necessary to examine further the material in preparation of 99Mo/99mTc radioisotope generator using irradiated natural Mo to obtain the characteristics of the generator using the ZBM adsorbent. (author)

  2. Revealing microstructural and mechanical characteristics of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires undergoing simulated galvanization treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Annealing time on microstructure and mechanical properties of cold-drawn steel wires were studied. ► Exothermic peak in cold-drawn wire was resulting from the spheroidization of lamellar cementite. ► Spheroidization of lamellar cementite is the main effect for torsion property of wires after annealing. - Abstract: Spheroidization of lamellar cementite often occurs in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires during galvanizing treatment, leading to the degradation of mechanical properties. Therefore, it is important to understand effects of galvanization process on microstructure and mechanical properties of cold-drawn wires. In this paper, cold-drawn steel wires were fabricated by cold drawing pearlitic steel rods from 13 mm to 6.9 mm in diameter. Thermal annealing at 450 °C was used to simulate galvanizing treatment of steel wires. Tensile strength, elongation and torsion laps of steel rods and wires with, and without, annealing treatment were determined. Microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to probe the spheroidization temperature of cementite. Experimental results showed that tensile strength of wires increased from 1780 MPa to 1940 MPa for annealing 10 min. Elongation of wires decreased for annealing 5 min. Tensile strength and elongation of wires were both influenced by the strain age hardening and static recovery processes. Notably, torsion laps of wires hardly changed when annealing time was less than 2.5 min, and then decreased rapidly. Its value became constant when the hold time is greater than 10 min. Lamellar cementite began to spheroidize at annealing >2.5 min, starting at the boundary of pearlitic grains, and moving inward. A broad exothermic peak was found at temperatures between 380 °C and 480 °C, resulting primarily from the spheroidization of lamellar cementite, which is responsible for the

  3. A National Study of American Indian and Alaska Native Substance Abuse Treatment: Provider and Program Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; Moore, Laurie A; Croy, Calvin D; Novins, Douglas K; Aarons, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) experience major disparities in accessing quality care for mental health and substance use disorders. There are long-standing concerns about access to and quality of care for AIANs in rural and urban areas including the influence of staff and organizational factors, and attitudes toward evidence-based treatment for addiction. We conducted the first national survey of programs serving AIAN communities and examined workforce and programmatic differences between clinics located in urban/suburban (n=50) and rural (n=142) communities. We explored the correlates of openness toward using evidence-based treatments (EBTs). Programs located in rural areas were significantly less likely to have nurses, traditional healing consultants, or ceremonial providers on staff, to consult outside evaluators, to use strategic planning to improve program quality, to offer pharmacotherapies, pipe ceremonies, and cultural activities among their services, and to participate in research or program evaluation studies. They were significantly more likely to employ elders among their traditional healers, offer AA-open group recovery services, and collect data on treatment outcomes. Greater openness toward EBTs was related to a larger clinical staff, having addiction providers, being led by directors who perceived a gap in access to EBTs, and working with key stakeholders to improve access to services. Programs that provided early intervention services (American Society of Addiction Medicine level 0.5) reported less openness. This research provides baseline workforce and program level data that can be used to better understand changes in access and quality for AIAN over time. PMID:27431046

  4. Dissolved effluent organic matter: Characteristics and potential implications in wastewater treatment and reuse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael-Kordatou, I; Michael, C; Duan, X; He, X; Dionysiou, D D; Mills, M A; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-06-15

    Wastewater reuse is currently considered globally as the most critical element of sustainable water management. The dissolved effluent organic matter (dEfOM) present in biologically treated urban wastewater, consists of a heterogeneous mixture of refractory organic compounds with diverse structures and varying origin, including dissolved natural organic matter, soluble microbial products, endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products residues, disinfection by-products, metabolites/transformation products and others, which can reach the aquatic environment through discharge and reuse applications. dEfOM constitutes the major fraction of the effluent organic matter (EfOM) and due to its chemical complexity, it is necessary to utilize a battery of complementary techniques to adequately describe its structural and functional character. dEfOM has been shown to exhibit contrasting effects towards various aquatic organisms. It decreases metal uptake, thus potentially reducing their bioavailability to exposed organisms. On the other hand, dEfOM can be adsorbed on cell membranes inducing toxic effects. This review paper evaluates the performance of various advanced treatment processes (i.e., membrane filtration and separation processes, activated carbon adsorption, ion-exchange resin process, and advanced chemical oxidation processes) in removing dEfOM from wastewater effluents. In general, the literature findings reveal that dEfOM removal by advanced treatment processes depends on the type and the amount of organic compounds present in the aqueous matrix, as well as the operational parameters and the removal mechanisms taking place during the application of each treatment technology. PMID:25917290

  5. Lichen planopilaris: Demographic, clinical and histopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of 25 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deren Özcan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Lichen planopilaris (LPP is a type of cicatricial alopecia characterized by autoreactive lymphocytic destruction of the hair follicle. We aimed to evaluate the demographic, clinical and histopathological features, and treatment outcomes of patients with LPP. Materials and Methods: Medical reports of 25 patients, who have been diagnosed with LPP according to the clinical and histopathological findings between January 2006 and June 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. The transverse and vertical sections of scalp biopsy specimens were re-evaluated by a pathologist, and the findings were noted. Results: Of the 25 patients, 18 were female and 7 were male, the mean age was 49.8±12.4 years. Eighteen patients had been diagnosed with classic LPP and 7 patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA. The alopecia has begun in postmenopausal period in 5 patients with FFA. Alopecia was associated with pruritus, pain and/or burning in 19 patients. Extra-scalp involvement was observed in 11 patients. The most common clinical findings were follicular hyperkeratosis (92%, perifollicular erythema (48%, perifollicular lichenoid papules, and positive hair-pull test (44%. Dermatoscopic examination was performed in 14 patients, and most commonly, absence of follicular openings (100%, perifollicular scales (92.9% and perifollicular erythema (50% were noted. The most common diagnostic histopathological findingsmwere follicular vacuolar and lichenoid degeneration (88% and vacuolar and lichenoid interface changes (56%. Twenty-three patients who were started on treatment received topical, intramuscular and intralesional corticosteroids, topical minoxidil, oral tetracycline, cyclosporine A, and hydroxychloroquine either alone or in combination. Progression of alopecia was prevented and the symptoms and/or signs were reduced in 12 (75% of 16 patients whose follow-up data were available. Conclusion: LPP can be diagnosed accurately through a detailed

  6. Spontaneous Pneumothorax Epidemiologic Characteristics And Treatment Methods In Iranian Patients(1992 - 002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panahi F

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous pneumothorax is a medical condition that potentially may be dangerous. Although several methods for management of this problem have been propounded, there is a great disagreement among the specialists about how to treat it and when more invasive treatments are indicated."nMaterials and Methods: This study carried out in two phases. In first phase, 26 patients who had admitted to Imam Khomeini hospital from March 20, 1996 to March 19, 2000 and 50 patients admitted to Baqiatallah hospital between March 20, 1992 and March 19, 2002 with the diagnosis of spontaneous pneumothorax were studied retrospectively. In second phase, these patients were followed up."nResults: 39 patients (51.3% had primary spontaneous pneumothorax, 35 patients (46.1% secondary spontaneous pneumothorax and 2 (2.6% neonatal spontaneous pneumothorax. 67 patients were male and 9 patients were female (male to female ratio: 7.5/1. Mean age of the patients was 35±20 years. Age peaks were the age group between 20 to 25 years old and age group more than 60 years old. Conducted treatments were observation in 3.9%, simple aspiration in 2.6%, thoracostomy alone in 81.6%, thoracostomy and chemical pleurodesis in 2.6%, thoracotomy and mechanical pleurodesis in 3.9%, thoracotomy and pleurectomy in 5.3% of cases. Mean duration of hospitalization was 8.9±7.3 days. Relapse of pnemothorax was seen in 36.9% of the followed patients. Mortality was 17.4% and all died patients had secondary spontaneous pneumothorax."nConclusion: It seems that the management of spontaneous pneumothorax should be re-evaluated and the exact indications for conservative or more invasive methods of treatment should be defined.

  7. Pain in the cancer patient: different pain characteristics CHANGE pharmacological treatment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Schwefe, Gerhard; Ahlbeck, Karsten; Aldington, Dominic; Alon, Eli; Coaccioli, Stefano; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Huygen, Frank; Jaksch, Wolfgang; Kalso, Eija; Kocot-Kępska, Magdalena; Kress, Hans-Georg; Mangas, Ana Cristina; Ferri, Cesar Margarit; Morlion, Bart; Nicolaou, Andrew; Hernández, Concepción Pérez; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Schäfer, Michael; Sichère, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Twenty years ago, the main barriers to successful cancer pain management were poor assessment by physicians, and patients' reluctance to report pain and take opioids. Those barriers are almost exactly the same today. Cancer pain remains under-treated; in Europe, almost three-quarters of cancer patients experience pain, and almost a quarter of those with moderate to severe pain do not receive any analgesic medication. Yet it has been suggested that pain management could be improved simply by ensuring that every consultation includes the patient's rating of pain, that the physician pays attention to this rating, and a plan is agreed to increase analgesia when it is inadequate. After outlining current concepts of carcinogenesis in some detail, this paper describes different methods of classifying and diagnosing cancer pain and the extent of current under-treatment. Key points are made regarding cancer pain management. Firstly, the pain may be caused by multiple different mechanisms and therapy should reflect those underlying mechanisms - rather than being simply based on pain intensity as recommended by the WHO three-step ladder. Secondly, a multidisciplinary approach is required which combines both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, such as psychotherapy, exercise therapy and electrostimulation. The choice of analgesic agent and its route of administration are considered, along with various interventional procedures and the requirements of palliative care. Special attention is paid to the treatment of breakthrough pain (particularly with fast-acting fentanyl formulations, which have pharmacokinetic profiles that closely match those of breakthrough pain episodes) and chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain, which affects around one third of patients who receive chemotherapy. Finally, the point is made that medical education should place a greater emphasis on pain therapy, both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. PMID:24841174

  8. The impact of graves' disease and its treatment on handwriting characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papi, Giampaolo; Botti, Cristina; Corsello, Salvatore Maria;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones are crucial for metabolism in all tissues in humans, including the nervous system and muscles, and could thus affect handwriting, which is the synthesis of complex and fine movements. Hyperthyroidism, characterized by symptoms such as tremor and weakness, could affect...... handwriting, although this has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate handwriting characteristics before and after therapy for hyperthyroid Graves' disease (GD). METHODS: Twenty-two patients (15 women, 7 men) with untreated GD (median age: 44 years; range: 20-70 years) were asked to write...... a "standard text" before and 12 months after being rendered euthyroid. The letters underwent a standardized detailed analysis by a handwriting expert, through inspection and stereoscopic microscope and magnifying glass. RESULTS: All patients demonstrated handwriting variations, perceptible even to...

  9. A systematic review of the frequency, duration, type and effect of involuntary treatment for people with anorexia nervosa, and an analysis of patient characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Loa; Jones, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Involuntary treatment of anorexia nervosa is controversial and costly. A better understanding of the conditions that determine involuntary treatment, as well as the effect of such treatment is needed in order to adequately assess the legitimacy of this model of care. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency and duration of involuntary treatment, the characteristics of this group of patients, the kind of involuntary actions that are applied and the effect of such...

  10. Influence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide treatment on the electrical characteristics of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky barrier diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siva Pratap Reddy, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, LED-IT Fusion Technology Research Center (LIFTRC), Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-Si 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Dong-Hyeok [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Hee, E-mail: jlee@ee.knu.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Ja-Soon, E-mail: jsjang@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, LED-IT Fusion Technology Research Center (LIFTRC), Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-Si 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Rajagopal Reddy, V. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University (India)

    2014-01-15

    The effect of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes have been investigated by current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) techniques. The barrier heights and ideality factors measured from I–V characteristics are found to be 0.70 eV and 1.32 for without TMAH treatment, and 0.78 eV and 1.14 for with TMAH treatment, respectively. Cheung method is used to measure the series resistance and barrier height of the Schottky diodes, and the barrier height consistency is checked using the Norde method. The magnitude of interface state density for the diodes without and with TMAH treatment are varied from 7.45 × 10{sup 13} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} to 6.09 × 10{sup 12} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} and 4.03 × 10{sup 13} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} to 1.79 × 10{sup 12} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in the below the conduction band from E{sub C}-0.19 eV to E{sub C}-0.63 eV and E{sub C}-0.22 eV to E{sub C}-0.73 eV. Based on the results, the TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (Ga{sub x}O{sub y}) layer, formed due to the incorporation of the residual oxygen with Ga atom at the GaN surface during the plasma etching. The decrease in interface state density at the Ni/Au/GaN interface could be the reason for the improvement in the electrical properties. - Highlights: • The effect of TMAH treatment on the electrical properties of Ni/Au/GaN Schottky diodes is studied. • The magnitude of N{sub SS} for the diode with TMAH treatment is low compared to without treatment. • The TMAH treatment effectively removes of surface oxide (Ga{sub x}O{sub y}) layer.

  11. Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Two Strawberry Cultivars in Response to Furostanol Glycosides Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Petronela CĂULEŢ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Furostanol glycosides represent a large group of steroid compounds of plant origin with a broad spectrum of biological activities (anabolic, antioxidant, anti-fungal and nematicidal. Most of the research exhibits this effect in stress induced response on different pathogen attacks and only a few studies show the effect of glycoside on plants growth and development. In order to investigate the effects of furostanol glycoside treatment on rooting, growth performance and photosynthetic system efficiency, young unrooted strawberry plants (cv. ‘Real’ and ‘Magic’ were immersed in different concentrations (0.03 mM, 0.3 mM, 3 mM of G1 solution (glycoside extracted from Lycopersicon sp. and G2 (extracted from Digitalis sp. and morphometric parameters were determined. The results showed that immersion in 0.3 mM glycoside solution improved the quality of strawberry planting material by increasing the number and length of roots, as well as by stimulating formation of new leaves. Moreover, the influence of foliar spraying with G1 and G2 on plants growth, assimilator pigments content and photosynthesis was determined. Foliar spraying with both glycosides solutions improved radicular growth and development, but dimensions of foliar apparatus increased only in G1 treated variants. Although both glycoside treatments induced an increase in assimilator pigments content, photosynthetic rate decreased as a consequence of stomatal limitations associated with better efficiency of water use and of internal CO2, which suggests that these chemicals may have an antitranspirant action.

  12. Characteristics of MRI features in Alzheimer's disease patients predicting response to donepezil treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We attempted to investigate whether morphological features as shown on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) predict response to donepezil treatment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sixty-three patients with AD were divided into responders (n=16) and non-responders (n=47) based on the changes in the mini mental state examinations (MMSE) score between baseline and endpoint. Atrophy of the substantia innominata was more pronounced in responders than non-responders. Although no significant difference in the medial temporal lobe atrophy between responders and non-responders was found, magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs) of the hippocampus and parahippocampus, indicators of structural damage, in the non-responder group were significantly reduced compared to those in the responder group. There were no significant differences in the severity of white matter lesions between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the overall discrimination rate was 81%, with 85% of non-responders and 69% of responders, through measurement of the thickness of the substantia innominata and MTR of the hippocampus and parahippocampus. These results suggest that AD patients who show more severe cholinergic dysfunction and less severe structural damage of the hippocampus and parahippocampus as shown on MRI are likely to respond to donepezil treatment. (author)

  13. Impact of post-treatment on the characteristics of electrospun poly (vinyl alcohol)/chitosan nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, H.; Samsudin, A. M.; Faz, M. W.; Rani, M. P. H.

    2016-04-01

    Electrospun nanofibers have many advantages such as high porosity, easy to be fabricated in various size and high ratio of surface area to volume. This paper presents the preparation of electrospun PVA/Chitosan nanofibers and more specifically focuses on the effect of post-treatment on the permeability and morphology of electrospun PVA/chitosan nanofibers. The mixtures of various concentrations of PVA (6,7,8 wt%)and 2 wt%.chitosan solution (with the ratio of 3:1)were used in electrospun with a constant rate of 0.7 ml/hour. The post-treatment was conducted by immersing in a ethanol or glutaraldehyde solution to performed crosslink structure. The electrospun PVA/Chitosan nanofiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that the viscosity of the mixture solution is directly proportional to its concentration. Increasing the viscosity increased the diameter of fiber but also made the larger beads formation. FTIR measurement exhibited the existence of relevant functional groups of both PVA and chitosan in the composites.The crosslinked structure was found for the electrospun PVA/Chitosan nanofibers treated with glutaraldehyde solution.

  14. Impact of post-harvest radiation treatment timing on shelf life and quality characteristics of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma radiation treatment (50 and 100 Gy) on potato tubers irradiated at different days (10th, 30th and 50th) after harvest were studied during 5 months of storage at 10°C using Agria and Marfona varieties. A factorial experiment was done, based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The 100 Gy radiation treatments on 10th and 30th days after harvest completely prevented sprouting at both varieties studied but on 50th day only Agria tubers did not sprout. This study indicated that early irradiation and absorbed radiation doses significantly decreased sprouting, percent weight loss and specific gravity of tubers. Reducing sugar content significantly increased by delay in irradiation and lower dose of radiation while non-reducing sugars did not decrease significantly by delay in irradiation and higher dose of radiation. The least increase in reducing sugars (10.2%) and most decrease in non-reducing sugar (-12.75%) were observed in tubers that irradiated on 10th day after harvest. The content of ascorbic acid was decreased by irradiation with higher dose. Although delay in irradiation caused less loss of ascorbic acid (8.5%) but showed greater metabolic changes as sprouting, weight loss, firmness, and sugars contents. Also, more increased delay in irradiation needed higher radiation doses for sprout inhibition. (author)

  15. Effects of thermal treatment on the physicochemical characteristics of giant bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandivaldi Antonio Colla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite countless use possibilities for bamboo, this material has two major disadvantages. One drawback is the low natural durability of most bamboo species due to presence of starch in their parenchyma cells. The other equally important drawback is the tendency bamboo has to present dimensional variations if subjected to environmental change conditions. In an attempt to minimize these inconveniences, strips (laths of Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro were taken from different portions of the culm and subjected to several temperatures, namely 140 °C, 180 °C, 220 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C under laboratory conditions, at the ESALQ-USP college of agriculture. The thermal treatment process was conducted in noninert and inert atmospheres (with nitrogen, depending on temperature Specimens were then subjected to physicomechanical characterization tests in order to determine optimum thermal treatment conditions in which to preserve to the extent possible the original bamboo properties. Results revealed that there is an optimum temperature range, between 140 ° and 220 °C, whereby thermally treated bamboo does not significantly lose its mechanical properties while at the same time showing greater dimensional stability in the presence of moisture.

  16. Impact of post-harvest radiation treatment timing on shelf life and quality characteristics of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Mehdi; Almassi, Morteza; Minaei, Saeed; Paknejad, Farzad

    2013-04-01

    The effects of gamma radiation treatment (50 and 100 Gy) on potato tubers irradiated at different days (10th, 30th and 50th) after harvest were studied during 5 months of storage at 10°C using Agria and Marfona varieties. A factorial experiment was done, based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The 100 Gy radiation treatments on 10th and 30th days after harvest completely prevented sprouting at both varieties studied but on 50th day only Agria tubers not sprouted. This study indicated that early irradiation and absorbed radiation doses significantly decreased sprouting, percent weight loss and specific gravity of tubers. Reducing sugar content significantly increased by delay in irradiation and lower dose of radiation while non-reducing sugars did not decrease significantly by delay in irradiation and higher dose of radiation. The least increase in reducing sugars (10.2%) and most decrease in non-reducing sugar (-12.75%) were observed in tubers that irradiated on 10th day after harvest. The content of ascorbic acid was decreased by irradiation with higher dose. Although delay in irradiation caused less loss of ascorbic acid (8.5%) but showed greater metabolic changes as sprouting, weight loss, firmness, and sugars contents. Also, more increased delay in irradiation needed higher radiation doses for sprout inhibition. PMID:24425925

  17. "Modification of Polyether Sulfone (PES Hollow Fiber Membranes Characteristics for More Efficient Water Treatment Process"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ameri

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Membrane technology is used to separate water or solvents from salts or pollutants. This technique could be used for water treatment. For using of Polyether sulfone (PES hollow fiber membranes in water treatment processes, the PES hollow fiber membranes were prepared by dry-wet spinning method and heated in an oven at: 120°C, 150°C and 180°C. The effect of heating on performance of membranes was investigated in a test module with five hollow fibers, each 15 cm long, were potted at both ends with epoxy glue. Then polyethylen glycol (PEG and polyethylen oxide (PEO with different molecular weights were passed through hollow fibers. It was found that the membrane shrank by heating, which was evidenced by the reduction in flux and increase in solute separation. The best results were obtained when the hollow fibers were heated at 150°C. A further investigation was made on the effect of heating period, while the temperature was fixed to 150 °C. It was found that heating period affected membrane performance only little.

  18. Neutron leakage treatment in reactor physics. Consequences for predicting core characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New generations of simulation tools responding to the challenges brought by the advanced features of both 3rd+ generation Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) cores and 4th generation sodium fast neutron reactor (SFR) cores are taking shape. The developments of new simulations tools are also motivated by strict requirements of nuclear safety authorities. The new tools have the objective of setting new reference standards for neutronic prediction and will take advantage of innovative algorithms which have been implemented in existing CEA codes, such as ERANOS (fast reactors) and APOLLO2 (PWR); the new codes should at the same time remove remaining calculation errors. Although innovative algorithms have been filling the gaps which did exist 40 years ago between tools specifically dedicated to either thermal neutron cores or fast neutron ones, there remains a series of algorithms which deserve particular attention: the treatment of leakage in cell calculations. This paper describes methods for treating neutron leakage in self-shielding calculations with the sub-group method, and in the cell balance calculation. Applications of the MOC method of solution to treat neutron leakage are described. The application of the MOC can eliminate approximations at the cell interfaces while maintaining precise neutron leakage treatment. The new APOLLO3® code, presently under development at CEA, is candidate for hosting such algorithms. (author)

  19. Characteristics of a novel treatment system for linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ning; Li, Haisen; Song, Kwang; Chin-Snyder, Karen; Qin, Yujiao; Kim, Jinkoo; Bellon, Maria; Gulam, Misbah; Gardner, Stephen; Doemer, Anthony; Devpura, Suneetha; Gordon, James; Chetty, Indrin; Siddiqui, Farzan; Ajlouni, Munther; Pompa, Robert; Hammoud, Zane; Simoff, Michael; Kalkanis, Steven; Movsas, Benjamin; Siddiqui, M Salim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the dosimetric properties and accuracy of a novel treatment platform (Edge radiosurgery system) for localizing and treating patients with frameless, image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Initial measurements of various components of the system, such as a comprehensive assessment of the dosimetric properties of the flattening filter-free (FFF) beams for both high definition (HD120) MLC and conical cone-based treatment, positioning accuracy and beam attenuation of a six degree of freedom (6DoF) couch, treatment head leakage test, and integrated end-to-end accuracy tests, have been performed. The end-to-end test of the system was performed by CT imaging a phantom and registering hidden targets on the treatment couch to determine the localization accuracy of the optical surface monitoring system (OSMS), cone-beam CT (CBCT), and MV imaging systems, as well as the radiation isocenter targeting accuracy. The deviations between the percent depth-dose curves acquired on the new linac-based system (Edge), and the previously published machine with FFF beams (TrueBeam) beyond D(max) were within 1.0% for both energies. The maximum deviation of output factors between the Edge and TrueBeam was 1.6%. The optimized dosimetric leaf gap values, which were fitted using Eclipse dose calculations and measurements based on representative spine radiosurgery plans, were 0.700 mm and 1.000 mm, respectively. For the conical cones, 6X FFF has sharper penumbra ranging from 1.2-1.8 mm (80%-20%) and 1.9-3.8 mm (90%-10%) relative to 10X FFF, which has 1.2-2.2mm and 2.3-5.1mm, respectively. The relative attenuation measurements of the couch for PA, PA (rails-in), oblique, oblique (rails-out), oblique (rails-in) were: -2.0%, -2.5%, -15.6%, -2.5%, -5.0% for 6X FFF and -1.4%, -1.5%, -12.2%, -2.5%, -5.0% for 10X FFF, respectively, with a slight decrease in attenuation versus field size. The systematic

  20. An investigation into the effects of conventional heat treatments on mechanical characteristics of new hot working tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, M. L.; Athmani, M.; Khelfaoui, Y.; Khettache, A.

    2012-02-01

    The effects of conventional heat treatments, i.e. quenching and tempering, on the mechanical characteristics of non standard hot work tool steel, close to either AISI-H11/H13 are investigated. The major elemental composition differences are in carbon, silicon and vanadium. The objective of the carried heat treatments is to obtain an efficient tool performance in terms of hardness, wear resistance and mechanical strength. Experimental results allow an explanation of the surface properties depending mainly on both chemical composition and optimised preheating parameters. After austenitizing at 1050 °C for 15 min, the as-quenched steel in oil bath exhibited the fully martensitic structure (without bainite) connected to a small fraction of retained austenite and complex carbides mainly of M23C6 type. Twice tempering at 500 °C and 600 °C resulted in initiating the precipitation processes and the secondary hardness effect. As a result, carbide content amounted to 3% while the retained austenite content decreased to 0%. Accordingly, the required mechanical properties in terms of hardness and wear are fulfilled and are adequately favourable in handling both shocks and pressures for the expected tool life. Induced microstructures are revealed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Phase compositions are assessed by means of X-ray diffraction technique while mechanical characteristics are investigated based on hardness and abrasive wear standard tests.

  1. An investigation into the effects of conventional heat treatments on mechanical characteristics of new hot working tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of conventional heat treatments, i.e. quenching and tempering, on the mechanical characteristics of non standard hot work tool steel, close to either AISI-H11/H13 are investigated. The major elemental composition differences are in carbon, silicon and vanadium. The objective of the carried heat treatments is to obtain an efficient tool performance in terms of hardness, wear resistance and mechanical strength. Experimental results allow an explanation of the surface properties depending mainly on both chemical composition and optimised preheating parameters. After austenitizing at 1050 °C for 15 min, the as-quenched steel in oil bath exhibited the fully martensitic structure (without bainite) connected to a small fraction of retained austenite and complex carbides mainly of M23C6 type. Twice tempering at 500 °C and 600 °C resulted in initiating the precipitation processes and the secondary hardness effect. As a result, carbide content amounted to 3% while the retained austenite content decreased to 0%. Accordingly, the required mechanical properties in terms of hardness and wear are fulfilled and are adequately favourable in handling both shocks and pressures for the expected tool life. Induced microstructures are revealed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Phase compositions are assessed by means of X-ray diffraction technique while mechanical characteristics are investigated based on hardness and abrasive wear standard tests.

  2. Effects of Al interlayer coating and thermal treatment on electron emission characteristics of carbon nanotubes deposited by electrophoretic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aluminum (Al) interlayer coating and thermal post-treatment on the electron emission characteristics of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated. These CNTs were deposited on conical-shaped tungsten (W) substrates using an electrophoretic method. The Al interlayers were coated on the W substrates via magnetron sputtering prior to the deposition of CNTs. Compared with the as-deposited CNTs, the thermally treated CNTs revealed significantly improved electron emission characteristics, such as the decrease of turn-on electric fields and the increase of emission currents. The observations of Raman spectra confirmed that the improved emission characteristics of the thermally treated CNTs were ascribed to their enhanced crystal qualities. The coating of Al interlayers played a role in enhancing the long-term emission stabilities of the CNTs. The thermally treated CNTs with Al interlayers sustained stable emission currents without any significant degradation even after continuous operation of 20 h. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study suggested that the cohesive forces between the CNTs and the underlying substrates were strengthened by the coating of Al interlayers. PMID:24959105

  3. Characteristic occurrence patterns of micropollutants and their removal efficiencies in industrial wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Seok; Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Chang-Won; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2011-02-01

    The concentrations and removal efficiencies of various kinds of micropollutants were investigated and the relationships between the input sources of industrial wastewater and occurrence patterns of each micropollutant were identified at nine on-site industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The distribution pattern of each compound varied according to the WWTP type and several micropollutants were significantly related with specific industries: chlorinated phenols (ClPhs) with paper and metal industries, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with petrogenic- and pyrogenic-related industries, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) with the paper industry, and chlorinated benzenes (ClBzs) with dye-related industries. The activated sludge (AS) process was very efficient in the removal of ClPhs and PAHs, and the filtration process in the removal of PCDD/Fs and 1,4-dioxane. Generally, the removal efficiencies of each micropollutant varied according to the WWTP type. PMID:21140016

  4. Characteristics and treatment of headache after traumatic brain injury: a focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Henry L; Lin, Pei-Hsin; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Clark, David J; Walker, William C

    2006-07-01

    Headache is one of the most common complaints in patients with traumatic brain injury. By definition, headache that develops within 1 wk after head trauma (or within 1 wk after regaining consciousness) is referred to as posttraumatic headache (PTH). Although most PTH resolves within 6-12 mos after injury, approximately 18-33% of PTH persists beyond 1 yr. We performed a systematic literature review on this topic and found that many patients with PTH had clinical presentations very similar to tension-type headache (37% of all PTH) and migraine (29% of all PTH). Although there is no universally accepted protocol for treating PTH, many clinicians treat PTH as if they were managing primary headache. As a result of the heterogeneity in the terminology and paucity in prospective, well-controlled studies in this field, there is a definite need for conducting double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment trials in patients with PTH. PMID:16788394

  5. studies agronomic and technological characteristics of fiber and oil flax types induced by irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty three entries of flax (Linum usitatissimum L-) were tested in seven field trails representing seven environmental conditions the experiments were carried out at the Agric. Res . center, Fac. of agric., cairo univ., giza, egypt, the 33-entries consisted of thirty promosing mutants plus three local cultivars(i.e., giza 4, giza 5 and giza 6) . The mutants were outcome of gamma rays irradiated local cultivar giza 4 flax. the entries in M4 and M5 were arranged in a randomized complete block design in six environments. in the last environment, the entries in M6 were arranged in an augmented complete block design to study yield responses and stability indices for the selected mutant lines produced via irradiation treatments

  6. Influencing effect of heat-treatment on radon emanation and exhalation characteristic of red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reuse of industrial by-products is important for members of numerous industrial sectors. However, though the benefits of reuse are evident from an economical point of view, some compounds in these materials can have a negative effect on users' health. In this study, the radon emanation and exhalation features of red mud were surveyed using heat-treatment (100–1200 °C). As a result of the 1200°C-treated samples, massic radon exhalation capacity reduced from 75 ± 10 mBq kg−1 h−1 to 7 ± 4 mBq kg−1 h−1, approximately 10% of the initial exhalation rate. To find an explanation for internal structural changes, the porosity features of the heat-treated samples were also investigated. It was found that the cumulative pore volume reduced significantly in less than 100 nm, which can explain the reduced massic exhalation capacity in the high temperature treated range mentioned above. SEM snapshots were taken of the surfaces of the samples as visual evidence for superficial morphological changes. It was found that the surface of the high temperature treated samples had changed, proving the decrement of open pores on the surface. - Highlights: • The radon exhalation depends on the heat-treatment temperature. The 1200 °C treated samples has only 10% radon exhalation of the initial. • A strong correlation was found between the porosity and the radon emanation and exhalation features. • Despite these promising results certain components can have an effect on one another, which in turn can cause harmful final structure

  7. Characteristics and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of complicated febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, K; Takuji, N; Kawasaki, J; Kawai, I

    1998-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the close correlation between complicated febrile convulsions (CFC) and medial temporal lobe epilepsy and to delineate characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with CFC. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were divided into those with a prior episode of CFC (n=52), those with febrile convulsions other than CFC, and those without either (n=345). Clinical constellations, neuroimaging, drug resistance, and effects of temporal lobectomy of the three groups were compared. A close association between CFC and temporal lobe epilepsy was confirmed. The salient features of temporal lobe epilepsy with CFC were early age at onset of habitual seizures (about 10 years), the predominance of autonomic auras, and a high incidence of MRI evidence of unilateral medial temporal sclerosis. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with prior CFC had an excellent outcome after surgery, by contrast with an unfavourable response to drug therapy. The surgical results were discouraging in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy without history of any febrile convulsions and without solid brain tumours. These results indicate surgical intervention as the choice of therapy in a substantial number of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of CFC. PMID:9489540

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on pre-treatment on the drying characteristics and qualities of wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun [Zhejiang University (China). Dept. of Biosystems Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Wheat, pretreated by {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation, was dried by hot-air with irradiation dosage 0-3 kGy, drying temperature 40-60 deg C, and initial moisture contents 19-25% (drying basis). The drying characteristics and dried qualities of wheat were evaluated based on drying time, average dehydration rate, wet gluten content (WGC), moisture content of wet gluten (MCWG)and titratable acidity (TA). A quadratic rotation-orthogonal composite experimental design, with three variables (at five levels) and five response functions, and analysis method were employed to study the effect of three variables on the individual response functions. The five response functions (drying time, average dehydration rate, WGC, MCWG, TA) correlated with these variables by second order polynomials consisting of linear, quadratic and interaction terms. A high correlation coefficient indicated the suitability of the second order polynomial to predict these response functions. The linear, interaction and quadratic effects of three variables on the five response functions were all studied. (author)

  9. Comparing Child, Parent, and Family Characteristics in Usual Care and Empirically Supported Treatment Research Samples for Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Hough, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared data from 34 research trials of five empirically supported treatments (ESTs) with one large usual care (UC) sample on child, parent, and family characteristics for children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Large variations were found within and across ESTs on sample characteristics during the past two decades. Most parent…

  10. Petrogenetic characteristics of molten slag from the pyrolysis/melting treatment of MSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Motomura, Yoshinobu; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2009-03-01

    MSW slag materials derived from four pyrolysis melting plants in Japan were studied from the viewpoint of petrology in order to discriminate the glass and mineral phases and to propose a petrogenetic model for the formation process of molten slag. Slag material is composed of two major components: melt and refractory products. The melt products that formed during the melting process comprise silicate glass, and a suite of minerals as major constituents. The silicate glass is essentially composed of low and high silica glass members (typically 30% and 50% of SiO(2), respectively), from which minerals such as spinels, melilite, pseudowollastonite, and metallic inclusions have been precipitated. The refractory products consist mainly of pieces of metals, minerals and lithic fragments that survived through the melting process. Investigations demonstrated that the low silica melts (higher Ca and Al contents) were produced at upper levels of high temperature combustion chamber HTCC, at narrower temperature ranges (1250-1350 degrees C), while the high silica melts formed at broader temperature ranges (1250-1450 degrees C), at the lower levels of HTCC. The recent temperature ranges were estimated by using CaOAl(2)O(3)SiO(2) (CAS) ternary liquidus diagram that are reasonably consistent with those reported for a typical combustor. It was also understood that the samples with a higher CaO/SiO(2) ratio (>0.74-0.75) have undergone improved melting, incipient crystallization of minerals, and extensive homogenization. The combined mineralogical and geochemical examinations provided evidence to accept the concept of stepwise generation of different melt phases within the HTCC. The petrogenesis of the melt products may therefore be described as a two-phase melt system with immiscible characteristics that have been successively generated during the melting process of MSW. PMID:18922688

  11. [Spectral Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Matters in Reject Water from Wastewater Treatment Plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Tian-hao; Zhou, Zhen; Hu, Da-long; Wei, Hai-juan; Li, Jing; Dou, Wei-xiao; Ge, Hong-hua

    2016-04-15

    Reject water generated from sludge thickening, dewatering and stabilization process contains high-content and complex dissolved organic matters (DOM). The spectral characteristics of DOM in the reject water were investigated by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fluorescent DOM (FDOM) from reject water were decomposed into six components by parallel factor analysis, the protein-like C1 (275/355 nm), C4 (235/350 nm) and C6 (275/305 nm) and the humic-like C2 (250, 340/440 nm) , C3 (320/380 nm) and CS (250/465 nm). Soluble COD in the sludge thickening reject water was positively correlated with all the three humic-like substances at P < 0.01 level, and was insignificantly influenced by protein-like substances. The tryptophan-like C1, C4 and humic-like CS increased in the centrifugal dewatering reject water (CDRW). FDOM in the advanced dewatering reject water (ADRW) were significantly different from those of other reject water in fluorescence peak locations and intensities, and humic-like C3 and tyrosine-like C6 in the DOM were 15.63 and 7.30 times higher than those in CDRW. Compared to sludge thickening reject water, infrared peaks related to polysaccharide and humic substances in CDRW were enhanced and massive proteins were released into ADRW. DOM structures in ADRW were changed owing to the complexation between metals and both humic substances and proteins. PMID:27548969

  12. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymamí, N.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Granero, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.; Claes, L.; Sauvaget, A.; Grall-Bronnec, M.; Gómez-Peña, M.; Savvidou, L. G.; Fagundo, A. B.; del Pino-Gutierrez, A.; Moragas, L.; Casas, M.; Penelo, E.; Menchón, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits. PMID:26229967

  13. Psychosocial characteristics and poly-drug use of pregnant women enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie-Gray, Alison; Moor, Stephanie; Spencer, Carole; Woodward, Lianne J

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women with substance dependency are a high-risk psychiatric and obstetric population, with their infants also at elevated neonatal risk. This paper draws on prospective, longitudinal data from a regional cohort of 81 methadone-maintained (MM) and 107 comparison women and their infants to describe the obstetric, socio-familial and mental health needs of women in methadone maintenance treatment during pregnancy. Of particular interest was the extent and pattern of maternal licit and illicit drug use over the course of pregnancy. Results showed that MM women had complex reproductive histories, chronic health problems, and were subject to high rates of socioeconomic adversity and comorbid mental health problems. During pregnancy, more than half continued to use licit and illicit drugs, although there was a general trend for drug use to reduce over time. No differences were observed between women maintained on low (12.5-61.0mg/day) and high (61.1-195.0mg/day) doses of methadone, with the exception of opiate abuse which was higher in the low dose group (p=.07). Findings highlight that pregnant women enrolled in MMT and their infants represent a vulnerable group with complex, social, obstetric and psychiatric needs. They also reinforce the need for services that can provide on-going wrap-around, multidisciplinary and multiagency care for these high risk dyads, both during pregnancy and in the transition to parenthood. PMID:23639593

  14. [Source emission characteristics and impact factors of volatile halogenated organic compounds from wastewater treatment plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Wang, Bo-Guang; Liu, Shu-Le; Zhao, De-Jun; Tang, Xiao-Dong; Zou, Yu

    2011-12-01

    A low enrichment method of using Tenax as absorbent and liquid nitrogen as refrigerant has been established to sample the volatile halogenated organic compounds in Guangzhou Liede municipal wastewater treatment plant as well as its ambient air. The composition and concentration of target halogenated hydrocarbons were analyzed by combined thermal desorption/GC-MS to explore its sources profile and impact factors. The result showed that 19 halogenated organic compounds were detected, including 11 halogenated alkanets, 3 halogenated alkenes, 3 halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and 2 haloesters, with their total concentrations ranged from 34.91 microg x m(-3) to 127.74 microg x m(-3) and mean concentrations ranged from n.d. to 33.39 microg x m(-3). Main pollutants of the studied plant were CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CFC-12, C2H4Cl2, CFC-11, C2HCl3 and C2Cl4, they came from the wastewater by volatilization. Among the six processing units, the dehydration room showed the highest level of halogenated organic compounds, followed by pumping station, while the sludge thickener was the lowest. The emissions from pumping station, aeration tank and biochemical pool were significantly affected by temperature and humidity of environment. PMID:22468521

  15. Occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants linked to wastewater characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, C; Beutel, S; Scheper, T; Rosenwinkel, K H; Nogueira, R

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has often been reported. However, until now there is limited knowledge about the factors that promote Legionella's growth in such systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical wastewater parameters that might be correlated to the concentration of Legionella spp. in WWTP receiving industrial effluents. For this purpose, samples were collected at different processes in three WWTP. In 100 % of the samples taken from the activated sludge tanks Legionella spp. were detected at varying concentrations (4.8 to 5.6 log GU/mL) by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method, but not by the culture method. Statistical analysis with various parameters yielded positive correlations of Legionella spp. concentration with particulate chemical oxygen demand, Kjeldahl nitrogen and protein concentration. Amino acids were quantified in wastewater and activated sludge samples at concentrations that may not support the growth of Legionella, suggesting that in activated sludge tanks this bacterium multiplied in protozoan hosts. PMID:27376367

  16. Some aspects of treatment for cognitive impairments. Cyticolin: pharmacological characteristics, possible benefits, aspects of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Trofimova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the data available in the literature on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of cyticolin and its use in cognitive impairments (CIs.It assesses trials investigating the effect of cyticolin on cognitive functions, including its possible role in increasing Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 expression. The results of the latest multicenter trials of the drug used to treat dementia syndrome are analyzed in elderly patients with clinical presentations of mental confusion (the VITA trial and mild vascular CIs (the IDEALE trial.Cyticolin is able to potentiate neuroplasticity and is a natural precursor of phospholipids, mainly phosphotidylcholine that serves as a source of choline in the metabolic pathways of acetylcholine biosynthesis. The VITA and IDEALE have shown that the parenteral and oral administrations of cyticolin are effective and safe in the treatment of moderate vascular CIs and dementia with clinical presentations of mental confusion. Cyticolin therapy is used to reduce the risk of side effects and to delay of loss of the therapeutic effects of levodopa preparations. Cyticolin has been noted to have a positive effect on cognitive functions in patients with Alzheimer’s disease if it is used as an additional therapy.

  17. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aymamí

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2 to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3 to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4 to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits.

  18. Physician personal characteristics influencing long-term treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strokova E.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify the peculiarities of a doctor personality, affecting long-term therapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Materials and methods: To determine the type of temperament, the presence and intensity of the syndrome of emotional burnout and capacity for empathy therapists and cardiologists were asked to fill in a number of questionnaires. Each doctor had a group of patients contacting by telephone for a year after the discharge from the hospital. During the telephone contact, the patients were asked about the continuation of their therapy recommended in the hospital, the regularity of therapy, the frequency of absence, and the assessment of a physician by the patients. Results: 35 questionnaires were suitable for interpretation. Through one year after the discharge from the hospital it was able to contact with 147 patients, 18.4% (27 of patients completely stopped the treatment by recommended drugs. Positive assessment of physicians was associated with the continuation of the therapy by recommended drugs and regularity of drug taking (p=0,03. Patients assessed physicians positively more often in cases of low level of emotional state, high level of depersonalization (cynicism and the reduction of personal accomplishment (feeling of professional inefficiency in a doctor. Conclusion: Assessment of physicians by patients is reliably and significantly influenced by continuation of long-term therapy and regularity of drug taking.

  19. Characteristics of Au/PZT/TiO2/Nitride/Si structure capacitors with ICP nitride treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the characteristics of PZT/TiO2 ferroelectric gate stack capacitors with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) nitridation were investigated for field effect transistor (FET)-type Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM) applications. If a high accumulation capacitance is to be had, the ICP nitridation time needs to be optimized. While a short ICP treatment time results in thermal oxide growth due to lack of nitrogen, a long nitridation time causes a nitride layer which is too thick. Au/PZT(200 nm)/TiO2(40 nm)/Nitride/Si (MeFINS) structure capacitors show a memory window (ΔV) of 1.6 V under ±3-V operation while Au/PZT(200 nm)/TiO2(40 nm)/Si (MeFIS) capacitors without nitride treatment exhibit a small memory window of 0.6 V. At the same time, the capacitance of the MeFINS device is almost twice that of the MeFIS capacitor. This result implies that the ICP nitride treatment suppresses the formation of a low dielectric constant interfacial SiOx layer and alleviates the series capacitance problem

  20. Characteristics of Au/PZT/TiO{sub 2}/Nitride/Si structure capacitors with ICP nitride treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Hyung Seob; Kim, Tae Ho; Jeon, Chang Bae; Lee, Jae Gab; Kim, Ji Young [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of PZT/TiO{sub 2} ferroelectric gate stack capacitors with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) nitridation were investigated for field effect transistor (FET)-type Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM) applications. If a high accumulation capacitance is to be had, the ICP nitridation time needs to be optimized. While a short ICP treatment time results in thermal oxide growth due to lack of nitrogen, a long nitridation time causes a nitride layer which is too thick. Au/PZT(200 nm)/TiO{sub 2}(40 nm)/Nitride/Si (MeFINS) structure capacitors show a memory window ({delta}V) of 1.6 V under {+-}3-V operation while Au/PZT(200 nm)/TiO{sub 2}(40 nm)/Si (MeFIS) capacitors without nitride treatment exhibit a small memory window of 0.6 V. At the same time, the capacitance of the MeFINS device is almost twice that of the MeFIS capacitor. This result implies that the ICP nitride treatment suppresses the formation of a low dielectric constant interfacial SiO{sub x} layer and alleviates the series capacitance problem.

  1. Sorption Characteristics of Activated Carbon Obtained from Rice Husks by Treatment with Lime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption studies of rice husk char prepared by carbonization and activation with lime, caustic soda and sulphuric acid have been investigated. Prior to impregnation with the lime; on a micro processing scale the pre-carbonization temperature of rice husk were determined by using TG-DTA thermal analysis. The impregnation with chemical was made after carbonization and the impregnated chars were subjected to activation at appropriate temperatures of about 300 C to 500 C depending on the impregnated chars. The physico-chemical properties of the prepared chars were tested by conventional and modern techniques. Sorption capacities with respect to colored dyes were determined for each of the char. These sorption capacities are indicative of the decolorizing nature and the acid or basic nature. The sorption capacities of the prepared chars towards the uptake of metals such as copper, iron, lead and cadmium were also studied and the lime activated char exhibits high adsorptive capacities for all the metals compared to other prepared chars as well as the commercial wood char. The evaluation of the sorption capacities of this chars were made on the basis of Freundlich and Langmuir monolayer coverage equations. Thus, based on batch dosage method and breakthrough flow method, the uptake of the metals were found to be in following order for the lime activated rice husk char; Cu > Fe > Pb > Cd. From this investigation, it can be inferred that a rice husk char impregnated with 20% technical grade CaO has the potential effect to be used as an effective metal adsorbent particularly for the uptake of toxic heavy metals in the secondary stage of water treatment processes.

  2. Addition of Al and Fe salts during treatment of paper mill effluents to improve activated sludge settlement characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agridiotis, V; Forster, C F; Carliell-Marquet, C

    2007-11-01

    Metal salts, ferrous sulphate and aluminium chloride, were added to laboratory-scale activated sludge plant treating paper mill effluents to investigate the effect on settlement characteristics. Before treatment the sludge was filamentous, had stirred sludge volume index (SSVI) values in excess of 300 and was moderately hydrophobic. The use of FeSO4.7H2O took three weeks to reduce the SSVI to 90. Microscopic examination showed that Fe had converted the filamentous flocs into a compact structure. When the iron dosing was stopped, the sludge returned to its bulking state within four weeks. In a subsequent trial, the addition of AlCl3 initially resulted in an improvement of the settlement index but then caused deterioration of the sludge properties. It is possible that aluminium was overdosed and caused charge reversal, increasing the SSVI. PMID:17113285

  3. Effects of moisture enhancement, enzyme treatment, and blade tenderization on the processing characteristics and tenderness of beef semimembranosus steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasik, Z; Shand, P J

    2011-05-01

    The individual and combined effects of moisture enhancement with a salt/phosphate solution (ME), blade tenderization (BT), and enzyme injection with proteinases derived from Aspergillus oryzae or Bacillus subtilis on cooking properties, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and sensory characteristics of beef semimembranosus were investigated. ME significantly (P tenderness. BT increased (P tenderness scores and made connective tissue less perceptible. BT combined with ME resulted in the highest initial and overall tenderness scores, however, combining ME with either proteinase was as effective for reducing WBSF and increasing tenderness, particularly at 20 (vs. 10) ppm enzyme inclusion. Tenderness of enzyme-injected steaks was increased without compromising other palatability attributes. All treatments increased the frequency of steaks rated slightly tender or higher, with the ME+BT combination, or ME with inclusion of 20 ppm of either proteinase, being most effective. PMID:21194850

  4. Characteristics of WI-38 cells (WI-38 CT-1) transformed by treatment with Co-60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of WI-38 CT-1 cells, which had been transformed by treatment with Co-60 gamma rays, were compared with those of the control WI-38 cells in order to identify parameters of malignant transformation in cultures of normal human diploid cells. The transformed WI-38 CT-1 cells were different from the control WI-38 cells in the following respects: (1) epithelial-like morphology of the cells, (2) reduced serum requirement for cell proliferation, (3) increased colony formation in soft agar, (4) increased saturation density, and (5) resistance to the cytostatic effect of theophylline on cell proliferation. On the other hand, no appreciable difference was detected between the control and the transformed cells in (1) population doubling time and (2) sensitivity to Co-60 gamma rays. (author)

  5. Women, men, and rheumatoid arthritis: analyses of disease activity, disease characteristics, and treatments in the QUEST-RA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Toloza, Sergio; Cutolo, Maurizio;

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : Gender as a predictor of outcomes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has evoked considerable interest over the decades. Historically, there is no consensus whether RA is worse in females or males. Recent reports suggest that females are less likely than males to achieve...... remission. Therefore, we aimed to study possible associations of gender and disease activity, disease characteristics, and treatments of RA in a large multinational cross-sectional cohort of patients with RA called Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA). METHODS : The cohort...... different therapies. CONCLUSIONS : In this large multinational cohort, RA disease activity measures appear to be worse in women than in men. However, most of the gender differences in RA disease activity may originate from the measures of disease activity rather than from RA disease activity itself....

  6. Biological Characteristics and Medical Treatment of Breast Cancer in Young Women-A Featured Population: Results from the Nora Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The present paper described the biological characteristics and clinical behavior of young women in the cohort NORA study Patients and Methods. From 2000-2002, patients (N>3500) were enrolled at 77 Italian hospitals. Women aged =50 years (N=1013) were stratified into age groups (=35, 36-40, 41-45, and 46-50 years). The relationship between age and patient characteristics, cancer presentation, and treatment was analyzed. Results. Younger women more frequently had tumors with ER/PgR-negative(x2=7.07; P=.008), HER2 amplification (x2=5.76; P=.01), and high (≤10%) Ki67 labelling index (x2=9.53; P=.002). Positive nodal status, large tumors, and elevated Ki67 all associated with the choice for chemotherapy followed by endocrine therapy in hormone receptor-positive patients (P40 versus =40, P<.0001, resp.). At multivariate analysis, after adjustment for significant clinical and pathological factors, age remains a significant prognostic variable (HR=0.93, P=.0021). Conclusion. This cohort study suggests that age per se is an important prognostic factor. The restricted role of early diagnosis and the aggressive behavior of cancer in this population make necessary the application of targeted medical strategies crucial. human epidermal growth factor receptor

  7. Cytotoxic characteristics of biodegradable EW10X04 Mg alloy after Nd coating and subsequent heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarivas Levy, Galit; Ventura, Yvonne; Goldman, Jeremy; Vago, Razi; Aghion, Eli

    2016-05-01

    Porous Mg scaffolds are considered as potential bone growth promoting materials. Unfortunately, the high rate of biocorrosion inherent to Mg alloys may cause a premature loss of mechanical strength, excessive evolution of hydrogen gas, and a rapidly shifting surface topography, all of which may hinder the ability of native cells to attach and grow on the implant surface. Here we investigated the cell cytotoxicity effects during corrosion of a novel magnesium alloy, EW10X04 (Mg-1.2%Nd-0.5%Y-0.5%Zr-0.4%Ca), following diffusion coating (DC) and heat treatment to reduce the corrosion rate. Cells were exposed either to corrosion products or to the corroding scaffold surface, in vitro. The microstructure characterization of the scaffold surface was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with a Noran energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Phase analyses were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). We found that cell viability, growth, and adhesion were all improved when cultured on the EW10X04+DC surface or under corrosion product extracts due to lower corrosion rates relative to the EW10X04 control samples. It is therefore believed that the tested alloy after Nd coating and heat treatment may introduce a good balance between its biodegradation characteristics and cytotoxic effects towards cells. PMID:26952481

  8. Coagulation efficiency and flocs characteristics of recycling sludge during treatment of low temperature and micro-polluted water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei Zhou; Yanling Yang; Xing Li; Wei Gao; Heng Liang; Guibai Li

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water treatment sludge,characterized as accumulated suspended solids and organic and inorganic matter,is produced in large quantities during the coagulation process.The proper disposal,regeneration or reuse of sludge is,therefore,a significant environmental issue.Reused sludge at low temperatures is an alternative method to enhance traditional coagulation efficiency.In the present study,the recycling mass of mixed sludge and properties of raw water (such as pH and turbidity) were systematically investigated to optimize coagulation efficiency.We determined that the appropriate dosage of mixed sludge was 60 mL/L,effective initial turbidity ranges were below 45.0 NTU,and optimal pH for DOMs and turbidity removal was 6.5-7.0 and 8.0,respectively.Furthermore,by comparing the flocs characteristics with and without recycling sludge,we found that floc structures with sludge were more irregular with average size growth to 64.7 μm from 48.1 μm.Recycling sludge was a feasible and successful method for enhancing pollutants removal,and the more irregular flocs structure after recycling might be caused by breakage of reused flocs and incorporation of powdered activated carbon into larger flocs structure.Applied during the coagulation process,recycling sludge could be significant for the treatment of low temperature and micro-polluted source water.

  9. Effects of microwave and oxygen plasma treatments on capacitive characteristics of supercapacitor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulyaseree, Paweena; Yordsri, Visittapong; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda

    2016-02-01

    The effects of microwave and oxygen plasma treatments on the capacitive characteristics of a supercapacitor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were investigated. MWNTs were heat-treated under air ambient at 500 °C for 1 h, and subsequently microwave-treated at 650 W for 70 s (m-MWNTs). Another batch of MWNTs was treated by oxygen plasma for 30 min (p-MWNTs). Pristine MWNTs, m-MWNTs, and p-MWNTs were separately used as electrode materials for supercapacitors. Their cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results were analyzed. The p-MWNTs show the best performance with a specific capacitance of 238.23 F·g-1. The capacitance improvement is attributed to the increase in the number of oxygen-containing functional groups, as evidenced by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurement. These results suggest that oxygen plasma treatment is a rapid and efficient method for oxygen functionalization.

  10. Coagulation efficiency and flocs characteristics of recycling sludge during treatment of low temperature and micro-polluted water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing; Gao, Wei; Liang, Heng; Li, Guibai

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water treatment sludge, characterized as accumulated suspended solids and organic and inorganic matter, is produced in large quantities during the coagulation process. The proper disposal, regeneration or reuse of sludge is, therefore, a significant environmental issue. Reused sludge at low temperatures is an alternative method to enhance traditional coagulation efficiency. In the present study, the recycling mass of mixed sludge and properties of raw water (such as pH and turbidity) were systematically investigated to optimize coagulation efficiency. We determined that the appropriate dosage of mixed sludge was 60 mL/L, effective initial turbidity ranges were below 45.0 NTU, and optimal pH for DOMs and turbidity removal was 6.5-7.0 and 8.0, respectively. Furthermore, by comparing the flocs characteristics with and without recycling sludge, we found that floc structures with sludge were more irregular with average size growth to 64.7 microm from 48.1 microm. Recycling sludge was a feasible and successful method for enhancing pollutants removal, and the more irregular flocs structure after recycling might be caused by breakage of reused flocs and incorporation of powdered activated carbon into larger flocs structure. Applied during the coagulation process, recycling sludge could be significant for the treatment of low temperature and micro-polluted source water. PMID:23505868

  11. Scoliosis detection, patient characteristics, referral patterns and treatment in the absence of a screening program in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adobor Raphael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis allows for observation and timely initiation of brace treatment in order to halt progression. School scoliosis screening programs were abolished in Norway in 1994 for lack of evidence that the programs improved outcome and for the costs involved. The consequences of this decision are discussed. Objectives To describe the detection, patient characteristics, referral patterns and treatment of idiopathic scoliosis at a scoliosis clinic during the period 2003–2011, when there was no screening and to compare treatment modalities to the period 1976–1988 when screening was performed. Methods Patient demographics, age at detection, family history, clinical and radiological charts of consecutive patients referred for scoliosis evaluation during the period 2003–2011, were prospectively registered. Patients were recruited from a catchment area of about 500000 teenagers. Maturity was estimated according to Risser sign and menarcheal status. Severity of pain was recorded by a verbal 5-point scale from no pain to pain at all times. Physical and neurological examinations were conducted. The detector and patient characteristics were recorded. Referral patterns of orthopedic surgeons at local hospitals and other health care providers were recorded. Patient data was obtained by spine surgeons. Treatment modalities in the current period were compared to the period 1976–1988. Results We registered 752 patients with late onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis from 2003–2011. There were 644 (86% girls and 108 (14% boys. Mean age at detection was 14.6 (7–19 years. Sixty percent had Risser sign ≥ 3, whilst 74% were post menarche with a mean age at menarche of 13.2 years. Thirty-one percent had a family history of scoliosis. The mean major curve at first consultation at our clinic was 38° (10°-95°. About 40% had a major curve >40°. Seventy-one percent were detected by patients

  12. Characteristic Uptake Pattern of Bone Scintigraphy in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Following Treatment with High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Waihan; Ho, Waiyin; Lai, Andrew S. H.; Wong, Kwongkuen; Law, Martin [Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam (Hong Kong)

    2013-12-15

    This study retrospectively reviews the characteristic bone scintigraphic findings in 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following treatment with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). A potential complication of HIFU is damage to the tissues along the path of the ultrasound beam and structures superficial to the lesion of interest. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent a bone scan between 1st December 2005 and 31st December 2011 were considered for this study. Among these patients, only those who had bone scans after the HIFU treatment were included. The time between HIFU treatment and bone scans, HIFU energy, HCC sites, tumour sizes and related radiological findings were evaluated. In total, 20 bone scans of 18 patients were reviewed. Of these scans, two patients were normal; three patients showed decreased uptake, four patients showed increased uptake and nine patients showed mixed uptakes of the bony tracer in their rib cages. The defects were located in the anterior, lateral, anterolateral or posterolateral aspects of the rib cage. The majority of those cold defects were in the right anterior rib cages. SPECT/CT was used to localise the decreased uptake in ribs. The magnetic resonance imaging in individual patients invariably showed ill-defined rim enhancement along the right chest wall, signifying chest wall injury. The results showed that tissue ablation using HIFU caused tissue injury along the pathway of high-intensity ultrasound beams. The harm to tissues is presented as photopenic area on the rib cages due to necrosis or hot spots due to rib fractures in the bone scan. Since these cold defects are subtle, they are easily overlooked or mistaken as aggressive bony metastasis.

  13. Characteristic Uptake Pattern of Bone Scintigraphy in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Following Treatment with High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study retrospectively reviews the characteristic bone scintigraphic findings in 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following treatment with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). A potential complication of HIFU is damage to the tissues along the path of the ultrasound beam and structures superficial to the lesion of interest. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent a bone scan between 1st December 2005 and 31st December 2011 were considered for this study. Among these patients, only those who had bone scans after the HIFU treatment were included. The time between HIFU treatment and bone scans, HIFU energy, HCC sites, tumour sizes and related radiological findings were evaluated. In total, 20 bone scans of 18 patients were reviewed. Of these scans, two patients were normal; three patients showed decreased uptake, four patients showed increased uptake and nine patients showed mixed uptakes of the bony tracer in their rib cages. The defects were located in the anterior, lateral, anterolateral or posterolateral aspects of the rib cage. The majority of those cold defects were in the right anterior rib cages. SPECT/CT was used to localise the decreased uptake in ribs. The magnetic resonance imaging in individual patients invariably showed ill-defined rim enhancement along the right chest wall, signifying chest wall injury. The results showed that tissue ablation using HIFU caused tissue injury along the pathway of high-intensity ultrasound beams. The harm to tissues is presented as photopenic area on the rib cages due to necrosis or hot spots due to rib fractures in the bone scan. Since these cold defects are subtle, they are easily overlooked or mistaken as aggressive bony metastasis

  14. Clinical characteristics and treatment of burn wound sepsis in extensive burn patients: successful experience with eight cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴家科; 盛志勇; 杨红明

    2000-01-01

    Eight burn wound sepsis patients, in which 6 cases were diagnosed as MODS and two as septic shock, were treated consecutively in our hospital from September 1997 to October 1998. The plasma concentration of IL-6, IL-8, TNFα and LPS were assayed before and after surgical intervention, as well as when the patients' vital signs became stable. The results showed: ①The patients' conditions abruptly deteriorated when the burn wound sepsis emerged;②The major cause related to burn wound sepsis was extensive burn injuries, with large areas of deep burn remaining open; ③Although wound swabs taken on admission revealed the presence of colonization by many pathogenic bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was one of the most frequent bacteria isolated from the subeschar tissue; ④The plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, TNF and LPS before surgical intervention were significantly higher than that after surgical intervention (P<0.05) ;⑤The lowest level of the inflammatory mediators was observed when the patients' conditions became stable, as compared with before surgical intervention (P<0. 001).These findings suggest that the clinical characteristics of burn wound sepsis are abrupt deterioration of the general condition and prominent septic symptoms, often complicated by MODS. The main cause of burn wound sepsis is the presence of a large area of open deep burn wounds, which should be excised and covered early. LPS and pro-inflammatory mediators play an important role in the pathogenesis of burn wound sepsis. Although success in treating these patients is the result of appropriate application of multiple treatments, early, aggressive and thorough surgical excision of invasive burn infectious tissue and closure of wound play a crucial role in the successful treatment of patients complicated by burn wound sepsis. Other treatments are adjuvant but also important.

  15. Evaluation of operating characteristics for a chabazite zeolite system for treatment of process wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, T.E.; Perona, J.J.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-02-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing were performed for development and design of a chabazite zeolite ion-exchange system to replace existing treatment systems at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The process wastewater treatment systems at ORNL need upgrading to improve efficiency, reduce waste generation, and remove greater quantities of contaminants from the wastewater. Previous study indicated that replacement of the existing PWTP systems with an ion-exchange system using chabazite zeolite will satisfy these upgrade objectives. Pilot-scale testing of the zeolite system was performed using a commercially available ion-exchange system to evaluate physical operating characteristics and to validate smaller-scale column test results. Results of this test program indicate that (1) spent zeolite can be sluiced easily and completely from a commercially designed vessel, (2) clarification followed by granular anthracite prefilters is adequate pretreatment for the zeolite system, and (3) the length of the mass transfer zone was comparable with that obtained in smaller-scale column tests. Laboratory studies were performed to determine the loading capacity of the zeolite for selected heavy metals. These test results indicated fairly effective removal of silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc from simple water solutions. Heavy-metals data collected during pilot-scale testing of actual wastewater indicated marginal removal of iron, copper, and zinc. Reduced effectiveness for other heavy metals during pilot testing can be attributed to the presence of interfering cations and the relatively short zeolite/wastewater contact time. Flocculating agents (polyelectrolytes) were tested for pretreatment of wastewater prior to the zeolite flow-through column system. Several commercially available polyelectrolytes were effective in flocculation and settling of suspended solids in process wastewater.

  16. Epidemiological composition, clinical and treatment characteristics of the patient cohort of the german competence network for HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen K

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective As its central basis for research, the Competence Network for HIV/AIDS (KompNet established a nationwide cohort study on HIV-positive patients being in medical care in Germany. In this paper, we describe the epidemiological composition, and clinical as well as treatment characteristics of the KompNet cohort over time. Methods The KompNet cohort is an open, retrospective and prospective, multi-center, disease-specific and nationwide cohort study that started gathering data in June 2004. Semiannually, follow up visits of the patients are documented, covering a wide range of clinical and sociodemographic data. At enrolment and three years afterwards, an EDTA-sample is taken; a serum-sample is taken at every follow up. Results As of 20.10.2008, a total of 15,541 patients were enrolled by 44 documenting sites. In September 2007, the cohort size was reduced to ten outpatient clinics and fifteen private practitioners, covering a total of 9,410 patients. The documentation of these patients comprised 24,117 years of follow up-time since enrolment (mean: 2.6 years, 62,862 person years inclusive data documented retrospectively on course of HIV-infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART, mean: 6.7 years. Due to the short period of recruitment till now, rates of death (0.3%-0.8% and losses to follow up (1.1%-5.5% were low. 84.9% of patients were men. Main risk of transmission was sex between men (MSM: 62.9%. Mean age was 45 years. About two third of patients were classified as CDC-stage B or C. Therapy regimens of currently treated patients complied with recent guidelines. Trends of mean CD4 cell count/μl regarding the initial therapy and concerning the population under treatment reflected the developments and the changing standards of antiretroviral therapy over time. Conclusion The KompNet cohort covers about a quarter of all patients estimated as being under treatment in Germany. Its composition can be accounted approximately

  17. Amphiphilic cellulose nanocrystals from acid-free oxidative treatment: physicochemical characteristics and use as an oil-water stabilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visanko, Miikka; Liimatainen, Henrikki; Sirviö, Juho Antti; Heiskanen, Juha Pentti; Niinimäki, Jouko; Hormi, Osmo

    2014-07-14

    A chemical pretreatment for producing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with periodate oxidation and reductive amination is reported. This new functionalization of cellulose fibers dispenses an alternative method for fabricating individual CNCs without the widely used acid hydrolysis process. CNCs can be directly modified during the pretreatment step, and no additional post-treatments are required to tune the surface properties. Three butylamine isomers were tested to fabricate CNCs with amphiphilic features. After mechanical homogenization, CNCs occurred as individual crystallinities without aggregation where high uniformity in terms of shape and size was obtained. The elemental analysis and (1)H NMR measurement show that iso- and n-butylamine attach the highest number of butylamino groups to the cellulose fibers. Linking the alkyl groups increases the hydrophobic nature of the CNCs, where water contact angles from self-standing films up to 110.5° are reported. Since these butylamino-functionalized CNCs have hydrophobic characteristics in addition to the hydrophilic backbone of cellulose, the stabilization impact on oil/water emulsions is demonstrated as a potential application. PMID:24946006

  18. A retrospective analysis of the characteristics, treatment and follow-up of 26 odontomas in Greek children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odontomas represent the most common type of odontogenic jaw tumors among patients younger than 20 years of age. Clinically, they are often associated with eruption failure of adjacent permanent teeth, and are classified as compound and complex. The aim of the present retrospective study was to present the characteristics, treatment approach and outcome of odontomas in Greek children, over a ten-year period. Twenty six patients, 2 to 14 years of age (mean 9.3 years), with odontomas treated during the years 1999-2008 at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of a Children's Hospital, were included in the study. Data from patients' files were retrieved and they were recalled for review. Odontomas were equally distributed in the maxilla and mandible and 42.3% of them were located in the anterior maxilla. Of the odontomas, 80.7% were related to disturbances in tooth eruption. Bone expansion was observed in 65.3% of the cases. All odontomas were surgically removed, and related impacted permanent teeth were either left to erupt spontaneously, orthodontically guided into occlusion or were removed. Orthodontic intervention appeared to be necessary in older children, while in younger children spontaneous eruption was frequent. In the present study, odontomas were associated with unerupted or impacted teeth. Radiographic examination was essential to verify the presence of the tumor and early removal prevented tooth eruption failure and disturbances in a majority of the cases. (author)

  19. Main morphological characteristics of the vascular pedicle of latissimus dorsi muscle and their relevance in operative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Marko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Considering operative treatment of various pathological conditions and traumatic injuries of extremities latissimus dorsi flap presents the most frequently used flap in reconstructive surgery. Objective. The aim of this paper was to analyze anatomical characteristics of the vascular pedicle of the latissimus dorsi muscle followed by morphometric analyzes of vascular elements. Methods. This paper was carried out in cooperation with the Institute of Anatomy of the School of Medicine, University of Belgrade. The study was based on 40 cadaver dissections followed by anatomical and morphometric analyzes. The first analysis included the determination of thoracodorsal artery (TDA origin and its lateral and terminal branches, and the second one the observation of artery path. Furthermore the same features were analyzed on the thoracodorsal vein. During morphometric analyzes artery and vein length and diameter were recorded. Results. Our results showed that TDA always contains one lateral branch, while three other lateral branches were inconstant. In most cases TDA terminated in two branches, upper and lower, with average distance of 3.4 cm from the muscle. The mean recorded pedicle length was 9.9 cm. The average inner diameter of TDA was 1.85 mm. In further analyses the average observed thoracodorsal vein length was 10.5 cm with mean diameter of 2.93 mm. The result showed that vein origin was usually represented with two branches. Conclusion. The thoracodorsal artery is a blood vessel of considerable length and diameter which represents a great advantage in reconstructive flap surgery.

  20. Characteristic of the sludge from the wastewater treatment plants near Varna city and possibilities for use in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova-Garvanska, S

    2005-01-01

    During the last few years numerous stations were built for purification of wastewaters in the country. Such a station was opened in Varna town on the Black sea cost. At purification of wastewaters a huge amount of sludge is received. The sludge is accumulated in the WWTP premises, thus hampering its functioning and polluting the environment. The aim of this investigation was to determine the chemical characteristics of the sludge from this station, considering the different modes of treatment: the sludge compactor and the drying beds after some stay. With the sludge from Varna Purification station a pot experiment was set to determine at what levels of loading with sludge the soils differ from each other by the biomass yield and heavy metals content. During the experiment two crops were grown: rape-fodder and rye-grass harvested in two cuts to follow the effects of the sludge use and the post effect in controlled conditions. The experiment was carried out on four soil units: Calcareous Chernozem, Leached Smolnitsa, Leached Cinnamonic Forest soil and Grey Forest soil (Calcic Chernozem, Haplic Vertisol, and two Chromic Luvisols from South and North Bulgaria, respectively). PMID:16114620

  1. Effects of carbon fiber surface characteristics on interfacial bonding of epoxy resin composite subjected to hygrothermal treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes of interfacial bonding of three types of carbon fibers/epoxy resin composite as well as their corresponding desized carbon fiber composites subjecting to hygrothermal conditions were investigated by means of single fiber fragmentation test. The interfacial fracture energy was obtained to evaluate the interfacial bonding before and after boiling water aging. The surface characteristics of the studied carbon fiber were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effects of activated carbon atoms and silicon element at carbon fiber surface on the interfacial hygrothermal resistance were further discussed. The results show that the three carbon fiber composites with the same resin matrix possess different hygrothermal resistances of interface and the interfacial fracture energy after water aging can not recovery to the level of raw dry sample (irreversible changes) for the carbon fiber composites containing silicon. Furthermore, the activated carbon atoms have little impact on the interfacial hygrothermal resistance. The irreversible variations of interfacial bonding and the differences among different carbon fiber composites are attributed to the silicon element on the carbon fiber bodies, which might result in hydrolyzation in boiling water treatment and degrade interfacial hygrothermal resistance.

  2. Treatment of hypoglycaemic diabetics in a prehospital setting is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatting, Nikolaj Preuss; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with diabetes suffering from hypoglycaemia may be treated by a Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) and are often released at the scene following treatment. Some of these patients experience secondary hypoglycaemia and require renewed treatment or admission to hospital. The...... present study was initiated in order to investigate the extent of secondary hypoglycaemia, to evaluate the appropriateness of the current treatment practice, and to provide practical suggestions for the hand-ing of prehospital hypoglycaemia. METHODS: All MECU runs are registered in a database by the...... attending physician who states the patients' identity, treatment, outcome and diagnosis. Over a period of four years (1 May 2006-30 April 2010), all missions related to hypo-glycaemia were reviewed. Each entry was cross-referenced with the patient's hospital files to detect any recurrent hypoglycaemic...

  3. Characteristics and treatment interests among individuals with substance use disorders and a history of past six-month violence: Findings from an emergency department study

    OpenAIRE

    Chermack, Stephen T.; Murray, Regan; Kraus, Shane; Walton, Maureen A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Barry, Kristen L.; Brenda M. Booth; Blow, Frederic C

    2013-01-01

    The study examined clinical characteristics and treatment interests of individuals identified to have substance use disorders (SUDs) in an urban emergency department (ED) who reported past six-month history of violence or victimization. Specifically, participants were 1441 ED patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of interventions designed to link those with SUDs to treatment. To examine factors related to violence type, four groups based on participants’ reports of violence towar...

  4. Odanacatib for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: development history and design and participant characteristics of LOFT, the Long-Term Odanacatib Fracture Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bone, H. G.; Dempster, D.W.; Eisman, J. A.; Greenspan, S. L.; McClung, M. R.; Nakamura, T.(International Center for Elementary Particle Physics and Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan); Papapoulos, S; Shih, W. J.; Rybak-Feiglin, A.; Santora, A. C.; Verbruggen, N.; Leung, A. T.; Lombardi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Odanacatib is a cathepsin K inhibitor investigated for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Phase 2 data indicate that 50 mg once weekly inhibits bone resorption and increases bone mineral density, with only a transient decrease in bone formation. We describe the background, design and participant characteristics for the phase 3 registration trial. Introduction Odanacatib (ODN) is a selective cathepsin K inhibitor being evaluated for the treatment of osteoporosis. In a phase ...

  5. SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE AND BASAL METABOLIC INDEX CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AND THEIR TREATMENT OUTCOME IN MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, AMRITSAR, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kajal De; Bharat; Rosy; Sandeep; Satish

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is an ancient disease associated with high degree of morbidity and mortality worldwide, more so in developing countries having overwhelming problems of poverty, poor living conditions, illiteracy, malnutrition, drug addiction. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio - demographic profile and BMI characteristics of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and their treatment outcome. MATERIAL & METHOD: This prospective study was conducted on 20...

  6. Impact of family history of breast cancer on tumour characteristics, treatment, risk of second cancer and survival among men with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchardy Magnin, Christine; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Fioretta, Gérald; Schubert, Hyma; Chappuis, Pierre; Vlastos, Georges; Benhamou, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer patients have a higher risk of developing a second primary cancer, but whether this risk differs according to the family history of breast or ovarian cancers remains to be elucidated. We aimed to determine the effect of a positive family history among men diagnosed with breast cancer on tumour characteristics, treatment, second cancer occurrence and overall survival.

  7. Pathologic Characteristics and Treatment Outcome of Patients with Malignant Brain Tumors: A Single Institutional Experience from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolazim Sedighi Pashaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central nervous system tumors account for 2%-5% of all malignancies in humans. These tumors account for 2% of all pediatric cancers. The worldwide incidence of primary central nervous system tumors is estimated at 3.9 (males and 3.2 (females per 100000 person-years. The incidence of brain tumor cases has been reported as 3.67% of all malignancies and 4% of all cancer mortalities in Iran. The five most common histological types of brain tumor in Iran according to different case studies are; meningioma, astrocytoma, glioblastoma, pituitary adenoma and ependymoma. The aim of this study is to determine the histopathological pattern and characteristics of patients with brain tumors who have referred to the Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department, Hamadan, Iran. Methods: This descriptive, retrospective study was performed at the Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department, between 2005 and 2012. We included 220 patients who referred to the Radiotherapy Department with diagnoses of primary brain tumor in this study. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, we treated 220 new cases of primary brain tumor at Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department. The mean age at diagnosis was 39.95±15.48 years with a median age of 39 years. Patients' ages ranged from 4 to 75 years. Among the 220 patients, 138 were male and 82 were female with a male to female ratio of 1.68. For most tumors there was a male predominance, with the exception of meningioma (M/F: 0.23, ependymoma (M/F: 1 and pituitary adenoma (M/F: 0.6. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, high grade meningiomas and oligodendrogliomas were the four most common pathologies treated in this department. The best treatment results were achieved in patients with astrocytomas. Conclusion: The present study is a retrospective radiotherapy centre-based study designed in a pioneer radiotherapy centre in Western Iran, not a prospective population study. These data have provided a baseline for further epidemiological studies. Our encouraging results

  8. Cleft characteristics and treatment outcomes in hemifacial microsomia compared to non-syndromic cleft lip/palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentino, K M; Valstar, A; Padwa, B L

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with hemifacial microsomia (HFM) and cleft lip/palate (CL/P), and to compare them to a historic cohort of patients with non-syndromic CL/P treated at the same centre. A retrospective review of patients with HFM and CL/P was performed; the main outcome measures assessed were cleft type/side, surgical outcome, midfacial retrusion, and speech. Twenty-six patients (13 male, 13 female; mean age 22.7±14.9, range 1-52 years) with cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL±P) were identified: three with cleft lip (12%), two with cleft lip and alveolus and an intact secondary palate (8%), and 21 with cleft lip and palate (CLP) (81%; 15 unilateral and six bilateral). Four patients (19%) had a palatal fistula after palatoplasty. Twelve of 22 patients aged >5 years (55%) had midfacial retrusion and two (9%) required a pharyngeal flap for velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Fisher's exact test demonstrated a higher frequency of complete labial clefting (P=0.004), CLP (P=0.009), midfacial retrusion (P=0.0009), and postoperative palatal fistula (P=0.03) in HFM compared to non-syndromic CL±P. There was no difference in VPI prevalence. This study revealed that patients with HFM and CL±P have more severe forms of orofacial clefting than patients with non-syndromic CL±P. Patients with HFM and CL±P have more severe midfacial retrusion and a higher palatal fistula rate compared to patients with non-syndromic CL±P. PMID:26775633

  9. Polymer Surface Treatment by Atmospheric Pressure Low Temperature Surface Discharge Plasma:Its Characteristics and Comparison with Low Pressure Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsushi KUWABARA; Shin-ichi KURODA; Hitoshi KUBOTA

    2007-01-01

    The polymer treatment with a low-temperature plasma jet generated on the atmospheric pressure surface discharge (SD) plasma is performed.The change of the surface property over time,in comparison with low pressure oxygen (O2) plasma treatment,is examined.As one compares the treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma to that by the low pressure O2 plasma of PS (polystyrene) the treatment effects were almost in complete agreement.However,when the atmospheric pressure plasma was used for PP(polypropylene),it produced remarkable hydrophilic effects.

  10. Influence of heat treatment on the sensory and physical characteristics and carbohydrate fractions of french-fried potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Carvalho Montenegro de VASCONCELOS; Silvana Magalhães SALGADO; Alda Verônica Souza LIVERA; Samara Alvachian Cardoso de ANDRADE; Michelle Galindo de OLIVEIRA; Tânia Lucia Montenegro STAMFORD

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe aim of this study was to analyze the impact that heat treatment with salts and freezing processes on the sensory, instrumental, and physico-chemical characteristics of fried potatoes of the Monalisa cultivar. The potatoes were blanched in distilled water (P); sodium chloride solution (B1); calcium chloride solution (B2), and a solution with both of these salts (B3). They were then pre-cooked and frozen for 24 hours and for 30 days. After frying, sensory characteristics were analyz...

  11. FRACTURING CHARACTERISTICS AND TREATMENT OF A DIVERSION TUNNEL%某引水隧洞断裂特征及处理措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈运东

    2001-01-01

    某引水隧洞于1993年断裂,本文在介绍其断裂特点的基础上,概论了工程处理措施。运行实践表明:处理效果良好。%The failure of a water supply tunnel happened in 1993.This paper introduces briefly the treatment based on the failure characteristics.The results of operation shows that the effect of the treatment is good.

  12. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite-hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-07-01

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants.

  13. Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy. PMID:16716846

  14. The Effects of Tannic Acid and Lignosulfonate Treatments of Sunflower Seed Meal on the Digestibility and Rumen Degradability Characteristics of Some Nutrients in Rams

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇIN, Sakine; ŞEHU, Adnan

    2002-01-01

    This study involved two separate experiments to determine the effects of tannic acid and lignosulfonate treatments of sunflower seed meal on the digestibility and rumen degradability characteristics of some nutrients in rams. Sunflower seed meal was treated with 3, 6 and 9% tannic acid, 5 and 10% lignosulfonate. In the first experiment, the digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein of sunflower seed meal samples were determined by a faeces collection method u...

  15. CHLORINE DIOXIDE TREATMENT OF SISAL FIBRE: SURFACE LIGNIN AND ITS INFLUENCES ON FIBRE SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS AND INTERFACIAL BEHAVIOUR OF SISAL FIBRE/PHENOLIC RESIN COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Linxin Zhong; Shiyu Fu; Feng Li; Huaiyu Zhan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the influences of chlorine dioxide treatment on fibre surface lignin. The fibre surface characteristics and the interfacial behaviour of the sisal fibre/phenolic resin composites were also studied by SEM, AFM, and XPS. The results show that the surface of the untreated fibre contains a large amount of lignin with granular structure and non-granular structure. The surface lignin concentration is up to 51% for the untreated fibre, and then it decreases t...

  16. Using dual plasma treatment to improve electrical characteristics and reduce flicker noise of high-κ HfO2 LTPS-TFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kow-Ming; Huang, Bo-Wen; Wu, Chien-Hung; Deng, I.-Chung; Chang, Ting-Chia; Lin, Sheng-Chia

    2015-09-01

    This study demonstrated the application of a dual plasma treatment to low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs) comprising a self-aligned phosphorus implantation source and drain, high-κ HfO2 gate dielectric, and aluminum metal gate. The dual plasma treatment involves a pre-deposition CF4 plasma treatment at a high-κ/poly-Si interface and post-deposition N2 plasma treatment at a high-κ HfO2 gate dielectric; this treatment enables reducing the interface-trap-state defects at the high-κ/poly-Si interface, grain boundary traps in the poly-Si channel film, and oxygen vacancy Vo in the high-κ HfO2 gate dielectric. Thus, LTPS-TFTs with dual plasma treatment demonstrate excellent electrical characteristics such as threshold voltage, subthreshold swing, transconductance, driving current, and on/off current ratio. Flicker noise, also referred to as 1/f noise, caused by fluctuations of carriers transported in the grain boundary and the trapped carriers per unit oxide volume (Nt) can be suppressed. Therefore, high performance LTPS-TFTs subjected to dual plasma treatment can be appropriately applied to active matrix liquid phase-crystal display on system-on-panel technology.

  17. Differences in Characteristics and Treatment Received among Depressed Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients with and without Co-Occuring Alcohol Misuse: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiia Pirkola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed at examining the differences between depressed psychiatric adolescent outpatients with and without cooccurring alcohol misuse in psychosocial background, clinical characteristics, and treatment received during one-year followup. Furthermore, we investigated factors related to nonattendance at treatment. Materials and Methods. Consecutive 156 adolescent (13–19 years psychiatric outpatients with a unipolar depressive disorder at baseline were interviewed using structured measures at baseline and at 12 months. Alcohol misuse was defined as having an AUDIT score of 8 or more points. The outpatients received “treatment as usual” of clinically defined duration. Results. Among depressive outpatients, poor parental support, parental alcohol use and decreased attendance at treatment associated with alcohol misuse. The severity of alcohol use as measured by AUDIT-score was the strongest factor independently predicting nonattendance at treatment in multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Alcohol misuse indicates family problems, has a deleterious effect on treatment attendance, and should be taken into account when managing treatment for depressive adolescent outpatients.

  18. Microbiological and other characteristics of chicken breast meat following electron-beam and sous-vide treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined effects of radiation and sous-vide treatment of chicken breast meat were investigated with respect to survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes, shelf life, thiamine content, and sensory qualities. Chicken breasts were inoculated with L. monocytogenes 81-861 (10(5) CFU/G), vacuum-packed, irradiated with electron beam (EB) up to 2.9 kGy, and cooked to an internal temperature of 65.6 degrees C. Sous-vide treatment alone had marginal lethal effect on the L. monocytogenes; the residual inoculum reached 10(7) CFU/g after 8 weeks at 2 degrees C. However, after the combined treatments of sous-vide and EB at 2.9 kGy, the organism remained undetectable during the 8-week storage period. Parallel studies on uninoculated breast meat revealed that sous-vide samples had a shelf life of less than 6 weeks without EB treatment, whereas samples that were irradiated and then received sous-vide treatment had a shelf life of at least 8 weeks. There was a slight reduction in thiamine levels as a result of the EB treatment, but there was essentially no additional loss of thiamine due to the subsequent sous-vide treatment and storage at 2 degrees C. Electron-beam treatment had very little effect on the odor and flavor of the reheated samples. It was concluded that EB treatment combined with, sous-vide treatment can greatly enhance the microbial safety and shelf life of chicken breast meat

  19. Effects of ultrasound pretreatment on the characteristic evolutions of drinking water treatment sludge and its impact on coagulation property of sludge recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing

    2015-11-01

    Large amounts of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) are produced during the flocculation or flotation process. The recycling of DWTS is important for reducing and reclaiming the waste residues from drinking water treatment. To improve the coagulation step of the DWTS recycling process, power ultrasound was used as a pretreatment to disintegrate the DWTS and degrade or inactivate the constituents that are difficult to remove by coagulation. The effects of ultrasound pretreatment on the characteristics of DWTS, including the extent of disintegration, variation in DWTS floc characteristics, and DWTS dewaterability, were investigated. The capacity of the recycling process to remove particulates and organic matter from low-turbidity surface water compared to a control treatment process without DWTS was subsequently evaluated. The coagulation mechanism was further investigated by analyzing the formation, breakage, and re-growth of re-coagulated flocs. Our results indicated that under the low energy density applied (0.03-0.033 W/mL) for less than 15 min at a frequency of 160 kHz, the level of organic solubilization was less elevated, which was evidenced by the lower release of proteins and polysaccharides and lower fluorescence intensities of humic- and protein-like substances. The applied ultrasound conditions had an adverse effect on the dewaterability of the DWTS. Ultrasound pretreatment had no significant impact on the pH or surface charge of the DWTS flocs, whereas particle size decreased slightly and the specific surface area was moderately increased. The pollution removal capacity decreased somewhat for the recycled sonicated DWTS treatment, which was primarily ascribed to organic solubilization rather than variability in the floc characteristics of sonicated DWTS. The main coagulation mechanism was floc sweeping and physical adsorption. The breakage process of the flocs formed by the recycling process displayed distinct irreversibility, and the flocs were

  20. Effect of high pressure--low temperature treatments on structural characteristics of whey proteins and micellar caseins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Daniel; Purschke, Benedict; Schmitt, Christophe; Rawel, Harshadrai M; Knorr, Dietrich

    2015-11-15

    In this study, structural changes in micellar caseins and whey proteins due to high pressure--low temperature treatments (HPLT) were investigated and compared to changes caused by high pressure treatments at room temperature. Whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions as well as micellar casein (MC) dispersions and mixtures were treated at 500 MPa (pH 7.0 and 5.8) at room temperature, -15 °C and -35 °C. Surface hydrophobicity and accessible thiol groups remained nearly unchanged after HPLT treatments whereas HP treatments at room temperature caused an unfolding of the WPI, resulting in an increase in surface hydrophobicity and exposure of the thiol groups. For HPLT treatments, distinct changes in the secondary structure (increase in the amount of β-sheets) were observed while the tertiary structure remained unchanged. Large flocs, stabilized by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds, were formed in casein containing samples due to HPLT treatments. Depending on the pH and the applied HPLT treatment parameters, these interactions differed significantly from the interactions determined in native micelles. PMID:25977037

  1. Pre-treatment child and family characteristics as predictors of outcome in cognitive behavioural therapy for youth anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundkvist-Houndoumadi, Irene; Hougaard, Esben; Thastum, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    that predict treatment outcome. AIMS: To provide a systematic review of clinical and demographic pre-treatment child and family predictors of treatment outcome in CBT for anxiety disorders in youth. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted based on electronic databases (PsycINFO, Embase and Pub......Med), and retrieved studies were analysed according to the box-score method of counting significant findings. RESULTS: 24 studies with a sample size ≥ 60 were located. Most studies dealt with the following predictors: child age, gender, comorbidity, symptom severity and parental psychopathology. There was some......-treatment child and family predictors of outcome in CBT for youth anxiety disorders have until now resulted in few findings of clinical or theoretical significance....

  2. A comparison of patient characteristics, prognosis, treatment modalities, and survival according to age group in gastric cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tural Deniz; Selçukbiricik Fatih; Serdengeçti Süheyla; Büyükünal Evin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate age-specific incidence rates and to compare disease stage, treatment, and survival according to age group in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods Gastric cancer patients treated at our hospital between 1999 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. We divided the cases into two subgroups: group 1 consisted of patients older than 70 years at the time of treatment, and group 2 included patients aged 70 years or younger. In all...

  3. Patient characteristics associated with tuberculosis treatment default: a cohort study in a high-incidence area of Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Lackey, Brian; Seas, Carlos; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Otero, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    Background Although tuberculosis (TB) is usually curable with antibiotics, poor adherence to medication can lead to increased transmission, drug resistance, and death. Prior research has shown several factors to be associated with poor adherence, but this problem remains a substantial barrier to global TB control. We studied patients in a high-incidence district of Lima, Peru to identify factors associated with premature termination of treatment (treatment default). Methods We conducted a pro...

  4. Diabetes treatment patterns and goal achievement in primary diabetes care (DiaRegis) - study protocol and patient characteristics at baseline

    OpenAIRE

    Deeg Evelin; Plate Tanja; Krekler Michael; Gitt Anselm K; Binz Christiane; Bramlage Peter; Tschöpe Diethelm

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for disease and treatment related complications after the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data from clinical practice with respect to this patient group are however scarce. Therefore we set up a registry in primary care documenting the course and outcomes of this patient group. Methods Diabetes Treatment Patterns and Goal Achievement in Primary Diabetes Care (DiaRegis) is a prospecti...

  5. Clinical characteristics and evaluation of LDL-cholesterol treatment of the Spanish Familial Hypercholesterolemia Longitudinal Cohort Study (SAFEHEART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients are at high risk for premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite the use of statins, most patients do not achieve an optimal LDL-cholesterol goal. The aims of this study are to describe baseline characteristics and to evaluate Lipid Lowering Therapy (L...

  6. Advances in methods of commercial FBR core characteristics analyses. Investigations of a treatment of the double-heterogeneity and a method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A standard data base for FBR core nuclear design is under development in order to improve the accuracy of FBR design calculation. As a part of the development, we investigated an improved treatment of double-heterogeneity and a method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections in a commercial reactor geometry, for the betterment of the analytical accuracy of commercial FBR core characteristics. As an improvement in the treatment of double-heterogeneity, we derived a new method (the direct method) and compared both this and conventional methods with continuous energy Monte-Carlo calculations. In addition, we investigated the applicability of the reaction rate ratio preservation method as a advanced method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections. The present studies gave the following information: (1) An improved treatment of double-heterogeneity: for criticality the conventional method showed good agreement with Monte-Carlo result within one sigma standard deviation; the direct method was consistent with conventional one. Preliminary evaluation of effects in core characteristics other than criticality showed that the effect of sodium void reactivity (coolant reactivity) due to the double-heterogeneity was large. (2) An advanced method to calculate homogenize control rod cross sections: for control rod worths the reaction rate ratio preservation method agreed with those produced by the calculations with the control rod heterogeneity included in the core geometry; in Monju control rod worth analysis, the present method overestimated control rod worths by 1 to 2% compared with the conventional method, but these differences were caused by more accurate model in the present method and it is considered that this method is more reliable than the conventional one. These two methods investigated in this study can be directly applied to core characteristics other than criticality or control rod worth. Thus it is concluded that these methods will

  7. A Study of Slag/Metal Equilibrium and Inclusion Characteristics during Ladle Treatment and after Ingot Casting

    OpenAIRE

    Doostmohammadi, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    Today, there is a high demand on clean steel for high performance materialproperties. Thus, steel producers try to deliver a steel product with the highestquality and cleanliness to the market. The number of parameters that affect thesteel cleanliness may vary depending on the required material properties of thefinal product. However, the non-metallic inclusion characteristics represent one ofthe most important parameters. More specifically, the composition, size, numberand morphology affect ...

  8. A Systematic Review on the Characteristics, Treatments and Outcomes of the Patients with Primary Spinal Glioblastomas or Gliosarcomas Reported in Literature until March 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Stefanie; von Bueren, André O.; Klautke, Gunther; Guckenberger, Matthias; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with primary spinal glioblastomas (GB) or gliosarcomas (GS) reported in literature until March 2015. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for peer-reviewed articles pertaining to cases of glioblastomas / gliosarcomas with primary spinal origin, using predefined search terms. Furthermore we performed hand searches tracking the references from the selected papers. Eighty-two articles published between 1938 and March 2015 were eligible. They reported on 157 patients. Median age at diagnosis was 22 years. The proportion of patients who received adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy clearly increased from the time before 1980 until present. Median overall survival from diagnosis was 8.0 ± 0.9 months. On univariate analysis age influenced overall survival, whereas tumor location, gender and the extent of initial resection did not. Outcomes did not differ between children (< 18 years) and adults. However, the patients who were treated after 1980 achieved longer survival times than the patients treated before. On multivariable analysis only age (< 60 years) and the time period of treatment (≥ 1980) were confirmed as positive independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, primary spinal GB / GS mainly affect younger patients and are associated with a dismal prognosis. However, most likely due to the increasing use of adjuvant treatment, modest therapeutic progress has been achieved over recent decades. The characteristics and treatments of primary spinal glioblastomas should be entered into a central registry in order to gain more information about the ideal treatment approach in the future. PMID:26859136

  9. [Characteristics on the diagnosis and treatment with acupuncture and moxibustion for the improvement of motor sensory function, urination and defecation in myelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanjun; Wang, Jia; Zhai, Yanbing; Liu, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    The literature was analyzed on the improvement of motor sensory function, urination and defecation in myelitis treated with acupuncture and moxibustion and focused on the characteristics of the diagnosis and treatment. The literature on acupuncture and moxibustion treatment for myelitis was collected from CNKI, Wanfang, VIP and PubMed. The analysis included the characteristics of acupoint selection, methods of acupuncture and moxibustion, time of treatment, total treatment period, efficacy, follow-up, safety, etc. Totally, 26 articles were collected. The combined therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion was predominated (12/26, 46. 15%). For the motor and sensory impairment, the acupoints were mainly selected from the four limbs, the yangming meridians of hand and foot and those adjacent to the affected spinal segments and on the governor vessel as well as Jiaji (EX-B 2) points. For urinary impairment, the acupoints were selected mainly from the lower abdominal region on the conception vessel and the lumbosacral region on the bladder meridian. For the intestinal impairment, the acupoints were from the lower limb on the stomach meridian, the lower abdominal region on the conception vessel and the back points on the bladder meridian. The intervention started commonly in the first 3 months after onset. The total treatment period was in the range from 1 to 3 months. The efficacy of acupuncture and moxibustion was 69.19% to 82.56% for the improvement of motor sensory and urination, defecation function. The efficacy in follow-up was stable and the adverse reactions were not reported. It is viewed that on the basis of early diagnosis and active medication, acupuncture and moxibution achieve a certain of efficacy on the impairment of motor sensory function, urination and defecation. A clinical research is expected to further verify the efficacy. PMID:26946755

  10. Treatment for Osteoporosis among Women in Japan: Associations with Patient Characteristics and Patient-Reported Outcomes in the 2008–2011 Japan National Health and Wellness Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Sato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify characteristics associated with treatment for osteoporosis among women aged 50 years and older in Japan and to explore differences among patients according to treatment regimen. Data were provided by a large annual survey representative of Japanese aged 18 and older; all measures were by self-report. Women aged 50 and older who reported diagnosed osteoporosis (N=900 were compared based on current treatment status using bivariate statistics and logistic regression. Approximately 1 in 3 women in this study reporting diagnosed osteoporosis were currently untreated. Factors associated with current treatment for osteoporosis included having ≥1 physician visit in the prior 6 months (OR = 5.4, P<0.001, self-rated moderate or severe osteoporosis (OR = 2.8, P<0.001, completion of menopause (OR = 1.6, P<0.05, and family history of osteoporosis (OR = 1.5, P<0.05, while longer duration of osteoporosis diagnosis (OR = 0.9, P<0.05 and arthritis (OR = 0.7, P<0.05 were associated with lower odds of treatment. These findings suggest that diagnosed patients are not being actively managed in the longer term, and efforts need to be made to ensure that patients stay engaged with their healthcare providers.

  11. Differences in Starch Chain Length Distribution and Structure Characteristics of Early-Indica Rice Under Different Temperature Treatments During Grain Filling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Lian-jin; CHENG Fang-min; ZHANG Guo-ping; SUN Zong-xiu

    2005-01-01

    Effects of temperature during grain-filling on chain length distribution and structure characteristics of 4 early-season indica rice cultivars were investigated under the environment-controlled conditions. The plants at flowering stage were subjected to two temperature treatments until maturity (the mean dairy air temperature, 22 and 32℃ for optimum temperature treatment and high temperature treatment, respectively). The result showed that high temperature during grain-filling significantly decreased the long B-chain content and increased the intermediate B-chain content. But the effect of high temperature on other starch chains appeared to be cultivar-dependant. The crystalline characteristics of rice starch were also affected by temperature during grain-filling. The intensity at 18° 2 θ of X-ray diffraction pattern of rice samples under high temperature was higher than those under optimum temperature, though all rice starches performed A-crystalline type. Moreover, the intensity at 18° 2 θ was positive correlation with intermediate B-chain content and negative correlation with long B-chain content.

  12. Early Childhood Interventionists' Perceptions of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act: Provider Characteristics and Organizational Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Smith, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…

  13. Design of field experiments: Influence of treatment response relative to standard deviation and blocking factor characteristics on efficient blocking strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selection of experimental design can markedly influence efficiency of field research. This study used Monte Carlo simulations to compare the ability of different field experimental designs to distinguish defined treatment differences, and the paper concludes with a section on practical use of the in...

  14. Impact of medical treatment on lung diffusion capacity in elderly patients with heart failure. Baseline characteristics and 1-year follow up after medical treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Claus Leth; Kjaer, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this investigation was (1) to study the effect of untreated chronic heart failure (CHF) on alveolar membrane diffusion capacity (transfer coefficient, K(CO)) in elderly patients and (2) to study the impact of the standard regime of medical treatment with diuretics and ACE-inhibito......AIM: The aim of this investigation was (1) to study the effect of untreated chronic heart failure (CHF) on alveolar membrane diffusion capacity (transfer coefficient, K(CO)) in elderly patients and (2) to study the impact of the standard regime of medical treatment with diuretics and ACE......-inhibitor/angiotensin-II receptor antagonists on K(CO) in these patients. METHODS: Non-medicated patients (except for diuretics) with symptoms of heart failure (NYHA II-III) and echocardiographically estimated left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <0.40 were recruited. All were characterized according to the results of...... multiple ECG-gated radionuclide ventriculography (MUGA). LVEF<0.50 when measured by MUGA was considered as heart failure (HF). A total of 20 patients fulfilled the criteria. All patients had a lung function test including measurement of K(CO) and a MUGA for LVEF measurement performed prior to medical...

  15. Clinical characteristic, diagnosis and effectiveness of treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in the Saratov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Morozova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: evaluate the clinical manifestations, efficacy of microbiologicaldiagnosis and results of treatment of patients with tuberculosis (TB in combination with HIV (TB/HIV, residing in the territory of the Saratov region.Materials and methods: analyzed the medical records (hospital records, medical history, personal record cards TB/HIV, 130 patients coinfected with TB/HIV who were on treatment in TB facilities of Saratov region in 2014.Results: it was found that the combination of TB and HIV infection was more common in men (71,5% aged 30–39 years, mostly (75,4% residents of large cities. TB in 64,6% of cases develop on the background of existing HIV infection with disease duration from 1 to 18 years. The dominant forms of TB were infiltrative – 50,8% and disseminated – 25,4% with high levels of multidrug resistance (MDR – 25% and polyresistance – 17,3%. Efficiency a course of treatment of ТВ which was completed in 2014 year amounted to 41,5% and was higher in the group of patients in which treatment with anti-tuberculosis therapy is used antiretroviral therapy (ARVT – 49,3% versus 30,9% without ARVT, p = 0,0416. It was found increase of CD4 cell counts after treatment in patients TB/HIV, which, together with anti-tuberculosis therapy received ARVT 301 ± 45 cells/microliter vs. 202,3 ± 32 cells/microliter in patients without ARVT, p=0,0416.Conclusion: determined that TB in patients with HIV infection characterized by severe course of the process with low efficiency of treatment and high MDR, which requires the strengthening of measures to control the spread of TB in these patients. 

  16. A Randomized Clinical Trial on Comparing The Cycle Characteristics of Two Different Initiation Days of Letrozole Treatment in Clomiphene Citrate Resistant PCOS Patients in IUI Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayereh Ghomian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are still many questions about the ideal protocol for letrozole (LTZ as the commonest aromatase inhibitor (AI used in ovulation induction. The aim of this study is to compare the ultrasonographic and hormonal characteristics of two different initiation times of LTZ in clomiphene citrate (CC failure patients and to study androgen dynamics during the cycle. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was done from March to November 2010 at the Mashhad IVF Center, a university based IVF center. Seventy infertile polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS patients who were refractory to at least 3 CC treatment cycles were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (n=35 receiving 5 mg LTZ on cycle days 3-7 (CD3, and group B (n=35 receiving the same amount on cycle days 5-9 (CD5. Hormonal profile and ultrasonographic scanning were done on cycle day 3 and three days after completion of LTZ treatment (cycle day 10 or 12. Afterward, 5,000-10,000 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG was injected if at least one follicle ≥18 mm was seen in ultrasonographic scanning. Intrauterine insemination (IUI has been done 36-40 hours later. The cycle characteristics, the ovulation and pregnancy rate were compared between two groups. The statistical analysis was done using Fisher’s exact test, t test, logistic regression, and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: There were no significant differences between two groups considering patient characteristics. The ovulation rate (48.6 vs. 32.4% in group A and B, respectively, the endometrial thickness, the number of mature follicles, and length of follicular phase were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: LTZ is an effective treatment in CC failure PCOS patients. There are no significant differences regarding ovulation and pregnancy rates between two different protocols of LTZ starting on days 3 and 5 of menstrual cycle (Registration Number: IRCT201307096467N3.

  17. Effects of substrate temperature and annealing treatment on the microstructure and magnetic characteristics of TbDyFe films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A series of TbDyFe films were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. The effects of substrate temperature and annealing temperature on the phase structure and the magnetic properties of the sample films were investigated. The annealing treatment has a significant influence on the microstructure and the magnetic properties of the sample. The results obtained by XRD indicate that the films deposited at a temperature lower than 525℃ are amorphous and have an easy magnetization direction perpendicular to the film plane. An RFe2 phase is formed in the sample annealed at 550℃ and the residual phases observed are Fe and rare earth oxide. The magnetic properties Hc and Mr/Ms of the film annealed at 550℃ obtain the maximum values, for which the formation of the RFe2 phase is mainly responsible. An annealing treatment leads to a rotation of the sample's easy axis from being parallel to the film surface to becoming vertical.

  18. Characteristics of elderly patients with COPD and newly diagnosed lung cancer, and factors associated with treatment decision

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    Jianwen Qin, Guangsheng Li, Jingmin Zhou Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tianjin Chest Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment status of elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complicated with lung cancer.Patients and methods: This was a retrospective study of 206 patients aged >60 years with COPD and newly diagnosed lung cancer at the T...

  19. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcome of Depression in Patients with and without a History of Emotional and Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, M.; Rucci, P.; Benvenuti, A.; Frank, E.; Buttenfield, J.; Giorgi, G.; Cassano, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical features and treatment outcome were compared in depressed outpatients with and without a history of emotional and physical abuse (EPA), including childhood maltreatment. Patients were initially randomized to IPT or SSRI and then augmented with the second treatment if they did not remit with monotherapy. Assessments included the SCID-I, the SCID-II for DSM-IV diagnoses, the HRSD, the QIDS and the Mood Spectrum Self-Report (MOODS-SR). Seventy-eight (25%) patients reported a history of EPA; 60 (76.9%) were women. Patients with a history of EPA did not differ from those without on HRSD scores at baseline, but showed an earlier age at onset of depression and a longer duration of illness. The two groups differed on several mood spectrum factors, namely: ‘depressive mood’ (15.6±4.9 vs. 13.5±5.4; p<0.004), ‘psychomotor retardation’ (11.7±4.5 vs. 9.6±4.7; p<0.001), ‘drug and illness-related depression’ (1.3±1.3 vs. 0.6±1.0; p<0.0001), and ‘neurovegetative symptoms’ (8.3±2.6 vs. 6.9±2.9; p<0.0001). Patients with EPA had also a significantly longer time to remission (89 vs. 67 days, log-rank test, p=0.035). The need for augmentation treatment was significantly more frequent among patients with EPA than in those without. The present study suggests that patients with a history of EPA show a subtype of depression characterized by poor treatment response and more severe neurovegetative and psychomotor symptoms. PMID:19800634

  20. Characteristics and Treatment Technology of Hospital Wastewater%医院污水特点与处理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜敏

    2013-01-01

      生活污水、工业废水是我国水体的主要污染源.对此,目前的污水处理技术已基本成熟并趋于完善.而医院污水成分复杂,含有有毒、有害污染物,且部分污水还带有相关疾病的传染源.2003年“非典”以后,很多国家对医院的污水处理要求更高更严密.医院污水处理涉及疾病的防疫、控制和防止二次污染的产生,一旦疏漏,对社会环境、自然环境都会造成重大影响.因此,医院污水的处理,尤其是传染病污水的处理非常重要.%Domestic sewage and industrial wastewater is the main source of water pollution in China. At present, the wastewater treatment technology has largely matured and became more refined. The content of hospital sewage is complex, and contains toxic and harmful pollutants, and part of the sewage has the infection source of the disease. Since"SARS"event in 2003, many countries have higher demand for wastewater treatment. The hospital wastewater treatment involves in the disease prevention, control and prevention of secondary pollution, once it is ignored, it will have a significant impact on the social environment and the natural environment. Therefore, hospital wastewater treatment, in particular sewage disposal of infectious diseases, is very important.

  1. Effect of pre-treatment of cheese milk on the composition and characteristics of whey and whey products

    OpenAIRE

    Outinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Cheese producers want to increase cheese yield. The yield is improved by enhanced transfer of milk proteins and fat to cheese. This requires modifications to the traditional cheese process. During high-temperature heat treatment (HH), whey proteins are partially denaturated and co-precipitated with the cheese matrix. Elevation of the protein concentration of milk enhances the formation of the protein network in which whey proteins and fat are enclosed. The protein concentration is usually inc...

  2. Estimating Pollutant Removal Requirements for Landfills in the UK: I. Benchmark Study and Characteristics of Waste Treatment Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, D H; Drury, D.; Gronow, Jan R.; Rosevear, Alan; Pollard, Simon J. T.; Smith, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Introduction of the EU Landfill Directive is having a significant impact on waste management in the UK and in other member states that have relied on landfilling. This paper considers the length of the aftercare period required by the municipal solid waste streams that the UK will most probably generate following implementation of the Landfill Directive. Data were derived from literature to identify properties of residues from the most likely treatment processes and the prob...

  3. The Research Process of TCM Characteristic Therapy in Treatment of Insomnia%中医特色疗法治疗失眠研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟玲

    2015-01-01

    Reviews the research process of TCM characteristic therapy in the treatment of insomnia from the aspects such as acupuncture therapy, au-ricular pressure therapy, acupoint application therapy, acpoint embedding therapy, and the prospect of its application is pointed out.%从针灸疗法、耳穴压豆疗法、穴位贴敷疗法、穴位埋线疗法等方面综述了中医特色疗法治疗失眠的研究进展,并指出了其应用前景。

  4. Most Trial Eligibility Criteria and Patient Baseline Characteristics Do Not Modify Treatment Effect in Trials Using Targeted Therapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anton Wulf; Tarp, Simon; Furst, Daniel E;

    2015-01-01

    rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We conducted a meta-epidemiological study of all trials evaluating a targeted therapy approved by regulatory authorities for treating RA. The database search was completed on December 11th 2013. Eligible trials reported ACR20 data at months 3-6 and used an add-on design......OBJECTIVE: To determine if variations in trial eligibility criteria and patient baseline characteristics could be considered effect modifiers of the treatment response when testing targeted therapies (biological agents and targeted synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)) for...

  5. Enhancement of Gas Sensing Characteristics of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes by CF4 Plasma Treatment for SF6 Decomposition Component Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available H2S and SO2 are important gas components of decomposed SF6 of partial discharge generated by insulation defects in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS. Therefore, H2S and SO2 detection is important in the state evaluation and fault diagnosis of GIS. In this study, dielectric barrier discharge was used to generate CF4 plasma and modify multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs. The nanotubes were plasma-treated at optimum discharge conditions under different treatment times (0.5, 1, 2, 5, 8, 10, and 12 min. Pristine and treated MWNTs were used as gas sensors to detect H2S and SO2. The effects of treatment time on gas sensitivity were analyzed. Results showed that the sensitivity, response, and recovery time of modified MWNTs to H2S were improved, but the recovery time of SO2 was almost unchanged. At 10 min treatment time, the MWNTs showed good stability and reproducibility with better gas sensing properties compared with the other nanotubes.

  6. Effect of age and chemical treatments on characteristic parameters for active and porous sublayers of polymeric composite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, J; Vázquez, M I

    2004-05-15

    Changes in the transport parameters and the chemical nature of the surface of composite polyamide/polysulfone membranes due to both aging and treatment with chemical products (HCl, H(3)NO, and NaOH) have been considered. Hydraulic and salt permeability were obtained from water flow and salt diffusion measurements, respectively, and their values seem to indicate a modification in the structural parameters (porosity/thickness) of aging samples, while HCl and HNO(3) treatments will act in the opposite way. Chemical modifications in the membrane surfaces were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which mainly show the effect of H(3)NO and HCl on the polyamide active layer of the membranes (polyamide oxidation), but no chemical damage for that sublayer. Electrical characterization of both sublayers of the composite membranes were determined from impedance spectroscopy (IS) measurements using equivalent circuits as models, and these results indicate: (i) a strong increase of the membrane electrical resistance as a consequence of aging, mainly that associated with the active sublayer (30 times higher for an old sample than for a fresh one) and treatment with NaOH; (ii) the reduction of this effect when the samples were treated with HCl and HNO(3) solutions. Changes in the values of the electrical resistance of the composite membranes are in agreement with those obtained for permeabilities, but the electrical parameter also allows the determination of the contribution of each sublayer. PMID:15082393

  7. Effects of cultural treatments, seedling type and morphological characteristics on survival and growth of wild cherry seedlings in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetintas C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is receiving increasing attention from foresters in Europe and Turkey for its fast growth, highly-valued wood and benefits for wildlife and biodiversity. Little documentation may be found concerning the selection of appropriate cultural treatments and the quality and types of seedlings used for wild cherry plantations. This study reports the effects of various combinations of intensive cultural treatments (including weed control, soil tillage, and fertilization and seedling types on early growth, survival, and nutrition of one-year-old wild cherry seedlings out-planted on four different sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey. After two years, early seedling survival and growth were clearly enhanced for potted seedlings. For bare-root seedlings, initial seedling root-collar diameter and height successfully correlated with survival two years after planting. Seedlings with a root-collar diameter of 6-8 mm and height of 60-70 cm demonstrated the best survival rates in the field. The wild cherry seedlings were shown to be highly sensitive to herbaceous weed competition early in their establishment, warranting effective weed control. When used in addition to weed control, neither intensive fertilization nor soil tillage treatments significantly increased seedling survival and growth two years after planting. Therefore, intensive site preparation, as well as fertilization, are not recommended at this stage for planting sites without severe nutrient deficiencies.

  8. Surface modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) through oxygen and nitrogen plasma treatment to improve its characteristics towards biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeric materials successfully applied in biomedical applications have an issue of poor surface properties which may restrict their applications as biomaterials. The present paper aims to study the effect of oxygen and nitrogen plasma treatment on physico-chemical properties of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and enhancement in its biocompatibility. Various characterization techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy were used to evaluate the changes in surface chemistry and morphology of plasma treated PDMS. Changes in the wettability after plasma treatments and the effects of ageing on wettability were studied by contact angle measurement. Ageing studies showed that the contact angle was stable after two hours. The effect of plasma treatment on biocompatibility was studied through cell adhesion and MTT using 3T3 fibroblast cells. Morphology of cells obtained through SEM was analyzed using ImageJ software. Among the different treated and untreated samples, substantial enhancement in biocompatibility was observed for nitrogen plasma treated PDMS for 5 min in terms of highest cell area observed from cell adhesion test and highest cell viability observed from MTT test. This may be probably due to its highest polarity (0.4) and surface energy (33.3 N mm−2) with a moderate surface roughness (Rrms = 100.24 nm) among the other treated and untreated samples. (paper)

  9. Scaling characteristics of depletion type, fully transparent amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors and inverters following Ar plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonwoo; Jeong, Soon Moon; Jeong, Jaewook

    2015-11-01

    We fabricated depletion type, transparent amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) and inverters with an Ar plasma treatment and analyzed their scaling characteristics with channel lengths ranging from 2 to 100 µm. The improvement of the field-effect mobility of a-IGZO TFTs is apparent only for short channel lengths. There is also an unexpected side effect of the Ar plasma treatment, which introduces back-channel interfacial states and induces a positive shift in the threshold voltage of a-IGZO TFTs. The resulting increase in the field-effect mobility and the positive shift in the threshold voltage of each TFT increase the differential gain up to 3 times and the positive shift in the transient point of the transparent inverters.

  10. Characteristics and treatment interests among individuals with substance use disorders and a history of past six-month violence: Findings from an emergency department study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermack, Stephen T.; Murray, Regan; Kraus, Shane; Walton, Maureen A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Barry, Kristen L.; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined clinical characteristics and treatment interests of individuals identified to have substance use disorders (SUDs) in an urban emergency department (ED) who reported past six-month history of violence or victimization. Specifically, participants were 1441 ED patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of interventions designed to link those with SUDs to treatment. To examine factors related to violence type, four groups based on participants’ reports of violence toward others were created: no violence (46.8%), partner violence only (17.3%), non-partner violence only (20.2%), and both partner and non-partner violence (15.7%). Four groups based on participants’ reports of victimization were also created: no violence (42.1%), victimization from partner only (18.7%), victimization from non-partner only (20.2%), and both partner and non-partner victimization (17.7%). Separate multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine which variables distinguished the violence and victimization groups from those reporting no violence or victimization. For violence toward others, demographic variables, alcohol and cocaine disorders, and rating treatment for psychological problems were higher for violence groups, with some differences depending on type of violence. For victimization, demographic variables, having an alcohol disorder, and rating treatment for family/social problems were higher for violence groups, also with some differences depending on type of violence. Findings from the present study could be useful for designing effective brief interventions and services for ED settings. PMID:24148140

  11. Influence of blade tenderization, moisture enhancement and pancreatin enzyme treatment on the processing characteristics and tenderness of beef semitendinosus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasik, Z; Aalhus, J L; Gibson, L L; Shand, P J

    2010-03-01

    The combined effect of blade tenderization (BT), moisture enhancement and enzymatic tenderization on drip loss, cook loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and sensory characteristics of beef semitendinosus (ST) steaks from cattle under 30 months of age was investigated. Injection with phosphate/chloride solution improved tenderness and juiciness of ST muscles (Ptenderness was observed with incorporation of a pancreatin enzyme preparation into the moisture enhancement solution (P>0.1). Injection of pancreatin alone tended to improve overall tenderness (P=0.09) and did not adversely affect other palatability attributes. Blade tenderization of ST muscles improved tenderness, as indicated by lower WBSF and increased sensory tenderness scores than for control samples, without decreasing flavour and juiciness. The results suggest that moisture enhancement and blade tenderization can be effectively utilized to reduce the variability in and improve both tenderness and palatability of ST muscles. Pancreatin was not particularly effective at the 0.02% level used. PMID:20374818

  12. Characteristics of back corona discharge in a honeycomb catalyst and its application for treatment of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fada; Zheng, Yanyan; Shen, Xinjun; Zheng, Qinzhen; Dai, Shaolong; Zhang, Xuming; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Zhen; Yan, Keping

    2015-06-01

    The main technical challenges for the treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with plasma-assisted catalysis in industrial applications are large volume plasma generation under atmospheric pressure, byproduct control, and aerosol collection. To solve these problems, a back corona discharge (BCD) configuration has been designed to evenly generate nonthermal plasma in a honeycomb catalyst. Voltage-current curves, discharge images, and emission spectra have been used to characterize the plasma. Grade particle collection results and flow field visualization in the discharge zones show not only that the particles can be collected efficiently, but also that the pressure drop of the catalyst layer is relatively low. A three-stage plasma-assisted catalysis system, comprising a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) stage, BCD stage, and catalyst stage, was built to evaluate toluene treatment performance by BCD. The ozone analysis results indicate that BCD enhances the ozone decomposition by collecting aerosols and protecting the Ag-Mn-O catalyst downstream from aerosol contamination. The GC and FTIR results show that BCD contributes to toluene removal, especially when the specific energy input is low, and the total removal efficiency reaches almost 100%. Furthermore, this removal results in the emission of fewer byproducts. PMID:25941906

  13. The prevalence of severe pain, its etiopathological characteristics and treatment profile of patients referred to a tertiary cancer care pain clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P N Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is the most feared symptom in cancer. About 52-77% patients suffer pain despite World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Out of total, one-third patients suffer moderate to severe pain. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, etiopathogenesis and characteristics of severe pain and treatment response among pain clinic referrals in a busy tertiary care cancer center. This study found a high prevalence (31.5% of severe pain. A total of 251 patients who had complete pain data were analyzed for etiopathological characteristics and treatment response. Head and neck cancer contributed the highest prevalence among all regions. Oncologists prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs or paracetamol with or without mild opioids to 14% patients and pain clinic physicians prescribed opioids and overall 63.7% patients had a better response after pain clinic referral, even then, morphine was not prescribed to many deserving patients. Doctors need pain education about opioids to remove any fear of prescribing opioids in presence of severe pain.

  14. Influence of the rate of increase in the induction on the spectral characteristics of luminescence of ZnS: Mn under treatment in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacherikov, Yu. Yu.

    2010-08-01

    This paper reports on the results of the investigation of photoluminescence and luminescence excitation spectra of a ZnS powder thermally doped with MnCl · 4H2O or MnS and subjected to a series of treatments in a pulsed magnetic field with the same maximum amplitude of the magnetic field induction ( B max = 0.3 T) but with different rates of its increase dot B ( t) to a maximum value. It has been revealed that pulsed magnetic fields with different rates of increase in the induction B nonlinearly affect the spectral characteristics of the ZnS: Mn compounds. The processes occurring in the material, which can lead to a change in its spectral characteristics due to the manifestation of the magnetoplastic effect, and the influence of the parameter dot B ( t) of the magnetic field on the efficiency of the external action have been discussed. It has been demonstrated that a variation in the parameter dot B ( t) makes it possible to control the location of defects in the nearest environment of Mn2+ ions in the ZnS compound after the completion of treatment of the material in a magnetic field. The mechanisms responsible for the different effects exerted by energetically identical external disturbances on the system have been proposed.

  15. Treatment characteristics and mortality of a large insured female population with advanced or metastatic breast cancer by receipt of HER2-targeted agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yanni Hao,1 Nicole Meyer,2 Pamela Landsman-Blumberg,2 William Johnson,2 Jaqueline Willemann Rogerio1 1Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 2Truven Health Analytics, Cambridge, MA, USA Purpose: This retrospective administrative claims study of women diagnosed with advanced or metastatic breast cancer compared treatment characteristics and mortality by receipt of human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2-targeted agents and by disease stage and age group among patients using HER2-targeted agents. Patients and methods: Adult women diagnosed with stage III or IV breast cancer (index date between 2008 and 2012 were identified from MarketScan® databases containing medical and pharmacy claims for >40 million enrollees insured with >100 US health plans. Patients were followed until the earlier of the following: end of enrollment, inpatient death, or December 31, 2012. Study cohorts were women ± HER2-targeted agent use, HER2-targeted agent users' subgroups of stages III and IV, and age group. Pre- and postindex breast cancer treatments were compared among study cohorts. Overall survival was compared using log-rank tests. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to study the predictors of overall survival. Results: Of 30,660 eligible women, 14.4% received HER2-targeted agents. HER2-targeted agent users received more aggressive pre- and postindex cancer treatments compared to those with no HER2-targeted agents. HER2-targeted agents had higher rates of pre- and postindex breast cancer surgery, adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biologics-based therapy. Among HER2-targeted agent users, younger women and those with stage III breast cancer received more aggressive treatments. After adjusting for clinically relevant patient characteristics, women receiving HER2-targeted agents had a 20% reduced risk of death compared to patients not receiving HER2-targeted agents. Among all patients and the

  16. A comparison of patient characteristics, prognosis, treatment modalities, and survival according to age group in gastric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tural Deniz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate age-specific incidence rates and to compare disease stage, treatment, and survival according to age group in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods Gastric cancer patients treated at our hospital between 1999 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. We divided the cases into two subgroups: group 1 consisted of patients older than 70 years at the time of treatment, and group 2 included patients aged 70 years or younger. In all, 151 patients over 70 years of age and 715 patients age 70 years or younger were analyzed. Categorical and continuous variables were summarized using descriptive statistics and compared using statistical software. Overall survival rates were estimated via the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Median age at diagnosis was 58 years (range: 22 to 90 years. Between 1999 and 2002 the annual median age for patients aged older than70 years was 9.8%, which increased to 20% between 2007 and 2010. The one-year survival rate for patients with metastatic disease (stage IV was 10.9% (95% CI: 8.9% to 12.9% and 27.8% (95% CI: 17.3% to 38.2% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.015. The five-year survival rate for patients with non-metastatic disease (in whom curative surgery was performed was 15.5% (95% CI = 12% to 19% and 26.9% (95% CI = 25.9% to 27.9% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.03. There were no significant differences in gender, tumor localization in the stomach, tumor histology, perineural invasion (PNI, lymphovascular invasion (LVI, tumor stage, or type of surgery between the two groups. However, fewer of the patients in group 1 underwent adjuvant treatment (P = 0.02 and palliative chemotherapy (P = 0.007 than group 2 patients that were non-metastatic and metastatic at presentation, respectively. Conclusions Groups 1 and 2 were similar in terms of histopathological features and surgical modality; however, the survival rate was lower in group 1 than in group 2

  17. Study on the treatment of photovoltaic wastewater using electrocoagulation: Fluoride removal with aluminium electrodes-Characteristics of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, treatment of synthetic fluoride-containing solutions by electrocoagulation method using aluminium electrodes has been studied. Electrocoagulation was investigated for applied potential (10-30 V), electrolysis time and supporting electrolyte (NaCl) concentration (0-100 mg/L). The results showed that with increasing applied potential and electrolysis time, the Al3+ dosage increases, and thereby favouring the fluoride ions removal. It was also observed that defluoridation is dependant on the concentration of supporting electrolyte. Finally, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy of X-rays and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the solid products formed by aluminium electrodes during the EC process.

  18. Study on the treatment of photovoltaic wastewater using electrocoagulation: Fluoride removal with aluminium electrodes-Characteristics of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS), 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7-merveilles, 16200 (Algeria); Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnologies, Ecole Polytechnique d' Alger - 10, Avenue Pasteur El-Harrach (Algeria); Aoudj, S.; Hecini, M. [Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS), 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7-merveilles, 16200 (Algeria); Ghaffour, N. [Middle East Desalination Research Center, P.O. Box 21, P.C.133, Muscat (Oman); Lounici, H.; Mameri, N. [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnologies, Ecole Polytechnique d' Alger - 10, Avenue Pasteur El-Harrach (Algeria)

    2009-09-30

    In this work, treatment of synthetic fluoride-containing solutions by electrocoagulation method using aluminium electrodes has been studied. Electrocoagulation was investigated for applied potential (10-30 V), electrolysis time and supporting electrolyte (NaCl) concentration (0-100 mg/L). The results showed that with increasing applied potential and electrolysis time, the Al{sup 3+} dosage increases, and thereby favouring the fluoride ions removal. It was also observed that defluoridation is dependant on the concentration of supporting electrolyte. Finally, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy of X-rays and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the solid products formed by aluminium electrodes during the EC process.

  19. Annealing characteristics of ion implantation damage at the Si/SiO2 interface after pulse heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some electrophysical properties of the oxide and the Si/SiO2 interface after argon ion implantation (E = 120 keV) through 0.03 μm Al and 0.1 μm SiO2 without and after annealing are investigated with capacitance-voltage (C-V) and triangular voltage sweep (TVS) measurements. For annealing the ion implantation damage we used flash lamp irradiation with a pulse duration of 10 ms and halogen lamps in a time regime of 10 s as well as conventional thermal processing in nitrogen with heating times of 30 min. Removal of implantation damage is demonstrated to be dependent on implantation doses, annealing temperature and a low temperature treatment in hydrogen/nitrogen ambient following the Al deposition. Short-time annealing in comparison with a conventional furnace processing is shown to have some advantages for practical applications. (author)

  20. Design, rationale, and baseline characteristics of a cluster randomized controlled trial of pay for performance for hypertension treatment: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutschg Meghan Z

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite compelling evidence of the benefits of treatment and well-accepted guidelines for treatment, hypertension is controlled in less than one-half of United States citizens. Methods/design This randomized controlled trial tests whether explicit financial incentives promote the translation of guideline-recommended care for hypertension into clinical practice and improve blood pressure (BP control in the primary care setting. Using constrained randomization, we assigned 12 Veterans Affairs hospital outpatient clinics to four study arms: physician-level incentive; group-level incentive; combination of physician and group incentives; and no incentives (control. All participants at the hospital (cluster were assigned to the same study arm. We enrolled 83 full-time primary care physicians and 42 non-physician personnel. The intervention consisted of an educational session about guideline-recommended care for hypertension, five audit and feedback reports, and five disbursements of incentive payments. Incentive payments rewarded participants for chart-documented use of guideline-recommended antihypertensive medications, BP control, and appropriate responses to uncontrolled BP during a prior four-month performance period over the 20-month intervention. To identify potential unintended consequences of the incentives, the study team interviewed study participants, as well as non-participant primary care personnel and leadership at study sites. Chart reviews included data collection on quality measures not related to hypertension. To evaluate the persistence of the effect of the incentives, the study design includes a washout period. Discussion We briefly describe the rationale for the interventions being studied, as well as the major design choices. Rigorous research designs such as the one described here are necessary to determine whether performance-based payment arrangements such as financial incentives result in meaningful

  1. [Investigation of pollution characteristics of erythromycin resistance genes in a sewage treatment plant and the relevant selective factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kan-Zhu; Wu, Li-Le; Huang, Sheng-Lin; He, Shi; Liu, Zhen-Hong; Xue, Gang; Gao, Pin

    2014-12-01

    Occurrence and distribution of twelve pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were investigated in a sewage treatment plant in Shanghai using solid-phase extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the distribution and removal of seven erythromycin resistance genes (ERY-ARGs). The results showed that five PPCPs including sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, tetracycline, carbamazepine and triclosan were detected in the collected wastewater samples with concentrations in the ranges of 24.5- 38.7, 47.5-49.2, 43.1-85.4, 2.5-3.9 and 423.2-8 973.3 ng x L(-1), respectively. During the wastewater treatment process, a significant reduction of triclosan was observed, but the removal efficiencies for the other detected PPCPs were relatively low. Additionally, all target ERY-ARGs were detected in the wastewater samples ranging from 9.28 x 10(3) (ermA) to 1.83 x 10(8) (ereA) copies x L(-1) in raw influent. Though significant reductions (1.19 log-3.97 log) of ERY-ARGs were obtained, their concentrations found in the final effluent were still high. Moreover, the concentration of ERY-ARGs exhibited significant positive correlation with the concentration of erythromycin and triclosan (P < 0.05), respectively, elucidating that erythromycin played an important role in the occurrence and spread of ERY-ARGs, while triclosan may confer cross-selection for ERY-ARGs. PMID:25826929

  2. Characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus removal by a surface-flow constructed wetland for polluted river water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Wang, Xiaochang; Zheng, Yucong; Ge, Yuan; Xiong, Jiaqing; Zhao, Yaqian

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal were studied during the 2-year operation of a free water surface flow wetland of 900 m² with hydraulic loading of 0.1 m/d to evaluate its potential to treat water from an urban stream polluted with municipal and industrial wastewater. Attention was focused on the removal of dissolved N and P by harvesting plants (local Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis) at the end of each growing season. According to findings, the removals of N and P increased from 47.1% and 17.6%, respectively, in the 1st year to 52.3% and 32.4%, respectively, in the 2nd year. Increments of N and P removal were largely attributable to plant biomass, which increased from an average dry weight of 1.77 kg/m² in the 1st year to 3.41 kg/m² in the 2nd year. The amount of nutrients assimilated by plants in the 2nd year was almost double that of the 1st year. Increasing biomass in the 2nd year also improved redox conditions in the substrate layer, which contributed to increasing the efficiency of N removal. Compared with T. orientalis, P. australis was more competitive and adapted to conditions in the wetland better; it regenerated more vigorously and contributed more to nutrient removal. PMID:25812101

  3. Chemical characteristics of gel obtained from blend of colostrum and skim milk under different heat treatments conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikant Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Study was carried out to evaluate the chemical characteristics of colostrums and skim milk blended heat treated product. The present study was confined to standardization of colostrum harvested from 2nd milking of gir breed of cow based product in combination with skim milk, sugar and cardamom powder. The blends proportions of skim milk were @ 15, 30, 45% and addition of 8% cane sugar was found to impart the desired sweetness. Green cardamom powder was used as flavouring agent. These mixtures were kept in a water bath at 3 different temperatures viz. 60, 70 and 75⁰C for 30 minutes. Gelation occurs on heating to yield curd like products of different gel strength, which were cooled at room temperature and analysed for different chemical attributes like fat, protein, acidity etc. The results indicated that the fat, protein, acidity content decreased significantly (p˂ 0.01 however the moisture, total carbohydrate increased significantly (p˂0.01 but ash differed non significantly with increased in skim milk proportion in blend at different temperatures.

  4. Effect of operating parameters and membrane characteristics on air gap membrane distillation performance for the treatment of highly saline water

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jingli

    2016-04-07

    In this study, ten different commercially available PTFE, PP and PVDF membranes were tested in desalination of highly saline water by air gap membrane distillation (AGMD). Process performance was investigated under different operating parameters, such as feed temperatures, feed flow velocities and salt concentrations reaching 120 g/L, and different membrane characteristics, such as membrane material, thickness, pore size and support layer, using a locally designed and fabricatd AGMD module and spacer. Results showed that increasing feed temperature increases permeate flux regardless of the feed concentration. However, feed flow velocity does not significantly affect the flux, especially at low feed temperatures. The PP membrane showed a better performance than the PVDF and PTFE membranes. Permeate flux decreases with the increase of salt concentration of feed solution, especially at higher concentrations above 90 g/L. The existence of membrane support layer led to a slight decrease of permeate flux. Membranes with pore sizes of 0.2 and 0.45 μm gave the best performance. Smaller pore size led to lower flux and larger pore size led to pore wetting due to lower LEP values. The effect of concentration polarization and temperature polarization has also been studied and compared.

  5. Effects of cooling method after intercritical heat treatment on microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of as-cast high-strength low-alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The effect of cooling method after intercritical heat treatment on microstructure evolution was investigated. • Fracture mechanism of tensile and impact after different intercritical heat treatment has been analyzed. • The crack initiation and propagation after different intercritical heat treatment was compared in details. - Abstract: The effect of cooling method after intercritical heat treatment on the microstructures and mechanical properties of as-cast steel produced by electroslag casting was investigated. The microstructure characteristics were analyzed by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD). The mechanical performance was evaluated by tensile testing at ambient temperature and Charp V-notch impact tests at various temperatures (−40 °C, −20 °C, 20 °C). The tensile and impact fracture micromechanisms were discussed in details. The results of microstructure investigation indicated that water cooling after intercritical heat treatment led to a mixed microstructure of ferrite and tempered martensite, while a composite microstructure of ferrite and tempered bainite was obtained after air cooling. The carbides of Cr, Mo and Nb in matrix after water quenching were finer than the ones after air cooling. Compared with water cooling, a good balance of strength and toughness was obtained after air cooling. The crack propagation path in the steel after water cooling can propagate along the long axis direction of ferrite bands, directly across the intersecting banded ferrite and martensite as well as along the interfaces between ferrite and martensite. However, the crack propagation path in the steel after air cooling depends on the shape, size and distribution of M/A islands

  6. Clinical characteristics and risk behavior as a function of HIV status among heroin users enrolled in methadone treatment in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Chien-Yu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methadone treatment was introduced in Taiwan in 2006 as a harm-reduction program in response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, which is endemic among Taiwanese heroin users. The present study was aimed at examining the clinical and behavioral characteristics of methadone patients in northern Taiwan according to their HIV status. Methods The study was conducted at four methadone clinics. Participants were patients who had undergone methadone treatment at the clinics and who voluntarily signed a consent form. Between August and November 2008, each participant completed a face-to-face interview that included questions on demographics, risk behavior, quality of life, and psychiatric symptoms. Data on HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections, methadone dosage, and morphine in the urine were retrieved from patient files on the clinical premises, with permission of the participants. Results Of 576 participants, 71 were HIV positive, and 514 had hepatitis C. There were significant differences between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups on source of treatment payment, HCV infection, urine test results, methadone dosage, and treatment duration. The results indicate that HIV-negative heroin users were more likely to have sexual intercourse and not use condoms during the 6 months prior to the study. A substantial percent of the sample reported anxiety (21.0%, depression (27.2%, memory loss (32.7%, attempted suicide (32.7%, and administration of psychiatric medications (16.1%. There were no significant differences between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients on psychiatric symptoms or quality of life. Conclusions HIV-positive IDUs were comorbid with HCV, indicating the need to refer both HIV- and HCV-infected individuals for treatment in methadone clinics. Currently, there is a gap between psychiatric/psychosocial services and patient symptoms, and more integrated medical services should be provided to heroin

  7. Characteristics, Treatment, and Long-Term Outcome of Gastrointestinal Involvement in Behcet's Syndrome: A Strobe-Compliant Observational Study From a Dedicated Multidisciplinary Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Ibrahim; Esatoglu, Sinem Nihal; Hatemi, Gulen; Erzin, Yusuf; Yazici, Hasan; Celik, Aykut Ferhat

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal involvement is rare in Behçet's syndrome (BS) patients from the Mediterranean basin. We report the demographic and disease characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcome of patients with gastrointestinal involvement in BS (GIBS).We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all BS patients in our BS clinic with a diagnosis of GIBS. Patients were invited to the clinic to assess their outcome.Among 8763 BS patients, we identified 60 with GIBS (M/F: 32/28, mean age at diagnosis: 34 ± 10, mean follow-up: 7.5 ± 4 years), after excluding 22 patients with mimicking symptoms. Six (10%) had juvenile-onset BS. The most common intestinal localization was ileocecal region (36/59, 61%) mainly as big oval ulcer/s. Initial treatment was azathioprine for moderate to severe (n = 37) and 5-ASA for mild cases (n = 16). Anti-TNFs and/or thalidomide provided remission in 12 of 18 (67%) refractory patients. Emergency surgery was required in 22 patients. Nine patients did not receive postoperative immunomodulators and 8 relapsed. Overall, 48 of 60 (80%) patients were in remission (29/48 without treatment) at the time of survey. Three recently treated and 2 refractory patients were still active, 3 had died due to non-GI-related reasons, and 4 were lost to follow-up.Careful evaluation for excluding mimickers is important during the diagnosis of GIBS. Azathioprine seems to be a good choice as first-line treatment with high remission rates and few adverse events. Thalidomide and/or TNF-alpha antagonists may be preferred in resistant cases. Surgery may be required for perforations or massive bleeding, and postoperative immunosuppressive treatment is necessary for preventing postoperative recurrences. PMID:27100417

  8. Diabetes treatment patterns and goal achievement in primary diabetes care (DiaRegis - study protocol and patient characteristics at baseline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg Evelin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for disease and treatment related complications after the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data from clinical practice with respect to this patient group are however scarce. Therefore we set up a registry in primary care documenting the course and outcomes of this patient group. Methods Diabetes Treatment Patterns and Goal Achievement in Primary Diabetes Care (DiaRegis is a prospective, observational, German, multicenter registry including patients with type-2 diabetes in which oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data were recorded at baseline and will be prospectively documented during visits at 6 ± 1, 12 ± 2 and 24 ± 2 months. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of patients with at least 1 episode of severe hypoglycemia within one year. Results 313 primary care offices included 4,048 patients between June 2009 and March 2010 of which 3,810 patients fulfilled the in- and exclusion criteria. 46.7% of patients were female; patients had a median diabetes duration of 5.5 years and most were obese with respect to BMI or waist circumference. HbA1c at baseline was 7.4%, fasting plasma glucose 142 mg/dl and postprandial glucose 185 mg/dl. Co-morbidity in this patient population was substantial with 17.9% having coronary artery disease, 14.4% peripheral neuropathy, 9.9% heart failure and 6.0% peripheral arterial disease. 68.6% of patients received oral monotherapy, 31.4% dual oral combination therapy. The most frequent antidiabetic agent used as monotherapy was metformin (79.0% followed by sulfonylureas (14.8%. Conclusions DiaRegis is a large, prospective registry in primary diabetes care to document the course and outcomes of patients with type-2 diabetes in which the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. The two year follow-up will allow for a prospective evaluation of these patients

  9. Translating tumor biology into personalized treatment planning: analytical performance characteristics of the Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay is a new diagnostic test for determining the likelihood of recurrence in stage II colon cancer patients after surgical resection using fixed paraffin embedded (FPE) primary colon tumor tissue. Like the Oncotype DX Breast Cancer Assay, this is a high complexity, multi-analyte, reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that measures the expression levels of specific cancer-related genes. By capturing the biology underlying each patient's tumor, the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay provides a Recurrence Score (RS) that reflects an individualized risk of disease recurrence. Here we describe its analytical performance using pre-determined performance criteria, which is a critical component of molecular diagnostic test validation. All analytical measurements met pre-specified performance criteria. PCR amplification efficiency for all 12 assays was high, ranging from 96% to 107%, while linearity was demonstrated over an 11 log2 concentration range for all assays. Based on estimated components of variance for FPE RNA pools, analytical reproducibility and precision demonstrated low SDs for individual genes (0.16 to 0.32 CTs), gene groups (≤0.05 normalized/aggregate CTs) and RS (≤1.38 RS units). Analytical performance characteristics shown here for both individual genes and gene groups in the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay demonstrate consistent translation of specific biology of individual tumors into clinically useful diagnostic information. The results of these studies illustrate how the analytical capability of the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay has enabled clinical validation of a test to determine individualized recurrence risk after colon cancer surgery

  10. Succession of Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Metabolic Community Characteristics during In Vitro Bioslurry Treatment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelberg, David B.; Talley, Jeffrey W.; Perkins, Edward J.; Tucker, Samuel G.; Luthy, Richard G.; Bouwer, Edward J.; Fredrickson, Herbert L.

    2001-01-01

    Dredged harbor sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was removed from the Milwaukee Confined Disposal Facility and examined for in situ biodegradative capacity. Molecular techniques were used to determine the successional characteristics of the indigenous microbiota during a 4-month bioslurry evaluation. Ester-linked phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), multiplex PCR of targeted genes, and radiorespirometry techniques were used to define in situ microbial phenotypic, genotypic, and metabolic responses, respectively. Soxhlet extractions revealed a loss in total PAH concentrations of 52%. Individual PAHs showed reductions as great as 75% (i.e., acenapthene and fluorene). Rates of 14C-PAH mineralization (percent/day) were greatest for phenanthrene, followed by pyrene and then chrysene. There was no mineralization capacity for benzo[a]pyrene. Ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed a threefold increase in total microbial biomass and a dynamic microbial community composition that showed a strong correlation with observed changes in the PAH chemistry (canonical r2 of 0.999). Nucleic acid analyses showed copies of genes encoding PAH-degrading enzymes (extradiol dioxygenases, hydroxylases, and meta-cleavage enzymes) to increase by as much as 4 orders of magnitude. Shifts in gene copy numbers showed strong correlations with shifts in specific subsets of the extant microbial community. Specifically, declines in the concentrations of three-ring PAH moieties (i.e., phenanthrene) correlated with PLFA indicative of certain gram-negative bacteria (i.e., Rhodococcus spp. and/or actinomycetes) and genes encoding for naphthalene-, biphenyl-, and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase degradative enzymes. The results of this study suggest that the intrinsic biodegradative potential of an environmental site can be derived from the polyphasic characterization of the in situ microbial community. PMID:11282603

  11. Glomerulonephritis associated with marginal zone B-cell lymphoma: clinical, pathological characteristics of renal injury and treatment (clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Dzhumabaeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glomerulonephritis associated with marginal zone B-cell lymphoma at the onset of disease is rarely diagnosed. In this article we reported two patient of the extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma with kidney damage. The first patient with the extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma involved the stomach, lymph nodes, bone marrow and associated with mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis and renal failure. The second patient with the splenic form of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma associated with fibrillary glomerulonephritis and hepatitis C and involve the lymph nodes, liver, bone marrow, and synthesis monoclonal immunoglobulin (IgMκ, cryoglobulin type II. Glomerulonephritis of the both cases were established on the renal biopsies by the morphological investigation, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy.Both patients received therapy with bendamustine and rituximab, which has resulted in complete remission for lymphatic tumors and improve of kidney function. Overall and event-free survival in the first case corresponds to 21 and 16 months, the second 29 and 20, respectively.These cases illustrates that the kidney may be initially involved by extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, and the need for expanded investigation of the possible dissemination. Combination of bendamustine and rituximab were effective and safety treatment in these cases.

  12. Characteristics associated with low treatment satisfaction in patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators: results from the LICAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Deisenhofer, Isabelle; Simon, Heidi; Schmitt, Claus; Baumert, Jens J

    2005-06-01

    The evaluation of low treatment satisfaction (LTS) with an implanted cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) remains a neglected area of clinical research. However, a trustful attitude toward an ICD is crucial. Within the scope of ICD health technology assessment, we searched for predictors of LTS. Of 195 ICD patients enrolled (mean 59.8 years, standard deviation 12.6), 163 (83.6%) were men and 26 (16.4%) were women. We measured anxiety, helplessness, and depression with standardized instruments and LTS with 11 dichotomous items concerning a mistrustful attitude, a negative body image, and low appraisal. A total of 47 (24.1%) patients were considered as LTS patients. Multivariate logistic regression was used for assessment of LTS. Adjusted for age and survey, LTS was significantly more prevalent in depressed, anxious, and phobic patients. Multivariate logistic regression including medical and psychological covariates revealed the experience of > or =5 shocks with an odds ratio (OR) of 10.17 (95% CI 3.57-29.00, P effect on LTS. Age, educational status, and depression were not significant. LTS patients required more support for living with the ICD (P < or = 0.001). Thus, LTS serves as surrogate measure for deteriorated psychic health. Clinicians should be advised to identify LTS patients and to consider psychotherapeutic counseling for them. PMID:15955182

  13. Characteristics of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) in the oil and gas industries and their behaviour under thermal treatment: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities and work practices in which radiation exposure of workers and members of the public is increased due to the presence of NORM are receiving increased attention from regulatory agencies and, to lesser extent, from the general public. In Malaysia the main sources of NORM are from the technological activities of tin mining, ore and heavy mineral processing, combustion of coal to generate power, and oil and gas extraction. Sludge that contains NORM arising from the oil and gas extraction activities lately has received special attention by the Malaysian regulatory authorities. These sludge are considered as scheduled waste (contains heavy metals) by Department of Environmental (DOE) and low level radioactive waste (contains NORM) by the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB), and its cannot be disposed freely without proper control. From literature, the present methods of treatment practiced via land farming and storing are not recommended and will have long term impact to the environment. The other possible method can be considered to treat this sludge is by using thermal treatment technology but before this technology can be fully applied, a study has to be carried out to determine the behaviour of the various elements present in the sludge. This paper reviewed the radiological characteristic of NORMs in relation with the oil and gas production activities in Malaysia and also their behaviour when under going thermal treatment at certain temperature and combustion time. (Author)

  14. [Characteristics of dissolved organic matter in A/DAT-IAT system for municipal wastewater treatment based on ecological safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sai; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Hua, Tao

    2014-02-01

    To ensure the water-quality safety and harmlessness of effluent from municipal wastewater, based on the lab-scale improved SBR-A/DAT-IAT process, dissolved organic matter (DOM) in municipal wastewater, demand aeration tank (DAT) supernatant and final effluent were classified and separated by applying the ultrafiltration membranes, and indexes such as TOC, UV254, 3D-EEM and toxicity were measured, to find out the sources of the toxic substances. The results showed that the lab-scale A/DAT-IAT process performed well on each molecular-weight fraction of DOM. The main composition in the effluent was humic-like substance. Along the process, The DOM distribution presented a trend of shifting to high molecular weight. Meanwhile, the aromaticity of DOM in the fraction with relative molecular weight below 1 x 10(3) increased significantly, leading to the increase in the reactivity of effluent with chlorine, which then increased the risk of disinfection by-products. In the raw wastewater, the toxic effects were originated from the fraction with relative molecular weight below 1 x 10(3), although the toxic effects were still originated from the same fraction in the effluent, they came from the biological treatment itself instead of the raw wastewater. Based on the analysis of TOC, UV254, 3D-EEM and toxicity, the removal of low molecular-weight humic-like substance should be emphasized to achieve the effluent organic emissions standards and to control the risk of chlorination by-products and toxicity. Therefore, future studies should focus on the removal of this fraction of DOM by adjusting technological parameters or adding a targeted processing unit. PMID:24812958

  15. Quality Characteristics and Quantification of Acetaldehyde and Methanol in Apple Wine Fermentation by Various Pre-Treatments of Mash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Seon Yi; Seo, Jae Soon; Kwak, Han Sub; Lee, Youngseung; Kim, Misook; Shim, Hyoung-Seok; Jeong, Yoonhwa

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of adding lactic acid and pectinase, and chaptalization for the quality of apple wine and the production of hazardous compounds (methanol and acetaldehyde). The pH of all of the samples was below 4; therefore, mash seemed to be fermented without any issue. Total acidity was the highest in sample A due to lactic acid addition. Pre-treated groups (samples B, C, and D) showed higher total acidities than that of the control (Ppectinase added sample (sample B) had the lowest alcohol contents. Adding lactic acid produced more alcohol, and chaptalized samples produced more alcohol due to the addition of sugar. Adding pectinase with and without chaptalization was not effective for producing more alcohol. The control sample had significantly higher acetaldehyde content (2.39 mg/L) than the other samples (1.00~2.07 mg/L); therefore, pre-treatments for apple wine fermentation produced a lower amount of acetaldehyde. Among the pre-treated samples, samples C and D showed the lowest acetaldehyde content of 1.00 mg/L and 1.16 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, a significantly higher amount of methanol was generated for sample A (1.03 mg/L) and sample D (1.22 mg/L) than that of the control (0.82 mg/L) (P<0.05). Adding lactic acid or chaptalization was effective in reducing methanol and acetaldehyde in apple wines. PMID:26770917

  16. Epidemiological analysis of demographic characteristics and type of injuries in patients with multiple trauma with respect to conclusive treatment outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagorac Slaviša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Multiple trauma is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the population of people under 45 years of age. The consequences of multiple trauma have huge epidemiological, social and economic significance. Objective The aim of the paper was to analyze the conclusive treatment outcome of multiply traumatized patients with respect to their sex, age, injury mechanism and type. METHOD This retrospective study included 100 patients with multiple injuries (ISS>16 treated in the Emergency Room of the Clinical Centre of Serbia in the course of 2004. Clinical, X-ray, laboratory and numerical presentation methods - scores (ISS and GCS were used to show the injury severity. Results Most of the injured were males (80%, and the average age was 40±20 (5-83. Out of the total number of patients who died, 23 (82% were males, and 5 (18% were females. The average age of the patients with fatal outcomes was 48±21 (8-86. Traffic accidents were the leading cause of injury (59%. The median GCS was 10±3 (3-15. The average ISS was 30 (20-66 in the surviving patients, and 53 (27-77 in those who died. Conclusion With respect to sex, in most cases multiple trauma affects males (p<0.01, with the average age of about 40. With respect to injury mechanism, the main cause of the occurrence of multiple trauma is traffic accidents (p<0.01. There is a statistically significant difference in the values of GCS and ISS relative to the definitive outcome (p<0.01. Statistical data processing indicated that there was a statistically significant correlation between mortality and type of injury in a given organic system (p<0.01, but that there was no statistically significant correlation between mortality and age. .

  17. Clinical characteristics and treatment of Ebola virus disease%埃博拉病毒病临床特征与治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 苏海滨

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a fatal disease caused by Ebola virus infection with high morbidity rate. Clinical manifestations of EVD are not specific and the diagnosis of EVD is confirmed mainly by etiology examination. So far, the mainstay therapy is supportive care, and efforts to develop other potential therapies are ongoing. This article focuses on the clinical characteristics and treatment of EVD.%埃博拉病毒病(Ebola virus disease, EVD)是由埃博拉病毒引起的烈性传染病,致死率高.EVD 临床表现无特异性,确诊主要依靠病原学检查.目前以对症支持治疗为主,其他可能的治疗方案在不断研究探索中.本文对 EVD 的临床特征及治疗进行综述.

  18. Effect of chemical treatment on surface characteristics of sputter deposited Ti-rich NiTi shape memory alloy thin-films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: FTIR spectra recorded for sputter deposited (a) untreated and (b) chemically treated NiTi SMA thin-films. - Highlights: • The effect of chemical treatment on surface properties of NiTi films demonstrated. • Chemically treated films offer strong ability to form protective TiO2 layer. • TiO2 layer formation offer great application prospects in biomedical fields. - Abstract: NiTi thin-films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering from single alloy target (Ni/Ti:45/55 at.%). The rate of deposition and thickness of sputter deposited films were maintained to ∼35 nm min−1 and 4 μm respectively. A set of sputter deposited NiTi films were selected for specific chemical treatment with the solution comprising of de-ionized water, HF and HNO3 respectively. The influence of chemical treatment on surface characteristics of NiTi films before and after chemical treatment was investigated for their structure, micro-structure and composition using different analytical techniques. Prior to chemical treatment, the composition of NiTi films using energy dispersive X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), were found to be 51.8 atomic percent of Ti and 48.2 atomic percent of Ni. The structure and morphology of these films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD investigations, demonstrated the presence of dominant Austenite (1 1 0) phase along with Martensite phase, for untreated NiTi films whereas some additional diffraction peaks viz. (1 0 0), (1 0 1), and (2 0 0) corresponding to Rutile and Anatase phase of Titanium dioxide (TiO2) along with parent Austenite (1 1 0) phase were observed for chemically treated NiTi films. FTIR studies, it can be concluded that chemically treated films have higher tendency to form metal oxide/hydroxide than the untreated NiTi films. XPS investigations, demonstrated the presence of Ni-free surface and formation of a protective metal oxide (TiO2) layer on the surface of the films

  19. Influence of heat treatment on the sensory and physical characteristics and carbohydrate fractions of french-fried potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Carvalho Montenegro de VASCONCELOS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to analyze the impact that heat treatment with salts and freezing processes on the sensory, instrumental, and physico-chemical characteristics of fried potatoes of the Monalisa cultivar. The potatoes were blanched in distilled water (P; sodium chloride solution (B1; calcium chloride solution (B2, and a solution with both of these salts (B3. They were then pre-cooked and frozen for 24 hours and for 30 days. After frying, sensory characteristics were analyzed (color, texture, flavor, oiliness, along with overall preference and instrumental determinations of texture, color, and oil content. Further tests were conducted on the sample with the best results in the sensory analysis (B1, along with sample P as a control, to determine granule microstructure, carbohydrate fractions, glycemic index, and glycemic load. Blanching B3, despite reducing oil absorption and providing less oiliness, obtained lesser overall preference. Freezing for 30 days increased the lightness, except for when sodium chloride was used, which intensified the color yellow. The use of sodium chloride did not interfere with the type of starch granules, nor with the formation of resistant starch; however, longer freezing time reduced the glycemic index and concentrated the dietary fiber content. All samples exhibited low glycemic index and moderate glycemic loads.

  20. CHLORINE DIOXIDE TREATMENT OF SISAL FIBRE: SURFACE LIGNIN AND ITS INFLUENCES ON FIBRE SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS AND INTERFACIAL BEHAVIOUR OF SISAL FIBRE/PHENOLIC RESIN COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxin Zhong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation of the influences of chlorine dioxide treatment on fibre surface lignin. The fibre surface characteristics and the interfacial behaviour of the sisal fibre/phenolic resin composites were also studied by SEM, AFM, and XPS. The results show that the surface of the untreated fibre contains a large amount of lignin with granular structure and non-granular structure. The surface lignin concentration is up to 51% for the untreated fibre, and then it decreases to 24% and 20% for fibres treated with 1.5 % and 2.0% chlorine dioxide, respectively. The removal of lignin from the fibre surface can enhance the interfacial strength of the composites, giving rise to increases by 36% and 28% in tensile strength and internal bonding strength. These results indicate that the surface properties of single sisal fibres can be tailored to improve the fibre/resin interface. Chlorine dioxide treatment has potential for surface modification of sisal fibre in engineering the interfacial behaviour of composites.

  1. Effect of annealing treatment on the electrical characteristics of Pt/Cr-embedded ZnO/Pt resistance random access memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO/Cr/ZnO trilayer films sandwiched with Pt electrodes were prepared for nonvolatile resistive memory applications. The threshold voltage of a ZnO device embedded with a 3-nm Cr interlayer was approximately 50% lower than that of a ZnO monolayer device. This study investigated threshold voltage as a function of Cr thickness. Both the ZnO monolayer device and the Cr-embedded ZnO device structures exhibited resistance switching under electrical bias both before and after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment, but resistive switching effects in the two cases exhibited distinct characteristics. Compared with the as-fabricated device, the memory cell after RTA demonstrated remarkable device parameter improvements, including a lower threshold voltage, a lower write current, and a higher Roff/Ron ratio. Both transmission electron microscope observations and Auger electron spectroscopy revealed that the Cr charge trapping layer in Cr-embedded ZnO dispersed uniformly into the storage medium after RTA, and x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that the Cr atoms lost electrons to become Cr3+ ions after dispersion. These results indicated that the altered status of Cr in ZnO/Cr/ZnO trilayer films during RTA treatment was responsible for the switching mechanism transition

  2. Advanced small cell carcinoma of the bladder: clinical characteristics, treatment patterns and outcomes in 960 patients and comparison with urothelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geynisman, Daniel M; Handorf, Elizabeth; Wong, Yu-Ning; Doyle, Jamie; Plimack, Elizabeth R; Horwitz, Eric M; Canter, Daniel J; Uzzo, Robert G; Kutikov, Alexander; Smaldone, Marc C

    2016-02-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics, treatment patterns and outcomes in advanced small cell bladder cancer (aSCBC) patients and compare to those with urothelial carcinoma (UC). Individuals in the National Cancer Data Base with a diagnosis of either nodal (TxN+M0) or distant metastatic (TxNxM1) disease were identified from 1998 to 2010. We assessed the relationships between stage, treatment modalities and survival in the aSCBC cohort and compared these to UC patients. In the 960 patient aSCBC cohort (62% M1), 50% received palliative therapy alone, 68% in M1 versus 21% in M0 groups (P carcinoma patients (n = 27,796, 45% M1) lived longer compared to aSCBC patients in the N+M0 group (17.3 months vs. 13.0 months, P = 0.0007). There were not clinically significant differences in OS between UC and aSCBC patients in the M1 group. Advanced SCBC is a rare disease with a poor survival and palliative therapy is common, especially in M1 patients. In comparison to UC, the outcomes for aSCBC patients are worse in those with lymph node only involvement but similar in those with distant disease. PMID:26679712

  3. Examination of sludge accumulation rates and sludge characteristics for a decentralized community wastewater treatment systems with individual primary clarifier tanks located in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossing, Heather; Champagne, Pascale; McLellan, P James

    2010-01-01

    In conventional septic systems, settling and partial treatment via anaerobic digestion occurs in the septic tank. One of the byproducts of solids separation in the septic tank is a semi-liquid material known as septage, which must be periodically pumped out. Septage includes the liquid portion within the tank, as well as the sludge that settles at the bottom of the tank and the scum that floats to the surface of the liquid layer. A number of factors can influence septage characteristics, as well as the sludge and scum accumulation rates within the tank. This paper presents the results of a 2007 field sampling study conducted in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada). The field study examined 29 individual residential two-chamber septic tanks in a community serviced by a decentralized wastewater treatment system in operation for approximately 7 years without septage removal. The field investigation provided a comprehensive data set that allowed for statistical analysis of the data to assess the more critical factors influencing solids accumulation rates within each of the clarifier chambers. With this data, a number of predictive models were developed using water usage data for each residence as an explanatory variable. PMID:21123926

  4. l例青年原发性高血压临床特点与治疗%Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of L Patients with Primary Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丛华

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨青年原发性高血压的临床特点及治疗。方法选青年高血压患者100例为青年高血压组,血压正常的青年健康体检者116例为正常对照组,中老年高血压患者110例为中老年高血压组,分析各组的有关指标、危险因素及青年高血压组的治疗特点。结果青年高血压组有阳性家族史和不良生活方式者较多,体质量指数明显高于其它两组,舒张压升高明显,甘油三酯与血尿酸较高(均<0.05)。结论青年高血压的发生与遗传和生活方式有关,通过改善生活方式,辅以药物治疗,可有效控制血压,β受体拮抗剂可作为首选药物。%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics and the treatment of young people with essential hypertensio.Methods 100 cases of young patients with hypertension selected as the group of youth hypertension,Young healthy 116 cases of normal blood pressure as the control group,110 cases of middle-aged and elderly patients with hypertension as the middle-aged and elderly group,Analyzed the related indicators,risk factors in each group,and the treatment characteristics of youth hypertension.Results Positive family history of hypertension and unhealthy lifestyles were more in youth hypertensio group,Body mass index (BMI)was significantly higher than the other two groups,had higher diastolic blood pressure,Higher triglycerides and uric acid (al <0.05).Conclusion Youth hypertension primarily related to genetic and lifestyle,By improving lifestyle,Combined with drug treatment,Can ef ectively control blood pressure,β-blockers can be used as the drug of choice.

  5. The study of clinical characteristics of treatment-resistant depression%难治性抑郁症临床特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑军然; 张波; 孙学礼; 李静

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of treatment-resistant depression (TRD).Method:25 patients with TRD and 50 patients with non-TRD were interviewed for collecting general demographic information and assessed with Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) and Minnesota muitiphasic personality inventory (MMPI).Results:Compared to non-TRD group,TRD group had more male patients, and the patients had lower education level, younger first onset age, longer course of disease, more times of onset, and suffered more long-term life events ( all P > O.05 ).There was no significant difference in the symptom of depression and anxiety between two groups ( P > 0.05 ).TRD group showed higher score on depression,hysteria and psychopathic deviation subscale of MMPI than non-TRD group (all P <0.05 ).Conclusion: Compared to patients with non treatment-resistant depression ,the patients with treatment-resistant depression have longer course of disease, more times of onset, lower education level, younger first onset age, more long-term life events and may have special personality characteristics.%目的:探讨难治性抑郁症患者的临床特征.方法:25例难治性抑郁症患者(难治组)和50例非难治性抑郁症患者(非难治组),进行一般情况评定,17项汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、14项汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)量表评分,明尼苏达多项人格问卷(MMPI)评定.结果:难治组与非难治组比较,男性较多,受教育水平较低,发病年龄较早,总病程较长,发作次数较多,长期存在应激事件的概率较多,以上差异均有统计学意义(P均0.05);MMPI各项得分的比较,难治组患者抑郁、癔症、心理变态得分均高于非难治组(P<0.05).结论:难治性抑郁症患者存在病程较长,发病年龄较早,发作次数较多,受教育年限较少;并具有一定的人格特征.

  6. SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE AND BASAL METABOLIC INDEX CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AND THEIR TREATMENT OUTCOME IN MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, AMRITSAR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is an ancient disease associated with high degree of morbidity and mortality worldwide, more so in developing countries having overwhelming problems of poverty, poor living conditions, illiteracy, malnutrition, drug addiction. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio - demographic profile and BMI characteristics of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and their treatment outcome. MATERIAL & METHOD: This prospective study was conducted on 200 new sputum smear positive patients having ag e >15 years. OBSERVATIONS & RESULT: The present study (n= 200 with 121 males and 79 female revealed that 75.8% of males and 87.5% of females were in the age group of 15 - 45 years, being the most productive years of life. 60.5% cases lived in overcrowded houses with inadequate ventilation (7 3%, poor lighting (68.5%, majority with lower socio - economic status (72.5%. 66% were from medium to large sized families, 65% joint family while 35% with nuclear families. 57.5% were working & thus were included in income generating activity group. illi teracy was observed in 40% & addiction in 47%. 69.5% of the cases were underweight (BMI < 18.5kg/m2 at initiation of treatment and percentage improved to 62.5% at the end of anti - tubercular treatment. CONCLUSION: The study findings emphasise the associati on of the socio - demographic profile including overcrowding, inadequate ventilation of the dwellings, ill - ventilated kitchens, under - nutrition with poor BMI, poor level of education (illiteracy, ignorance, poor knowledge about the disease, low socio - econom ic status with poverty contributing as significant risk factors for tuberculosis & its spread in family & community.

  7. Generation of soluble microbial products by bio-activated carbon filter during drinking water advanced treatment and its influence on spectral characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve our understanding of bio-activated carbon (BAC) filter, the water quality of influent and effluent treated with BAC in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) of Shanghai during 2015 was valued. Combining the results from UV254, SUVA254, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM), it is found that performance of BAC treatment will be affected by characteristics of activated carbon (AC), which is relevant to the type of activated carbon (including shape and operating time) in this study. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) shows that the humification index (HIX) and index of recent autochthonous contribution (BIX) is a reliable indicator to descript the variation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during BAC process. The pattern of variation in BIX and HIX implies that soluble microbial products (SMPs) are formed and humic-like substances are removed during BAC treatment, which is also confirmed by the change of peaks of FEEM in BAC effluent. Large, positive correlations between SUVA254 and disinfection by-products formation potential yield (DBPFP yield) demonstrate that UV-absorbing DOM is directly related to the generation of DBPs. Poor correlations of HIX with DBPFP suggest that non-humic substances with UV-absorbing properties play an important role in the generation of DBPs in water with low SUVA254. Finally, strong but negative correlations between BIX and DBPFP suggest that vigorous microbial metabolism of BAC results in a decrease in DBPFP. However, the DBPFP yield will be enhanced for the generation of SMPs by BAC, especially in summer. PMID:27436775

  8. Occlusal characteristics and orthodontic treatment need in black adolescents in Salvador/BA (Brazil: an epidemiologic study using the Dental Aesthetics Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Costa Rodrigues Farias

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to evaluate the need of orthodontic treatment, prevalence and severity of the malocclusions in individuals of black ethnicity in a representative sample of schoolchildren of the city of Salvador/Brazil, as well as to verify if the malocclusion was affected by socio-demographic conditions such as age and gender. METHODS: The reference population was constituted of schoolchildren with age between 12 and 15 years, enrolled in public and private schools. The malocclusion was evaluated in 486 students of black ethnicity, with ages varying from 12 to 15 years, selected in random sample in multiple stages. The adopted significance level was 1% and the power of the test was 90%. A questionnaire registering demographic characteristics was filled out by each individual. The Dental Aesthetics Index (DAI was used by previously calibrated examiners (kappa 0.89, according to criteria of the World Health Organization. RESULTS: It was verified that most of the individuals (76% had little or any need for orthodontic treatment. About 24% showed a condition of severe malocclusion, culminating in a vital need for orthodontic treatment. The main occlusal characteristics found in the group with high need of orthodontic treatment were dental crowding and accentuated overjet. The age was positively related to the improvement of the maxillary overjet and to the presence of crowding. CONCLUSION: The development of public politics that aim the insertion of orthodontic treatment among the procedures of health programs, with the implementation and development of specialized centers, is fundamental.OBJETIVO: averiguar a necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico, prevalência e severidade das más oclusões em indivíduos negros numa amostra representativa de escolares da cidade de Salvador/BA (Brasil, além de determinar se as más oclusões eram afetadas por condições sociodemográficas como idade e sexo. MÉTODOS: o desenho

  9. Dyscalculia: Characteristics, Causes, and Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Gavin R.; Daniel Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disorder affecting the ability to acquire school-level arithmetic skills, affecting approximately 3-6% of individuals. Progress in understanding the root causes of DD and how best to treat it have been impeded by lack of widespread research and variation in characterizations of the disorder across studies. However, recent years have witnessed significant growth in the field, and a growing body of behavioral and neuroimaging evidence now points to a...

  10. Dyscalculia: Characteristics, Causes, and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Price

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental Dyscalculia (DD is a learning disorder affecting the ability to acquire school-level arithmetic skills, affecting approximately 3-6% of individuals. Progress in understanding the root causes of DD and how best to treat it have been impeded by lack of widespread research and variation in characterizations of the disorder across studies. However, recent years have witnessed significant growth in the field, and a growing body of behavioral and neuroimaging evidence now points to an underlying deficit in the representation and processing of numerical magnitude information as a potential core deficit in DD. An additional product of the recent progress in understanding DD is the resurgence of a distinction between ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ developmental dyscalculia. The first appears related to impaired development of brain mechanisms for processing numerical magnitude information, while the latter refers to mathematical deficits stemming from external factors such as poor teaching, low socio-economic status, and behavioral attention problems or domain-general cognitive deficits. Increased awareness of this distinction going forward, in combination with longitudinal empirical research, offers great potential for deepening our understanding of the disorder and developing effective educational interventions.

  11. Transuranic waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranic waste (TRUW) loads and potential contaminant releases at and en route to treatment, storage, and disposal sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex are important considerations in DOE's Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Waste loads are determined in part by the level of treatment the waste has undergone and the complex-wide configuration of origination, treatment, storage, and disposal sites selected for TRUW management. Other elements that impact waste loads are treatment volumes, waste characteristics, and the unit operation parameters of the treatment technologies. Treatment levels and site configurations have been combined into six TRUW management alternatives for study in the WM PEIS. This supplemental report to the WM PEIS gives the projected waste loads and contaminant release profiles for DOE treatment sites under each of the six TRUW management alternatives. It gives TRUW characteristics and inventories for current DOE generation and storage sites, describes the treatment technologies for three proposed levels of TRUW treatment, and presents the representative unit operation parameters of the treatment technologies. The data presented are primary inputs to developing the costs, health risks, and socioeconomic and environmental impacts of treating, packaging, and shipping TRUW for disposal

  12. Transuranic waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranic waste (TRUW) loads and potential contaminant releases at and en route to treatment, storage, and disposal sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are important considerations in DOE's Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Waste loads are determined in part by the level of treatment the waste has undergone and the complexwide configuration of origination, treatment, storage, and disposal sites selected for TRUW management. Other elements that impact waste loads are treatment volumes, waste characteristics, and the unit operation parameters of the treatment technologies. Treatment levels and site configurations have been combined into 10 TRUW management alternatives for study in the WM PEIS. This supplemental report to the WM PEIS gives the projected waste loads and contaminant release profiles for DOE treatment sites under each of the 10 TRUW management alternatives. It gives TRUW characteristics and inventories for current DOE generation and storage sites, describes the treatment technologies for three levels of TRUW treatment, and presents the representative unit operation parameters of the treatment technologies. The data presented are primary inputs to developing the costs, health risks, and socioeconomic and environmental impacts of treating, packaging, and shipping TRUW for disposal

  13. Study on the effect of prostaglandin F2α treatment on semen characteristics and enzymatic activates of Awassi rams in breeding and non breeding seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Ibrahim Azawi,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work was to determine the effects of PGF2α, given immediately before semen collection, on semen characteristics and libido in Awassi rams during breeding and non breeding season. The experiment was conducted in late summer to early autumn when major breeding activities commence and winter during the non breeding season at Mosul region in northern Iraq at the Animal Research and Practice Farm of the College of The Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul. Twelve mature Awassi rams were used in this study. Animals were randomly allocated into two equal groups, the first group was administered 7.5 mg IM of PGF2αweekly and the second group as a control group received 1 ml of N-saline solution. Semen samples were collected from the Awassi rams 24 h after IM administration. Scrotal circumference (SC and testicular volume were measured weekly during the study period. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm concentration/ejaculate, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm, sperm abnormalities, and sperm acrosomal defects. Samples of seminal plasma were analyzed for the estimation of alanine amino transferase (ALT, aspartate amino transferase (AST, acid phosphatase (ACP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH. Results of the present showed that PGF2α treatment to Awassi rams did not improve most semen characteristics in both breeding and non breeding seasons compared with the group. The only improvement of Awassi semen quality observed was in sperm concentration in the breeding season. The testicular volume showed a significant increase (P<0.05 in Awassi rams treated with PGF2α in breeding season compared to the control group and PGF2α treated group in the non breeding season. The mean activity of LDH enzyme estimated in the PGF2αtreated group and control group showed a significant difference (P<0.05 between the two groups in the breeding season and

  14. The summary of characteristic and treatment of Pilon fracture with intact fibula%不伴腓骨骨折的Pilon骨折的特点及治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋靓君; 郑强; 潘志军; 李杭; 冯刚; 王建卫

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨不伴腓骨骨折的Pilon骨折的受伤机制、骨折特点、治疗策略及预后。方法收集2009年1月至2014年12月28例(29侧)不伴腓骨骨折的Pilon骨折患者病历资料,男22例,女6例;年龄23~75岁,平均46岁。受伤原因:摔伤14例、高处坠落8例、车祸5例、重物砸伤1例;10例存在合并损伤,2例开放性损伤。28例(29侧)不伴腓骨骨折的Pi⁃lon骨折患者中,符合OA/ATO骨折分型43B型15侧(51.7%),43C型14侧(48.3%);Rüedi⁃Allgower分型Ⅱ型14侧(48.3%,14/29),Ⅲ型15侧(51.7%,15/29)。记录患者手术方式、手术时间、手术入路、骨折愈合时间,并采用踝关节Mazur评分、骨折Burwell⁃Charnley复位评分评价疗效,记录并分析术后并发症。结果28例(29侧)不伴腓骨骨折的Pilon骨折的受伤机制,开放性损伤较少,多为中低能量损伤;骨折形态特点方面,累及胫骨远端前部关节面28侧(96.6%)。28例(29侧)骨折的治疗,25侧采用单切口入路及单纯内植物,平均手术时间119 min,骨折平均愈合时间7.1个月,踝关节Mazur评分优良率为86.2%,Burwell⁃Charnley骨折复位评价满意率为93.1%。3例患者术后出现皮肤感染并发症,积极对症抗感染治疗后切口愈合。结论不伴腓骨骨折的Pilon骨折大多为中低能量损伤引起的踝关节中立位或内翻位的Pilon骨折,以足背伸致胫骨远端前部关节面损伤为主,一般采用单一前方入路可完成切开复位内固定手术,术后并发症较少,骨折复位相对令人满意,术后踝关节功能恢复较好。%Objective To investigate the injury mechanism, fracture characteristics, treatment strategy and prognosis of Pilon fracture without fibula fracture. Methods 28 cases of Pilon fracture without fibula fracture (29 fractures) treated in our hos⁃pital were adapted from January 2009 to December 2014. 22 cases were

  15. The clinical characteristics of senile epilepsy and its treatment%老年性癫痫的临床特征及其治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧文; 刘菁菁; 周祥琴

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics,treatment and prognosis of senile epilepsy. Methods The clinical characteristics of 180 elderly patients with epilepsy were retrospectively studied. Results The common causes of senile epilepsy were cerebrovascular disease (8 cases,4.4%),brain tumor(24 cases,13.3%),brain trauma and operation (18 cases,10.0%),brain atrophy (6 cases,3.3 % ),The most type of seizures were focal seizures (106 cases,58.9 %) or focal seizures preceding a generalized (62 cases,34.4%). Electroencephalogram (EEG) usually showed focal slow wave activity or rhythm.Most of seizures were responsive well to single antiepilepsy drug. Conclusions The causes of elderly epilepsy are cerebrovascular disease,brain tumor,brain trauma, brain operation, brain atrophy. Senile epilepsy is more likely to have symptomatic and focal seizures,and can be controlled by anti-epilepsy drugs.%目的 研究老年性癫痫的临床特征、治疗及预后. 方法 对180例老年性癫痫临床资料进行回顾性分析. 结果 老年性癫痫常见病因为蛛网膜下腔出血8例(4.4%),脑肿瘤24例(13.3%)、脑外伤和脑手术后癫痫18例(10.0%)、脑萎缩6例(3.3%)等.早发性与迟发性癫痫分别为52例和74例.发作类型大多数为局灶性发作106例(58.9%)或局灶性发作继发全身泛化62例(34.4%).脑电图特点常可见局灶性慢波活动120例.多数患者对单一抗癫痫药反应良好. 结论 老年性癫痫常见原因为脑血管病、脑肿瘤、外伤和脑手术后;大多数发作为局灶性发作或局灶性发作继发全身泛化;对抗癫痫药反应良好.

  16. Effectiveness of high-frequency ultrasonic peening treatment on the tribological characteristics of Cu-based sintered materials on steel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The effects of HFUP treatment on Cu-based sintered materials were investigated. ► The HFUPed specimens showed better tribological properties. ► Fe in the Cu-based material was helpful in reduction of friction and wear. ► Abrasive wear was the dominant wear mechanism of the specimens. -- Abstract: The effects of high-frequency ultrasonic peening (HFUP) on the tribological characteristics of Cu-based materials sintered on low carbon steel by a powder metallurgy (P/M) technique were investigated. The friction and wear properties of the Cu-based materials were studied using a pin-on-disk reciprocating tribotester sliding against a hardened steel ball under dry and oil-lubricated conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to analyze the worn surfaces and to assess the wear mechanisms. Experimental results showed that the HFUP process led to a reduction in friction and wear of the Cu-based materials in both dry and oil-lubricated conditions. This was attributed to the increase in hardness of the HFUP treated specimen. It was also found that the friction coefficient was independent of the normal load but decreased with increasing sliding speed. In addition, inclusion of Fe in the Cu-based material was helpful in reduction of friction and wear. SEM analyses showed that abrasive wear was the dominant wear mechanism of the specimens. The results of this work demonstrate the effectiveness of HFUP in improving the tribological properties of Cu-based materials.

  17. Low prevalence of liver disease but regional differences in HBV treatment characteristics mark HIV/HBV co-infection in a South African HIV clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Ive

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is endemic in South Africa however, there is limited data on the degree of liver disease and geographic variation in HIV/HBV coinfected individuals. In this study, we analysed data from the CIPRA-SA 'Safeguard the household study' in order to assess baseline HBV characteristics in HIV/HBV co-infection participants prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation. METHODS: 812 participants from two South African townships Soweto and Masiphumelele were enrolled in a randomized trial of ART (CIPRA-SA. Participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, and HBV DNA. FIB-4 scores were calculated at baseline. RESULTS: Forty-eight (5.9% were HBsAg positive, of whom 28 (58.3% were HBeAg positive. Of those with HBV, 29.8% had an HBV DNA<2000 IU/ml and ALT<40 IU/ml ; 83.0% had a FIB-4 score <1.45, consistent with absent or minimal liver disease. HBV prevalence was 8.5% in Masiphumelele compared to 3.8% in Soweto (relative risk 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3-4.0. More participants in Masiphumelele had HBeAg-negative disease (58% vs. 12%, p = 0.002 and HBV DNA levels ≤2000 IU/ml, (43% vs. 6% p<0.007. CONCLUSION: One third of HIV/HBV co-infected subjects had low HBV DNA levels and ALT while the majority had indicators of only mild liver disease. There were substantial regional differences in HBsAg and HbeAg prevalence in HIV/HBV co-infection between two regions in South Africa. This study highlights the absence of severe liver disease and the marked regional differences in HIV/HBV co-infection in South Africa and will inform treatment decisions in these populations.

  18. Characteristics of high-sulfate wastewater treatment by two-phase anaerobic digestion process with Jet-loop anaerobic fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Chao-hai; WANG Wen-xiang; DENG Zhi-yi; WU Chao-fei

    2007-01-01

    A new anaerobic reactor,Jet-loop anaerobic fluidized bed(JLAFB),was designed for treating high-sulfate wastewater.The treatment characteristics,including the effect of influent COD/SO42- ratio and alkalinity and sulfide inhibition in reactors,were discussed for a JLAFB and a general anaerobic fluidized bed(AFB)reactor used as sulfate-reducing phase and methane-producing phase,respectively,in two-phase anaerobic digestion process.The formation of granules in the two reactors was also examined.The results indicated that COD and sulfate removal had different demand of influent COD/S042- ratios.When total COD removal Was up to 85%,the ratio was only required up to 1.2,whereas,total sulfate removal up to 95%required it exceeding 3.0.The alkalinity in the two reactors increased linearly with the growth of influent alkalinity.Moreover,the change of influent alkalinity had no significant effect on pH and volatile fatty acids(VFA)in the two reactors.Influent alkalinity kept at 400-500 mg/t,could meet the requirement of the treating process.The JLAFB reactor had great advantage in avoiding sulfide and free-H2S accumulation and toxicity inhibition on microorganisms.When sulfate loading rate was up to 8.1 kg/(m3·d),the sulfide and free-H2S concentrations in JLAFB reactor were 58.6 and 49.7 mg/L,respectively.Furthermore,the granules,with offwhite color,ellipse shape and diameters of 1.0-3.0 mm,could be developed in JLAFB reactor.In granules,different groups of bacteria were distributed in different layers,and some inorganic metal compounds such as Fe,Ca,Mg etc.were found.

  19. Características da clientela de um centro de tratamento para dependência de drogas Client characteristics at a center for treatment of drug dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia R. L. Passos

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as características sociodemográficas e psicopatológicas, bem como as abordagens de tratamento de indivíduos de uma clínica ambulatorial para dependentes de droga. MÉTODO: Estudo descritivo baseado em dados de prontuários de uma amostra aleatória dos pacientes atendidos no período 1986-1993. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes em sua maioria eram homens, jovens, solteiros ou que viviam sós, da raça branca e com baixa inserção profissional. A média de idade de início do consumo de droga foi de 17,4 anos, e a proporção de indivíduos com mais de 9 anos de escolaridade foi de 51,8%. Trinta e seis porcento eram filhos de pais separados, 14% foram abandonados pelos pais na infância e 14% perderam os pais por morte. Abuso físico na infância foi referido por 16% dos pacientes, e o pai era o perpretrador em 68% dos casos. A cocaína foi a droga mais consumida, seja isoladamente (34% ou com outras drogas (52%. Observou-se redução do consumo de maconha e de usuários de drogas por via injetável e aumento na proporção de consumidores de cocaína. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados forneceram subsídios para a avaliação do serviço e para modificações na organização do atendimento ao dependente de drogas.OBJECTIVE: Sociodemographic and psychopathological characteristics as well as treatment approaches to patients at an outpatient clinic for drug addicts are described. METHODS: Descriptive study based on randomly sampled medical charts and registration forms of subjects presenting for treatment from 1986 to 1993. RESULTS: The sample was made up predominantly of young white unmarried men, with low occupational status. The number of years of schooling was greater than that of individuals of the same age group in the general population. Thirty-six percent of the subjects were sons of broken-down marriages, 14% had been abandoned by parents during childhood and 14% had lost one of their parents by death. Fifty percent complained of

  20. Clinical characteristics and treatment for vertebral basilar artery dissection%椎-基底动脉夹层的临床特点和治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑峥; 程琼; 李永坤; 刘君鹏; 陈莹; 汪银洲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics, therapeutic strategies and efficacy of vertebral basilar artery dissection (VAD). Methods Twenty-eight patients with VAD diagnosed by DSA or CTA were collected. 21 of the patients wilh posterior circulation ischemia (PCI) were treated with clopidogrel (75 mg/d) or aspirin (100 mg/d) alone, 3 underwent endovascular treatment, and 2 with sub-arachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were treated with stent-assisted coil embolization of the aneurysms and vertebral artery occlusion. The clinical characteristics and follow-up results were analyzed. Results ①In the 28 patients, 24 had clear causes or incentive factors, including abnormal movement of the head and neck (15/24, 53.6% ), atherosclerosis (4/24, 16.7%), upper respiratory tract infection (12.5% , 3/24), thrombocytosis (4. 2% , 1/24), and alcoholism (4.2% , 1/24); 4 were cryptogenic. ② In the 28 patients, 25 (89.3% ) had PCI (21 of them had posterior circulation infarct, 4 had repeated transient episodes of vertigo), and 3 patients( 10.7% ) had SAH. ③DSA or CTA showed that 30 vertebral arteries and 1 basilar artery had dissection, 16 (51.6%) showed "linear sign", 9 (29.0%) showed fusiform or saccular aneurysm6, 6(19.4%) showed "pearl and string sign", and 2(6.5%) had double-lumen sign. Most dissections were oc-cured in the V4 segments (71.0% ,up to 22/31), then Mowed by V2 segments (19.4% , 6/31). ④In the 25 patients with PCI, 21 were treated with medication, 19 had good and 2 had poor prognosis. 9 patients received CTA or DSA reexamination, the degree of vascular stenosis reduced in 4 patients, no significant change in 4 patients, and 1 patient's vertebral artery was occluded. Three patients treated with endovascular treatment, and their prognosis was good. CTA reexamination no vascular restenosis or aneurysm recurrence was found. Two of the 3 patients with SAH had good prognosis. CTA reexamination showed no recurrence of aneurysms; 1 patient was only treated with

  1. 蒿芩清胆汤之证治特点浅析%Brief Analysis on the Treatment Characteristics with Haoqin Qingdan Decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 邓虎; 陈彩丽; 梁丽君; 冯明

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and sixty medical cases met the inclusive criteria were collected. After the normalization of the symptoms and medicines in the medical cases,the related data sheet was set up for the frequency statistical analysis and the summarization of the characteristics in symptoms,pulse condition and medicines,etc. By the frequency statistical analysis on the common symptoms,tongue condition,pulse condi-tion,original formula and supplementary medicines in 160 cases of the medical masters in contemporary era, the treatment characteristics with haoqin qingdan decoction in clinic were analyzed. The study discovered that in the clinical application of haoqin qingdan decoction,the common symptoms included chest oppression,dis-tention and pain in the chest and hypochondriac region,retching,hiccup,alternative chills and fever,no desire of hungry,yellow urine,dry stool,fever,hesitant sweating,acid reflux with bitter taste in the mouth,red tongue with sticky coating,wiry,rolling and rapid pulse. The ingredients included artemisia apiacea,scutellaria ba-icalensis,caulis bambusae in taeniam,fructus aurantii,pericarpium citri reticulatae,pinellia ternate and poria cocos. The common supplementary herbs were fructus gardenia,radix bupleuri,rhizome atractylodis,trichosan-thes kirilowii maxim,gypsum,schizonepeta,etc.%选取符合标准的160例医案,对医案中的症状、药物进行规范后,建立相关数据表,进行频数统计,总结症状、脉象、药物等方面的特点。通过对160例当代医家临床验案中的常见症状、舌象脉象、原方药物及加味药物等资料进行频数统计,分析蒿芩清胆汤现代临床应用的证治特点。研究发现蒿芩清胆汤在现代临床应用中,常见症状有胸闷、胸胁胀疼、干呕呃逆、寒热如疟、不饥、小便黄、大便干、发热、汗出不畅、吐酸苦水,舌红苔腻,脉弦滑数。原方药物多用青蒿、黄芩、竹茹、枳壳、陈皮、半夏、茯苓

  2. 儿童感染性心内膜炎临床表现与治疗对策%Clinical characteristics and treatment of infective endocarditis in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丽娟; 曹清; 周云芳; 潘淑华; 王希华

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析儿童感染性心内膜炎的临床特征、治疗和预后。方法回顾性分析1998—2012年收治的83例感染性心内膜炎患儿的临床资料。结果共83例患儿,男53例、女30例,平均年龄(6.8±4.6)岁,临床特征以发热(77.1%)、轻中度贫血(71.1%)、C反应蛋白升高(67.5%)、红细胞沉降率增高(60.2%)、白细胞增高(47.0%)为主;出现栓塞症状20例(24.1%);血培养阳性56例(67.5%),以革兰阳性菌为主,链球菌属及葡萄球菌属占89.3%;万古霉素等敏感抗生素治疗有效;超声检查检出赘生物68例(82%)。55例(66.2%)患儿接受心脏手术,最终死亡7例(8.4%)。结论近年来感染性心内膜炎的病原菌变迁,缓症链球菌及金黄色葡萄球菌成为主要病原菌,需万古霉素等敏感抗生素治疗;心脏超声检出赘生物阳性率较高。%Objective To study the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of infective endocarditis in children. Methords Clinical data from 83 patients of infective endocarditis admitted from 1998 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Results In a total of 83 patients, there were 53 males and 30 females, and the average age was 6.8±4.6 years. The main clinical characteristics were fever (77.1%) and mild to moderate anemia (71.1%). The C-reaction protein (67.5%), erythrocyte sedimen-tation rate (60.2%), and white blood cell (47.0%) were elevated. Twenty (24.1%) patients had embolism. Blood culture was pos-itive in 56 (67.5%) cases with bacteria mainly being Gram-positive and Streptococcus and Staphylococcus accounted for 89.3%. Vancomycin and other sensitive antibiotics were effective. Neoplasm was detected in 68 cases (82%) by transthoracic echocar-diograerphy. Fifty-ifve (66.2%) patients underwent cardio surgery. Seven patients (8.4%) died. Conclusion In recent years, the distribution of pathogenic bacteria in infective endocarditis had changed. Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus has

  3. Phase transformations in nickel-rich nickel-titanium alloys: Influence of strain-rate, temperature, thermomechanical treatment and nickel composition on the shape memory and superelastic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adharapurapu, Raghavendra R.

    Nearly four decades of academic research and industrial interest on Nitinol has largely focused on the superelastic applications in the bio-medical sector and in the development of 'smart' shape-memory based sensors involving the low-strain rate (˜0.001/s) response of NiTi. It is only within the last decade that there has been a growing interest in the exploitation of Nitinol towards high-strain rate applications such as seismic damping, blast-mitigation or energy-absorbing applications. However, a systematic study of the influence of high-strain rate and temperature on the shape memory characteristics of NiTi is severely lacking. The current research program reports the findings on: (1) The phase-transformation mechanisms in Ni-rich Ni-Ti alloys. These include (a) diffusionless multiple-stage martensitic transformations and (b) diffusion-based phase transformations that govern the precipitation reactions in Ni-rich alloys and the overall time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curves. (2) The systematic study of the high-strain rate response of Ni-rich NiTi alloys as a function of temperature (between -196°C and 400°C) and thermomechanical treatment, viz., fully annealed, work-hardened and precipitation hardened conditions. Two Ni-rich Nitinol alloys, a commercial 50.8-NiTi (at.%) and a new 55-NiTi (at.%), were selected for the study, since the Ni composition determines the precipitation processes and, critically, the transformation temperatures in NiTi alloys. It was observed that the presence of dislocations (through work-hardening) and the presence of Ni-rich precipitates (through age-hardening) contribute to a more complex two-stage or multiple-stage transformations and also improve the overall strength of the NiTi alloy. Based on the microstructural changes, such as recovery, recrystallization and precipitation formation in 50.8-NiTi alloys, the current work uniquely provides a unified and general understanding of the various multiple-stage transformations

  4. A systematic review of the frequency, duration, type and effect of involuntary treatment for people with anorexia nervosa, and an analysis of patient characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Loa; Jones, Allan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Involuntary treatment of anorexia nervosa is controversial and costly. A better understanding of the conditions that determine involuntary treatment, as well as the effect of such treatment is needed in order to adequately assess the legitimacy of this model of care. The aim of the pre......OBJECTIVE: Involuntary treatment of anorexia nervosa is controversial and costly. A better understanding of the conditions that determine involuntary treatment, as well as the effect of such treatment is needed in order to adequately assess the legitimacy of this model of care. The aim...... the involuntary treatment of individuals diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. RESULTS: The studies included in the review contained people treated in an inpatient setting for severe or severe and enduring anorexia nervosa. People that were treated involuntarily were characterised by a more severe psychiatric load...

  5. Technological characteristics and selected bioactive compounds of Opuntia dillenii cactus fruit juice following the impact of pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa-Ayoub, Tamer E; Jaeger, Henry; Youssef, Khaled; Knorr, Dietrich; El-Samahy, Salah; Kroh, Lothar W; Rohn, Sascha

    2016-11-01

    Selected technological characteristics and bioactive compounds of juice pressed directly from the mash of whole Opuntia dillenii cactus fruits have been investigated. The impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) for a non-thermal disintegration on the important juice characteristics has been evaluated in comparison to microwave heating and use of pectinases. Results showed that the cactus juice exhibited desirable technological characteristics. Besides, it also contained a high amount of phenolic compounds being the major contributors to the overall antioxidant activity of juice. HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) measurements in the fruits' peel and pulp showed that isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside was determined as the single flavonol found only in the fruit's peel. Treating fruit mash with a moderate electric field strength increased juice yield and improved juice characteristics. Promisingly, the highest release of isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside from fruit's peel into juice was maximally achieved by PEF. PMID:27211645

  6. FREQUENCY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPERNUMERARY TEETH IN BRAZILIAN CHILDREN: CONSEQUENCES AND PROPOSED TREATMENTS FREQÜÊNCIA E CARACTERÍSTICAS DOS DENTES SUPRANUMERÁRIOS EM CRIANÇAS BRASILEIRAS: CONSEQÜÊNCIAS E TRATAMENTOS PROPOSTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Primo, Laura Guimarães; Roberto Schirmer WILHELM; Eliana Pinheiro dos Santos BASTOS

    1997-01-01

    The study had the objective of identifying the frequency of supernumerary teeth on patients attended at the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic at the School of Dentistry of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (FO-UFRJ), from 1981 to 1990, relating the frequency to the sex and dentition of the patients. Some characteristics relating to and consequential upon the pathology, as well as the proposed treatments, are also part of this work. To achieve the proposed objectives, 1,907 files of patients...

  7. Bipolar II compared with bipolar I disorder: baseline characteristics and treatment response to quetiapine in a pooled analysis of five placebo-controlled clinical trials of acute bipolar depression

    OpenAIRE

    Datto, Catherine; Pottorf, William J.; Feeley, Louisa; LaPorte, Scott; Liss, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Background Bipolar I and II represent the most common and severe subtypes of bipolar disorder. Although bipolar I disorder is relatively well studied, the clinical characteristics and response to treatment of patients with bipolar II disorder are less well understood. Methods To compare the severity and burden of illness of patients with bipolar II versus bipolar I disorder, baseline demographic, clinical, and quality of life data were examined in 1900 patients with bipolar I and 973 patients...

  8. Demographic and HIV-specific characteristics of participants enrolled in the INSIGHT Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, S; Babiker, A G; Emery, S; Gordin, F M; Lundgren, J D; Neaton, J N; Bakowska, E; Schechter, M; Wiselka, M J; Wolff, Mathias

    OBJECTIVES: The risks and benefits of initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) at high CD4 cell counts have not been reliably quantified. The Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study is a randomized international clinical trial that compares immediate with deferred initiation of...

  9. Characteristics of a transmission detector for dosimetry real-time IMRT treatments; Caracteristicas de un detector de transmision para dosimetria en tiempo real en tratamientos de IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J. M.; Sanchez Cayuela, C.; Brosed, M. L.; Pereza, C.; Casal, M. D.; Sanchez, A.

    2011-07-01

    This work aims to study a transmission chamber for the determination of the influence of each field / segment modulated treatment to verify by direct dosimetry in a planner that uses the same anatomy that has been used in prescribing treatment, the dose received at each session and compared with that calculated by the scheduler.

  10. Hazardous waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on the generation of hazardous waste (HW) and the treatment of HW being generated by routine US Department of Energy (DOE) facility operations. The wastes to be considered are managed by the DOE Waste Management (WM) Division (WM HW). The waste streams are to be sent to WM operations throughout the DOE complex under four management alternatives: No Action, Decentralization, Regionalized 1, and Regionalized 2. On-site and off-site capabilities for treatment are examined for each alternative. This report (1) summarizes the HW inventories and generated amounts resulting from WM activities, focusing on the largest DOE HW generators; (2) presents estimates of the annual amounts shipped off-site, as well as the amounts treated by various treatment technology groups; (3) describes the existing and planned treatment and storage capabilities of the largest HW-generating DOE installations, as well as the use of commercial treatment facilities by DOE sites; (4) presents applicable technologies (destruction of organics, deactivation/neutralization of waste, removal/recovery of organics, and aqueous liquid treatment); and (5) describes the four alternatives for consideration for future HW management, and for each alternative provides the HW loads and the approach used to estimate the source term for routine treatment operations. In addition, potential air emissions, liquid effluents, and solid residuals associated with each alternative are presented. This report is supplemented with an addendum that includes detailed information related to HW inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for the treatment alternatives. The addendum also presents source terms, emission rates, and throughput totals by alternative and treatment installation

  11. Effect of post weld heat treatment on tensile properties and microstructure characteristics of friction stir welded armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    P Sivaraj; KANAGARAJAN D.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of post weld heat treatments, namely artificial ageing and solution treatment followed by artificial ageing, on microstructure and mechanical properties of 12 mm thick friction stir welded joints of precipitation hardenable high strength armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy. The tensile properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation and notch tensile strength, are evaluated and correlated with the microhardness and microstructural features....

  12. Demographics, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment of Aggressive Patients Admitted to the Acute Behavioral Unit of a Community General Hospital: A Prospective Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nourse, Rosemary; Reade, Cynthia; Stoltzfus, Jill; Mittal, Vikrant

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Aggressive patients are not uncommon in acute inpatient behavioral health units of general hospitals. Prior research identifies various predictors associated with aggressive inpatient behavior. This prospective observational study examines the demographic and clinical characteristics of aggressive inpatients and the routine medications these patients were receiving at discharge.

  13. Demography, baseline disease characteristics and treatment history of patients with psoriasis enrolled in a multicentre, prospective, disease-based registry (PSOLAR)*

    OpenAIRE

    Kimball, AB; Leonardi, C; Stahle, M.; Gulliver, W; Chevrier, M; Fakharzadeh, S; Goyal, K.; Calabro, S; Langholff, W; Menter, A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: Psoriasis is associated with several comorbidities and behavioural risk factors. Objectives: To evaluate demographic and disease characteristics in patients enrolled in the Psoriasis Longitudinal Assessment and Registry (PSOLAR). Methods: PSOLAR is a global, prospective, longitudinal, disease-based registry that includes a postmarketing commitment to evaluate safety in patients with psoriasis. Enrolled patients had to be receiving, or be eligible to receive, conventional s...

  14. Heat and ultraviolet light treatment of colostrum and hospital milk: effects on colostrum and hospital milk characteristics and calf health and growth parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A G V; Bicalho, M L S; Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Kacar, C; Foditsch, C; Young, R; Knauer, W A; Nydam, D V; Bicalho, R C

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different physical treatments of bovine colostrum and hospital milk on milk bacteriology, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and lactoferrin concentrations, calf serum IgG concentrations and calf health, growth and survivability. Pooled colostrum samples (n=297) were heat treated (HTC; 63°C for 60 min), exposed to ultraviolet light (UVC; 45 J/cm(2)) or untreated ('raw', RC). Hospital milk (n=712) was subjected to high temperature short time pasteurization (HTST; 72°C for 15s), ultraviolet light irradiation (UVH; 45 J/cm(2)) or was untreated. Neonatal Holstein heifer calves (n=875) were randomly enrolled (309 HTC, 285 UVC, 281 RC) and block randomized (by colostrum treatment) into hospital milk treatments HTST (n=449) or UVH (n=426). HTC was more effective than UVC and HTST was more effective than UVH in reducing bacterial counts. IgG and lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTC and UVC than in RC. Lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTST than in UVH or untreated hospital milk. There were no significant differences in serum IgG concentrations among calves fed HTC, UVC or RC. Colostrum and hospital milk treatments did not have any significant effect on calf body weight gain, survivability, or frequency of diarrhea or pneumonia. PMID:23642466

  15. Occlusal force characteristics of masseteric muscles after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin A(BTX - A)for treatment of temporomandibular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long-Dan; Liu, Qi; Zou, De-Rong; Yu, Lv-Feng

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the occlusal force and therapeutic efficacy of the masseteric muscles after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) for the treatment of patients with concurrent temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and bruxism. Thirty patients with TMD associated with bruxism were randomised into three groups (n=10 in each group), and treated by bilateral intramuscular injection of BTX-A into the masseter, placebo, or control. We used an occlusal force analysis system to collect several measures of occlusal force such as duration of biting and closing, the maximum occlusal force, and the distribution of occlusal force. The occlusal force in the intercuspid position was reduced in all three groups. There was a significant difference between the BTX-A and placebo groups (F(df=1)=8.08, p=0.01) but not between the control group and the other two(F(df=1)=4.34, p=0.047). The duration of occlusion was significantly increased in the BTX-A group after 3 months' treatment (t=4.07, p=0.003). The asymmetrical distribution of occlusal force was reduced in all three groups, but not significantly so (Levene's test F(df=2)=0.25, p=0.78,ANOVA F(df=2)=0.50, p=0.61). Treatment of TMD with BTX-A is effective in reducing the occlusal force, but psychological intervention plays an important part in treatment. PMID:27138229

  16. Improvement in the electrical characteristics of a fluorinated HfO2/Ge gate stack by using a nitrogen radical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical property of the interfacial layer is improved by fluorine treatment on a HfO2/Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) device. The thin HfO2 dielectric was prepared using a photoassisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. However, the fluorine was easily out-diffused after post metallization annealing (PMA) at high temperature. In this study, the post nitridation of the fluorinated HfO2/Ge gate stack was carried out by using a nitrogen (N) radical treatment at high temperature (200 .deg. C) to prevent the fluorine (F) diffusion. Interface traps, such as poorly passivated dangling bonds and oxygen vacancies (V0), near the interface were passivated by co-doping of F and N. Consequently, the dielectric property of the HfO2/Ge gate stack was improved to hamper F out-diffusion. Therefore, we suggest that N radical treatment following F2-treatment is a very useful solution for improving the dielectric property of a HfO2/Ge gate stack.

  17. Hypoglycaemia after gastric bypass: mechanisms and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, P; Vaurs, C; Barigou, M; Hanaire, H

    2016-03-01

    Hypoglycaemia after gastric bypass can be severe, but is uncommon, and is sometimes only revealed through monitoring glucose concentrations. The published literature is limited by the heterogeneity of the criteria used for diagnosis, arguing in favour of the Whipple triad with a glycaemia threshold of 55 mg/dl as the diagnostic reference. Women who lost most of their excess weight after gastric bypass, long after the surgery was performed, and who did not have diabetes before surgery are at the greatest risk. In this context, hypoglycaemia results from hyperinsulinism, which is either generated by pancreas anomalies (nesidioblastosis) and/or caused by an overstimulation of β cells by incretins, mainly glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Glucose absorption is both accelerated and increased because of the direct communication between the gastric pouch and the jejunum. This is a post-surgical exaggeration of a natural adaptation that is seen in patients who have not undergone surgery in whom glucose is infused directly into the jejunum. There is not always a correspondence between symptoms and biological traits; however, hyperinsulinism is constant if hypoglycaemia is severe and there are neuroglucopenic symptoms. The treatment relies firstly on changes in eating habits, splitting food intake into five to six daily meals, slowing gastric emptying, reducing the glycaemic load and glycaemic index of foods, using fructose and avoiding stress at meals. Pharmacological treatment with acarbose is efficient, but other drugs still need to be validated in a greater number of subjects (insulin, glucagon, calcium channel blockers, somatostatin analogues and GLP-1 analogues). Lastly, if the surgical option has to be used, the benefits (efficient symptom relief) and the risks (weight regain, diabetes) should be weighed carefully. PMID:26508374

  18. Applied research of pediatric pneumonia serum CK, CTnT levels and ECG change characteristics in diagnosis and treatment of disease and prognostic evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zhang; Yan-Lin Xiao; Xian-Bin Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study pneumonia infant's serum creatine kinase and troponin T level changes and combined with electrocardiogram analysis to discuss its meaning to pneumonia infant's clinical diagnosis and treatment.Method: 73 cases of pneumonia infants were selected as study group in our hospital from January 2014 to June 2014, meanwhile select 58 cases of healthy infants as control group, to proceed serum CK and CTnT and electrocardiogram examination of both groups.Results: Before treatment, ordinary pneumonia group's CK level rised, CK-MB and CTnT levels significantly rised, 65.71% of children with pneumonia appeared abnormal electrocardiogram, mainly showed atrial premature beats and sinus tachycardia; severe pneumonia group's CK level significantly rised, CK-MB and CTnT levels highly significantly rised, 86.84% of children with pneumonia appeared abnormal electrocardiogram, mainly showed atrial premature beats, sinus tachycardia, bundle-branch block, P-wave high point and so on. After treatment, ordinary pneumonia group's CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels recovered to normal range, ECG returned to normal mostly; severe pneumonia group's CK level obviously returned to normal range, but CK-MB and CTnT levels still exist significant difference. After treatment, severe pneumonia group's CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels were highly significantly lower than before treatment; Compared with ordinary group after treatment, its CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels were higher, but no significant difference, electrocardiogram also returned to normal, only sinus tachycardia and bundle branch block were difficult to return to normal. Conclusion: Serum CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels of pneumonia infants rise along with the aggravation of disease, and ECG level is abnormal, after treatment, most pneumonia infants are cured. This illustrates infant pneumonia could easily cause multiple organ system damage, especially myocardial injury, monitoring CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels, combined with electrocardiogram data

  19. Results of the Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS-Middle East: clinical perspective on the prevalence and characteristics of lipid abnormalities in the setting of chronic statin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud N Al Sifri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic intervention with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering agents known as statins has been demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, many patients on statin treatment have persistent dyslipidemia and remain at a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the frequency of lipid abnormalities in patients receiving chronic statin treatment. METHODS: As part of an international, cross-sectional, observational study, DYSIS-Middle East enrolled 2,182 patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon and Jordan. All patients were over 45 years of age and had been on statin treatment for at least three months. Data on demographics, lipid parameters and cardiovascular risk profile were recorded. Cardiovascular risk was defined according the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology. RESULTS: The majority of patients (82.6% were classified as being at very high risk of cardiovascular events, and 61.8% of all patients did not attain LDL-C target levels. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and elevated triglyceride levels were noted in 55.5% and 48.5% of patients, respectively. Multivariate logistical regression modeling indicated that factors independently associated with LDL-C levels not being at goal were lifestyle choices, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, and blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Almost two-thirds of statin-treated patients in the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon and Jordan had inadequately controlled lipid levels. More comprehensive surveillance, awareness and treatment regimens, as well as modification of lifestyle choices, is necessary to halt the rise in cardiovascular disease-related mortality.

  20. PSYCHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SCALE FOR TREATMENT ADHERENCE IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS VERSION III (EATDMIII©) IN A SAMPLE OF DIABETICS PATIENTS OF COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Villalobos-Pérez, Alfonso; JUAN C. BRENES-SÁENZ; Quirós-Morales, Diego; León-Sanabria, Giovanny

    2006-01-01

    The Scale for Treatment Adherence in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus version III (EATDMIII©) was tested. It was compounded by the following factors: Family Support, Organization and Community Support, Physical Exercise, Medical Control, Hygiene and SelfCare, Diet and Assessment of Physical Condition. The research was developed at Dr. Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia Hospital, Costa Rica, n=104 subjects, both genders, during the months of FebruaryMarch 2006. The instrument showed a high reliability (á=...

  1. Clinical characteristics and selection of treatment modality for patients with vitreomacular traction: real-world implementation of NICE guidance (TA297)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Edward William James; Ilyas, Shams-Ulislam; Amar, Soha Khaled; Yang, Yit Chuin; Narendran, Nirodhini

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the qualitative aspects in patient selection and the quantitative impact of disease burden in real world treatment of vitreomacular traction (VMT) and implementation of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance (TA297). Methods A monocentric, retrospective review of consecutive patients undergoing optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging over a 3 month period. Patients with VMT in at least one eye were identified for further data collection on laterality, visual acuity, symptoms, presence of epiretinal membrane, macular hole and treatment selection. Results A total of 3472 patients underwent OCT imaging with a total of 6878 eyes scanned. Out of 87 patients, 74 patients had unilateral VMT (38 right, 36 left) and 13 patients had bilateral VMT. Eighteen patients with unilateral VMT satisfied NICE criteria of severe sight problems in the affected eye. Eight were managed for a coexisting pathology, one refused treatment, one patient did not attend, two closed spontaneously, and one received ocriplasmin prior to the study start date. Only two patients with unilateral VMT received ocriplasmin and three underwent vitrectomy. Those failing to meet NICE criteria for unilateral VMT were predominantly asymptomatic (n=49) or had coexisting ERM (n=5) or both (n=2). Conclusion Ocriplasmin provides an alternative treatment for patients with symptomatic VMT. Our data shows that the majority of patients with VMT do not meet NICE TA297 primarily due to lack of symptoms. Those meeting NICE criteria, but not treated, tended to have coexisting macular pathology. Variation in patient selection due to subjective factors not outlined in NICE guidance suggests that real world outcomes of ocriplasmin therapy should be interpreted with caution. PMID:26834452

  2. Viral hepatitis B in children:clinical characteristics and antiviral treatment%儿童慢性乙型肝炎特征及抗病毒治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫峰; 陈良云

    2011-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a common and frequent disease occurring in children in China.Chronic hepatitis B virus infection during childhood may cause serious clinical consequences.Reasonable treatment is extremely important for children with therapeutic indications.However, there are many challenges in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in children, such as treatment indications and the choice of antiviral therapy.This paper describes the natural history of HBV infection in children, indications for antiviral therapy, goals of antiviral treatment, and choice of antiviral drugs.%在我国儿童中,慢性乙型肝炎是常见病、多发病.儿童时期感染乙型肝炎病毒可致严重临床后果,因此,对有治疗指征患者及时采取合理治疗方案极为重要.而当前国内外对儿童慢性乙型肝炎的治疗尚存诸多问题及争论,如:儿童慢性乙型肝炎患者的治疗指征:选择何种抗病毒药物进行治疗等.为方便广大医师对儿童慢性乙型肝炎做出正确的治疗选择,本文对儿童乙型肝炎病毒感染的自然史、抗病毒治疗指征、抗病毒治疗目标以及抗病毒药物的选择进行系统阐述.

  3. A Retrospective Analysis of 5,195 Patient Treatment Sessions in an Integrative Veterinary Medicine Service: Patient Characteristics, Presenting Complaints, and Therapeutic Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Shmalberg; Memon, Mushtaq A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine, the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care, is increasingly prevalent in veterinary practice and a focus of clinical instruction in many academic teaching institutions. However, the presenting complaints, therapeutic modalities, and patient population in an integrative medicine service have not been described. A retrospective analysis of 5,195 integrative patient treatment sessions in a veterinary academic teaching hospit...

  4. Efeitos do consumo prévio de carboidratos sobre a resposta glicêmica e desempenho Efectos del consumo previo de carbohidratos sobre la respuesta de glicemia y desempeño Effect of prior consumption of carbohydrate on the glycaemia and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuce Borges Sapata

    2006-08-01

    ocasionó alteraciones en la glicemia y en la frecuencia cardiaca durante el ejercicio. Aunque se especule que oscilaciones en la glicemia durante el ejercicio puedan perjudicar el desempeño en ejercicios de larga duración, este hecho no fue verificado en nuestro presente estudio.BASES AND OBJECTIVE: Nutrition is an important tool for the sport practice. Among the nutrients, the carbohydrates are one of the most important. In that way the aim of this study was analyze the influence of glycaemic response on performance of healthy subjects, after intake of different carbohydrate solutions. METHODS: Ten healthy male subjects, 23 ± 2.1 years old, were asked to answer a three days nutritional and physical activity recordatory. Anthropometric data were collected and a progressive test in cycle ergometer was performed to measure the maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory thresholds. Each subject performed three submaximal tests at the intensity of second ventilatory threshold. Thirty minutes before each submaximal test, 250 ml of each drink: maltodextrin (Malto, glucose (Glicose plus sport drink or dietetic juice (Placebo was ingested. Venous blood was collected to determine the glycaemic index and lactate. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was a significant increase after 30 minutes when the subjects ingested maltodextrin solution (87.4 ± 11.2 to 116.9 ± 19.6 ml.dl¹. After 15 minutes of exercise, there was a decrease in the glycaemia after the consumption of Malto (116.9 ± 19.6 to 77.6 ± 14.5 ml.dl¹ and Glicose (113.2 ± 23.5 to 81.8 ± 13.1 ml.dl¹ plus sport drink solutions when compared with Placebo solution. The glucose plus sport drink solution induced a significant increase in the heart rate during exercise (167.7 ± 14.2 and 177.1 ± 10.4 bpm. The consumption of different carbohydrate solutions with high glycaemic index before exercise was not capable to change the performance of the volunteers. However it induced changes in the glycaemia and heart rate during

  5. Influence of maternal dexamethasone treatment on morphometric characteristics of pituitary GH cells and body weight in near-term rat fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Milosević

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH and glucocorticoids have a powerful influence on controlling fetal growth, differentiation and maturation of numerous tissues. In the present study, the effect of maternal dexamethasone (Dx treatment on GH cells and body weight in 19- and 21-day-old rat fetuses was investigated using immunocytochemical and morphometric methods. Pregnant female rats received daily injections of 1.0-0.5-0.5 mg Dx/kg b.w. on days 16-18 of pregnancy (experimental group, while the control group received an equal volume of saline. Dx treatment of pregnant rats enhanced immunostaining intensity and significantly increased (p<0.05 GH nuclear and cell volume, as well as volume density and number of GH cells per square millimeter in 19-day-old fetuses compared to the controls. In 21-day-old fetuses after maternal Dx administration, immunoreactivity, volume density and number of GH cells remained significantly increased (p<0.05. Dx treatment of pregnant rats resulted in marked body weight reduction of 21-day-old but not 19 days old fetuses in comparison with the corresponding controls. The presented results demonstrate that maternal Dx application has pronounced effect on morphometric parameters of GH cells of 19- and 21-day-old fetuses. Also, in near-term rat fetuses body weight was largely independent of pituitary GH cell activity.

  6. Wear Characteristics According of Heat Treatment of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with Different Amounts of SiO{sub 2} Nano-Colloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Seok Hwan [Jungwon University, Goesan (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Ki Woo [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    This study sintered Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with different amounts of SiO{sub 2} nano-colloid. The surface of a mirror-polished specimen was coated with SiO{sub 2} nano-colloid, and cracks were healed when the specimen was treated at a temperature of 1273 K for 1 h in air. Wear specimen experiments were conducted after heat treatments for 10 min at 1073, 1273, and 1573 K. The heat-treated surface that was coated with the SiO{sub 2} nano-colloid was slightly rougher than the noncoated surface. The oxidation state of the surface according to the heat treatment temperature showed no correlation with the surface roughness. Moreover, the friction coefficient, wear loss, and bending strength were not related to the surface roughness. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} exhibited an abrasive wear behavior when SKD11 was used as an opponent material. The friction coefficient was proportional to the wear loss, and the bending strength was inversely proportional to the friction coefficient and wear loss. The friction coefficient and wear loss increased with increasing amounts of the SiO{sub 2} nanocolloid. In addition, the friction coefficient was slightly increased by increasing the heat treatment temperature.

  7. Wear Characteristics According of Heat Treatment of Si3N4 with Different Amounts of SiO2 Nano-Colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study sintered Si3N4 with different amounts of SiO2 nano-colloid. The surface of a mirror-polished specimen was coated with SiO2 nano-colloid, and cracks were healed when the specimen was treated at a temperature of 1273 K for 1 h in air. Wear specimen experiments were conducted after heat treatments for 10 min at 1073, 1273, and 1573 K. The heat-treated surface that was coated with the SiO2 nano-colloid was slightly rougher than the noncoated surface. The oxidation state of the surface according to the heat treatment temperature showed no correlation with the surface roughness. Moreover, the friction coefficient, wear loss, and bending strength were not related to the surface roughness. Si3N4 exhibited an abrasive wear behavior when SKD11 was used as an opponent material. The friction coefficient was proportional to the wear loss, and the bending strength was inversely proportional to the friction coefficient and wear loss. The friction coefficient and wear loss increased with increasing amounts of the SiO2 nanocolloid. In addition, the friction coefficient was slightly increased by increasing the heat treatment temperature

  8. A Retrospective Analysis of 5,195 Patient Treatment Sessions in an Integrative Veterinary Medicine Service: Patient Characteristics, Presenting Complaints, and Therapeutic Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Mushtaq A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine, the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care, is increasingly prevalent in veterinary practice and a focus of clinical instruction in many academic teaching institutions. However, the presenting complaints, therapeutic modalities, and patient population in an integrative medicine service have not been described. A retrospective analysis of 5,195 integrative patient treatment sessions in a veterinary academic teaching hospital demonstrated that patients most commonly received a combination of therapeutic modalities (39% of all treatment sessions). The 274 patients receiving multiple modalities were most frequently treated for neurologic and orthopedic disease (50.7% versus 49.6% of all presenting complaints, resp.). Older neutered or spayed dogs (mean age = 9.0 years) and Dachshunds were treated more often than expected based on general population statistics. Acupuncture, laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and hydrotherapy were frequently administered (>50% patients). Neurologic patients were more likely to receive acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and therapeutic exercises but less likely than orthopedic patients to receive laser, hydrotherapy, or therapeutic ultrasound treatments (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the application of these specific modalities to orthopedic and neurologic diseases should be subjected to increased evidence-based investigations. A review of current knowledge in core areas is presented. PMID:26798552

  9. Changes in spectral characteristics and copper (II)-binding of dissolved organic matter in leachate from different water-treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; He, Xiao-song; Guo, Xu-jing; Chen, Lu; Guo, Ni

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from four leachate samples, which were disposed by regulating tank (RTK), anaerobic treatment (ATT), oxidation ditch (ODH), and membrane bioreactor and to assess their binding capacities and stability constants by Cu(II). The results showed that five fluorescent peaks, including three humic-like peaks (peaks A, C, and E) and two protein-like peaks (peaks B and D), were identified. Most fluorescent components can be degraded after ODH. Fluorescence-quenching titration showed that the modified Stern-Volmer model can be used to fit the quenching data and calculate conditional stability constants (log K) and the % of fluorophores (f %) between DOM and Cu(II). DOM-Cu(II) complexes had relatively high log K values in the RTK and ATT disposals. After the ODH-treatment process, log K values showed a marked decrease. The f % values of protein-like materials were evidently greater than those of humic-like substances. The results showed the impact of the water treatment on the metal-binding ability of various fractions. PMID:24287702

  10. Effect of Ultrastructure on Changes of Textural Characteristics between Crisp Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus C.Et V) and Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus) Inducing Heating Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Ling; Yang, Xian-Qing; Li, Lai-Hao; Hao, Shu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Xu; Huang, Hui; Wei, Ya; Wu, Yan-Yan

    2016-02-01

    The research studies the ultrastructure effect on texture of crisp grass carp (CGC) and grass carp (GC) fillets inducing heating for 15, 25, and 40 min with boiling water. After heating, the hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC were higher than that of raw CGC, whereas the all textural characteristics of heating GC were lower obviously than that of raw GC. The hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC for heating 15 min were higher by 6.3%, 9.0%, 27.0%, 71.8%, 9.4%, and 23.9%, respectively, than that of raw CGC (RCGC). The hardness increasing of CGC flesh with the extension of heating time related closely to more coagulating connective tissue in interstitial spaces, especially relating to smaller muscle fiber diameter and denser muscle fiber density. The more and larger spaces between fiber and fiber with the extension of heating time results in the decrease of cohesiveness and resilience of CGC flesh. For chewiness, the stronger chewiness of cooked CGC associated with more detachment of myofiber-myocommata and fiber-fiber. Overall, the results show that the changes of texture characteristics of CGC fillet with extension of heating time correlates positively with the ultrastructure. PMID:26757426

  11. Recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer: towards personalized treatment based on evaluation of tumor characteristics with PET (THYROPET Study): study protocol of a multicenter observational cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After initial treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients are followed with thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements to detect recurrences. In case of elevated levels of Tg and negative neck ultrasonography, patients are treated 'blindly' with Iodine-131 (131I). However, in up to 50% of patients, the post-therapy scan reveals no 131I-targeting of tumor lesions. Such patients derive no benefit from the blind therapy but are exposed to its toxicity. Alternatively, iodine-124 (124I) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has become available to visualize DTC lesions and without toxicity. In addition to this, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT detects the recurrent DTC phenotype, which lost the capacity to accumulate iodine. Taken together, the combination of 124I and 18F-FDG PET/CT has potential to stratify patients for treatment with 131I. In a multicenter prospective observational cohort study the hypothesis that the combination of 124I and 18F-FDG PET/CT can avoid futile 131I treatments in patients planned for ‘blind’ therapy with 131I, is tested. One hundred patients planned for 131I undergo both 124I and 18F-FDG PET/CT after rhTSH stimulation. Independent of the outcome of the scans, all patients will subsequently receive, after thyroid hormone withdrawal, the 131I therapy. The post 131I therapeutic scintigraphy is compared with the outcome of the 124I and 18F-FDG PET/CT in order to evaluate the diagnostic value of the combined PET modalities. This study primary aims to reduce the number of futile 131I therapies. Secondary aims are the nationwide introduction of 124I PET/CT by a quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) program, to correlate imaging outcome with histopathological features, to compare 124I PET/CT after rhTSH and after withdrawal of thyroid hormone, and to compare 124I and 131I dosimetry. This study aims to evaluate the potential value of the combination of 124I and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the prevention

  12. Efecto del secado térmico y el tratamiento alcalino en las características microbiológicas y químicas de biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas Effect of thermal drying and alkaline treatment on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Silva-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of thermal drying (60 to 75 ºC and times from 0 to 12.58 h and alkaline treatment (Ca(OH2 and CaO at doses from 8 to 10%. on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of biosolids from the Cañaveralejo WWTP. The results showed that in thermal drying all temperatures studied were sufficient to achieve the sanitation of biosolids. In the alkaline treatment the two types of lime showed the total elimination of fecal coliforms, E. coli and helminth eggs, however, the process of alkalization of biosolids had significant influences on organic carbon and calcium.

  13. Endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals of concern in surface water, wastewater-treatment plant effluent, and bed sediment, and biological characteristics in selected streams, Minnesota-design, methods, and data, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Ferrey, Mark L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Martinovic, Dalma; Woodruff, Olivia R.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Brown, Greg K.; Taylor, Howard E.; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the study design, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for an integrated chemical and biological study of selected streams or lakes that receive wastewater-treatment plant effluent in Minnesota. This study was a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Cloud State University, the University of St. Thomas, and the University of Colorado. The objective of the study was to identify distribution patterns of endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other organic and inorganic chemicals of concern indicative of wastewater effluent, and to identify biological characteristics of estrogenicity and fish responses in the same streams. The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water, bed-sediment, and quality-assurance samples, and measured or recorded streamflow once at each sampling location from September through November 2009. Sampling locations included surface water and wastewater-treatment plant effluent. Twenty-five wastewater-treatment plants were selected to include continuous flow and periodic release facilities with differing processing steps (activated sludge or trickling filters) and plant design flows ranging from 0.002 to 10.9 cubic meters per second (0.04 to 251 million gallons per day) throughout Minnesota in varying land-use settings. Water samples were collected from the treated effluent of the 25 wastewater-treatment plants and at one point upstream from and one point downstream from wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges. Bed-sediment samples also were collected at each of the stream or lake locations. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, phytoestrogens and pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and other neutral organic chemicals, carboxylic acids, and steroidal hormones. A subset (25 samples) of the bed-sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, wastewater-indicator chemicals, and steroidal hormones; the

  14. Yoga as a complementary treatment for smoking cessation: rationale, study design and participant characteristics of the Quitting-in-Balance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Ernestine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death among American women. Exercise has shown promise as an aid to smoking cessation because it reduces weight gain and weight concerns, improves affect, and reduces nicotine withdrawal symptoms and cigarette craving. Studies have shown that the practice of yoga improves weight control, and reduces perceived stress and negative affect. Yoga practice also includes regulation of breathing and focused attention, both of which may enhance stress reduction and improve mood and well-being and may improve cessation outcomes. Methods/Design This pilot efficacy study is designed to examine the rates of cessation among women randomized to either a novel, 8-week Yoga plus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT smoking cessation intervention versus a Wellness program plus the same CBT smoking cessation intervention. Outcome measures include 7-day point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment, 3 and 6 months follow up and potential mediating variables (e.g., confidence in quitting smoking, self-efficacy. Other assessments include measures of mindfulness, spirituality, depressive symptoms, anxiety and perceived health (SF-36. Discussion Innovative treatments are needed that address barriers to successful smoking cessation among men and women. The design chosen for this study will allow us to explore potential mediators of intervention efficacy so that we may better understand the mechanism(s by which yoga may act as an effective complementary treatment for smoking cessation. If shown to be effective, yoga can offer an alternative to traditional exercise for reducing negative symptoms that often accompany smoking cessation and predict relapse to smoking among recent quitters. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials NCT00492310

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in a cohort of young patients in day treatment for eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nicely, Terri A; Lane-Loney, Susan; Masciulli, Emily; Hollenbeak, Christopher S.; Ornstein, Rollyn M

    2014-01-01

    Background Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is a “new” diagnosis in the recently published DSM-5, but there is very little literature on patients with ARFID. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of ARFID in children and adolescents undergoing day treatment for an eating disorder, and to compare ARFID patients to other eating disorder patients in the same cohort. Methods A retrospective chart review of 7-17 year olds admitted to a day program for younger patients wi...

  16. Mechanical properties of NiTi and CuNiTi wires used in orthodontic treatment. Part 2: Microscopic surface appraisal and metallurgical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Abdo Gravina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This research aimed at comparing the qualitative chemical compositions and the surface morphology of fracture regions of eight types of Nickel (Ni Titanium (Ti conventional wires, superelastic and heat-activated (GAC, TP, Ormco, Masel, Morelli and Unitek, to the wires with addition of copper (CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC, Ormco after traction test. METHODS: The analyses were performed in a scanning electronic microscope (JEOL, model JSM-5800 LV with EDS system of microanalysis (energy dispersive spectroscopy. RESULTS : The results showed that NiTi wires presented Ni and Ti as the main elements of the alloy with minimum differences in their composition. The CuNiTi wires, however, presented Ni and Ti with a significant percentage of copper (Cu. As for surface morphology, the wires that presented the lowest wire-surface roughness were the superelastic ones by Masel and Morelli, while those that presented the greatest wire-surface roughness were the CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC ones by Ormco, due to presence of microcavity formed as a result of pulling out some particles, possibly of NiTi. 4 The fracture surfaces presented characteristics of ductile fracture, with presence of microcavities. The superelastic wires by GAC and the CuNiTi 27oC and the heat-activated ones by Unitek presented the smallest microcavities and the lowest wire-surface roughness with regard to fracture, while the CuNiTi 35oC wires presented inadequate wire-surface roughness in the fracture region. CONCLUSION: CuNiTi 35oC wires did not present better morphologic characteristics in comparison to the other wires with regard to surfaces and fracture region.

  17. Characteristics of Al-doped ZnO thin films obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis: effects of Al doping and an annealing treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transparent conducting Al-doped ZnO thin films were prepared on silica glass substrates by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The effects of Al doping and an annealing treatment on electrical and optical properties of ZnO thin films were investigated. Zinc acetate dihydrate, 2-methoxyethanol and aluminum chloride were used as a starting material, a solvent and a dopant source, respectively. The electrical conductivity of ZnO films was improved by Al doping and by annealing in a reducing atmosphere. The minimum electrical resistivity was obtained in the 3 at.% Al-doped film annealed at 500 deg. C in nitrogen with 5% hydrogen and its value was 1.71x10-2 Ω cm. The average optical transmittance of all films, regardless of a doping concentration and an annealing condition, was higher than 80% in the visible range. The optical direct band gap of films was dependent on the amount of a dopant and the annealing treatment in a reducing atmosphere. The optical direct band gap value of 3 at.% Al-doped films annealed at 500 deg. C in nitrogen were 3.33 eV

  18. Influence of heat treatment on the mechanical and electrical characteristics of Ni0.5Ti0.5 alloy prepared by electron-beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel titanium alloys (Ni0.5Ti0.5) were successfully produced from elemental Ni/Ti powders by electron-beam melting method and then subjected to annealing and aging treatment. Microstructure of the alloys was examined by XRD and SEM. The mechanical properties of the alloyed surface were examined. The microhardness was studied as a function of annealing temperature and time. It was found that the microhardness decreases with increasing annealing temperature until 660 °C after which the microhardness increases. Electrical resistance measurements were carried out in order to study the transformation behavior. The electrical measurements point out the importance of temperature dependence of Ni0.5Ti0.5 electrical resistance for the identification of particular transformation. The influence of aging on the development of electrical resistivity was also investigated

  19. Photodynamic therapy with conventional and PEGylated liposomal formulations of mTHPC (temoporfin: comparison of treatment efficacy and distribution characteristics in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshetov V

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vadzim Reshetov,1–3 Henri-Pierre Lassalle,1,2 Aurélie François,1,2,4 Dominique Dumas,5 Sebastien Hupont,5 Susanna Gräfe,6 Vasco Filipe,7 Wim Jiskoot,7 François Guillemin,1,2,4 Vladimir Zorin,3 Lina Bezdetnaya1,2,41Université de Lorraine, Centre de Recherche en Automatique de Nancy, Campus Sciences, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France; 2Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre de Recherche en Automatique de Nancy, France; 3Laboratory of Biophysics and Biotechnology, Physics Faculty, Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus; 4Lorraine Cancer Institute, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; 5Université de Lorraine, Plate forme d'Imagerie et de Biophysique Cellulaire Plate Forme IBiSA d'Imagerie et de Biophysique Cellulaire de Nancy, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France; 6Biolitec Research GmbH, Research and Development, Jena, Germany; 7Division of Drug Delivery Technology, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, Leiden, the NetherlandsAbstract: A major challenge in the application of a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for anticancer agents is the knowledge of the critical properties that influence their in vivo behavior and the therapeutic performance of the drug. The effect of a liposomal formulation, as an example of a widely-used delivery system, on all aspects of the drug delivery process, including the drug's behavior in blood and in the tumor, has to be considered when optimizing treatment with liposomal drugs, but that is rarely done. This article presents a comparison of conventional (Foslip® and polyethylene glycosylated (Fospeg® liposomal formulations of temoporfin (meta-tetra[hydroxyphenyl]chlorin in tumor-grafted mice, with a set of comparison parameters not reported before in one model. Foslip® and Fospeg® pharmacokinetics, drug release, liposome stability, tumor uptake, and intratumoral distribution are evaluated, and their influence on the efficacy of

  20. Landfill leachate characteristics and treatment in Harbin%哈尔滨垃圾填埋场渗滤液的特性及回灌处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪雁; 赵庆良; 齐旭东; 刘志刚

    2007-01-01

    Landfill leachate recirculation treatment process is a promising and economic way in northeast China due to the distinct season variation. In order to study the effects of leachate recycle on leachate production, leachate quality and waste stabilization, two simulated sanitary landfill reactors, one with leachate recirculation and the other without, were placed outdoor in Harbin. The three - year experimental results indicated that leachate production was reduced by 87.6% with leachate recirculation which meant less or no facility for leachate treatment was required. Recirculation could improve leachate quality dramatically with lower TOC, COD, BOD, VFA, NH4+ - N, SS and higher pH level which made leachate treatment easy. Recirculation also could enhance waste degradation and stabilization and improve the efficiency of landfill. This study confirmed that leachate recirculation was a feasible way for on - site landfill leachate treatment and waste stabilization in cold area like northeast China.%由于东北地区四季变化明显,冰冻期较长,渗滤液的产生具有明显的不连续性,回灌技术在该地区具有广阔的应用前景.为研究渗滤液回灌对渗滤液水质、水量和固体废物稳定化的影响,选择典型生活垃圾,并在室外建立两个模拟垃圾填埋场,一个采用渗滤液回灌技术,另一个没有渗滤液回灌做为对比参考,进行三年连续的监测研究.实验结果表明:回灌能减少87.6%的渗滤液,节省处理设施;回灌能明显改善渗滤液水质,显著降低总有机碳(TOC)、化学需氧量(COD)、生化需氧量(BOD)、挥发性脂肪酸(VFA)、氨氮(NH4+-N)和悬浮固体(SS)浓度,并提高pH值,降低渗滤液处理难度.同时渗滤液回灌技术能强化固体废物的降解和稳定化过程,提高填埋场的使用效率.此成果对垃圾渗滤液回灌处理技术在东北寒冷地区的应用具有一定的实践指导意义.

  1. A prospective, multicenter, observational study of complicated skin and soft tissue infections in hospitalized patients: clinical characteristics, medical treatment, and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipsky Benjamin A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs occur frequently, but limited data do not allow any consensus on an optimal treatment strategy. We designed this prospective, multicenter, observational study to to explore the current epidemiology, treatment, and resulting clinical outcomes of cSSTIs to help develop strategies to potentially improve outcomes. Methods From June 2008 to December 2009 we enrolled a pre-specified number of adults treated in 56 U.S. hospitals with intravenous antibiotic(s for any of the following cSSTIs: diabetic foot infection (DFI; surgical site infection (SSI; deep soft tissue abscess (DSTA; or, cellulitis. Investigators treated all patients per their usual practice during the study and collected data on a standardized form. Results We enrolled 1,033 patients (DFI 27%; SSI 32%; DSTA 14%; cellulitis 27%; mean age 54 years; 54% male, of which 74% had healthcare-associated risk factors. At presentation, 89% of patients received initial empiric therapy with intravenous antibiotics; ~20% of these patients had this empiric regimen changed or discontinued based on culture and sensitivity results. Vancomycin was the most frequently used initial intravenous antibiotic, ordered in 61% of cases. During their stay 44% of patients underwent a surgical procedure related to the study infection, usually incision and drainage or debridement. The mean length of stay was 7.1 days, ranging from 5.8 (DSTA to 8.1 (SSI. Conclusion Our findings from this large prospective observational study that characterized patients with cSSTIs from diverse US inpatient populations provide useful information on the current epidemiology, clinical management practices and outcomes of this common infection.

  2. A prospective longitudinal study of voice characteristics and health-related quality of life outcomes following laryngeal cancer treatment with radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Therese; Bergström, Liza; Ward, Elizabeth; Finizia, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Background To investigate potential changes in perceptual, acoustic and patient-reported outcomes over 12 months for laryngeal cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Material and methods A total of 40 patients with Tis-T3 laryngeal cancer treated with curative intent by radiotherapy were included in this prospective longitudinal descriptive study. Patients were followed pre-radiotherapy, one month, six months and 12 months post-radiotherapy, where voice recordings and patient-reported outcome instruments (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire Core30, Head and Neck35, Swedish Self-Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer) were completed at each appointment. Perceptual analysis, using the Grade-Roughness-Breathiness-Asthenia-Strain scale and vocal fry parameters, and acoustic measures including harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR), jitter, shimmer and mean spoken fundamental frequency (MSFF) were produced from voice recordings. Results All patients presented with dysphonic voices pre-radiotherapy, where 95% demonstrated some degree of vocal roughness. This variable improved significantly immediately post-radiotherapy, however, then deteriorated again between six and 12 months. Vocal fry also increased significantly at 12 months. Acoustic measures were abnormal pre- and post-treatment with no significant change noted except for MSFF, which lowered significantly by 12 months. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) deteriorated post-radiotherapy but returned to pretreatment levels by 12 months. Conclusion By 12 months, most perceptual, acoustic, patient-reported voice and HRQL outcomes for laryngeal cancer patients treated by radiotherapy had showed no significant improvements compared to pretreatment function. Further studies are required to investigate potential benefits of voice rehabilitation following radiotherapy. PMID:27056401

  3. Characteristics of treatment naive chronic hepatitis B in Bangladesh: Younger populations are more affected; HBeAg-negatives are more advanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Shahinul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Bangladesh is a densely populated country with intermediate endemicity for chronic hepatitis B (CHB. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical, virological and histological character of CHB patients and to examine the relationship between these indices. Materials and Methods: One thousand and twenty-two patients of CHB fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria were (1 HBsAg positive for at least 6 months, (2 HBeAg-positive or negative and (3 hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA positive. Patients with detectable antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis Delta virus (HDV or hepatitis C virus (HCV, with previous antiviral treatment, overt cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, were excluded. Of these, 191 patients were randomly selected for liver biopsy and were evaluated for analysis. Results: In the 191 patients, male to female ratio was 4.6:1; age distribution was 26.5 ± 8.5 (mean ± standard deviation years. One hundred and seventy-eight (93.2% patients were under 40 years. Sixty-eight (35.6% patients were HBeAg-negative, had less DNA load, and were significantly older, more fibrotic and cirrhotic ( P < 0.001. Correlation was not found between DNA level and histological activity. Histological activity was not correlated with ALT level in HBeAg-positive patients ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: CHB affects the younger population in Bangladesh. HBeAg-positive CHB was associated with more fibrosis and cirrhosis. Serum HBV DNA levels do not correlate with the severity of histological lesions in all patients. Evaluation by liver biopsy remains gold standard for taking decision of treatment.

  4. Microstructural characteristics and mechanism of toughness improvement of laser and electron-beam welds of V-4Cr-4Ti following postwelding heat-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Park, J.H.; Gazda, J.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The authors are conducting a program to develop an optimal laser welding procedure for large-scale fusion-reactor structural components to be fabricated from vanadium-base alloys. Microstructural characteristics were investigated by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and chemical analysis to provide an understanding of the mechanism of the drastic improvement of impact toughness of laser and electron-beam (EB) welds of V-4Cr-4Ti following postwelding annealing at 1000{degrees}C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that annealed weld zones were characterized by extensive networks of fine V(C,O,N) precipitates, which appear to clean away O, C, and N from grain matrices. This process is accompanied by simultaneous annealing-out of the dense dislocations present in the weld fusion zone. It seems possible to produce high-quality welds under practical conditions by controlling and adjusting the cooling rate of the weld zone by some innovative method to maximize the precipitation of V(C,O,N).

  5. Hazardous waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on the generation of hazardous waste (HW) and the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of HW being generated by routine US Department of Energy (DOE) facility operations. The wastes to be considered are managed by the DOE Waste Management (WM) Division (WM HW). The waste streams are to be sent to WM operations throughout the DOE complex under four management alternatives: No Action, Decentralization, Regionalized 1, and Regionalized 2. On-site and off-site capabilities for TSD are examined for each alternative. This report (1) summarizes the HW inventories and generated amounts resulting from WM activities, focusing on the largest DOE HW generators; (2) presents estimates of the annual amounts shipped off-site, as well as the amounts treated by various treatment technology groups; (3) describes the existing and planned treatment and storage capabilities of the largest HW-generating DOE installations, as well as the use of commercial TSD facilities by DOE sites; (4) presents applicable technologies (destruction of organics, deactivation/neutralization of waste, removal/recovery of organics, and aqueous liquid treatment); and (5) describes the four alternatives for consideration for future HW management, and for each alternative provides the HW loads and the approach used to estimate the source term for routine TSD operations. In addition, potential air emissions, liquid effluents, and solid residuals associated with each alternative are presented. Furthermore, this report is supplemented with an addendum that includes detailed information related to HW inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for the TSD alternatives. The addendum also presents source terms, emission rates, and throughput totals by alternative and treatment installation

  6. Study on Friction and Wear Characteristics and Structure of Compound Layer from Combined Treatment of Ion Nitrocarburizing-Ion Sulphurizing of CrMoCu Alloy Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAShi-ning; HUChun-hua; LIXin; QIUJi

    2004-01-01

    The technics of combined treatment of ion nitrocarburizing-ion sulpburizing of CrMoCu alloy cast iron has been investigated and the compound layer with nitrocabonide and sulphide has been made on the surface of CrMoCu alloy cast iron. The compound layer is composed of sulfide surface layer and the nitrocarbonide hypo-surface layer and its diffusing laye. The size of sulfide globular grains distributing equably on the surface is in nano-micmn-scale, and the phase structure of the compound layer is composed of FeS, FeS2, Fe2C and FerN. Under dry sliding condition, the friction-reducing of sulphurized surface is good, but its function time can't last vet3. long, The nitrocarbonided+sulphurized surface can gready improve the wear-resistance and the friction-reducing of CrMoCu alloy cast iron, and its integrated friction and wear properties are better than plain and sulphurized surfaces.

  7. Study on Friction and Wear Characteristics and Structure of Compound Layer from Combined Treatment of Ion Nitrocarburizing-Ion Sulphurizing of CrMoCu Alloy Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shi-ning; HU Chun-hua; LI Xin; QIU Ji

    2004-01-01

    The technics of combined treatment of ion nitrocarburizing-ion sulphurizing of CrMoCu alloy cast iron has been investigated and the compound layer with nitrocarbonide and sulphide has been made on the surface of CrMoCu alloy cast iron. The compound layer is composed of sulfide surface layer and the nitrocarbonide hypo-surface layer and its diffusing layer. The size of sulfide globular grains distributing equably on the surface is in nano-micron-scale, and the phase structure of the compound layer is composed of FeS、 FeS2、 Fe2C and Fe3N. Under dry sliding condition, the friction-reducing of sulphurized surface is good, but its function time can't last very long. The nitrocarbonided+sulphurized surface can greatly improve the wear-resistance and the friction-reducing of CrMoCu alloy cast iron, and its integrated friction and wear properties are better than plain and sulphurized surfaces'.

  8. Influence of powdered activated carbon addition on water quality, sludge properties, and microbial characteristics in the biological treatment of commingled industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-Yuan; Li, Meng; Wang, Can; Ji, Min

    2015-09-15

    A powdered activated carbon-activated sludge (PAC-AS) system, a traditional activated sludge (AS) system, and a powdered activated carbon (PAC) system were operated to examine the insights into the influence of PAC addition on biological treatment. The average COD removal efficiencies of the PAC-AS system (39%) were nearly double that of the AS system (20%). Compared with the average efficiencies of the PAC system (7%), COD removal by biodegradation in the PAC-AS system was remarkably higher than that in the AS system. The analysis of the influence of PAC on water quality and sludge properties showed that PAC facilitated the removal of hydrophobic matter and metabolic acidic products, and also enhanced the biomass accumulation, sludge settleability, and specific oxygen uptake rate inside the biological system. The microbial community structures in the PAC-AS and AS systems were monitored. The results showed that the average well color development in the PAC-AS system was higher than that in the AS system. The utilization of various substrates by microorganisms in the two systems did not differ. The dissimilarity index was far less than one; thus, showing that the microbial community structures of the two systems were the same. PMID:25863578

  9. 煤层气产出水水质特征及处理技术研究进展%Progress in the research on the water quality characteristics and treatment technologies of coal bed methane produced effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温彩哨; 余志晟; 刘新春; 琚宜文; 张洪勋

    2014-01-01

    论述了国内外煤层气产出水的水质特征及其处理技术的研究进展。煤层气产出水具有高钠度和高矿化度的特征。反渗透法普遍运用于处理煤层气产出水,并且已投入实际工程应用,通常和纳滤或超滤联用,处理后的产出水可进行再利用。而其他处理技术如离子交换法、电容去离子法、电絮凝法、吸附法和化学法等仍处于试点研究阶段。%Progress in the research on the water quality characteristics and treatment technologies of coal bed methane produced effluent(CBMPE) in China and abroad have been reviewed. The CBMPE is characterized by high salinity and sodicity. Reverse osmosis has widely been used for treating CBMPE and applied to actual projects. It ’s usually used by combining with nanofiltration or ultrafiltration ,and the produced water after treatment could be reused. However,other treatment technologies such as ion exchange,capacitive deionization,electrocoagulation,ad-sorption,etc. are still in the stage of pilot study.

  10. Operation characteristic of a heat pump of mechanical vapor recompression propelled by fans and its performance analysis applied to waste-water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weike, Pang; Wenju, Lin; Qilin, Pan; Wenye, Lin; Qunte, Dai; Luwei, Yang; Zhentao, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a set of heat pump (called as Mechanical Vapor Recompression, MVR) propelled by a centrifugal fan is tested and it shows some special characteristic when it works together with a falling film evaporator. Firstly, an analysis of the fan's suction and discharge parameters at stable state, such as its pressure and temperature, indicates that a phenomenon of wet compression is probably to appear during vapor compression. As a result, superheat after saturated vapor is compressed is eliminated, which reduces discharge temperature of the system. It is because drops boil away and absorb the super heat into their latent heat during vapor compression. Meanwhile, drops in the suction vapor add to the compressed vapor, which increase the given heat of the MVR heat pump. Next, assistant electric heat could adjust and keep steady of the operating pressure and temperature of an MVR heat pump. With the evaporation temperature up to be high, heat balance is broken and supplement heat needs to increase. Thirdly, the performance of an MVR heat pump is affect by the balance of falling film and evaporation that has an effect on heat transfer. Then, two parameters standing for the performance are measured as it runs in practical condition. The two important parameters are consumptive electricity power and productive water capacity. According to theoretical work in ideal condition by calculation and fan's input power by measure as running, adiabatic efficiency (ηad) of a centrifugal fan is calculated when it is applied in a heat pump of MVR. Following, based on ηad, practical SMER and COP of an MVR heat pump are discovered to be correlative with it. Finally, in dependence on productive water in theory and in practice, displacement efficiency (ηv) of centrifugal fans is obtained when compressing vapor, and so provide some references of matching a fan for an MVR heat pump. On the other hand, it is helpful to research and develop MVR heat pumps, and also to check

  11. Diagnostic and treatment characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome: descriptive measurements of patient perception and awareness from 657 confidential self-reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genton Marc

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation was undertaken to describe patient perception and awareness of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, the most common cause of anovulation/oligoovulation among women of reproductive age. Methods Fifteen parameters were evaluated by a computer-based research instrument accessed by a large, unscreened population. Incomplete questionnaires were not entered, and responses were electronically tabulated to block duplicate submissions. Results From 657 participants, the majority (63% were between 26–34 years old; mean BMI was 30.4 kg/m2. 343 of 657 had at least one pregnancy and 61% of the study group had taken fertility medicine (any type at least once. Physicians were the most common provider of PCOS information for all study participants, irrespective of age. Patient emotions associated with the diagnosis of PCOS included "frustration" (67%, "anxiety" (16%, "sadness" (10%, and "indifference" (2%. Self-reported patient aptitude regarding PCOS was scored as high or "very aware" in >60% of women. Respondents were also asked: "If your PCOS could be safely and effectively helped by something else besides fertility drugs or birth control pills, would that interest you?" Interest in alternative PCOS treatments was expressed by 99% of the sample (n = 648. Conclusions In our study population, most women associated negative emotions with PCOS although the self-reported knowledge level for the disorder was high. While these women regarded their obstetrician-gynecologist as integral to their PCOS education, traditional PCOS therapies based on oral contraceptives or ovulation induction agents were regarded as unsatisfactory by most women.

  12. Treatment and Characteristics of Gestational Diabetes%浅析妊娠期糖尿病的治疗及特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳宝霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:对妊娠期糖尿病的治疗及效果进行分析。方法随机选取我院2013年1月~2014年1月间收治的患有妊娠期糖尿病的患者60例进行探讨分析。结果经过饮食、运动及胰岛素药物等方法的治疗,有48例患者可以控制住血糖在正常范围内,减轻症状,降低围生儿死亡率。结论患有妊娠期糖尿病的孕妇在经过各种适宜的降糖治疗后,血糖能够得到一定得控制,从而降低了并发症的发生,保证了母婴的安全。%Objective To treat and analyze the effects of gestational diabetes. Methods 60 patients were randomly selected in our hospital between January 2013 to January 2014 with gestational diabetes treated analysis were discussed. Results After treatment diet, exercise and insulin drugs and other methods, there are 48 cases of patients can control blood sugar in the normal range, reduce symptoms and reduce perinatal mortality in children. Conclusion Pregnant women with gestational diabetes after a variety of appropriate hypoglycemic therapy, blood glucose was able to get some control , thereby reducing the incidence of complications to ensure the baby 's safety.

  13. Initial experience with software system JODNEW for evaluation biophysical characteristics related to treatment of carcinoma of thyroid gland by 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our research tries to exploit sophisticated methods for a balancing of positive and negative consequences of radionuclide applications. We have tailored Bayesian data processing in order to support decision making during treatment of thyroid diseases with help of 131I. After successful experimental phase we have implemented them. This novel in-house developed software system JODNEW i now tested. It aim at: (1) increasing quality of raw biophysical data exploited in diagnostics and therapy of thyroid diseases; (2) estimating cumulated activity so that MIRD methodology can be well used; (3) decreasing working load on staff. JODNEW is an extensive data-base system co-operating with advanced estimation algorithms coded in C++. The Bayesian methodology adopted allows us to exploit expert knowledge, models of observed processes as well as measured data in a consistent way. This is important in the considered case when the number of measurements is quite limited and influence of biological and physical variations is high. Moreover, all estimates are qualified by the remaining uncertainty. During diagnostics> The (functioning) volume of thyroid gland and body mass are measured. A diagnostic amount of 131I is administered. Three whole body measurements of elimination rate by urine (excretions) are made within 2 days after administration. The accumulated activities above thyroid gland and other lesions are registered within several days. Evaluation and measurements during therapy are: The accumulation ability is evaluated using diagnostic data. Consequences of 131I administration are judged, then, the therapeutic activity is selected and administered. The accumulation dynamics is supervised and reaching radio-hygienic limits influencing patient regime is predicted. The common features of these steps are: (1) Individual measurements are corrupted by a high and varying uncertainty; (2) The number of measurements is limited; (3) A significant expert experience is available; (4

  14. Clinical characteristics and treatments of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections%肺炎克雷白杆菌感染的表现与治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海燕; 孙正芸

    2016-01-01

    肺炎克雷白杆菌是一种常见的革兰阴性条件致病菌,在机体免疫力低下时,可引起呼吸道、泌尿道、消化道及皮肤软组织等多种部位感染,是导致社区获得性和(或)医院感染性肺炎、菌血症、尿路感染、肝脓肿的重要病原菌。最严重的是脓毒性休克,出现休克的患者病死率高。最常见的疾病是肺炎克雷白杆菌肺炎,儿童及老年人尤为突出。近年来,肺炎克雷白杆菌耐药率已显著升高。如何预防肺炎克雷白杆菌感染,早期诊断及有效治疗耐药菌株感染的病患已成了当务之急。%Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important gram-negative bacteria clinically. Klebsiella infections are seen mostly in people with a weakened immune system.Klebsiella can cause infec-tions in the respiratory tract,urinary tract,lower biliary tract,and surgical wound sites.The range of clinical diseases includes pneumonia,thrombophlebitis,urinary tract infection,pyogenic liver abscess,cholecystitis,di-arrhea,upper respiratory tract infection,wound infection,osteomyelitis,meningitis,and bacteremia and septi-cemia.The most common condition caused by Klebsiella bacteria is pneumonia,and the worst condition is septic shock.Klebsiella organisms are often resistant to multiple antibiotics.Klebsiella with the ability to pro-duce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases is resistant to many classes of antibiotics.Therefore,prevent sprea-ding Klebsiella infections and give effective treatment to patients are most important task for us.

  15. Effect of pre-treatment of the substrate surface by energetic C+ ion bombardment on structure and nano-tribological characteristics of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismani, E.; Sinha, S. K.; Tripathy, S.; Yang, H.; Bhatia, C. S.

    2011-03-01

    Depositing an ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coating on the surface of the recording heads in magnetic tape drives can improve the tribological problems at the head/tape interface. In this work the effect of pre-treatment of the surface of AlTiC substrate (main bearing surface of head in contact with tape) by C+ ions of moderate energy (smaller than 400 eV) on the structural and tribo-mechanical behaviours of the coated surfaces is studied. Sample preparation consisted of two separate stages of surface pre-treatment and deposition of the protective film, and was done by means of filtered cathodic vacuum arc. Structure of the ta-C film and its interface with the substrate were studied by transmission electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling. The results revealed the formation of a broader, dense atomically mixed layer at the ta-C film-substrate interface of the pre-treated samples comparing with that of the samples without pre-treatment. Chemical characterization of thin diamond-like carbon coatings was conducted by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface pre-treatment was found to have a remarkable effect on increasing the sp3 hybridization fraction in the ta-C overcoat. Nano-tribological properties of the treated surfaces were examined using ball-on-flat wear test at very low load (20 mN). There was a good correlation between the surface and structure characteristics of the film, and the tribological results and the pre-treated surfaces presented a very low coefficient of friction and higher wear life. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of bombardment of the surface with C+ ions of moderate ion energy to improve the structural and tribo-mechanical properties of the protective ta-C films on the magnetic head substrate material.

  16. Effect of pre-treatment of the substrate surface by energetic C+ ion bombardment on structure and nano-tribological characteristics of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depositing an ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coating on the surface of the recording heads in magnetic tape drives can improve the tribological problems at the head/tape interface. In this work the effect of pre-treatment of the surface of AlTiC substrate (main bearing surface of head in contact with tape) by C+ ions of moderate energy (smaller than 400 eV) on the structural and tribo-mechanical behaviours of the coated surfaces is studied. Sample preparation consisted of two separate stages of surface pre-treatment and deposition of the protective film, and was done by means of filtered cathodic vacuum arc. Structure of the ta-C film and its interface with the substrate were studied by transmission electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling. The results revealed the formation of a broader, dense atomically mixed layer at the ta-C film-substrate interface of the pre-treated samples comparing with that of the samples without pre-treatment. Chemical characterization of thin diamond-like carbon coatings was conducted by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface pre-treatment was found to have a remarkable effect on increasing the sp3 hybridization fraction in the ta-C overcoat. Nano-tribological properties of the treated surfaces were examined using ball-on-flat wear test at very low load (20 mN). There was a good correlation between the surface and structure characteristics of the film, and the tribological results and the pre-treated surfaces presented a very low coefficient of friction and higher wear life. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of bombardment of the surface with C+ ions of moderate ion energy to improve the structural and tribo-mechanical properties of the protective ta-C films on the magnetic head substrate material.

  17. Effect of pre-treatment of the substrate surface by energetic C{sup +} ion bombardment on structure and nano-tribological characteristics of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rismani, E; Sinha, S K [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Block EA, 07-08, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Tripathy, S [Institute of Material Research and Engineering (IMRE), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Yang, H; Bhatia, C S, E-mail: elebcs@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Block E4, Level 5, Room 45, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2011-03-23

    Depositing an ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coating on the surface of the recording heads in magnetic tape drives can improve the tribological problems at the head/tape interface. In this work the effect of pre-treatment of the surface of AlTiC substrate (main bearing surface of head in contact with tape) by C{sup +} ions of moderate energy (smaller than 400 eV) on the structural and tribo-mechanical behaviours of the coated surfaces is studied. Sample preparation consisted of two separate stages of surface pre-treatment and deposition of the protective film, and was done by means of filtered cathodic vacuum arc. Structure of the ta-C film and its interface with the substrate were studied by transmission electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling. The results revealed the formation of a broader, dense atomically mixed layer at the ta-C film-substrate interface of the pre-treated samples comparing with that of the samples without pre-treatment. Chemical characterization of thin diamond-like carbon coatings was conducted by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface pre-treatment was found to have a remarkable effect on increasing the sp{sup 3} hybridization fraction in the ta-C overcoat. Nano-tribological properties of the treated surfaces were examined using ball-on-flat wear test at very low load (20 mN). There was a good correlation between the surface and structure characteristics of the film, and the tribological results and the pre-treated surfaces presented a very low coefficient of friction and higher wear life. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of bombardment of the surface with C{sup +} ions of moderate ion energy to improve the structural and tribo-mechanical properties of the protective ta-C films on the magnetic head substrate material.

  18. High-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the US Department of Energy eenvironmental management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides data and information needed to support the risk and impact assessments of high-level waste (HLW) management alternatives in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Available data on the physical form, chemical and isotopic composition, storage locations, and other waste characteristics of interest are presented. High-level waste management follows six implementation phases: current storage, retrieval, pretreatment, treatment, interim canister storage, and geologic repository disposal; pretreatment, treatment, and repository disposal are outside the scope of the WM PEIS. Brief descriptions of current and planned HLW management facilities are provided, including information on the type of waste managed in the facility, costs, product form, resource requirements, emissions, and current and future status. Data sources and technical and regulatory assumptions are identified. The range of HLW management alternatives (including decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches) is described. The required waste management facilities include expanded interim storage facilities under the various alternatives. Resource requirements for construction (e.g., land and materials) and operation (e.g., energy and process chemicals), work force, costs, effluents, design capacities, and emissions are presented for each alternative

  19. High-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides data and information needed to support the risk and impact assessments of high-level waste (HLW) management alternatives in the US Department of Energy Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Available data on the physical form, chemical and isotopic composition, storage locations, and other waste characteristics of interest are presented. High-level waste management follows six implementation phases: current storage, retrieval, pretreatment, treatment, interim canister storage, and geologic repository disposal; pretreatment, treatment, and repository disposal are outside the scope of the WM PEIS. Brief descriptions of current and planned HLW management facilities are provided, including information on the type of waste managed in the facility, costs, product form, resource requirements, emissions, and current and future status. Data sources and technical and regulatory assumptions are identified. The range of HLW management alternatives (including decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches) is described. The required waste management facilities include expanded interim storage facilities under the various alternatives. Resource requirements for construction (e.g., land and materials) and operation (e.g., energy and process chemicals), work force, costs, effluents, design capacities, and emissions are presented for each alternative

  20. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephany N Duda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies have addressed the capacity of HIV programmes to deliver comprehensive care. We sought to describe such capacity in HIV programmes in seven regions worldwide. Methods: Staff from 128 sites in 41 countries participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS completed a site survey from 2009 to 2010, including sites in the Asia-Pacific region (n=20, Latin America and the Caribbean (n=7, North America (n=7, Central Africa (n=12, East Africa (n=51, Southern Africa (n=16 and West Africa (n=15. We computed a measure of the comprehensiveness of care based on seven World Health Organization-recommended essential HIV services. Results: Most sites reported serving urban (61%; region range (rr: 33–100% and both adult and paediatric populations (77%; rr: 29–96%. Only 45% of HIV clinics that reported treating children had paediatricians on staff. As for the seven essential services, survey respondents reported that CD4+ cell count testing was available to all but one site, while tuberculosis (TB screening and community outreach services were available in 80 and 72%, respectively. The remaining four essential services – nutritional support (82%, combination antiretroviral therapy adherence support (88%, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT (94% and other prevention and clinical management services (97% – were uniformly available. Approximately half (46% of sites reported offering all seven services. Newer sites and sites in settings with low rankings on the UN Human Development Index (HDI, especially those in the President's Emergency

  1. ПРОГНОСТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗНАЧЕНИЕ УРОВНЕЙ ГЛИКЕМИИ, ЗАРЕГИСТРИРОВАННЫЙ У ПАЦИЕНТОВ С ИНФАРКТОМ МИОКАРДА ПРИ ПОСТУПЛЕНИИ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. К. Холматова

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Admission hyperglycaemia is common in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with myocardial infarction and has negative influence on prognosis. The value of admission glycaemia as risk factor is underappreciated, that causes untimely monitoring of glycaemia, infrequent treatment and inappropriate therapeutic strategy in patients without diabetes. The article shows the results of analysis of association between admission glycaemia and short-term and long-term prognosis in patients with myocardial infarction.

  2. 着色性干皮症继发颌面部恶性肿瘤的临床特点及其手术治疗%Clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of maxillofacial malignancy secondary to Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华联

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨东非桑给巴尔地区着色性干皮症( Xeroderma Pigmentosum, XP)继发颌面部恶性肿瘤患者的临床、病理特点、手术方式及预后。方法回顾性分析研究东非桑给巴尔MNAZI·MMOJA医院2012—2014年收治的着色性干皮症继发颌面部恶性肿瘤患者8例,对所有患者的手术治疗方式、病理特点、及预后进行分析。结果病理学结果显示,鳞状细胞癌4例,基底细胞癌3例,恶性黑色素瘤1例。1例患者放弃治疗,半年后死亡;1例舌癌患儿术后9月死亡;其他6例患者手术治疗后随访6~24个月,原发肿瘤部位未见复发。结论继发于着色性干皮症的颌面部肿瘤多为恶性,基底细胞癌及鳞状细胞癌居多;肿瘤进展快、预后差,但及时的手术干预可明显改善预后;手术切除范围应足够大,术后创面可行游离植皮、临近皮瓣等方法修复。%Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics, surgical treatment, pathology and prognosis of maxillofacial malignancy secondary to Xeroderma Pigmentosum in MNAZI·MMOJA Hospital of Zanzibar. Methods This was a retrospective case study. 8 maxillofacial malignancy patients secondary to Xeroderma Pigmentosum visiting Zanzibar MNAZI·MMOJA Hospital between 2012 and 2014 were reviewed. The data of the 8 patients including the surgical treatment, pathology and prognosis were analyzed in the study. Results The result of pathological and immunohistochemical examination suggested that 4 cases had squamous cell carcinoma, 3 cases had basal cell carcinoma, and 1 case had malignant melanoma. All these 8 patients were followed-up for 6-24months. 1 tongue cancer patient died nine months later after operation;1 patient giving up treatment died half a year later;there was no recurrence for other 6 patients. Conclusion Maxillofacial tumors secondary to Xeroderma Pigmentosum are usually malignant, and tend to recur. The most common two are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell

  3. Effect of ECR-assisted microwave plasma nitriding treatment on the microstructure characteristics of FCVA deposited ultra-thin ta-C films for high-density magnetic storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are higher technical requirements for protecting layer of magnetic heads and disks used in future high-density storage fields. In this paper, ultra-thin (2 nm thickness) tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films were firstly prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) method, then a series of nitriding treatments were performed with nitrogen plasma generated using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave source. Here it highlighted the influence of nitrogen flow and applied substrate bias voltage on the structural characteristics of ta-C films during the plasma nitriding process. The chemical compositions, element depth distribution profiles, physical structures and bonding configurations of plasma-nitrided ta-C films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and UV-vis Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results show that the carbon nitride compounds (CNx) are formed in nitrogenated ta-C films in which the N content and its depth distribution depends on bias voltage to large extent rather than N2 flow. The N content of nitrogenated ta-C films can reach 16 at.% for a substrate bias of -300 V and a N2 flow of 90 sccm. With increasing nitrogen content, there is less G peak dispersion and more ordering of structure. Furthermore, appropriate nitriding treatment (substrate bias: -100 V, N2 flow: 150 sccm) can greatly increase the fraction of sp3 and sp3C-N bonds, but the values begin to fall when the N content is above 9.8 at.%. All these indicate that suitable ECR-assisted microwave plasma nitriding is a potential modification method to obtain ultra-thin ta-C films with higher sp3 and sp3C-N fractions for high-density magnetic storage applications.

  4. Immunological characteristics and transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in treatment of spinal cord injury%骨髓间充质干细胞免疫学特性及其移植治疗脊髓损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘筱; 许铁

    2011-01-01

    背景:近年来研究表明:骨髓间充质干细胞能在同种异基因,甚至异种基因的环境中长期存活,并且保持多向分化潜能.这一独特的免疫学特性,以及来源丰富、避免伦理问题等优点,可能为治疗脊髓损伤和促进神经功能修复提供了新的途径.目的:对骨髓间充质干细胞的免疫学特性、不同途径移植及其可能机制进行综述,为干细胞治疗脊髓损伤提供理论依据.方法:由第一作者应用计算机检索PubMed 2000-01/2010-09期间相关文章,检索词为"mesenchymal stem cells,bone marrow,immunological characteristics,transplantation,spinal cord injury".纳入标准:文章所述内容应与骨髓间充质干细胞的免疫学特性及其治疗相关研究进展.排除标准:重复研究或者Meta分析类文章.共收集到260篇相关文献,选取33篇文献进入结果分析.结果与结论:骨髓间充质干细胞具有独特的低免疫原性,有助于抑制移植排斥反应.通过不同的移植方法、选择合适的移植途径和时机,均可对脊髓损伤的治疗提供有益的保护作用,其机制可能是神经元替代、分泌神经营养因子、归巢效应等.随着对骨髓间充质干细胞和脊髓损伤机制研究的不断深入,预示着间充质干细胞移植在治疗脊髓损伤后神经功能修复领域,将有着广阔的临床应用前景.%BACKGROUND: Previous studies have confirmed that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can be also transplanted into allogeneic and heterologous gene environment, and maintain multi-directional differentiation potential. It may provide a new path to promote nerve repair after spinal cord injuries for its rich source, avoidance of ethical problem and distinct immunological characteristics.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the immunological characteristics, different pathways of transplantation and its possible mechanisms of BMSCs and to provide theoretical evidence for stem cells in treatment of spinal cord

  5. Survey of a community-based infusion program for Australian patients with rheumatoid arthritis requiring treatment with tocilizumab: patient characteristics and drivers of patient satisfaction and patient-perceived benefits and concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voight L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Louisa VoightCoast Joint Care, Maroochydore, Queensland, AustraliaBackground: Tocilizumab is an effective therapy for patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis that is administered by infusion over one hour every 4 weeks. The community-based infusion (ACTiv program was introduced to Australia in August 2010 to provide accessible and convenient treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis who require tocilizumab. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the characteristics of patients in the ACTiv program, patient satisfaction, and patient-perceived benefits and concerns with the ACTiv program, and drivers of patient satisfaction and patient-perceived benefits and concerns.Methods: A voluntary self-administered survey was given to all 608 patients in the ACTiv program between January 27, 2011 and March 31, 2011.Results: A total of 351 surveys were returned completed, giving a response rate of 58% (351/608. Most patients in the ACTiv program were women aged 40–64 years, with a mean disease duration of 13.7 years and moderate disability, who had been in the ACTiv program for ≥5 months. Most patients (88%, 302/342 were either very satisfied or satisfied with the ACTiv program and believed that they were very unlikely or somewhat unlikely to switch from the ACTiv program (64%, 214/335. The most important benefit was the reassurance of receiving treatment from a trained nurse in a professional medical environment (33%, 102/309. The most important concern was the fear of side effects (48%, 134/280. The main drivers of patient satisfaction and patient-perceived benefits and concerns of patients were health profile, previous medication experience, and length of treatment time in the program.Conclusion: The ACTiv program is used by patients of various ages, family life situations, and locations. Patient satisfaction with the program is high, which enables patients to benefit from long-term use of tocilizumab

  6. Characteristics of migraine in children and adolescents and preventive treatment with flunarizin%儿童和青少年期偏头痛流行病学及氟桂利嗪预防性治疗研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷旻

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of migraine in children and adolescents and to observe the efficacy of the preventive treatment with flunarizine. Methods Based on the clinical symptoms, signs, medical history and auxiliary examination of migraine, the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and classification of migraine in children and adolescents were analyzed. Those patients were administrated with flunarizine 10 mg orally once a day for eight weeks. Results Totally 200 migraine patients with clinical diagnosis were identified as migraine without aura for 56.0%, migraine with aura for 21.5%, periodic syndrome for 13%, retinal migraine for 5.5% and others for 4.0%. Among them tense learning (42.0%) and interpersonal discord (28.0%) were the most common predisposing factors. Seizure frequency and degree of migraine were decreased significantly after therapy with flunarizine. Conclusion The clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and classification may benefit to migraine identified. The flunarizine for migraine prophylactic treatment is effective and safe.%目的 分析儿童和青少年偏头痛患者的流行病学,并观察氟桂利嗪预防性治疗疗效.方法 根据我院儿科儿童和青少年期偏头痛患者(n=200)的临床症状、体征、病史、辅助检查、偏头痛及其可能发病诱因的相关问卷,分析偏头痛的分型、临床特征及可能的诱因,并以偏头痛发作频率和头痛程度评价氟桂利嗪(一日1次10 mg)睡前服用治疗8周的疗效.结果200例入选患者按偏头痛分型依次为:无先兆性偏头痛112例(56.0%),有先兆性偏头痛患者43例(21.5%),周期性综合征26例(13.0%),视网膜偏头痛11例(5.5%),其他类型患者8例(4.0%).学习紧张(42.0%)和人际关系不睦(约28.0%)等是最常见的诱发因素.患者接受氟桂利嗪治疗后,偏头痛发作频率和头痛程度与治疗前相比改善显著(P<0.01).结论偏头痛分型

  7. The effects of Low Level LASER Therapy (LLLT) on blood glucose levels in patients with Diabetes Mellitus type I : a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Leonardo; Postiglione, Marco; Buccioni, Tommaso; Longo, Diego

    2009-06-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a widespread disease and a serious public health problem. Low Level LASER Therapy (LLLT) has been found to reduce glycaemia on DM type 1 patients, an observation requiring further research especially as regards characteristics of treatment protocol. The purpose of this work is to continue the line of research and propose a specific protocol for LLLT use. In spring 2008 a 48 year old man, DM type 1 insulin dependent patient has been submitted to 810 nm wavelength LLLT treatment in specific body areas daily for 3 weeks and then once a week for 4 weeks until normalization of glycaemia. Medical supervision was present before, during and after application. Insulin was reduced progressively and then stopped. A gradual reduction of glycaemia was noted during the course of treatment. In successive follow-ups a reduction in HbA1c was noted. Results confirm previous observations and need for further research on large cohorts. The indication that LASER may become a valuable addition to DM type 1 treatment is confirmed and the proposed protocol appears to be effective. The case presented merits review since it reports a therapeutic challenge, contributes to advance in medical science and spawns research.

  8. 大型囊性听神经瘤的临床特点及显微手术治疗%Large cystic acoustic neuromas:clinical characteristics and microsurgical treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏卿; 李刚; 李新钢; 徐淑军; 江玉泉; 王云彦

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical characteristics,surgical strategy and outcomes of large cystic acoustic neuromas based on our experience.Method A retrospective study of clinical presentation and surgical outcomes was performed on 74 patients with large acoustic neuromas, of which 24 were cystic and 50 were solid.Results Atypical initial symptoms, shorter clinical history and more frequent incidence of preoperative hydrocephalus were characteristics of large cystic acoustic neuromas differed from solid tumors.Gross total resection was performed in 17(71%) patients with cystic tumors and 45(90%) patients with solid tumors, subtotal resection in 6 (25%) and 5 (10%),respectively.The anatomical preservation of facial nerve was achieved in 20 patients (83%) with cystic tumors versus 45 patients (90%) with solid tumors.Conclusions Large cystic acoustic neuromas have a rapid growth pattern and should be given early surgical treatment.The surgical strategy of subtotal resection is indicated for large cystic acoustic neuromas with severe adherence in order to preserve facial nerve function.%目的 探讨大型囊性听神经瘤的临床特征,总结显微手术治疗经验.方法 对经显微手术治疗的24例大型囊性及50例大型实性听神经瘤进行回顾性对比分析.结果 囊性肿瘤全切17例(71%),次全切6例(25%),大部切除1例(4%),面神经解剖保留20例(83%).实性肿瘤全切45例(90%),次全切5例(10%),面神经解剖保留45例(90%).囊性肿瘤首发症状多不典型,病程短,脑积水发生率高.结论 大型囊性听神经瘤发展迅速,应及时手术治疗.应用显微外科技术,对与神经组织紧密粘连的肿瘤,采取次全切除的策略,有助于面神经的保护,提高临床效果.

  9. 初治急性白血病患者院内感染特征及防治策略%Nosocomial infection characteristics and control strategies of initial treatment acute leukemia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秀娟; 孙利娟; 焦雪丽; 韩利杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of co-infection in initial treatment acute leukemia induction chemotherapy.Methods The clinical features of 179 untreated acute leukemia patients with nosocomial infection were analyzed after combined chemotherapy.Results In the 179 patients,151cases achieved complete remission,the complete remission rate was 84.4 %,82 cases suffered from nosocomial infections,the incidence of infection was 45.8 %.The sites of infection were oral,anal,lung,as well as primary foci was not clear bacteremia.In 428 specimens,the isolated bacterial colony counted a total of 66,the number of fungal colonies was 9,the bacterial colony was G-bacteria-based.G-bacteria had different degrees of resistance to many antibiotics.Extended-spectrum β-lactamases strains had not been detected in these specimens.Conclusion Acute leukemia patients is easy to co-infection after chemotherapy.Control and prevention of nosocomial infections should run throughout the entire treatment process,application of laminar flow bed helps reduce the newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients with nosocomial infection incidence.%目的 分析初治急性白血病患者诱导化疗并发感染特征及防治策略.方法 回顾性分析采用联合化疗方案治疗的179例初治急性白血病患者院内感染的临床特征.结果 179例患者中,完全缓解151例(84.4%).其中,发生院内感染82例(45.8%).感染部位主要为口腔、肛周、肺部等以及原发感染灶不明确的菌血症.送检标本共428份,共分离出细菌66株,真菌9株,以革兰阴性菌为主.革兰阴性菌、阳性菌均对多种抗生素有不同程度的耐药,未检出产超广谱β-内酰胺酶菌株.结论 急性白血病患者化疗后易合并感染,院内感染的控制和预防应贯穿整个治疗过程,层流床的应用有利于降低患者院内感染发生率.

  10. Describing the characteristics, treatment pathways, outcomes, and costs of people with persistent noncancer pain managed by community pain clinics and generating an indicative estimate of cost-effectiveness: feasibility study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlAujan S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shiekha AlAujan,1 Saja AlMazrou,1 Roger D Knaggs,1,2 Rachel A Elliott11Division for Social Research in Medicines and Health, The School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 2Pharmacy Department and Pain Management Service, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UKBackground: Low back pain (LBP and fibromyalgia (FM, also known as chronic widespread pain (CWP, are highly prevalent chronic painful conditions that have substantial impact on patients, health care systems, and society. Diagnosis is complex and management strategies are associated with various levels of evidence for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Multidisciplinary pain services have been shown to be effective in some settings and therefore are recommended by clinical practice guidelines as a rational treatment option to manage these patients. Knowing that these services are resource intensive, evidence is needed to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness. This study aims to describe the management of patients with LBP and FM in two community pain clinics to derive an indicative estimate of cost-effectiveness compared with standard practice.Methods: This is a prospective observational multicenter study, using patient-level data. The data from this study will be combined with modelling of the long-term economic impact of community pain clinics in treating people with LBP and FM. Newly referred patients with LBP and FM who provide written consent will be included. We will collect data on functional disability, pain intensity, quality of life, and health resource utilization. Follow-up data at the 3- and 6-month points will be collected by patient-completed questionnaires and health care contact diaries. Health care resource use from diaries will be compared with patient electronic records to assess the agreement between these recording methods. Patient cohort characteristics, treatment pathways, resource use, and outcomes derived from this study will

  11. Planning and execution of Raft River stimulation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verity, R.V.; Crichlow, H.B. (ed.)

    1980-02-07

    The following topics are discussed for two Raft River Valley wells: well characteristics and treatment objectives, treatment selection and design, treatment history, mechanical arrangements and job costs. (MHR)

  12. FREQUENCY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPERNUMERARY TEETH IN BRAZILIAN CHILDREN: CONSEQUENCES AND PROPOSED TREATMENTS FREQÜÊNCIA E CARACTERÍSTICAS DOS DENTES SUPRANUMERÁRIOS EM CRIANÇAS BRASILEIRAS: CONSEQÜÊNCIAS E TRATAMENTOS PROPOSTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guimarães PRIMO

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The study had the objective of identifying the frequency of supernumerary teeth on patients attended at the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic at the School of Dentistry of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (FO-UFRJ, from 1981 to 1990, relating the frequency to the sex and dentition of the patients. Some characteristics relating to and consequential upon the pathology, as well as the proposed treatments, are also part of this work. To achieve the proposed objectives, 1,907 files of patients with full mouth radiographs were examined. Children who had disturbances such as cleft lip or palate, cleidocranial dysostosis or Gardner's Syndrome were excluded from the study. The age of the patients who comprised the sample varied from 2 to 14Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar a freqüência de dentes supranumerários em pacientes atendidos na Clínica de Odontopediatria da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (FO-UFRJ, entre 1981 e 1990, relacionando-a com o sexo e a dentição dos pacientes. As conseqüências da presença dessa patologia, bem como os tratamentos propostos, também fizeram parte deste trabalho. A fim de atingir os objetivos propostos, 1907 fichas de pacientes com radiografias de boca total foram examinadas. As crianças que apresentavam distúrbios, tais como fenda labial ou palatina, disostose cleidocraniana ou Síndrome de Gardner, foram excluídas do estudo. A idade dos pacientes que compuseram a amostra variou de 2 a 14 anos

  13. Clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of oculocutaneous malignancy secondary to xeroderma pigmentosum%着色性干皮病继发眼部恶性肿瘤的临床特点及其手术治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红姝; 史季桐

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical manifestations,pathology,surgical treatment and prognosis of oculocutaneous malignancy secondary to xeroderma pigmentosum.Methods This was a retrospective case series study.The case records of 5 malignancy patients secondary to xeroderma pigmentosum visited Beijing Tongren Eye Center between 1999 and 2011 were reviewed,and the mean age of the patients was 44.6±4.9 years.Surgical and other treatment and immunohistochemical staining were analyzed.Results The results of pathological and immunohistochemical examinations showed that 1 case had malignant neurinoma,and 3 cases had basal cell carcinoma,and 1 case had malignant melanocytoma.All these cases were followed-up for 3 to 6 years.In 2 cases the malignancy relapsed,one was squamous cell carcinoma,another trichoepithelioma.Conclusion Oculocutaneous tumor secondary to xeroderma pigmentosum usually is malignant,and tends to recur.Although the characteristics of this disease include a rapidly progressive clinical course of the malignant tumor in the eye and a poor prognosis,timely surgical removal will significantly improve the prognosis.Massive resction and skin grafting should be performed during the surgery according to the results of pathological examination on the cryostat sections,and the range of surgical treatment should be large enough.%目的 探讨着色性干皮病继发眼部恶性肿瘤的临床、病理、手术治疗方法及预后.方法 回顾性病例研究.1999-2008年间收治的着色性干皮病继发眼部恶性肿瘤患者5例,平均年龄(44.6±4.9)岁,采用手术治疗,并对这些患者的手术方式、肿瘤病理学检查和免疫组化检查结果进行分析.结果 病理学及免疫组化检查显示结膜角膜黑色素瘤1例,基底细胞癌3例,恶性神经鞘瘤1例.5例患者随访3~6年、2例术后再发肿瘤,l例为毛发上皮瘤,1例为鳞状细胞癌.结论 继发于着色性干皮病的眼部肿瘤多为恶性,有复发倾向,虽然

  14. Clinical characteristics,diagnosis and treatment of 18 cases with pulmonary mucormycosis%18例肺毛霉菌病的临床特征与诊治分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾练; 梁宗安; 刘丹; 黄燚

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨肺毛霉菌病的临床和影像特征、诊治方法和预后。方法回顾性分析四川大学华西医院呼吸内科2010年1月至2015年1月收治的18例肺毛霉菌病病例的临床特征和诊治情况。结果18例肺毛霉菌感染病例中,男女比5∶1,年龄(54.28±17.28)岁,其中健康者仅2例,糖尿病8例,血液系统疾病3例,自身免疫性疾病2例,慢性肝、肾、肺疾病各两2例,肺腺癌1例。常见症状包括咳嗽、发热、咯血、胸痛、呼吸困难,影像学主要表现为渗出、实变、空洞、结节、团块影。12例通过组织病理确诊,1例血培养确诊,5例多次痰培养阳性临床诊断。治疗药物以两性霉素B或两性霉素B脂质体为基础。存活8例(44.4%),死亡10例(55.6%)。结论肺毛霉菌病患者临床表现无特异性,确诊主要靠组织病理检查,治疗药物仍以两性霉素B或两性霉素B脂质体为基础。%Objective To investigate the clinical and radiological characteristics,diagnosis,treatment and prognosis of patients with pulmonary mucormycosis.Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 18 patients diagnosed as pul-monary mucormycosis at department of respiratory and critical care medicine in the West China Hospital,Sichuan University between January 2010 and January 2015.Results The 18 patients consisted of 15 males and 3 females with an average age of 54.28 ±17.28 years old.Among those cases recruited,2 were healthy subjects,8 cases with type II diabetes,3 with blood system diseases,2 with of au-toimmune diseases,2 with chronic hepatic disease,2 with chronic kidney diseases,2 cases with chronic lung diseases,and 1 case with lung adenocarcinoma.Common symptoms included cough,fever,hemoptysis,chest pain and dyspnea.The image features of chest showed infiltrates,cavity,nodules,and mass by computer tomography scanning.Of the patients,12 cases were histopathologically

  15. MRI characteristics of tuberculous spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, S. [Leeds and West Yorkshire Radiology Academy, Leeds General Infirmary, Great George Street, Leeds (United Kingdom); Galea-Soler, S., E-mail: sandro.galeasoler@uhb.nhs.uk [Queen Elizabeth Medical Centre, Edgbaston, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Barron, D. [Leeds and West Yorkshire Radiology Academy, Leeds General Infirmary, Great George Street, Leeds (United Kingdom); Chandramohan, M.; Groves, C. [Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Bradford (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Spondylitis is the most common osseous manifestation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Although treatable, it continues to cause significant mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis through familiarity with its imaging characteristics is essential to permit rapid treatment and prevent potential life-limiting consequences. In this review, we demonstrate the key magnetic resonance imaging features of this disease.

  16. Clinical characteristics of Caroli's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozlem Yonem; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2007-01-01

    Caroli's syndrome is characterized by multiple segmental cystic or saccular dilatations of intrahepatic bile ducts associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis. The clinical features of this syndrome reflect both the characteristics of congenital hepatic fibrosis such as portal hypertension and that of Caroli's disease named as recurrent cholangitis and cholelithiasis. The diagnosis depends on both histology and imaging methods which can show the communication between the sacculi and the bile ducts. Treatment consists of symptomatic treatment of cholangitis attacks by antibiotics, some endoscopic,radiological and surgical drainage procedures and surgery. Liver transplantation seems the ultimate treatment for this disease. Prognosis is fairly good unless recurrent cholangitis and renal failure develops.

  17. Analysis on the clinical characteristics and treatment of intracranial venous and sinus thrombosis%颅内静脉系统血栓形成的临床特征与疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈书红; 周广喜

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨颅内静脉系统血栓形成的临床特征以及治疗原则.方法 分析14例颅内静脉系统血栓形成患者的发病年龄、发病形式、临床表现、影像学特征、脑脊液检查结果,并比较阿加曲班和低分子肝素对神经功能改善程度及预后的影响.结果 颅内静脉系统血栓形成可见于任何年龄段,中青年女性多见,以妊娠、感染、免疫性疾病等为常见发病原因.急性或亚急性发病,主要表现为头痛(10例)、癫癎发作(5例)和肢体无力(3例),大部分患者脑脊液压力明显升高.影像学表现为脑静脉及静脉窦闭塞的特征性变化,同时伴有脑实质损害.阿加曲班和低分子肝素治疗总有效病例分别为7例和5例(Z=-0.067,P=0.950),两组患者治疗前后神经功能缺损程度[美国国立卫生研究院卒中量表(NIHSS)评分]比较,差异有统计学意义(P=0.007).结论 对急性起病且临床主要表现为头痛、呕吐等颅内高压症状,且头部CT检查显示皮质对称性梗死而无常见脑卒中危险因素的患者,应高度怀疑颅内静脉系统血栓形成.虽然脑血管造影检查为金标准,但大部分患者可通过早期MRI联合MRV检查明确诊断.阿加曲班和低分子肝素疗效无差异,早期积极抗凝治疗患者获益更大.%Objective To explore the clinical characteristics and treatment of intracranial venous and sinus thrombosis. Methods Fourteen patienta (2 males and 12 females) with intracranial venous and sinus thrombosis were divided into 2 groups, and were treated with argatroban (argatroban group, n = 8) and heparin (heparin group, n = 6), respectively. Age, pattem of onset, clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics and result of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination were analysed. The improvement of neural function and outcome was compared between 2 groups. Results Intracranial venous and sinus thrombosis could be seen in all age, but especially often occurred in young and

  18. Frequency and characteristics of metabolic disorders in patients on haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolić Radojica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Metabolic syndrome and malnutrition represent metabolic abnormalities which significantly characterize patients on haemodialysis. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and find characteristics of metabolic disbalance in patients on haemodialysis. Methods. The study involved 124 patients on chronic haemodialysis at the Clinical Centre Kragujevac. There were analyzed demographic and anthropometric characteristics of the examined patients. Of clinical characteristics, there were determined smoking habit, time on dialysis, arterial pressure; of comorbide states there were recorded heart diseases and diabetes mellitus. Routine biochemical analyses were carried out by a standard laboratory procedure. Results. Metabolic syndrome was found in 29.8% of the examined patients. The patients with metabolic syndrome were older as compared to the patients without metabolic syndrome (58.45±12.91 vs 52.25±11.63 years. The values of systolic pressure (143.88±19.75 vs 133.01±22.93 mmHg; p = 0.014, body mass index (21.2±3.71 vs 19.4±2.88 kg/m2; p = 0.001, fat body mass (19.57±8.47 vs 16.45±5.82%; p = 0.0002 and waist scope (89±12.54 vs 96±12.34 cm; p = 0.0001 were significantly higher in the patients with metabolic syndrome as compared to those without metabolic syndrome. The values of erythrocytes (3.4±0.45 vs 19±0.53 × 1012; p = 0.04 and hemoglobin (107±15.76 vs 101±13.87 g/l; p = 0.009, glycaemia (9.5±8.15 vs 5.6±1.4 mmol/l; p = 0.04 triglycerides (2.44±1.8 vs 1.41±0.64 mmol/l; p = 0.007, HDL cholesterol (1.11±0.19 vs 0.82±0.25 mmol/l; p = 0.005 and albumins (32.5±5.6 vs 29.5±3.7 g/l; p = 0.007 were statistically higher in the patients with metabolic syndrome than in patients without disturbance. Diabetes mellitus was a significant etiological factor of renal insufficiency in the patients with metabolic syndrome (p = 0.008. Conclusion. In our study approximately 30% of patients on haemodialysis had pronounced

  19. 垃圾焚烧厂渗滤液处置工艺中溶解性有机物变化特性%Characteristics of dissolved organic matters in waste incineration plant leachate treatment process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平; 高星; 吴锦华; 朱能武; 吴平霄

    2014-01-01

    A novel process combined with physicochemistry biological treatment and advanced treatment was employed to treat leachate from incineration plant. The actual removal efficiency, dissolved organic matters (DOM) composition structure characteristics and the mechanism were investigated. Results showed the total removal efficiencies of COD and NH4+-N achieved approximately 99%. The influent COD (17825mg/L) and NH4+-N (1946mg/L) could be degraded to the effluent COD (57mg/L) and NH4+-N (5mg/L) respectively. In the combination process, the total COD removal efficiencies of HA, FA and HyI reached approximately 99%. The process units of significant cut for humic acids(HA), fulvic acids (FA), hydrophilic (HyI) were coagulation 2, anaerobic, granular activated carbon(GAC), respectively. The removal efficiencies for HA, FA, HyI reached 86%, 77%, 84%, respectively. The effluent COD values of HA, FA and HyI were 10, 23 and 6mg/L, respectively, FA of small molecular weight was the major component. The DOM ultraviolet absorbance value dropped significantly during the treatment. E254 and E253/E203 decreased from 1.55 and 0.64 to 0.012 and 0.024, which indicated that the aromaticity and complexity of DOM reduced significantly.The content of aliphatic chain increased gradually during the treatment process. In addition, E300/E400 and E465/E665 increased from 2.65 and 2.17 to 9.78 and 8.03, which also illustrated that the humification and aromatization degree reduced constantly.%采用“物化+生物处理+深度处理”组合工艺处理垃圾焚烧厂渗滤液,探索组合工艺对渗滤液的实际去除效果,考察渗滤液中溶解性有机物(DOM)的组成及其结构特性随组合工艺的变化规律,并对其机理进行了初步探讨.结果表明,当进水 COD 和氨氮的平均值分别为17825,1946mg/L时,组合工艺对渗滤液中COD和氨氮去除率均达到99%左右,出水COD、氨氮、色度分别为57mg/L、5mg/L、15倍.组合工艺对渗滤液DOM中腐殖

  20. 老年性脊柱结核的特点及保守治疗疗效观察%Analysis of clinical characteristics of elderly patients with spinal tuberculosis and its clinical effects with conservative treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晋宇; 李大伟; 崔旭; 马远征

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical characteristics of elderly patients with spinal tuberculosis and explore its clinical effects with anti-TB drugs alone. Methods:From January 2008 to July 2010,the data of 36 patients with spinal tuberculosis underwent conservative treatment of anti-TB drugs alone were analyzed. There were 19 males and 17 females with an average age of 73.5 years (ranged,60 to 85). All patients were in the active phase with high ESR and CRP levels and were treated with 3HRZE/6-9HRE (course from 9 to 12 months). According to clinical symptoms,chemical examination,radiological image to adjust drug and depending on VAS score to evaluate pain. Results: All the patients were followed up from 8 to 24 months with an average of 15 months. Tuberculose of 31 patients healed after chemotherapy from 9 to 12 months and ESR and CRP recovered normally. Levofloxacin and para-amino salicylic acid were used in 4 cases because of 4 cases occurred drug fast for RFP or INH , after 15 months, their obtained healing. Symptom of 1 case got worse during chemotherapy, and surgical treatment were performed,after 3 months,ESR and CRP recovered normally,X-ray and CT showed spinal osteosclerosis and fusion without significant kyphosis and internal fixation loosening. Cobb angle was respectively (17.6±2.3)°, (18.1 ±2.7)°before treatment and last follow-up (P>0.05). MRI showed abscess was absorbed and spinal inflammation subsidised. VAS score was respectively 6.5± 1.7 ,1.4±0.5 before treatment and last follow-up (P<0.05). Seven patients had complications relating with drug adverse reaction, after discontinuation and treated with clinical symptom, the patients recovered normally. Conclusion: Anti -TB drugs alone can obtain satisfactory effects in treating early senile spinal tuberculosis,but strict supervision and individual administration should not be disregardful.%目的:探讨老年性脊柱结核的特点及单独应用抗结核药物治疗早期老年