WorldWideScience

Sample records for characteristics biological observations

  1. The establishment of transmissible venereal tumor lung cancer model in canine and the observation of its biological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhichao; Dong Weihua; Xiao Xiangsheng; Zhu Ruimin; Chen mofan; Wang Zhi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To establish an allogeneic transplanted lung cancer model in canine by percutaneously injecting canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) cell suspension and to observe its biological characteristics. Methods: Under CT guidance fresh CTVT cell suspension was inoculated into the middle or posterior lobe of lungs through percutaneous puncturing needle in 12 beagle dogs. Cyclosporin was administrated orally to obtain immunosuppression. Tumor growth and metastasis were judged by chest CT scanning at regular intervals (every 1-2 weeks). The daily mental and physical condition of the dogs was observed. Autopsy and pathological examination were performed when the animals died naturally or at the tenth week after the procedure when the animals were sacrificed. Results: A total of 15 sites were inoculated in 12 dogs. The formation of tumor was observed in 2 dogs at the fifth week and in 9 dogs at the sixth week. Ten weeks after the inoculation the formation of tumor was detected in 10 inoculated points in 9 dogs, the inoculation success rate was 66.67%. The mean largest diameter of the tumor at 6, 8 and 10 weeks after the inoculation was (1.059 ± 0.113)cm, (1.827 ± 0.084)cm and (2.189 ± 0.153)cm, respectively. The largest diameter of the tumor nodule was 3.5 cm. Moderate to severe pleural effusion and mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis were found in all the dogs that showed the formation of the tumor. Conclusion: Percutaneous CTVT cell suspension injection can establish an allogeneic canine lung cancer model, which is helpful for the experimental studies related to lung cancer. (authors)

  2. [Cycloferon biological activity characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkina, T M; Potekhina, L P; Kartashova, O L; Vasilchenko, A S

    2014-01-01

    Study the effect of cycloferon in experimental and clinical conditions on persistence properties of aurococci as well as features of their morpho-functional reaction by atomic force microscopy. The study was carried out in 12 Staphylococcus aureus clones isolated from mucous membrane of nose anterior part of a resident carrier. The effect of cycloferon in vivo was evaluated in 26 resident staphylococci carriers under the control of anti-carnosine activity of staphylococci. Anti-carnosine activity was determined by O.V. Bukharin et al. (1999), biofilm formation -by G.A. O'Toole et al. (2000). Staphylococci treated with cycloferon were studied by atomic force microscopy in contact mode using scanning probe SMM-2000 microscope. The decrease of persistence properties of staphylococci under the effect of cycloferon in vitro and in vivo may be examined as one of the mechanisms of biological activity of the preparation. A significant increase of S. aureus surface roughness and changes in their morphology under the effect of cycloferon allow stating the disorder of barrier functions in the aurococci cell wall. The data obtained expand the understanding of cycloferon biological activity mechanisms.

  3. Biological couplings: Classification and characteristic rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The phenomena that biological functions originate from biological coupling are the important biological foundation of multiple bionics and the significant discoveries in the bionic fields. In this paper, the basic concepts related to biological coupling are introduced from the bionic viewpoint. Constitution, classification and characteristic rules of biological coupling are illuminated, the general modes of biological coupling studies are analyzed, and the prospects of multi-coupling bionics are predicted.

  4. Observed characteristics of auroral forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.N.

    1978-01-01

    Observations indicate that the extended auroral arc is the basic form of the discrete aurora, the brightest and most obvious kind of aurora. Both motions of auroral arcs and their distortions into convoluted forms indicate the presence of shear processes involving substantial charge excesses and magnetic field-aligned currents. Consequently, strong electric fields, both horizontal and vertical, characterize the discrete aurora. The observations of auroral arcs and observations of associated charged-particle fluxes, electric fields and currents fit together into a relatively cohesive description of the auroral arc which is compatible with at least one proposed model of the causative processes. On the other hand, an equally important type of aurora - pulsating aurora - exhibits quite different characteristics which distinguish it from the discrete aurora and which are difficult to interpret satisfactorily in terms of existing proposed models of particle precipitation and excitation of auroral emission. The lack of shearing behavior in the pulsating aurora indicates that substantial electric fields are not associated with it. Transitional forms of auroras exhibit an intermediate degree of shear motion. (Auth.)

  5. Biologic relativity: Who is the observer and what is observed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, John S; Miller, William B

    2016-05-01

    When quantum physics and biological phenomena are analogously explored, it emerges that biologic causation must also be understood independently of its overt appearance. This is similar to the manner in which Bohm characterized the explicate versus the implicate order as overlapping frames of ambiguity. Placed in this context, the variables affecting epigenetic inheritance can be properly assessed as a key mechanistic principle of evolution that significantly alters our understanding of homeostasis, pleiotropy, and heterochrony, and the purposes of sexual reproduction. Each of these become differing manifestations of a new biological relativity in which biologic space-time becomes its own frame. In such relativistic cellular contexts, it is proper to question exactly who has observer status, and who and what are being observed. Consideration within this frame reduces biology to cellular information sharing through cell-cell communication to resolve ambiguities at every scope and scale. In consequence, it becomes implicit that eukaryotic evolution derives from the unicellular state, remaining consistently adherent to it in a continuous evolutionary arc based upon elemental, non-stochastic physiologic first principles. Furthermore, the entire cell including its cytoskeletal apparatus and membranes that participate in the resolution of biological uncertainties must be considered as having equivalent primacy with genomes in evolutionary terms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Migrational Characteristics, Biological Observations, and Relative Survival of Juvenile Salmonids Entering the Columbia River Estuary, 1966-1983, 1985 Final Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawley, Earl M.

    1986-04-01

    Natural runs of salmonids in the Columbia River basin have decreased as a result of hydroelectric-dam development, poor land- and forest-management, and over-fishing. This has necessitated increased salmon culture to assure adequate numbers of returning adults. Hatchery procedures and facilities are continually being modified to improve both the efficiency of production and the quality of juveniles produced. Initial efforts to evaluate changes in hatchery procedures were dependent upon adult contributions to the fishery and returns to the hatchery. Procedures were developed for sampling juvenile salmon and steelhead entering the Columbia River estuary and ocean plume. The sampling of hatchery fish at the terminus of their freshwater migration assisted in evaluating hatchery production techniques and identifying migrational or behavioral characteristics that influence survival to and through the estuary. The sampling program attempted to estimate survival of different stocks and define various aspects of migratory behavior in a large river, with flows during the spring freshet from 4 to 17 thousand cubic meters per second (m/sup 3//second).

  7. Evidence of dark matter from biological observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zioutas, K.

    1990-01-01

    In accordance with the generally accepted properties of dark matter (DM) candidates, the probability of their interaction with living matter must be equal to that for inorganic matter, and the expected effects might be unique and provide the etiology related to the appearance of several biological phenomena having sometimes fatal late effects. Although collisions with DM are rare, the charged secondaries (recoiling atoms) are expected to be high linear energy transfer particles favouring the highest relative biological effectiveness values for this, as yet invisible, part of the natural background radiation. A few cases are given, where a correlation between DM interaction and phenomena in living matter might already exist, or can show up in existing data: biorhythms with periodicities identical to known cosmic frequencies are explainable with gravitationally clustered DM around the sun, the moon, the earth, etc. The observed arrhythmia, when biological probes are moved (in airplanes, satellites, etc.) support this idea strongly. It is also proposed to implement some of the biological properties and processes (such as element composition and chemical reactions) in future DM detectors in order to improve their sensitivity. The interdisciplinary feedback is bidirectional: huge DM detectors could be used in attempt to understand enigmatic biological behaviour. (orig.)

  8. INTERVAL OBSERVER FOR A BIOLOGICAL REACTOR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kharkovskaia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of an interval observer design for nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties is considered. The interval observer synthesis problem for systems with varying parameters consists in the following. If there is the uncertainty restraint for the state values of the system, limiting the initial conditions of the system and the set of admissible values for the vector of unknown parameters and inputs, the interval existence condition for the estimations of the system state variables, containing the actual state at a given time, needs to be held valid over the whole considered time segment as well. Conditions of the interval observers design for the considered class of systems are shown. They are: limitation of the input and state, the existence of a majorizing function defining the uncertainty vector for the system, Lipschitz continuity or finiteness of this function, the existence of an observer gain with the suitable Lyapunov matrix. The main condition for design of such a device is cooperativity of the interval estimation error dynamics. An individual observer gain matrix selection problem is considered. In order to ensure the property of cooperativity for interval estimation error dynamics, a static transformation of coordinates is proposed. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated by computer modeling of the biological reactor. Possible applications of these interval estimation systems are the spheres of robust control, where the presence of various types of uncertainties in the system dynamics is assumed, biotechnology and environmental systems and processes, mechatronics and robotics, etc.

  9. Prediction of Some Biological Film Characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, G.; Khalaf, K.

    2004-01-01

    A multi components biofilm model has been developed and discussed which accounts for all well established biological processes with biofilm(s): s ubstrate utilization [aerobically, axenically and anaerobically]. D enitrification process. n itrification process. t he effect of diffusion and mass transfer limitations. The model has predicted some important characteristics of bio films such as:- s pace distribution of substrate(s) within bio films. W eight or thickness of biofilm layer (aerobic layer, anoxic layer and anaerobic layer). The results indicates that the relative thickness of biofilm layers (aerobically, anoxically and anaerobic) is highly affected by the availability of the main electron acceptor (O 2 and NO 3 and the organic load)

  10. Dosimetric characteristics of biological effect of sulfur-35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental materials related to evaluation of dosimetric characteristics of sulfur-35 are presented. Hemogenic organs are subjected to greatest influence especially in the first hours after radionuclide entry into the organism. Comparison is made of absorbed doses in blood with observed blastomogen effect of hemogenic organs. It is noted, that quantitative evaluation of relative biological efficiency of low energy beta-emitters should be performed with account of dosimetric peculiarities of the nuclides mentioned above. 10 refs.; 3 tabs

  11. Biological and technological characteristics of Georgian wine and table grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujmajuridze Levan

    2015-01-01

    Description of grapevine varieties implemented through the descriptors for grapevine (IPGRI OIV. Botanical, biological-technological, qualitative and quantitative marks are characterized and evaluated. Investigation conducted during the biologic development phases were studied for chemical and eno-carpological characteristics.

  12. Reproductive biology characteristic of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Rong; Ding, Gui-Jie

    2012-12-01

    Jatropha curcas belongs to family of Euphorbiaceae, and is an important biological tree species for diesel production. The current descriptions of the phenotypic traits for male and female flowers are not comprehensive and there have been no reports about the process of J. curcas from pollen germination on stigma to pollen tubes conducting fertilization after entering the ovary and ovule. To assess this, experiments were undertaken to study the reproductive biology characteristic of J. curcas in Guiyang Guizhou Province, China. Floral structure and pollen germination process were described in detail and the breeding system was determined. The results showed that flower of J. curcas was both unisexual and monoecious, with a flowering phase between April-November. Both female and male flowers have five petals in contorted arrangement and five calyxes in imbricated arrangement. Female flower originated from bisexual flower finally formed unisexual flowers as the stamen ceased growth in different period. The pistil had 3-5 styles, connected at base and separated into 3-5 stigmas on the top. Each stigma had 2-4 lobes. The styles were hollow. The pollen germinated on the surface of the stigma, is then transported via the vascular tissues, which was arranged in bundles, and finally channeled through the micropyle to enter the blastula. The pollen tube was shaped in a long uneven cylinder. The top end of it became swollen and formed a small round hole for the purpose of releasing sperm nuclei while the pollen tube itself was growing and extending. Estimation of out-crossing index and artificial pollination experiments indicated that J. curcas was capable of both self-pollination and cross-pollination. The germination speed of the pollen on the stigma did not differ so much between the one by self-pollination and the one by cross-pollination, and the pollen from the two different sources could both reach the ovary within one day. Both artificial pollination test and out

  13. Reproductive biology characteristic of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Rong Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to family of Euphorbiaceae, and is an important biological tree species for diesel production. The current descriptions of the phenotypic traits for male and female flowers are not comprehensive and there have been no reports about the process of J. curcas from pollen germination on stigma to pollen tubes conducting fertilization after entering the ovary and ovule. To assess this, experiments were undertaken to study the reproductive biology characteristic of J. curcas in Guiyang Guizhou Province, China. Floral structure and pollen germination process were described in detail and the breeding system was determined. The results showed that flower of J. curcas was both unisexual and monoecious, with a flowering phase between April-November. Both female and male flowers have five petals in contorted arrangement and five calyxes in imbricated arrangement. Female flower originated from bisexual flower finally formed unisexual flowers as the stamen ceased growth in different period. The pistil had 3-5 styles, connected at base and separated into 3-5 stigmas on the top. Each stigma had 2-4 lobes. The styles were hollow. The pollen germinated on the surface of the stigma, is then transported via the vascular tissues, which was arranged in bundles, and finally channeled through the micropyle to enter the blastula. The pollen tube was shaped in a long uneven cylinder. The top end of it became swollen and formed a small round hole for the purpose of releasing sperm nuclei while the pollen tube itself was growing and extending. Estimation of out-crossing index and artificial pollination experiments indicated that J. curcas was capable of both self-pollination and cross-pollination. The germination speed of the pollen on the stigma did not differ so much between the one by self-pollination and the one by cross-pollination, and the pollen from the two different sources could both reach the ovary within one day. Both artificial

  14. Reproductive biology characteristic of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Rong Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to family of Euphorbiaceae, and is an important biological tree species for diesel production. The current descriptions of the phenotypic traits for male and female flowers are not comprehensive and there have been no reports about the process of J. curcas from pollen germination on stigma to pollen tubes conducting fertilization after entering the ovary and ovule. To assess this, experiments were undertaken to study the reproductive biology characteristic of J. curcas in Guiyang Guizhou Province, China. Floral structure and pollen germination process were described in detail and the breeding system was determined. The results showed that flower of J. curcas was both unisexual and monoecious, with a flowering phase between April-November. Both female and male flowers have five petals in contorted arrangement and five calyxes in imbricated arrangement. Female flower originated from bisexual flower finally formed unisexual flowers as the stamen ceased growth in different period. The pistil had 3-5 styles, connected at base and separated into 3-5 stigmas on the top. Each stigma had 2-4 lobes. The styles were hollow. The pollen germinated on the surface of the stigma, is then transported via the vascular tissues, which was arranged in bundles, and finally channeled through the micropyle to enter the blastula. The pollen tube was shaped in a long uneven cylinder. The top end of it became swollen and formed a small round hole for the purpose of releasing sperm nuclei while the pollen tube itself was growing and extending. Estimation of out-crossing index and artificial pollination experiments indicated that J. curcas was capable of both self-pollination and cross-pollination. The germination speed of the pollen on the stigma did not differ so much between the one by self-pollination and the one by cross-pollination, and the pollen from the two different sources could both reach the ovary within one day. Both artificial

  15. [Biological characteristics of calliphoridae and its application in forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Boa; Wen, Charn; Qi, Li-Li; Wang, He; Wang, Ji

    2013-12-01

    Diptera Calliphoridae is the first major kind of flies that appears on the decomposed corpses. In forensic entomology, according to the living characteristics of Calliphoridae flies, we could accurately estimate postmortem interval (PMI) in a murder or unidentified case and could provide useful clues to solve the case. This paper introduces the characteristics of the biology and morphology of Diptera Calliphoridae, and reviews the combined application of forensic entomology, molecular biology, mathematical morphology and toxicology.

  16. Some physico-chemical and biological characteristics of soil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental conditions that influence biocorrosion in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria are investigated experimentally by analysing the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of four (4) soil samples and water samples taken from ten (10) selected river bodies in the region. Measured properties of the water ...

  17. Observations on the Biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observations on the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus( Fab.) were carried out under ambient laboratory conditions. Pattern of oviposition, female adult longevity and F1 progeny emergence in Callosobruchus maculatus ( Fab. ) were observed. The results showed that over 60% of the total number of eggs was laid during ...

  18. Controllability and observability of Boolean networks arising from biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Yang, Meng; Chu, Tianguang

    2015-02-01

    Boolean networks are currently receiving considerable attention as a computational scheme for system level analysis and modeling of biological systems. Studying control-related problems in Boolean networks may reveal new insights into the intrinsic control in complex biological systems and enable us to develop strategies for manipulating biological systems using exogenous inputs. This paper considers controllability and observability of Boolean biological networks. We propose a new approach, which draws from the rich theory of symbolic computation, to solve the problems. Consequently, simple necessary and sufficient conditions for reachability, controllability, and observability are obtained, and algorithmic tests for controllability and observability which are based on the Gröbner basis method are presented. As practical applications, we apply the proposed approach to several different biological systems, namely, the mammalian cell-cycle network, the T-cell activation network, the large granular lymphocyte survival signaling network, and the Drosophila segment polarity network, gaining novel insights into the control and/or monitoring of the specific biological systems.

  19. Genetic variability of muscle biological characteristics of young limousin bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Renand, Gilles; Jurie, Catherine; Robelin, Jacques; Picard, Brigitte; Geay, Y.; Menissier, Francois

    1995-01-01

    Genetic parameters of 4 muscle biological characteristics (protein to DNA ratio (Pro/DNA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) activity and the proportion of type I myosin heavy chains (MHC I)), in the Semitendinosus and the Longissimus thoracis, were estimated simultaneously with average daily gain (ADG), 480-d final weight (FW), carcass lean and fat contents (CL% and CF% respectively) in a sample of young Limousin bulls tested in station. The data came f...

  20. Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Mengqi

    2015-04-01

    Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method Through quantitative inspection method , the biological characteristics of crucian was preliminary researched. Crucian , Belongs to Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Carassius auratus, is a kind of main plant-eating omnivorous fish,like Gregarious, selection and ranking. Crucian are widely distributed, perennial water all over the country all have production. Determine the indicators of crucian in the experiment, to understand the growth, reproduction situation of crucian in this area . Using the measured data (such as the scale length ,scale size and wheel diameter and so on) and related functional to calculate growth of crucian in any one year.According to the egg shape, color, weight ,etc to determine its maturity, with the mean egg diameter per 20 eggs and the number of eggs per 0.5 grams, to calculate the relative and absolute fecundity of the fish .Measured crucian were female puberty. Based on the relation between the scale diameter and length and the information, linear relationship between crucian scale diameter and length: y=1.530+3.0649. From the data, the fertility and is closely relative to the increase of age. The older, the more mature gonad development. The more amount of eggs. In addition, absolute fecundity increases with the pituitary gland.Through quantitative check crucian bait food intake by the object, reveals the main food, secondary foods, and chance food of crucian ,and understand that crucian degree of be fond of of all kinds of bait organisms.Fish fertility with weight gain, it has the characteristics of species and populations, and at the same tmes influenced by the age of the individual, body length, body weight, environmental conditions (especially the nutrition conditions), and breeding habits, spawning times factors and the size of the egg. After a series of studies of crucian biological character, provide the ecological basis for local crucian's feeding, breeding

  1. Physicochemical Characteristics and Biological Activity of Irradiated Pectin Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.H.; Kang, H.J.; Jo, C.O.; Jeong, I.Y.; Byun, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Pectin was dissolved in HCI, citric acid, and deionized distilled water (DW, 2%, v/v) and irradiated at different irradiation doses (2.5-50 kGy) by gamma ray to investigate its physicochemical characteristics and biological activity. Viscosity of pectin solution was significantly decreased by irradiation up to 10 kGy, then remained constant thereafter. Gamma-irradiation increased monosaccharide and polysaccharide levels up to 30-40 kDa. Electron donating ability of pectin solution was highest when DW was added was increased by increasing irradiation dose (p less than 0.05)

  2. Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en

    Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.

  3. Biological observations on the broadfin shark Lamiopsis temminckii (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhilesh, K V; Purushottama, G B; Thakurdas; Kizhakudan, S J

    2017-12-01

    Biological information was collected from 214 individuals of the broadfin shark Lamiopsis temminckii measuring 418 to 1782 mm total length, L T . Size at maturity (L 50 ) for females and males was estimated at 1430 and 1368 mm L T , respectively, while mature and gravid females were observed from 1350 mm L T with litter sizes 2-8 and size at birth 418-650 mm L T . Analysis of stomach contents revealed a variety of prey, primarily crustaceans (54·0%), teleosts (42·7%) and cephalopods. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Instructional Quality Features in Videotaped Biology Lessons: Content-Independent Description of Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfner, Tobias; Förtsch, Christian; Boone, William; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2017-09-01

    A number of studies on single instructional quality features have been reported for mathematics and science instruction. For summarizing single instructional quality features, researchers have created a model of three basic dimensions (classroom management, supportive climate, and cognitive activation) of instructional quality mainly through observing mathematics instruction. Considering this model as valid for all subjects and as usable for describing instruction, we used it in this study which aimed to analyze characteristics of instructional quality in biology lessons of high-achieving and low-achieving classes, independently of content. Therefore, we used the data of three different previous video studies of biology instruction conducted in Germany. From each video study, we selected three high-achieving and three low-achieving classes (N = 18 teachers; 35 videos) for our multiple-case study, in which conspicuous characteristics of instructional quality features were qualitatively identified and qualitatively analyzed. The amount of these characteristics was counted in a quantitative way in all the videos. The characteristics we found could be categorized using the model of three basic dimensions of instructional quality despite some subject-specific differences for biology instruction. Our results revealed that many more characteristics were observable in high-achieving classes than in low-achieving classes. Thus, we believe that this model could be used to describe biology instruction independently of the content. We also make the claims about the qualities for biology instruction—working with concentration in a content-structured environment, getting challenged in higher order thinking, and getting praised for performance—that could have positive influence on students' achievement.

  5. Fractographic observations of the microstructural characteristics of flax fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Asian, Mustafa; Lilholt, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Natural fibre composites possess a number of special microstructural characteristics, which need to be documented to aid in the further development of these materials. Using field emission scanning electron microscopy, fractographic observations of the microstructural characteristics of aligned f...... novel observations, measurements and interpretations to be used in the further analysis and understanding of the properties of natural fibre composites. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......Natural fibre composites possess a number of special microstructural characteristics, which need to be documented to aid in the further development of these materials. Using field emission scanning electron microscopy, fractographic observations of the microstructural characteristics of aligned...... flax fibre/thermoplastic composites are presented. The findings are presented in relation to the three operational parts in composites: fibres, matrix and fibre/matrix interface. For the flax fibres, the striated structure on the fibre surface is shown to consist of cellulose macrofibrils oriented...

  6. Autonomous observations of the ocean biological carbon pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2009-03-01

    Prediction of the substantial biologically mediated carbon flows in a rapidly changing and acidifying ocean requires model simulations informed by observations of key carbon cycle processes on the appropriate space and time scales. From 2000 to 2004, the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) supported the development of the first low-cost fully-autonomous ocean profiling Carbon Explorers that demonstrated that year-round real-time observations of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration and sedimentation could be achieved in the world's ocean. NOPP also initiated the development of a sensor for particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) suitable for operational deployment across all oceanographic platforms. As a result, PIC profile characterization that once required shipboard sample collection and shipboard or shore based laboratory analysis, is now possible to full ocean depth in real time using a 0.2W sensor operating at 24 Hz. NOPP developments further spawned US DOE support to develop the Carbon Flux Explorer, a free-vehicle capable of following hourly variations of particulate inorganic and organic carbon sedimentation from near surface to kilometer depths for seasons to years and capable of relaying contemporaneous observations via satellite. We have demonstrated the feasibility of real time - low cost carbon observations which are of fundamental value to carbon prediction and when further developed, will lead to a fully enhanced global carbon observatory capable of real time assessment of the ocean carbon sink, a needed constraint for assessment of carbon management policies on a global scale.

  7. Effects of space environment on biological characteristics of melanoma B16 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Chuanying; Xiang Qing; Xu Mei; Li Hongyan; Xu Bo; Fang Qing; Tang Jingtian; Guo Yupeng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of space environment on biological characteristics of melanoma B16 Cells. Methods: B16 cells were carried to the space (in orbit for 8 days, circle the earth 286 times) by the 20th Chinese recoverable satellite, and then harvested and monocloned. 110 strains of space B16 cells were obtained in total. Ten strains of space B16 cells were selected and its morphological changes were examined with the phasecontrast microscope. Flow cytometry and MTT assay were carried out to evaluate the cell cycle and cell viability. Results Morphological changes were observed in the space cells, and melainin granules on the surface in some cells. It was demonstrated by MTF assay that space cells viability varied muti- directionally. It was showed by flow cytometry analysis that G1 phase of space cells was prolonged, S phase shortened. Conclusion: Space environment may change the biological characteristics of melanoma B16 cells. (authors)

  8. Visual observation of a heat pipe working characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuyuzaki, Noriyoshi; Saito, Takashi; Ishigami, Shinya; Kawada, Michitaka; Konno, Masanobu; Kaminaga, Fumito; Okamoto, Yoshizo.

    1988-10-01

    When the heat pipe is used in a nuclear engineering field, it is indispensable to understand transient characteristics of an accident condition as well as in a steady state at a normal operation. However there have been few informations about the transient characteristics of a heat pipe in case of rapid temperature or heat load change in an evaporator section. The purpose of this study is to examine transient and steady state characteristics of a gravity assisted heat pipe and variable conductance heat pipe(VCHP) which will be used in a neutron irradiation capsule. This report presents results of visual observation of boiling and condensation patterns on steady state or transient condition in a visible heat pipe made of a glass. The response time of the heat pipe is on the order of a few seconds when the temperature of the evaporator part is kept above the operating temperature. (author)

  9. AMS Observations over Coastal California from the Biological and Oceanic Atmospheric Study (BOAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, K. H.; Coggon, M. M.; Hodas, N.; Negron, A.; Ortega, A. M.; Crosbie, E.; Sorooshian, A.; Nenes, A.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J.

    2015-12-01

    In July 2015, fifteen research flights were conducted on a US Navy Twin Otter aircraft as part of the Biological and Oceanic Atmospheric Study (BOAS) campaign. The flights took place near the California coast at Monterey, to investigate the effects of sea surface temperature and algal blooms on oceanic particulate emissions, the diurnal mixing of urban pollution with other airmasses, and the impacts of biological aerosols on the California atmosphere. The aircraft's payload included an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), a differential mobility analyzer, a cloud condensation nuclei counter, a counterflow virtual impactor, a cloudwater collector, and two instruments designed to detect biological aerosols - a wideband integrated biological spectrometer and a SpinCon II - as well as a number of meteorology and aerosol probes, two condensation particle counters, and instruments to measure gas-phase CO, CO2, O3, and NOx. Here, we describe in depth the objectives and outcomes of BOAS and report preliminary results, primarily from the AMS. We detail the spatial characteristics and meteorological variability of speciated aerosol components over a strong and persistent bloom of Pseudo-Nitzschia, the harmful algae that cause 'red tide', and report newly identified AMS markers for biological particles. Finally, we compare these results with data collected during BOAS over urban, forested, and agricultural environments, and describe the mixing observed between oceanic and terrestrial airmasses.

  10. A method of clustering observers with different visual characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Takanaga [Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, Department of Radiological Technology, 1-1-20 Daiko-minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan); Imai, Kuniharu [Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, Department of Radiological Technology, 1-1-20 Daiko-minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan); Ikeda, Mitsuru [Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, Department of Radiological Technology, 1-1-20 Daiko-minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan); Maeda, Hisatoshi [Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, Department of Radiological Technology, 1-1-20 Daiko-minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    Evaluation of observer's image perception in medical images is important, and yet has not been performed because it is difficult to quantify visual characteristics. In the present study, we investigated the observer's image perception by clustering a group of 20 observers. Images of a contrast-detail (C-D) phantom, which had cylinders of 10 rows and 10 columns with different diameters and lengths, were acquired with an X-ray screen-film system with fixed exposure conditions. A group of 10 films were prepared for visual evaluations. Sixteen radiological technicians, three radiologists and one medical physicist participated in the observation test. All observers read the phantom radiographs on a transillumination image viewer with room lights off. The detectability was defined as the shortest length of the cylinders of which border the observers could recognize from the background, and was recorded using the number of columns. The detectability was calculated as the average of 10 readings for each observer, and plotted for different phantom diameter. The unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was adopted for clustering. The observers were clustered into two groups: one group selected objects with a demarcation from the vicinity, and the other group searched for the objects with their eyes constrained. This study showed a usefulness of the cluster method to select personnel with the similar perceptual predisposition when a C-D phantom was used in image quality control.

  11. A method of clustering observers with different visual characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Takanaga; Imai, Kuniharu; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Maeda, Hisatoshi

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of observer's image perception in medical images is important, and yet has not been performed because it is difficult to quantify visual characteristics. In the present study, we investigated the observer's image perception by clustering a group of 20 observers. Images of a contrast-detail (C-D) phantom, which had cylinders of 10 rows and 10 columns with different diameters and lengths, were acquired with an X-ray screen-film system with fixed exposure conditions. A group of 10 films were prepared for visual evaluations. Sixteen radiological technicians, three radiologists and one medical physicist participated in the observation test. All observers read the phantom radiographs on a transillumination image viewer with room lights off. The detectability was defined as the shortest length of the cylinders of which border the observers could recognize from the background, and was recorded using the number of columns. The detectability was calculated as the average of 10 readings for each observer, and plotted for different phantom diameter. The unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was adopted for clustering. The observers were clustered into two groups: one group selected objects with a demarcation from the vicinity, and the other group searched for the objects with their eyes constrained. This study showed a usefulness of the cluster method to select personnel with the similar perceptual predisposition when a C-D phantom was used in image quality control

  12. An observational study of sea breeze characteristics over Kalpakkam Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Manju; Mishra, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    An observational study of the sea breeze characteristics has been carried out at Kalpakkam, India which lies on the East coast of Southern Indian peninsula about 700 m inland from the sea, the Bay of Bengal. There are clear and significant changes in the surface meteorological parameters at the onset and during sea-breeze phenomenon in the coastal areas. Hourly averaged measurements from a 30 m tall micrometeorological tower were used to study the sea-breeze characteristics at the above site. In this study, based on detailed analysis of the data on-set criteria of the sea breeze is characterized by increase in relative humidity at least by 5%, fall in temperature by equal or greater than 0.5 K and increase in wind speed with respect to previous hour record. The present study is also compared with the earlier studies in relation to sea breeze carried out at Chennai located approximately 80 km North from Kalpakkam and the differences between these studies are discussed. The comparison of sea breeze characteristics of the present study with those from earlier studies that were carried out more than half a century back also reflects the changes due to urbanization and other development activities as well as resulting climatic impacts. (author)

  13. Chemical and biological characteristics of Albion reef in the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of heterotrophic bacteria, pico-cyanobacteria and benthic cyanobacterial mats was assessed in the cycling of organic carbon and nitrogen in the Albion lagoon, Mauritius. Surveys and sampling for biological and chemical parameters were undertaken at three locations along one northern (T1) and one southern ...

  14. Characteristics of inertial currents observed in offshore wave records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmrich, J.; Garrett, C.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that ambient currents can change the amplitude, direction and frequency of ocean surface waves. Regions with persistent strong currents, such as the Agulhas current off the east coast of South Africa, are known as areas of extreme waves, and wave height modulations of up to 50% observed in the shallow North Sea have been linked to tidal currents. In the open ocean, inertial currents, while intermittent, are typically the most energetic currents with speeds up to 0.5 m/s, and can interact with the surface wave field to create wave modulation, though this has not previously been reported. We use long records of significant wave heights from buoy observations in the northeast Pacific and show evidence of significant modulation at frequencies that are slightly higher than the local inertial frequency. Quite apart from the relevance to surface waves, this result can provide a consistent and independent measurement, over a wide range of latitudes, of the frequency blue-shift, the strength and intermittency of ocean surface inertial currents. Near-inertial waves constitute the most energetic portion of the internal wave band and play a significant role in deep ocean mixing. So far, observational data on near-surface inertial currents has tended to come from short records that do not permit the reliable determination of the frequency blue-shift, though this is an important factor affecting the energy flux from the surface into deeper waters. Long records from routine wave height observations are widely available and could help to shed new light globally on the blue-shift and on the characteristics of inertial currents.

  15. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Predicting Environmental Conditions from Biological Observations (PECBO Appendix)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of PECBO Module, using scripts to infer environmental conditions from biological observations, statistically estimating species-environment relationships, methods for inferring environmental conditions, statistical scripts in module.

  16. Biological characteristics of the hydrological landscapes in the Bay of Biscay in spring 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Lezama-Ochoa, Ainhoa; Grados, Daniel; Lebourges-Dhaussy, Anne; Irigoien, Xabier; Chaigneau, Alexis; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the biogeography of macrozooplankton and fish biomass in the Bay of Biscay. In this region, we defined six different landscapes based on the hydrogeographical characteristics observed in spring 2009. We then related landscape's characteristics and environmental parameters such as light attenuation depth and chlorophyll-a with macrozooplankton and fish acoustic biomass. Hydrodynamic structures together with coastal influences (river discharges, predation pressure and depth preference) and vertical thermohaline structure/mixing (feeding modes and ability to stay in preferred layers) appeared as the main factors determining the biological distribution. Besides, variance partitioning was used to assess the respective roles played by the hydrological environment, the geographical space and the biological environment alone, and their interactions. Results revealed that: (i) macrozooplankton and fish have a preference for different hydrogeographical landscapes; (ii) the association between hydrological conditions and geographical features, i.e. the spatial structure of the hydrological environment, plays a key role in the distribution of macrozooplankton; and (iii) prey-predator relationships have to be taken into account to provide a comprehensive characterization of habitat suitability.

  17. Biological characteristics of the hydrological landscapes in the Bay of Biscay in spring 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Lezama-Ochoa, Ainhoa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the biogeography of macrozooplankton and fish biomass in the Bay of Biscay. In this region, we defined six different landscapes based on the hydrogeographical characteristics observed in spring 2009. We then related landscape\\'s characteristics and environmental parameters such as light attenuation depth and chlorophyll-a with macrozooplankton and fish acoustic biomass. Hydrodynamic structures together with coastal influences (river discharges, predation pressure and depth preference) and vertical thermohaline structure/mixing (feeding modes and ability to stay in preferred layers) appeared as the main factors determining the biological distribution. Besides, variance partitioning was used to assess the respective roles played by the hydrological environment, the geographical space and the biological environment alone, and their interactions. Results revealed that: (i) macrozooplankton and fish have a preference for different hydrogeographical landscapes; (ii) the association between hydrological conditions and geographical features, i.e. the spatial structure of the hydrological environment, plays a key role in the distribution of macrozooplankton; and (iii) prey-predator relationships have to be taken into account to provide a comprehensive characterization of habitat suitability.

  18. The chemical and biological characteristics of coke-oven wastewater by ozonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, E.-E.; Hsing, H.-J.; Chiang, P.-C.; Chen, M.-Y.; Shyng, J.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    A bench-scale bubble column reactor was used to investigate the biological and chemical characteristics of coke-oven wastewater after ozonation treatment through the examination of selected parameters. Color and thiocyanate could be removed almost entirely; however, organic matter and cyanide could not, due to the inadequate oxidation ability of ozone to remove ozonated byproducts under given experimental conditions. The removal of cyanide and total organic carbon were pH-dependent and were found to be efficient under neutral to alkaline conditions. The removal rate for thiocyanate was about five times that of cyanide. The ozone consumption ratio approached to about 1 at the early stage of ozonation (time TOC ) increased to 30%, indicating that easily degraded pollutants were degraded almost entirely. The effect of ozonation on the subsequent biological treatment unit (i.e., activated sludge process) was determined by observing the ratio of 5-day biological oxygen demand to chemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 /COD) and the specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR). The results indicated that the contribution of ozonation to inhibition reduction was very significant but limited to the enhancement of biodegradation. The operation for ozonation of coke-oven wastewater was feasible under neutral condition and short ozone contact time in order to achieve better performance and cost savings

  19. [Cell phone communication: hygienic characteristics, biological action, standardization (a review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudina, M V; Volkotrub, L P

    2010-01-01

    The paper considers the topical issues concerning the functioning of the cellular communication system. It provides the hygienic characteristics of its individual elements. The factors influencing the size of an electromagnetic field generated by mobile phones are stated. Research data on the impact of electromagnetic radiation from a mobile phone on users' health are reviewed. The pivots of present-day Russian hygienic rating regarding the permissible exposures to nonionizing electromagnetic energy generated by the elements of the cellular communication system are identified.

  20. Screening and biological characteristics of fufenozide degrading bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenhao; Gong, Mingfu; Guan, Qinlan; Deng, Xia; Deng, Hongyan; Huang, Jiao

    2018-04-01

    Fufenozide was a novel pesticide for the control of Lepidoptera pests, which was highly toxic to silkworm. Fufenozide-contaminated soil samples were collected and the bacteria that degrade fufenozide were isolated and screened by selective medium. The colony characteristics, cell characteristics and degradation characteristics in different concentrations fufenozide of the fufenozide degrading bacteria were studied. The results indicated that seven strains of fufenozide degradeing bacteria, named as DDH01, DDH03, DDH04, DDH04, DDH05, DDH07 and DDH07 respectively, were isolated from soil contaminated with fufenozide. DDH01, DDH02, DDH04 and DDH05 of seven fufenozide degrading bacteria, was gram-positive bacteria, and DDH03, DDH06 and DDH07 was gram-negative bacteria. All of seven strains of fufenozide degrading bacteria were not spores, weeks flagella, rod-shaped bacteria. DDH06 and DDH07 had capsules, and the remaining five strains had not capsule. The colonies formed by seven strains of fufenozide degradation bacteria on beef extract peptone medium plate were milky white colonies with irregular edges, thinner lawn, smaller colony with smooth surface. The growth of 7 strains of fufenozide degradation bacteria was significantly affected by the concentration of fufenozide, All of 7 strains grown in the range from 0.00025 g/mL to 1 g/mL of 10% fufenozide suspension. DDH2 was the best among the 7 strains of fufenozide degrading bacteria grown in 10% fufenozide suspension medium.

  1. Biological and environmental characteristics of mangrove habitats from Manori creek, West Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kulkarni, V.A.; Jagtap, T.G.; Mhalsekar, N.M.; Naik, A.N.

    better mangrove formations. A creek habitat had been evaluated for its biological and environmental characteristics, and is compared with similar but relatively lesser stressed Mandovi estuary (approx. 475 km south of Mumbai). Several evidences...

  2. Some observations on the reproductive biology of the sixgill shark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observations are made of the maturation status of 81 male and 88 female sixgill sharks Hexanchus griseus from southern African waters. Males mature at about 310 cm total length (TL) with the calcification of the terminal cartilage elements of the claspers. Determination of maturity for females was problematic, but most ...

  3. Biological Characteristics and Control of Orobanche Crenata Forsk., a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Restuccia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic phanerogam which is particularly noxious to legumes, such as faba bean (Vicia faba L., pea (Pisum sativum L., chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris Medik., etc., and commonly considered one of the major causes which has contributed to re-rizing the area designed to their cultivation. After a few brief references on the origin and diffusion of O. crenata, in this work summarises the results of research into biological aspects and control of this species. The information obtained especially concerns seed production, seed viability, seed longevity and dormancy, seed conditioning and germination, parasitism phases, the effects of parasite attacks on host plants and the means of control.

  4. Biological Characteristics and Control of Orobanche Crenata Forsk., a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Restuccia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic phanerogam which is particularly noxious to legumes, such as faba bean (Vicia faba L., pea (Pisum sativum L., chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris Medik., etc., and commonly considered one of the major causes which has contributed to re-rizing the area designed to their cultivation. After a few brief references on the origin and diffusion of O. crenata, in this work summarises the results of research into biological aspects and control of this species. The information obtained especially concerns seed production, seed viability, seed longevity and dormancy, seed conditioning and germination, parasitism phases, the effects of parasite attacks on host plants and the means of control.

  5. Effect of low oxygen tension on the biological characteristics of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae Seong; Ko, Young Jong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Park, Hyun Jin; Park, Yoo Jin; Kim, Dong-Ik; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under ambient conditions does not replicate the low oxygen environment of normal physiological or pathological states and can result in cellular impairment during culture. To overcome these limitations, we explored the effect of hypoxia (1 % O2) on the biological characteristics of MSCs over the course of different culture periods. The following biological characteristics were examined in human bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured under hypoxia for 8 week...

  6. Observations and Inferred Physical Characteristics of Compact Intracloud Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argo, P.E.; Eack, K.B.; Holden, D.N.; Massey, R.S.; Shao, X.; Smith, D.A.; Wiens, K.C.

    1999-01-01

    Compact intracloud discharges (CIDS) represent a distinct class of electrical discharges that occur within intense regions of thunderstorms. They are singular discharges that produce brief (typically 3 ampersand micro;s in duration) broadband RF emissions that are 20 to 30 dB more powerful than radiation from all other recorded lightning processes in the HF and VHF radio spectrum. Far field electric field change recordings of CIDS consist of a single, large-amplitude bipolar pulse that begins to rise during the RF-producing phase of the CID and typically lasts for 20 ampersand micro;s. During the summer of 1998 we operated a 4-station array of electric field change meters in New Mexico to support FORTE satellite observations of transient RF and optical sources and to learn more about the phenomenology and physical characteristics of CIDS. Over 800 CIDS were detected and located during the campaign. The events were identified on the basis of their unique field change waveforms. CID source heights determined using the relative delays of ionospherically reflected source emissions were typically between 4 and 11 km above ground level. Events of both positive and negative polarity were observed with events' of initially- negative polarity (indicative of discharges occurring between underlying positive and overlying negative charge) occurring at slightly higher altitudes. Within CID field change waveforms the CID pulse was often followed within a few ms by one or more smaller-amplitude pulses. We associate these subsequent pulses with the initial activity of a ''normal'' intracloud flash, the inference being that some fraction of the time, a CID initiates an intracloud lightning flash

  7. Observations on the biological cold fusion or the biological transmutation of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, Hisatoki

    1993-01-01

    In previous paper, the author, with Prof. Dr. C. Louis KERVRAN, suggested the probable occurrence of the biological cold fusion or the biological transmutation of elements. In order to confirm the phenomena, under the more controlled condition, potassium, magnesium, iron and calcium were determined in cells of Aspergillus niger IFO 4066, Penicillium chrysogenum IFO 4689, Rhizopus nigricans IFO 5781, Mucor rouxii IFO 0396, Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 0308, Torulopsis utilis IFO 0396, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus IFO 0213 and Hansenula anomala IFO 0118 cultured in normal medium and media deficient in one of potassium, magnesium iron or calcium. Values of potassium 1890-2650 μg, magnesium 380-510 μg, iron 95-120 μg, and calcium 60-95 μg were obtained per g dried cells cultured in each deficient medium, while potassium 8650-11050 μg, magnesium 1920-2160 μg, iron 510-680 μg, and calcium 380-450 μg were found per g dried cells obtained by cultivation in the normal medium. The author would like to suggest the probable occurrence of the phenomena relevant to biological cold fusion. (author)

  8. [Biological characteristics of the egg phase of citrus root weevils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Jerson V C; Parra, José R P

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study some characteristics of the egg phase of three species of citrus root weevils. The insects were collected from citrus plants in Itapetininga, SP, and brought to the Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, SP, where the species Naupactus cervinus (Boheman), Naupactus versatilis (Hustache) and Parapantomorus fluctuosus (Boheman) were kept. Duration and viability of the egg phase were evaluated, and the lower temperature threshold and thermal constant (K) were calculated for these species. The species of citrus root weevils showed different duration of egg phases. The egg phase ranged from 40.4 to 13.8 N. cervinus, from 38.7 to 20.0 days for N. versatilis, and from 35.0 to 13.8 days for P. fluctuosus, depending upon temperature. The temperature thresholds of this stage were 8.1, 8.3, and 9.9 masculineC at thermal constant was 385.7, 397.7 and 294.1 degree-days, for N. cervinus, N. versatilis and P. fluctuosus respectively. The duration of the egg phases of N. cervinus and N. versatilis were similar at the same temperatures and P. fluctuosus had a faster development than Naupactus spp. in all temperatures tested.

  9. The molecular biological characteristics of childhood thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherstvoy, E; Nerovnya, A.; Voskoboinic, L.; Bogdanova, T.; Tronko, N.D.; Tonnachera, M.; Dumont, J.E.; Lamy, F.; Keller, G.; Boehm, J.; Hoefler, H.; Vecchio, G.C.; Viglietto, G.; Chiappetta, G.; Williams, G.H.; Thomas, G.A.; Williams, E.D.

    1996-01-01

    We have used molecular biology to study mutation and expression of key oncogenes in childhood thyroid carcinomas from Belarus and Ukraine. All cases were histologically verified by two or more pathologists including at least one from the CIS and one from the EU. We chose to study six genes which have been shown to be involved in thyroid carcinogenesis in adults: ret. Ha, Ki and N ras genes, p53 and the TSH receptor. Expression of the ret oncogene, which has been shown to be activated by translocation in a proportion of papillary carcinomas has been studied by two independent methods. The first, used by the Cambridge group uses RT-PCR to identify the expression of the tyrosine kinase domain of the gene; as the gene is normally silent in follicular cells, this approach allows demonstration of activation of ret, but does not identify the particular translocation involved. The second approach, used by the Naples group, also uses RT-PCR, but amplifies across the breakpoint of each of the three translocations already identified to provide information on the proportion of tumors which express the individual translocations of this gene. Mutations in the TSH receptor, a key modulator of thyroid follicular growth have been sought by the Brussels group using SSCP and direct sequencing. The Munich group have analyzed the samples for presence of mutation in p53, which is believed to play a role in genetic instability which is a features of carcinomas derived from may different tissues. Mutations in the common sites of the ras oncogenes have been studied by the Cambridge group. Analysis of 26 papillary carcinomas so far studied has shown that mutations in the TSH receptor and in p53 do not play a significant role in the genesis of the tumours studied. The proportion of tumours showing ret expression does not differ significantly from that found in a control non exposed population from the UK. However, the pathological study shows that nearly all the increased number of thyroid

  10. Making United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) inclusive of marine biological resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustahfid, H.; Potemra, J.; Goldstein, P.; Mendelssohn, R.; Desrochers, A.

    2011-01-01

    An important Data Management and Communication (DMAC) goal is to enable a multi-disciplinary view of the ocean environment by facilitating discovery and integration of data from various sources, projects and scientific domains. United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) DMAC functional requirements are based upon guidelines for standardized data access services, data formats, metadata, controlled vocabularies, and other conventions. So far, the data integration effort has focused on geophysical U.S. IOOS core variables such as temperature, salinity, ocean currents, etc. The IOOS Biological Observations Project is addressing the DMAC requirements that pertain to biological observations standards and interoperability applicable to U.S. IOOS and to various observing systems. Biological observations are highly heterogeneous and the variety of formats, logical structures, and sampling methods create significant challenges. Here we describe an informatics framework for biological observing data (e.g. species presence/absence and abundance data) that will expand information content and reconcile standards for the representation and integration of these biological observations for users to maximize the value of these observing data. We further propose that the approach described can be applied to other datasets generated in scientific observing surveys and will provide a vehicle for wider dissemination of biological observing data. We propose to employ data definition conventions that are well understood in U.S. IOOS and to combine these with ratified terminologies, policies and guidelines. ?? 2011 MTS.

  11. Analysis of characteristic performance curves in radiodiagnosis by an observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossovoj, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Methods and ways of construction of performance characteristic curves (PX-curves) in roentgenology, their qualitative and quantitative estimation are described. Estimation of PX curves application for analysis of scintigraphic and sonographic images is presented

  12. Anthropometric characteristics of young venezuelan swimmers by biological maturity status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Ramírez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information available on the maturation of child and adolescent athletes, considering that maturation is a factor that can affect performance. This study evaluates the anthropometry of 115 male Venezuelan swimmers (aged 7-17, at differing stages of biological maturity. The procedures employed adhere to International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry guidelines. Tanner’s stages of genital maturation (G1-5 were used to subdivide the sample into the three categories posited by Nicoletti, prepuberty (G1, initial puberty (G2-3 and advanced puberty (G4-5. Forward stepwise discriminant analysis was performed, using increase in hit rate as the selection criterion. A total of 35 variables were evaluated, from which stretch stature, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, calf girth, relaxed arm girth, body mass, forearm length and thigh length were selected. This set produced a high aggregate hit rate (87% of original grouped cases. Two linear discriminant functions (LDF1 and LDF2 emerged: LDF1 is capable of discriminating between prepuberty and advanced puberty and consists of stretch stature, body mass, forearm length, thigh length, relaxed arm circumference and calf circumference. LDF2 differentiates initial puberty from the other groups. This second set of discriminant variables comprises triceps skinfold and calf circumference. Confidence intervals demonstrate that two variables for body size, two for subcutaneous fatness, two for skeletal robustness and two for relative muscularity suffice to guide coaches when placing young swimmers into categories that best approximate the variability of maturation. Only triceps and subscapular skinfolds exhibited overlapping intervals in the three categories. RESUMO Existe limitada informação sobre a maturação de crianças e adolescentes atletas, uma vez que a maturação é um fator interveniente na performance. O presente estudo mensurou variáveis antropométricas de 115

  13. Mineralogical characteristics of the silica polymorphs in relation to their biological activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heaney, P.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Geological and Geophysical Sciences

    1993-10-01

    Numerous aspects of minerals (including the silica polymorphs) can effect their biological activities. These include periodic structures, compositional variations, dissolution characteristics, surface properties, and particle size/shape. In order to understand mineral-induced pathogenesis in a mechanistic way, the links between these properties and biochemical processes must be elucidated. This paper presents some of the basic properties of the silica polymorphs that may relate to pathogenicity and mineralogical strategies for designing biological assays to evaluate these properties.

  14. Dynamical 'in situ' observation of biological samples using variable pressure scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedela, V

    2008-01-01

    Possibilities of 'in-situ' observation of non-conductive biological samples free of charging artefacts in dynamically changed surrounding conditions are the topic of this work. The observed biological sample, the tongue of a rat, was placed on a cooled Peltier stage. We studied the visibility of topographical structure depending on transition between liquid and gas state of water in the specimen chamber of VP SEM.

  15. Influence of evidence, time, source and interferents in the observation of biological fluids with forensic lights

    OpenAIRE

    Laverde-Angarita, Lilia Judith; Clavijo-Bolívar, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The laboratory receives different evidence for analysis, which maycontain fluids such as blood, semen, saliva or urine. A support tool in identifying nonvisible biological stains is observation with forensic lights. At present, there have been research advances in reference to wavelength and combination of different filters for the observation of biological fluids. Methodology: For this research, the alternate lights equipment Polilight® Flare with blue light was used, along wit...

  16. Crystallography of biological fluid as a method for evaluating its physicochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martusevich, A K; Kamakin, N F

    2007-03-01

    Using an integral qualitative and quantitative approach to the studies of initiation of the biological material crystallogenesis, we showed in experiments with normal human saliva that the external characteristics of biological fluid (pH, osmolality, and environmental temperature) determine the results of crystallization (tesigraphic facies). The main external (macroenvironment) and inner (microenvironment) factors of biological fluid crystal formation, determining specific features of the tesigraphic facies, were distinguished and classified. The informative value of differential analysis of biomaterial properties by means of modulating the environmental conditions is established.

  17. Biology, seed characteristics and growth establishment of comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.)

    OpenAIRE

    KOVÁŘOVÁ, Jaroslava

    2016-01-01

    The thesis titled "Biology, seed characteristics and growth establishment of common comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.)" dealt with the evaluation methods of reproduction comfrey and evaluation of the impact of environmental conditions to the grow of comfrey. Further it dealt with germination tests and their statistical evaluation while respecting the specific work with seeds. They were evaluated seed characteristics, which are reflected in the growth of these plants arising both in soil and in...

  18. Effect of low oxygen tension on the biological characteristics of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Seong; Ko, Young Jong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Park, Hyun Jin; Park, Yoo Jin; Kim, Dong-Ik; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2016-11-01

    Culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under ambient conditions does not replicate the low oxygen environment of normal physiological or pathological states and can result in cellular impairment during culture. To overcome these limitations, we explored the effect of hypoxia (1 % O 2 ) on the biological characteristics of MSCs over the course of different culture periods. The following biological characteristics were examined in human bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured under hypoxia for 8 weeks: proliferation rate, morphology, cell size, senescence, immunophenotypic characteristics, and the expression levels of stemness-associated factors and cytokine and chemokine genes. MSCs cultured under hypoxia for approximately 2 weeks showed increased proliferation and viability. During long-term culture, hypoxia delayed phenotypic changes in MSCs, such as increased cell volume, altered morphology, and the expression of senescence-associated-β-gal, without altering their characteristic immunophenotypic characteristics. Furthermore, hypoxia increased the expression of stemness and chemokine-related genes, including OCT4 and CXCR7, and did not decrease the expression of KLF4, C-MYC, CCL2, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCR4 compared with levels in cells cultured under normoxia. In conclusion, low oxygen tension improved the biological characteristics of MSCs during ex vivo expansion. These data suggest that hypoxic culture could be a useful method for increasing the efficacy of MSC cell therapies.

  19. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS LINNAEUS, 1758 OF THE LOWER DNIEPER RIVER IN CURRENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Geina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze major biological characteristics of pike (Esox lucius L., 1758 stock in the lower Dnieper River in the conditions of transformed flow. Methodology. Collection of the ichthyological material was carried out in the lower Dnieper River from commercial fishing gears, including beach seines, drag seines, fyke-nets. Field, laboratory processing of samples and mathematical analysis of the obtained results were carried out according to generally accepted methods and guidelines with some assumptions regarding the duration of pike fattening directly in the lower Dnieper River. Findings. Recent years, there is an increase in the specific weight of younger age groups in the pike stock in the lower Dnieper River. Analysis of linear growth indicates on satisfactory environmental conditions for pike. Current commercial contingent of pike is based on size classes of 46–50 cm versus 22–32 cm in the first half of the last century. Reproductive properties of pike, in particular fecundity, egg size and maturity coefficients did not virtually change compared to those of the last century. Depending on linear sizes, the absolute fecundity is 32.3–155.8 thousand eggs and the maturation coefficient is 11.1–15.7%. Morphologic variability of pike in the lower Dnieper River during the period from 1980s to the present time was observed for plastic features, which characterized fin sizes. Sexual dimorphism in current conditions was observed only for maximum body depth. No significant differences for other plastic features between males and females of pike in the lower Dnieper River. Originality. The data on biological characteristics of pike stock from the lower Dnieper River have been updated. Current fecundity of females of different size groups recorded in commercial catches was been determined. An analysis of morphological variability of major plastic features of pike in the process of the transformation of the Dnieper River flow has been

  20. Numerical simulation of sea breeze characteristics observed at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    observed values except during night time wherein a small difference is seen in the wind speed. 1. Introduction .... opposing the sea breeze on the chosen day. So, the study is .... 3.3 TIBL height. The formation and growth of Thermal Internal.

  1. Quantum tunneling observed without its characteristic large kinetic isotope effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Ueta, Hirokazu; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki

    2015-06-16

    Classical transition-state theory is fundamental to describing chemical kinetics; however, quantum tunneling is also important in explaining the unexpectedly large reaction efficiencies observed in many chemical systems. Tunneling is often indicated by anomalously large kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), because a particle's ability to tunnel decreases significantly with its increasing mass. Here we experimentally demonstrate that cold hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) atoms can add to solid benzene by tunneling; however, the observed H/D KIE was very small (1-1.5) despite the large intrinsic H/D KIE of tunneling (≳ 100). This strong reduction is due to the chemical kinetics being controlled not by tunneling but by the surface diffusion of the H/D atoms, a process not greatly affected by the isotope type. Because tunneling need not be accompanied by a large KIE in surface and interfacial chemical systems, it might be overlooked in other systems such as aerosols or enzymes. Our results suggest that surface tunneling reactions on interstellar dust may contribute to the deuteration of interstellar aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, which could represent a major source of the deuterium enrichment observed in carbonaceous meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. These findings could improve our understanding of interstellar physicochemical processes, including those during the formation of the solar system.

  2. Actions, Observations, and Decision-Making: Biologically Inspired Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Young, Larry A.; Lau, Benton

    2003-01-01

    This paper details the development and demonstration of an autonomous aerial vehicle embodying search and find mission planning and execution srrategies inspired by foraging behaviors found in biology. It begins by describing key characteristics required by an aeria! explorer to support science and planetary exploration goals, and illustrates these through a hypothetical mission profile. It next outlines a conceptual bio- inspired search and find autonomy architecture that implements observations, decisions, and actions through an "ecology" of producer, consumer, and decomposer agents. Moving from concepts to development activities, it then presents the results of mission representative UAV aerial surveys at a Mars analog site. It next describes hardware and software enhancements made to a commercial small fixed-wing UAV system, which inc!nde a ncw dpvelopnent architecture that also provides hardware in the loop simulation capability. After presenting the results of simulated and actual flights of bioinspired flight algorithms, it concludes with a discussion of future development to include an expansion of system capabilities and field science support.

  3. Characteristics of solar and heliospheric ion populations observed near earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckler, G.

    1984-01-01

    The composition and spectra of ions in solar-energetic-particle and energetic-storm-particle events, of diffuse ions upstream of the earth bow shock, and of ions in deep-geomagnetic-tail plasmoids are characterized in a summary of in situ observations. Data are presented in graphs and tables, and remarkable similarities are noted in the distribution functions of the heliospheric ion populations. The solar wind, acting through acceleration mechanisms associated with shocks and turbulence, is identified as the major plasma source of suprathermal and energetic particles. 33 references

  4. Biological and phylogenetic characteristics of yellow fever virus lineages from West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Nina K; Laraway, Hewád; Faye, Ousmane; Diallo, Mawlouth; Niedrig, Matthias; Sall, Amadou A

    2013-03-01

    The yellow fever virus (YFV), the first proven human-pathogenic virus, although isolated in 1927, is still a major public health problem, especially in West Africa where it causes outbreaks every year. Nevertheless, little is known about its genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics, mainly due to a limited number of genomic sequences from wild virus isolates. In this study, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of 24 full-length genomes from YFV strains isolated between 1973 and 2005 in a sylvatic context of West Africa, including 14 isolates that had previously not been sequenced. By this, we confirmed genetic variability within one genotype by the identification of various YF lineages circulating in West Africa. Further analyses of the biological properties of these lineages revealed differential growth behavior in human liver and insect cells, correlating with the source of isolation and suggesting host adaptation. For one lineage, repeatedly isolated in a context of vertical transmission, specific characteristics in the growth behavior and unique mutations of the viral genome were observed and deserve further investigation to gain insight into mechanisms involved in YFV emergence and maintenance in nature.

  5. [Changes in active cysteine cathepsins in lysosomes from tissues thyroid papillary carcinomas with various biological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinichenko, O V; Myshunina, T M; Tron'ko, M D

    2013-01-01

    To clarify possible role of cysteine cathepsin H, B and L in the proteolytic processes that contribute to the progression of tumor growth in the thyroid, we studied their activity in lysosomes isolated from the tissue of papillary carcinomas. It was shown that for these enzymes there is a dependence of the changes in their activity on a number of biological characteristics of the tumors. Thus, the sharp increase in the activity ofcathepsin H observed in lysosomes of tissue carcinomas category T2 and T3, with intra-and ekstrathyroid and lymphatic invasion of tumor cells. An increase in the activity of cathepsin B is set in the lysosomes of tissue heterogeneous follicular structure, especially in the presence of solid areas, in comparison with typical papillary tumors and in the lysosomes of tissue carcinomas in intrathyroid and cathepsin L-at extrathyroid invasion. A common feature of the enzymes is to increase the activity of cathepsins in lysosomes of tissue nonencapsulated papillary carcinomas. These enzymes probably do not take part in the invasion of tumor cells into blood vessels and in the mechanisms of tumor metastasis to regional lymph nodes. The latter shows no changes in the activity of cathepsins in lysosomes of tissue carcinomas category N1. The results indicate the different role of cathepsin H, B and L in thyroid carcinogenesis, where each enzyme has its specific function.

  6. Comparison of biological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells grown on two different titanium implant surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chengyue; Zhao Baohong; Ai Hongjun; Wang Yiwei

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the biological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) grown on sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on the SLA (HA/SLA) surface of titanium dental implants. The HA/SLA surfaces of titanium dental implants were formed by the ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) method. Rabbit bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured in vitro were seeded onto the surface of SLA and HA/SLA; the growth states of MSCs on the two samples were observed by a scanning electron microscope; the proliferation index, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OCN) content of MSCs and mRNA relative expression level of osteopontin (opn) were compared between two groups. MSCs were found to be easier to adhere to the HA/SLA surface compared to the SLA surface. At the same time, the ALP activity and the OCN content of MSCs grown on the HA/SLA surface were obviously higher, and the relative expression level of opn mRNA was 4.78 times higher than that on the SLA surface. The HA coating formed by the IBAD method on the SLA surface of titanium dental implants significantly improves proliferation and well-differentiated osteoblastic phenotype of MSCs, which indicates a promising method for the surface modification of titanium dental implants

  7. Does mating interfere in the biological characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIRCEU PRATISSOLI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma spp. are parasitoids used in the regulation of insect populations that can cause economic damage. In order to ensure good performance, understanding some of their biological characteristics is essential. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether mating interferes with the biological characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum collected in the field. In all experiments, groups of mated and unmated females were used. We also verified any interference from mating on the biological characteristics of the offspring. We found that mating can alter the parasitism and longevity of genitor females, in addition to changing longevity among the descendants, but once parasitized, the eggs develop normally, showing similar emergence percentage and number of offspring as those from unmated females. In addition, we verified that the population of T. pretiosum collected in the field presented individuals with reproductive thelytokous and arrhenotokous characteristics. This fact highlights the importance of careful investigation on the reproduction mode of populations collected in the field, thus avoiding problems in the effective management of insect populations.

  8. Characteristics of leachate in Foot and Mouth Disease Carcass Disposal using Molecular Biology Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, E. J.; Kim, B. J.; Wi, D. W.; Choi, N. C.; Lee, S. J.; Min, J. E.; Park, C. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Leachate from Foot and Mouth Disease(FMD) carcass disposal by is one of the types of high-concentration contaminated wastewater with the greatest environmental impact. This is due to its pollutants: nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) and pathogenic microorganisms. Satisfactory treatment of leachate is not an easy task for its high concentrations of nitrate nitrogen and pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore suitable FMD leachate treatment processes should be adopted to improve treatment performance and to reduce overall running costs. The objective of this study was to determine the leachate characteristics through environmental analysis and molecular biology method (bacteria identification and Polymerase Chain Reaction) using FMD leachate samples for optimal FMD leachate treatment processes. The Sixteen FMD leachate samples was obtained from carcass disposal regions in Korea. Results of environmental analysis showed that pH and Eh was observed from 5.57 to 7.40, -134~358mV. This data was exhibited typical early carcass disposal (Neutral pH and Reducing Environment by abundant organic matter). TOC and nitrate nitrogen high concentrations in FMD leachate showed a large variability from 2.3 to 38,730 mg/L(mean - 6,821.93mg/L) and 0.335 ~231.998mg/L(mean - 37.46mg/L), respectively. The result of bacteria identification was observed Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas putida, Acinetobacter ursingii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia liquefaciens, Brevundimonas naejangsanensis, Serratia liquefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter ursingii. The results of Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR) using EzTaxon server data revealed Pseudoclavibacter helvolus, Pseudochrobactrum saccharolyticum, Corynebacterium callunae, Paenibacillus lautus, Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus arvi, Brevundimonas bullata, Acinetobacter ursingii, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus psychrodurans, Pseudomonas sp.

  9. A method for three-dimensional quantitative observation of the microstructure of biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Chen, Dieyan; Ma, Wanyun; Wu, Hongxin; Ji, Liang; Sun, Jialin; Lv, Danyu; Zhang, Lu; Li, Ying; Tian, Ning; Zheng, Jinggao; Zhao, Fengying

    2009-07-01

    Contemporary biology has developed into the era of cell biology and molecular biology, and people try to study the mechanism of all kinds of biological phenomena at the microcosmic level now. Accurate description of the microstructure of biological samples is exigent need from many biomedical experiments. This paper introduces a method for 3-dimensional quantitative observation on the microstructure of vital biological samples based on two photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM). TPLSM is a novel kind of fluorescence microscopy, which has excellence in its low optical damage, high resolution, deep penetration depth and suitability for 3-dimensional (3D) imaging. Fluorescent stained samples were observed by TPLSM, and afterward the original shapes of them were obtained through 3D image reconstruction. The spatial distribution of all objects in samples as well as their volumes could be derived by image segmentation and mathematic calculation. Thus the 3-dimensionally and quantitatively depicted microstructure of the samples was finally derived. We applied this method to quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of chromosomes in meiotic mouse oocytes at metaphase, and wonderful results came out last.

  10. Observation of dehydration dynamics in biological tissues with terahertz digital holography [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lihan; Wang, Xinke; Han, Peng; Sun, Wenfeng; Feng, Shengfei; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan

    2017-05-01

    A terahertz (THz) digital holographic imaging system is utilized to investigate natural dehydration processes in three types of biological tissues, including cattle, mutton, and pork. An image reconstruction algorithm is applied to remove the diffraction influence of THz waves and further improve clarity of THz images. From THz images of different biological specimens, distinctive water content as well as dehydration features of adipose and muscle tissues are precisely distinguished. By analyzing THz absorption spectra of these samples, temporal evolution characteristics of the absorbances for adipose and muscle tissues are described and compared in detail. Discrepancies between water retention ability of different animal tissues are also discussed. The imaging technique provides a valuable measurement platform for biological sensing.

  11. Effects of walker gender and observer gender on biological motion walking direction discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoying; Cai, Peng; Jiang, Yi

    2014-09-01

    The ability to recognize the movements of other biological entities, such as whether a person is walking toward you, is essential for survival and social interaction. Previous studies have shown that the visual system is particularly sensitive to approaching biological motion. In this study, we examined whether the gender of walkers and observers influenced the walking direction discrimination of approaching point-light walkers in fine granularity. The observers were presented a walker who walked in different directions and were asked to quickly judge the walking direction (left or right). The results showed that the observers demonstrated worse direction discrimination when the walker was depicted as male than when the walker was depicted as female, probably because the observers tended to perceive the male walkers as walking straight ahead. Intriguingly, male observers performed better than female observers at judging the walking directions of female walkers but not those of male walkers, a result indicating perceptual advantage with evolutionary significance. These findings provide strong evidence that the gender of walkers and observers modulates biological motion perception and that an adaptive perceptual mechanism exists in the visual system to facilitate the survival of social organisms. © 2014 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratissoli, Dirceu; Oliveira, Harley N. de; Oliveira, Regiane C. de; Zago, Hugo B.; Vieira, Stella M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 were evaluated in laboratory where these parasitoids were reared on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) with or without honey, and exposed to eggs of the host after 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours of emergence. The parasitism rate and viability showed higher for individuals that received food. The sex ratio was not influenced by food. The number of individuals per egg only showed difference for those adults that did not receive food and stayed six hours without the host eggs. Checking the effect of the availability of eggs, only the sex ratio, with or without honey, did not show differences. The results show that T. galloi needs a carbohydrate supply and the time can influence the reproductive capacity. (author)

  13. Characteristics of Students Who Frequently Conduct Plant Observations: Toward Fostering Leaders and Supporters of Fixed-Point Observation of Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko W. Nakamura

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to foster leaders and supporters of fixed-point observation for sustainable forest management, it is considered effective to focus on students who have demonstrated potential for fixed-point observations of forests in the universal education stage. This study aims to identify the characteristics of students who frequently conduct plant observations, which is the basis for the fixed-point observation of forests, including methods involving photography. We conducted a questionnaire survey, which consisted of 19 questions that provided insight into junior high school students’ experiences, opportunities, and interests related to plant observation. We compared students who have conducted plant observations with those who have not, using Fisher’s exact test and multiple comparisons using the Benjamini and Hochberg method. The ratio of students who frequently conducted plant observations was significantly higher among female students than male students, and their characteristics differed by gender. The significant characteristics of male students included farm work experience and niche hobbies such as camping and lighting a bonfire, as well as using digital single-lens reflex cameras for photography; female students had relatively niche hobbies such as enjoying science. Students who increased the frequency of plant observations after the lecture about fixed-point observations of forests had an inclination toward social studies and tended not to use a smartphone for photography.

  14. Non-ionizing radiations : physical characteristics, biological effects and health hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repacholi, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Workshop was a project of the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee of IRPA and comprised a series of educational lectures and demonstrations intended to give a comprehensive overview of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation: physical characteristics, sources of concern, levels of exposure, mechanisms of interaction and reported effects of these fields and radiations with biological tissues, human studies, health risk assessment, national and international standards and guidelines, and protective measures

  15. Biological contaminants and house characteristics : an interim analysis of data from the PEI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onysko, D.M. [DMO Associates (Canada); Ruest, K. [Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Lawton, M. [Morrison Hershfield Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Miller, D. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Fraser, B. [Jacques Whitford and Associates Limited, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Dale, R. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Kazimierz, K.F.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discussed the results of a joint study on housing conditions, biological exposure and the health of infants in Prince Edward Island (PEI). The study was a longitudinal cohort investigation of the exposure of infants to biological materials in their home environments. Possible associations between housing data, biological data, operational circumstances and relevant family life style information were presented. A methodology of the study was presented, in which a total of 366 dwellings with newborn infants were monitored over a period of 6 years. All tests and inspections were presented, as well as the nature of variables in the study. House investigations included the following: housing and operational characteristics; variables related to the measure of molds in the air; mold areas as determined by visual inspection; the presence/absence of visible molds; past wetting events; and concentrations of endotoxins, ergosterol and allergens in various air and settled dust samples. It was concluded that there was support for the presumption that some housing characteristics were related to factors that may influence the health of occupants and their children. Moisture related concerns dominated the experimental design. Details of the following housing characteristics were summarized: ground moisture source coupling; operation of the residence by the occupant; analysis of dust samples; visible molds; and wetting events. It was concluded that further work is needed to review the final database in order to further correlate studies with the health of newborns who lived in the houses studied. 3 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs.

  16. [Biological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cell and hematopoietic stem cell in the co-culture system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Xu, Chao; Ye, Zhi-Yong; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Yuan, Jia-En; Ma, Tian-Bao; Lin, Han-Biao; Chen, Xiu-Qiong

    2016-10-25

    The aim of the present study was to obtain the qualified hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC/HPC) and human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in vitro in the co-culture system. Cord blood mononuclear cells were separated from umbilical cord blood by Ficoll lymphocyte separation medium, and then CD34 + HSC was collected by MACS immunomagnetic beads. The selected CD34 + HSC/HPC and MSC were transferred into culture flask. IMDM culture medium with 15% AB-type cord plasma supplemented with interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-6, thrombopoietin (TPO), stem cell factor (SCF) and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt-3L) factors were used as the co-culture system for the amplification of HSC/HPC and MSC. The cellular growth status and proliferation on day 6 and 10 after co-culture were observed by using inverted microscope. The percentage of positive expression of CD34 in HSC/HPC, as well as the percentages of positive expressions of CD105, CD90, CD73, CD45, CD34 and HLA-DR in the 4 th generation MSC, was tested by flow cytometry. Semisolid colony culture was used to test the HSC/HPC colony forming ability. The osteogenic, chondrogenesis and adipogenic ability of the 4 th generation MSC were assessed. The karyotype analysis of MSC was conducted by colchicines. The results demonstrated that the HSC/HPC of co-culture group showed higher ability of amplification, CFU-GM and higher CD34 + percentage compared with the control group. The co-cultured MSC maintained the ability to differentiate into bone cells, fat cells and chondrocytes. And the karyotype stability of MSC remained normal. These results reveal that the appropriate co-culture system for MSC and HSC is developed, and via this co-culture system we could gain both two kinds of these cells. The MSCs under the co-culture system maintain the biological characteristics. The CFU-GM ability, cell counting and the flow cytometry results of HSC/HPC under the co-culture system are conform to the criterion, showing that

  17. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SLOVAK ISOLATES OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS PANDORA NEOAPHIDIS (REMAUDIÈRE ET HENNEBERT HUMBER (ZYGOMYCETES, ENTOMOPHTHORALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek BARTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific variability of biological characteristics within entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis was evaluated. Fifteen isolates of the fungus were obtained from 5 aphid species in Slovakia. Size of conidia, conidial germination, virulence, radial growth, and biomass production were evaluated. Conidial size varied considerably with exception of isolates originating from the same host population. Conidial germination was observed on all the surfaces tested and it was greatest at saturated humidity. Virulence, daily rate of radial growth and biomass production varied depending on isolates. Isolates obtained from the same host colonies during fungal epizootics shoved also significant differences in the characteristics, what may suggest that epizootics in aphid populations are caused by associations of strains and not by prevalence of a single virulent strain.

  18. Statistical Modeling of Radiative Transfer and Transient Characteristics for Multilayer Biological Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Makarov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monte-Carlo method [1] already long ago proved itself as a powerful and universal tool for mathematical modelling in various areas of science and engineering. Researchers often choose this method when it is difficult to find a solution by other ways (or impossible at all, e.g. because of sophisticated analytical dependences, area of modelling or boundary conditions. Certainly, this necessarily statistical and flexible method requires significant computation time, but a continuously increasing computation capability makes it more and more attractive for a choice in specific situation.One of the promising areas to use the method of statistical modelling is description of light propagation in the turbid (scattering media. A high motivation for development of this approach is widely used lasers in biomedicine [3]. Besides, owing to its flexibility, the Monte-Carlo method is also of importance in theoretical researches, in particular, to estimate a degree of adequacy of the offered approximation methods for solving a radiative transfer equation [4].It is known that key parameters of turbid media are an absorption coefficient (characterizes absorption probability of a photon per unit of path length and a scattering coefficient (characterizes scattering probability of a photon per unit of path length. The ratio of each of the coefficients to their sum (extinction defines a probability of "death" or "survival" of a photon, respectively, in interaction with lenses. Generally, in the scattering medium there is a non-coherent radiation component, which in turbid media such as biological tissues, already at the insignificant depth becomes prevailing over the coherent one (residual of the incident laser beam [5].The author used the Monte-Carlo method to simulate optical radiation propagation in the multilayer biological tissues with their optical characteristics corresponding to the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Such a biological tissue is the absorbing

  19. Effect of solids retention time and wastewater characteristics on biological phosphorus removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Aspegren, H.; Jansen, J.l.C.

    2002-01-01

    with time which has importance in relation to modelling. The overall conclusion of the comparison between the two plants is that the biological phosphorus removal efficiency under practical operating conditions is affected by the SRT in the plant and the wastewater composition. Thus great care should......The paper deals with the effect of wastewater, plant design and operation in relation to biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the possibilities to model the processes. Two Bio-P pilot plants were operated for 2.5 years in parallel receiving identical wastewater. The plants had SRT of 4...... and 21 days, the latter had nitrification and denitrification. The plant with 4 days SRT had much more variable biomass characteristics, than the one with the high SRT. The internal storage compounds, PHA, were affected significantly by the concentration of fatty acids or other easily degradable organics...

  20. Degradation characteristics of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in electro-biological system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, JingLi, E-mail: jinglizhangczp@126.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science and Technology, Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction, Tianjin 300384 (China); Cao, ZhanPing; Zhang, HongWei [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhao, LianMei [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science and Technology, Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction, Tianjin 300384 (China); Sun, XuDong; Mei, Feng [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • The 2,4-D reductive degradation was studied in an electro-biological system. • The electric auxiliary accelerates 2,4-D microbial degradation. • A electron transfer is achieved between the electrode, bacteria and the pollutants. • The paper provides a promising way for the degradation of persistent organics. -- Abstract: The reductive degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was studied in an electro-biological system, a biological system and an electric catalytic system, respectively. Electrochemical characteristics were monitored by cyclic voltammetry and the intermediate products of 2,4-D degradation were determined by high speed liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that all 2,4-D degradations in the three systems conformed to the kinetics characteristics of one-order reaction, and the degradation kinetics constants were 28.74 × 10{sup −2} h{sup −1}, 19.73 × 10{sup −2} h{sup −1} and 3.54 × 10{sup −2} h{sup −1}, respectively. The kinetics constant in the electro-biological system was higher than the sum in the other two systems by 19%. The electrochemical assistance provided the electrons and accelerated the electron transfer rate in the microbial degradation of 2,4-D. The degradation resulted from the microbial reduction strengthened by the electrochemical assistance. The electron transfer existed between the electrode, cytochrome, NAD and the pollutants. A long-range electron transfer process could be achieved on the multi-phase interfaces between the electrode, bacteria and the pollutants.

  1. A prospective observational study of pigmented naevi changes in psoriasis patients on biologic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seohee Deanne; D'Souza, Mario I; Menzies, Scott W; Weninger, Wolfgang

    2018-05-23

    Patients on biologic therapy are thought to be at increased risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancers and melanomas. It is unknown whether biologic therapy alters the natural history of melanocytic naevi. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted to determine whether psoriasis patients on biologic therapy develop changes in naevi. Clinical and dermoscopic assessment of all melanocytic naevi was performed in 45 psoriasis patients on biologic therapy versus a control cohort of 43 subjects, using sequential digital dermoscopic imaging and total body photography. The mean follow-up period was 1.5 years. The study and control patients had comparable age, gender, previous and family history of non-melanoma skin cancers and melanomas, as well as previous sun exposure and total number of naevi. The number of naevi with major dermoscopic changes was 3% in the study and 1.9% in the control group, with an adjusted incidence rate ratio of 1.45 (95% confidence interval 0.90-2.33; P = 0.125). The rate of minor changes was 15.9% in the study group versus 19.4% in the control (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.57-1.08; P = 0.14). There were six new dysplastic naevi in 4/45 biologic patients and four in 4/43 controls; however, the difference was not significant (relative risk 0.96, 95% confidence interval -0.12 to 0.12; P = 0.95). There were no melanomas in either group. Over a mean follow-up period of 1.5 years there was no evidence of significantly different changes in naevi or development of new dysplastic naevi in psoriasis patients on biologic treatment compared to controls. © 2018 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  2. THREE-DIMENSIONAL OBSERVATIONS ON THICK BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS BY HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Nagata

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Thick biological specimens prepared as whole mount cultured cells or thick sections from embedded tissues were stained with histochemical reactions, such as thiamine pyrophosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, cytochrome oxidase, acid phosphatase, DAB reactions and radioautography, to observe 3-D ultrastructures of cell organelles producing stereo-pairs by high voltage electron microscopy at accerelating voltages of 400-1000 kV. The organelles demonstrated were Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes, pinocytotic vesicles and incorporations of radioactive compounds. As the results, those cell organelles were observed 3- dimensionally and the relative relationships between these organelles were demonstrated.

  3. State Estimation for a Biological Phosphorus Removal Process using an Asymptotic Observer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larose, Claude Alain; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the use of an asymptotic observer for state estimation in a continuous biological phosphorus removal process. The estimated states are the concentration of heterotrophic, autotrophic, and phosphorus accumulating organisms, polyphosphate, glycogen and PHA. The reaction scheme...... if the convergence, driven by the dilution rate, was slow (from 15 to 60 days). The propagation of the measurement noise and a bias in the estimation of glycogen and PHA could be the result of the high condition number of one of the matrices used in the algorithm of the asymptotic observer for the aerated tanks....

  4. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically-based system which guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by describing psychological, social, and biological correlates of the dominance behavioral system (DBS). Extensive research suggests that externalizing disorders, mania-proneness, and narcissistic traits are related to heightened dominance motivation and behaviors. Mania and narcissistic traits also appear related to inflated self-perceptions of power. Anxiety and depression are related to subordination and submissiveness, as well as a desire to avoid subordination. Models of the DBS have received support from research with humans and animals; from self-report, observational, and biological methods; and using naturalistic and experimental paradigms. Limitations of available research include the relative lack of longitudinal studies using multiple measures of the DBS and the absence of relevant studies using diagnosed samples to study narcissistic personality disorder and bipolar disorder. We provide suggestions for future research on the DBS and psychopathology, including investigations of whether the DBS can be used to differentiate specific disorder outcomes; the need for more sophisticated biological research; and the value of longitudinal dynamical research. Implications of using the DBS as a tool in clinical assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:22506751

  5. Effect of repeated irradiation on biological characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma cell line Anip973 in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qingyong; Xu Xiangying; Yang Zhiwei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of repeated irradiation on biological characteristics of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line Anip973 in vitro. Methods: Anip973 cells were treated with high energy X-ray to a total dose of 60 Gy at 4 Gy fractions. The radiosensitivity of Anip973R and its parental cell were measured by clonogenic assay. The biological parameters were fitted to the single hit multitarget formula. Furthermore, the population double time(PDT) and cell cycle distribution were measured by cell growth curve and flow cytometry, respectively. Results: Comparing with its parental cell, Anip973 R acquired radioresistance showing increased D 0 , D q and SF 2 and a broader shoulder. PDT of Anip973R extended 3 h more than that of Anip973. The Anip973R also showed higher and lower percentage of cells in G 1 and S phase (P 2 /M distribution (P>0.05). Conclusions: A radioresistant lung adenocarcinoma cell line Anip973R is established by repeatedly irradiation. Its radioresistance displays obviously in lower dose area. However, its characteristic of cell cycle is not completely coincident with the classical radiobiological theory. (authors)

  6. Influence of volunteer and project characteristics on data quality of biological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Eva; Specht, Hannah

    2015-06-01

    Volunteer involvement in biological surveys is becoming common in conservation and ecology, prompting questions on the quality of data collected in such surveys. In a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature on the quality of data collected by volunteers, we examined the characteristics of volunteers (e.g., age, prior knowledge) and projects (e.g., systematic vs. opportunistic monitoring schemes) that affect data quality with regards to standardization of sampling, accuracy and precision of data collection, spatial and temporal representation of data, and sample size. Most studies (70%, n = 71) focused on the act of data collection. The majority of assessments of volunteer characteristics (58%, n = 93) examined the effect of prior knowledge and experience on quality of the data collected, often by comparing volunteers with experts or professionals, who were usually assumed to collect higher quality data. However, when both groups' data were compared with the same accuracy standard, professional data were more accurate in only 4 of 7 cases. The few studies that measured precision of volunteer and professional data did not conclusively show that professional data were less variable than volunteer data. To improve data quality, studies recommended changes to survey protocols, volunteer training, statistical analyses, and project structure (e.g., volunteer recruitment and retention). © 2015, Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Pediatric High Grade Glioma: a Review and Update on Tumor Clinical Characteristics and Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fangusaro, Jason

    2012-01-01

    High grade gliomas (HGG) are one of the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumors encountered in adults, but they only represent approximately 8–12% of all pediatric CNS tumors. Historically, pediatric HGG were thought to be similar to adult HGG since they appear histologically identical; however, molecular, genetic, and biologic data reveal that they are distinct. Similar to adults, pediatric HGG are very aggressive and malignant lesions with few patients achieving long-term survival despite a variety of therapies. Initial treatment strategies typically consist of a gross total resection (GTR) when feasible followed by focal radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy. Over the last few decades, a wealth of data has emerged from basic science and pre-clinical animal models helping to better define the common biologic, genetic, and molecular make-up of these tumors. These data have not only provided a better understanding of tumor biology, but they have also provided new areas of research targeting molecular and genetic pathways with the potential for novel treatment strategies and improved patient outcomes. Here we provide a review of pediatric non-brainstem HGG, including epidemiology, presentation, histology, imaging characteristics, treatments, survival outcomes, and an overview of both basic and translational research. An understanding of all relevant pre-clinical tumor models, including their strengths and pitfalls is essential in realizing improved patient outcomes in this population.

  8. Pediatric High Grade Glioma: a Review and Update on Tumor Clinical Characteristics and Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fangusaro, Jason, E-mail: jfangusaro@luriechildrens.org [Pediatric Neuro-Oncology, The Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-08-24

    High grade gliomas (HGG) are one of the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumors encountered in adults, but they only represent approximately 8–12% of all pediatric CNS tumors. Historically, pediatric HGG were thought to be similar to adult HGG since they appear histologically identical; however, molecular, genetic, and biologic data reveal that they are distinct. Similar to adults, pediatric HGG are very aggressive and malignant lesions with few patients achieving long-term survival despite a variety of therapies. Initial treatment strategies typically consist of a gross total resection (GTR) when feasible followed by focal radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy. Over the last few decades, a wealth of data has emerged from basic science and pre-clinical animal models helping to better define the common biologic, genetic, and molecular make-up of these tumors. These data have not only provided a better understanding of tumor biology, but they have also provided new areas of research targeting molecular and genetic pathways with the potential for novel treatment strategies and improved patient outcomes. Here we provide a review of pediatric non-brainstem HGG, including epidemiology, presentation, histology, imaging characteristics, treatments, survival outcomes, and an overview of both basic and translational research. An understanding of all relevant pre-clinical tumor models, including their strengths and pitfalls is essential in realizing improved patient outcomes in this population.

  9. Correlation between mammographic findings and corresponding histopathology. Potential predictors for biological characteristics of breast diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Ishida, Takanori; Miyashita, Minoru; Amari, Masakazu; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Sasano, Hironobu

    2011-01-01

    The present study retrospectively evaluated the mammographic findings of 606 Japanese women with breast cancer (median age 50 years; range 27-89 years) and correlated them with histopathological characteristics. Mammographic findings were evaluated with an emphasis on mass shape, margin, density, calcification, and the presence of architectural distortion; these findings were correlated with histopathological characteristics such as intrinsic subtype, histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, and the Ki-67 labeling index. An irregular mass shape and masses with a spiculated margin were significantly higher in the group of patients with luminal A breast cancer than in patients with masses that were lobular or round, or in tumors with an indistinct or microlobulated periphery (P=0.017, P=0.024, P<0.001, and P=0.001, respectively). Irregular mass shape and spiculated periphery were significantly lower in patients with Grade 3 cancer (P<0.001 for both). In terms of lymphovascular invasion, there were significant differences between oval and irregular or round mass shape (P=0.008 and P=0.034), between tumors with a microlobulated and indistinct periphery (P=0.014), between tumors with a punctate and amorphous or pleomorphic calcification shape (P=0.030 and 0.038), and between the presence and absence of architectural distortion (P=0.027). Equivalent or low-density masses were also higher in Grade 1 breast cancers (P=0.007). There were significant differences in the Ki-67 labeling index between irregular and lobular or round tumors (P<0.001 and P=0.014), as well as between spiculated and indistinct or microlobulated tumors (P<0.001 for both). Significant differences were noted in the mammographic features of different primary breast cancer subtypes. These proposed mammographic diagnostic criteria based on biological characteristics may contribute to a more accurate prediction of biological behavior of breast malignancies. (author)

  10. Report on limnological, biological and ecological observations of lakes on the Soya Coast, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakae Kudoh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the limnological properties, samplings of waters and bottom assemblages for biological and ecological studies, and some field experimental studies at several lakes in Soya Coast ice-free areas, were carried out during the austral summer season in the 49th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE, 2007-2008. These studies were planned as one of the research projects named, "Studies on the changes of polar environments and ecosystems (P-3" and the monitoring studies named "Monitoring for ecosystems (M-4" during the 7th term of the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition Plans. Field studies were done from 22 December 2007 to 13 February 2008, while our Ice Breaker Shirase stayed at/near off Syowa Station. To clarify the relationships among seasonal changes of environmental factors and biological responses, frequent field observations were performed at Naga Ike, one of the freshwater lakes in the Skarvsnes ice-free area. General limnological and biological samplings at the other lakes in the area (14 lakes near the Kizahasi Beach field base camp were also done during the term. Observations and samplings distant from the base camp, four lakes in eastern Skarvsnes, a lake in Skallen, and three lakes in Langhovde, were also done using a helicopter for transportation. From Namazu Ike (temporary name in eastern Skarvsnes, submersible video cameras were retrieved and so-called `algal crest', benthic moss-algal assemblages, were sampled by scuba diving. Benthic copepods were sampled quantitatively from Nurume Ike in Langhovde. From Hyoga Ike (temporary name, a snow-dammed glacial lake which lost its water by recent breakage (during the JARE-46 wintering period, thin bio-film samples were collected from the present lake shore formerly part of the lake bed.

  11. Characteristics of Nanoparticles in Drinking Water Treatment using Biological Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmiarti Reni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of nanoparticles in drinking water treatment were performed using five types of biological activated carbon (BAC columns (BAC1-BAC5 in continuous flow experiments. The BAC was created by covering granular activated carbon (GAC with attached microorganisms from water samples taken from the Nagara River in Japan. The total running time was about 2000 h. The characteristics of the nanoparticles were investigated based on size distribution and volume distribution measured by Zetasizer Nano. Total dissolved organic carbon (DOC and ultraviolet absorbance at 260 nm (UV260 were also studied. The important results in this study were that the detached nanoparticles in the effluent were within the size distribution ranges of 0.26~5.62 nm, 0.62~3.62 nm, 0.62~3.12 nm, 0.62~4.19 nm, and 0.62~6.50 for BAC 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The profile of peak size and peak number along the bed depth of the BAC columns was evaluated for better understanding the characteristics of the nanoparticles. This result is very important for improving drinking water treatment using granular activated carbon to remove microorganisms.

  12. Biological and ecological characteristics of Pterocuma pectinata (Malacostraca, Cumacea in Sasyk Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. A. Khalaim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sasyk (Kunduk – estuary in the North-Western Black Sea region, is located 120 kmsouth-west of Odessa. In 1979–1980 Sasyk was separated from the sea by a dam, connected by a canal with the Danube and transformed into a reservoir. The fauna of Sasyk underwent significant changes and continues to adapt to the new conditions. This process is of great theoretical and practical interest. Cumacea – a small order, numbering about 600 species; is represented in the Black Sea-Azov basin by 23 species, 11 of them belong to the Caspian complex. Due to their high quantity indicators, they play a significant role in the diet of many species of fish. Pterocuma pectinata (Sowinski, 1893 is the most abundant species of cumacean not only in the Sasyk Reservoir, but also in many bodies of water in the region. However, the biology and ecology of this group of animals has been very inadequately studied. The material for these studies was provided by 120 benthic samples collected from 41 stations in the Sasyk Reservoir in the vegetation period 2013–2014. In this study we also used the material collected by means of H. Hungerford underwater light traps. In total 4,000 specimens of cumaceans were processed. This article shows the results of the studyof the post-embryonic development, fertility and size-mass characteristic of P. pectinata in Sasyk Reservoir. For both sexes for age stages have been distinguished and described for cumaceans: «manca», youth, prebreeding and breeding. Between breeding cycles, females live through one more preparatory (intermediate stage; the males die. This article provides a detailed morphological and morphometric description of all the stages of the ontogeny of cumaceans. The ratio of number of cumaceans at different stages of ontogeny varies considerably with the seasons. In the summer sexual development of cumacean occurs earlier than in the less warm seasons. A directly proportional relationship was found between body length

  13. Imprecision in estimates of dose from ingested 137Cs due to variability in human biological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, G.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt has been made to quantify the variability in human biological parameters determining dose to man from ingestion of a unit activity of soluble 137 Cs and the resulting imprecision in the predicted total-body dose commitment. The analysis is based on an extensive review of the literature along with the application of statistical methods to determine parameter variability, correlations between parameters, and predictive imprecision. The variability in the principal biological parameters (biological half-time and total-body mass) involved can be described by a geometric standard deviation of 1.2-1.5 for adults and 1.6-1.9 for children/ adolescents of age 0.1-18 yr. The estimated predictive imprecision (using a Monte Carlo technique) in the total-body dose commitment from ingested 137 Cs can be described by a geometric standard deviation on the order of 1.3-1.4, meaning that the 99th percentile of the predicted distribution of dose is within approximately 2.1 times the mean value. The mean dose estimate is 0.009 Sv/MBq (34 mrem/μ Ci) for children/adolescents and 0.01 Sv/MBq (38 mrem/μ Ci) for adults. Little evidence of age dependence in the total-body dose from ingested 137 Cs is observed. (author)

  14. Bacteriological examination and biological characteristics of deep frozen bone preserved by gamma sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Quang Ngoc; Le The Trung; Vo Van Thuan; Ho Minh Duc

    1999-01-01

    To promote the surgical success in Vietnam, we should supply bone allografts of different sizes. For this reason we have developed a standard procedure in procurement, deep freezing, packaging and radiation sterilization of massive bone. The achievement in this attempt will be briefly reported. The dose of 10-15 kGy is proved to be suitable for radiation sterilization of massive bone allografts being treated in clean condition and preserved in deep frozen. Neither deep freezing nor radiation sterilization cause any significant loss of biochemical stability of massive bone allografts especially when deep freezing combines with radiation. There were neither cross infection nor change of biological characteristics found after 6 months of storage since radiation treatment. In addition to results of the previous research and development of tissue grafts for medical care, the deep freezing radiation sterilization has been established for preservation of massive bone that is of high demand for surgery in Vietnam

  15. Characteristics and evolution of the ecosystem of software tools supporting research in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Florencio; Chagoyen, Monica

    2018-01-16

    Daily work in molecular biology presently depends on a large number of computational tools. An in-depth, large-scale study of that 'ecosystem' of Web tools, its characteristics, interconnectivity, patterns of usage/citation, temporal evolution and rate of decay is crucial for understanding the forces that shape it and for informing initiatives aimed at its funding, long-term maintenance and improvement. In particular, the long-term maintenance of these tools is compromised because of their specific development model. Hundreds of published studies become irreproducible de facto, as the software tools used to conduct them become unavailable. In this study, we present a large-scale survey of >5400 publications describing Web servers within the two main bibliographic resources for disseminating new software developments in molecular biology. For all these servers, we studied their citation patterns, the subjects they address, their citation networks and the temporal evolution of these factors. We also analysed how these factors affect the availability of these servers (whether they are alive). Our results show that this ecosystem of tools is highly interconnected and adapts to the 'trendy' subjects in every moment. The servers present characteristic temporal patterns of citation/usage, and there is a worrying rate of server 'death', which is influenced by factors such as the server popularity and the institutions that hosts it. These results can inform initiatives aimed at the long-term maintenance of these resources. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The correlation between the ultrasonic elastic strain ratio of thyroid cancer and the malignant biological characteristics of cancer cells in the lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Li Ma; Rong Zhou; Yun-Zhu Li

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between the ultrasonic elastic strain ratio of thyroid cancer and the malignant biological characteristics of cancer cells in the lesions. Methods: A total of 90 patients with thyroid cancer who accepted surgical treatment in our hospital between March 2015 and September 2016 were selected as the observation group, and 50 patients who received surgery in our hospital during the same period and were with clear pathological diagnosis of thyroid...

  17. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in biological and water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    During Balkan conflicts in 1994-1995, depleted uranium (DU) ordnance was employed and was left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, radiological survey of DU in biological and water samples were carried out over the period 12-24 October 2002. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina, mainly lichens, mosses and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.27-35.7 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 0.24-16.8 Bq kg -1 for 234 U, and 0.02-1.11 Bq kg -1 for 235 U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control site. Moreover, the 236 U in some of the samples was detectable. The isotopic ratios of 234 U/ 238 U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at most sites examined, but in very low levels. The presence of DU in the biological samples was as a result of DU contamination in air. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina were found to be in the range of 0.27-16.2 mBq l -1 for 238 U, 0.41-15.6 mBq l -1 for 234 U and 0.012-0.695 mBq l -1 for 235 U, and two water samples were observed to be DU positive; these values are much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for public drinking water. From radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated sites in terms of possible DU contamination of water and/or plants

  18. Improvement of Soil Biology Characteristics at Paddy Field by System of Rice Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyatmani Sih Dewi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test the System of Rice Intensification (SRI method in improving the biological properties of paddy soil. The indicators of improvement were measured by the number of earthworm feces (cast, and the population of some microbial and nutrient content in the cast. The experiments were performed by comparing the three methods, namely: (1 SRI, (2 semi-conventional, and (3 conventional, using Randomized Completely Block Design. Each treatment was repeated nine times. The experiments were performed in the paddy fields belonging to farmers in Sukoharjo, Central Java. The result showed that the SRI (application of 1 tons ha-1 of vermicompost + 50% of inorganic fertilizer dosage tends to increase the number of earthworms cast. It is an indicator of earthworm activity in soil. Earthworms cast contains more phosphate solubilizing bacteria (12.98 x 1010cfu and N content (1.23% compared to its surrounding soil. There is a close functional relation between earthworms cast with total tiller number. SRI method is better than the other two methods to improve the biological characteristics of paddy soil that has the potential to maintain the sustainability of soil productivity.

  19. IMOS National Reference Stations: A Continental-Wide Physical, Chemical and Biological Coastal Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Tim P.; Morello, Elisabetta B.; Evans, Karen; Richardson, Anthony J.; Rochester, Wayne; Steinberg, Craig R.; Roughan, Moninya; Thompson, Peter; Middleton, John F.; Feng, Ming; Sherrington, Robert; Brando, Vittorio; Tilbrook, Bronte; Ridgway, Ken; Allen, Simon; Doherty, Peter; Hill, Katherine; Moltmann, Tim C.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS). The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology. PMID:25517905

  20. IMOS National Reference Stations: a continental-wide physical, chemical and biological coastal observing system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim P Lynch

    Full Text Available Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS. The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology.

  1. Ethnographic Observational Study of the Biologic Initiation Conversation Between Rheumatologists and Biologic-Naive Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottak, Nicholas; Tesser, John; Leibowitz, Evan; Rosenberg, Melissa; Parenti, Dennis; DeHoratius, Raphael

    2018-01-30

    This ethnographic market research study investigated the biologic initiation conversation between rheumatologists and biologic-naive patients with rheumatoid arthritis to assess how therapy options, particularly mode of administration, were discussed. Consenting rheumatologists (n = 16) and patients (n = 48) were videotaped during medical visits and interviewed by a trained ethnographer. The content, structure, and timing of conversations regarding biologic initiation were analyzed. The mean duration of physician-patient visits was approximately 15 minutes; biologic therapies were discussed for a mean of 5.6 minutes. Subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) therapy options were mentioned in 45 and 35 visits, respectively, out of a total of 48 visits. All patients had some familiarity with SC administration, but nearly half of patients (22 of 48) were unfamiliar with IV therapy going into the visit. IV administration was not defined or described by rheumatologists in 77% of visits (27 of 35) mentioning IV therapy. Thus, 19 of 22 patients who were initially unfamiliar with IV therapy remained unfamiliar after the visit. Disparities in physician-patient perceptions were revealed, as all rheumatologists (16 of 16) believed IV therapy would be less convenient than SC therapy for patients, while 46% of patients (22 of 48) felt this way. In post-visit interviews, some patients seemed confused and overwhelmed, particularly when presented with many treatment choices in a visit. Some patients stated they would benefit from visual aids or summary sheets of key points. This study revealed significant educational opportunities to improve the biologic initiation conversation and indicated a disparity between patients' and rheumatologists' perception of IV therapy. © 2018 The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Observed Characteristics and Teacher Quality: Impacts of Sample Selection on a Value Added Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Marcus A.; Dixon, Bruce L.; Greene, Jay P.

    2012-01-01

    We measure the impact of observed teacher characteristics on student math and reading proficiency using a rich dataset from Florida. We expand upon prior work by accounting directly for nonrandom attrition of teachers from the classroom in a sample selection framework. We find evidence that sample selection is present in the estimation of the…

  3. [Development and succession of artificial biological soil crusts and water holding characteristics of topsoil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Chen, Xiao-Guo; Zhang, Gao-Ke; Lan, Shu-Bin; Zhang, De-Lu; Hu, Chun-Xiang

    2014-03-01

    In order to understand the improving effects of cyanobacterial inoculation on water retention of topsoil in desert regions, this work focused on the development and succession of biological soil crusts and water holding characteristics of topsoil after cyanobacterial inoculation in Qubqi Desert. The results showed that after the artificial inoculation of desert cyanobacteria, algal crusts were quickly formed, and in some microenvironments direct succession of the algal crusts to moss crusts occurred after 2-3 years. With the development and succession of biological soil crusts, the topsoil biomass, polysaccharides content, crust thickness and porosity increased, while the soil bulk density decreased. At the same time, with crust development and succession, the topsoil texture became finer and the percents of fine soil particles including silt and clay contents increased, while the percents of coarse soil particles (sand content) decreased proportionately. In addition, it was found that with crust development and succession, the water holding capacity and water content of topsoil showed an increasing trend, namely: moss crust > algal crusts > shifting sand. The water content (or water holding capacity) in algal and moss crusts were 1.1-1.3 and 1.8-2.2 times of those in shifting sand, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that the water holding capacity and water content of topsoil were positively correlated with the crust biomass, polysaccharides content, thickness, bulk density, silt and clay content; while negatively correlated with the porosity and sand content. Furthermore, stepwise regression analysis showed that the main factor affecting water content was the clay content, while that affecting water holding capacity was the porosity.

  4. Observational Analysis of Variation Characteristics of GPS-Based TEC Fluctuation over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifeng Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the characteristics of the total electron content (TEC fluctuations and their regional differences over China were analyzed by utilizing the rate of the TEC index (ROTI based on GPS data from 21 reference stations across China during a solar cycle. The results show that there were significant regional differences at different latitudes. Strong ionospheric TEC fluctuations were usually observed at lower latitudes in southern China, where the occurrence of TEC fluctuations demonstrated typical nighttime- and season-dependent (equinox months features. This phenomenon was consistent with the ionospheric scintillation characteristics of this region. Additionally, compared to low-latitude China, the intensity of TEC fluctuations over mid-latitude China was significantly weaker, and the occurrence of TEC fluctuations was not a nighttime-dependent phenomenon. Moreover, the intensity of TEC fluctuations was much stronger during high solar activity than during low solar activity. Furthermore, the summer-dependent characteristics of TEC fluctuations gradually emerged over lower mid-latitude areas as equinox characteristics weakened. Similar to the equinox characteristics, the summer-dependent characteristics gradually weakened or even disappeared with the increasing latitude. Relevant discussions of this phenomenon are still relatively rare, and it requires further study and analysis.

  5. Learning characteristics of a space-time neural network as a tether skiprope observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.; Villarreal, James A.; Jani, Yashvant; Copeland, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The Software Technology Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center is testing a Space Time Neural Network (STNN) for observing tether oscillations present during retrieval of a tethered satellite. Proper identification of tether oscillations, known as 'skiprope' motion, is vital to safe retrieval of the tethered satellite. Our studies indicate that STNN has certain learning characteristics that must be understood properly to utilize this type of neural network for the tethered satellite problem. We present our findings on the learning characteristics including a learning rate versus momentum performance table.

  6. Determining characteristics of artificial near-Earth objects using observability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alex M.; Frueh, Carolin

    2018-03-01

    Observability analysis is a method for determining whether a chosen state of a system can be determined from the output or measurements. Knowledge of state information availability resulting from observability analysis leads to improved sensor tasking for observation of orbital debris and better control of active spacecraft. This research performs numerical observability analysis of artificial near-Earth objects. Analysis of linearization methods and state transition matrices is performed to determine the viability of applying linear observability methods to the nonlinear orbit problem. Furthermore, pre-whitening is implemented to reformulate classical observability analysis. In addition, the state in observability analysis is typically composed of position and velocity; however, including object characteristics beyond position and velocity can be crucial for precise orbit propagation. For example, solar radiation pressure has a significant impact on the orbit of high area-to-mass ratio objects in geosynchronous orbit. Therefore, determining the time required for solar radiation pressure parameters to become observable is important for understanding debris objects. In order to compare observability analysis results with and without measurement noise and an extended state, quantitative measures of observability are investigated and implemented.

  7. Analysis of biological characteristics of corneal endothelium in old patients with high myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Qiong Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze quantitatively the biological characteristics of corneal endothelium in old patients of high myopia with non-contact automatic corneal endothelial microscope.METHODS:A total of 189 old patients(197 eyeswere divided into the high myopia group and the normal control group according to refractive diopter, in which the former 98 cases(103 eyes, the latter 91 cases(94 eyes. The hexagonal cell(6A, the coefficient of variation(CV, the average cell area(AVE, the average cell density(CDand the central corneal thickness(CCTwere measured by non-contact automatic corneal endothelium. SPSS 14.0 software was used to analyze their percentage. Z-test was used to compare the mean and Chi-square test was used to compare the rate in between. RESULTS: The average cell density in high myopia patients decreased, but there were 14 eyes >3 000/mm2, 11 eyes 2 and 78 eyes in the 2 000~3 000/mm2, there were each 0 eye, 3 eyes and 91 eyes respectively in the normal control group. There was statistically significant difference between high myopia group and control(χ2=19.11, PPP>0.05. CONCLUSION: There will provide a reference valuable for clinical surgeon. Because according to the changes of parameters and morphology of the corneal endothelial cells, we can understand the repair ability, to predict the consequence of the treatment, in order to determine the design and the choice of a surgical.

  8. [Influence of dendritic cell infiltration on prognosis and biologic characteristics of progressing gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-li; Wu, Ben-yan; You, Wei-di; Shen, Ming-shi; Wang, Wen-ju

    2003-09-01

    To study the relation between dendritic cell (DC) infiltration and clinicopathologic parameters, biologic characteristics and prognosis of progressing gastric cancer. The development of apoptotic cell death (apoptotic index, AI) in 61 progressing gastric carcinoma tissues was analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. The PCNA labeling index (PCNA-LI), density of dendritic cells in the tumor were detected by immunohistochemical method by the LSAB kit using antibody against S-100 protein and PC-10. DC infiltration was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis, clinical stage and PCNA-LI, but positively with AI. The DCs in gastric cancer groups with and without lymph node metastasis were (5.63 +/- 4.37)/HPF and (8.51 +/- 5.57)/HPF with difference significant (P stage lesions were (11.23 +/- 6.05)/HPF, (6.28 +/- 4.37)/HPF and (5.53 +/- 5.19)/HPF also with differences significant (P gastric carcinoma.

  9. High voltage electric field effects on structure and biological characteristics of barley seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazaei, J. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agrotechnology, Univ. College of Abouraihan; Aliabadi, E. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Crop Production Horticulture, Univ. College of Aburaihan; Shayegani, A.A. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Univ. College of Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Electric biostimulation of seeds is a pre-sowing treatment in which an electric field is applied to seeds to increase germination of non standard seeds. This paper reported on a study that examined the effects of AC electric field and exposure time on the structure and biological characteristics of barley seeds. The objective was to determine the potential to accelerate seed germination, plant growth and root development by the electric field strength and exposure time. Makooei cultivar barley seeds were used in this study. The effect of electric field strength (at 2, 4, 9, and 14 kV/m) and exposure time (at 15, 45, 80, and 150 min) on seed germination was studied along with height of seedling, length or root, height of stem, length of leaves, earliness, dry weight and wet weight of seedling. The treated seeds were stored for a month in a refrigerator at 5 degrees C prior to the germination experiments. The initial germination percent of the seed was 81 per cent. The treatment of barley seeds in an AC electric field had a positive effect on all investigated parameters. The germination percent of the treated seed increased to 94.5 per cent . The seeds exposed for long periods of time (45 to 150 min) showed better germination than the seeds exposed to lower exposure times. Dry and wet weights of seedling increased 143.4 per cent and 45.7 per cent, respectively.

  10. Drag Reduction and Performance Improvement of Hydraulic Torque Converters with Multiple Biological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chunbao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish-like, dolphin-like, and bionic nonsmooth surfaces were employed in a hydraulic torque converter to achieve drag reduction and performance improvement, which were aimed at reducing profile loss, impacting loss and friction loss, respectively. YJSW335, a twin turbine torque converter, was bionically designed delicately. The biological characteristics consisted of fish-like blades in all four wheels, dolphin-like structure in the first turbine and the stator, and nonsmooth surfaces in the pump. The prediction performance of bionic YJSW335, obtained by computational fluid dynamics simulation, was improved compared with that of the original model, and then it could be proved that drag reduction had been achieved. The mechanism accounting for drag reduction of three factors was also investigated. After bionic design, the torque ratio and the highest efficiencies of YJSW335 were both advanced, which were very difficult to achieve through traditional design method. Moreover, the highest efficiency of the low speed area and high speed area is 85.65% and 86.32%, respectively. By economic matching analysis of the original and bionic powertrains, the latter can significantly reduce the fuel consumption and improve the operating economy of the loader.

  11. Biological and physiological characteristics of Neotyphodium gansuense symbiotic with Achnatherum inebrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjie; Nan, Zhibiao; Li, Fei

    2008-01-01

    Biological and physiological characteristics of Neotyphodium gansuense were compared with Neotyphodium coenophialum and Epichloë festucae at a range of temperatures and pH values, and on carbon and nitrogen amended media. N. gansuense was able to grow at 10-30 degrees C, but not at 5 degrees C, and slowly at 35 degrees C. The optimal temperature for both N. gansuense and N. coenophialum was 25 degrees C, but that of E. festucae was 20-25 degrees C. The optimal pH ranges for mycelial growth of N. gansuense, N. coenophialum and E. festucae were 5-9, 5-9 and 5-7, respectively. The Neotyphodium and Epichloë endophytes varied in their ability to grow on media containing different carbon and nitrogen nutrients. The preference of N. gansuense for carbon source was sucrose>glucose, lactose, sorbitol, inulin, maltose, mannitol, starch, fructose>xylose. Growth of all three endophytes tested was significantly improved by peptone, tryptone, casein, yeast extract and l-proline. Yeast extract, peptone, casein, tryptone, l-proline, potassium nitrate, ammonium oxalic acid and l-leucine significantly improved growth of N. gansuense. However, ammonium nitrite was not utilized at all by any tested endophyte. N. gansuense grew significantly better on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and oat meal agar (OMA) than on corn meal agar (CMA) and drunken-horse-grass agar (DA), and most slowly on water agar (WA) and saltwater nutrient agar (SNA).

  12. Clinical and biological characteristics of cervical neoplasias with FGFR3 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiery Jean

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported activating mutations of the gene coding for the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 in invasive cervical carcinoma. To further analyze the role of FGFR3 in cervical tumor progression, we extended our study to screen a total of 75 invasive tumors and 80 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (40 low-grade and 40 high-grade lesions. Results Using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP followed by DNA sequencing, we found FGFR3 mutation (S249C in all cases in 5% of invasive cervical carcinomas and no mutation in intraepithelial lesions. These results suggest that, unlike in bladder carcinoma, FGFR3 mutation does not or rarely occur in non invasive lesions. Compared to patients with wildtype FGFR3 tumor, patients with S249C FGFR3 mutated tumors were older (mean age 64 vs. 49.4 years, P = 0.02, and were more likely to be associated with a non-16/18 HPV type in their tumor. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that FGFR3 mutated tumors were associated with higher FGFR3b mRNA expression levels compared to wildtype FGFR3 tumors. Supervised analysis of Affymetrix expression data identified a significant number of genes specifically differentially expressed in tumors with respect to FGFR3 mutation status. Conclusion This study suggest that tumors with FGFR3 mutation appear to have distinctive clinical and biological characteristics that may help in defining a population of patients for FGFR3 mutation screening.

  13. Isolation, culture and biological characteristics of multipotent porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinjuan; Liu, Hao; Wang, Kunfu; Li, Lu; Yuan, Hongyi; Liu, Xueting; Liu, Yingjie; Guan, Weijun

    2017-12-01

    Skeletal muscle has a huge regenerative potential for postnatal muscle growth and repair, which mainly depends on a kind of muscle progenitor cell population, called satellite cell. Nowadays, the majority of satellite cells were obtained from human, mouse, rat and other animals but rarely from pig. In this article, the porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells were isolated and cultured in vitro. The expression of surface markers of satellite cells was detected by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR assays. The differentiation capacity was assessed by inducing satellite cells into adipocytes, myoblasts and osteoblasts. The results showed that satellite cells isolated from porcine tibialis anterior were subcultured up to 12 passages and were positive for Pax7, Myod, c-Met, desmin, PCNA and NANOG but were negative for Myogenin. Satellite cells were also induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and myoblasts, respectively. These findings indicated that porcine satellite cells possess similar biological characteristics of stem cells, which may provide theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application in the treatment of dystrophic muscle and other muscle injuries.

  14. CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF MUELLER MATRIX PATTERNS FOR POLARIZATION SCATTERING MODEL OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E DU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a model to describe polarized photon scattering in biological tissues. In this model, tissues are simplified to a mixture of scatterers and surrounding medium. There are two types of scatterers in the model: solid spheres and infinitely long solid cylinders. Variables related to the scatterers include: the densities and sizes of the spheres and cylinders, the orientation and angular distribution of cylinders. Variables related to the surrounding medium include: the refractive index, absorption coefficient and birefringence. In this paper, as a development we introduce an optical activity effect to the model. By comparing experiments and Monte Carlo simulations, we analyze the backscattering Mueller matrix patterns of several tissue-like media, and summarize the different effects coming from anisotropic scattering and optical properties. In addition, we propose a possible method to extract the optical activity values for tissues. Both the experimental and simulated results show that, by analyzing the Mueller matrix patterns, the microstructure and optical properties of the medium can be obtained. The characteristic features of Mueller matrix patterns are potentially powerful tools for studying the contrast mechanisms of polarization imaging for medical diagnosis.

  15. Biological characteristics of silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna in commercial fishery in the Kyiv reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zakharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The determination and analysis of main biological characteristics of silver bream from the point of view of the formation and exploitation of its commercial stock in the Kyiv reservoir. Methodology. The work is based the results of monitoring field studies carried out on the Kyiv reservoir during 2012–2014. Ichthyological materials were collected from standard commercial gill nets with mesh sizes of 30–80 mm, which were set in different habitats and depths of the reservoir. Collection and processing of samples was carried out using conventional ichthyological methods adapted for the Dnieper reservoirs. Findings. According to the data of monitoring gill nets, silver bream population in 2014 was composed of 10 age groups. The majority of their population (70.8% in catches was composed of age-5 to age-7 fish, i.e. the number of modal classes increased due to the right wing of the older age groups. The frequency distribution of silver bream had a shape of a curve with wide, however broken (due to the reduction in age-5 fish peak and gradual decrease. Age-length properties, fatness parameters and condition factor of silver bream in the Kiev reservoir during last years remained on the stable high level indicating on favorable fattening conditions and forming the ichthyomass of this species. At the present time, silver bream of the Kyiv reservoir formed a commercial stock with such qualitative and quantitative characteristics, which allow exploiting it in the mode of traditional commercial harvest and specialized harvest of silver bream concentrations with the use of gill nets with mesh sizes of 50, 60 mm. Originality. We obtained and analyzed the new data on the current state of silver bream (Blіcca bjoerkna in Kyiv reservoir as an important element of commercial fish production. Practical Value. The results of the work allows increasing qualitative and quantitative characteristics of silver bream catches and will be used for the

  16. Evolution of physical and biological characteristics of mesoscale eddy in north-central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zarokanellos, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Eddies appear to be important to both the physical and biogeochemical dynamics of the Red Sea. Numerical simulations of physical dynamics and remote sensing studies of chlorophyll concentration and sea surface height in the Red Sea indicate their importance to the upper portions of the sea (Raitsos et al., 2013; Yao et al., 2014; Zhan et al., 2014). Despite their apparent importance, process studies of these eddies have been lacking. In March 2013 we began an extended observational study of the north-central Red Sea (NCRS) where anticyclonic eddies have been observed. The study began with a ship-based characterization of the eddy and was followed by a three-month observational time series using an autonomous glider equipped with a CTD, oxygen sensor, and optical sensors for chlorophyll, CDOM and optical backscatter. The ship-based study captured an initial snapshot of an anticyclonic eddy and it\\'s associated biological and bio-optical distributions. Initially, chlorophyll distributions tended to mirror the density distribution, with deeper isopycnals and chlorophyll maximum depth in the anticyclonic eddy center. The anticyclone eddy in March had an along basin diameter of 150 km, penetrated vertically less than 150 m and elevated near surface chlorophyll concentrations appeared along its outer boundary. The shallowing of the pycnocline of the outer boundaries of the anticyclone eddy on March may elevate nutrients into the lower euphotic zone, contributing to phytoplankton productivity and biomass within the eddy. This eddy contains most of the kinetic energy of the region with the maximum velocities up to 30 - 35 cm/s. The eddy appeared to interact with the coastal reefs where exchange particulate and dissolved matter may occur. The autonomous glider provided the spring-to-summer progression of the system with increasing stratification, shallowing of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum, and fluctuations in the position and intensity of the eddy. Our glider effort

  17. An efficient method of exploring simulation models by assimilating literature and biological observational data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takanori; Nagasaki, Masao; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru

    2014-07-01

    Recently, several biological simulation models of, e.g., gene regulatory networks and metabolic pathways, have been constructed based on existing knowledge of biomolecular reactions, e.g., DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions. However, since these do not always contain all necessary molecules and reactions, their simulation results can be inconsistent with observational data. Therefore, improvements in such simulation models are urgently required. A previously reported method created multiple candidate simulation models by partially modifying existing models. However, this approach was computationally costly and could not handle a large number of candidates that are required to find models whose simulation results are highly consistent with the data. In order to overcome the problem, we focused on the fact that the qualitative dynamics of simulation models are highly similar if they share a certain amount of regulatory structures. This indicates that better fitting candidates tend to share the basic regulatory structure of the best fitting candidate, which can best predict the data among candidates. Thus, instead of evaluating all candidates, we propose an efficient explorative method that can selectively and sequentially evaluate candidates based on the similarity of their regulatory structures. Furthermore, in estimating the parameter values of a candidate, e.g., synthesis and degradation rates of mRNA, for the data, those of the previously evaluated candidates can be utilized. The method is applied here to the pharmacogenomic pathways for corticosteroids in rats, using time-series microarray expression data. In the performance test, we succeeded in obtaining more than 80% of consistent solutions within 15% of the computational time as compared to the comprehensive evaluation. Then, we applied this approach to 142 literature-recorded simulation models of corticosteroid-induced genes, and consequently selected 134 newly constructed better models. The

  18. Clinical and Biological Predictors of Plasma Levels of Soluble RAGE in Critically Ill Patients: Secondary Analysis of a Prospective Multicenter Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Pranal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Although soluble forms of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE have been recently proposed as biomarkers in multiple acute or chronic diseases, few studies evaluated the influence of usual clinical and biological parameters, or of patient characteristics and comorbidities, on circulating levels of soluble RAGE in the intensive care unit (ICU setting. Objectives. To determine, among clinical and biological parameters that are usually recorded upon ICU admission, which variables, if any, could be associated with plasma levels of soluble RAGE. Methods. Data for this ancillary study were prospectively obtained from adult patients with at least one ARDS risk factor upon ICU admission enrolled in a large multicenter observational study. At ICU admission, plasma levels of total soluble RAGE (sRAGE and endogenous secretory (esRAGE were measured by duplicate ELISA and baseline patient characteristics, comorbidities, and usual clinical and biological indices were recorded. After univariate analyses, significant variables were used in multivariate, multidimensional analyses. Measurements and Main Results. 294 patients were included in this ancillary study, among whom 62% were admitted for medical reasons, including septic shock (11%, coma (11%, and pneumonia (6%. Although some variables were associated with plasma levels of RAGE soluble forms in univariate analysis, multidimensional analyses showed no significant association between admission parameters and baseline plasma sRAGE or esRAGE. Conclusions. We found no obvious association between circulating levels of soluble RAGE and clinical and biological indices that are usually recorded upon ICU admission. This trial is registered with NCT02070536.

  19. Characteristics of Planetary Candidates Observed by Kepler. II. Analysis of the First Four Months of Data

    OpenAIRE

    Borucki, William J.; Ciardi, David; Howard, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    On 2011 February 1 the Kepler mission released data for 156,453 stars observed from the beginning of the science observations on 2009 May 2 through September 16. There are 1235 planetary candidates with transit-like signatures detected in this period. These are associated with 997 host stars. Distributions of the characteristics of the planetary candidates are separated into five class sizes: 68 candidates of approximately Earth-size (R_p < 1.25 R_⊕), 288 super-Earth-size (1.25 R_⊕ ≤ R_p < 2 ...

  20. Optimization of observation plan based on the stochastic characteristics of the geodetic network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachelski Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimal design of geodetic network is a basic subject of many engineering projects. An observation plan is a concluding part of the process. Any particular observation within the network has through adjustment a different contribution and impact on values and accuracy characteristics of unknowns. The problem of optimal design can be solved by means of computer simulation. This paper presents a new method of simulation based on sequential estimation of individual observations in a step-by-step manner, by means of the so-called filtering equations. The algorithm aims at satisfying different criteria of accuracy according to various interpretations of the covariance matrix. Apart of them, the optimization criterion is also amount of effort, defined as the minimum number of observations required.

  1. Hygienic characteristics of working conditions and their influence on biological age of women occupied in modern wallpaper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichugina N.N.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a complex sanitary characteristic of working conditions of women involved in wallpaper production. The main favorable factors of industrial environment have been determined. It is shown that working conditions in wallpaper production factories cause an increase in indices of biological age

  2. Spring Blooms Observed with Biochemical Profiling Floats from a Chemical and Biological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, J. N.; Johnson, K. S.; Sakamoto, C.; Jannasch, H. W.; Coletti, L. J.; Elrod, V.

    2015-12-01

    Recently there has been renewed interest in the mechanisms which control the seasonal increases in plankton biomass (spring blooms). Changes in physical and chemical forcing (light, wind, heat and nutrients) may increase the specific growth rate of phytoplankton. These changes may also shift the predator - prey relationships within the food web structure, which can alter the balance between plankton growth and loss rates. Biogeochemical profiling floats provide a means to observe the seasonal evolution of spring blooms from a physical, chemical and biological perspective in near real time. Floats equipped with optical sensors to measure nitrate, oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence, and optical backscatter now have a presence in many ocean regions including the North Pacific, Subarctic Pacific, North Atlantic, South Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. Data from these regions are used to compare and contrast the evolution of spring blooms. The evolution of the bloom is examined using both chemical (oxygen, nitrate) and biooptical (phytoplankton from chlorophyll fluorescence and particulate organic carbon from optical backscatter) sensors under vastly different environmental conditions.

  3. Theoretical and observational analysis of individual ionizing particle effects in biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    The microstructural damage to living tissue caused by heavy ion radiation was studied. Preliminary tests on rat corneal tissue, rat cerebellar tissue grown in culture, and rat retinal tissue indicated that the best assay for heavy ion damage is the rat cornea. The corneal tissue of the living rat was exposed to beams of carbon at 474 MeV/amu, neon at 8.5 MeV/amu, argon at 8.5 MeV/amu, silicon at 530 MeV/amu, iron at 500 MeV/amu, and iron at 600 MeV/amu. X-rays were also used on corneas to compare with the heavy ion irradiated corneas. Scanning electron microscopy revealed lesions with circular symmetry on the external plasma membranes of corneal epithelium which were irradiated with heavy ions, but similar lesions were not observed on the plasma membranes of x-ray irradiated or non-irradiated control samples. These data verify the special way in which heavy ions interact with matter: each ion interacts coulombically with electrons all along its trajectory to generate a track. The dose from heavy ion radiation is not distributed homogeneously on a tissue microstructural scale but is concentrated along the individual particle track. Even along a single particle track the dose is discontinuous except at the Bragg peak when the LET is maximum. Micrographs of heavy-ion-irradiated corneas demonstrated two significant correlations with the heavy ion beam: (1) the number of plasma membrane lesions per unit area was correlated with the particle fluence, and (2) the diameter of the lesions were linearly related to the energy loss or LET of the individual particle. These observations corroborate what has already been suggested theoretically about heavy ion tracks and what has been shown experimentally. But the new data indicate that particle tracks occur in biological tissues as well, and that a single heavy ion is responsible for each membrane lesion. (ERB)

  4. Theoretical and observational analysis of individual ionizing particle effects in biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    The microstructural damage to living tissue caused by heavy ion radiation was studied. Preliminary tests on rat corneal tissue, rat cerebellar tissue grown in culture, and rat retinal tissue indicated that the best assay for heavy ion damage is the rat cornea. The corneal tissue of the living rat was exposed to beams of carbon at 474 MeV/amu, neon at 8.5 MeV/amu, argon at 8.5 MeV/amu, silicon at 530 MeV/amu, iron at 500 MeV/amu, and iron at 600 MeV/amu. X-rays were also used on corneas to compare with the heavy ion irradiated corneas. Scanning electron microscopy revealed lesions with circular symmetry on the external plasma membranes of corneal epithelium which were irradiated with heavy ions, but similar lesions were not observed on the plasma membranes of x-ray irradiated or non-irradiated control samples. These data verify the special way in which heavy ions interact with matter: each ion interacts coulombically with electrons all along its trajectory to generate a track. The dose from heavy ion radiation is not distributed homogeneously on a tissue microstructural scale but is concentrated along the individual particle track. Even along a single particle track the dose is discontinuous except at the Bragg peak when the LET is maximum. Micrographs of heavy-ion-irradiated corneas demonstrated two significant correlations with the heavy ion beam: (1) the number of plasma membrane lesions per unit area was correlated with the particle fluence, and (2) the diameter of the lesions were linearly related to the energy loss or LET of the individual particle. These observations corroborate what has already been suggested theoretically about heavy ion tracks and what has been shown experimentally. But the new data indicate that particle tracks occur in biological tissues as well, and that a single heavy ion is responsible for each membrane lesion

  5. The biological characteristics of anti-CD71 mouse/human chimeric antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuo; Jiang Lin; Lei Ping; Zhu Huifen; Shen Guanxin; Cui Wuren; Wang Yanggong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the biological characteristics of an anti-CD71 mouse/human chimeric antibody (D2C). Methods: Analysis of the chimeric Ab production in culture supernatant was made by the standard concentration curve method with ELISA. The antibody was purified by DEAE-Sephredax-A50 ion-exchange chromatography and was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The competition inhibition studies for binding to the same epitope on CD71 were performed between the chimeric Ab(D2C) in the culture supernatant was about 0.5-5 μg/ml in 5-day cultures when seeded at 1 x 10 5 cells/5ml compared with 12.5-25 μg/ml in the supernatant from their parental monoclonal Ab(7579). The purified chimeric Ab(D2C) from mouse ascetics was 1-2 mg/ml. The SDS-PAGE analysis of purified chimeric Ab(D2C) with discontinuous system confirmed two protein bands of 55 kDa and 25 kDa. It was clear that both chimeric Ab(D2C) and murine monoclonal Ab (7579) compete effectively to join the same epitope of CD71 each other. The chimeric antibody's affinity constant (Ka), quantitated by Scatchard analysis, is about 9.34-9.62 x 10 9 L/mol. Conclusion: The chimeric Ab(D2C) produced from the transfectomas is stable. The binding capacity of the chimeric Ab(D2C) to the antigen (CD71) was retained

  6. Preparation and biological characteristics of 99mTc-diol a renal agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanheira, I.; Paulo, A.; Neves, M.; Patricio, L.; Sawas-Dimopoulou, C.

    1993-01-01

    The present work concerns the production of 1,2-dihydroxypropyl-1-phosphonic acid (diol) by acid hydrolysis of (-cis) 1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid (phosphomycin), and its formation as a kit easily labeled with [ 99m Tc]pertechnetate. Biodistribution studies and whole-body autoradiographies in mice show that 99m Tc-diol has a specific affinity for the kidneys: it is rapidly cleared from the blood and excreted in urine. Part of the injected activity remains in the kidney cortex sufficiently long to permit kidney imaging. In comparison with other agents which also localize in the kidney cortex, such as 99m Tc-DMSA and 99m Tc-glucoheptonate ( 99m Tc-GHA), the main differences are the following: the peak of renal activity is reached early in the 5 min post-injection period for 99m Tc-diol, only at about 10 min post-injection for 99m Tc-GHA and after 3 h post-injection for 99m Tc-DMSA. The uptake of 99m Tc-diol by other organs, especially by bones, is much smaller than in the case of 99m Tc-DMSA. Unlike 99m Tc-DMSA, the biodistribution of 99m Tc-diol is not significantly influenced by acid-base imbalance. Moreover, the retention effect of hyperuricemia on 99m Tc-diol blood clearance and kidney excretion could be the result of a competition mechanism between this radiopharmaceutical and uric acid for a common transport system. The above biological characteristics suggest that 99m Tc-diol is a kidney radiopharmaceutical with an ability for functional and imaging studies. (author)

  7. Hydrological, morphometrical, and biological characteristics of the connecting rivers of the International Great Lakes: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clayton J.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Duffy, Walter G.; Nepszy, Stephen J.; McNabb, Clarence D.; Haas, Robert C.; Liston, Charles R.; Manny, Bruce; Busch, Wolf-Dieter N.; Dodge, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The connecting channels of the Great Lakes are large rivers (1, 200-9, 900 m3 • s-1) with limited tributary drainage systems and relatively stable hydrology (about 2:1 ration of maximum to minimum flow). The rivers, from headwaters to outlet, are the St. Marys, St. Clair, Detroit, Niagara, and St. Lawrence. They share several characteristics with certain other large rivers: the fish stocks that historically congregated for spawning or feeding have been overfished, extensive channel modification have been made, and they have been used as a repository for domestic and industrial wastes and for hydroelectric energy generation. Levels of phosphorus, chlorophyll a, and particulate organic matter increase 3- to 5-fold from the St. Marys River to the St. Lawrence River. Biological communities dependent on nutrients in the water column, such as phytoplankton, periphyton, and zooplankton similarly increase progressively downstream through the system. The standing crop of emergent macrophytes is similar in all of the rivers, reflecting the relatively large nutrient pools in the sediments and atmosphere. Consequently, emergent macrophytes are an important source of organic matter (67% of total primary production) in the nutrient poor waters of the St. Marys River, whereas phytoplankton production dominates (76%) in the enriched St. Lawrence River. Submersed and emergent macrophytes and the associated periphyton are major producers of organic matter in the connecting channels. Another major source of organic matter (measured as ash free dry weight, AFDW) in the Detroit River is sewage, introduced at a rate of 26, 000 t per year. The production of benthos ranges from a low 5.4 g AFDW•m-2 in the Detroit River to a high of 15.5 g AFDW•m-2 in the St. Marys River. The rivers lack the organic transport from riparian sources upstream but receive large amounts of high quality phytoplankton and zooplankton from the Great Lakes.

  8. Do biological and bedsite characteristics influence survival of neonatal white-tailed deer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Colter Chitwood

    Full Text Available Coyotes recently expanded into the eastern U.S. and potentially have caused localized white-tailed deer population declines. Research has focused on quantifying coyote predation on neonates, but little research has addressed the potential influence of bedsite characteristics on survival. In 2011 and 2012, we radiocollared 65 neonates, monitored them intensively for 16 weeks, and assigned mortality causes. We used Program MARK to estimate survival to 16 weeks and included biological covariates (i.e., sex, sibling status [whether or not it had a sibling], birth weight, and Julian date of birth. Survival to 16 weeks was 0.141 (95% CI = 0.075-0.249 and the top model included only sibling status, which indicated survival was lower for neonates that had a sibling. Predation was the leading cause of mortality (35 of 55; 64% and coyotes were responsible for the majority of depredations (30 of 35; 86%. Additionally, we relocated neonates for the first 10 days of life and measured distance to firebreak, visual obstruction, and plant diversity at bedsites. Survival of predation to 10 days (0.726; 95% CI = 0.586-0.833 was weakly associated with plant diversity at bedsites but not related to visual obstruction. Our results indicate that neonate survival was low and coyote predation was an important source of mortality, which corroborates several recent studies from the region. Additionally, we detected only weak support for bedsite cover as a covariate to neonate survival, which indicates that mitigating effects of coyote predation on neonates may be more complicated than simply managing for increased hiding cover.

  9. Commercial-biological characteristics of tulka (Clupeonella cultriventris Nordmann, 1840 of the Dnieper-Bug estuary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Geina

    2017-12-01

    =17.42 and Cv=15.92%, respectively. The variability of body weight in fish of the right wing of the age series depended by a stable prevalence of females in the stock structure, which were characterized by more significant fluctuations of mean weight due to differences during sexual gland development. The condition factor of tulka was high, Fulton’s condition factor values varied from 0.85 to 1.04. At the same time, a gradual growth of the condition factor with an increase in age was observed. The highest variability of the condition factor was typical for age-2 and age-3 fish – Cv=12.8-15.2%. Originality. The paper contains new as well as updated already existing data on major biological characteristics of the commercial stock of tulka in transformed conditions of fish fauna existence in the Dnieper-Bug estuary system. Practical value. The obtained results are a scientific basis for rational fishery and optimization of fishing pressure on this clupeid species of the Dnieper-Bug estuary system. Under the current conditions, the provided information is topical from the point of view of the improvement of the trophological status of a valuable fishery water body in the context of the reduction of the level of trophic competition between juveniles of semi-migratory fish species and typical zooplantonivorous species such as tulka, which currently increased its abundance.

  10. A satellite observational and numerical study of precipitation characteristics in western North Atlantic tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Edward B.; Chang, Simon W.; Pierce, Harold F.

    1994-01-01

    Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) observations were used to examine the spatial and temporal changes of the precipitation characteristics of tropical cyclones. SSM/I observations were also combined with the results of a tropical cyclone numerical model to examine the role of inner-core diabatic heating in subsequent intensity changes of tropical cyclones. Included in the SSM/I observations were rainfall characteristics of 18 named western North Atlantic tropical cyclones between 1987 and 1989. The SSM/I rain-rate algorithm that employed the 85-GHz channel provided an analysis of the rain-rate distribution in greater detail. However, the SSM/I algorithm underestimated the rain rates when compared to in situ techniques but appeared to be comparable to the rain rates obtained from other satellite-borne passive microwave radiometers. The analysis of SSM/I observations found that more intense systems had higher rain rates, more latent heat release, and a greater contribution from heavier rain to the total tropical cyclone rainfall. In addition, regions with the heaviest rain rates were found near the center of the most intense tropical cyclones. Observational analysis from SSM/I also revealed that the greatest rain rates in the inner-core regions were found in the right half of fast-moving cyclones, while the heaviest rain rates in slow-moving tropical cyclones were found in the forward half. The combination of SSM/I observations and an interpretation of numerical model simulations revealed that the correlation between changes in the inner core diabetic heating and the subsequent intensity became greater as the tropical cyclones became more intense.

  11. The Ocean Tracking Network and its contribution to ocean biological observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whoriskey, F. G.

    2016-02-01

    Animals move to meet their needs for food, shelter, reproduction and to avoid unfavorable environments. In aquatic systems, it is essential that we understand these movements if we are to sustainably manage populations and maintain healthy ecosystems. Thus the ability to document and monitor changes in aquatic animal movements is a biological observing system need. The Ocean Tracking Network (OTN) is a global research, technology development, and data management platform headquartered at Dalhousie University, in Halifax, Nova Scotia working to fill this need. OTN uses electronic telemetry to document the local-to-global movements and survival of aquatic animals, and to correlate them to oceanographic or limnological variables that are influencing movements. Such knowledge can assist with planning for and managing of anthropogenic impacts on present and future animal distributions, including those due to climate change. OTN works with various tracking methods including satellite and data storage tag systems, but its dominant focus is acoustic telemetry. OTN is built on global partnerships for the sharing of equipment and data, and has stimulated technological development in telemetry by bringing researchers with needs for new capabilities together with manufacturers to generate, test, and operationalize new technologies. This has included pioneering work into the use of marine autonomous vehicles (Slocum electric gliders; Liquid Robotics Wave Glider) in animal telemetry research. Similarly, OTN scientists worked with the Sea Mammal Research Unit to develop mobile acoustic receiver that have been placed on grey seals and linked via Bluetooth to a satellite transmitter/receiver. This provided receiver coverage in areas occupied by the seals during their typically extensive migrations and allowed for the examination of ecosystem linkages by documenting behavioral interactions the seals had with the physical environment, conspecifics, and other tagged species.

  12. Physical and biological characteristics of the winter-summer transition in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zarokanellos, Nikolaos

    2017-07-25

    The Central Red Sea (CRS) lies between two distinct hydrographic and atmospheric regimes. In the southern Red Sea, seasonal monsoon reversal regulates the exchange of water between the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. In the northern Red Sea, intermediate and occasionally deep water are formed during winter to sustain the basin\\'s overturning circulation. Highly variable mesoscale eddies and the northward flowing eastern boundary current (EBC) determine the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of the CRS. Ship-based and glider observations in the CRS between March and June 2013 capture key features of the transition from winter to summer and depict the impact of the eddy activity on the EBC flow. Less saline and relatively warmer water of Indian Ocean origin reaches the CRS via the EBC. Initially, an anticyclonic eddy with diameter of 140 km penetrating to 150m depth with maximum velocities up to 30–35 cm s prevails in the CRS. This anticyclonic eddy appears to block or at least redirect the northward flow of the EBC. Dissipation of the eddy permits the near-coastal, northward flow of the EBC and gives place to a smaller cyclonic eddy with a diameter of about 50 km penetrating to 200 m depth. By the end of May, as the northerly winds become stronger and persistent throughout the basin, characteristic of the summer southwest monsoon wind regime, the EBC, and its associated lower salinity water became less evident, replaced by the saltier surface water that characterizes the onset of the summer stratification in the CRS.

  13. Winter precipitation characteristics in western US related to atmospheric river landfalls: observations and model evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Guan, B.; Waliser, D. E.; Ferraro, R. D.; Case, J. L.; Iguchi, T.; Kemp, E.; Putman, W.; Wang, W.; Wu, D.; Tian, B.

    2018-01-01

    Winter precipitation (PR) characteristics in western United States (WUS) related to atmospheric river (AR) landfalls are examined using the observation-based PRISM data. The observed AR-related precipitation characteristics are in turn used to evaluate model precipitation data from the NASA MERRA2 reanalysis and from seven dynamical downscaling simulations driven by the MERRA2. Multiple metrics including mean bias, Taylor diagram, and two skill scores are used to measure model performance for three climatological sub-regions in WUS, Pacific Northwest (PNW), Pacific Southwest (PSW) and Great Basin (GB). All model data well represent the winter-mean PR with spatial pattern correlations of 0.8 or higher with PRISM for the three sub-regions. Higher spatial resolutions and/or the use of spectral nudging generally yield higher skill scores in simulating the geographical distribution of PR for the entire winter. The PRISM data shows that the AR-related fraction of winter PR and associated daily PR PDFs in each region vary strongly for landfall locations; AR landfalls in the northern WUS coast (NC) affect mostly PNW while those in the southern WUS coast (SC) affect both PSW and GB. NC (SC) landfalls increase the frequency of heavy PR in PNW (PSW and GB) but reduce it in PSW (PNW). All model data reasonably represent these observed variations in the AR-related winter PR fractions and the daily PR PDFs according to AR landfall locations. However, unlike for the entire winter period, no systematic effects of resolution and/or spectral nudging are identified in these AR-related PR characteristics. Dynamical downscaling in this study generally yield positive added values to the MERRA2 PR in the AR-related PR fraction for most sub-regions and landfall locations, most noticeably for PSW by NU-WRF. The downscaling also generate positive added value in p95 for PNW, but negative values for PSW and GB due to overestimation of heavy precipitation events.

  14. Characteristics of equatorial gravity waves derived from mesospheric airglow imaging observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suzuki

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the characteristics of small-scale (<100 km gravity waves in the equatorial mesopause region derived from OH airglow imaging observations at Kototabang (100.3° E, 0.2° S, Indonesia, from 2002 to 2005. We adopted a method that could automatically detect gravity waves in the airglow images using two-dimensional cross power spectra of gravity waves. The propagation directions of the waves were likely controlled by zonal filtering due to stratospheric mean winds that show a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO and the presence of many wave sources in the troposphere.

  15. Students’ errors in solving combinatorics problems observed from the characteristics of RME modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meika, I.; Suryadi, D.; Darhim

    2018-01-01

    This article was written based on the learning evaluation results of students’ errors in solving combinatorics problems observed from the characteristics of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME); that is modeling. Descriptive method was employed by involving 55 students from two international-based pilot state senior high schools in Banten. The findings of the study suggested that the students still committed errors in simplifying the problem as much 46%; errors in making mathematical model (horizontal mathematization) as much 60%; errors in finishing mathematical model (vertical mathematization) as much 65%; and errors in interpretation as well as validation as much 66%.

  16. PEAR SHOOT SAWFLY (JANUS COMPRESSUS FABRICIUS – LIFE CYCLE AND BIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Validžić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the thesis was to investigate life cycle, biological and morphological characteristics of pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius, Hymenoptera Cephidae, furthermore to identify natural enemies in order to protect pear from this pest. The trial was conducted in the period of three years: 2010, 2011 and 2012 in pear orchards at five localities. Monitoring of adult sawfly was done by yellow sticky traps. Laboratory research was done at the Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Section of Entomology and Nematology. In this study, pear shoot sawfly in Eastern Slavonia occurred in the period of four weeks, starting from the third decade of April with the peak population at the beginning of the May. Adults flight is the most intensive during warm and sunny days, when temperatures are above 14°C. Adult sawflies are characterized by elongated body and antennae, usually 7-12 mm long and sexual dimorphism is present. Pest is univoltine. Basic colour of adult sawfly is black. Antennae are moniliform and consist of 20 (male - 22 (female segments. Females have red or dark red colored abdomen, while males have yellow or orange one. Eggs are cylindrically shaped, 0.8-1.0 mm long. Female lays approximately 30 eggs. Embryonic development of pear shoot sawfly eggs lasts from 11 to 14 days. Larvae are 8-10 mm long, white or pale yellow. Larvae molt three times. Pear shoot sawfly larvae were parasitized by insects from Hymenoptera order, from five identified and one unidentified genera. Level of parasitism by genera is as follows: Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae – 9.83%, Tetrastichus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae – 2.01%, Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae – 1.66%, Pteromalus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae – 0.55%, Ichneumonida sp. (Hymenoptera: Pimplinae – 0.35% and unidentified genera – 0.62%. Plant parasitic species Metopoplax origani (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae was found in 1.80% of analyzed shoots. Larvae were

  17. Coriandrum sativum mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of their biological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, N.; Aravindhan, V.; Ruckmani, K.; Vetha Potheher, I.

    2018-05-01

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by percolated green synthesis method using Coriandrum sativum leaf, root, seed and stem extracts and reported its antibacterial activity. The synthesized Ag NPs were confirmed by UV–visible Spectroscopy, Powder x-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analyzes. The Maximum absorbance observed around 400–450 nm reveal the characteristic absorbance of Ag NPs. The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis shows the stability of synthesized NPs with average size varying from 35 to 53 nm and also zeta potential stability varying from ‑20 to ‑30 mV. The cubic structure, crystalline nature and purity of the material was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction studies. FT-IR spectrum shows the presence of various functional groups in the resultant material. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) image shows the surface morphology of the synthesized NPs and the Energy Dispersive x-ray Analysis (EDAX) confirms the presence of silver metal ions. The Coriandrum sativum aqueous extract exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (Gram -ve) bacteria. Numerous studies have been made previously in our field of study but optimization has not been carried out by both extract (different parts like leaf, root, seed and stem) and without addition of any external source such as chemicals, heat etc.

  18. Experimental observation and investigation of reactor Cs-137 isotope deactivation in biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskii, V.I.; Tashyrev, A.B.; Kornilova, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The problem of natural accelerated deactivation of radioactive waste (including deactivation in environmental) is studied. In the work the process of direct controlled deactivation of water mixture of selected different longlived radioactive isotopes in growing microbiological cultures has been studied. The process was connected with transmutation of long-lived active nuclei to non-radioactive isotopes during growth and metabolism of special microbiological MCT ('microbial catalyst-transmutator'). The MCT is the special granules that include: concentrated biomass of metabolically active microorganisms, sources of carbon and energy, phosphorus, nitrogen, etc., and gluing substances that keep all components in the form of granules stable in water solutions for a long period of time at any external conditions. The base of the MCT is microbe syntrophin associations of thousands different microorganism kinds that are in the state of complete symbiosis. These microorganisms appertain to different physiological groups that represent practically the whole variety of the microbe metabolism and relevantly all kinds of microbe accumulation mechanisms. The state of complete symbiosis of the syntrophin associations results on the possibility of maximal adaptation of the microorganisms' association to any external conditions change. The mechanism of nuclear transmutation in growing biological system is described in details in the book. The research has been carried out on the basis of the same distilled water that contained different long-lived reactor isotopes (e.g., Eu 154 , Eu 155 , Cs 137 , Am 241 ). In our experiments 8 identical closed glass flasks with 10 ml of the same active water in each were used. The 'microbial catalyst-transmutator' was placed in 7 glass flasks. In six different flasks different pure K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and P salts as single admixture were added to the active water. These chemical elements are vitally necessary

  19. Accessibility of observable and unobservable characteristics in autobiographical memories of recent and distant past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karylowski, Jerzy J; Mrozinski, Blazej

    2017-02-01

    Self-reports regarding how people visualise themselves during events that occurred in the past show that for events from the distant past individuals report assuming a more external perspective than for events from the recent past [Nigro, G., & Neisser, U. (1983). Point of view in personal memories. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 467-482; Pronin, E., & Ross, L. (2006). Temporal differences in trait self-ascription. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 90, 197-209]. Thus it appears that, with the passage of time, representations of self embodied in memories of past events lose their position of an insider and assume a more ordinary position of self as an object seen from the perspective of an outside observer. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine this shift using a performance-based measure of accessibility. Results showed that self-judgements regarding unobservable, covert characteristics were faster for recent-compared to more distant-autobiographical events. However, self-judgements regarding observable, overt characteristics were faster for more distant events. This suggests an accessibility-based mechanism underlying the shift from internal to the relatively more external perspective in forming self-images related to the distant past.

  20. Participant characteristics and observed support in conversations involving people with communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Karin; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta

    2016-10-01

    Communication partner training is an increasingly common approach to improve the possibilities for people with communication disorders to participate in everyday interaction. So far, though, little is known about what conversation partner characteristics might influence the ability to be a supportive partner in conversation. The current study explored possible associations between the observed skill to support a person with communication difficulties in conversation and the following characteristics of the conversation partner; executive function, inference ability, age, education level and relationship to the person with communication disorder. The impact of the aetiology of the communication difficulties was also explored. Thirty-five dyads participated: 23 people with aphasia along with 18 significant others and five enrolled nurses and 12 people with Parkinson's disease along with 10 significant others and two enrolled nurses. Only tendencies of associations were found between observed skill to support conversation and executive function for the significant others and inference ability for the enrolled nurses. Although type of activity involved in the conversation may be a key factor, the results indicate that executive function and ability to make mental inferences may matter for the ability to support a person with communication disorder in conversation.

  1. Characteristics of monsoon inversions over the Arabian Sea observed by satellite sounder and reanalysis data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dwivedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monsoon inversion (MI over the Arabian Sea (AS is one of the important characteristics associated with the monsoon activity over Indian region during summer monsoon season. In the present study, we have used 5 years (2009–2013 of temperature and water vapour measurement data obtained from satellite sounder instrument, an Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI onboard MetOp satellite, in addition to ERA-Interim data, to study their characteristics. The lower atmospheric data over the AS have been examined first to identify the areas where MIs are predominant and occur with higher strength. Based on this information, a detailed study has been made to investigate their characteristics separately in the eastern AS (EAS and western AS (WAS to examine their contrasting features. The initiation and dissipation times of MIs, their percentage occurrence, strength, etc., has been examined using the huge database. The relation with monsoon activity (rainfall over Indian region during normal and poor monsoon years is also studied. WAS ΔT values are  ∼  2 K less than those over the EAS, ΔT being the temperature difference between 950 and 850 hPa. A much larger contrast between the WAS and EAS in ΔT is noticed in ERA-Interim data set vis-à-vis those observed by satellites. The possibility of detecting MI from another parameter, refractivity N, obtained directly from another satellite constellation of GPS Radio Occultation (RO (COSMIC, has also been examined. MI detected from IASI and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS onboard the NOAA satellite have been compared to see how far the two data sets can be combined to study the MI characteristics. We suggest MI could also be included as one of the semipermanent features of southwest monsoon along with the presently accepted six parameters.

  2. [Relationship among the Oxygen Concentration, Reactive Oxygen Species and the Biological Characteristics of Mouse Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Stem Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Si-Hua; He, Yu-Xin; Ma, Yi-Ran; Jin, Jing-Chun; Kang, Dan

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of oxygen concentration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the biological characteristics of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and to analyzed the relationship among the oxygen concentration, ROS and the biological characteristics of mouse HSC through simulation of oxygen environment experienced by PB HSC during transplantation. The detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in vitro amplification, directional differentiation (BFU-E, CFU-GM, CFU-Mix), homing of adhesion molecules (CXCR4, CD44, VLA4, VLA5, P-selectin), migration rate, CFU-S of NOD/SCID mice irradiated with sublethal dose were performed to study the effect of oxgen concentration and reactive oxygen species on the biological characteristics of mouse BM-HSC and the relationship among them. The oxygen concentrations lower than normal oxygen concentration (especially hypoxic oxygen environment) could reduce ROS level and amplify more Lin(-) c-kit(+) Sca-1(+) BM HSC, which was more helpful to the growth of various colonies (BFU-E, CFU-GM, CFU-Mix) and to maintain the migratory ability of HSC, thus promoting CFU-S growth significantly after the transplantation of HSC in NOD/SCID mice irradiated by a sublethal dose. BM HSC exposed to oxygen environments of normal, inconstant oxygen level and strenuously thanging of oxygen concentration could result in higher level of ROS, at the same time, the above-mentioned features and functional indicators were relatively lower. The ROS levels of BM HSC in PB HSCT are closely related to the concentrations and stability of oxygen surrounding the cells. High oxygen concentration results in an high level of ROS, which is not helpful to maintain the biological characteristics of BM HSC. Before transplantation and in vitro amplification, the application of antioxidancs and constant oxygen level environments may be beneficial for transplantation of BMMSC.

  3. Epidemiology, quality and reporting characteristics of meta-analyses of observational studies published in Chinese journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe-wen; Cheng, Juan; Liu, Zhuan; Ma, Ji-chun; Li, Jin-long; Wang, Jing; Yang, Ke-hu

    2015-12-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiological and reporting characteristics as well as the methodological quality of meta-analyses (MAs) of observational studies published in Chinese journals. 5 Chinese databases were searched for MAs of observational studies published from January 1978 to May 2014. Data were extracted into Excel spreadsheets, and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklists were used to assess reporting characteristics and methodological quality, respectively. A total of 607 MAs were included. Only 52.2% of the MAs assessed the quality of the included primary studies, and the retrieval information was not comprehensive in more than half (85.8%) of the MAs. In addition, 50 (8.2%) MAs did not search any Chinese databases, while 126 (20.8%) studies did not search any English databases. Approximately 41.2% of the MAs did not describe the statistical methods in sufficient details, and most (95.5%) MAs did not report on conflicts of interest. However, compared with the before publication of the MOOSE Checklist, the quality of reporting improved significantly for 20 subitems after publication of the MOOSE Checklist, and 7 items of the included MAs demonstrated significant improvement after publication of the AMSTAR Checklist (pstudies have been published in Chinese journals, the reporting quality is questionable. Thus, there is an urgent need to increase the use of reporting guidelines and methodological tools in China; we recommend that Chinese journals adopt the MOOSE and AMSTAR criteria. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRUSSIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (BLOCH, 1782 COMMERCIAL STOCK OF THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. Heina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To provide the biological assessment of the silver Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782 commercial stock of the Dnieper-Bug estuary in the conditions of the transformed Dnieper river flow. Methodology. During the analysis of the biological state of the Prussian carp commercial stock, the main attention was given to the dynamics of age and sexual structure, length-weight growth rate, absolute fecundity and condition factor. The basic data were collected during the work of control-observation stations of the Institute of Fisheries in the Dnieper-Bug estuary during the current century. The collection and processing of ichthyological materials were performed in accordance with the generally accepted methodologies. Findings. The analysis showed that during the current century, the age structure of the Prussian carp of the Dnieper-Bug estuary was the most labile among other commercial cyprinids. It was found that as a result of an increase in the right wing of the age series, there was a gradual increase of the mean weighted age of its commercial stock. At the beginning of studies (2001-2002, the core of the stock was formed by age-3-6 fish (up ; however in subsequent years, a displacement of dominant groups toward the dominance of age-4-7 fish (more than 80% of the total stock was observed. At the same time, the relative number of age-3 fish (recruits was at a relatively high level – up to 10.6%. The linear growth varied more intensively until the age-5, but it reduced with ageing and did not show high variability. The body weight most variable was in age-4 fish (Cv=9.62%. The noted insignificant deviations in the body weight growth rate of the right wing of the age series was due to stable predominance of females in the stock structure, which were characterized by a variability of the mean weight as a result of different development of gonads. The dynamics of the age-related changes in the condition factor indicated on a

  5. Observations on the distribution and biology of Huffmanela huffmani (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cox, M. K.; Huffman, D. G.; Moravec, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2004), s. 50-54 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Nematoda * Trichosomoididae * Huffmanela Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2004

  6. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically based system that guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by…

  7. Characteristics of vertical velocity in marine stratocumulus: comparison of large eddy simulations with observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Huan; Liu Yangang; Daum, Peter H; Senum, Gunnar I; Tao, W-K

    2008-01-01

    We simulated a marine stratus deck sampled during the Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) with a three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) model at different model resolutions. Various characteristics of the vertical velocity from the model simulations were evaluated against those derived from the corresponding aircraft in situ observations, focusing on standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, probability density function (PDF), power spectrum, and structure function. Our results show that although the LES model captures reasonably well the lower-order moments (e.g., horizontal averages and standard deviations), it fails to simulate many aspects of the higher-order moments, such as kurtosis, especially near cloud base and cloud top. Further investigations of the PDFs, power spectra, and structure functions reveal that compared to the observations, the model generally underestimates relatively strong variations on small scales. The results also suggest that increasing the model resolutions improves the agreements between the model results and the observations in virtually all of the properties that we examined. Furthermore, the results indicate that a vertical grid size <10 m is necessary for accurately simulating even the standard-deviation profile, posing new challenges to computer resources.

  8. Observation of dark pulses in 10 nm thick YBCO nanostrips presenting hysteretic current voltage characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejrnaes, M.; Parlato, L.; Arpaia, R.; Bauch, T.; Lombardi, F.; Cristiano, R.; Tafuri, F.; Pepe, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    We have fabricated several 10 nm thick and 65 nm wide YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) nanostrips. The nanostrips with the highest critical current densities are characterized by hysteretic current voltage characteristics (IVCs) with a direct bistable switch from the zero-voltage to the finite voltage state. The presence of hysteretic IVCs allowed the observation of dark pulses due to fluctuations phenomena. The key role of the bistable behavior is its ability to transform a small disturbance (e.g. an intrinsic fluctuation) into a measurable transient signal, i.e. a dark pulse. On the contrary, in devices characterized by lower critical current density values, the IVCs are non-hysteretic and dark pulses have not been observed. To investigate the physical origin of the dark pulses, we have measured the bias current dependence of the dark pulse rate: the observed exponential increase with the bias current is compatible with mechanisms based on thermal activation of magnetic vortices in the nanostrip. We believe that the successful amplification of small fluctuation events into measurable signals in nanostrips of ultrathin YBCO is a milestone for further investigation of YBCO nanostrips for superconducting nanostrip single photon detectors and other quantum detectors for operation at higher temperatures.

  9. Characteristic responses of biological and nanoscale systems in the terahertz frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeluts, A A; Balakin, A V; Evdokimov, M G; Ozheredov, I A; Sapozhnikov, D A; Solyankin, P M; Shkurinov, A P [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Esaulkov, M N; Nazarov, M M [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Cherkasova, O P [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-31

    This paper briefly examines methods for the generation of pulsed terahertz radiation and principles of pulsed terahertz spectroscopy, an advanced informative method for studies of complex biological and nanostructured systems. Some of its practical applications are described. Using a number of steroid hormones as examples, we demonstrate that terahertz spectroscopy in combination with molecular dynamics methods and computer simulation allows one to gain information about the structure of molecules in crystals. A 'terahertz colour vision' method is proposed for analysis of pulsed terahertz signals reflected from biological tissues and it is shown that this method can be effectively used to analyse the properties of biological tissues and for early skin cancer diagnosis. (laser biophotonics)

  10. Solar ultraviolet radiation: properties, characteristics and amounts observed in Brazil and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial and harmful effects of human exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R) are topics that arouse great interest not only among physicians and scientists, but also the general public and the media. Currently, discussions on vitamin D synthesis (beneficial effect) are confronted with the high and growing number of new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and other diseases of the skin and eyes (harmful effect) diagnosed each year in Brazil. However, the lack of scientific knowledge on the UV-R in Brazil and South America leads to adoption of protective measures based on studies conducted in Europe and USA, where the amounts of UV-R available at surface and the sun-exposure habits and characteristics of the population are significantly different from those observed in Brazil. In order to circumvent this problem, the Brazilian Society of Dermatology recently published the Brazilian Consensus of Photoprotection based on recent studies performed locally. The main goal of this article is to provide detailed educational information on the main properties and characteristics of UV-R and UV index in a simple language. It also provides: a) a summary of UV-R measurements recently performed in Brazil; b) a comparison with those performed in Europe; and, c) an evaluation to further clarify the assessment of potential harm and health effects owing to chronic exposures.

  11. Solar ultraviolet radiation: properties, characteristics and amounts observed in Brazil and South America*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial and harmful effects of human exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R) are topics that arouse great interest not only among physicians and scientists, but also the general public and the media. Currently, discussions on vitamin D synthesis (beneficial effect) are confronted with the high and growing number of new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and other diseases of the skin and eyes (harmful effect) diagnosed each year in Brazil. However, the lack of scientific knowledge on the UV-R in Brazil and South America leads to adoption of protective measures based on studies conducted in Europe and USA, where the amounts of UV-R available at surface and the sun-exposure habits and characteristics of the population are significantly different from those observed in Brazil. In order to circumvent this problem, the Brazilian Society of Dermatology recently published the Brazilian Consensus of Photoprotection based on recent studies performed locally. The main goal of this article is to provide detailed educational information on the main properties and characteristics of UV-R and UV index in a simple language. It also provides: a) a summary of UV-R measurements recently performed in Brazil; b) a comparison with those performed in Europe; and, c) an evaluation to further clarify the assessment of potential harm and health effects owing to chronic exposures. PMID:26131858

  12. Trends and characteristics observed in nuclear events based on international nuclear event scale reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio

    2001-01-01

    The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is jointly operated by the IAEA and the OECD-NEA as a means designed for providing prompt, clear and consistent information related to nuclear events, that occurred at nuclear facilities, and facilitating communication between the nuclear community, the media and the public. Nuclear events are reported to the INES with the Scale', a consistent safety significance indicator, which runs from level 0, for events with no safety significance, to level 7 for a major accident with widespread health and environmental effects. Since the operation of INES was initiated in 1990, approximately 500 events have been reported and disseminated. The present paper discusses the trends observed in nuclear events, such as overall trends of the reported events and characteristics of safety significant events with level 2 or higher, based on the INES reports. (author)

  13. Effects of Intercropping on Biological Yield, Percentage of Nitrogen and Morphological Characteristics of Coriander and Fenugreek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bigonah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intercropping arrangements of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., a field experiment was conducted during growing season of 2010 at Agriculture Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments included: mono-crop of fenugreek (A, %25 of optimum density of coriander + %175 of optimum density of fenugreek (B, %50 of optimum density of coriander + %150 of optimum density of fenugreek (C, %75 of optimum density of coriander + %125 of optimum density of fenugreek (D, %100 of optimum density of coriander + %100 of optimum density of fenugreek (E, mono-crop of coriander (F, %125 of optimum density of coriander + %75 of optimum density of fenugreek (G, %150 of optimum density of coriander + %50 of optimum density of fenugreek (H, %175 of optimum density of coriander + %25 of optimum density of fenugreek (I. Biological yield harvested in coriander at %5 flowering stage and in fenugreek at %20 flowering stage. The result showed that B treatment had highest plant height and biological yield of fenugreek, highest total land equivalent ratio and also B treatment had lowest essential oil contents of leaf, essential oil yield and biological yield of coriander. I treatment had lowest biological yield of fenugreek and it had highest essential oil contents of leaf, essential oil yield and plant height in coriander. Also A and E treatments had highest percent of nitrogen of biomass in fenugreek and coriander, respectively.

  14. [The influence of procaine electrophoresis and mesotherapy on the characteristics of biological age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turova, E A; Konchugova, T V; Balaban, E I; Fadeeva, N I; Golovach, A V; Teniaeva, E A

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the biological age is needed to estimate the level of health and the efficacy of measures being undertaken to slow down the ageing processes and prolong the active life of the patients. Earlier studies have demonstrated the improvement of both physical health and psychic status of the elderly patients following intravenous administration of procaine. The objective of the present work was to evaluate effect of various methods of administration of a 2% procaine solution on the biological age. A total of 95 subjects at the age between 30 and 75 years were enrolled in the study. The procaine solutions were applied to the collar region. The patients of group 1 were treated with 2% procaine electrophoresis, those in group 2 with procaine galvanization with the same parameters. Mesotherapy using the 2% procaine solution was given to the patients of group 3. It was substituted by placebo (0.9% physiological solution) in the patients of group 4 (controls). The study revealed the most significant decrease of the biological age (calculated as described by L. M. Belozerova) in the patients treated with procaine electrophoresis (91% improvement). The mesotherapeutic administration of procaine also produced the beneficial effect (59% improvement). Neither procaine galvanization nor placebo mesotherapy caused any significant change of the variables characterizing the biological age.

  15. Spatio-Temporal Characteristics in the Clearness Index Derived from Global Solar Radiation Observations in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonjin Jung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal characteristics of the clearness index (KT were investigated using daily global solar irradiance measurements (290–2800 nm for the period of 2000–2014 at 21 sites in Korea, a complex region in East Asia with a distinct monsoon season and heavy aerosol loading year-round. The annual mean KT value for all sites is 0.46, with values of 0.63 and 0.25 for clear and overcast skies, respectively. The seasonal variations in monthly average KT show a minimum of 0.37 in July at all sites except for Jeju, where the value was 0.29 in January. The maximum value (KT = 0.51 is observed in October, followed by a secondary peak (KT = 0.49 during February–April. The lowest KT value (KT = 0.42 was observed at both the Seoul and Jeju sites, and the highest (KT = 0.48 in the southeastern regions. Increases in average KT exceeding 4% per decade were observed in the middle and southeastern regions, with the maximum (+8% per decade at the Daegu site. Decreasing trends (<−4% per decade were observed in the southwestern regions, with the maximum (−7% per decade at the Mokpo site. Cloud amount, relative humidity, and aerosol optical depth together explained 57% of the variance in daily mean KT values. The contributions of these three variables to variations in KT are 42%, 9% and 6%, respectively. Thus, the variations in KT in Korea can be primarily attributed to the presence of clouds and water vapor, with relatively weak aerosol effects.

  16. Characteristics of sub-daily precipitation extremes in observed data and regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranová, Romana; Kyselý, Jan; Hanel, Martin

    2018-04-01

    The study compares characteristics of observed sub-daily precipitation extremes in the Czech Republic with those simulated by Hadley Centre Regional Model version 3 (HadRM3) and Rossby Centre Regional Atmospheric Model version 4 (RCA4) regional climate models (RCMs) driven by reanalyses and examines diurnal cycles of hourly precipitation and their dependence on intensity and surface temperature. The observed warm-season (May-September) maxima of short-duration (1, 2 and 3 h) amounts show one diurnal peak in the afternoon, which is simulated reasonably well by RCA4, although the peak occurs too early in the model. HadRM3 provides an unrealistic diurnal cycle with a nighttime peak and an afternoon minimum coinciding with the observed maximum for all three ensemble members, which suggests that convection is not captured realistically. Distorted relationships of the diurnal cycles of hourly precipitation to daily maximum temperature in HadRM3 further evidence that underlying physical mechanisms are misrepresented in this RCM. Goodness-of-fit tests indicate that generalised extreme value distribution is an applicable model for both observed and RCM-simulated precipitation maxima. However, the RCMs are not able to capture the range of the shape parameter estimates of distributions of short-duration precipitation maxima realistically, leading to either too many (nearly all for HadRM3) or too few (RCA4) grid boxes in which the shape parameter corresponds to a heavy tail. This means that the distributions of maxima of sub-daily amounts are distorted in the RCM-simulated data and do not match reality well. Therefore, projected changes of sub-daily precipitation extremes in climate change scenarios based on RCMs not resolving convection need to be interpreted with caution.

  17. Dynamical "in situ" observation of biological samples using variable pressure scanning electron microscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 126, - (2008), 012046:1-4 ISSN 1742-6588. [Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group Conference 2007 (EMAG 2007). Glasgow, 03.09.2007-07.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0886; GA AV ČR KJB200650602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : biological sample * VP-SEM * dynamical experiments Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  18. Characteristics of electrostatic solitary waves observed in the plasma sheet boundary: Statistical analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kojima

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the characteristics of the Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESW observed by the Geotail spacecraft in the plasma sheet boundary layer based on the statistical analyses. We also discuss the results referring to a model of ESW generation due to electron beams, which is proposed by computer simulations. In this generation model, the nonlinear evolution of Langmuir waves excited by electron bump-on-tail instabilities leads to formation of isolated electrostatic potential structures corresponding to "electron hole" in the phase space. The statistical analyses of the Geotail data, which we conducted under the assumption that polarity of ESW potentials is positive, show that most of ESW propagate in the same direction of electron beams, which are observed by the plasma instrument, simultaneously. Further, we also find that the ESW potential energy is much smaller than the background electron thermal energy and that the ESW potential widths are typically shorter than 60 times of local electron Debye length when we assume that the ESW potentials travel in the same velocity of electron beams. These results are very consistent with the ESW generation model that the nonlinear evolution of electron bump-on-tail instability leads to the formation of electron holes in the phase space.

  19. Observations on the Prevalence, Characteristics, and Effects of Self-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangge eMa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: When facing illness, a person may choose self-treatment as an alternative to hospital (and primary care-based treatment. Despite its important role in healthcare, the study on self-treatment remains limited. The goal is to collectively report the observations in the literature on the prevalence, characteristics, and effects of self-treatment.Methods: Extensive literature search was conducted, and relevant information was extracted.Results: Published studies have reported that in some regions, the prevalence of self-treatment is high and varies across illness conditions and treatment approaches. Self-medication is the most popular self-treatment approach. Multiple regional, demographic, personal, cultural and religious factors have been implicated in the pursuit of self-treatment. In addition, accessibility of healthcare also plays a role. Self-treatment in general has a positive clinical and financial effect. However there have been concerns on abuse and possible negative effects. Conclusions: This article reviews observations made in recent studies on several important aspects of self-treatment. Comprehensive and systematic study is still lacking. Interventions are needed to solve several problems associated with self-treatment.

  20. Visual Observation of Bubble Departure Characteristics in the Nano-particle Coated Heating Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Won Soek; Yoo, Shin; Lee, Jae Young

    2010-01-01

    Although the great enhancement of the thermal conductivity of the nanofluids, the fluid mixed with small amount of the nano meter sized particles, has been known, many experimental data of the boiling heat transfer reported degraded heat transfer rate than the fresh fluid. However, the great enhancement of the critical heat flux in nanofluids has been reported by many investigators. Due to the opaque scattering of the nano particles in nano fluids, direct observation of the bubble dynamics in the boiling process has not been made. However, it has been known that the boiling heat transfer characteristics of the heater coated by the nano particles in the fresh water are almost similar to that in the nano fluid. Recently, consensus has been made in the understanding of the CHF enhancement of nanofluids or nano-particle coated heater as the surface phenomena. Therefore, in the present paper, we do experimental study to observe the bubble departure in the pool boiling process with the nano-particle coated heater

  1. Precipitation characteristics in tropical Africa using satellite and in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, A. K.; Ichoku, I.; Huffman, G. J.; Mohr, K. I.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical Africa receives nearly all its precipitation as a result of convection. The characteristics of rain-producing systems in this region have not been well-understood, despite their crucial role in regional and global circulation. This is mainly due to the lack of in situ observations. Here, we have used precipitation records from the Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (TAHMO) ground-based gauge network to improve our knowledge about the rainfall systems in the region, and to validate the recently-released IMERG precipitation product based on satellite observations from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation. The high temporal resolution of the gauge data has allowed us to identify three classes of rain events based on their duration and intensity. The contribution of each class to the total rainfall and the favorable surface atmospheric conditions for each class have been examined. As IMERG aims to continue the legacy of its predecessor, TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), and provide higher resolution data, continent-wide comparisons are made between these two products. Due to its improved temporal resolution, IMERG shows some advantages over TMPA in capturing the diurnal cycle and propagation of the meso-scale convective systems. However, the performance of the two satellite-based products varies by season, region and the evaluation statistics. The results of this study serve as a basis for our ongoing work on the impacts of biomass burning on precipitation processes in Africa.

  2. Patient Characteristics, Health Care Resource Utilization, and Costs Associated with Treatment-Regimen Failure with Biologics in the Treatment of Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Shonda A; Zhu, Baojin; Guo, Jiaying; Nikai, Enkeleida; Ojeh, Clement; Malatestinic, William; Goldblum, Orin; Kornberg, Lori J; Wu, Jashin J

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, incurable, and immune-mediated skin disorder that is characterized by erythematous scaly papules and plaques. Understanding of psoriasis at the molecular level has led to the development of biologic agents that target disease-specific inflammatory mediators in psoriatic lesions. Biologic agents have become important components of the psoriasis armamentarium, but some patients become refractory to these agents over time or fail to respond to subsequent biologics. To (a) evaluate demographic and clinical characteristics of psoriasis patients who have treatment patterns suggestive of failure to a newly initiated biologic agent (treatment-regimen failures) compared with those who do not (non-treatment-regimen failures) and (b) to assess health care-related resource utilization and costs in non-treatment-regimen failures and treatment-regimen failures. In this retrospective observational cohort study, patients were selected from the MarketScan claims database of commercially insured individuals and individuals with Medicare supplemental insurance. The index event was a newly initiated biologic agent for the treatment of psoriasis (etanercept, adalimumab, ustekinumab, or infliximab) between January 2010 and December 2011. The analysis included psoriasis patients aged ≥ 18 years with ≥ 1 prescription claim for a biologic and continuous enrollment 12 months pre- and post-index date. Patients with claims for a biologic in the pre-index period were excluded. Patients were divided into treatment-regimen-failure and non-treatment-regimen-failure groups based on their treatment patterns post-index date. The treatment-regimen-failure group included patients who switched to another biologic, discontinued the biologic without restarting, increased the dose of the biologic, or augmented treatment with a nontopical psoriasis medication during the post-index period. Between-group patient characteristics and medication use were compared using analysis of

  3. Characteristics of Planetary Candidates Observed by Kepler. II. Analysis of the First Four Months of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy M.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Cochran, William D.; DeVore, Edna; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N., III; Geary, John C.; Gilliland, Ronald; Gould, Alan; Howell, Steve B.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Rowe, Jason; Sasselov, Dimitar; Boss, Alan; Charbonneau, David; Ciardi, David; Doyle, Laurance; Dupree, Andrea K.; Ford, Eric B.; Fortney, Jonathan; Holman, Matthew J.; Seager, Sara; Steffen, Jason H.; Tarter, Jill; Welsh, William F.; Allen, Christopher; Buchhave, Lars A.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Das, Santanu; Désert, Jean-Michel; Endl, Michael; Fabrycky, Daniel; Fressin, Francois; Haas, Michael; Horch, Elliott; Howard, Andrew; Isaacson, Howard; Kjeldsen, Hans; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Kulesa, Craig; Li, Jie; Lucas, Philip W.; Machalek, Pavel; McCarthy, Donald; MacQueen, Phillip; Meibom, Søren; Miquel, Thibaut; Prsa, Andrej; Quinn, Samuel N.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Ragozzine, Darin; Sherry, William; Shporer, Avi; Tenenbaum, Peter; Torres, Guillermo; Twicken, Joseph D.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Walkowicz, Lucianne; Witteborn, Fred C.; Still, Martin

    2011-07-01

    On 2011 February 1 the Kepler mission released data for 156,453 stars observed from the beginning of the science observations on 2009 May 2 through September 16. There are 1235 planetary candidates with transit-like signatures detected in this period. These are associated with 997 host stars. Distributions of the characteristics of the planetary candidates are separated into five class sizes: 68 candidates of approximately Earth-size (R p R ⊕), 288 super-Earth-size (1.25 R ⊕ R p R ⊕), 662 Neptune-size (2 R ⊕ R p R ⊕), 165 Jupiter-size (6 R ⊕ R p R ⊕), and 19 up to twice the size of Jupiter (15 R ⊕ R p R ⊕). In the temperature range appropriate for the habitable zone, 54 candidates are found with sizes ranging from Earth-size to larger than that of Jupiter. Six are less than twice the size of the Earth. Over 74% of the planetary candidates are smaller than Neptune. The observed number versus size distribution of planetary candidates increases to a peak at two to three times the Earth-size and then declines inversely proportional to the area of the candidate. Our current best estimates of the intrinsic frequencies of planetary candidates, after correcting for geometric and sensitivity biases, are 5% for Earth-size candidates, 8% for super-Earth-size candidates, 18% for Neptune-size candidates, 2% for Jupiter-size candidates, and 0.1% for very large candidates; a total of 0.34 candidates per star. Multi-candidate, transiting systems are frequent; 17% of the host stars have multi-candidate systems, and 34% of all the candidates are part of multi-candidate systems.

  4. CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANETARY CANDIDATES OBSERVED BY KEPLER. II. ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST FOUR MONTHS OF DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Basri, Gibor; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas; DeVore, Edna; Jenkins, Jon M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Cochran, William D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Geary, John C.; Latham, David W.; Gilliland, Ronald; Gould, Alan; Howell, Steve B.

    2011-01-01

    On 2011 February 1 the Kepler mission released data for 156,453 stars observed from the beginning of the science observations on 2009 May 2 through September 16. There are 1235 planetary candidates with transit-like signatures detected in this period. These are associated with 997 host stars. Distributions of the characteristics of the planetary candidates are separated into five class sizes: 68 candidates of approximately Earth-size (R p + ), 288 super-Earth-size (1.25 R + ≤ R p + ), 662 Neptune-size (2 R + ≤ R p + ), 165 Jupiter-size (6 R + ≤ R p + ), and 19 up to twice the size of Jupiter (15 R + ≤ R p + ). In the temperature range appropriate for the habitable zone, 54 candidates are found with sizes ranging from Earth-size to larger than that of Jupiter. Six are less than twice the size of the Earth. Over 74% of the planetary candidates are smaller than Neptune. The observed number versus size distribution of planetary candidates increases to a peak at two to three times the Earth-size and then declines inversely proportional to the area of the candidate. Our current best estimates of the intrinsic frequencies of planetary candidates, after correcting for geometric and sensitivity biases, are 5% for Earth-size candidates, 8% for super-Earth-size candidates, 18% for Neptune-size candidates, 2% for Jupiter-size candidates, and 0.1% for very large candidates; a total of 0.34 candidates per star. Multi-candidate, transiting systems are frequent; 17% of the host stars have multi-candidate systems, and 34% of all the candidates are part of multi-candidate systems.

  5. Laser Plasma Soft X-ray Microscope with Wolter Mirrors for Observation of Biological Specimens in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Masato; Aoki, Sadao

    2006-02-01

    A laser plasma soft X-ray microscope with Wolter mirrors was developed so that specimens could be set in the atmosphere. Silicon nitride membranes 100 nm thick were used as vacuum-tight windows. Using relatively large windows (0.46× 0.46 mm2), an adequate working distance for samples, which was approximately 1.2 mm, was assured. The endurance of the vacuum-tight window was measured briefly. Dry biological cells could be observed with resolution better than 100 nm. A preliminary observation of wet biological cells was carried out using a wet environmental sample holder which was composed of only two sheets of silicon nitride membrane. An X-ray micrograph of wet red blood cells from a chicken was obtained without apparent effects of radiation damage. The properties of a vacuum-tight window and a wet sample holder are discussed.

  6. Laser plasma soft x-ray microscope with Wolter mirrors for observation of biological specimens in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Masato; Aoki, Sadao

    2006-01-01

    A laser plasma soft X-ray microscope with Wolter mirrors was developed so that specimens could be set in the atmosphere. Silicon nitride membranes 100 nm thick were used as vacuum-tight windows. Using relatively large windows (0.46 x 0.46 mm 2 ), an adequate working distance for samples, which was approximately 1.2 mm, was assured. The endrance of the vacuum-tight window was measured briefly. Dry biological cells could be observed with resolution better than 100 nm. A preliminary observation of wet biological cells was carried out using a wet environmental sample holder which was composed of only two sheets of silicon nitride membrane. An X-ray micrograph of wet red blood cells from a chicken was obtained without apparent effects of radiation damage. The properties of a vacuum-tight window and a wet sample holder are discussed. (author)

  7. Biological collections and ecological/environmental research: a review, some observations and a look to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Graham H; Ehrlich, Paul R

    2010-05-01

    collections have, for example, been particularly useful as sources of information regarding variation in attributes of individuals (e.g. morphology, chemical composition) in relation to environmental variables, and provided important information in relation to species' distributions, but less useful in the contexts of habitat associations and population sizes. Changes to policies, strategies and procedures associated with biological collections could mitigate these biases and limitations, and hence make such collections more useful in the context of ecological/environmental issues. Haphazard and opportunistic collecting could be replaced with strategies for adding to existing collections that prioritize projects that use biological collections and include, besides taxonomy and systematics, a focus on significant environmental/ecological issues. Other potential changes include increased recording of the nature and extent of collecting effort and information associated with each specimen such as nearby habitat and other individuals observed but not collected. Such changes have begun to occur within some institutions. Institutions that house biological collections should, we think, pursue a mission of 'understanding the life of the planet to inform its stewardship' (Krishtalka & Humphrey, 2000), as such a mission would facilitate increased use of biological collections in an ecological/environmental context and hence lead to increased appreciation, encouragement and support from the public for these collections, their associated research, and the institutions that house them.

  8. Clinical characteristics of pneumonia in bedridden patients receiving home care: a 3-year prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tadashi; Tachibana, Hiromasa; Ito, Akihiro; Ikeda, Satoshi; Furuta, Kenjiro; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Noyama, Maki; Tokioka, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Arita, Machiko

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, antimicrobial treatment, and outcomes of bedridden pneumonia patients receiving home healthcare. A 3-year prospective observational study of poor performance status (PS) 3-4 patients receiving long-term home healthcare and hospitalized at a single center with pneumonia between October 2010 and September 2013 was conducted, and their clinical characteristics were compared with non-bedridden community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. A total of 131 CAP patients with PS 3-4, and 400 CAP patients with PS 0-2 were evaluated. The PS 3-4 patients were older, and exhibited a higher frequency of underlying diseases. Aspiration was thought to be associated with pneumonia in 77.1% of the PS 3-4 patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the leading pathogen in both groups, whereas the frequency of streptococci and polymicrobial infections was higher in the PS 3-4 group. The incidence of multidrug-resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was lower than in previous healthcare-associated pneumonia reports. The in-hospital mortality and recurrence rates were significantly higher in the PS 3-4 group than in the good PS group (17.6% vs. 6.0%, p < 0.001 and 15.3% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.008, respectively). The clinical characteristics of pneumonia in poor PS patients were similar to healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), except for the frequency of drug-resistant pathogens. Hence, it might be beneficial to categorize pneumonia in home residents with poor PS separately from pneumonia in CAP patients who were previously healthy or experienced mild comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Observer and biological variation of a rapid whole blood D-dimer test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, F.; van Beek, E. J.; Büller, H. R.

    1998-01-01

    In consecutive patients with suspected venous thromboembolism the interobserver variability of the SimpliRED D-dimer test was evaluated by two observers who independently scored one plate, the between assay variation was performed simultaneously by a third independent observer, who assessed a second

  10. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been shaped by habitat

  11. A study on the characteristics of retrospective optimal interpolation using an Observing System Simulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Woo; Noh, Nam-Kyu; Lim, Gyu-Ho

    2013-04-01

    This study presents the introduction of retrospective optimal interpolation (ROI) and its application with Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). Song et al. (2009) suggested ROI method which is an optimal interpolation (OI) that gradually assimilates observations over the analysis window for variance-minimum estimate of an atmospheric state at the initial time of the analysis window. The assimilation window of ROI algorithm is gradually increased, similar with that of the quasi-static variational assimilation (QSVA; Pires et al., 1996). Unlike QSVA method, however, ROI method assimilates the data at post analysis time using perturbation method (Verlaan and Heemink, 1997) without adjoint model. Song and Lim (2011) improved this method by incorporating eigen-decomposition and covariance inflation. The computational costs for ROI can be reduced due to the eigen-decomposition of background error covariance which can concentrate ROI analyses on the error variances of governing eigenmodes by transforming the control variables into eigenspace. A total energy norm is used for the normalization of each control variables. In this study, ROI method is applied to WRF model with Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to validate the algorithm and to investigate the capability. Horizontal wind, pressure, potential temperature, and water vapor mixing ratio are used for control variables and observations. Firstly, 1-profile assimilation experiment is performed. Subsequently, OSSE's are performed using the virtual observing system which consists of synop, ship, and sonde data. The difference between forecast errors with assimilation and without assimilation is obviously increased as time passed, which means the improvement of forecast error with the assimilation by ROI. The characteristics and strength/weakness of ROI method are also investigated by conducting the experiments with 3D-Var (3-dimensional variational) method and 4D-Var (4-dimensional variational) method

  12. Assessing therapeutic relevance of biologically interesting, ampholytic substances based on their physicochemical and spectral characteristics with chemometric tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judycka, U.; Jagiello, K.; Bober, L.; Błażejowski, J.; Puzyn, T.

    2018-06-01

    Chemometric tools were applied to investigate the biological behaviour of ampholytic substances in relation to their physicochemical and spectral properties. Results of the Principal Component Analysis suggest that size of molecules and their electronic and spectral characteristics are the key properties required to predict therapeutic relevance of the compounds examined. These properties were used for developing the structure-activity classification model. The classification model allows assessing the therapeutic behaviour of ampholytic substances on the basis of solely values of descriptors that can be obtained computationally. Thus, the prediction is possible without necessity of carrying out time-consuming and expensive laboratory tests, which is its main advantage.

  13. The effects of urbanization on the biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of coastal New England streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James F.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; McMahon, Gerard; Beaulieu, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    During August 2000, responses of biological communities (invertebrates, fish, and algae), physical habitat, and water chemistry to urban intensity were compared among 30 streams within 80 miles of Boston, Massachusetts. Sites chosen for sampling represented a gradient of the intensity of urban development (urban intensity) among drainage basins that had minimal natural variability. In this study, spatial differences were used as surrogates for temporal changes to represent the effects of urbanization over time. The degree of urban intensity for each drainage basin was characterized with a standardized urban index (0-100, lowest to highest) derived from land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables. Multivariate and multimetric analyses were used to compare urban index values with biological, physical, and chemical data to determine how the data indicated responses to urbanization. Multivariate ordinations were derived for the invertebrate-, fish-, and algae-community data by use of correspondence analysis, and ordinations were derived for the chemical and physical data by use of principal-component analysis. Site scores from each of the ordinations were plotted in relation to the urban index to test for a response. In all cases, the primary axis scores showed the strongest response to the urban index, indicating that urbanization was a primary factor affecting the data ordination. For the multimetric analyses, each of the biological data sets was used to calculate a series of community metrics. For the sets of chemical and physical data, the individual variables and various combinations of individual variables were used as measured and derived metrics, respectively. Metrics that were generally most responsive to the urban index for each data set included: EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera) taxa for invertebrates; cyprinid taxa for fish; diatom taxa for algae; bicarbonate, conductivity, and nitrogen for chemistry; and water depth and temperature

  14. Characteristics of long-lasting haze episodes observed in Seoul, South Korea, for 2009-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Jung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Cha, Joo Wan; Song, Seungjoo; Ryoo, Sang-Boom; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2018-03-01

    The meteorological, physical, chemical, and optical characteristics of long-lasting haze in Seoul were studied. Four episodes were observed between 2009 and 2014, all in winter. PM10 mass concentration (PM10), chemical species, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were analyzed along with the synoptic meteorological conditions. During the episodes, the temporal variations of the PM10 generally proceeded from the west along the Yellow Sea. The ground-based AOD was also high in Seoul and other sites. High AOD (MODIS) distributions were observed to move from China to Korea. The high sulfate concentration, along with the high sulfur oxidation ratio value of the third and fourth episodes (Eps. 3 and 4), respectively, corroborated the possible long-range transport of air pollutants. Stagnant meteorological conditions were a reason for the occurrence of long-lasting hazes. An anticyclone system had a dominant influence on the Korean peninsula during all episodes. The air mass over China was able to rise, and that over Korea was more stagnant in terms of climatology except Ep. 2. In addition to transport from outside, locally emitted air pollutants contributed to the PM10 partly due to the stagnant conditions, during which diurnal variations in NO2 and nitrates showed similar peak times during Eps. 3 and 4. Analysis of the episodes consistently showed that the long-lasting haze episodes were influenced by both the long-range transport of air pollutants from outside Seoul, mostly from China, and the accumulation of air pollutants that were locally emitted and transformed.

  15. Observed and simulated sea breeze characteristics over Rayong coastal area, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung Thanh; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the detailed characterization of sea breeze (SB) over the Rayong coastal area, one of the most rapidly developed and highly industrialized areas during the last decade in Thailand, using observation data analysis and fine-resolution (2 km) mesoscale meteorological modeling with incorporation of new land cover and satellite-derived vegetation fraction data sets. The key characteristics considered include frequency of SB occurrence, sea-breeze day (SBD) identification, degree of inland penetration, and boundary layer development. It was found that SBs occur frequently in the winter due mainly to relatively large land-sea temperature contrasts and minimally in the wet season. Monthly mean SB onset and cessation times are at around 12-15 local time (LT) and 18-21 LT, respectively, and its strength peaks during the early- to mid-afternoon. Monthly SB hodographs generally exhibit clockwise rotations, and SB inland penetration (at PCD-T tower) ranges widely with the monthly means of 25-55 km from the coast. Mesoscale MM5 modeling was performed on two selected SBDs (13 January and 16 March 2006), on which the SBs are under weak and onshore strong influences from background winds, respectively. Simulated near-surface winds and temperature were found to be in fair-to-acceptable agreement with the observations. The SB circulation along the Rayong coast is clearly defined with a return flow aloft and a front on 13 January, while it is enhanced by the onshore background winds on 16 March. Another SB along the Chonburi coast also develops separately, but their fronts merge into one in the mid-afternoon, resulting in large area coverage by the SB. Simulated planetary boundary layer height over the land area is significantly affected by a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) induced by an SB, which is found to be low near the coast and increases toward the front (up to 800-1,000 m along the Rayong coast).

  16. Time variations in the mechanical characteristics of local crustal segments according to seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocharyan, G. G.; Gamburtseva, N. G.; Sanina, I. A.; Danilova, T. V.; Nesterkina, M. A.; Gorbunova, E. M.; Ivanchenko, G. N.

    2011-04-01

    The results of the seismic observations made with two different experimental setups are presented. In the first case, the signals produced by underground nuclear explosions at the Semipalatinsk Test Site were measured on a linear profile, which allowed one to definitely outline the areas where the mechanical properties of rocks experienced considerable time variations. In the second case, the waves excited by the open-pit mine blasts recorded at a small-aperture seismic array at the Mikhnevo Geophysical Station (Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences) on the East European Platform favored the estimation of variations in the integral characteristics of the seismic path. Measurements in aseismic regions characterized by diverse geological structure and different tectonic conditions revealed similar effects of the strong dependency of seismic parameters on the time of explosions. Here, the variations experienced by the maximum amplitudes of oscillations and irrelevant to seasonal changes or local conditions reached a factor of two. The generic periods of these variations including the distinct annual rhythm are probably the fragments of a lower-frequency process. The obtained results suggest that these variations are due to changes in the stressstrain state of active fault zones, which, in turn, can be associated with the macroscale motion of large blocks triggered by tidal strains, tectonic forces and, possibly, variations in the rate of the Earth's rotation.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Insulator Contaminations Revealed by Daily Observations of Equivalent Salt Deposit Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ruan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate estimation of deposits adhering on insulators is of great significance to prevent pollution flashovers which cause huge costs worldwide. Researchers have developed sensors using different technologies to monitor insulator contamination on a fine time scale. However, there is lack of analysis of these data to reveal spatial and temporal characteristics of insulator contamination, and as a result the scheduling of periodical maintenance of power facilities is highly dependent on personal experience. Owing to the deployment of novel sensors, daily Equivalent Salt Deposit Density (ESDD observations of over two years were collected and analyzed for the first time. Results from 16 sites distributed in four regions of Hubei demonstrated that spatial heterogeneity can be seen at both the fine and coarse geographical scales, suggesting that current polluted area maps are necessary but are not sufficient conditions to guide the maintenance of power facilities. Both the local emission and the regional air pollution condition exert evident influences on deposit accumulation. A relationship between ESDD and PM10 was revealed by using regression analysis, proving that air pollution exerts influence on pollution accumulations on insulators. Moreover, the seasonality of ESDD was discovered for the first time by means of time series analysis, which could help engineers select appropriate times to clean the contamination. Besides, the trend component shows that the ESDD increases in a negative exponential fashion with the accumulation date (ESDD = a − b × exp(−time at a long time scale in real environments.

  18. Precipitation Characteristics in Tropical Africa Using Satellite and In-Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Amin; Ichoku, Charles; Huffman, George; Mohr, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Tropical Africa receives nearly all its precipitation as a result of convection. The characteristics of rain-producing systems in this region, despite their crucial role in regional and global circulation, have not been well-understood. This is mainly due to the lack of in situ observations. Here, we have used precipitation records from the Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (TAHMO) to improve our knowledge about the rainfall systems in the region, and to validate the recently-released IMERG precipitation product. The high temporal resolution of the gauge data has allowed us to identify three classes of rain events based on their duration and intensity. The contribution of each class to the total rainfall and the favorable surface atmospheric conditions for each class have been examined. As IMERG aims to continue the legacy of its predecessor, TMPA, and provide higher resolution data, continent-wide comparisons are made between these two products. IMERG, due to its improved temporal resolution, shows some advantages over TMPA in capturing the diurnal cycle and propagation of the meso-scale convective systems. However, the performance of the two satellite-based products varies by season, region and the evaluation statistics. The results of this study serve as a basis for our ongoing work on the impacts of biomass burning on precipitation processes in Africa.

  19. Evolution of physical and biological characteristics of mesoscale eddy in north-central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zarokanellos, Nikolaos; Jones, Burton

    2015-01-01

    -central Red Sea (NCRS) where anticyclonic eddies have been observed. The study began with a ship-based characterization of the eddy and was followed by a three-month observational time series using an autonomous glider equipped with a CTD, oxygen sensor

  20. Strontium incorporation to optimize the antibacterial and biological characteristics of silver-substituted hydroxyapatite coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Zhen; Cui, Zhenduo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Zhaoyang, E-mail: zyli@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhu, Shengli [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liang, Yanqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Yunde; Li, Xue; He, Xin; Yu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Renfeng [School of Laboratory Medicine, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yang, Xianjin, E-mail: xjyang@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Infection in primary total joint prostheses is attracting considerable attention. In this study, silver (Ag) was incorporated into hydroxyapatite (HA) using a hydrothermal method in order to improve its antimicrobial properties. Strontium (Sr) was added as a second binary element to improve the biocompatibility. The substituted HA samples were fixed on titanium (Ti) substrates by dopamine-assisted immobilization in order to evaluate their antibacterial and biological properties. The results showed that Ag and Sr were successfully incorporated into HA without affecting their crystallinity. Further, the antibacterial tests showed that all the Ag-substituted samples had good anti-bacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Despite their good antibacterial ability, the Ag-substituted samples showed evidence of cytotoxicity on MG63 cells, characterized by low cell density and poor spreadability. The addition of Sr to the Ag-substituted samples considerably reduced the cytotoxicity of Ag. Although the viability of the cells grown on the surfaces of co-substituted HA was not as high as that of the cells grown on the HA surfaces, it is believed that excellent antibacterial properties and good biological activity can be achieved by balancing the dosage of Sr and Ag. - Highlights: • Ag- and Sr-substituted HA was prepared by hydrothermal method. • Ag- and Sr-substituted HA coating was deposited on dopamine functionalized titanium. • Ag-substituted HA biofilm showed a remarkable antibacterial activity. • Sr could offset the side effects of Ag.

  1. Characteristics of microbial community functional structure of a biological coking wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Hong; Gao, Yingxin; Yang, Min

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds are key pollutants in coking wastewater; however, the functional potential of microbial communities for biodegradation of such contaminants during biological treatment is still elusive. Herein, a high throughput functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) in combination with Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing was used to compare and characterize the microbial community functional structure in a long run (500days) bench scale bioreactor treating coking wastewater, with a control system treating synthetic wastewater. Despite the inhibitory toxic pollutants, GeoChip 5.0 detected almost all key functional gene (average 61,940 genes) categories in the coking wastewater sludge. With higher abundance, aromatic ring cleavage dioxygenase genes including multi ring1,2diox; one ring2,3diox; catechol represented significant functional potential for degradation of aromatic pollutants which was further confirmed by Illumina HiSeq2500 analysis results. Response ratio analysis revealed that three nitrogenous compound degrading genes- nbzA (nitro-aromatics), tdnB (aniline), and scnABC (thiocyanate) were unique for coking wastewater treatment, which might be strong cause to increase ammonia level during the aerobic process. Additionally, HiSeq2500 elucidated carbozole and isoquinoline degradation genes in the system. These findings expanded our understanding on functional potential of microbial communities to remove organic nitrogenous pollutants; hence it will be useful in optimization strategies for biological treatment of coking wastewater. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Further explorations of the facing bias in biological motion perception: perspective cues, observer sex, and response times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Schouten

    Full Text Available The human visual system has evolved to be highly sensitive to visual information about other persons and their movements as is illustrated by the effortless perception of point-light figures or 'biological motion'. When presented orthographically, a point-light walker is interpreted in two anatomically plausible ways: As 'facing the viewer' or as 'facing away' from the viewer. However, human observers show a 'facing bias': They perceive such a point-light walker as facing towards them in about 70-80% of the cases. In studies exploring the role of social and biological relevance as a possible account for the facing bias, we found a 'figure gender effect': Male point-light figures elicit a stronger facing bias than female point-light figures. Moreover, we also found an 'observer gender effect': The 'figure gender effect' was stronger for male than for female observers. In the present study we presented to 11 males and 11 females point-light walkers of which, very subtly, the perspective information was manipulated by modifying the earlier reported 'perspective technique'. Proportions of 'facing the viewer' responses and reaction times were recorded. Results show that human observers, even in the absence of local shape or size cues, easily pick up on perspective cues, confirming recent demonstrations of high visual sensitivity to cues on whether another person is potentially approaching. We also found a consistent difference in how male and female observers respond to stimulus variations (figure gender or perspective cues that cause variations in the perceived in-depth orientation of a point-light walker. Thus, the 'figure gender effect' is possibly caused by changes in the relative locations and motions of the dots that the perceptual system tends to interpret as perspective cues. Third, reaction time measures confirmed the existence of the facing bias and recent research showing faster detection of approaching than receding biological motion.

  3. Biological characteristics that influence the SEUROP system classification for Czech fleckvieh and Holstein bull carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Filipčík

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyse the influence of certain characteristics (aptitude, age, carcass weight, net daily gain, feeding on the final carcass classification in the SEUROP system. 703 Czech Fleckvieh bulls and 642 Holstein bulls were studied. The animals were slaughtered and evaluated at a designated beef processing company. Combine aptitude carcasses shown significant differences between characteristics. Remarkable differences of group averages (P>0, 01 were established between farms and they were due to various rearing conditions. Also the levels of net daily gain between aptitudes were proved significantly. Holstein breed showed significant difference among The net daily gain < 500 g.day–1 and levels 551–600; 601–650 and above 651 g.day–1. The SEUROP system is influenced the most by the feeding regime, which is described by a net daily gain in this work, and farm impact.

  4. On the observational characteristics of lithium-enhanced giant stars in comparison with normal red giants†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Tajitsu, Akito

    2017-08-01

    While lithium is generally deficient in the atmosphere of evolved giant stars because of the efficient mixing-induced dilution, a small fraction of red giants show unusually strong Li lines indicative of conspicuous abundance excess. With the aim of shedding light on the origin of these peculiar stars, we carried out a spectroscopic study on the observational characteristics of 20 selected bright giants already known to be Li-rich from past studies, in comparison with the reference sample of a large number of normal late G-early K giants. Special attention was paid to clarifying any difference between the two samples from a comprehensive point of view (i.e., with respect to stellar parameters, rotation, activity, kinematic properties, 6Li/7Li ratio, and the abundances of Li, Be, C, O, Na, S, and Zn). Our sample stars are roughly divided into a “bump/clump group” and a “luminous group” according to their positions on the HR diagram. Regarding the former group [1.5 ≲ log (L/L⊙) ≲ 2 and M ∼ 1.5-3 M⊙], Li-enriched giants and normal giants appear practically similar in almost all respects except for Li, suggesting that surface Li enhancement in this group may be a transient episode which normal giants undergo at certain evolutionary stages in their lifetime. Meanwhile, those Li-rich giants belonging to the latter group [log (L/L⊙) ∼ 3 and M ∼ 3-5 M⊙] appear more anomalous in the sense that they tend to show higher rotation as well as higher activity, and that their elemental abundances (especially those derived from high-excitation lines) are apt to show apparent overabundances, though this might be due to a spurious effect reflecting the difficulty of abundance derivation in stars of higher rotation and activity. Our analysis confirmed considerable Be deficiency as well as absence of 6Li as the general characteristics of Li-rich giants under study, which implies that engulfment of planets is rather unlikely for the origin of Li-enrichment.

  5. Orographic precipitation and vertical velocity characteristics from drop size and fall velocity spectra observed by disdrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-In; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Kim, Ji-Hyeon; Kang, Yunhee; Kim, Hyeonjoon

    2017-04-01

    larger than the downward w percentages. At the leeward side, the downward w percentages were larger than the upward at D4. Importantly, this suggests that rainfall with R >10 mm hr-1 at the leeward side was more associated by negative w-components of winds. Therefore, we confirmed the possibility of w (up/down draft) estimation by DSD observation using disdrometers and quantitative contribution of w in orographic precipitation, roughly. In addition, the rainrates (R) of precipitation, radar reflectivities (Z) and vertical velocities (w) characteristics are related to the size and fall velocity spectra distributions by disdrometer. The vertical velocities contributed to the orographic precipitation development and dissipation and they clearly showed different values between windward side and leeward side with R variation. Acknowledgement This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Industry Promotion Agency under Grants KMIPA 2015-5060 and KMIPA 2015-1050.

  6. Networks In Real Space: Characteristics and Analysis for Biology and Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modes, Carl; Magnasco, Marcelo; Katifori, Eleni

    Functional networks embedded in physical space play a crucial role in countless biological and physical systems, from the efficient dissemination of oxygen, blood sugars, and hormonal signals in vascular systems to the complex relaying of informational signals in the brain to the distribution of stress and strain in architecture or static sand piles. Unlike their more-studied abstract cousins, such as the hyperlinked internet, social networks, or economic and financial connections, these networks are both constrained by and intimately connected to the physicality of their real, embedding space. We report on the results of new computational and analytic approaches tailored to these physical networks with particular implications and insights for mammalian organ vasculature.

  7. Toxins as biological weapons for terror-characteristics, challenges and medical countermeasures: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Tamar; Eisenkraft, Arik; Bar-Haim, Erez; Kassirer, Michael; Aran, Adi Avniel; Fogel, Itay

    2016-01-01

    Toxins are hazardous biochemical compounds derived from bacteria, fungi, or plants. Some have mechanisms of action and physical properties that make them amenable for use as potential warfare agents. Currently, some toxins are classified as potential biological weapons, although they have several differences from classic living bio-terror pathogens and some similarities to manmade chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on category A and B bio-terror toxins recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Botulinum neurotoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, and ricin. Their derivation, pathogenesis, mechanism of action, associated clinical signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment are discussed in detail. Given their expected covert use, the primary diagnostic challenge in toxin exposure is the early detection of morbidity clusters, apart from background morbidity, after a relatively short incubation period. For this reason, it is important that clinicians be familiar with the clinical manifestations of toxins and the appropriate methods of management and countermeasures.

  8. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L.; Lakshmikanthan, P.; Santhosh, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m 3 to 10.3 kN/m 3 at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43

  9. ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AMUR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO HAEMATOPTERUS REPRODUCED USING CRYOPRESERVED SPERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolisnyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To reproduce Amur carp population using cryopreserved sperm and analyze some biological and fish culture peculiarities of the reproduced fish stock. Methodology. Generally accepted methods for fish culture [1]. Experimental reproduction was carried out in pond conditions of «Carpathian vodogray» LTD (Lisnevychi village, Pustomytivsky district, Lviv region. Hydrochemical analysis was carried out classically by O. Alуokin (1970 [2], hydrobiological studies in the fatting ponds according to V. Zhadin (1956, 1960 [3, 4]. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by hemocyanin method of G. Dervis, A. Vorobiov [5]. Blood for this method was collected from fish heart with the use of Pasteur pipettes in Eppendorf tubes with heparin. Following exterior morphometric parameters were analysed: body weight (m, g, standard fish body length (l, cm, largest body height (H, cm and body circumference (O cm. Following exterior indices were calculated based on these parameters: body depth index (l/H, body circumference index (l/O and Fulton’s condition factor (Kv. The study was carried out using two groups of carp: control and experimental. The first group was reproduced from the native sperm, the second from the cryopreserved sperm. Findings. Carp reproduction and growing was carried out using native and cryopreserved sperm. This work contains the results of growing 1+ Amur carp of experimental and control groups. Hydrochemical and hydrobiological parameters of the fattening ponds were studied. Peculiarities of the exterior and some hematological parameters of the carp of different origin were characterized. Originality. For the first time we performed a comparison of some biological parameters of Amur carp reproduced using native and cryopreserved sperm. Practical Value. Considering the economic importance of Amur carp due to its use in hybridization, reproduction of its population plays an important role in the development of the stocks of the pure

  10. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L., E-mail: gls@civil.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Lakshmikanthan, P., E-mail: lakshmikanthancp@gmail.com [Centre for Sustainable Technologies (CST), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Santhosh, L.G., E-mail: lgsanthu2006@gmail.com [Centre for Sustainable Technologies (CST), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m{sup 3} to 10.3 kN/m{sup 3} at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43.

  11. Biological characteristics of human-urine-derived stem cells: potential for cell-based therapy in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jun-Jie; Niu, Xin; Gong, Fei-Xiang; Hu, Bin; Guo, Shang-Chun; Lou, Yuan-Lei; Zhang, Chang-Qing; Deng, Zhi-Feng; Wang, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Stem cells in human urine have gained attention in recent years; however, urine-derived stem cells (USCs) are far from being well elucidated. In this study, we compared the biological characteristics of USCs with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and investigated whether USCs could serve as a potential cell source for neural tissue engineering. USCs were isolated from voided urine with a modified culture medium. Through a series of experiments, we examined the growth rate, surface antigens, and differentiation potential of USCs, and compared them with ASCs. USCs showed robust proliferation ability. After serial propagation, USCs retained normal karyotypes. Cell surface antigen expression of USCs was similar to ASCs. With lineage-specific induction factors, USCs could differentiate toward the osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic lineages. To assess the ability of USCs to survive, differentiate, and migrate, they were seeded onto hydrogel scaffold and transplanted into rat brain. The results showed that USCs were able to survive in the lesion site, migrate to other areas, and express proteins that were associated with neural phenotypes. The results of our study demonstrate that USCs possess similar biological characteristics with ASCs and have multilineage differentiation potential. Moreover USCs can differentiate to neuron-like cells in rat brain. The present study shows that USCs are a promising cell source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  12. Biological Characteristics of Caspase-14 and Its Expression in Neoplastic Diseases in the View of Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-sheng LIU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Caspase-14, a member of caspase family, only exists in mammals. As the most divergent member in the family of mammalian caspases, caspase-14 displays a variety of unique characteristics. It is expressed in a limited number of tissues and has the shortest amino acid sequence within the caspase protein family. At present, it has been found that caspase-14 is functionally different from the inflammatory reaction group of typical caspase family members. It exerts a certain effect in the promotion of final differentiation of epidermal cells and hydration of stratum corneum so as to maintain the steady state of skin barrier. In recent years, caspase-14 expression has been discovered in neoplastic diseases. Translational medicine integrates experimental research results and clinical guidance into the optimal implementation criteria for promoting the prediction, prevention and treatment of diseases. Via human genomics and molecular biology, translational medicine offers a possibility of screening molecular markers so that it can be used to diagnose the neoplastic diseases. In this article, the biological characteristics and substrates of caspase-14 as well as its expression in embryonic period and neoplastic diseases were reviewed.

  13. Characteristics of Volcanic Stratospheric Aerosol Layer Observed by CALIOP and Ground Based Lidar at Equatorial Atmosphere Radar Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Makoto; Shibata, Yasukuni; Nagasawa, Chikao

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the relation between major tropical volcanic eruptions in the equatorial region and the stratospheric aerosol data, which have been collected by the ground based lidar observations at at Equatorial Atmosphere Radar site between 2004 and 2015 and the CALIOP observations in low latitude between 2006 and 2015. We found characteristic dynamic behavior of volcanic stratospheric aerosol layers over equatorial region.

  14. Observational characteristics of cloud radiative effects over three arid regions in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Wang, Tianhe; Habib, Ammara

    2017-08-01

    Cloud-radiation processes play an important role in regional energy budgets and surface temperature changes over arid regions. Cloud radiative effects (CREs) are used to quantitatively measure the aforementioned climatic role. This study investigates the characteristics of CREs and their temporal variations over three arid regions in central Asia (CA), East Asia (EA), and North America (NA), based on recent satellite datasets. Our results show that the annual mean shortwave (SW) and net CREs (SWCRE and NCRE) over the three arid regions are weaker than those in the same latitudinal zone of the Northern Hemisphere. In most cold months (November-March), the longwave (LW) CRE is stronger than the SWCRE over the three arid regions, leading to a positive NCRE and radiative warming in the regional atmosphere-land surface system. The cold-season mean NCRE at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) averaged over EA is 4.1 W m-2, with a positive NCRE from November to March, and the intensity and duration of the positive NCRE is larger than that over CA and NA. The CREs over the arid regions of EA exhibit remarkable annual cycles due to the influence of the monsoon in the south. The TOA LWCRE over arid regions is closely related to the high-cloud fraction, and the SWCRE relates well to the total cloud fraction. In addition, the relationship between the SWCRE and the low-cloud fraction is good over NA because of the considerable occurrence of low cloud. Further results show that the interannual variation of TOA CREs is small over the arid regions of CA and EA, but their surface LWCREs show certain decreasing trends that correspond well to their decreasing total cloud fraction. It is suggested that combined studies of more observational cloud properties and meteorological elements are needed for indepth understanding of cloud-radiation processes over arid regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

  15. Patient characteristics associated with measurement of routine diabetes care: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arna L Van Doorn-Klomberg

    Full Text Available Non-modifiable patient characteristics, including age, gender, ethnicity as well as the occurrence of multi-morbidities, are associated with processes and outcomes of diabetes care. Information on these factors can be used in case mix adjustment of performance measures. However, the practical relevance of such adjustment is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between patient factors and diabetes care processes and outcomes.We performed an observational study based on routinely collected data of 12,498 diabetes patients in 59 Dutch primary care practices. Data were collected on patient age, gender, whether the patient lived in a deprived area, body mass index and the co-occurrence of cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression or anxiety. Outcomes included 6 dichotomous measures (3 process and 3 outcome related regarding glycosylated hemoglobin, systolic blood pressure and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol. We performed separate hierarchical logistic mixed model regression models for each of the outcome measures.Each of the process measure models showed moderate effect sizes, with pooled areas under the curve that varied between 0.66 and 0.76. The frequency of diabetes related consultations as a measure of patient compliance to treatment showed the strongest association with all process measures (odds ratios between 5.6 and 14.5. The effect sizes of the outcome measure models were considerably smaller than the process measure models, with pooled areas under the curve varying from 0.57 to 0.61.Several non-modifiable patient factors could be associated with processes and outcomes of diabetes care. However, associations were small. These results suggest that case-mix correction or stratification in assessing diabetes care has limited practical relevance.

  16. Photosynthesis and assimilate partitioning characteristics of the coconut palm as observed by carbon-14 labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasekara, K.S.; Jayaswkara, K.S.; Bowen, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    A technique was developed on the use of carbon dioxide(carbon-14 labelled) rapid labelling of foliage and to ascertain photosynthesis and partitioning characteristics of labelled assimilate into other parts of the coconut palm. An eight-year-old Tall x Tall young coconut palm growing under field conditions at Bandirippuwa Estate and with six developing bunches , was selected for this study. The labelling was carried out on a bright sunny day and soil was at field capacity. Seventh leaf from the youngest open leaf was used for labelling with 5 mCi of sodium bi carbonate (Carbon-14 labelled). The results revealed that within 24 hours, 60% of the labelled assimilate was partitioned into other parts of the palm and at the end of the seventh day about 18% of the labelled assimilate still remained in the labelled leaf. Among the developing bunches fifth and sixth bunches from the youngest developing bunch received more labelled assimilate than young developing bunches above them. It was revealed that partitioning of assimilate into various ''sinks'' is determined by the developmental stage or activeness of the ''sink''. The proportion of C-14 labelled carbon assimilate, partitioned into developing bunches was substantially low compared to the total amount of labelled carbon fixed by the labelled leaf. Further, it was observed that partitioning of assimilated labelled carbon into the young leaves above, as well as the mature leaves below the labelled leaf. The complex vascular anatomy of the palms could be attributed to this pattern of partitioning of assimilates into upper and lower leaves from the labelled leaf

  17. Prevalence and Characteristics of Work Anxiety in Medical Rehabilitation Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Jöbges, Michael

    2018-01-01

    To investigate frequency, type, and characteristics of work anxieties in patients with somatic illness. Cross-sectional observation study. Neurology, orthopedic, and cardiology rehabilitation clinics. Patients (N=1610; age, 18-65y) with work anxieties. Not applicable. Patients who scored high on at least 2 of 9 items in the work-anxiety screening questionnaire and who reported impairment were investigated with a differential diagnostic interview on work anxieties and with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview on non-work-related common mental disorders. Patients also filled out a self-rating questionnaire on their subjective symptom load and sociodemographic data. Approximately 20% to 27% of the investigated inpatients in somatic rehabilitation (altogether n=393) received a work-anxiety diagnosis. Patients with orthopedic illness report highest work anxiety and have previous longest sick leave (20.6wk in the past 12mo). Patients with orthopedic illness suffer from work-related adjustment disorder with anxiety, social anxieties, and workplace phobias, whereas patients with cardiac illness are more often affected by hypochondriac anxieties. Anxieties of insufficiency and worrying occur equally in all indications. About a quarter of patients in somatic rehabilitation are in need of additional diagnostic attention owing to work anxieties. Differential diagnostic of work anxiety is needed for initiating adequate therapeutic action. Somatic rehabilitation physicians should be aware of work anxieties in their patients, especially in patients with orthopedic illness with previous long-term sick leave. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of skin surface roughness degree on energy characteristics of light scattered by a biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    We present the results of modelling of photometric characteristics of light in soft tissues illuminated by a parallel beam along the normal to the surface, obtained with allowance for the skin roughness parameters and the angular structure of radiation approaching the surface from within the tissue. The depth structure of the fluence rate and the spectra of the diffuse reflection of light by the tissue in the interval of wavelengths 300 - 1000 nm are considered. We discuss the influence of the tilt angle variance of rough surface microelements and light refraction on the studied characteristics. It is shown that these factors lead to the reduction of the radiation flux only in the near-surface tissue layer and practically do not affect the depth of light penetration into the tissue. On the other hand, the degree of the surface roughness and the conditions of its illumination from within the tissue essentially affect the coefficient of diffuse reflection of light and lead to its considerable growth compared to the cases of a smooth interface and completely diffuse illumination, often considered to simplify the theoretical problem solution. The role of the roughness of skin surface is assessed in application to the solution of different direct and inverse problems of biomedical optics.

  19. Outdoor play among children in relation to neighborhood characteristics : A cross-sectional neighborhood observation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; de Vries, Sanne I; van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children's outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to

  20. Outdoor play among children in reletion to neighborhood characteristics. A cross-sectional neighborhood observation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; de Vries, S.I.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children's outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to

  1. Biological characteristics of the Vashishti Estuary, Maharashtra (west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Mustafa, S.; Mehta, P.; Govindan, K.; JiyalalRam, M.; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    The estuary and coastal nearshore regions sustained fairly high concentration of chlorophyll a (av. 3.1 mg/m sup(3)) and primary productivity (av. 89.9 mgC/m sup(3)/h). High rate of primary productivity wos observed in the estuarine segments...

  2. Physical and biological characteristics of the winter-summer transition in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zarokanellos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.; Sofianos, Sarantis. S.; Jones, Burton

    2017-01-01

    of the CRS. Ship-based and glider observations in the CRS between March and June 2013 capture key features of the transition from winter to summer and depict the impact of the eddy activity on the EBC flow. Less saline and relatively warmer water of Indian

  3. Factors determining differences in biological effectiveness of ionizing radiations possessing different physical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korogodin, V.I.; Krasavin, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of pro- and eukaryotes (D 0- 1 ) is considered with regard to the linear energy transfer (LET) of ionizing radiations. It was shown that radiosensitivity, as a function of LET, D 0- 1 (LET), is determined by not merely physical characteristics of radiations but also the ability of repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB). The increase in the radiosensitivity of eukaryotes is connected with the decrease in the DSB repair when cells are exposed to densely ionizing particles. The decrease in DSB repair is apparently connected with the increment of straight DSB, comparing to enzymatic DSB, upon exposure to heavy ions. Potential mechanisms of D 0- 1 (LET) modifications for radiosensitive and superresistant mutants are discussed

  4. [Molecular-biological characteristic of Yersinia enterocolitica circulating in various regions of Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, T V; Bogumil'chik, E A; Voskresenskaia, E A; Klimov, V T; Tseneva, G Ia; Chesnokova, M V; Ivanov, L I; Poutonen, T B; Vasil'eva, A V; Gromova, T V

    2012-01-01

    Complex characteristic by phenotype signs and main virulence genes of Yersinia enterocolitica strains circulating in various regions of Russian Federation. 46 strains of Y. enterocolitica of 2 - 4 biotypes and 401 strains of Y. enterocolitica IA biotype isolated in 15 administrative territories of Russian Federation (Siberian, Far Eastern, Northwestern, Urals Federal Districts) from infected people, rodents, agricultural animals, birds, the environment were studied. Phagotyping was performed in the reference laboratory of the Pasteur Institute (Paris). All the Y. enterocolitica cultures were studied for the presence of ail, ystB and ystA genes by PCR method. Presence of virulence plasmid pYVwas determined by gel electrophoresis by T. Kieser method. 447 strains of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A and 2 - 4 were studied. Most of the strains belonged to serotypes O:3; O:9; O: 5; O: 6,30; O:6,31; O:7,8. Phagotyping was performed for part of the strains. Phagotypes Xz and Xo were determined in biotype 1A strains. 2 - 4 biotype strains circulating in Siberia and the Far East were characterized by phagotype VIII, X3 that are present in other countries, and phagotype Xz that is spread only in Russia. Phagotypes IXa, IXb, II that are characteristic for strains from Canada, South Africa, Japan were not detected in Russian Federation. All the strains of 2 - 4 biotypes had ail and ystA genes. Most of the recently isolated strains had pYV. The only pathogenicity factor detected in 81.3% of biotype 1A strains including 14 strains from patients was ystB gene. These infections were accompanied by an expressed clinical symptomatology of enteritis and enterocolitis. Isolation of 1A biotype strains from patients necessitates execution of diagnostic studies of intestinal yersiniosis in patients with diagnosis "acute intestinal infection of undetermined etiology".

  5. The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM) format or: how I learned to stop worrying and love the ome-ome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Daniel; Clemente, Jose C; Kuczynski, Justin; Rideout, Jai Ram; Stombaugh, Jesse; Wendel, Doug; Wilke, Andreas; Huse, Susan; Hufnagle, John; Meyer, Folker; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory

    2012-07-12

    We present the Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM, pronounced "biome") format: a JSON-based file format for representing arbitrary observation by sample contingency tables with associated sample and observation metadata. As the number of categories of comparative omics data types (collectively, the "ome-ome") grows rapidly, a general format to represent and archive this data will facilitate the interoperability of existing bioinformatics tools and future meta-analyses. The BIOM file format is supported by an independent open-source software project (the biom-format project), which initially contains Python objects that support the use and manipulation of BIOM data in Python programs, and is intended to be an open development effort where developers can submit implementations of these objects in other programming languages. The BIOM file format and the biom-format project are steps toward reducing the "bioinformatics bottleneck" that is currently being experienced in diverse areas of biological sciences, and will help us move toward the next phase of comparative omics where basic science is translated into clinical and environmental applications. The BIOM file format is currently recognized as an Earth Microbiome Project Standard, and as a Candidate Standard by the Genomic Standards Consortium.

  6. The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM format or: how I learned to stop worrying and love the ome-ome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present the Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM, pronounced “biome” format: a JSON-based file format for representing arbitrary observation by sample contingency tables with associated sample and observation metadata. As the number of categories of comparative omics data types (collectively, the “ome-ome” grows rapidly, a general format to represent and archive this data will facilitate the interoperability of existing bioinformatics tools and future meta-analyses. Findings The BIOM file format is supported by an independent open-source software project (the biom-format project, which initially contains Python objects that support the use and manipulation of BIOM data in Python programs, and is intended to be an open development effort where developers can submit implementations of these objects in other programming languages. Conclusions The BIOM file format and the biom-format project are steps toward reducing the “bioinformatics bottleneck” that is currently being experienced in diverse areas of biological sciences, and will help us move toward the next phase of comparative omics where basic science is translated into clinical and environmental applications. The BIOM file format is currently recognized as an Earth Microbiome Project Standard, and as a Candidate Standard by the Genomic Standards Consortium.

  7. Observations on the Reproductive Biology of Gerbillus dasyurus (Wagner, 1842) (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAK, Ercüment; SÖZEN, Mustafa; YİĞİT, Nuri

    1999-01-01

    The reproductive data along with some ecological observations of Gerbillus dasyurus are reported based on field studies and investigations in captivity. The findings indicate that the favorable habitat of G. dasyurus is rocky areas with sparse vegetated soil and that the reproduction period extends from January to September. According to the reproductive data, the average weight at birth is 2.22 g., litter size ranges from 3 to 9, with an average of 5.66, a female gives three litters during a...

  8. Photometric Characteristics of Sprites and Elves Derived from JEM-GLIMS Nadir Observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Adachi, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Mihara, M.; Ushio, T.; Morimoto, T.; Suzuki, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Inan, U.; Linscott, I.

    2013-12-01

    The main goal of the JEM-GLIMS mission is to identify the horizontal structures of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) and spatiotemporal relationship between TLEs and their parent lightning discharges based on the nadir observations from the International Space Station (ISS). For this purpose JEM-GLIMS equips two sets of optical instruments (LSI: CMOS camera, and PH: spectrophotometers) and two sets of radio wave receivers (VLFR: VLF receiver, and VITF: VHF interferometer). As all these instruments are installed at the bottom plane of the bus module facing to the Earth, JEM-GLIMS can carry out the nadir observations continuously. JEM-GLIMS was launched by HTV3 and was successfully installed at the exposed facility of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on August 9, 2012. After the initial checkout operations, JEM-GLIMS finally started continuous observations on November 20, 2012. In the period from November 20, 2012 to June 30, 2013, totally 1597 transient optical events related to lightning flashes and/or TLE emissions were detected by the optical instruments. In 578 of these events, both LSI and PH detected clear transient optical signals well above the noise level. In order to derive sprite events from the detected transient optical events, we analyzed PH light-curve data first and estimated the peak irradiance related to the transient optical flashes. Then, we compared these intensities with the atmospheric transmittance. Finally, LSI image data are examined to clarify the morphological properties of the optical emission. We analyzed a transient optical event detected at 00:56:29.198 UT on December 15, 2012. The peak intensities of PH channels are estimated to be 1.4E-2 W/m2 (150-280 nm), 2.3E-4 W/m2 (316 nm), 5.9E-4 W/m2 (337 nm), 4.0E-4 W/m2 (392 nm), 4.2E-4 W/m2 (762 nm), and 6.3E-2 W/m2 (600-900 nm), respectively. It is found that all these intensities are significantly stronger than the lightning emission affected by the atmospheric transmittance. This fact

  9. Effects of 60Co gamma-rays on some biological characteristics of Chinese hamster lung cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Pei; Wang Shoufang; Zhang Shuxian

    1988-01-01

    The proliferation of cells and the relationship between survival and dose were investigated in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells grown at stationary phase and irradiated with 60 Co gamma-rays. The ultrastructural changes and chromosome aberration in the cells after irradiation were also observed. The frequency of chromosome aberrations increased linearly with dose and the yields of dicentrics plus rings were best fitted to a linear-quadratic model. The 50% growth-inhibited dose was found to be 4.0Gy. Electron microscopy observation revealed swelling and vacuolation of mitochodria and indistinct cristae at lower doses. The alterations in nucleus at higher doses appeared to be depression of nuclear membrane and disappearance of chromatin

  10. Biological characteristics of genetic variants of Urabe AM9 mumps vaccine virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, K E; Dimock, K; Brown, E G

    2000-03-01

    The Urabe AM9 mumps vaccine is composed of a mixture of variants distinguishable by a difference at nucleotide (nt) 1081 of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene (Brown, E.G., Dimock, K., Wright, K.E., 1996. The Urabe AM9 mumps vaccine is a mixture of viruses differing at amino acid (aa) 335 of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene with one form associated with disease. J. Infect. Dis. 174, 619-622.). Further genetic and biological variation was detected in plaque purified viruses from the Urabe AM9 vaccine by examining the HN gene sequence, plaque morphology, cytopathic effects and growth in Vero cells, and temperature sensitivity (ts). Infection of Vero cells with plaque purified viruses with a G at nt 1081 of the HN gene produced large, clear plaques, caused significant CPE early after infection but yielded lower titres of virus than other purified viruses. None of these viruses were ts. In contrast, half of the plaque purified viruses with an A at nt 1081 were sensitive to a temperature of 39.5 degrees C. These viruses produced small plaques, caused significant CPE and grew to low titres. Two ts viruses possessed a unique aa substitution at aa 468 of HN. The remaining A(1081) viruses were not ts, produced large plaques but little CPE, and grew to titres 10-fold higher than the G(1081) viruses. Isolates of Urabe AM9 associated with post-vaccination illness were similar to these non-ts A(1081) viruses, but could be further sub-divided into two groups on the basis of a difference at aa 464 of HN. The post-vaccination isolates may represent insufficiently attenuated components of the vaccine, while the G(1081) and ts subset of A(1081) viruses may be more fully attenuated.

  11. Biological characteristics of human menstrual blood-derived endometrial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanli; Niu, Rongcheng; Yang, Fen; Yan, Yan; Liang, Shengying; Sun, Yuliang; Shen, Ping; Lin, Juntang

    2018-03-01

    Successful isolation of human endometrial stem cells from menstrual blood, namely menstrual blood-derived endometrial stem cells (MenSCs), has provided enticing alternative seed cells for stem cell-based therapy. MenSCs are enriched in the self-regenerative tissue, endometrium, which shed along the periodic menstrual blood and thus their acquisition involves no physical invasiveness. However, the impact of the storage duration of menstrual blood prior to stem cell isolation, the age of the donor, the number of passages on the self-renewing of MenSCs, the paracrine production of biological factors in MenSCs and expression of adhesion molecules on MenSCs remain elusive. In this study, we confirmed that MenSCs reside in shedding endometrium, and documented that up to 3 days of storage at 4°C has little impact on MenSCs, while the age of the donor and the number of passages are negatively associated with proliferation capacity of MenSCs. Moreover, we found that MenSCs were actually immune-privileged and projected no risk of tumour formation. Also, we documented a lung- and liver-dominated, spleen- and kidney-involved organic distribution profile of MenSC 3 days after intravenous transfer into mice. At last, we suggested that MenSCs may have potentially therapeutic effects on diseases through paracrine effect and immunomodulation. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  12. Using redescription mining to relate clinical and biological characteristics of cognitively impaired and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Mihelčić

    Full Text Available Based on a set of subjects and a collection of attributes obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, we used redescription mining to find interpretable rules revealing associations between those determinants that provide insights about the Alzheimer's disease (AD. We extended the CLUS-RM redescription mining algorithm to a constraint-based redescription mining (CBRM setting, which enables several modes of targeted exploration of specific, user-constrained associations. Redescription mining enabled finding specific constructs of clinical and biological attributes that describe many groups of subjects of different size, homogeneity and levels of cognitive impairment. We confirmed some previously known findings. However, in some instances, as with the attributes: testosterone, ciliary neurotrophic factor, brain natriuretic peptide, Fas ligand, the imaging attribute Spatial Pattern of Abnormalities for Recognition of Early AD, as well as the levels of leptin and angiopoietin-2 in plasma, we corroborated previously debatable findings or provided additional information about these variables and their association with AD pathogenesis. Moreover, applying redescription mining on ADNI data resulted with the discovery of one largely unknown attribute: the Pregnancy-Associated Protein-A (PAPP-A, which we found highly associated with cognitive impairment in AD. Statistically significant correlations (p ≤ 0.01 were found between PAPP-A and clinical tests: Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes, Mini Mental State Examination, etc. The high importance of this finding lies in the fact that PAPP-A is a metalloproteinase, known to cleave insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. Since it also shares similar substrates with A Disintegrin and the Metalloproteinase family of enzymes that act as α-secretase to physiologically cleave amyloid precursor protein (APP in the non-amyloidogenic pathway

  13. Soil Physical Characteristics and Biological Indicators of Soil Quality Under Different Biodegradable Mulches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, S. M.; Flury, M.; Sintim, H.; Bandopadhyay, S.; Ghimire, S.; Bary, A.; DeBruyn, J.

    2015-12-01

    biological properties which are important indicators of sustainability.

  14. Using redescription mining to relate clinical and biological characteristics of cognitively impaired and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelčić, Matej; Šimić, Goran; Babić Leko, Mirjana; Lavrač, Nada; Džeroski, Sašo; Šmuc, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    Based on a set of subjects and a collection of attributes obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, we used redescription mining to find interpretable rules revealing associations between those determinants that provide insights about the Alzheimer's disease (AD). We extended the CLUS-RM redescription mining algorithm to a constraint-based redescription mining (CBRM) setting, which enables several modes of targeted exploration of specific, user-constrained associations. Redescription mining enabled finding specific constructs of clinical and biological attributes that describe many groups of subjects of different size, homogeneity and levels of cognitive impairment. We confirmed some previously known findings. However, in some instances, as with the attributes: testosterone, ciliary neurotrophic factor, brain natriuretic peptide, Fas ligand, the imaging attribute Spatial Pattern of Abnormalities for Recognition of Early AD, as well as the levels of leptin and angiopoietin-2 in plasma, we corroborated previously debatable findings or provided additional information about these variables and their association with AD pathogenesis. Moreover, applying redescription mining on ADNI data resulted with the discovery of one largely unknown attribute: the Pregnancy-Associated Protein-A (PAPP-A), which we found highly associated with cognitive impairment in AD. Statistically significant correlations (p ≤ 0.01) were found between PAPP-A and clinical tests: Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes, Mini Mental State Examination, etc. The high importance of this finding lies in the fact that PAPP-A is a metalloproteinase, known to cleave insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. Since it also shares similar substrates with A Disintegrin and the Metalloproteinase family of enzymes that act as α-secretase to physiologically cleave amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the non-amyloidogenic pathway, it could be

  15. Different therapeutic effects of cells derived from human amniotic membrane on premature ovarian aging depend on distinct cellular biological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chenyue; Li, Hong; Wang, Yun; Wang, Fuxin; Wu, Huihua; Chen, Rulei; Lv, Jinghuan; Wang, Wei; Huang, Boxian

    2017-07-27

    Many reports have shown that various kinds of stem cells have the ability to recover premature ovarian aging (POA) function. Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) improves ovarian function damaged by chemotherapy in a mice model. Understanding of how to evaluate the distinct effects of adult stem cells in curing POA and how to choose stem cells in clinical application is lacking. To build a different degrees of POA model, mice were administered different doses of cyclophosphamide: light dose (70 mg/kg, 2 weeks), medium dose (70 mg/kg, 1 week; 120 mg/kg, 1 week), and high dose (120 mg/kg, 2 weeks). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected serum levels of sex hormones, and hematoxylin and eosin staining allowed follicle counting and showed the ovarian tissue structure. DiIC 18 (5)-DS was employed to label human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) and hAECs for detecting the cellular retention time in ovaries by a live imaging system. Proliferation of human ovarian granule cells (ki67, AMH, FSHR, FOXL2, and CYP19A1) and immunological rejection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (CD4, CD11b, CD19, and CD56) were measured by flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)). Distinction of cellular biological characteristics between hAECs and hAMSCs was evaluated, such as collagen secretory level (collagen I, II, III, IV, and VI), telomerase activity, pluripotent markers tested by western blot, expression level of immune molecules (HLA-ABC and HLA-DR) analyzed by FACS, and cytokines (growth factors, chemotactic factors, apoptosis factors, and inflammatory factors) measured by a protein antibody array methodology. After hAMSCs and hAECs were transplanted into a different degrees of POA model, hAMSCs exerted better therapeutic activity on mouse ovarian function in the high-dose administration group, promoting the proliferation rate of ovarian granular cells from premature ovarian failure patients, but also provoking immune

  16. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM SCHW. AND FUSARIUM CULMORUM (W.G. SMITH SACC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium species from section Discolor are widespread and well-known and play an important role in disease etiology of wheat, barley and maize. F. graminearum and F. culmorum were isolated during a four-year period at several locations in Eastern Croatia and from different hosts. The mycelium development of 236isolates of F. graminearum and 2 isolates of F. culmorum was cultered during an eight day period on water agar, PDA, Bilai, Czapek's and CLA agar at temperatures 5°, 15°, 20°, 25° and 30°C and a 12 hour dark/light regime. The results show that agar medium does not influence colony diameter significantly. The agar medium influences the richness and density of the aerial mycelium significantly, although the shape and compactness of the mycelium is not only the result of the medium on which the fungus is developed, but also of the characteristics of the species itself. The sporulation of F. culmorum was abundant on all investigated medium, whereas the sporulation of F. graminearum was very weak on PDA and Bilai agar and it was medium on CLA.

  17. The chemical composition, botanical characteristic and biological activities of Borago officinalis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2014-09-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb which is cultivated for medicinal and culinary uses, although it is commercially cultivated for borage seed oil. Borage seed oil is the plant rich in the gamma-linolenic acid (26%-38%) which is used as dietary or food supplement. Other than seed oil it contains a lot of fatty acids such as linoleic acid (35%-38%), oleic acid (16%-20%), palmitic acid (10%-11%), stearic acid (3.5%-4.5%), eicosenoic acid (3.5%-5.5%) and erucic acid (1.5%-3.5%). It is used for the treatment of various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and eczema. In this study different aspects of borage such as plant characteristics, production, applications in traditional medicine, clinical considerations, its effects on patients' blood and urine biochemistry, and also the effect of the its products on liver and kidney performance tests are presented using published articles in scientific sites. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification and characteristics of biological agents in work environment of medical emergency services in selected ambulances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Bielawska-Drózd

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of microbial air quality and surface contamination in ambulances and administration offices as a control place without occupational exposure to biological agents; based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi found in collected samples. Material and Methods: The sampling was done by wet cyclone technology using the Coriolis recon apparatus, imprint and swab methods, respectively. In total, 280 samples from 28 ambulances and 10 offices in Warszawa were tested. Data was analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk normality test, Kruskal-Wallis test with α = 0.05. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The levels of air contamination were from 0 to 2.3×101 colony-forming unit (CFU/m3 for bacteria and for yeast and filamentous fungi were from 0 to 1.8×101 CFU/m3. The assessment of office space air samples has shown the following numbers of microorganisms: bacteria from 3.0×101 to 4.2×101 CFU/m3 and yeast and filamentous fungi from 0 to 1.9×101 CFU/m3. For surface contamination the mean bacterial count in ambulances has been between 1.0×101 and 1.3×102 CFU/25 cm2 and in offices – between 1.1×101 and 8.5×101 CFU/25 cm2. Mean fungal count has reached the level from 2.8×100 to 4.2×101 CFU/25 cm2 in ambulances and 1.3×101 to 5.8×101 CFU/25 cm2 in offices. The qualitative analysis has revealed the presence of Acinetobacter spp. (surfaces, coagulase – negative Staphylococci (air and surfaces, Aspergillus and Penicillium genera (air and surfaces. Conclusions: The study has revealed a satisfactory microbiological quantity of analyzed air and surface samples in both study and control environments. However, the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in the air and on surfaces in ambulances may endanger the medical emergency staff and patients with infection. Disinfection and cleaning techniques therefore should be constantly developed and implemented. Int J Occup

  19. Identification and characteristics of biological agents in work environment of medical emergency services in selected ambulances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Cieślik, Piotr; Wlizło-Skowronek, Bożena; Winnicka, Izabela; Kubiak, Leszek; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Depczyńska, Daria; Bohacz, Justyna; Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Kocik, Janusz

    2017-06-19

    Assessment of microbial air quality and surface contamination in ambulances and administration offices as a control place without occupational exposure to biological agents; based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi found in collected samples. The sampling was done by wet cyclone technology using the Coriolis recon apparatus, imprint and swab methods, respectively. In total, 280 samples from 28 ambulances and 10 offices in Warszawa were tested. Data was analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk normality test, Kruskal-Wallis test with α = 0.05. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. The levels of air contamination were from 0 to 2.3×101 colony-forming unit (CFU)/m3 for bacteria and for yeast and filamentous fungi were from 0 to 1.8×101 CFU/m3. The assessment of office space air samples has shown the following numbers of microorganisms: bacteria from 3.0×101 to 4.2×101 CFU/m3 and yeast and filamentous fungi from 0 to 1.9×101 CFU/m3. For surface contamination the mean bacterial count in ambulances has been between 1.0×101 and 1.3×102 CFU/25 cm2 and in offices - between 1.1×101 and 8.5×101 CFU/25 cm2. Mean fungal count has reached the level from 2.8×100 to 4.2×101 CFU/25 cm2 in ambulances and 1.3×101 to 5.8×101 CFU/25 cm2 in offices. The qualitative analysis has revealed the presence of Acinetobacter spp. (surfaces), coagulase - negative Staphylococci (air and surfaces), Aspergillus and Penicillium genera (air and surfaces). The study has revealed a satisfactory microbiological quantity of analyzed air and surface samples in both study and control environments. However, the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in the air and on surfaces in ambulances may endanger the medical emergency staff and patients with infection. Disinfection and cleaning techniques therefore should be constantly developed and implemented. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):617-627. This work is available in Open Access

  20. Background aerosol over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau: observed characteristics of aerosol mass loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Cong, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Xin, Jinyuan; Wan, Xin; Pan, Yuepeng; Liu, Zirui; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Guoshuai; Wang, Zhongyan; Wang, Yongjie; Kang, Shichang

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the atmospheric aerosols of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), an observation network was established within the region's various ecosystems, including at the Ngari, Qomolangma (QOMS), Nam Co, and Southeastern Tibetan (SET) stations. In this paper we illustrate aerosol mass loadings by integrating in situ measurements with satellite and ground-based remote sensing datasets for the 2011-2013 period, on both local and large scales. Mass concentrations of these surface atmospheric aerosols were relatively low and varied with land cover, showing a general tendency of Ngari and QOMS (barren sites) > Nam Co (grassland site) > SET (forest site). Daily averages of online PM2.5 (particulates with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5 µm) at these sites were sequentially 18.2 ± 8.9, 14.5 ± 7.4, 11.9 ± 4.9 and 11.7 ± 4.7 µg m-3. Correspondingly, the ratios of PM2.5 to total suspended particles (TSP) were 27.4 ± 6.65, 22.3 ± 10.9, 37.3 ± 11.1 and 54.4 ± 6.72 %. Bimodal mass distributions of size-segregated particles were found at all sites, with a relatively small peak in accumulation mode and a more notable peak in coarse mode. Diurnal variations in fine-aerosol masses generally displayed a bi-peak pattern at the QOMS, Nam Co and SET stations and a single-peak pattern at the Ngari station, controlled by the effects of local geomorphology, mountain-valley breeze circulation and aerosol emissions. Dust aerosol content in PM2.1 samples gave fractions of 26 % at the Ngari station and 29 % at the QOMS station, or ˜ 2-3 times that of reported results at human-influenced sites. Furthermore, observed evidence confirmed the existence of the aerodynamic conditions necessary for the uplift of fine particles from a barren land surface. Combining surface aerosol data and atmospheric-column aerosol optical properties, the TSP mass and aerosol optical depth (AOD) of the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) generally decreased as land cover changed from

  1. Clinical observation on the treatment of acute liver failure by combined non-biological artificial liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoqin; Sun, Jingxi; Li, Jiaqiong; Shi, Zaixiang; Xu, Jiyuan; Lu, Bo; Cheng, Shuli; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Xianjiang

    2016-12-01

    The clinical efficacy and safety of different combinations of non-bio artificial liver in the treatment of acute liver failure was examined. A total of 61 cases were selected under blood purification treatment from the patients with severe acute liver failure admitted to the severe disease department of the hospital from December, 2010 to December, 2015. Three types of artificial liver combinations were observed, i.e., plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion plus continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (PE+HP+CVVHDF), PE+CVVHDF and HP+CVVHDF. The heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), respiratory index (PaO 2 /FiO 2 ), liver and kidney function indicator, as well as platelet and coagulation function were compared. A comparison before and after the treatment using the three methods, showed improvement in the HRs, MAPs, PaO 2 /FiO 2 , total bilirubins (TBIL) and alanine aminotransferases (ALT) (Prate of 62.3% (38/61), and a viral survival rate of 35.0% (7/20); with the non-viral survival rate being 75.6% (31/41). In conclusion, following the treatment of three types of artificial livers, the function was improved to varying degrees, with the PE+HP+CVVHDF and the PE+CVVHDF method being better. By contrast, after the treatment of non-viral liver failure, the survival rate was significantly higher than the patients with viral liver failure.

  2. Biological CO2 fixation using Chlorella vulgaris and its thermal characteristics through thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Shaikh A; Ali, Saad Aldin M; Hossain, Mohammad M; Mouanda, Alexis Nzila

    2016-11-01

    The present research is focused on cultivation of microalgae strain Chlorella vulgaris for bio-fixation of CO2 coupled with biomass production. In this regard, a single semi-batch vertical tubular photobioreactor and four similar photobioreactors in series have been employed. The concentration of CO2 in the feed stream was varied from 2 to 12 % (v/v) by adjusting CO2 to air ratio. The amount of CO2 capture and algae growth were monitored by measuring decrease of CO2 concentration in the gas phase, microalgal cell density, and algal biomass production rate. The results show that 4 % CO2 gives maximum amount of biomass (0.9 g L(-1)) and productivity (0.118 g L(-1) day(-1)) of C. vulgaris in a single reactor. In series reactors, average productivity per reactor found to be 0.078 g L(-1) day(-1). The maximum CO2 uptake for single reactor also found with 4 % CO2, and it is around 0.2 g L(-1) day(-1). In series reactors, average CO2 uptake is 0.13 g L(-1) day(-1) per reactor. TOC analysis shows that the carbon content of the produced biomass is around 40.67 % of total weight. The thermochemical characteristics of the cultivated C. vulgaris samples were analyzed in the presence of air. All samples burn above 200 °C and the combustion rate become faster at around 600 °C. Almost 98 wt% of the produced biomass is combustible in this range.

  3. Simultaneous observation of cavitation bubbles generated in biological tissue by high-speed optical and acoustic imaging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kai; Iwasaki, Ryosuke; Takagi, Ryo; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic cavitation bubbles are useful for enhancing the heating effect in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. Many studies were conducted to investigate the behavior of such bubbles in tissue-mimicking materials, such as a transparent gel phantom; however, the detailed behavior in tissue was still unclear owing to the difficulty in optical observation. In this study, a new biological phantom was developed to observe cavitation bubbles generated in an optically shallow area of tissue. Two imaging methods, high-speed photography using light scattering and high-speed ultrasonic imaging, were used for detecting the behavior of the bubbles simultaneously. The results agreed well with each other for the area of bubble formation and the temporal change in the region of bubbles, suggesting that both methods are useful for visualizing the bubbles.

  4. 222 Rn determination and physicochemical characteristic and biological in aquifers in the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez A, A.

    1998-01-01

    Concentration levels of 222 Rn and 226 Rn have been analyzed in water samples from boreholes belonging to the drinking water supply system around Toluca, Mexico. The 222 Rn source is the decay of 226 Rn within the solid matrix of the aquifer. The study was performed during the dry and rainy seasons. 222 Rn concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation technique, 226 Rn was determined by gamma spectrometry, the physicochemical parameters and bacteriological analysis were performed by conventional chemical techniques. Solubilized trace elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (Icp-Ms). The radon level fluctuations at the boreholes in Toluca city and Almoloya spring indicated differences in the radon content. At borehole Lodos Prietos 2, the temperature and radon level were systematically the highest in comparison with the other boreholes and the spring indicating a contribution of a regional flow to the water of this particular borehole. The result for 226 Rn, the average 222 Rn observed during the sampling period, no correspondence occurs between the radium and the radon content indicating that, radon is not supported by radium, but is incorporated into the water through fissures in the rocks in contact with the water. The radon levels obtained in house faucets which water is supplied by boreholes decrease as a function of the distance from the source borehole to the house. With the chemical composition of each one of the studied boreholes and spring a Piper diagram was draw indicating the kind of water. The boreholes and spring can be classified as bicarbonate calcium/magnesium. Almost no fluctuation on time was observed in the chemical species and trace elements only a slight increase was observed at the end of the rain season. At Almoloya, spring pollution with coliform bacteria and nitrates showed an anthropogenic contribution to the water deterioration probable and fertilizers and detritus. Most of the studied water

  5. EVALUATION ON THE SEISMIC RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF A ROAD EMBANKMENT BASED ON THE MODERATE EARTHQUAKE OBSERVATION AND THE MICROTREMOR MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Yoshiya; Ichii, Koji; Yamada, Masayuki; Tokida, Ken-Ichi; Takezawa, Koichiro; Shibao, Susumu; Mitsushita, Junji; Murata, Akira; Furukawa, Aiko; Koizumi, Keigo

    Accurate evaluation on the seismic response characteristics of a road embankment is very important for the rational seismic assessment. However, in a lot of previous studies, the seismic response characteristics of an embankment were evaluated based on the results of shaking table test, centrifuge model test and dynamic FEM analysis. In this study, the transfer function and the shear wave velocity of a road embankment were evaluated based on the in-situ records of moderate earthquake observation and microtremor measurement. Test results show the possibility that the shear wave velocity of an embankment can be estimated by the earthquake observation or the microtremor measurement and the dynamic linear FEM analysis.

  6. Biological characteristics and clinical outcome of triple negative primary breast cancer in older women - comparison with their younger counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binafsha M Syed

    Full Text Available Triple negative (ER, PgR and HER2 negative breast cancers (TNBCs are often considered as a poor prognostic phenotype. There is dearth of evidence showing the prevalence and biological behaviour of TNBCs in older women. This study aimed to analyse their biological characteristics in comparison with a well characterised younger series from a single centre with long term clinical follow-up. Over 37 years (1973-2010, 1,758 older (≥70 years women with early operable (<5 cm primary breast cancer were managed in a dedicated clinic and have complete clinical information available. Of these 813 patients underwent primary surgery and 575 had good quality tumour samples available for tissue microarray analysis using indirect immunohistochemistry. A total of 127 patients (22.1% had TNBCs and full biological analysis of 15 biomarkers was performed. The results were compared with those of their younger (<70 years counterparts 342 (18.9% from a previously characterised, consecutive series of primary breast cancer treated in the same unit (1986-1998. The 127 older patients with TNBCs showed lower rates of Ki67 and CK 7/8 positivity and high rates of bcl2 and CK18 positivity when compared with their younger counterparts (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the long term clinical outcome between the two age groups, despite the fact that 47% of the younger patients had adjuvant chemotherapy, while none in the older cohort received such treatment. EGFR, axillary stage and pathological size showed prognostic significance in older women with TNBCs on univariate analysis. Despite not having received adjuvant chemotherapy, the older series had clinical outcome similar to the younger patients almost half of whom had chemotherapy. This appears to be related to other biomarkers (in addition to ER/PgR/HER2 eg Ki67, bcl2 and cytokeratins which have different expression patterns influencing prognosis.

  7. Biological characteristics of Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenopetra: Eulophidae in the hosts Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rodrigues Ferreira Calado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu, 1942 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae is a pupal endoparasitoid of lepidoptera and it has been studied as a potential agent for biological control of pests. For developing techniques to breed parasitoids, there is a need to choose the appropriate alternative host, thus, this article aims to evaluate the biological characteristics of T. diatraeae with regard to the hosts Bombyx mori Linneaus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae and Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, in laboratory. Twelve pupae of B. mori and twelve pupae of D. saccharalis, within 72 and 24 h of life, respectively, were exposed to parasitism by 21 female parasitoids at 25 ± 1°C, with relative humidity 70 ± 10% and photophase of 14 h. Life-cycle duration (egg – adult of T. diatraeae was 19.44 ± 0.12 days in pupae of D. saccharalis and 18.00 ± 0.05 days in pupae of B. mori, the emergence of parasitoid progeny was 66.60% in pupae of D. saccharalis, and 75.00% in pupae of B. mori. The progeny of T. diatraeae was 354.50 ± 43.21 per pupa of D. saccharalis and 469.11 ± 15.19 per pupa of B. mori. Trichospilus diatraeae showed suitability to the host and its ability to parasitize various hosts.

  8. Age-dependent change in biological characteristics of stem cells in radiation-induced mammary carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoshiya; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Yasukawa-Barnes, Jane; Gould, Michael N.; Clifton, Kelly H.

    2003-01-01

    If you ask what types of cells are the targets for carcinogenesis, a popular answer would be that cancer arises from stem cells. Stem cells are cells that are capable of both self-renewal and generation of differentiated progenies. If the hypothesis of 'cancer as stem cell disease' is correct, the risk of carcinogenesis should be a function of the number of stem cells and their responsiveness of carcinogen-induced damage. In the present study, we addressed the feasibility of this hypothesis using the rat mammary carcinogenesis model. One of the important conclusions emerging from studies on atomic bomb survivors concerns age-related changes in the susceptibility to breast cancer. The relative risk of breast cancer is very high among women exposed to ionizing radiation before or during puberty, and it decreases thereafter. Little information is available, however, on age-related changes in the radiobiological nature of mammary stem cells. We examined age-associated changes in the number of mammary stem-like cells (clonogens) and their susceptibility to radiation in terms of cell death and carcinogenic initiation frequency. The results were as follows. (1) During the prepubertal period, the total number of mammary clonogens per rat increased exponentially with a population doubling time of ∼4 days. After puberty, the doubling time lengthened to ∼30 days. The total number of clonogens in abdominal and inguinal mammary glands was ∼200 in 2-week-old rats, while it was ∼5600 in 8-week-old rats. (2) The survival curves of clonogenic cells after irradiation indicated that radiation sensitivity of the cells before and during puberty was much higher than after puberty. (3) The initiation frequency of the clonogens from prepubertal rats after 5 Gy irradiation was four times higher than that of the clonogens from post-pubertal rats. These results suggest that changes in the number of stem cells and their radiobiological characteristics underlie the age

  9. Age-dependent change in biological characteristics of stem cells in radiation-induced mammary carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Yoshiya; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa, Chiba (Japan); Yasukawa-Barnes, Jane; Gould, Michael N.; Clifton, Kelly H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2003-07-01

    If you ask what types of cells are the targets for carcinogenesis, a popular answer would be that cancer arises from stem cells. Stem cells are cells that are capable of both self-renewal and generation of differentiated progenies. If the hypothesis of 'cancer as stem cell disease' is correct, the risk of carcinogenesis should be a function of the number of stem cells and their responsiveness of carcinogen-induced damage. In the present study, we addressed the feasibility of this hypothesis using the rat mammary carcinogenesis model. One of the important conclusions emerging from studies on atomic bomb survivors concerns age-related changes in the susceptibility to breast cancer. The relative risk of breast cancer is very high among women exposed to ionizing radiation before or during puberty, and it decreases thereafter. Little information is available, however, on age-related changes in the radiobiological nature of mammary stem cells. We examined age-associated changes in the number of mammary stem-like cells (clonogens) and their susceptibility to radiation in terms of cell death and carcinogenic initiation frequency. The results were as follows. (1) During the prepubertal period, the total number of mammary clonogens per rat increased exponentially with a population doubling time of {approx}4 days. After puberty, the doubling time lengthened to {approx}30 days. The total number of clonogens in abdominal and inguinal mammary glands was {approx}200 in 2-week-old rats, while it was {approx}5600 in 8-week-old rats. (2) The survival curves of clonogenic cells after irradiation indicated that radiation sensitivity of the cells before and during puberty was much higher than after puberty. (3) The initiation frequency of the clonogens from prepubertal rats after 5 Gy irradiation was four times higher than that of the clonogens from post-pubertal rats. These results suggest that changes in the number of stem cells and their radiobiological characteristics

  10. Space-based pseudo-fixed latitude observation mode based on the characteristics of geosynchronous orbit belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun-peng; Chen, Lei; Huang, Jian-yu

    2017-08-01

    The US Lincoln Laboratory proved that space-based visible (SBV) observation is efficient to observe space objects, especially Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) objects. After that, SBV observation plays an important role in the space surveillance. In this paper, a novel space-based observation mode is designed to observe all the GEO objects in a relatively short time. A low earth orbit (LEO) satellite, especially a dawn-dusk sun-synchronous orbit satellite, is useful for space-based observation. Thus, the observation mode for GEO objects is based on a dawn-dusk sun-synchronous orbit satellite. It is found that the Pinch Point (PP) regions proposed by the US Lincoln Laboratory are spreading based on the analysis of the evolution principles of GEO objects. As the PP regions becoming more and more widely in the future, many strategies based on it may not be efficient any more. Hence, the key point of the space-based observation strategy design for GEO objects should be emphasized on the whole GEO belt as far as possible. The pseudo-fixed latitude observation mode is proposed in this paper based on the characteristics of GEO belt. Unlike classical space-based observation modes, pseudo-fixed latitude observation mode makes use of the one-dimensional attitude adjustment of the observation satellite. The pseudo-fixed latitude observation mode is more reliable and simple in engineering, compared with the gazing observation mode which needs to adjust the attitude from the two dimensions. It includes two types of attitude adjustment, i.e. daily and continuous attitude adjustment. Therefore, the pseudo-fixed latitude observation mode has two characteristics. In a day, the latitude of the observation region is fixed and the scanning region is about a rectangle, while the latitude of the observation region centre changes each day in a long term based on a daily strategy. The capabilities of a pseudo-fixed latitude observation instrument with a 98° dawn-dusk sun-synchronous orbit are

  11. Characteristics of the magnetohydrodynamic waves observed in the earth's magnetosphere and on the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwashima, M.; Fujita, S.

    1989-01-01

    Current research topics on MHD waves in the earth's magnetosphere and on the ground are summarized. Upstream waves in the earth's foreshock region and their transmission into and propagation through the magnetosphere are discussed in the context of relationships of Pc3 magnetic pulsations on the ground. The characteristics of ssc-associated magnetic pulsations are considered, and instabilities with the hot plasma in the ring current in the magnetosphere are addressed in the context of the relationships of compressional Pc 4-5 waves. The characteristics of Pi2 magnetic pulsations are examined, and the role of the ionosphere on the modifications of MHD waves is addressed

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF ADHESIVE PROPERTIES OF LACTOBACILLUS - CLINICAL ISOLATES AND COMPONENTS OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavryk G.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli detected in all biotopes of digestive tract, starting from the mouth and ending with the colon, is the dominant flora of vaginal biotope. Their adhesiveness to epithelial cells leads to survive in conditions of microorganism biotopes and to form biofilm, thus mediating passive antagonism against conditionally pathogenic bacteria. Colonization resistance provides a set of mechanisms that provide individual anatomical stability and normal microflora. It is experimentally confirmed that lactobacilli provide biotopes colonization resistance of the human body due to competitive inhibition and coagregation of allochthonous microorganisms. It is important to consider the fact that probiotics should not compete with autochthonous microflora, which is always more physiological for each individual than most valuable exogenous bacteria, even with the greatest potential beneficial properties. The probiotic activity should be directed to the main target bacterial therapy, which is to restore physiological ecological community. The aim of research was to compare the adhesive properties of lactobacilli - clinical isolates of probiotic preparations and ingredients to the buccal epithelium cells and erythrocytes 0 (1 of the blood group system AB0 person. Materials and methods. The object of the research were clinical strains of Lactobacillus spp. selected from the mouth, intestines, vagina healthy people. At the the species identification of lactic acid bacteria were taken into account morphological and cultural properties, aerotolerance. The carbohydrate profile was determined using the test system API-50SN L (Bio-Merieux, lack of catalase activity. The ability of allocated bacteria to adhesion were observed in erythrocytes 0 (1 blood and buccal epithelium cells by human Brilis VI and oth. For comparison were used probiotic strains L. rlantarum 8PA3, L.acidophilus KS 400, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938. The effectiveness of adhesion was assessed

  13. Persistence, switch rates, drug consumption and costs of biological treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: an observational study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degli Esposti, Luca; Favalli, Ennio Giulio; Sangiorgi, Diego; Di Turi, Roberta; Farina, Giuseppina; Gambera, Marco; Ravasio, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to provide an estimate of drug utilization indicators (persistence, switch rate and drug consumption) on biologics and the corresponding costs (drugs, admissions and specialist care) incurred by the Italian National Health Service in the management of adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We conducted an observational retrospective cohort analysis using the administrative databases of three local health units. We considered all patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of RA and at least one biologic drug prescription between January 2010 and December 2012 (recruitment period). Persistence was defined as maintenance over the last 3 months of the follow-up period of the same biological therapy administered at the index date. A switch was defined as the presence of a biological therapy other than that administered at the index date during the last 3 months of the follow-up period. Hospital admissions (with a diagnosis of RA or other RA-related diagnoses), specialist outpatient services, instrumental diagnostics and pharmaceutical consumption were assessed. The drug utilization analysis took into account only biologics with at least 90 patients on treatment at baseline (adalimumab n=144, etanercept n=236 and infliximab n=94). In each year, etanercept showed better persistence with initial treatment than adalimumab or infliximab. Etanercept was characterized by the lowest number of patients increasing the initial drug consumption (2.6%) and by the highest number of patients reducing the initial drug consumption (10.5%). The mean cost of treatment for a patient persisting with the initial treatment was €12,388 (€14,182 for adalimumab, €12,103 for etanercept and €11,002 for infliximab). The treatment costs for patients switching from initial treatment during the first year of follow-up were higher than for patients who did not switch (€12,710 vs. €11,332). Persistence, switch rate and drug consumption seem to directly

  14. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on biological characteristics and drug resistance mechanisms of liver cancer cell line PLC/RAF/5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Kangwen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo study the changes in biological characteristics of a liver cancer cell line PLC/RAF/5 after repeated exposure to a chemotherapy drug, 5-fluorouraci (5-FU, and to investigate the relationship between drug-resistant liver cancer cells and liver cancer stem cells. MethodsA low concentration of 5-FU (1 μg/ml was used to treat the human liver cancer cell line PLC/RAF/5 repeatedly to establish the PLC/RAF/5/5-FU cell line. Morphological differences between the two types of cells were observed. The inhibitory effects of different concentrations of 5-FU (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 μg/ml on the proliferation of the two types of cells were determined using the CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis of the two types of cells after exposure to different concentrations of 5-FU (0.5, 1, and 2 μg/ml for 48 h was analyzed using flow cytometry. The proportions of side population cells in both types of cells were measured using flow cytometry. The colony-forming ability was compared between the two types of cells by the plate colony-forming assay. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, ABCG2, and FoxM1 proteins in both types of cells was examined by Western blot. Between-group comparison was performed by t test. ResultsThe PLC/RAF/5/5-FU cell line was successfully established using the chemotherapy drug 5-FU. Compared with the PLC/RAF/5 cells, the PLC/RAF/5/5-FU cells had a larger volume, fewer protrusions, a changed shape of a long shuttle, and enhanced refractivity. Moreover, compared with the parent cells, the PLC/RAF/5/5-FU cells had a significantly lower sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of 5-FU on proliferation, a significantly lower proportion of cells at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, significantly higher proportions of cells at the S and G2/M phases, significantly higher resistance to apoptosis, a significantly higher proportion of side population cells, and significantly enhanced proliferation (P<0.05. According to the results of Western blot assay, the

  15. Influence of the nucleobase on the physicochemical characteristics and biological activities of Sb{sup V}-ribonucleoside complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Claudio S.; Demicheli, Cynthia, E-mail: demichel@netuno.lcc.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rocha, Iara C.M. da; Melo, Maria N. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia; Monte Neto, Rubens L.; Frezard, Frederic [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Biofisica

    2010-07-01

    The influence of the nucleobase (uracyl, U; cytosine, C; adenine, A; guanine, G) on the physicochemical characteristics and in vitro biological activities of Sb{sup V}-ribonucleoside complexes has been investigated. The 1:1 Sb-U and Sb-C complexes were characterized by NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopies and elemental analysis. The stability constant and the apparent association and dissociation rate constants of 1:1 Sb{sup V}-U, Sb{sup V}-C and Sb{sup V}-A complexes were determined. Although Sb{sup V} most probably binds via oxygen atoms to the same 2' and 3' positions in the different nucleosides, the ribose conformational changes and the physicochemical characteristics of the complex depend on the nucleobase. The nucleobase had a strong influence on the cytotoxicity against macrophages and the antileishmanial activity of the Sb{sup V}-ribonucleoside complexes. The Sb{sup V}-purine complexes were more cytotoxic and more effective against Leishmania chagasi than the Sb{sup V}-pyrimidine complexes, supporting the model that the interaction of Sb{sup V} with purine nucleosides may mediate the antileishmanial activity of pentavalent antimonial drugs. (author)

  16. Biological Characteristics and Medical Treatment of Breast Cancer in Young Women—A Featured Population: Results from the NORA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pronzato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present paper described the biological characteristics and clinical behavior of young women in the cohort NORA study Patients and Methods. From 2000–2002, patients (>3500 were enrolled at 77 Italian hospitals. Women aged ≤50 years (=1013 were stratified into age groups (≤35, 36–40, 41–45, and 46–50 years. The relationship between age and patient characteristics, cancer presentation, and treatment was analyzed. Results. Younger women more frequently had tumors with ER/PgR-negative(2=7.07; =.008, HER2 amplification (2=5.76; =.01, and high (≥10% Ki67 labelling index (2=9.53; =.002. Positive nodal status, large tumors, and elevated Ki67 all associated with the choice for chemotherapy followed by endocrine therapy in hormone receptor-positive patients (40 versus ≤40, <.0001, resp.. At multivariate analysis, after adjustment for significant clinical and pathological factors, age remains a significant prognostic variable (HR=0.93, =.0021. Conclusion. This cohort study suggests that age per sè is an important prognostic factor. The restricted role of early diagnosis and the aggressive behavior of cancer in this population make necessary the application of targeted medical strategies crucial.

  17. Biological Characteristics and Medical Treatment of Breast Cancer in Young Women-A Featured Population: Results from the Nora Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronzato, P.; Mustacchi, G.; De Matteis, A.; Di Costanzo, F.; Rulli, E.; Floriani, I; Cazzaniga, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The present paper described the biological characteristics and clinical behavior of young women in the cohort NORA study Patients and Methods. From 2000-2002, patients (N>3500) were enrolled at 77 Italian hospitals. Women aged =50 years (N=1013) were stratified into age groups (=35, 36-40, 41-45, and 46-50 years). The relationship between age and patient characteristics, cancer presentation, and treatment was analyzed. Results. Younger women more frequently had tumors with ER/PgR-negative(x 2 =7.07; P=.008), HER2 amplification (x 2 =5.76; P=.01), and high (≤10%) Ki67 labelling index (x 2 =9.53; P=.002). Positive nodal status, large tumors, and elevated Ki67 all associated with the choice for chemotherapy followed by endocrine therapy in hormone receptor-positive patients (P 40 versus =40, P<.0001, resp.). At multivariate analysis, after adjustment for significant clinical and pathological factors, age remains a significant prognostic variable (HR=0.93, P=.0021). Conclusion. This cohort study suggests that age per se is an important prognostic factor. The restricted role of early diagnosis and the aggressive behavior of cancer in this population make necessary the application of targeted medical strategies crucial. human epidermal growth factor receptor

  18. Statistical characteristics of L1 carrier phase observations from four low-cost GPS receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederholm, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    Statistical properties of L1 carrier phase observations from four low-cost GPS receivers are investigated through a case study. The observations are collected on a zero baseline with a frequency of 1 Hz and processed with a double difference model. The carrier phase residuals from an ambiguity...

  19. Clinical characteristics and outcome of heart failure and captagon amphetamine use: An observational prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelfatah A. Elasfar; Kamal Eldein Ahmad; Waleed AlShaghaa

    2014-01-01

    The fenetylline (captagon) tablets (an amphetamine like substance) are a stimulant drugs which are widely used in the Arabian Peninsula. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcome of acute heart failure in patients using captagon tablets. Methods: From September, 2009, through December, 2011, 280 consecutive patients with acute dilated cardiomyopathy and acute heart failure syndrome presented to emergency department in one tertiary care ce...

  20. Impact of the surface wind flow on precipitation characteristics over the southern Himalayas: GPM observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aoqi; Fu, Yunfei; Chen, Yilun; Liu, Guosheng; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2018-04-01

    The distribution and influence of precipitation over the southern Himalayas have been investigated on regional and global scales. However, previous studies have been limited by the insufficient emphasis on the precipitation triggers or the lack of droplet size distribution (DSD) data. Here, precipitating systems were identified using Global Precipitation Mission dual-frequency radar data, and then categorized into five classes according to surface flow from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast Interim data. The surface flow is introduced to indicate the precipitation triggers, which is validated in this study. Using case and statistical analysis, we show that the precipitating systems with different surface flow had different precipitation characteristics, including spatio-temporal features, reflectivity profile, DSD, and rainfall intensity. Furthermore, the results show that the source of the surface flow influences the intensity and DSD of precipitation. The terrain exerts different impacts on the precipitating systems of five categories, leading to various distributions of precipitation characteristics over the southern Himalayas. Our results suggest that the introduction of surface flow and DSD for precipitating systems provides insight into the complex precipitation of the southern Himalayas. The different characteristics of precipitating systems may be caused by the surface flow. Therefore, future study on the orographic precipitations should take account the impact of the surface flow and its relevant dynamic mechanism.

  1. Biology, Flowering and Fruiting of the Cactus Opuntia spp.: A Review and Some Observations on Three Varieties in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Arba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cactus is a succulent plant resistant to droughts. According to the recently reviewed classification, cacti belong to the family of Opuntiaceae Desv. (synon. Cactaceae Juss. with Opuntia Mill. as the typical genus. This genus is economically the most important in the family, as it includes a group of cactus pear plants which play an important role in the agricultural systems of arid and semi-arid regions. Flowering of the cactus pear fruit is an important determinant of the fruit harvesting period. The goal of this paper is to present the physiology of the cactus pear and to explain in detail the biology of its flowering and fruiting processes. This study is also enriched by our observations on the flowering and fruiting of three varieties of cactus pear that we followed for two successive years in southern Morocco.

  2. Persistence, switch rates, drug consumption and costs of biological treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: an observational study in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degli Esposti L

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Luca Degli Esposti,1 Ennio Giulio Favalli,2 Diego Sangiorgi,1 Roberta Di Turi,3 Giuseppina Farina,4 Marco Gambera,5 Roberto Ravasio,6 1CliCon S.r.l. – Health, Economics & Outcomes Research, Ravenna, 2Department of Rheumatology, Istituto Ortopedico Gaetano Pini, Milan, 3Local Pharmaceutical and Supplementary Assistance Unit, Roma Local Health Authority D, Rome, 4Internal Management Control Unit – Pharmaceutical Spending Control Sector, Caserta Local Health Authority, Caserta, 5Local Pharmaceutical Service, Bergamo Local Health Authority, Bergamo, 6Health Publishing & Services Srl, Milan, Italy Objectives: The aim of this analysis was to provide an estimate of drug utilization indicators (persistence, switch rate and drug consumption on biologics and the corresponding costs (drugs, admissions and specialist care incurred by the Italian National Health Service in the management of adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Methods: We conducted an observational retrospective cohort analysis using the administrative databases of three local health units. We considered all patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of RA and at least one biologic drug prescription between January 2010 and December 2012 (recruitment period. Persistence was defined as maintenance over the last 3 months of the follow-up period of the same biological therapy administered at the index date. A switch was defined as the presence of a biological therapy other than that administered at the index date during the last 3 months of the follow-up period. Hospital admissions (with a diagnosis of RA or other RA-related diagnoses, specialist outpatient services, instrumental diagnostics and pharmaceutical consumption were assessed.Results: The drug utilization analysis took into account only biologics with at least 90 patients on treatment at baseline (adalimumab n=144, etanercept n=236 and infliximab n=94. In each year, etanercept showed better persistence with initial

  3. Translating tumor biology into personalized treatment planning: analytical performance characteristics of the Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark-Langone, Kim M; Sangli, Chithra; Krishnakumar, Jayadevi; Watson, Drew

    2010-01-01

    The Oncotype DX ® Colon Cancer Assay is a new diagnostic test for determining the likelihood of recurrence in stage II colon cancer patients after surgical resection using fixed paraffin embedded (FPE) primary colon tumor tissue. Like the Oncotype DX Breast Cancer Assay, this is a high complexity, multi-analyte, reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that measures the expression levels of specific cancer-related genes. By capturing the biology underlying each patient's tumor, the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay provides a Recurrence Score (RS) that reflects an individualized risk of disease recurrence. Here we describe its analytical performance using pre-determined performance criteria, which is a critical component of molecular diagnostic test validation. All analytical measurements met pre-specified performance criteria. PCR amplification efficiency for all 12 assays was high, ranging from 96% to 107%, while linearity was demonstrated over an 11 log 2 concentration range for all assays. Based on estimated components of variance for FPE RNA pools, analytical reproducibility and precision demonstrated low SDs for individual genes (0.16 to 0.32 C T s), gene groups (≤0.05 normalized/aggregate C T s) and RS (≤1.38 RS units). Analytical performance characteristics shown here for both individual genes and gene groups in the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay demonstrate consistent translation of specific biology of individual tumors into clinically useful diagnostic information. The results of these studies illustrate how the analytical capability of the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay has enabled clinical validation of a test to determine individualized recurrence risk after colon cancer surgery

  4. Translating tumor biology into personalized treatment planning: analytical performance characteristics of the Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnakumar Jayadevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay is a new diagnostic test for determining the likelihood of recurrence in stage II colon cancer patients after surgical resection using fixed paraffin embedded (FPE primary colon tumor tissue. Like the Oncotype DX Breast Cancer Assay, this is a high complexity, multi-analyte, reverse transcription (RT polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay that measures the expression levels of specific cancer-related genes. By capturing the biology underlying each patient's tumor, the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay provides a Recurrence Score (RS that reflects an individualized risk of disease recurrence. Here we describe its analytical performance using pre-determined performance criteria, which is a critical component of molecular diagnostic test validation. Results All analytical measurements met pre-specified performance criteria. PCR amplification efficiency for all 12 assays was high, ranging from 96% to 107%, while linearity was demonstrated over an 11 log2 concentration range for all assays. Based on estimated components of variance for FPE RNA pools, analytical reproducibility and precision demonstrated low SDs for individual genes (0.16 to 0.32 CTs, gene groups (≤0.05 normalized/aggregate CTs and RS (≤1.38 RS units. Conclusions Analytical performance characteristics shown here for both individual genes and gene groups in the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay demonstrate consistent translation of specific biology of individual tumors into clinically useful diagnostic information. The results of these studies illustrate how the analytical capability of the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay has enabled clinical validation of a test to determine individualized recurrence risk after colon cancer surgery.

  5. Translating tumor biology into personalized treatment planning: analytical performance characteristics of the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Langone, Kim M; Sangli, Chithra; Krishnakumar, Jayadevi; Watson, Drew

    2010-12-23

    The Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay is a new diagnostic test for determining the likelihood of recurrence in stage II colon cancer patients after surgical resection using fixed paraffin embedded (FPE) primary colon tumor tissue. Like the Oncotype DX Breast Cancer Assay, this is a high complexity, multi-analyte, reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that measures the expression levels of specific cancer-related genes. By capturing the biology underlying each patient's tumor, the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay provides a Recurrence Score (RS) that reflects an individualized risk of disease recurrence. Here we describe its analytical performance using pre-determined performance criteria, which is a critical component of molecular diagnostic test validation. All analytical measurements met pre-specified performance criteria. PCR amplification efficiency for all 12 assays was high, ranging from 96% to 107%, while linearity was demonstrated over an 11 log2 concentration range for all assays. Based on estimated components of variance for FPE RNA pools, analytical reproducibility and precision demonstrated low SDs for individual genes (0.16 to 0.32 CTs), gene groups (≤ 0.05 normalized/aggregate CTs) and RS (≤ 1.38 RS units). Analytical performance characteristics shown here for both individual genes and gene groups in the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay demonstrate consistent translation of specific biology of individual tumors into clinically useful diagnostic information. The results of these studies illustrate how the analytical capability of the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay has enabled clinical validation of a test to determine individualized recurrence risk after colon cancer surgery.

  6. Regional variations in baseline characteristics of cardiac rhythm device recipients: The PANORAMA observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kandari, Fawziah; Erglis, Andrejs; Sweidan, Raed; Dannheimer, Ingrid; Sepsi, Milan; Bénézet, Juan; Padour, Michal; Naik, Ajay; Escudero, Jaime; West, Teena; Holbrook, Reece; Lorgat, Faizel

    2014-09-01

    The PANORAMA study was designed to collect concurrent data on subjects from different worldwide regions implanted with CRM devices. In this prospective, multi-center study, we analyzed baseline data on 8586 subjects implanted with CRM devices with no additional selection criteria (66% pacemaker (IPG), 16% implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD), 17% cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and CRM devices from a range of geographies that are not typically reported in literature. We found significant variations in clinical characteristics and implant practices. Long term follow-up data will help evaluate if these variations require adjustments to outcome expectations.

  7. Observational study identifies non-attendance characteristics in two hospital outpatient clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blæhr, Emely; Søgaard, Rikke; Kristensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-attended hospital appointments are receiving increasing attention in times when rapid access and efficient service delivery at public hospitals are on the agenda. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of non-attendance in a Danish outpatient setting and its...... association with user-level and provider-level characteristics. METHODS: The study was based on appointments scheduled from June 2013 to March 2015 at an orthopaedic and a radiologic outpatient clinic. Data on outcomes of cancellation on the part of the user or the provider, and non-attendance without giving...

  8. Kinematic Characteristics of Meteor Showers by Results of the Combined Radio-Television Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narziev, Mirhusen

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important tasks of meteor astronomy is the study of the distribution of meteoroid matter in the solar system. The most important component to address this issue presents the results of measurements of the velocities, radiants, and orbits of both showers and sporadic meteors. Radiant's and orbits of meteors for different sets of data obtained as a result of photographic, television, electro-optical, video, Fireball Network and radar observations have been measured repeatedly. However, radiants, velocities and orbits of shower meteors based on the results of combined radar-optical observations have not been sufficiently studied. In this paper, we present a methods for computing the radiants, velocities, and orbits of the combined radar-TV meteor observations carried out at HisAO in 1978-1980. As a result of the two-year cycle of simultaneous TV-radar observations 57 simultaneous meteors have been identified. Analysis of the TV images has shown that some meteor trails appeared as dashed lines. Among the simultaneous meteors of d-Aquariids 10 produced such dashed images, and among the Perseids there were only 7. Using a known method, for such fragmented images of simultaneous meteors - together with the measured radar distance, trace length, and time interval between the segments - allowed to determine meteor velocity using combined method. In addition, velocity of the same meteors was measured using diffraction and radar range-time methods based on the results of radar observation. It has been determined that the mean values of meteoroid velocity based on the combined radar-TV observations are greater in 1 ÷ 3 km / c than the averaged velocity values measured using only radar methods. Orbits of the simultaneously observed meteors with segmented photographic images were calculated on the basis of the average velocity observed using the combined radar-TV method. The measured results of radiants velocities and orbital elements of individual meteors

  9. Some characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed by radio-interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Mercier

    Full Text Available Observations of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs are considered through their effect on the horizontal gradient G of the slant total electron content (slant TEC, which can be directly obtained from two-dimensional radio-interferometric observations of cosmic radio-sources with the Nançay radioheligraph (2.2°E, 47.3°N. Azimuths of propagation can be deduced (modulo 180°. The total database amounts to about 800 h of observations at various elevations, local time and seasons. The main results are:

    a AGWs are partially directive, confirming our previous results.

    b The propagation azimuths considered globally are widely scattered with a preference towards the south.

    c They show a bimodal time distribution with preferential directions towards the SE during daytime and towards the SW during night-time (rather than a clockwise rotation as reported by previous authors.

    d The periods are scattered but are larger during night-time than during daytime by about 60%.

    e The effects observed with the solar radio-sources are significantly stronger than with other radio-sources (particularly at higher elevations, showing the role of the geometry in line of sight-integrated observations.

  10. The visibility function and its effect on the observed characteristics of sunspot groups. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, M.; Kuklin, G.V.; Starkova, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper is an introductory study to a series dealing with the visibility function, the function of foreshortening of sunspot group areas, and with the effect of these functions on the results of the statistical processing of observations, which has to be taken into account in interpreting the results. A ''diagram of observational conditions'' is described, which enables a number of statistical problems of sunspot groups on the rotating Sun to be solved by computer modelling or by graphical methods. Examples are given of the use of this diagram in studying the distribution of the observed lifetime of sunspot groups with a given actual lifetime, of the decrease in the number of sunspot groups towards the limb of the solar disc, of the east-west asymmetry of sunspot group appearance and disappearance. (author)

  11. Body characteristics, [corrected] dietary protein and body weight regulation. Reconciling conflicting results from intervention and observational studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Z Ankarfeldt

    Full Text Available Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals into clinical trials.Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein of the matched trial participants.Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants.This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials may reconcile the otherwise conflicting

  12. Biological nutrient removal and molecular biological characteristics in an anaerobic-multistage anaerobic/oxic (A-MAO) process to treat municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Dong, Wenyi; Wang, Hongjie; Jiang, Shilong

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to present an anaerobic-multistage anaerobic/oxic (A-MAO) process to treat municipal wastewater. The average COD, NH 4 + -N, TN, and TP removal efficiency were 91.81%, 96.26%, 83.73% and 94.49%, respectively. Temperature plunge and C/N decrease have a certain impact on the modified process. Characteristics of microbial community, function microorganism, and correlation of microbial community with environmental variables in five compartments were carried out by Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. The differences of microbial community were observed and Blastocatella, Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas were the dominant genus. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira occupied a dominant position in AOB and NOB, respectively. Rhodospirillaceae and Rhodocyclaceae owned a considerable proportion in phosphorus removal bacteria. DO and COD played significant roles on affecting the microbial components. The A-MAO process in this study demonstrated a high potential for nutrient removal from municipal wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristics of the magnetospheric boundary layer and magnetopause layer as observed by Imp 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastman, T.E.; Hones, E.W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Imp 6 observations of the low-latitude magnetospheric boundary layer indicate that the plasma within it is supplied primarily by direct entry of magnetosheath plasma across the magnetopause layer. We define the magnetopause layer as the current layer (separating the magnetosheath from the boundary layer) through which the magnetic field shifts in direction. High temporal resolution (3-s average) data reveal that in a majority of Imp 6 magnetopause crossing, no distinct changes in electron density or energry spectra are observed at the magne opause layer. In all Imp 6 crossings, some magnetosheathlike plasma is observed earthward of the magnetopause layer, implying the existence of a boundary layer. Boundary layer electron energy spectra are often virtually indistinguishable from the adjacent magnetosheath spectra. Low-latitude boundary layer bulk plasma flow as observed by Imp 6 almost always has an antisunward component and often has a significant cross-field component. The boundary layer thickness is highly variable and is generally much larger than the magnetopause layer thickness. Energetic electron pitch angle distributions indicate that the low-latitude boundary layers is normally on closed field lines. We conclude that diffusive as well as nondiffusive processes probably contribute to the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the boundary layer

  14. Defining Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) as a contribution to Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs): A Core Task of the Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) to Accelerate Integration of Biological Observations in the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, J.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Sousa Pinto, I.; Costello, M. J.; Duffy, J. E.; Appeltans, W.; Fischer, A. S.; Canonico, G.; Klein, E.; Obura, D.; Montes, E.; Miloslavich, P.; Howard, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) is a networking effort under the umbrella of the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON). The objective of the MBON is to link existing groups engaged in ocean observation and help define practical indices to deploy in an operational manner to track changes in the number of marine species, the abundance and biomass of marine organisms, the diverse interactions between organisms and the environment, and the variability and change of specific habitats of interest. MBON serves as the biodiversity arm of Blue Planet, the initiative of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) for the benefit of society. The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) was established under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) in 1991 to organize international ocean observing efforts. The mission of the GOOS is to support monitoring to improve the management of marine and coastal ecosystems and resources, and to enable scientific research. GOOS is engaged in a continuing, rigorous process of identifying Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs). MBON is working with GOOS and the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS, also under the IOC) to define Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) as those Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) that have explicit taxonomic records associated with them. For practical purposes, EBVs are a subset of the EOVs. The focus is to promote the integration of biological EOVs including EBVs into the existing and planned national and international ocean observing systems. The definition avoids a proliferation of 'essential' variables across multiple organizations. MBON will continue to advance practical and wide use of EBVs and related EOV. This is an effective way to contribute to several UN assessments (e.g., from IPBES, IPCC, and the World Ocean Assessment under the UN Regular Process), UN Sustainable Development Goals, and to address targets and goals defined under

  15. Statistical characteristics of Doppler spectral width as observed by the conjugate SuperDARN radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hosokawa

    Full Text Available We performed a statistical analysis of the occurrence distribution of Doppler spectral width around the day-side high-latitude ionosphere using data from the conjugate radar pair composed of the CUTLASS Iceland-East radar in the Northern Hemisphere and the SENSU Syowa-East radar in the Southern Hemisphere. Three types of spectral width distribution were identified: (1 an exponential-like distribution in the lower magnetic latitudes (below 72°, (2 a Gaussian-like distribution around a few degrees magnetic latitude, centered on 78°, and (3 another type of distribution in the higher magnetic latitudes (above 80°. The first two are considered to represent the geophysical regimes such as the LLBL and the cusp, respectively, because they are similar to the spectral width distributions within the LLBL and the cusp, as classified by Baker et al. (1995. The distribution found above 80° magnetic latitude has been clarified for the first time in this study. This distribution has similarities to the exponential-like distribution in the lower latitude part, although clear differences also exist in their characteristics. These three spectral width distributions are commonly identified in conjugate hemispheres. The latitudinal transition from one distribution to another exhibits basically the same trend between two hemispheres. There is, however, an interhemispheric difference in the form of the distribution around the cusp latitudes, such that spectral width values obtained from Syowa-East are larger than those from Iceland-East. On the basis of the spectral width characteristics, the average locations of the cusp and the open/closed field line boundary are estimated statistically.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere inter-actions; plasma convection – Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers

  16. H1N1 vaccines in a large observational cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with immunomodulators and biological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahier, Jean-François; Papay, Pavol; Salleron, Julia; Sebastian, Shaji; Marzo, Manuela; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Garcia-Sanchez, Valle; Fries, Walter; van Asseldonk, Dirk P; Farkas, Klaudia; de Boer, Nanne K; Sipponen, Taina; Ellul, Pierre; Louis, Edouard; Peake, Simon T C; Kopylov, Uri; Maul, Jochen; Makhoul, Badira; Fiorino, Gionata; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Chaparro, Maria

    2011-04-01

    Safety data are lacking on influenza vaccination in general and on A (H1N1)v vaccination in particular in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving immmunomodulators and/or biological therapy. The authors conducted a multicentre observational cohort study to evaluate symptoms associated with influenza H1N1 adjuvanted (Pandemrix, Focetria, FluvalP) and non-adjuvanted (Celvapan) vaccines and to assess the risk of flare of IBD after vaccination. Patients with stable IBD treated with immunomodulators and/or biological therapy were recruited from November 2009 until March 2010 in 12 European countries. Harvey-Bradshaw Index and Partial Mayo Score were used to assess disease activity before and 4 weeks after vaccination in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Vaccination-related events up to 7 days after vaccination were recorded. Of 575 patients enrolled (407 CD, 159 UC and nine indeterminate colitis; 53.9% female; mean age 40.3 years, SD 13.9), local and systemic symptoms were reported by 34.6% and 15.5% of patients, respectively. The most common local and systemic reactions were pain in 32.8% and fatigue in 6.1% of subjects. Local symptoms were more common with adjuvanted (39.3%) than non-adjuvanted (3.9%) vaccines (p < 0.0001), whereas rates of systemic symptoms were similar with both types (15.0% vs 18.4%, p = 0.44). Among the adjuvanted group, Pandemrix more often induced local reactions than FluvalP and Focetria (51.2% vs 27.6% and 15.4%, p < 0.0001). Solicited adverse events were not associated with any patient characteristics, specific immunomodulatory treatment, or biological therapy. Four weeks after vaccination, absence of flare was observed in 377 patients with CD (96.7%) and 151 with UC (95.6%). Influenza A (H1N1)v vaccines are well tolerated in patients with IBD. Non-adjuvanted vaccines are associated with fewer local reactions. The risk of IBD flare is probably not increased after H1N1 vaccination.

  17. Microphysical Characteristics of Atmospheric Particulate Matter from NASA’s MODIS, MISR, and AERONET Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, N; Ibrahim, Alaa; Shokr, M

    2017-01-01

    We present a comparative study of atmospheric particulate matter (also known as aerosols) observed by satellite remote sensing and ground-based observations. We compare satellite measurements obtained by NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instruments against the ground-based aerosol sun-photometer data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) station in Cairo, Egypt from 2003 to 2014 to build a long-term database for climatological studies and to improve upon the accuracy and coverage achievable from the satellite data. We deduce microphysical and geometrical properties about the dominant aerosols based on key optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and Ångström exponent (AE). This has allowed us to place important constraints on the type of aerosols (natural, anthropogenic, and biogenic). (paper)

  18. Characteristics of Atmospheric Waves Observed From Airglow Measurements in the Northern High-Latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-In Won

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial nightglow emission in near infrared region were obtained using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS at Esrange, Sweden (67.90°N, 21.10°E and the OH(4-2 bands were used to derive temperature and airglow emission rate of the upper mesosphere. For this study, we analyzed data taken during winter of 2001/2002 and performed spectral analysis to retrieve wave information. From the Lomb-Scargle spectral analysis to the measured temperatures, dominant oscillations at various periods near tidal frequency are found. Most commonly observed waves are 4, 6, and 8 hour oscillations. Because of periods and persistence, the observed oscillations are most likely of tidal origin, i.e. zonally symmetric tides which are known to have their maximum amplitudes at the pole.

  19. 驯鹿及其生物学特性研究%Reindeer and Its Biological Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常悦; 张玉; 陈巴特尔; 孙亚红

    2013-01-01

    驯鹿分布于北极圈及其周边地区,耐寒怕燥,处于野生或半驯化状态.本文通过对驯鹿的生态分布,形态特征(包括个体大小、被毛、茸角、鼻、蹄、视力),进食习性,繁殖习性,迁徙活动以及天敌等几方面对驯鹿的生物学特性做出较为全面的介绍,以便为今后的驯鹿保护工作奠定基础,从而制定出针对性更强的保护措施.%The reindeer inhabits in the Arctic Circle and its surrounding areas, which is cold resistant and afraid of dryness and in the wild or semi-domesticated state. The paper comprehensively introduced the biological characteristics of the reindeer through such aspects as its ecological distribution, morphological character (including body size, fur, antler, nose, feet and eyesight), eating habit, breeding habit, migrating activities as well as its natural enemies, so as to lay a foundation for the protection work and therefore developing more effective protective measures.

  20. Observations of black carbon aerosols characteristics over an urban environment: Radiative forcing and related implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Samina; Alam, Khan; Chishtie, Farrukh; Bibi, Humera; Rahman, Said

    2017-12-15

    With observations of black carbon (BC) aerosol concentrations, optical and radiative properties were obtained over the urban city of Karachi during the period of March 2006-December 2008. BC concentrations were continuously measured using an Aethalometer, while optical and radiative properties were estimated through the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) and Santa Barbra DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) models, respectively. For the study period, the measured BC concentrations were higher during January, February and November, while lower during May, June, July and August. A maximum peak value was observed during January 2007 while the minimum value was observed during June 2006. The Short Wave (SW) BC Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) both at Top of the Atmosphere (ToA) and within ATMOSphere (ATMOS) were positive during all the months, whereas negative SW BC ARF was found at the SurFaCe (SFC). Overall, SW BC ARF was higher during January, February and November, while relatively lower ARF was found during May, June, July and August. Conversely, the Long Wave (LW) BC ARF at ToA and SFC remained positive, whereas within ATMOS it shifted towards positive values (heating effect) during June-August. Finally, the net (SW+LW) BC ARF were found to be positive at ToA and in ATMOS, while negative at SFC. Moreover, a systematic increase in Atmospheric Heating Rate (AHR) was found during October to January. Additionally, we found highest correlation between Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD abs ) and SW BC ARF within ATMOS followed by SFC and ToA. Overall, the contribution of BC to the total ARF was found to greater than 84% for the whole observational period while contributing up to 93% during January 2007. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnosing observed characteristics of the wet season across Africa to identify deficiencies in climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, C.; Black, E.; Allan, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    The seasonality of rainfall over Africa plays a key role in determining socio-economic impacts for agricultural stakeholders, influences energy supply from hydropower, affects the length of the malaria transmission season and impacts surface water supplies. Hence, failure or delays of these rains can lead to significant socio-economic impacts. Diagnosing and interpreting interannual variability and long-term trends in seasonality, and analysing the physical driving mechanisms, requires a robust definition of African precipitation seasonality, applicable to both observational datasets and model simulations. Here we present a methodology for objectively determining the onset and cessation of multiple wet seasons across the whole of Africa. Compatibility with known physical drivers of African rainfall, consistency with indigenous methods, and generally strong agreement between satellite-based rainfall data sets confirm that the method is capturing the correct seasonal progression of African rainfall. Application of this method to observational datasets reveals that over East Africa cessation of the short rains is 5 days earlier in La Nina years, and the failure of the rains and subsequent humanitarian disaster is associated with shorter as well as weaker rainy seasons over this region. The method is used to examine the representation of the seasonality of African precipitation in CMIP5 model simulations. Overall, atmosphere-only and fully coupled CMIP5 historical simulations represent essential aspects of the seasonal cycle; patterns of seasonal progression of the rainy season are captured, for the most part mean model onset/ cessation dates agree with mean observational dates to within 18 days. However, unlike the atmosphere-only simulations, the coupled simulations do not capture the biannual regime over the southern West African coastline, linked to errors in Gulf of Guinea Sea Surface Temperature. Application to both observational and climate model datasets, and

  2. Chandra X-ray Observations of Jovian Low-latitude Emissions: Morphological, Temporal, and Spectral Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Cravens, Thomas E.; Waiate J. Hunter, Jr.; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Ford, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Chandra observed X-rays from Jupiter during 24-26 February 2003 for about 40 hours with the ACIS-S and HRC-I instruments. The analysis of Jovian low-latitude "disk" Xray emissions are presented and compared with the high-latitude "auroral" emissions. We report the first Chandra ACIS-S measured X-ray spectrum (0.3-2 keV) of Jupiter's low-latitude disk The disk X-ray emission is harder and extends to higher energies than the auroral spectrum. The temporal variation in the Jovian disk X-rays is on an average consistent with those in the solar X-rays observed by GOES, and TIMED/SSE. Contrary to the auroral X-rays, the disk emissions are uniformly distributed over Jupiter; no indication of longitudinal dependence or correlation with surface magneh field strength is visible. Also, unlike the approx. 40 +/- 20 min periodic oscillations seen in the auroral X-ray emissions, the disk emissions do not show any periodic oscillations. The disk spectrum seems to be consistent with resonant and fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays by the Jovian upper atmosphere. Jupiter's disk is found to be about 50% dimmer in soft X-rays in February 2003 compared that in December 2000, which is consistent with the decrease in solar activity. No evidence of lightning-induced X-rays is seen in the Chandra X-ray data. The Jovian disk spectra observed with Chandra-ACIS is stronger than that observed with XMM-Newton two months later during April 28-29, 2003. The XMM-Newton Xray image of Jupiter shows evidence of limb darkening on the anti-sunward side as seen from Earth, as well as an asymmetry with respect to the subsolar point: suggesting a solar driven process.

  3. The plasma mantle: Composition and other characteristics observed by means of the Prognoz-7 Satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pissarenko, N.; Zackarov, A.; Lundin, R.; Hultqvist, B.

    1981-03-01

    PROGNOZ-7 measurements in the nightside plasma mantle are described and analyzed. Some of the results are the following: In the nightside mantle not too far from midnight the properties of the mantle are sometimes consistent with the open magnetosphere model. An exception is found during most magnetic storm situations when 0 + ions appear in the mantle in so large proportions and with so high energies that direct injection of ionospheric ions by acceleration along the magnetic field lines appear to be most likely source mechanism. Along the flanks of the magnetosphere the open magnetosphere model does sometimes not fit at all with the PROGNOZ-7 observations. There the flow of the plasma is often low or absent. The 0 + content is high (up to 20%) and the energy spectrum of both ions and electrons may be very hot, even up to the level of the ring current plasma. Contrary to the predictions of the open magnetosphere model, the magnetopause on the nightside and along the flanks of the magnetosphere appears to be fairly solid boundary for mantle ions of ionospheric origin. An interesting observation in most of the mantle passages during geomagnetically disturbed periods is the occurrence of intense, magnetosheath like, regions deep inside the mantle. In some cases these regions with strong antisunward flow and with predominant magnetosheat ion composition was observed in the innermost part of the mantle, i.e. marking a boundary region between the lobe and the mantle. These magnetosheat ''penetration'' events are usually associated with strong fluxes of accelerated ionospheric ions in nearby parts of the mantle. Evanescent ''penetration'' regions with much reduced flow properties are frequently observed in the flank mantles. (author)

  4. Comparative Study of Biological Characteristics of Larvae, Crude and Dried Cocoon in 7 Races of Silkworm Bombyx mori L., Raised in Transylvania Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Maria Furdui

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available 7 monovoltine races of Romanian silkworm Bombyx mori L. were breeded in specific Transylvania conditions, assuring the same microclimate conditions, being fed with the same mulberry leaves (Ukraina 107. The results obtained showed a high homogeneity, the differences were due to the variability and genotype characteristic for each individual of every race. Results and standard deviations are within the race standard. The study permitted a ierarchy of the races, following the biological characteristics, microclimate conditions, quantity, quality and breeding technology.

  5. Azimuthal propagation and frequency characteristic of compressional Pc 5 waves observed at geostationary orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Higbie, P.R.; Baker, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    Energetic particle data from the 1977-007 and 1979-053 satellites and magnetic field data from the GOES 2 and 3 satellites have been used to study eight compressional Pc 5 wave events observed at geostationary orbit during 1979. All the events occurred on the dayside, and most of them were observed during the recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm. By using the data from two of the satellites which were close to each other, we measured the azimuthal phase velocity V/sub phi/ and azimuthal wave number m for selected intervals. For all these intervals the waves propagated westward in the spacecraft frame, and we obtained Vertical Bar V/sub phi/ Vertical Bar = 4--14 km/s and Vertical Bar m Vertical Bar = 40--120. In addition, harmonics of a local standing Alfven wave were often present simultaneously with a compressional Pc 5 wave. The frequency of the compressional wave was typically 25% of that of the second harmonic of the Alfven wave. These observed features are discussed in the light of existing theories of instabilities in the ring current plasma

  6. Energetic electron precipitation characteristics observed from Antarctica during a flux dropout event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clilverd, Mark A.; Cobbett, Neil; Rodger, Craig J.; Brundell, James B.; Denton, Michael H.; Hartley, David P.; Rodriguez, Juan V.; Danskin, Donald; Raita, Tero; Spanswick, Emma L.

    2013-11-01

    from two autonomous VLF radio receiver systems installed in a remote region of the Antarctic in 2012 is used to take advantage of the juxtaposition of the L = 4.6 contour, and the Hawaii-Halley, Antarctica, great circle path as it passes over thick Antarctic ice shelf. The ice sheet conductivity leads to high sensitivity to changing D region conditions, and the quasi constant L shell highlights outer radiation belt processes. The ground-based instruments observed several energetic electron precipitation events over a moderately active 24 h period, during which the outer radiation belt electron flux declined at most energies and subsequently recovered. Combining the ground-based data with low and geosynchronous orbiting satellite observations on 27 February 2012, different driving mechanisms were observed for three precipitation events with clear signatures in phase space density and electron anisotropy. Comparison between flux measurements made by Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) in low Earth orbit and by the Antarctic instrumentation provides evidence of different cases of weak and strong diffusion into the bounce loss cone, helping to understand the physical mechanisms controlling the precipitation of energetic electrons into the atmosphere. Strong diffusion events occurred as the bounce loss cone. Two events had a factor of about 3 to 10 times more >30 keV flux than was reported by POES, more consistent with strong diffusion conditions.

  7. [Therapeutic characteristance and tolerance of topical comfrey preparations. Results of an observational study of patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koll, R; Klingenburg, S

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the anti-inflammatory and analgetic properties of the topical comfrey, preparations Kytta-Salbe f, Kytta-Plasma f and Kytta-Balsam f applied to bruises, sprains and distortions and painful conditions of the muscles and joints. A prospective open multicentric observational study complying with paragraph 67(6) of the AMG and involving 162 general practitioners. During the two-week period of observation, the patients received an average of one to three applications of the comfrey preparation per day. All 492 questionnaires were evaluated. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed by both physician and patient. Pain at rest and on movement, as also tenderness, improved in the overall observation group by an average of 45-47%. The duration of morning joint stiffness decreased from 20 minutes initially to 3 minutes. During the course of treatment with comfrey, more than two-thirds of the patients were able to reduce or even discontinue their intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other specific concomitant medication. In most of the cases, both effectiveness and tolerability were assessed to be excellent or good. The results of the study confirm the effectiveness and tolerability of the topical comfrey preparation investigated in the treatment of bruises, sprains and distortions as well as painful conditions affecting muscles and joints.

  8. Dependence of reconstructed image characteristics on the observation condition in light-in-flight recording by holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Aya; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Toshihiro

    2005-08-01

    We analyze the dependence of the reconstructed image characteristic on the observation condition in the light-in-flight recording by holography both theoretically and experimentally. This holography makes it possible to record a propagating light pulse. We have found that the shape of the reconstructed image is changed when the observation position is vertically moved along the hologram plane. The reconstructed image is numerically simulated on the basis of the theory and is experimentally obtained by using a 373 fs pulsed laser. The numerical results agree with the experimental result, and the validity of the theory is verified. Also, experimental results are analyzed and the restoration of the reconstructed image is discussed.

  9. Spatial frequency characteristics at image decision-point locations for observers with different radiological backgrounds in lung nodule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.; Manning, David J.; Dix, Alan; Donovan, Tim

    2009-02-01

    Aim: The goal of the study is to determine the spatial frequency characteristics at locations in the image of overt and covert observers' decisions and find out if there are any similarities in different observers' groups: the same radiological experience group or the same accuracy scored level. Background: The radiological task is described as a visual searching decision making procedure involving visual perception and cognitive processing. Humans perceive the world through a number of spatial frequency channels, each sensitive to visual information carried by different spatial frequency ranges and orientations. Recent studies have shown that particular physical properties of local and global image-based elements are correlated with the performance and the level of experience of human observers in breast cancer and lung nodule detections. Neurological findings in visual perception were an inspiration for wavelet applications in vision research because the methodology tries to mimic the brain processing algorithms. Methods: The wavelet approach to the set of postero-anterior chest radiographs analysis has been used to characterize perceptual preferences observers with different levels of experience in the radiological task. Psychophysical methodology has been applied to track eye movements over the image, where particular ROIs related to the observers' fixation clusters has been analysed in the spaces frame by Daubechies functions. Results: Significance differences have been found between the spatial frequency characteristics at the location of different decisions.

  10. Precipitation Characteristics in West and East Africa from Satellite and in Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Amin K.; Ichoku, Charles M.; Mohr, Karen I.; Huffman, George J.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data, three precipitation classes are identified for rainy seasons of West and East Africa: weak convective rainfall (WCR), strong convective rainfall (SCR), and mesoscale convective systems (MCSs).Nearly 75% of the total seasonal precipitation is produced by the SCR and MCSs, even though they represent only 8% of the rain events. Rain events in East Africa tend to have a longer duration and lower intensity than in West Africa, reflecting different characteristics of the SCR and MCS events in these two regions. Surface heating seems to be the primary convection trigger for the SCR, particularly in East Africa, whereas the WCR requires a dynamical trigger such as low-level convergence. The data are used to evaluate the performance of the recently launched Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG)project. The IMERG-based precipitation shows significant improvement over its predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), particularly in capturing the MCSs, due to its improved temporal resolution.

  11. The Angola Current: Flow and hydrographic characteristics as observed at 11°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopte, R.; Brandt, P.; Dengler, M.; Tchipalanga, P. C. M.; Macuéria, M.; Ostrowski, M.

    2017-02-01

    The eastern boundary circulation off the coast of Angola has been described only sparsely to date, although it is a key element in the understanding of the highly productive tropical marine ecosystem off Angola. Here, we report for the first time direct velocity observations of the Angola Current (AC) at ˜11°S collected between July 2013 and October 2015 in the depth range from 45 to 450 m. The measurements reveal an alongshore flow that is dominated by intraseasonal to seasonal variability with periodically alternating southward and northward velocities in the range of ±40 cm/s. During the observation period, a weak southward mean flow of 5-8 cm/s at 50 m depth is observed, with the southward current extending down to about 200 m depth. Corresponding mean southward transport of the AC is estimated to be 0.32 ± 0.046 Sv. An extensive set of hydrographic measurements is used to investigate the thermal structure and seasonality in the hydrography of the eastern boundary circulation. Within the depth range of the AC, the superposition of annual and semiannual harmonics explains a significant part of the total variability, although salinity in the near surface layer appears to be also impacted by year-to-year variability and/or short-term freshening events. In the central water layer, temperature and salinity on isopycnals vary only weakly on seasonal to annual time scales. The available data set is further used to evaluate different reanalysis products particularly emphasizing the ocean's role in coupled climate model SST biases in the Eastern Tropical Atlantic.

  12. Characteristics of high altitude oxygen ion energization and outflow as observed by Cluster: a statistical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, H.; Waara, M.; Arvelius, S.; Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R. [Inst. of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden); Marghitu, O. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Extraterrestriche Physik, Garching (Germany); Inst. for Space Sciences, Bucharest (Romania); Bouhram, M. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Extraterrestriche Physik, Garching (Germany); CETP-CNRS, Saint-Maur (France); Hobara, Y. [Inst. of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden); Univ. of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Reme, H.; Sauvaud, J.A.; Dandouras, I. [Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse (France); Balogh, A. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Kistler, L.M. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (United States); Klecker, B. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Extraterrestriche Physik, Garching (Germany); Carlson, C.W. [Space Science Lab., Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States); Bavassano-Cattaneo, M.B. [Ist. di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Roma (Italy); Korth, A. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The results of a statistical study of oxygen ion outflow using cluster data obtained at high altitude above the polar cap is reported. Moment data for both hydrogen ions (H{sup +}) and oxygen ions (O{sup +}) from 3 years (2001-2003) of spring orbits (January to May) have been used. The altitudes covered were mainly in the range 5-12 R{sub E} geocentric distance. It was found that O{sup +} is significantly transversely energized at high altitudes, indicated both by high perpendicular temperatures for low magnetic field values as well as by a tendency towards higher perpendicular than parallel temperature distributions for the highest observed temperatures. The O{sup +} parallel bulk velocity increases with altitude in particular for the lowest observed altitude intervals. O{sup +} parallel bulk velocities in excess of 60 km s{sup -1} were found mainly at higher altitudes corresponding to magnetic field strengths of less than 100 nT. For the highest observed parallel bulk velocities of O{sup +} the thermal velocity exceeds the bulk velocity, indicating that the beam-like character of the distribution is lost. The parallel bulk velocity of the H{sup +} and O{sup +} was found to typically be close to the same throughout the observation interval when the H{sup +} bulk velocity was calculated for all pitch-angles. When the H{sup +} bulk velocity was calculated for upward moving particles only the H{sup +} parallel bulk velocity was typically higher than that of O{sup +}. The parallel bulk velocity is close to the same for a wide range of relative abundance of the two ion species, including when the O{sup +} ions dominates. The thermal velocity of O{sup +} was always well below that of H{sup +}. Thus perpendicular energization that is more effective for O{sup +} takes place, but this is not enough to explain the close to similar parallel velocities. Further parallel acceleration must occur. The results presented constrain the models of perpendicular heating and parallel

  13. Characteristics of high altitude oxygen ion energization and outflow as observed by Cluster: a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of a statistical study of oxygen ion outflow using Cluster data obtained at high altitude above the polar cap is reported. Moment data for both hydrogen ions (H+ and oxygen ions (O+ from 3 years (2001-2003 of spring orbits (January to May have been used. The altitudes covered were mainly in the range 5–12 RE geocentric distance. It was found that O+ is significantly transversely energized at high altitudes, indicated both by high perpendicular temperatures for low magnetic field values as well as by a tendency towards higher perpendicular than parallel temperature distributions for the highest observed temperatures. The O+ parallel bulk velocity increases with altitude in particular for the lowest observed altitude intervals. O+ parallel bulk velocities in excess of 60 km s-1 were found mainly at higher altitudes corresponding to magnetic field strengths of less than 100 nT. For the highest observed parallel bulk velocities of O+ the thermal velocity exceeds the bulk velocity, indicating that the beam-like character of the distribution is lost. The parallel bulk velocity of the H+ and O+ was found to typically be close to the same throughout the observation interval when the H+ bulk velocity was calculated for all pitch-angles. When the H+ bulk velocity was calculated for upward moving particles only the H+ parallel bulk velocity was typically higher than that of O+. The parallel bulk velocity is close to the same for a wide range of relative abundance of the two ion species, including when the O+ ions dominates. The thermal velocity of O+ was always well below that of H+. Thus perpendicular energization that is more effective for O+ takes place, but this is not enough to explain the close to similar parallel velocities. Further

  14. Characteristics of high altitude oxygen ion energization and outflow as observed by Cluster: a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of a statistical study of oxygen ion outflow using Cluster data obtained at high altitude above the polar cap is reported. Moment data for both hydrogen ions (H+ and oxygen ions (O+ from 3 years (2001-2003 of spring orbits (January to May have been used. The altitudes covered were mainly in the range 5–12 RE geocentric distance. It was found that O+ is significantly transversely energized at high altitudes, indicated both by high perpendicular temperatures for low magnetic field values as well as by a tendency towards higher perpendicular than parallel temperature distributions for the highest observed temperatures. The O+ parallel bulk velocity increases with altitude in particular for the lowest observed altitude intervals. O+ parallel bulk velocities in excess of 60 km s-1 were found mainly at higher altitudes corresponding to magnetic field strengths of less than 100 nT. For the highest observed parallel bulk velocities of O+ the thermal velocity exceeds the bulk velocity, indicating that the beam-like character of the distribution is lost. The parallel bulk velocity of the H+ and O+ was found to typically be close to the same throughout the observation interval when the H+ bulk velocity was calculated for all pitch-angles. When the H+ bulk velocity was calculated for upward moving particles only the H+ parallel bulk velocity was typically higher than that of O+. The parallel bulk velocity is close to the same for a wide range of relative abundance of the two ion species, including when the O+ ions dominates. The thermal velocity of O+ was always well below that of H+. Thus perpendicular energization that is more effective for O+ takes place, but this is not enough to explain the close to similar parallel velocities. Further parallel acceleration must occur. The results presented constrain the models of perpendicular heating and parallel acceleration. In particular centrifugal acceleration of the outflowing ions, which may

  15. Characteristics and conditions of production of transient luminous events observed over a maritime storm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soula, S.; van der Velde, O.; Palmiéri, J.

    2010-01-01

    On the night of 15/16 November 2007, cameras in southern France detected 30 transient luminous events (TLEs) over a storm located in the Corsican region (France). Among these TLEs, 19 were sprites, 6 were halos, and 5 were elves. For 26 of them, a positive “parent” cloud-to-ground lightning (P...... in a sequence had much lower peak currents. Several triangulated sprites were found to be shifted from their P+CG flashes by about 10 to 50 km and preferentially downstream. The observations suggest that the P+CG flashes can initiate both sprites and other CG flashes in a storm....

  16. Characteristics of a stable arc based on FAST and MIRACLE observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A stable evening sector arc is studied using observations from the FAST satellite at 1250 km altitude and the MIRACLE ground-based network, which contains all-sky cameras, coherent radars (STARE, and magnetometers. Both FAST and STARE observe a northward electric field region of about 200 km width and a field magnitude of about 50 mV/m southward of the arc, which is a typical signature for an evening-sector arc. The field-aligned current determined from FAST electron and magnetometer data are in rather good agreement within the arcs. Outside the arcs, the electron data misses the current carriers of the downward FAC probably because it is mainly carried by electrons of smaller energy than the instrument threshold. Studying the westward propagation speed of small undulations associated with the arc using the all-sky cameras gives a velocity of about 2 km/s. This speed is higher than the background ionospheric plasma speed (about 1 km/s, but it agrees rather well with the idea originally proposed by Davis that the undulations reflect an E × B motion in the acceleration region. The ground magnetograms indicate that the main current flows slightly south of the arc. Computing the ionospheric conductivity from FAST electron data and using the ground magnetograms to estimate the current yields an ionospheric electric field pattern, in rather good agreement with FAST results.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions - Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  17. Equatorial night-time spread-F characteristics observed from stations in the Western Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Tianxi

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study of the ionospheric spread-F observed at an equatorial station. Port Moresby (9 0 24.5'S, 147 0 9.9'E; magn. Dip lat. 18 0 S), Papua new Guinea, with corresponding data from the East Asian stations during a period 27 May-19 Jun 1983, as well as the same periods for 1981 and 1982, is presented. The Port Moresby spread-F condition is particularly outstanding and persistent at night and the occurrence of spread-F between 23 LT and 05 LT near June solstice is very high, reaching 100% of all observed nights. The latitudinal variation of nocturnal spread-F, its duration and connection with sunspot number are analyzed. The relationship between long-term variation of night-time spread-F occurrence and solar activity during June and December solstices from 1954 up to 1984 at a typical lower magnetic latitudinal station. Wuhan (30 0 32.7'N, 114 0 21.5'E; magn. dip lat. 26 0 N), is also investigated. (author)

  18. The Influence of Synoptic Meteorology on Convective Boundary Layer Characteristics and the Observed Chemical Response During PROPHET 2000 and 2001 Summer Intensives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, M. A.; Moody, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Brown, W. O.; Cohn, S. A.

    2002-12-01

    PROPHET conducted atmospheric chemistry intensives that were coordinated with continuous measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) during July and August of 2000 and 2001. Observations of ozone and trace gas precursors were made on a 31-meter tower within a mixed hardwood forest. A National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) integrated sounding system (915-MHz Doppler wind profiler, radio acoustic sounder, surface meteorological tower, and rawinsonde system) was deployed in a nearby clearing. This facility provided detailed measurements of atmospheric boundary layer structure. The site is located at the northern tip of the Michigan's lower peninsula. Typically, a contaminated maritime-subtropical air mass lies to the south, while a relatively clean continental-polar air mass lies to the north, resulting in two distinct synoptic transport regimes. Published work, based on analyses of back trajectories and 1998 chemical data, has shown the influence of air mass origin on trace gas mixing ratios and the same trends are observed in 2000 and 2001 chemical data. Besides directly affecting the chemistry observed at the site, the large-scale synoptic meteorology has a major influence on convective boundary layer (CBL) characteristics. CBL data were obtained from the range corrected signal-to-noise ratio, derived from the Doppler spectra measured by the wind profiler. Distinct differences between CBL characteristics, such as growth rates, time period of maximum growth, average height throughout evolution, and maximum height, are illustrated for differing synoptic patterns. Typically, dry northerly flow results when UMBS is positioned on the leading edge of surface anticyclones moving out of Canada after frontal passages. The dry air mass accompanied with relatively clear skies allows intense solar radiation to go directly into surface heating; the result is rapid CBL development. By contrast, warm, moist air

  19. Characteristics of Headache After an Intracranial Endovascular Procedure: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linjing; Wu, Xiancong; Di, Hai; Feng, Tao; Wang, Yunxia; Wang, Jun; Cao, Xiangyu; Li, Baomin; Liu, Ruozhuo; Yu, Shengyuan

    2017-03-01

    Two editions of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) diagnostic criteria for "Headache attributed to an intracranial endovascular procedure" have been published, in 2004 and 2013. 1,2 Despite studies that have suggested that the former is not very practical, the ICHD-3 beta did not contain major changes. Moreover, so far no consensus exists regarding characteristics of headache after intracranial endovascular procedure. Thus, there is a need for sound suggestions to improve the ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria. Using a prospective design, we identified consecutive patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) with neuroendovascular treatment from January 2014 to December 2014. In total, 73 patients were enrolled, and 58 patients ultimately completed the 6-month follow-up. After the procedure, five of the 29 patients (17.2%) with pre-existing headache experienced marked worsening after the procedure, while seven of the 29 patients without prior headache developed new-onset headache post-procedurally. The headaches started within 24 hours, with a mean duration of 24-72 hours. The headaches were moderate to severe. The eligibility of these events to be considered headaches caused by neuroendovascular procedures according to the ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria for designation was far from ideal. Most cases of markedly worsening headaches and new-onset headaches started within 24 hours and persisted longer than that specified in the ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria. Moreover, considering that some items are not very practical, the ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria should be revised in the light of recent literature reports. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  20. Correlates of Parents' Involvement with Their Adolescent Children in Restructured and Biological Two-Parent Families: The Role of Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2004-01-01

    This study used data from both 225 fathers and mothers as well as their secondary school age children to explore the role of child characteristics (sex, age, self-esteem, and emotional and behavioural well-being) in mother's and father's involvement in biological and restructured (stepfather) two-parent families after controlling for known…

  1. Characteristics of bursts observed by the SMM Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, G. H.; Messina, D. C.; Iadicicco, A.; Matz, S. M.; Rieger, E.; Forrest, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the SMM completed close to 10 years of highly successful operation when the spacecraft reentered the atmosphere on December 2, 1989. During this period the GRS detected 177 events above 300 keV which have been classified as cosmic gamma-ray bursts. A catalog of these events is in preparation which will include time profiles and spectra for all events. Visual inspection of the spectra indicates that emission typically extends into the MeV range, without any evidence for a high-energy cutoff; 17 of these events are also observed above 10 MeV. We find no convincing evidence for line-like emission features in any of the time-integrated spectra.

  2. Terahertz Mixing Characteristics of NbN Superconducting Tunnel Junctions and Related Astronomical Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.

    2010-01-01

    High-sensitivity superconducting SIS (superconductor-insulator-superconductor) mixers are playing an increasingly important role in the terahertz (THz) astronomical observation, which is an emerging research frontier in modern astrophysics. Superconducting SIS mixers with niobium (Nb) tunnel junctions have reached a sensitivity close to the quantum limit, but have a frequency limit about 0.7 THz (i.e., gap frequency of Nb tunnel junctions). Beyond this frequency Nb superconducting films will absorb energetic photons (i.e., energy loss) to break Cooper pairs, thereby resulting in significant degradation of the mixer performance. Therefore, it is of particular interest to develop THz superconducting SIS mixers incorporating tunnel junctions with a larger energy gap. Niobium-nitride (NbN) superconducting tunnel junctions have been long known for their large energy gap, almost double that of Nb ones. With the introduction of epitaxially grown NbN films, the fabrication technology of NbN superconducting tunnel junctions has been considerably improved in the recent years. Nevertheless, their performances are still not as good as Nb ones, and furthermore they are not yet demonstrated in real astronomical applications. Given the facts mentioned above, in this paper we systematically study the quantum mixing behaviors of NbN superconducting tunnel junctions in the THz regime and demonstrate an astronomical testing observation with a 0.5 THz superconducting SIS mixer developed with NbN tunnel junctions. The main results of this study include: (1) successful design and fabrication of a 0.4˜0.6 THz waveguide mixing circuit with the high-dielectric-constant MgO substrate; (2) successful fabrication of NbN superconducting tunnel junctions with the gap voltage reaching 5.6 mV and the quality factor as high as 15; (3) demonstration of a 0.5 THz waveguide NbN superconducting SIS mixer with a measured receiver noise temperature (no correction) as low as five times the quantum limit

  3. Determination of the isotopic (C-13/C-12) discrimination by terrestrial biology from a global network of observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakwin, P.S.; Tans, P.P.; White, J.W.C.; Andres, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory global air sampling network are analysed in order to extract the signatures of isotopic (C-13/C-12) discrimination by the terrestrial iota and of fossil fuel combustion for the regions surrounding the sampling sites. Measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) are used to give an estimate of the contribution of fossil fuel combustion to the short-term variability of carbon dioxide. In general, variations of CO 2 are more strongly dominated by biological exchange, so the isotopic signature of fossil fuel combustion, while consistent with inventory estimates, is not well constrained by the observations. Conversely, results for isotope discrimination by the terrestrial biosphere are not strongly dependent on assumptions about fossil fuel combustion. The analysis appears valid primarily for stations fairly near continental source/sink regions, particularly for midlatitude regions of the northern hemisphere. For these stations a mean discrimination of -16.8 per mil (%) is derived, with site-to-site variability of 0.8% and with little or no consistent latitudinal gradient

  4. Experimental observations of thermal mixing characteristics in T-junction piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mei-Shiue, E-mail: chenms@mx.nthu.edu.tw; Hsieh, Huai-En; Ferng, Yuh-Ming; Pei, Bau-Shi

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The effects of flow velocity ratio on thermal mixing phenomenon are the major parameters. • The flow velocity ratio (V{sub b}/V{sub m}) is greater than 13.6, reverse flow occurs. • The flow velocity ratio is greater than 13.7, a “good” mixing quality is achieved. - Abstract: The T-junction piping is frequently used in many industrial applications, including the nuclear plants. For a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) inject cold water into the primary loops if a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) happens. Inappropriate mixing of the two streams with significant temperature different at a junction may cause strong thermal stresses to the downstream structures in the reactor vessel. The downstream structures may be damaged. This study is an experimental investigation into the thermal mixing effect occurring at a T-junction. A small-scale test facility was established to observe the mixing effect of flows with different temperature. Thermal mixing effect with different flow rates in the main and branch pipes are investigated by measuring the temperature distribution along the main pipe. In test condition I, we found that lower main pipe flow rate leads to better mixing effect with constant branch pipe flow rate. And in conditions II and III, higher injection flow velocity would enhance the turbulence effect which results in better thermal mixing. The results will be useful for applications with mixing fluids with different temperature.

  5. Turbulence characteristics inside ionospheric small-scale expanding structures observed with SuperDARN HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. André

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Unusual structures characterized by a very high-velocity divergence have been observed in the high-latitude F-region with SuperDARN radars (André et al., 2000. These structures have been interpreted as due to local demagnetization of the plasma in the ionospheric F-region, during very specific geophysical conditions. In this study, the collective wave scattering theory is used to characterize the decameter-scale turbulence (l approx 15 m inside the structures. The distribution function of the diffusion coefficient is modified when the structures are generated, suggesting that two regimes of turbulence coexist. A temporal analysis decorrelates the two regimes and gives access to the dynamics associated with the structures. It is shown that a high turbulent regime precedes the plasma demagnetization and should be related to an energy deposition. Then a second regime appears when the plasma is demagnetized and disappears simultaneously with the structures. This study is the first application of the collective wave scattering theory to a specific geophysical event.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities – Space plasma physics (turbulence

  6. Multiple spacecraft observations of interplanetary shocks: characteristics of the upstream ulf turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.; Smith, E.J.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    All interplanetary shocks observed by ISEE-3 and either ISEE-1 or ISEE-2 or both in 1978 and 1979 are examined for evidence of upstream waves. In order to characterize the properties of these shocks it is necessary to determine accurate shock normals. We invert an overdetermined set of equations to obtain shock normals, velocities and error estimates for all these shocks. Tests of the method indicate it is quite reliable. Using these normals we then calculate the Mach number and angle between the interplanetary magnetic field and the shock normal for each shock. These parameters allow us to separate the upstream waves into two classes: whistler-mode precursors which occur at low Mach numbers and upstream turbulence whose amplitude at Mach numbers greater than 1.5 is controlled by the angle of the field to the shock normal. The former waves are right-hand circularly polarized and quite monochromatic. The latter waves are more linearly polarized and have a broadband featureless spectrum

  7. Improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan mine wastes following application of amendments and growth of Cistus ladanifer L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarilis

    2013-04-01

    Cistus ladanifer is considered a good option for phytostabilization of mine wastes, composed of several materials, but its growth is very slow due to substrata conditions (acidic pH, low fertility and water availability, high total concentrations of hazardous elements). To enhance the growth of C. ladanifer with application of organic/inorganic amendments can be a strategy to speed up remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different rates of amendments and C. ladanifer growth on the improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan wastes. Composite samples of mining wastes (gossan+host rocks) were collected at the São Domingos mine. Amendments used were mixtures (30, 75, 150 Mg/ha) of rockwool, agriculture wastes and wastes from liquor distillation obtained from fruits of Arbutus unedo. Four treatments (n=6 replicates) were carried out (control and three amended treatments) under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. After one month of incubation at 70% of water holding capacity, C. ladanifer was sown in half of the pots from each treatment (n=3), and the other three pots remained in the same conditions without plant. Chemical and biological characteristics of the wastes (with/without plants) were analysed after incubation and fifteen months. Gossan wastes had great total concentrations of several elements (g/kg; Al: 24.8, As: 3.03, Cu: 0.23, Pb; 9.21) whereas in an extracting solution (diluted solution of organic acids) these were small (0.5 units), fertility (Corganic, Pextractable, Ntotal) and dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes, principally with the rate of 150 Mg/ha, even after one month of incubation and after the plants be sown. In both sampling periods (beginning/end of the experiment), Kextractable concentrations increased only with the high application rates (control and 30 Mg/ha treatment: 1.02-1.88 mg/kg; other amended treatments: 2.13-3.55 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, the presence of the plant increased

  8. First direct observations linking confined supercritical turbidity currents to their depositional architecture and facies characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, S.; Cartigny, M.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Clare, M. A.; Sumner, E.; Hubbard, S. M.; Talling, P.; Lintern, G.; Stacey, C.; Vardy, M. E.; Hunt, J.; Vendettuoli, D.; Yokokawa, M.; Hizzett, J. L.; Vellinga, A. J.; Azpiroz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents transfer globally significant amounts of sediment via submarine channels from the continental margin to deep submarine fans. Submarine channel inception is thought to result from erosive, supercritical turbidity currents that are common in proximal settings of the marine realm. Recent monitoring of submarine processes have provided the first measurements of supercritical turbidity currents (Hughes Clarke, 2016), demonstrating that they drive the upstream migration of crescentic bedforms in confined submarine channels. Although upstream-migrating bedforms are common in confined channels across the world's oceans, there is considerable debate over the type of deposits that they produce. It is important to understand what types of deposit record these supercritical bedforms to potentially identify them from geological archives. For the first time, we combine direct measurements from supercritical field-scale turbidity currents with the facies and depositional architecture resulting from such flows. We show how the subsurface architecture evolves in a highly active channel at Squamish submarine delta, British Columbia, Canada. Repeated upstream migration of bedforms is found to create two main deposit geometries. First, regular back-stepping beds result from flow deceleration on the slightly-inclined sides of the bedforms. Second, lens-shaped scour fills composed of massive deposits result from erosion of the back-stepping beds by subsequent turbidity currents. We relate our findings to a range of ancient outcrop studies to demonstrate that supercritical flows are common in proximal settings through the geological record. This study provides the first direct observation-based model to identify confined supercritical turbidity currents and their associated upslope-migrating bedforms in the sedimentary record. This is important for correctly identifying the proximal sites of ancient submarine channels that served as past conduits for globally

  9. Global characteristics of the lunar tidal modulation of the equatorial electrojet derived from CHAMP observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been known since many decades that lunar tide has an influence on the strength of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ. There has, however, never been a comprehensive study of the tidal effect on a global scale. Based on the continuous magnetic field measurements by the CHAMP satellite over 10 years it is possible to investigate the various aspects of lunar effects on the EEJ. The EEJ intensity is enhanced around times when the moon is overhead or at the antipode. This effect is particularly strong around noon, shortly after new and full moon. The lunar tide manifests itself as a semi-diurnal wave that precesses through all local times within one lunar month. The largest tidal amplitudes are observed around December solstice and smallest around June solstice. The tidal wave crest lags behind the moon phase. During December this amounts to about 4 days while it is around 2 days during other times of the year. We have not found significant longitudinal variations of the lunar influence on the EEJ. When comparing the average EEJ amplitude at high solar activity with that during periods of solar minimum conditions a solar cycle dependence can be found, but the ratio between tidal amplitude and EEJ intensity stays the same. Actually, tidal signatures standout clearer during times of low solar activity. We suggest that the tidal variations are caused by a current system added to the EEJ rather than by modulating the EEJ. Gravitational forcing of the lower atmosphere by the moon and the sun is assumed to be the driver of an upward propagating tidal wave. The larger tidal amplitudes around December solstice can be related to stratospheric warming events which seem to improve the conditions for upward propagation. The results described here have to large extent been presented as a Julius-Bartels Medal Lecture during the General Assembly 2011 of the European Geosciences Union.

  10. Influence of physical and chemical characteristics of diesel fuels and exhaust emissions on biological effects of particle extracts: a multivariate statistical analysis of ten diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, M; Li, H; Banner, C; Rafter, J; Westerholm, R; Rannug, U

    1996-01-01

    The emission of diesel exhaust particulates is associated with potentially severe biological effects, e.g., cancer. The aim of the present study was to apply multivariate statistical methods to identify factors that affect the biological potency of these exhausts. Ten diesel fuels were analyzed regarding physical and chemical characteristics. Particulate exhaust emissions were sampled after combustion of these fuels on two makes of heavy duty diesel engines. Particle extracts were chemically analyzed and tested for mutagenicity in the Ames test. Also, the potency of the extracts to competitively inhibit the binding of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to the Ah receptor was assessed. Relationships between fuel characteristics and biological effects of the extracts were studied, using partial least squares regression (PLS). The most influential chemical fuel parameters included the contents of sulfur, certain polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), and naphthenes. Density and flash point were positively correlated with genotoxic potency. Cetane number and upper distillation curve points were negatively correlated with both mutagenicity and Ah receptor affinity. Between 61% and 70% of the biological response data could be explained by the measured chemical and physical factors of the fuels. By PLS modeling of extract data versus the biological response data, 66% of the genotoxicity could be explained, by 41% of the chemical variation. The most important variables, associated with both mutagenicity and Ah receptor affinity, included 1-nitropyrene, particle bound nitrate, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and emitted mass of particles. S9-requiring mutagenicity was highly correlated with certain PAC, whereas S9-independent mutagenicity was better correlated with nitrates and 1-nitropyrene. The emission of sulfates also showed a correlation both with the emission of particles and with the biological effects. The results indicate that fuels with biologically less hazardous

  11. A review of the known biological characteristics of the Great Meteor East site together with a sampling programme for a biological site assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, H.S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Existing biological information on GME is reviewed. In common with most other oceanic areas there is very little data available from depths below 2000m. There is virtually no direct benthic information and none at all on the midwater/benthic boundary layer. Existing data from a wider geographic area are relevant to GME but the applicability of such data varies according to the hydrography. A sampling programme is outlined which will allow a comprehensive quantitative and qualitative assessment of the midwater and benthic ecosystems. Particular attention will be paid to the interactions between benthic and midwater communities just above the sea floor. (author)

  12. A study of variation characteristics of Gobi broadband emissivity based on field observational experiments in northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-yuan; Wei, Zhi-gang; Wen, Zhi-ping; Dong, Wen-jie; Li, Zhen-chao; Wen, Xiao-hang; Zhu, Xian; Chen, Chen; Hu, Shan-shan

    2018-02-01

    Land surface emissivity is a significant variable in energy budgets, land cover assessments, and environment and climate studies. However, the assumption of an emissivity constant is being used in Gobi broadband emissivity (GbBE) parameterization scheme in numerical models because of limited knowledge surrounding the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of GbBE. To address this issue, we analyzed the variation characteristics of GbBE and possible impact factor-surface soil moisture based on long-term continuous and high temporal resolution field observational experiments over a typical Gobi underlying surface in arid and semiarid areas in northwestern China. The results indicate that GbBE has obvious daily and diurnal variation features, especially diurnal cycle characteristics. The multi-year average of the daily average of GbBE is in the range of 0.932 to 0.970 with an average of 0.951 ± 0.008, and the average diurnal GbBE is in the range of 0.880 to 0.940 with an average of 0.906 ± 0.018. GbBE varies with surface soil moisture content. We observed a slight decrease in GbBE with an increase in soil moisture, although this change was not very obvious because of the low soil moisture in this area. Nevertheless, we think that soil moisture must be one of the most significant impact factors on GbBE in arid and semiarid areas. Soil moisture must be taken into account into the parameterization schemes of bare soil broadband emissivity in land surface models. Additional field experiments and studies should be carried out in order to clarify this issue.

  13. Predicting the biological condition of streams: Use of geospatial indicators of natural and anthropogenic characteristics of watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, D.M.; Falcone, J.; Meador, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    We developed and evaluated empirical models to predict biological condition of wadeable streams in a large portion of the eastern USA, with the ultimate goal of prediction for unsampled basins. Previous work had classified (i.e., altered vs. unaltered) the biological condition of 920 streams based on a biological assessment of macroinvertebrate assemblages. Predictor variables were limited to widely available geospatial data, which included land cover, topography, climate, soils, societal infrastructure, and potential hydrologic modification. We compared the accuracy of predictions of biological condition class based on models with continuous and binary responses. We also evaluated the relative importance of specific groups and individual predictor variables, as well as the relationships between the most important predictors and biological condition. Prediction accuracy and the relative importance of predictor variables were different for two subregions for which models were created. Predictive accuracy in the highlands region improved by including predictors that represented both natural and human activities. Riparian land cover and road-stream intersections were the most important predictors. In contrast, predictive accuracy in the lowlands region was best for models limited to predictors representing natural factors, including basin topography and soil properties. Partial dependence plots revealed complex and nonlinear relationships between specific predictors and the probability of biological alteration. We demonstrate a potential application of the model by predicting biological condition in 552 unsampled basins across an ecoregion in southeastern Wisconsin (USA). Estimates of the likelihood of biological condition of unsampled streams could be a valuable tool for screening large numbers of basins to focus targeted monitoring of potentially unaltered or altered stream segments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  14. Precipitation microphysics characteristics of a Typhoon Matmo (2014) rainband after landfall over eastern China based on polarimetric radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingjun; Zhao, Kun; Xue, Ming; Zhang, Guifu; Liu, Su; Wen, Long; Chen, Gang

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of microphysical characteristics of a rainband in Typhoon Matmo (2014) over eastern China, through its onset, developing, mature, and dissipating stages, is documented using observations from an S band polarimetric Doppler radar and a two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD). The drop size distributions observed by the 2DVD and retrieved from the polarimetric radar measurements indicate that the convection in the rainband generally contains smaller drops and higher number concentrations than the typical maritime type convection described in Bringi et al. (2003). The average mass-weighted mean diameter (Dm) of convective precipitation in the rainband is about 1.41 mm, and the average logarithmic normalized intercept (Nw) is 4.67 log10 mm-1 m-3. To further investigate the dominant microphysical processes, the evolution of the vertical structures of polarimetric variables is examined. Results show that complex ice processes are involved above the freezing level, while it is most likely that the accretion and/or coalescence processes dominate below the freezing level throughout the rainband life cycle. A combined examination of the polarimetric measurements and profiles of estimated vertical liquid and ice water contents indicates that the conversion of cloud water into rainwater through cloud water accretion by raindrops plays a dominant role in producing heavy rainfall. The high estimated precipitation efficiency of 50% also suggests that cloud water accretion is the dominant mechanism for producing heavy rainfall. This study represents the first time that radar and 2DVD observations are used together to characterize the microphysical characteristics and precipitation efficiency for typhoon rainbands in China.

  15. Study on human-factors-engineering properties of reactor maintenance workers with protection suits, (2). Basic research on various biological characteristics in reactor maintenance simulation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, K; Ishii, K; Nakasa, H [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Shigeta, S

    1980-11-01

    To ensure the safety of reactor maintenance workers and to reduce the radiation exposure through the enhancement of labor efficiency, it is needed to evaluate quantitatively work-stress levels of workers with radiation-protection suits. This paper presents the results of reactor-maintenance simulation tests in which the relationship between the work stress and biological characteristics is investigated for 5 pinds of model works done by testees without protection suits in an artificial climate chamber. Major results obtained are: (1) the selected model works are mostly evaluated to be relatively heavy through the measurement of RMR (Relative Metabolic Rate). (2) biological characteristics such as heart rate and respiratory volume under the model works have close relationship to RMR which is the cumulative quantity in relatively long time, and then they may become the real-time indicator for the work stress level. (3) such biological characteristics are greatly affected by the high-temperature work-environment which is often seen in workers with protection suits.

  16. The effect of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on yield, essential oil percentage and some agroecological characteristics of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. under Mashhad conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Gholami Sharafkhane

    2016-05-01

    , all studied characteristics including plant height, lateral branches, flowering shoot yield, stem yield, percentage of essential oil and dry matter yield were affected positively by cattle manure. The highest plant height and number of lateral branches resulted from vermicompost and combination of Nitroxin+Biophosphor+Biosulfur, respectively. Biosulfur fertilizer produced the highest dry matter yield, flowering shoot yield and stem yield. Percentage of essential oil was also significantly affected by fertilizer treatments as the most percentage of essential oil was obtained from Nitroxin, vermicompost and combination of Nitroxin+Biophosphor+Biosulfur. A positive and strong correlation was observed between dry mater yield and flowering shoot yield and stem yield, respectively. Conclusion The results indicated that application of organic and inoculation of biological fertilizers have positive effects on improvement of qualitative and quantitative traits of summer savory, so it could be considered as an alternative method for healthy production of summer savory. Acknowledgements The expenses for this research were funded by the Research and Technology Deputy of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Faculty of agriculture. The financial support is appreciated. References Chen, J. 2006. The combined use of chemical and organic fertilizers and/or biofertilizer for crop growth and soil fertility. International Workshop on Sustained Management of the Soil-Rhizosphere System for Efficient Crop Production and Fertilizer Use. October 16-20. Thailand. 11 pp. Gliessman, S.R. 1998. Agroecology: Ecological Processes in Sustainable Agriculture. CRC Press. ISBN: 1-57504-043-3 Mahfouz, S.A., Sharaf- Eldin, A. 2007. Effect of mineral vs. biofertilizer on growth, yield, and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.. Agrophysics Journal 21: 361-366. Omidbeigi, R. 2000. Approaches to Production and Processing of Medicinal plants, vol. (3. Beh Nashr Publisher, Mashhad. (In

  17. Policy implications of select student characteristics and their influence on the Florida biology end-of-course assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Janine Cecelia

    In an attempt to improve student achievement in science in Florida, the Florida Department of Education implemented end-of-course (EOC) assessments in biology during the 2011-2012 academic school year. Although this first administration would only account for 30% of the student's overall final course grade in biology, subsequent administrations would be accompanied by increasing stakes for students, teachers, and schools. Therefore, this study sought to address gaps in empirical evidence as well as discuss how educational policy will potentially impact on teacher evaluation and professional development, student retention and graduation rates, and school accountability indicators. This study explored four variables- reading proficiency, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender- to determine their influence and relationship on biology achievement on the Biology I EOC assessment at a Title 1 school. To do so, the results of the Biology I EOC assessment administered during the Spring 2012 school year was obtained from a small, rural Title 1 high school in North Florida. Additional data regarding each student's qualification for free and reduced-price lunch, FCAT Reading developmental scale scores, FCAT Reading level, grade level, gender, and ethnicity were also collected for the causal-comparative exploratory study. Of the 178 students represented, 48% qualified for free and reduced-price lunch, 54% were female, and 55% scored at FCAT Reading level 3 or higher. Additionally, 59% were White and 37% Black. A combination of descriptive statistics and other statistical procedures such as independent samples one-tailed t-test, one-way ANOVAs, ANCOVAs, multipleregression, and a Pearson r correlation was utilized in the analysis, with a significance level set at 0.05. Results indicate that of all four variables, FCAT Reading proficiency was the sole variable, after adjusting for other variables; that had a significant impact on biology achievement. Students with higher

  18. Observation of Van Hove Singularities and Temperature Dependence of Electrical Characteristics in Suspended Carbon Nanotube Schottky Barrier Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Siyu; Nshimiyimana, Jean Pierre; Deng, Ya; Hu, Xiao; Chi, Xiannian; Wu, Pei; Liu, Jia; Chu, Weiguo; Sun, Lianfeng

    2018-06-01

    A Van Hove singularity (VHS) is a singularity in the phonon or electronic density of states of a crystalline solid. When the Fermi energy is close to the VHS, instabilities will occur, which can give rise to new phases of matter with desirable properties. However, the position of the VHS in the band structure cannot be changed in most materials. In this work, we demonstrate that the carrier densities required to approach the VHS are reached by gating in a suspended carbon nanotube Schottky barrier transistor. Critical saddle points were observed in regions of both positive and negative gate voltage, and the conductance flattened out when the gate voltage exceeded the critical value. These novel physical phenomena were evident when the temperature is below 100 K. Further, the temperature dependence of the electrical characteristics was also investigated in this type of Schottky barrier transistor.

  19. Characteristics of equatorial plasma bubbles observed by TEC map based on ground-based GNSS receivers over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Diego; Takahashi, Hisao; Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Figueiredo, Cosme Alexandre O. B.

    2018-01-01

    A ground-based network of GNSS receivers has been used to monitor equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) by mapping the total electron content (TEC map). The large coverage of the TEC map allowed us to monitor several EPBs simultaneously and get characteristics of the dynamics, extension and longitudinal distributions of the EPBs from the onset time until their disappearance. These characteristics were obtained by using TEC map analysis and the keogram technique. TEC map databases analyzed were for the period between November 2012 and January 2016. The zonal drift velocities of the EPBs showed a clear latitudinal gradient varying from 123 m s-1 at the Equator to 65 m s-1 for 35° S latitude. Consequently, observed EPBs are inclined against the geomagnetic field lines. Both zonal drift velocity and the inclination of the EPBs were compared to the thermospheric neutral wind, which showed good agreement. Moreover, the large two-dimensional coverage of TEC maps allowed us to study periodic EPBs with a wide longitudinal distance. The averaged values observed for the inter-bubble distances also presented a clear latitudinal gradient varying from 920 km at the Equator to 640 km at 30° S. The latitudinal gradient in the inter-bubble distances seems to be related to the difference in the zonal drift velocity of the EPB from the Equator to middle latitudes and to the difference in the westward movement of the terminator. On several occasions, the distances reached more than 2000 km. Inter-bubble distances greater than 1000 km have not been reported in the literature.

  20. Characteristics of Latinas in Puerto Rico and the US mainland receiving teriparatide in the DANCE observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Valerie A; Acosta, Agaph; Soto-Raices, Oscar; Sierra-Zorita, Radamés; Toro-Torres, Ramón; Rodríguez-Ginorio, Henry; Comulada, Angel; Chiang, Alan Y; Krohn, Kelly; Taylor, Kathleen A

    2014-09-01

    The Direct Assessment of Nonvertebral Fractures in Community Experience (DANCE) study investigated the use of teriparatide in men and women with osteoporosis in the United States (US) and Puerto Rico (PR). In a sub-analysis, we evaluated whether the baseline characteristics of Latinas differed from those of white women in the study population and whether any patient attributes affected physicians' decisions to prescribe teriparatide. We assessed 3 patient cohorts treated with teriparatide 20 microg once daily for up to 24 months: 1) PR Latinas, 2) US Latinas, and 3) white women on the US mainland (white women). We analyzed differences related to ethnicity (Latina vs. white) and geography (PR vs. US mainland). Overall, 302 of the 3243 women (9%) enrolled in DANCE were Latina (205 of these 302 Latinas resided in PR). Significant differences were observed in 7 of 11 baseline characteristics. White women had more prior fragility fractures and family history of hip fracture than Latinas, while PR Latinas were generally older than US Latinas and had more comorbid conditions. A similar proportion of subjects in each cohort had received prior osteoporosis therapy. Physicians prescribed teriparatide more often for Latinas based on multiple risk factors for fracture and intolerance to previous osteoporosis therapy and to white women based on inadequate response to previous therapy or new (incident) fractures. Overall, Latinas were less persistent with teriparatide therapy than white women. We observed significant differences related to ethnicity and geography in the baseline demographics of Latinas enrolled in the DANCE study, criteria cited by physicians for initiating teriparatide therapy, and treatment persistence.

  1. Determination of Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of D-region Electron Density during Annular Solar Eclipse from VLF Network Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, T.; Hobara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A major part of the path of the annular solar eclipse of May 20, 2012 (magnitude 0.9439) was over southern Japan. The D-region ionospheric changes associated with that eclipse, led to several degree of observable perturbations of sub-ionospheric very low frequency (VLF) radio signal. The University of Electro-Communications (UEC) operates VLF observation network over Japan. The solar eclipse associated signal changes were recorded in several receiving stations (Rx) simultaneously for the VLF signals coming from NWC/19.8kHz, JJI/22.2kHz, JJY/40.0kHz, NLK/24.8kHz and other VLF transmitters (Tx). These temporal dependences of VLF signal perturbation have been analyzed and the spatio-temporal characteristics of respective sub-ionospheric perturbations has already been studied by earlier workers using 2D-Finite Difference Time Domain method of simulation. In this work, we determine the spatial scale, depth and temporal dependence of lower ionospheric perturbation in consistence with umbral and penumbral motion. We considered the 2-parameter D-region ionospheric model with exponential electron density profile. To model the solar obscuration effect over it, we assumed a generalized space-time dependent 2-dimensional elliptical Gaussian distribution for ionospheric parameters, such as, effective reflection height (h') and sharpness factor (β). The depth (△hmax, △βmax), center of shadow (lato(t), lono(t)) and spatial scale (σlat,lon) of that Gaussian distribution are used as model parameters. In the vicinity of the eclipse zone, we compute the VLF signal perturbations using Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code for several signal propagation paths. The propagation path characteristics, such as, ground and water conductivity and geomagnetic effect on ionosphere are considered from standard LWPC prescriptions. The model parameters are tuned to set an optimum agreement between our computation and observed positive and negative type of VLF perturbations. Thus

  2. The correlation between the ultrasonic elastic strain ratio of thyroid cancer and the malignant biological characteristics of cancer cells in the lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation between the ultrasonic elastic strain ratio of thyroid cancer and the malignant biological characteristics of cancer cells in the lesions. Methods: A total of 90 patients with thyroid cancer who accepted surgical treatment in our hospital between March 2015 and September 2016 were selected as the observation group, and 50 patients who received surgery in our hospital during the same period and were with clear pathological diagnosis of thyroid adenoma were selected as the control group. According to the median of ultrasonic elastic strain ratio, the observing group were further divided into high elastic strain ratio group and low elastic strain ratio group (n=45. RT-PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression of proliferation genes, invasion genes and autophagy genes in lesions of all groups of patients. Results: The mean elastic strain ratio of observation group was significantly lower than that of control group. Proliferation gene FOXA1 mRNA expression in lesions of low elastic strain ratio group and high elastic strain ratio group were higher than those of control group while PP4R1 and Smac mRNA expression were lower than those of control group, and as the elastic strain ratio decreased, the FOXA1 mRNA expression increased while PP4R1 and Smac mRNA expression decreased; invasion genes BCORL1, SATB1, Twist1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression in lesions of low elastic strain ratio group and high elastic strain ratio group were higher than those of control group, and as the elastic strain ratio decreased, the BCORL1, SATB1, Twist1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression increased; autophagy genes ARHI, Beclin1, LC3 and PTEN mRNA expression in lesions of low elastic strain ratio group and high elastic strain ratio group were lower than those of control group, and as the elastic strain ratio decreased, the ARHI, Beclin1, LC3 and PTEN mRNA expression decreased. Conclusion: The ultrasonic elastic strain ratio of thyroid cancer is

  3. GEOMETRY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HELIOSHEATH REVEALED IN THE FIRST FIVE YEARS OF INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Funsten, H. O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Heerikhuisen, J.; Zank, G. P., E-mail: ezirnstein@swri.edu [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We investigate and interpret the geometry and characteristics of the inner heliosheath (IHS) plasma and their impact on the heliotail structure as observed in energetic neutral atom (ENA) maps acquired during the first 5 yr of Interstellar Boundary Explorer ( IBEX ) observations. In particular, IBEX observations of the heliotail reveal distinct, localized emission features (lobes) that provide a rich set of information about the properties and evolution of the heliosheath plasma downstream of the termination shock (TS). We analyze the geometry of the heliotail lobes and find that the plane intersecting the port and starboard heliotail lobe centers is ∼6° from the solar equatorial plane, and the plane intersecting the north and south heliotail lobe centers is ∼90° from the solar equatorial plane, both indicating strong correlation with the fast–slow solar wind asymmetry, and thus reflecting the structure of the IHS flow around the Sun. We also analyze the key parameters and processes that form and shape the port and starboard lobes, which are distinctly different from the north and south lobes. By comparing IBEX ENA observations with results from a simplistic flow model of the heliosphere and a multicomponent description for pickup ions (PUIs) in the IHS, we find that the port and starboard lobe formation is driven by a thin IHS, large nose–tail asymmetry of the distance to the TS (and consequently, a large nose–tail asymmetry of the relative abundance of PUIs at the TS) and the energy-dependent removal of PUIs by charge exchange in the IHS.

  4. Vertical Distribution Characteristics of PM2.5 Observed by a Mobile Vehicle Lidar in Tianjin, China in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Lihui; Dong, Yunsheng; Zhang, Tianshu; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Wenqing; Xie, Zhouqing; Xiang, Yan; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Zhenyi; Fan, Guangqiang; Zhang, Leibo; Liu, Yang; Shi, Yuchen; Shu, Xiaowen

    2018-02-01

    We present mobile vehicle lidar observations in Tianjin, China during the spring, summer, and winter of 2016. Mobile observations were carried out along the city border road of Tianjin to obtain the vertical distribution characteristics of PM2.5. Hygroscopic growth was not considered since relative humidity was less than 60% during the observation experiments. PM2.5 profile was obtained with the linear regression equation between the particle extinction coefficient and PM2.5 mass concentration. In spring, the vertical distribution of PM2.5 exhibited a hierarchical structure. In addition to a layer of particles that gathered near the ground, a portion of particles floated at 0.6-2.5-km height. In summer and winter, the fine particles basically gathered below 1 km near the ground. In spring and summer, the concentration of fine particles in the south was higher than that in the north because of the influence of south wind. In winter, the distribution of fine particles was opposite to that measured during spring and summer. High concentrations of PM2.5 were observed in the rural areas of North Tianjin with a maximum of 350 μg m-3 on 13 December 2016. It is shown that industrial and ship emissions in spring and summer and coal combustion in winter were the major sources of fine particles that polluted Tianjin. The results provide insights into the mechanisms of haze formation and the effects of meteorological conditions during haze-fog pollution episodes in the Tianjin area.

  5. Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Visceral Leishmaniasis Outbreak in a Northern Italian Nonendemic Area: A Retrospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Franceschini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic in the Mediterranean area. In the last decades a northward spread of the parasite has been observed in Italy. This paper describes a VL outbreak in Modena province (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy between 2012 and 2015. Methods. Retrospective, observational study to evaluate epidemiological, microbiological characteristics, and clinical management of VL in patients referring to Policlinico Modena Hospital. Results. Sixteen cases of VL occurred in the study period. An immunosuppressive condition was present in 81.3%. Clinical presentation included anemia, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. Serology was positive in 73.3% of cases, peripheral blood PCR in 92.3%, and bone marrow blood PCR in 100%. Culture was positive in 3/6 cases (50% and all the isolates were identified as L. infantum by ITS1/ITS2 sequencing. The median time between symptom onset and diagnosis was 22 days (range 6–131 days. All patients were treated with liposomal amphotericin b. 18.8% had a VL recurrence and were treated with miltefosine. Attributable mortality was 6.3%. Conclusions. VL due to L. infantum could determine periodical outbreaks, as the one described; thus it is important to include VL in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin, even in low-endemic areas.

  6. Lightning characteristics observed by a VLF/LF lightning detection network (LINET in Brazil, Australia, Africa and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Höller

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes lightning characteristics as obtained in four sets of lightning measurements during recent field campaigns in different parts of the world from mid-latitudes to the tropics by the novel VLF/LF (very low frequency/low frequency lightning detection network (LINET. The paper gives a general overview on the approach, and a synopsis of the statistical results for the observation periods as a whole and for one special day in each region. The focus is on the characteristics of lightning which can specifically be observed by this system like intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground stroke statistics, vertical distributions of intra-cloud strokes or peak current distributions. Some conclusions regarding lightning produced NOx are also presented as this was one of the aims of the tropical field campaigns TROCCINOX (Tropical Convection, Cirrus and Nitrogen Oxides Experiment and TroCCiBras (Tropical Convection and Cirrus Experiment Brazil in Brazil during January/February 2005, SCOUT-O3 (Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere and TWP-ICE (Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment during November/December 2005 and January/February 2006, respectively, in the Darwin area in N-Australia, and of AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses in W-Africa during June–November 2006.

    Regional and temporal characteristics of lightning are found to be dependent on orographic effects (e.g. S-Germany, Brazil, Benin, land-sea breeze circulations (N-Australia and especially the evolution of the monsoons (Benin, N-Australia. Large intra-seasonal variability in lightning occurrence was found for the Australian monsoon between the strong convection during build-up and break phases and the weak active monsoon phase with only minor lightning activity. Total daily lightning stroke rates can be of comparable intensity in all regions with the heaviest events found in Germany and N

  7. Drug utilization of biological drugs in the treatment of chronic Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs: an observational study on Italian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Faccendini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug utilization of biological drugs in the treatment of chronic Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs: an observational study on Italian patientsObjectives:The aim of this analysis was to provide an estimate of drug utilization indicators (dose escalation and dose tapering related to biologic drugs in the chronic treatment of adult patients with Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs.Methods:We conducted an observational retrospective cohort analysis using the Policlinico di Tor Vergata (PTV database. We considered all biologic drugs dispensed by the PTV hospital pharmacy between January 2010 and December 2015:abatacept, adalimumab, certolizumab, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab (originator and biosimilar, tocilizumab, and ustekinumab were included. Drug dose escalation and dose tapering were calculated and compared with their Defined Daily Dose (DDD.Results:A total of 1803 patients with IMID and biologic drug prescription were analyzed (male: 51.2%. The majority of patients were in the class 36-50 years (n = 612. The median follow-up was 33.8 months (IQR 14.43-56.20. Dermatology was the ward with the largest number of patients (n = 882; 48.9%, followed by rheumatology (n = 619; 34.3% and gastroenterology (n = 302; 16.8%. Dose escalation was observed in 406 patients (22.5%. Infliximab biosimilar (n = 51 was the biological drug with the highest dose escalation rate (86.3%, followed by infliximab originator (n = 28; 60.3% and ustekinumab (37.8%. Etanercept was the biological drug with the lowest dose escalation rate (7.4%, followed by golimumab (12.2% and adalimumab (13.8%. In 677 patients (37.5% a dose tapering was observed. Etanercept showed the highest rate of patients with dose tapering (41.6%, followed by adalimumab (33.6%.Conclusions:The results of this analysis show that dose modification is quite common in PTV clinical practice. Considering the strong focus on the pharmaceutical expenditure and the need of cost containment

  8. Observing Physical and Biological Drivers of pH and O2 in a Seasonal Ice Zone in the Ross Sea Using Profiling Float Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, E.; Martz, T. R.; Talley, L. D.; Mazloff, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Ice cover has strong influence over gas exchange, vertical stability, and biological production which are critical to understanding the Southern Ocean's central role in oceanic biogeochemical cycling and heat and carbon uptake under a changing climate. However the relative influence of physical versus biological processes in this hard-to-study region is poorly understood due to limited observations. Here we present new findings from a profiling float equipped with biogeochemical sensors in the seasonal ice zone of the Ross Sea capturing, for the first time, under-ice pH profile data over a two year timespan from 2014 to the present. The relative influence of physical (e.g. vertical mixing and air-sea gas exchange) and biological (e.g. production and respiration) drivers of pH and O2 within the mixed layer are explored during the phases of ice formation, ice cover, and ice melt over the two seasonal cycles. During the austral fall just prior to and during ice formation, O2 increases as expected due to surface-layer undersaturation and enhanced gas exchange. A small increase in pH is also observed during this phase, but without a biological signal in accompanying profiling float chlorophyll data, which goes against common reasoning from both a biological and physical standpoint. During the phase of ice cover, gas exchange is inhibited and a clear respiration signal is observed in pH and O2 data from which respiration rates are calculated. In the austral spring, ice melt gives rise to substantial ice edge phytoplankton blooms indicated by O2 supersaturation and corresponding increase in pH and large chlorophyll signal. The influence of the duration of ice cover and mixed layer depth on the magnitude of the ice edge blooms is explored between the two seasonal cycles.

  9. Translating tumor biology into personalized treatment planning: analytical performance characteristics of the Oncotype DX? Colon Cancer Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Clark-Langone, Kim M; Sangli, Chithra; Krishnakumar, Jayadevi; Watson, Drew

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay is a new diagnostic test for determining the likelihood of recurrence in stage II colon cancer patients after surgical resection using fixed paraffin embedded (FPE) primary colon tumor tissue. Like the Oncotype DX Breast Cancer Assay, this is a high complexity, multi-analyte, reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that measures the expression levels of specific cancer-related genes. By capturing the biology unde...

  10. The Effects of Simultaneous Application of Different Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Cucurbita pepo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jahan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of relations and interactions between ecosystem’s components and plants is one of the main conditions for sustainable production of medicinal plants. To study the effect of simultaneous application of organic and biological fertilizers on yield and yield components of zucchini squash, a split plot arrangement of factors based on randomized complete block design with tree replications was used during 2009-10 growing season. The mainplot factor was the type of organic fertilizers, including 1-cow manure, 2-sheep manure, 3-chicken manure, 4-vermicompost and 5-control. The subplot factor was the biofertilizer (namely Nitragin, containing Azotobacter sp. , Azospirillum sp. and Pseudomonas sp., utilization. The results showed the positive but non significant effect of organic and biological fertilizers on yield and yield components of zucchini squash. Amongst the organic fertilizers, cow and chicken manure, have superiority compared the others. The highest seed oil and protein percent resulted in chicken manure, although there was not significant different between treatments due to seed oil percent. The positive effect of organic and biological fertilizers on seed yield was higher than fruit yield. Positive correlations found between fruit and seed yield, and between one fruit weight and one fruit seed weight (R2=0.72** and 0.56**, respectively. At a glance, cow manure solely application was better than its application with nitragin. Nitragin application has no significant effect on some traits, when utilized with sheep manure and vermicompost. The possibilities of antagonistic effect among organic and biological fertilizers needs to be more studied.

  11. The role of involvement and emotional well-being for preschool children's scientific observation competency in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Janina; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2017-05-01

    Observation is one of the basic methods in science. It is not only an epistemological method itself, but also an important competence for other methods like experimenting or comparing. However, there is little knowledge about the relation with affective factors of this inquiry method. In our study, we would like to find out about the relations of emotional well-being and involvement with children's observation competency. Seventy preschool children participated in our test observing a living mouse, a snail and a fish. From their behaviour in the test situation, we coded their observation competency as well as their emotional well-being and involvement. The data show that both emotional well-being and involvement are significant predictors of children's observation competency. Further analyses confirm our hypothesis of a mediating role of involvement between well-being and the performance in the observation task. In conclusion, theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  12. Ligand-independent interaction of the type I interferon receptor complex is necessary to observe its biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Christopher D; Digioia, Gina; Izotova, Lara S; Xie, Junxia; Kim, Youngsun; Schwartz, Barbara J; Mirochnitchenko, Olga V; Pestka, Sidney

    2013-10-01

    Ectopic coexpression of the two chains of the Type I and Type III interferon (IFN) receptor complexes (IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c, or IFN-λR1 and IL-10R2) yielded sensitivity to IFN-alpha or IFN-lambda in only some cells. We found that IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c exhibit FRET only when expressed at equivalent and low levels. Expanded clonal cell lines expressing both IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c were sensitive to IFN-alpha only when IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c exhibited FRET in the absence of human IFN-alpha. Coexpression of RACK-1 or Jak1 enhanced the affinity of the interaction between IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c. Both IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c exhibited FRET with Jak1 and Tyk2. Together with data showing that disruption of the preassociation between the IFN-gamma receptor chains inhibited its biological activity, we propose that biologically active IFN receptors require ligand-independent juxtaposition of IFN receptor chains assisted by their associated cytosolic proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristics of 1 year of observational data of VOCs, NOx and O3 at a suburban site in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y.; Deng, X. J.; Zhu, D.; Gong, D. C.; Wang, H.; Li, F.; Tan, H. B.; Deng, T.; Mai, B. R.; Liu, X. T.; Wang, B. G.

    2015-06-01

    Guangzhou, one of China's megacities, is beset with frequent occurrence of high-concentration ozone events. In this study, online instruments were used to simultaneously monitor ozone, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at GPACS (the Guangzhou Panyu Atmospheric Composition Station) of the China Meteorological Administration, from June 2011 to May 2012, in order to determine their characteristics, the effect of VOCs on ozone photochemical production and the relationship between VOC / NOx ratio and ozone formation. The results showed that during the observation period, the seasonal variation of ozone concentration was lower in spring and winter compared to summer and autumn, which is opposite that for VOCs and NOx. In terms of VOCs, aromatics had the largest ozone formation potential, among which toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the most important species, with a total contribution of about 44%. As the VOC / NOx ratios were very high during high-concentration ozone events that occur all year round, we speculate ozone production was likely to be NOx-limited regime (12:00-16:00 LT) in Guangzhou. Further investigation based on numerical models is needed in the future to obtain more detailed and robust conclusions.

  14. Analysis of the particular spill characteristics observed by the Belgian aerial surveillance program during the Tricolor incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation described the Tricolor oil spill incident, the remote sensing equipment used to monitor the spill, the observed spill characteristics and the flight data assessment. The spill occurred on December 14, 2002 following a collision between the carrier Tricolor and the container vessel Kariba in French waters in the Zone of Joint Responsibility, close to the Belgian and English borders. The Tricolor sank and 3 more vessels collided with the wreck in the five weeks following the collision, spilling several 100 tons of mostly heavy fuel oil into the sea. The remote sensing equipment aboard Belgian surveillance aircraft noted that freshly spilled oil formed a network of widespread dark oil trails surrounded by light oil fractions. The spill volumes were estimated to be high because of the large extent of the polluted area. Nine months following the spill, the emulsified oil trails had a density close to that of seawater. It was assumed that a cold and thick emulsion had formed and became trapped inside the wreck. Upon release, the emulsion could submerse and resurface. The incident demonstrated that early stage oil sample analysis could help interpret slick behaviour by means of remote sensing. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Characteristics and sources of nitrous acid in an urban atmosphere of northern China: Results from 1-yr continuous observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Xue, Likun; Wen, Liang; Wang, Xinfeng; Chen, Tianshu; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-06-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key reservoir of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and plays a central role in the atmospheric chemistry. To understand the sources and impact of HONO in the polluted atmosphere of northern China, continuous measurements of HONO and related parameters were conducted from September 2015 to August 2016 at an urban site in Ji'nan, the capital city of Shandong province. HONO showed well-defined seasonal and diurnal variation patterns with clear wintertime and nighttime concentration peaks. Elevated HONO concentrations (e.g., over 5 ppbv) were frequently observed with a maximum value of 8.36 ppbv. The HONO/NOX ratios of direct vehicle emissions varied in the range of 0.29%-0.87%, with a mean value of 0.53%. An average NO2-to-HONO nighttime conversion frequency (khet) was derived to be 0.0068 ± 0.0045 h-1 from 107 HONO formation cases. A detailed HONO budget analysis suggests an unexplained daytime missing source of 2.95 ppb h-1 in summer, which is about seven times larger than the homogeneous reaction of NO with OH. The effect of HONO on OH production was also quantified. HONO photolysis was the uppermost source of local OH radical throughout the daytime. This study provides the year-round continuous record of ambient HONO in the North China Plain, and offers some insights into the characteristics, sources and impacts of HONO in the polluted atmospheres of China.

  16. Recontextualising Cellular Respiration in Upper Secondary Biology Education. Characteristics and Practicability of a Learning and Teaching Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierdsma, Menno; Knippels, Marie Christine; van Oers, Bert; Boersma, Kerst Th

    2016-01-01

    Since concepts may have different meanings in different contexts, students have to learn to recontextualise them, i.e. to adapt their meanings to a new context. It is unclear, however, what characteristics a learning and teaching strategy for recontextualising should have. The study aims to develop

  17. Recontextualising Cellular Respiration in Upper Secondary Biology Education. Characteristics and Practicability of a Learning and Teaching Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierdsma, Menno; Knippels, Marie-Christine; van Oers, Bert; Boersma, Kerst

    2016-01-01

    Since concepts may have different meanings in different contexts, students have to learn to recontextualise them, i.e. to adapt their meanings to a new context. It is unclear, however, what characteristics a learning and teaching strategy for recontextualising should have. The study aims to develop such a learning and teaching strategy for…

  18. Recontextualising cellular respiration in upper secondary biology education: characteristics and practicability of a learning and teaching strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierdsma, Menno; Knippels, Marie-Christine; Oers, Bert; Boersma, Kerst

    2016-01-01

    Since concepts may have different meanings in different contexts, students have to learn to recontextualise them, i.e. to adapt their meanings to a new context. It is unclear, however, what characteristics a learning and teaching strategy for recontextualising should have. The study aims to develop

  19. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in water, air and biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2005-01-01

    During the Balkan conflicts, in 1995 and 1999, depleted uranium (DU) rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Serbia and Montenegro, radiological surveys of DU in water, air and biological samples were carried out over the period 27 October-5 November 2001. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro, mainly lichens and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.67-704 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 0.48-93.9 Bq kg -1 for 234 U and 0.02-12.2 Bq kg -1 for 235 U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control sites. Moreover, 236 U was detectable in some of the samples. The isotopic ratios of 234 U/ 238 U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at all examined sites, especially in Montenegro, indicating widespread ground-surface DU contamination, albeit at very low level. The uranium isotopic concentrations in air obtained from the air filter samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 1.99-42.1 μBq m -3 for 238 U, 0.96-38.0 μBq m -3 for 234 U, and 0.05-1.83 μBq m -3 for 235 U, being in the typical range of natural uranium values. Thus said, most of the air samples are DU positive, this fact agreeing well with the widespread DU contamination detected in the biological samples. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 0.40-21.9 mBq l -1 for 238 U, 0.27-28.1 mBq l -1 for 234 U, and 0.01-0.88 mBq l -1 for 235 U, these values being much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for drinking water. From a radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated sites in terms of

  20. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in water, air and biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2005-09-01

    During the Balkan conflicts, in 1995 and 1999, depleted uranium (DU) rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Serbia and Montenegro, radiological surveys of DU in water, air and biological samples were carried out over the period 27 October-5 November 2001. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro, mainly lichens and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.67-704 Bqkg(-1) for (238)U, 0.48-93.9 Bqkg(-1) for (234)U and 0.02-12.2 Bqkg(-1) for (235)U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control sites. Moreover, (236)U was detectable in some of the samples. The isotopic ratios of (234)U/(238)U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at all examined sites, especially in Montenegro, indicating widespread ground-surface DU contamination, albeit at very low level. The uranium isotopic concentrations in air obtained from the air filter samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 1.99-42.1 microBqm(-3) for (238)U, 0.96-38.0 microBqm(-3) for (234)U, and 0.05-1.83 microBqm(-3) for (235)U, being in the typical range of natural uranium values. Thus said, most of the air samples are DU positive, this fact agreeing well with the widespread DU contamination detected in the biological samples. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 0.40-21.9 mBql(-1) for (238)U, 0.27-28.1 mBql(-1) for (234)U, and 0.01-0.88 mBql(-1) for (235)U, these values being much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for drinking water. From a radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated

  1. Determination of 222Rn and its physico-chemical and biological characteristics in aquifers of Toluca valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A.; Aranda, P.; Ceballos, S.; Cruz, D.; Jauregui, B.; Lopez, R.; Pena, P.; Salazar, S.; Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.

    1997-01-01

    In this work it is realized a geochemical study which includes the evaluation of 222 Rn concentration in drinking water wells at Toluca city and a spring water of Almoloya de Juarez municipality at State of mexico. the same is studied about evolution of 222 Rn concentration in water of the hydrating which supply it to those wells. the geochemical evaluation also covers the determination of major and minor elements or trace and the biological analysis of water. The study includes two seasonal cycles, the low water mark one and other the rainy for being able to evaluate the aquifers reloading effects in the water composition. (Author)

  2. Strong-motion characteristics and source process during the Suruga Bay earthquake in 2009 through observed records on rock sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Yoshiaki; Sato, Hiroaki; Kuriyama, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    On 11 August 2009, a moderate earthquake of M 6.5 occurred in the Suruga Bay region, south of Shizuoka prefecture. During this event, JMA Seismic Intensity reached 6 lower in several cities around the hypocenter, and at Hamaoka nuclear power plant of Chubu Electric Power reactors were automatically shutdown due to large ground motions. Though the epicenter is located at the eastern edge of source area for the assumed great Tokai earthquake of M 8, this event is classified into the intra-plate (intra-slab) earthquake, due to its focal depth lower than that of the plate boundary and fault geometry supposed from the moment tensor solution. Dense strong-motion observation network has been deployed mainly on the rock outcrops by our institute around the source area, and the waveform data of the main shock and several aftershocks were obtained at 13 stations within 100 km from the hypocenter. The observed peak ground motions and velocity response spectral amplitudes are both obviously larger than the empirical attenuation relations derived from the inland and plate-boundary earthquake data, which displays the characteristics of the intra-slab earthquake faulting. Estimated acceleration source spectra of the main shock also exhibit the short period level about 1.7 times larger than the average of those for past events, and it corresponds with the additional term in the attenuation curve of the peak ground acceleration for the intra-plate earthquake. Detailed source process of the main shock is inferred using the inversion technique. The initial source model is assumed to be composed of two distinct fault planes according to the minute aftershock distribution. Estimated source model shows that large slip occurred near the hypocenter and at the boundary region between two fault planes where the rupture transfers from primary to secondary fault. Furthermore the broadband source inversion using velocity motions in the frequency up to 5 Hz demonstrates the high effective

  3. Characteristics of solar-like oscillations in red giants observed in the CoRoT exoplanet field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekker, S.; Kallinger, T.; Baudin, F.; De Ridder, J.; Barban, C.; Carrier, F.; Hatzes, A. P.; Weiss, W. W.; Baglin, A.

    2009-10-01

    Context: Observations during the first long run (~150 days) in the exo-planet field of CoRoT increase the number of G-K giant stars for which solar-like oscillations are observed by a factor of 100. This opens the possibility to study the characteristics of their oscillations in a statistical sense. Aims: We aim to understand the statistical distribution of the frequencies of maximum oscillation power (ν_max) in red giants and to search for a possible correlation between ν_max and the large separation (Δ ν). Methods: Red giants with detectable solar-like oscillations are identified using both semi-automatic and manual procedures. For these stars, we determine ν_max as the centre of a Gaussian fit to the oscillation power excess. For the determination of Δ ν, we use the autocorrelation of the Fourier spectra, the comb response function and the power spectrum of the power spectrum. Results: The resulting ν_max distribution shows a pronounced peak between 20-40 μHz. For about half of the stars we obtain Δ ν with at least two methods. The correlation between ν_max and Δ ν follows the same scaling relation as inferred for solar-like stars. Conclusions: The shape of the ν_max distribution can partly be explained by granulation at low frequencies and by white noise at high frequencies, but the population density of the observed stars turns out to be also an important factor. From the fact that the correlation between Δ ν and ν_max for red giants follows the same scaling relation as obtained for sun-like stars, we conclude that the sound travel time over the pressure scale height of the atmosphere scales with the sound travel time through the whole star irrespective of evolution. The fraction of stars for which we determine Δ ν does not correlate with ν_max in the investigated frequency range, which confirms theoretical predictions. The CoRoT space mission which was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA

  4. Biological and Environmental Research: Climate and Environmental Sciences Division: U.S./European Workshop on Climate Change Challenges and Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; McCord, Raymond [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Sisterson, Doug [Argonne National Laboratory; Voyles, Jimmy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2012-11-08

    The workshop aimed to identify outstanding climate change science questions and the observational strategies for addressing them. The scientific focus was clouds, aerosols, and precipitation, and the required ground- and aerial-based observations. The workshop findings will be useful input for setting priorities within the Department of Energy (DOE) and the participating European centers. This joint workshop was envisioned as the first step in enhancing the collaboration among these climate research activities needed to better serve the science community.

  5. A cross-sectional observational study comparing foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dorit; Potter, Julia; Mamode, Louis

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and compare foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls; and between stroke fallers and non-fallers. Participants were recruited from community groups and completed standardized tests assessing sensation, foot posture, foot function, ankle dorsiflexion and first metatarsal phalangeal joint range of motion (1st MPJ ROM), hallux valgus presence and severity. Twenty-three stroke participants (mean age 75.09 ± 7.57 years; 12 fallers) and 16 controls (mean age 73.44 ± 8.35 years) took part. Within the stroke group, reduced 1st MPJ sensation (p = 0.016) and 1st MPJ ROM (p = 0.025) were observed in the affected foot in comparison to the non-affected foot; no other differences were apparent. Pooled data (for both feet) was used to explore between stroke/control (n = 78 feet) and stroke faller/non-faller (n = 46 feet) group differences. In comparison to the control group, stroke participants exhibited reduced sensation of the 1st MPJ (p = 0.020), higher Foot Posture Index scores (indicating greater foot pronation, p = 0.008) and reduced foot function (p = 0.003). Stroke fallers exhibited significantly greater foot pronation in comparison to non-fallers (p = 0.027). Results indicated differences in foot and ankle characteristics post stroke in comparison to healthy controls. These changes may negatively impact functional ability and the ability to preserve balance. Further research is warranted to explore the influence of foot problems on balance ability and falls in people with stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation Foot problems are common post stroke. As foot problems have been linked to increased fall risk among the general population we recommend that it would be beneficial to include foot and ankle assessments or a referral to a podiatrist for people with stroke who report foot problems. Further research is needed to explore if we can improve functional

  6. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  7. Qualitative and qualitative characteristics of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. in response to organic, biological and chemical fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yazdani Biuki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L., an experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad based on complete randomized block design with three replications and six treatments during year 2007. Treatments included inoculated seeds with Azotobacter, compost, vermicompost, combination of both Azotobacter and compost treatments, chemical NPK fertilizer and control (without any fertilizer. The traits such as number of branches per plant, plant height, number of inflorescences per plant, inflorescence diameter, number of seeds per capitol, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, oil percentage, silymarin percentage, silybin percentage, oil yield and silymarin yield were measured. The results showed that application of different types of organic fertilizers had no effect on yield components, but had significant effect on oil percentage of oil, silymarin and silybin of seed. Compost application resulted the highest oil percentage (20.1 compared to other treatments. There was no significant difference between control, chemical fertilizer, compost and Azotobacter treatments on silymarin percentage. In terms of silybin percentage, there was no significant difference between control, compost, Azotobacter and aztobacter+compost treatments. The chemical fertilizer treatment showed the lowest silybin percentage (16.4. There was a positive correlation between plant height and seed yield (r=0.68**. It seems that biofertilizers can consider as a replacement for chemical fertilizers in Milk thistle medicinal plant production.

  8. Advancing Marine Biological Observations and Data Requirements of the Complementary Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs and Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank E. Muller-Karger

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the status and trends of key indicators for the ocean and marine life are required to inform policy and management in the context of growing human uses of marine resources, coastal development, and climate change. Two synergistic efforts identify specific priority variables for monitoring: Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs through the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS, and Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs from the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON (see Data Sheet 1 in Supplementary Materials for a glossary of acronyms. Both systems support reporting against internationally agreed conventions and treaties. GOOS, established under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC, plays a leading role in coordinating global monitoring of the ocean and in the definition of EOVs. GEO BON is a global biodiversity observation network that coordinates observations to enhance management of the world's biodiversity and promote both the awareness and accounting of ecosystem services. Convergence and agreement between these two efforts are required to streamline existing and new marine observation programs to advance scientific knowledge effectively and to support the sustainable use and management of ocean spaces and resources. In this context, the Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON, a thematic component of GEO BON, is collaborating with GOOS, the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS, and the Integrated Marine Biosphere Research (IMBeR project to ensure that EBVs and EOVs are complementary, representing alternative uses of a common set of scientific measurements. This work is informed by the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM, an intergovernmental body of technical experts that helps international coordination on best practices for observing, data management and services, combined with capacity development expertise

  9. The observation of biology implemented by integrated religion values in integrated Islamic school (Decriptive Study in X Integrated Senior Hight School Tasikmalaya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjanah, E.; Adisendjaja, Y. H.; Kusumastuti, M. N.

    2018-05-01

    The learning Integrated Religious value is one of the efforts to increase the motivation of learning and building the student character. This study aims to describe the application of Biology learning integrated religion values in Integrated Islamic School. Research methods used in this research is descriptive. Participants in this study involved the headmaster, headmaster of curriculum, biology teachers, boarding school teachers, the lead of boarding schools, and students. The instruments used are interview, observation and the student questionnaire about learning biology. The results showed that learning in X school consists of two curriculums, there was the curriculum of national education and curriculum of boarding school. The curriculum of national education referred to 2013 curriculum and boarding school curriculum referred to the curriculum of Salafi boarding school (Kitab Kuning). However, in its learning process not delivered integrated. The main obstacle to implementing the learning integrated religious values are 1) the background of general teacher education did not know of any connection between biology subject and subject that are studied in boarding school; 2) schools did not form the teaching team; 3) unavailability of materials integrated religious values.

  10. Baseline characteristics of patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 and stage 4 in spain: the MERENA observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Rafael

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To obtain information on cardiovascular morbidity, hypertension control, anemia and mineral metabolism based on the analysis of the baseline characteristics of a large cohort of Spanish patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients with stages 3 and 4 chronic kidney diseases (CKD. Methods Multicenter study from Spanish government hospital-based Nephrology outpatient clinics involving 1129 patients with CKD stages 3 (n = 434 and 4 (n = 695 defined by GFR calculated by the MDRD formula. Additional analysis was performed with GFR calculated using the CKD-EPI and Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results In the cohort as a whole, median age 70.9 years, morbidity from all cardiovascular disease (CVD was very high (39.1%. In CKD stage 4, CVD prevalence was higher than in stage 3 (42.2 vs 35.6% p 300 mg/day was present in more than 60% of patients and there was no significant differences between stages 3 and 4 CKD (1.2 ± 1.8 and 1.3 ± 1.8 g/day, respectively. A majority of the patients had hemoglobin levels greater than 11 g/dL (91.1 and 85.5% in stages 3 and 4 CKD respectively p Conclusion This study provides an overview of key clinical parameters in patients with CKD Stages 3 and 4 where delivery or care was largely by nephrologists working in a network of hospital-based clinics of the Spanish National Healthcare System.

  11. Biological and ecological characteristics of soft ticks (Ixodida: Argasidae and their impact for predicting tick and associated disease distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vial L.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As evidence of global changes is accumulating, scientists are challenged to detect distribution changes of vectors, reservoirs and pathogens caused by anthropogenic and/or environmental changes. Statistical and mathematical distribution models are emerging for ixodid hard ticks whereas no prediction has ever been developed for argasid ones. These last organisms remain unknown and under-reported; they differ from hard ticks by many structural, biological and ecological properties, which complicate direct adaptation of hard tick models. However, investigations on bibliographic resources concerning these ticks suggest that distribution modelling based on natural niche concept and using environmental factors especially climate is also possible, bearing in mind the scale of prediction and their specificities including their nidicolous lifestyle, an indiscriminate host feeding and a short bloodmeal duration, as well as a flexible development cycle through diapause periods.

  12. Preperimetric Glaucoma Prospective Observational Study (PPGPS: Design, baseline characteristics, and therapeutic effect of tafluprost in preperimetric glaucoma eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Aizawa

    Full Text Available There is no consensus on the diagnosis or treatment policy for Preperimetric Glaucoma (PPG because the pathogenesis of PPG is not clear at this time. Preperimetric Glaucoma Prospective Observational Study (PPGPS is a first multicenter, prospective, observational study to clarify the pathogenesis of PPG. This article indicates study design, patient baseline characteristics, and analysis focused on optic nerve head (ONH blood flow in PPG, as well as the intraocular pressure (IOP -lowering effect and ONH blood flow-improving effects of Tafluprost.In this study, 122 eyes from 122 subjects (mean age: 53.1 ± 14.3 newly diagnosed as PPG were enrolled. The circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT was evaluated with optical coherence tomography (OCT. The ONH blood flow was measured with laser speckle flowgraphy. The therapeutic effect of Tafluprost was evaluated at Month 0 (ONH blood flow-improving effect and Month 4 (IOP-lowering effect.The untreated IOP, cpRNFLT, and baseline Mean deviation (MD value was 16.4 ± 2.5 mmHg, 80.4 ± 8.2 μm, and -0.48 ± 1.29 dB, respectively. In the site-specific visual field evaluation using the sector map, there was no appreciable site-specific visual field defect in the eye with PPG. The inferior region of cpRNFLT in 4-quadrant OCT sector analysis and 6 o'clock region in 12-o'clock OCT sector analysis was the highest rate of abnormality in PPG eyes. Topical administration of Tafluprost significantly reduced IOP from 16.4 ± 2.5 mmHg at baseline to 14.5 ± 2.3 mmHg at Month 4 (P < 0.001, paired t-test. In the linear regression analysis, there was a significant relationship between the increase of ONH blood flow and baseline value.PPGPS is a first prospective study focusing on the pathology of PPG. This study is expected to elucidate the pathology of PPG, with evidence useful for determining a treatment strategy for PPG.

  13. Dynamics of forest ecosystems regenerated on burned and harvested areas in mountain regions of Siberia: characteristics of biological diversity, structure and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Danilin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex estimation of forest ecosystems dynamics based on detailing characteristics of structure, growth and productivity of the stands and describing general geographical and biological management options for preserving their biodiversity and sustaining stability are discussed in the paper by describing examples of tree stands restored on burned and logged areas in mountain regions of Siberia. On vast areas in Siberia, characterized as sub-boreal, subarid and with a strongly continental climate, forests grow on seasonally frozen soils and in many cases are surrounded by vast steppe and forest-steppe areas and uplands. Developing criteria for sustainability of mountain forest ecosystems is necessary for forest resource management and conservation. It is therefore important to obtain complex biometric characteristics on forest stands and landscapes and to thoroughly study their structure, biological diversity and productivity. Morphometric methods, Weibull simulation and allometric equations were used to determine the dimensional hierarchies of coenopopulation individuals. Structure and productivity of the aboveground stand components were also studied.

  14. Comparison of biological and genomic characteristics between a newly isolated mink enteritis parvovirus MEV-LHV and an attenuated strain MEV-L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yaping; Wang, Jigui; Hou, Qiang; Xi, Ji; Zhang, Xiaomei; Bian, Dawei; Yu, Yongle; Wang, Xi; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-06-01

    A virus isolated from mink showing clinical signs of enteritis was identified as a high virulent mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) based on its biological characteristics in vivo and in vitro. Mink, challenged with this strain named MEV-LHV, exhibited severe pathological lesions as compared to those challenged with attenuated strain MEV-L. MEV-LHV also showed higher infection and replication efficiencies in vitro than MEV-L. Sequence of the complete genome of MEV-LHV was determined and analyzed in comparison with those in GenBank, which revealed that MEV-LHV shared high homology with virulent strain MEV SD12/01, whereas MEV-L was closely related to Abashiri and vaccine strain MEVB, and belonged to a different branch of the phylogenetic tree. The genomes of the two strains differed by insertions and deletions in their palindromic termini and specific unique mutations (especially VP2 300) in coding sequences which may be involved in viral replication and pathogenicity. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the biological and genomic characteristics of MEV and identify certain regions and sites that may be involved in viral replication and pathogenicity.

  15. Patient, hospital, and local health system characteristics associated with the use of observation stays in veterans health administration hospitals, 2005 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Brad; O'Shea, Amy M.J.; Glasgow, Justin M.; Ayyagari, Padmaja; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have documented that a significant increase in the use of observation stays along with extensive variation in patterns of use across hospitals. The objective of this longitudinal observational study was to examine the extent to which patient, hospital, and local health system characteristics explain variation in observation stay rates across Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals. Our data came from years 2005 to 2012 of the nationwide VHA Medical SAS inpatient...

  16. Transforming Ocean Observations of the Carbon Budget, Acidification, Hypoxia, Nutrients, and Biological Productivity: a Global Array of Biogeochemical Argo Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, L. D.; Johnson, K. S.; Claustre, H.; Boss, E.; Emerson, S. R.; Westberry, T. K.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Mazloff, M. R.; Riser, S.; Russell, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Our ability to detect changes in biogeochemical (BGC) processes in the ocean that may be driven by increasing atmospheric CO2, as well as by natural climate variability, is greatly hindered by undersampling in vast areas of the open ocean. Argo is a major international program that measures ocean heat content and salinity with about 4000 floats distributed throughout the ocean, profiling to 2000 m every 10 days. Extending this approach to a global BGC-Argo float array, using recent, proven sensor technology, and in close synergy with satellite systems, will drive a transformative shift in observing and predicting the effects of climate change on ocean metabolism, carbon uptake, acidification, deoxygenation, and living marine resource management. BGC-Argo will add sensors for pH, oxygen, nitrate, chlorophyll, suspended particles, and downwelling irradiance, with sufficient accuracy for climate studies. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) using BGC models indicate that 1000 BGC floats would provide sufficient coverage, hence equipping 1/4 of the Argo array. BGC-Argo (http://biogeochemical-argo.org) will enhance current sustained observational programs such as Argo, GO-SHIP, and long-term ocean time series. BGC-Argo will benefit from deployments on GO-SHIP vessels, which provide sensor verification. Empirically derived algorithms that relate the observed BGC float parameters to the carbon system parameters will provide global information on seasonal ocean-atmosphere carbon exchange. BGC Argo measurements could be paired with other emerging technology, such as pCO2 measurements from ships of opportunity and wave gliders, to extend and validate exchange estimates. BGC-Argo prototype programs already show the potential of a global observing system that can measure seasonal to decadal variability. Various countries have developed regional BGC arrays: Southern Ocean (SOCCOM), North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre (remOcean), Mediterranean (NAOS), the Kuroshio (INBOX

  17. Mechanical characteristic and biological behaviour of implanted and restorative bioglasses used in medicine and dentistry: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizzi, F; Villat, C; Attik, N; Jackson, P; Grosgogeat, B; Goutaudier, C

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays bioactive glasses are finding increasing applications in medical practice due to their ability to stimulate re-mineralisation. However, they are intrinsically brittle materials and the study of new compositions will open up new scenarios enhancing their mechanical properties and maintaining the high bioactivity for a broader range of applications. This systematic review aims to identify the relationship between the composition of bioactive glasses used in medical applications and their influence on the mechanical and biological properties. Various electronic databases (PubMed, Science Direct) were used for collecting articles on this subject. This research includes papers from January 2011 to March 2016. PRISMA guidelines for systematic review and meta-analysis have been used. 109 abstracts were collected and screened, 68 articles were read as relevant articles and a total of 22 papers were finally selected for this study. Most of the studies obtained enhanced mechanical properties and the conservation of bioactivity behaviours; although a lack of homogeneity in the characterization methods makes it difficult to compare data. New compositions of bioactive glasses incorporating specific ions and the addition in polymers will be the most important direction for future researches in developing new materials for medical applications and especially for dentistry. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological characteristics of the MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells on composite tantalum carbide/amorphous carbon films.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Yu Chang

    Full Text Available Tantalum (Ta is a promising metal for biomedical implants or implant coating for orthopedic and dental applications because of its excellent corrosion resistance, fracture toughness, and biocompatibility. This study synthesizes biocompatible tantalum carbide (TaC and TaC/amorphous carbon (a-C coatings with different carbon contents by using a twin-gun magnetron sputtering system to improve their biological properties and explore potential surgical implant or device applications. The carbon content in the deposited coatings was regulated by controlling the magnetron power ratio of the pure graphite and Ta cathodes. The deposited TaC and TaC/a-C coatings exhibited better cell viability of human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 than the uncoated Ti and Ta-coated samples. Inverted optical and confocal imaging was used to demonstrate the cell adhesion, distribution, and proliferation of each sample at different time points during the whole culture period. The results show that the TaC/a-C coating, which contained two metastable phases (TaC and a-C, was more biocompatible with MG-63 cells compared to the pure Ta coating. This suggests that the TaC/a-C coatings exhibit a better biocompatible performance for MG-63 cells, and they may improve implant osseointegration in clinics.

  19. A two-stage procedure for determining unsaturated hydraulic characteristics using a syringe pump and outflow observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Dorthe; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Hollenbeck, Karl-Josef

    1997-01-01

    A fast two-stage methodology for determining unsaturated flow characteristics is presented. The procedure builds on direct measurement of the retention characteristic using a syringe pump technique, combined with inverse estimation of the hydraulic conductivity characteristic based on one......-step outflow experiments. The direct measurements are obtained with a commercial syringe pump, which continuously withdraws fluid from a soil sample at a very low and accurate how rate, thus providing the water content in the soil sample. The retention curve is then established by simultaneously monitoring......-step outflow data and the independently measured retention data are included in the objective function of a traditional least-squares minimization routine, providing unique estimates of the unsaturated hydraulic characteristics by means of numerical inversion of Richards equation. As opposed to what is often...

  20. Characteristics and outcomes of older HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: A retrospective observation cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannock Tweya

    Full Text Available To estimate patients enrolling on antiretroviral therapy (ART over time; describe trends in baseline characteristics; and compare immunological response, loss to follow-up (LTFU, and mortality by three age groups (25-39, 40-49 and ≥50 years.A retrospective observation cohort study.This study used routine ART data from two public clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. All HIV-infected individuals, except pregnant or breastfeeding women, aged ≥ 25 years at ART initiation between 2006 and 2015 were included. Poisson regression models estimated risk of mortality, stratified by age groups.Of 37,378 ART patients, 3,406 were ≥ 50 years old. Patients aged ≥ 50 years initiated ART with more advanced WHO clinical stage and lower CD4 cell count than their younger counterparts. Older patients had a significantly slower immunological response to ART in the first 18 months on ART compared to patients aged 25-39 years (p = 0.04. Overall mortality rates were 2.3 (95% confidence Interval (CI 2.2-2.4, 2.9 (95% CI 2.7-3.2 and 4.6 (95% CI 4.2-5.1 per 100 person-years in patients aged 25-39 years, 40-49 years and 50 years and older, respectively. Overall LTFU rates were 6.3 (95% CI 6.1-6.5, 4.5 (95% CI 4.2-4.7, and 5.6 (95% CI 5.1-6.1 per 100 person years among increasing age cohorts. The proportion of patients aged ≥ 50 years and newly enrolling into ART care remained stable at 9% while the proportion of active ART patients aged ≥50 years increased from 10% in 2006 to 15% in 2015.Older people had slower immunological response and higher mortality. Malawi appears to be undergoing a demographic shift in people living with HIV. Increased consideration of long-term ART-related problems, drug-drug interactions and age-related non-communicable diseases is warranted.

  1. Patient, hospital, and local health system characteristics associated with the use of observation stays in veterans health administration hospitals, 2005 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brad; OʼShea, Amy M J; Glasgow, Justin M; Ayyagari, Padmaja; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have documented that a significant increase in the use of observation stays along with extensive variation in patterns of use across hospitals.The objective of this longitudinal observational study was to examine the extent to which patient, hospital, and local health system characteristics explain variation in observation stay rates across Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals.Our data came from years 2005 to 2012 of the nationwide VHA Medical SAS inpatient and enrollment files, American Hospital Association Survey, and Area Health Resource File. We used these data to estimate linear regression models of hospitals' observation stay rates as a function of hospital, patient, and local health system characteristics, while controlling for time trends and Veterans Integrated Service Network level fixed effects.We found that observation stay rates are inversely related to hospital bed size and that hospitals with a greater proportion of younger or rural patients have higher observation stay rates. Observation stay rates were nearly 15 percentage points higher in 2012 than 2005.Although we identify several characteristics associated with variation in VHA hospital observation stay rates, many factors remain unmeasured.

  2. Using redescription mining to relate clinical and biological characteristics of cognitively impaired and Alzheimer’s disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelčić, Matej; Šimić, Goran; Babić Leko, Mirjana; Lavrač, Nada; Džeroski, Sašo; Šmuc, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    Based on a set of subjects and a collection of attributes obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, we used redescription mining to find interpretable rules revealing associations between those determinants that provide insights about the Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We extended the CLUS-RM redescription mining algorithm to a constraint-based redescription mining (CBRM) setting, which enables several modes of targeted exploration of specific, user-constrained associations. Redescription mining enabled finding specific constructs of clinical and biological attributes that describe many groups of subjects of different size, homogeneity and levels of cognitive impairment. We confirmed some previously known findings. However, in some instances, as with the attributes: testosterone, ciliary neurotrophic factor, brain natriuretic peptide, Fas ligand, the imaging attribute Spatial Pattern of Abnormalities for Recognition of Early AD, as well as the levels of leptin and angiopoietin-2 in plasma, we corroborated previously debatable findings or provided additional information about these variables and their association with AD pathogenesis. Moreover, applying redescription mining on ADNI data resulted with the discovery of one largely unknown attribute: the Pregnancy-Associated Protein-A (PAPP-A), which we found highly associated with cognitive impairment in AD. Statistically significant correlations (p ≤ 0.01) were found between PAPP-A and clinical tests: Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes, Mini Mental State Examination, etc. The high importance of this finding lies in the fact that PAPP-A is a metalloproteinase, known to cleave insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. Since it also shares similar substrates with A Disintegrin and the Metalloproteinase family of enzymes that act as α-secretase to physiologically cleave amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the non-amyloidogenic pathway, it could

  3. Connective tissue activation. XXXII. Structural and biologic characteristics of mesenchymal cell-derived connective tissue activating peptide-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, A R; Cole, L A; Walz, D A; Castor, C W

    1987-12-01

    Connective tissue activating peptide-V (CTAP-V) is a single-chain, mesenchymal cell-derived anionic protein with large and small molecular forms (Mr of 28,000 and 16,000, respectively), as defined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proteins have similar specific activities with respect to stimulation of hyaluronic acid and DNA formation in human synovial fibroblast cultures. S-carboxymethylation or removal of sialic acid residues did not modify CTAP-V biologic activity. Rabbit antibodies raised separately against each of the purified CTAP-V proteins reacted, on immunodiffusion and on Western blot, with each antigen and neutralized mitogenic activity. The amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the CTAP-V proteins, determined by 2 laboratories, confirmed their structural similarities. The amino-terminal sequence through 37 residues was demonstrated for the smaller protein. The first 10 residues of CTAP-V (28 kd) were identical to the N-terminal decapeptide of CTAP-V (16 kd). The C-terminal sequence, determined by carboxypeptidase Y digestion, was the same for both CTAP-V molecular species. The 2 CTAP-V peptides had similar amino acid compositions, whether residues were expressed as a percent of the total or were normalized to mannose. Reduction of native CTAP-V protein released sulfhydryl groups in a protein:disulfide ratio of 1:2; this suggests that CTAP-V contains 2 intramolecular disulfide bonds. Clearly, CTAP-V is a glycoprotein. The carbohydrate content of CTAP-V (16 kd) and CTAP-V (28 kd) is 27% and 25%, respectively. CTAP-V may have significance in relation to autocrine mechanisms for growth regulation of connective tissue cells and other cell types.

  4. Quality of life, treatment satisfaction and efficacy of non-biological systemic therapies in patients with plaque psoriasis: study protocol for a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Christine; Schank, Timo E; Trenkler, Nina; Uhlmann, Lorenz; Schäkel, Knut

    2017-06-30

    Psoriasis vulgaris often leads to a significant impaired quality of life and dissatisfaction with the existing therapeutic approaches. However, patients' quality of life and treatment satisfaction are of utmost importance, since it is positively related to therapy adherence and encourages patient's compliance. The study described herein evaluates the quality of life, treatment satisfaction and efficacy during the initial 6 months of treatment with a non-biological systemic agent in a real-life clinical setting. This observational study compares quality of life, treatment satisfaction and the efficacy of non-biological systemic therapy between 60 patients suffering from plaque psoriasis receiving the non-biological systemic therapies with apremilast, methotrexate and fumaric acid esters. Ethics approval was provided by the ethics committee of the medical faculty of the University of Heidelberg. Ethics approval number is S-298/2015. The design and the final results of the study will be published and made available to the public. German Clinical Trial Register (DRKS): DRKS00008721 (https://www.germanctr.de/). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Angiographic characteristics of hysteromyoma and multi-center observation of short-term curative effects of uterine artery embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangqi; Wang Zhimin; Zhang Hongxin; Yang Qingfeng; Li Chao; Zhao Siyuan; Yang Kangjian; Zhao Binyu; He Chao; Li Bo; Zhang Xufeng; Peng Jianming; Zhang Longquan; Feng Rongcai

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the clinical data of 1151 patients with hysteromyoma treated by uterine artery embolization, to discuss the characteristics of blood supply of hysteromyoma, and to evaluate the short-term clinical curative effects of embolization therapy. Methods: The clinical data of 1151 patients with hysteromyoma who received uterine artery embolization in several medical institutions during the period from January 1995 to December 2002 were retrospectively analyzed. For all patients, modified Seldinger technique was employed. The catheter was threaded into unilateral or bilateral femoral artery for bilateral internal iliac and uterine arteriography in order to find out the angiographic architecture and blood-supply of the hysteromyoma. Then, the catheter was super-selectively inserted into the feeding artery of hysteromyoma and the mixture of ultra-liquid lipiodol and pingyangmycin was slowly injected into the feeding artery to embolize the tumor's vascular bed until the tumor stain disappeared. B-ultrasonography was performed at 3, 6 and 12 months after the treatment to observe the tumor size. Results: Uterine arteries originated from the anterior trunk of iliac artery in 849 cases (73.8%), from the main trunk of iliac artery in 145 cases (12.6%), from the inferior gluteal pudendal trunk in 87 cases (7.6%), from the internal pudendal artery in 52 cases (4.5%) and from the superior gluteal artery in 18 cases (1.6%). Arteriography demonstrated that the hysteromyoma supplied by ipsilateral ovarian artery was seen in 458 cases (39.8%). The initial segment of uterine artery took the form of acute angle in 730 cases (63.4%), right angle in 254 cases (22.1%) and obtuse angle in 167 cases (14.5%). The opening orifice and traveling route of uterine artery were well demonstrated on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with the following exposure positions: anteroposterior projection (n=213, 18.5%), ipsilateral oblique projection in (n=647, 56.2%) and

  6. Biomagnification of mercury through lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) food webs of lakes with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidd, Karen A., E-mail: kiddk@unbsj.ca [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB, Canada E2L 4L5 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G., E-mail: derek.muir@ec.gc.ca [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Evans, Marlene S., E-mail: marlene.evans@ec.gc.ca [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 3H5 (Canada); Wang, Xioawa, E-mail: xiaowa.wang@ec.gc.ca [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Whittle, Mike [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Swanson, Heidi K., E-mail: heidikswanson@yahoo.ca [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Johnston, Tom, E-mail: tjohnston@laurentian.ca [Cooperative Freshwater Ecology Unit, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, and Biology Department, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada); Guildford, Stephanie, E-mail: sguildfo@d.umn.edu [Department of Biology and Large Lakes Observatory, University of Minnesota Duluth, 2205 5th St., Duluth, MN, 55812 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems remains a concern because this pollutant is known to affect the health of fish-eating wildlife and humans, and the fish themselves. The 'rate' of mercury biomagnification is being assessed more frequently using stable nitrogen isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 15}N), a measure of relative trophic position of biota within a food web. Within food webs and across diverse systems, log-transformed Hg concentrations are significantly and positively related to {delta}{sup 15}N and the slopes of these models vary from one study to another for reasons that are not yet understood. Here we compared the rates of Hg biomagnification in 14 lake trout lakes from three provinces in Canada to understand whether any characteristics of the ecosystems explained this among-system variability. Several fish species, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates were collected from these lakes and analyzed for total Hg (fish only), methyl Hg (invertebrates) and stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N; {delta}{sup 13}C to assess energy sources). Mercury biomagnification rates varied significantly across systems and were higher for food webs of larger (surface area), higher nutrient lakes. However, the slopes were not predictive of among-lake differences in Hg in the lake trout. Results indicate that among-system differences in the rates of Hg biomagnification seen in the literature may be due, in part, to differences in ecosystem characteristics although the mechanisms for this variability are not yet understood. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury biomagnifies through aquatic food webs to toxic levels in top predator fishes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Among-system differences in mercury transfer through food webs occur but have not been explained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diverse lakes supporting lake trout were compared to understand the ecosystem processes that affect mercury biomagnification. Black

  7. Characteristics and limitations of GPS L1 observations from submerged antennas - Theoretical investigation in snow, ice, and freshwater and practical observations within a freshwater layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Ladina; Meindl, Michael; Geiger, Alain

    2018-05-01

    Observations from a submerged GNSS antenna underneath a snowpack need to be analyzed to investigate its potential for snowpack characterization. The magnitude of the main interaction processes involved in the GPS L1 signal propagation through different layers of snow, ice, or freshwater is examined theoretically in the present paper. For this purpose, the GPS signal penetration depth, attenuation, reflection, refraction as well as the excess path length are theoretically investigated. Liquid water exerts the largest influence on GPS signal propagation through a snowpack. An experiment is thus set up with a submerged geodetic GPS antenna to investigate the influence of liquid water on the GPS observations. The experimental results correspond well with theory and show that the GPS signal penetrates the liquid water up to three centimeters. The error in the height component due to the signal propagation delay in water can be corrected with a newly derived model. The water level above the submerged antenna could also be estimated.

  8. Observation of Biological Tissues Using Common Path Optical Coherence Tomography with Gold Coated Conical Tip Lens Fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, K; Sugiyama, J; Totsuka, M; Imanaka, S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a high lateral resolution common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography(OCT) system with the use of a chemically etched single mode fiber. In our experiments, single mode optical fiber for 1310nm was used for preparing the tapered tips. Our system used a conical microlens that was chemically etched by selective chemical etching technique using an etching solution of buffered hydrofluoric acid (BHF). From experimental results, we verified that our proposed optical coherence tomography system could operate as a common-path Fourier domain OCT system and conical tip lens fiber was very useful for a high lateral resolution common-path Fourier domain OCT system. Furthermore, we could observe a surface of paramecium bursaria and symbiotic chlorella in the paramecium bursaria using gold coated conical-tip fiber in the water.

  9. Genotypic and biological characteristics of non-identified strain of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated in Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayeva, N M; Demkin, V V; Rydkina, E B; Ignatovich, V F; Artemiev, M I; Lichoded LYa; Genig, V A

    1993-12-01

    A strain of rickettsiae, designated Crimea-108, was isolated from ticks Dermacentor marginatus in the Crimea in 1977. Its immunobiological characteristics involve low pathogenicity for experimental animals, moderate infectivity for chick embryos, and antigenic relatedness to spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae (R. sibirica, R. conorii, R. akari), especially to R. sibirica. The genotypic characterization of the strain Crimea-108 was carried out in comparison with SFG and typhus group rickettsiae by using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and DNA-probe hybridization. The marked similarity was detected between DNA restriction patterns of the strains Crimea-108, R. sibirica and R. conorii, but each of them besides comigrating fragments had specific ones. Genotypic analysis of the strain Crimea-108, the SFG and typhus group rickettsiae by three independent DNA probes, based on R. prowazekii DNA, gave unique hybridization patterns for the Crimea-108 strain with all probes. The obtained data show that the Crimea-108 isolate does not belong to the species of R. sibirica, R. conorii, R. akari. The strain Crimea-108 is a novel strain of SFG rickettsiae for the Crimea region.

  10. Biological characteristics and probiotic effect of Leuconostoc lactis strain isolated from the intestine of black porgy fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A strain of lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc lactis, was isolated from the intestinal tract of black porgy, Sparus macrocephalus, and identified by conventional biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The isolated strain had the ability of bile tolerance and resistance to low pH, and survived well in the trypsinase and pepsin solution. But the highly concentrated dose of trypsinase and pepsin affect the viability of the isolated strain. The isolate was resistant to several antibiotics, including Cephalothin, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem and Tobramycin. The isolate could autoaggregate itself and coaggregate with other bacteria in vitro. The autoaggregation percentage increased to 23.29% after 20 h of incubation. The percentage of coaggregation were respectively 31.21%, 29.44%, 10.74%, 16.49%, 24.36%, 24.41% and 20.99% for Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteusbacillus vulgaris after 20 h incubation of a mixed suspension. The supernatant of the strain inhibited the growth of several pathogens, such as V.parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Proteusbacillus vulgaris and Shigella. These results indicated that the isolate, Leuconostoc lactis, might be an attractive candidate for perspectival strain for probiotics in marine aquaculture.

  11. Remotely Sensed Predictions and In Situ Observations of Lower Congo River Dynamics in Support of Fish Evolutionary Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, N.; Bjerklie, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Ongoing research into the evolution of fishes in the lower Congo River suggests a close tie between diversity and hydraulic complexity of flow in the channel. For example, fish populations on each side of the rapids at the head of the lower Congo are within 1.5 km of one another, a distance normally allowing for interbreeding in river systems of comparable size, yet these fish populations show about 5% divergence in their mitochondrial DNA signatures. The proximal reason for this divergence is hydraulic complexity: the speed and turbulence of water moving through the thalweg is a barrier to dispersal for these fishes. Further examination of fish diversity suggests additional correlations of evolutionary divergence of fish clades in association with geomorphic and hydraulic features such as deep pools, extensive systems of rapids, alternating sections of fast and slow current, and recurring whirlpools. Due to prohibitive travel costs, limited field time, and the large geographic domain (approximately 400 river km) of the study area, we undertook a nested set of remote sensing analyses to extract habitat features, geomorphic descriptors, and hydraulic parameters including channel forming velocity, depth, channel roughness, slope, and shear stress. Each of these estimated parameters is mapped for each 1 km segment of the river from the rapids described above to below Inga Falls, a massive cataract where several endemic fish species have been identified. To validate remote sensing estimates, we collected depth and velocity data within the river using gps-enabled sonar measurements from a kayak and Doppler profiling from a motor-driven dugout canoe. Observations corroborate remote sensing estimates of geomorphic parameters. Remote sensing-based estimates of channel-forming velocity and depth were less than the observed maximum channel depth but correlated well with channel properties within 1 km reach segments. This correspondence is notable. The empirical models used

  12. Arctic Sea Ice in Transformation: A Review of Recent Observed Changes and Impacts on Biology and Human Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Walter N.; Hovelsrud, Greta K.; van Oort, Bob E. H.; Key, Jeffrey R.; Kovacs, Kit M.; Michel, Christine; Haas, Christian; Granskog, Mats A.; Gerland, Sebastian; Perovich, Donald K.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice in the Arctic is one of the most rapidly changing components of the global climate system. Over the past few decades, summer areal extent has declined over 30, and all months show statistically significant declining trends. New satellite missions and techniques have greatly expanded information on sea ice thickness, but many uncertainties remain in the satellite data and long-term records are sparse. However, thickness observations and other satellite-derived data indicate a 40 decline in thickness, due in large part to the loss of thicker, older ice cover. The changes in sea ice are happening faster than models have projected. With continued increasing temperatures, summer ice-free conditions are likely sometime in the coming decades, though there are substantial uncertainties in the exact timing and high interannual variability will remain as sea ice decreases. The changes in Arctic sea ice are already having an impact on flora and fauna in the Arctic. Some species will face increasing challenges in the future, while new habitat will open up for other species. The changes are also affecting peoples living and working in the Arctic. Native communities are facing challenges to their traditional ways of life, while new opportunities open for shipping, fishing, and natural resource extraction.

  13. Observations on the distribution, population structure and biology of Bathypterois mediterraneus Bauchot, 1962 in three areas of the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco d'Onghia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available During the DESEAS cruise Bathypterois mediterraneus specimens were sampled in the Balearic Sea between 1000 and 2800 m as well as in the western and eastern Ionian Sea from 800 to 3300 m and from 800 to 2600 m respectively. The species was found to be more abundant at depths of 1500-2000 m. The size-range was 26-190 mm and the most abundant size class was around 100-120 mm standard length. No significant size-depth trends were shown for either length or weight. Negative allometry was shown in the growth of fishes and otoliths and in the relationship between fish length and otolith size in the samples from the western and eastern Ionian Sea. In these two areas the absolute growth was estimated by adopting the Von Bertalanffy function (western Ionian: SL∞ = 194.3 ± 38.51 mm, k = 0.146 ± 0.061/year, t0 = - 0.921 ± 0.699, ø' = 3.74; eastern Ionian: SL∞ = 180.23 ± 63.36 mm, k = 0.150 ± 0.112/year, t0 = - 0.968 ± 0.868, ø' = 3.70. Although most of the specimens were immature, some ripe gonads were recorded in individuals greater than 104 mm in standard length, confirming the simultaneous hermaphroditism in this fish. The results are discussed in relation to previous observations on the life strategy of B.mediterraneus in the Mediterranean Sea.

  14. Systematic analysis of compositional order of proteins reveals new characteristics of biological functions and a universal correlate of macroevolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erez Persi

    Full Text Available We present a novel analysis of compositional order (CO based on the occurrence of Frequent amino-acid Triplets (FTs that appear much more than random in protein sequences. The method captures all types of proteomic compositional order including single amino-acid runs, tandem repeats, periodic structure of motifs and otherwise low complexity amino-acid regions. We introduce new order measures, distinguishing between 'regularity', 'periodicity' and 'vocabulary', to quantify these phenomena and to facilitate the identification of evolutionary effects. Detailed analysis of representative species across the tree-of-life demonstrates that CO proteins exhibit numerous functional enrichments, including a wide repertoire of particular patterns of dependencies on regularity and periodicity. Comparison between human and mouse proteomes further reveals the interplay of CO with evolutionary trends, such as faster substitution rate in mouse leading to decrease of periodicity, while innovation along the human lineage leads to larger regularity. Large-scale analysis of 94 proteomes leads to systematic ordering of all major taxonomic groups according to FT-vocabulary size. This is measured by the count of Different Frequent Triplets (DFT in proteomes. The latter provides a clear hierarchical delineation of vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, fungi and prokaryotes, with thermophiles showing the lowest level of FT-vocabulary. Among eukaryotes, this ordering correlates with phylogenetic proximity. Interestingly, in all kingdoms CO accumulation in the proteome has universal characteristics. We suggest that CO is a genomic-information correlate of both macroevolution and various protein functions. The results indicate a mechanism of genomic 'innovation' at the peptide level, involved in protein elongation, shaped in a universal manner by mutational and selective forces.

  15. Systematic Analysis of Compositional Order of Proteins Reveals New Characteristics of Biological Functions and a Universal Correlate of Macroevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persi, Erez; Horn, David

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel analysis of compositional order (CO) based on the occurrence of Frequent amino-acid Triplets (FTs) that appear much more than random in protein sequences. The method captures all types of proteomic compositional order including single amino-acid runs, tandem repeats, periodic structure of motifs and otherwise low complexity amino-acid regions. We introduce new order measures, distinguishing between ‘regularity’, ‘periodicity’ and ‘vocabulary’, to quantify these phenomena and to facilitate the identification of evolutionary effects. Detailed analysis of representative species across the tree-of-life demonstrates that CO proteins exhibit numerous functional enrichments, including a wide repertoire of particular patterns of dependencies on regularity and periodicity. Comparison between human and mouse proteomes further reveals the interplay of CO with evolutionary trends, such as faster substitution rate in mouse leading to decrease of periodicity, while innovation along the human lineage leads to larger regularity. Large-scale analysis of 94 proteomes leads to systematic ordering of all major taxonomic groups according to FT-vocabulary size. This is measured by the count of Different Frequent Triplets (DFT) in proteomes. The latter provides a clear hierarchical delineation of vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, fungi and prokaryotes, with thermophiles showing the lowest level of FT-vocabulary. Among eukaryotes, this ordering correlates with phylogenetic proximity. Interestingly, in all kingdoms CO accumulation in the proteome has universal characteristics. We suggest that CO is a genomic-information correlate of both macroevolution and various protein functions. The results indicate a mechanism of genomic ‘innovation’ at the peptide level, involved in protein elongation, shaped in a universal manner by mutational and selective forces. PMID:24278003

  16. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures such as plain-film scintigraphy and MR imaging for spinal metastases in relation to biological characteristics in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Hiroya; Nagao, Kazuharu; Nishimura, Reiki; Matsuda, Kazumasa; Baba, Kenichiro; Matsuoka, Yukio; Fukuda, Makoto; Higuchi, Akihiro; Saeki, Takahito [Kumamoto City Hospital (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    The relationship between spinal metastases diagnosed by plain-film, bone scintigraphy, and MR imaging and biological characteristics in 26 patients with breast cancer was investigated retrospectively. It was found that bone scintigraphy is useful for detecting metastases in case with slow-growing tumors determined by DNA polymerase {alpha} or with estrogen-receptor (ER) positivity. In contrast, cases with rapidly growing tumors showed false-negative plain-film or bone scintigraphy results, including cases with ER-negative tumors or DNA polymerase {alpha} of more than 20%. MR imaging was found to be highly sensitive in detecting spinal metastases even in aggressive cases. MR imaging was found to have greater reliability in detecting spinal metastases of breast cancer compared to bone scintigraphy. In conclusion, it may be important to consider the degree of malignancy of each case with spinal metastases of breast cancer in evaluating imaging diagnosis. (author).

  17. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures such as plain-film scintigraphy and MR imaging for spinal metastases in relation to biological characteristics in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hiroya; Nagao, Kazuharu; Nishimura, Reiki; Matsuda, Kazumasa; Baba, Kenichiro; Matsuoka, Yukio; Fukuda, Makoto; Higuchi, Akihiro; Saeki, Takahito

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between spinal metastases diagnosed by plain-film, bone scintigraphy, and MR imaging and biological characteristics in 26 patients with breast cancer was investigated retrospectively. It was found that bone scintigraphy is useful for detecting metastases in case with slow-growing tumors determined by DNA polymerase α or with estrogen-receptor (ER) positivity. In contrast, cases with rapidly growing tumors showed false-negative plain-film or bone scintigraphy results, including cases with ER-negative tumors or DNA polymerase α of more than 20%. MR imaging was found to be highly sensitive in detecting spinal metastases even in aggressive cases. MR imaging was found to have greater reliability in detecting spinal metastases of breast cancer compared to bone scintigraphy. In conclusion, it may be important to consider the degree of malignancy of each case with spinal metastases of breast cancer in evaluating imaging diagnosis. (author)

  18. Selected Hydrologic, Water-Quality, Biological, and Sedimentation Characteristics of Laguna Grande, Fajardo, Puerto Rico, March 2007-February 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-López, Luis R.; Santos, Carlos R.

    2010-01-01

    Laguna Grande is a 50-hectare lagoon in the municipio of Fajardo, located in the northeasternmost part of Puerto Rico. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data were collected in the lagoon between March 2007 and February 2009 to establish baseline conditions and determine the health of Laguna Grande on the basis of preestablished standards. In addition, a core of bottom material was obtained at one site within the lagoon to establish sediment depositional rates. Water-quality properties measured onsite (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and water transparency) varied temporally rather than areally. All physical properties were in compliance with current regulatory standards established for Puerto Rico. Nutrient concentrations were very low and in compliance with current regulatory standards (less than 5.0 and 1.0 milligrams per liter for total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively). The average total nitrogen concentration was 0.28 milligram per liter, and the average total phosphorus concentration was 0.02 milligram per liter. Chlorophyll a was the predominant form of photosynthetic pigment in the water. The average chlorophyll-a concentration was 6.2 micrograms per liter. Bottom sediment accumulation rates were determined in sediment cores by modeling the downcore activities of lead-210 and cesium-137. Results indicated a sediment depositional rate of about 0.44 centimeter per year. At this rate of sediment accretion, the lagoon may become a marshland in about 700 to 900 years. About 86 percent of the community primary productivity in Laguna Grande was generated by periphyton, primarily algal mats and seagrasses, and the remaining 14 percent was generated by phytoplankton in the water column. Based on the diel studies the total average net community productivity equaled 5.7 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (2.1 grams of carbon per cubic meter per day). Most of this productivity was ascribed to periphyton and macrophytes

  19. Side-by-Side Comparison of the Biological Characteristics of Human Umbilical Cord and Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Both human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs have been explored as attractive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs sources, but very few parallel comparative studies of these two cell types have been made. We designed a side-by-side comparative study by isolating MSCs from the adipose tissue and umbilical cords from mothers delivering full-term babies and thus compared the various biological aspects of ASCs and UC-MSCs derived from the same individual, in one study. Both types of cells expressed cell surface markers characteristic of MSCs. ASCs and UC-MSCs both could be efficiently induced into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neuronal phenotypes. While there were no significant differences in their osteogenic differentiation, the adipogenesis of ASCs was more prominent and efficient than UC-MSCs. In the meanwhile, ASCs responded better to neuronal induction methods, exhibiting the higher differentiation rate in a relatively shorter time. In addition, UC-MSCs exhibited a more prominent secretion profile of cytokines than ASCs. These results indicate that although ASCs and UC-MSCs share considerable similarities in their immunological phenotype and pluripotentiality, certain biological differences do exist, which might have different implications for future cell-based therapy.

  20. Measuring the Psychosocial Characteristics of Teacher Candidates through the Academic Self-Identity: Self-Observation Yearly (ASI SOY) Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Belinda Bustos; Clark, Ellen Riojas; Guerra, Norma S.; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Sanchez, Serafin V.; Mayall, Hayley J.

    2010-01-01

    This study contends that multiple psychosocial factors mediate students' pursuit of the teaching profession, including beliefs, ethnic identity, acculturation, efficacy, and motivation. Despite the myriad literature addressing teacher characteristics, less is known about how these factors influence the academic or personal development of teacher…

  1. Identification of changes in hydrological drought characteristics from a multi-GCM driven ensemble constrained by observed discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgevoort, van M.H.J.; Lanen, van H.A.J.; Teuling, A.J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-01-01

    Drought severity and related socio-economic impacts are expected to increase due to climate change. To better adapt to these impacts, more knowledge on changes in future hydrological drought characteristics (e.g. frequency, duration) is needed rather than only knowledge on changes in meteorological

  2. The Effects of Biological Fertilizers, Chemical Fertilizers and Manure Application on Some Qualitative Characteristics of Vicia villosa Roth Forage under Greenhouse Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kamaei

    2017-03-01

    % probability level. Results and Discussion The results showed that in vitro DM digestibility was significantly (P P > 0.5 effect on in vitro organic matter digestibility. The highest and the lowest in vitro OM digestibility values were observed in the Rhizobium + mycorrhiza (77.86% and control (66.48%, respectively. Similarly, the results of previous studies indicated that forage quality significantly improved by inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi fertilizer in comparison with control. There was a significant difference between experimental treatments for percentage of crude protein. All fertilizer treatments increased CP content of forages as compared to that control. The effect of M, M + V and M+NPK treatments on CP was similar and the highest CP was associated to M + These effects of fertilizer treatments may be related to increasing the nitrogen fixation and absorption capacity of plant. Although a negative correlation has been reported between CP and fiber content of forages, the results of our study showed a low non-significant impact of fertilizer treatments on fiber content of forage expressed as NDA and ADF. Moreover, the percentage of Ash for all fertilizer treatments was similar to control, except for Rhizobium + mycorrhiza treatment that showed a higher significant Ash content than control. In this experiment, a significant effect of fertilizer treatments was also observed for dry matter yield of forage. In comparison with control, the combination of mycorrhizal and Rhizobium increased forage dry matter yield by 37.89%. These results are in agreement with. Conclusions The use of biological and organic fertilizers improves availability of nutrients for plant without negative impact on soil and environment. In the present study, we showed an increase in qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Vicia villosa Roth forage by bio-fertilizers application under greenhouse condition. However, a combination of mycorrhiza and Rhizobium had the highest positive impact

  3. Biological characterization and selection criteria of adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer: experience from the Italian observational NEMESI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavarezza, Matteo; Marchetti, Paolo; Gori, Stefania; Carrozza, Francesco; Maiello, Evaristo; Giotta, Francesco; Dondi, Davide; Venturini, Marco; Mustacchi, Giorgio; Casadei Gardini, Andrea; Del Mastro, Lucia; De Matteis, Andrea; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Adamo, Vincenzo; Aitini, Enrico; Amoroso, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    International treatment guidelines recommend administration of adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer based on clinical, prognostic and predictive parameters. An observational study (NEMESI) was conducted in 63 Italian oncology centres in patients with early breast cancer. Age, performance status, concomitant disease, menopausal status, histology, tumor dimension (pT), axillary lymph node status (pN), grading (G), estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER and PgR), proliferative index (ki67 or MIB-1), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and type of adjuvant treatment were recorded. The primary objective of the study was to define parameters influencing the decision to prescribe adjuvant chemotherapy and the type of chemotherapy. Data for 1894 patients were available. 69.0% postmenopausal, 67.0% pT1, 22.3% pTmic/pT1a/pT1b, 61.0% pN0, 48.7% luminal A, 18.1% luminal B, 16.1% HER2 positive, 8.7% triple negative, 8.4% unknown. 57.8% received adjuvant chemotherapy: 38.1% of luminal A, 67.3% luminal B, 88.2% HER2-positive, 97.6% triple negative. Regimens administered: 9.1% CMF-like, 48.8% anthracyclines, 38.4% anthracyclines plus taxanes, 3.7% taxanes alone. Increasing pT/pN and, marginally, HER2-positive were associated with the prescription of anthracyclines plus taxanes. Suboptimal schedules (CMF-like or AC/EC or FEC-75) were prescribed in 37.3% receiving chemotherapy, even in HER2-positive and triple negative disease (36.5% and 34.0%, respectively). This study showed an overprescription of adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer, particularly referred to luminal A. pT, pN and, marginally, HER2 were the principal determinants for the choice of chemotherapy type. Suboptimal chemotherapy regimens were adopted in at least one third of HER2-positve and triple negative

  4. Effects of removing Good Hope Mill Dam on selected physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Conodoguinet Creek, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Bilger, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    The implications of dam removal on channel characteris-tics, water quality, benthic invertebrates, and fish are not well understood because of the small number of removals that have been studied. Comprehensive studies that document the effects of dam removal are just beginning to be published, but most research has focused on larger dams or on the response of a sin-gle variable (such as benthic invertebrates). This report, pre-pared in cooperation with the Conodoguinet Creek Watershed Association, provides an evaluation of how channel morphol-ogy, bed-particle-size distribution, water quality, benthic inver-tebrates, fish, and aquatic habitat responded after removal of Good Hope Mill Dam (a small 'run of the river' dam) from Conodoguinet Creek in Cumberland County, Pa. Good Hope Mill Dam was a 6-foot high, 220-foot wide concrete structure demolished and removed over a 3-day period beginning with the initial breach on November 2, 2001, at 10:00 a.m. eastern standard time. To isolate the effects of dam removal, data were collected before and after dam removal at five monitoring stations and over selected reaches upstream, within, and downstream of the impoundment. Stations 1, 2, and 5 were at free-flowing control locations 4.9 miles upstream, 2.5 miles upstream, and 5 miles downstream of the dam, respec-tively. Stations 3 and 4 were located where the largest responses were anticipated, 115 feet upstream and 126 feet downstream of the dam, respectively Good Hope Mill Dam was not an effective barrier to sedi-ment transport. Less than 3 inches of sediment in the silt/clay-size range (less than 0.062 millimeters) coated bedrock within the 7,160-foot (1.4-mile) impoundment. The bedrock within the impoundment was not incised during or after dam removal, and the limited sediment supply resulted in no measurable change in the thalweg elevation downstream of the dam. The cross-sec-tional areas at stations 3 and 4, measured 17 days and 23 months after dam removal, were within

  5. Cytocompatibility and biologic characteristics of synthetic scaffold materials of rabbit acellular vascular matrix combining with human-like collagen I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuqian; Wang, Jie; Dong, Fusheng; Song, Peng; Tian, Songbo; Li, Hexiang; Hou, Yali

    2017-10-01

    Scaffold material provides a three-dimensional growing environment for seed cells in the research field of tissue engineering. In the present study, rabbit arterial blood vessel cells were chemically removed with trypsin and Triton X-100 to prepare rabbit acellular vascular matrix scaffold material. Observation by He&Masson staining revealed that no cellular components or nuclei existed in the vascular intima and media after decellularization. Human-like collagen I was combined with acellular vascular matrix by freeze-drying to prepare an acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I scaffold to compensate for the extracellular matrix loss during the decellularization process. We next performed a series of experiments to test the water absorbing quality, biomechanics, pressure resistance, cytotoxicity, and ultra-micro structure of the acellular vascular matrix composite material and natural rabbit artery and found that the acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I material behaved similarly to natural rabbit artery. In conclusion, the acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I composite material provides a new approach and lays the foundation for novel scaffold material research into tissue engineering of blood vessels.

  6. A cross-sectional observational study comparing foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Kunkel, Dorit; Potter, Julia; Mamode, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and compare foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls; and between stroke fallers and non-fallers.Methods: Participants were recruited from community groups and completed standardized tests assessing sensation, foot posture, foot function, ankle dorsiflexion and first metatarsal phalangeal joint range of motion (1st MPJ ROM), hallux valgus presence and severity.Results: Twenty-three stroke participants (mean age...

  7. Scheduling and shift work characteristics associated with risk for occupational injury in newly licensed registered nurses: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpfel, Amy Witkoski; Brewer, Carol S; Kovner, Christine T

    2015-11-01

    Registered nurses across the globe bear a heavy injury burden. Every shift, nurses are exposed to a variety of hazards that can jeopardize their health, which negatively impacts their ability to provide high-quality patient care. Previous research suggests that inexperienced, or newly licensed nurses, may have an increased risk for certain occupational injuries. However, the current knowledge base is insufficient to fully understand how work hours influence newly licensed nurses' occupational injury, given the significant variation in hospital organization and work characteristics. To describe newly licensed nurses' shift work characteristics and determine the association between shift type and scheduling characteristics and nurse injury, before and after adjusting for individual and combined effects of demographics, external context, organizational context, and work context, following the Organization of Work model. This study is a secondary analysis of a nationally representative survey of newly licensed registered nurses using a cross-sectional design. The analytic sample includes 1744 newly licensed registered nurses from 34 states and the District of Columbia who reported working in a hospital and were within 6-18 months of passing their state licensure exam at the time of survey administration. Descriptive statistics were calculated, followed by bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression models to assess the relationship between shift type and scheduling characteristics and nurse injury. Lastly, full models with the addition of demographics, external context, organizational context, and work context variables were calculated. The majority (79%) of newly licensed nurses worked 12-h shifts, a near majority worked night shift (44%), and over half (61%) worked overtime (mandatory or voluntary) weekly. Nurses working weekly overtime were associated with a 32% [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.32, CI 1.07-1.62] increase in the risk of a needle stick and nurses

  8. Racial and Ethnic Disparity in Symptomatic Breast Cancer Awareness despite a Recent Screen: The Role of Tumor Biology and Mammography Facility Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortel, Mylove; Rauscher, Garth H; Murphy, Anne Marie; Hoskins, Kent; Warnecke, Richard B

    2015-10-01

    In a racially and ethnically diverse sample of recently diagnosed urban patients with breast cancer, we examined associations of patient, tumor biology, and mammography facility characteristics on the probability of symptomatic discovery of their breast cancer despite a recent prior screening mammogram. In the Breast Cancer Care in Chicago study, self-reports at interview were used to define patients as having a screen-detected breast cancer or having symptomatic awareness despite a recent screening mammogram (SADRS), in the past 1 or 2 years. Patients with symptomatic breast cancer who did not report a recent prior screen were excluded from these analyses. Characteristics associated with more aggressive disease [estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative status and higher tumor grade] were abstracted from medical records. Mammogram facility characteristics that might indicate aspects of screening quality were defined and controlled for in some analyses. SADRS was more common among non-Hispanic black and Hispanic than among non-Hispanic white patients (36% and 42% vs. 25%, respectively, P = 0.0004). SADRS was associated with ER/PR-negative and higher-grade disease. Patients screened at sites that relied on dedicated radiologists and sites that were breast imaging centers of excellence were less likely to report SADRS. Tumor and facility factors together accounted for two thirds of the disparity in SADRS (proportion mediated = 70%, P = 0.02). Facility resources and tumor aggressiveness explain much of the racial/ethnic disparity in symptomatic breast cancer among recently screened patients. A more equitable distribution of high-quality screening would ameliorate but not eliminate this disparity. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Comparison of computer simulated and observed force deformation characteristics of anti-seismic devices and isolated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoje, S.B.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.; Muralikrishna, R.; Salvaraj, T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper discusses the finite element analysis of the force deformation characteristics of high damping rubber bearings, lead rubber bearings and natural rubber bearings. The dynamic response of structures isolated using bearings is also presented. The general purpose finite element program ABAQUS has been used for the numerical predictions under monotonic loads. For computing the dynamic response, a simplified model of the rubber bearing in the form of elasto-plastic system is used. This equivalent model is implemented using the computer code CASTEM-2000 and the dynamic response is obtained. The numerical results are found to match well with the experimental results. (author)

  10. biojs-io-biom, a BioJS component for handling data in Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM format [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus J. Ankenbrand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM format is widely used to store data from high-throughput studies. It aims at increasing interoperability of bioinformatic tools that process this data. However, due to multiple versions and implementation details, working with this format can be tricky. Currently, libraries in Python, R and Perl are available, whilst such for JavaScript are lacking. Here, we present a BioJS component for parsing BIOM data in all format versions. It supports import, modification, and export via a unified interface. This module aims to facilitate the development of web applications that use BIOM data. Finally, we demonstrate its usefulness by two applications that already use this component. Availability: https://github.com/molbiodiv/biojs-io-biom, https://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.218277

  11. Relationships between Medicare Advantage contract characteristics and quality-of-care ratings: an observational analysis of Medicare Advantage star ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Burgess, James F; Cabral, Howard; Soria-Saucedo, Rene; Kazis, Lewis E

    2015-03-03

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) publishes star ratings on Medicare Advantage (MA) contracts to measure plan quality of care with implications for reimbursement and bonuses. To investigate whether MA contract characteristics are associated with quality of care through the Medicare plan star ratings. Retrospective study of MA star ratings in 2010. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable linear regression models assessed the relationship between 5-star rating summary scores and plan characteristics. CMS MA contracts nationally. 409 (71%) of a total of 575 MA contracts, covering 10.56 million Medicare beneficiaries (90% of the MA population) in the United States in 2010. The MA quality ratings summary score (stars range from 1 to 5) is a quality measure based on 36 indicators related to processes of care, health outcomes, access to care, and beneficiary satisfaction. Nonprofit, larger, and older MA contracts were more likely to receive higher star ratings. Star ratings ranged from 2 to 5. Nonprofit contracts received an average 0.55 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.67) higher star ratings than for-profit contracts (P  star ratings than for-profit contracts. When comparing health plans in the future, the CMS should give increasing attention to for-profit plans with lower quality ratings and consider developing programs to assist newer and smaller plans in improving their care for Medicare beneficiaries. None.

  12. Observed characteristics of tide-surge interaction along the east coast of India and the head of Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, C.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    before the high tide. Application of a simple model shows the observed surge peak distribution at Hiron Point can be explained in terms of phase alteration of tide due to surge and surge modulation by tide. The degree of interaction tends to increase...

  13. The relationship between biological cognitive and psychosocial characteristics of parents and the weight of infant at the time of birth in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebian, Mohammad Hassan; Afrooz, Gholam Ali; Hooman, Heidar Ali; Aghaei, Asghar

    2013-01-01

    The present study was connected in order to evaluate the relationship between biological, cognitive and psychosocial characteristics of mothers and the weight of infant at the time of birth. In order to conduct this research a sample of 910 women among recently delivered mothers of Isfahan province in 2009 were selected. From stratified sampling and cluster sampling according to the percentage of population in each of the cities of Isfahan Province was used. The data was gathered with a questionnaire prepared by the researcher in order to evaluate the biological cognitive and psychosocial characteristics of mothers, in addition to the Enrich marital satisfaction test. After collecting data, the analysis of the data was done with SPSS software in two categories of descriptive and inferential statistics by using logistic regression model. The results showed that the prevalence of low weight infants was 9.5 percent and 38.7 percent of pregnancies was unwanted. Twenty-nine percent of mothers had marital dissatisfaction. 15/6 percent of pregnancies were below 20 years old and 22 percent was above of 35 years old. 38.9 percent of mothers were exposed to cigarette smoke. The average of weight gain during pregnancies was 9 kilograms. Thirty three percent of mothers had high blood pressure during pregnancy, 26.7 percent had history of abortion and 31.9 percent had history of bleeding. 23/1percent of women was employed during pregnancy, 19.8 percent gave twin birth and 21/1 percent of parents were relative of each other, 29.7 percent of deliveries were done in cesarean way. The results of this study showed that severe marital dissatisfaction, abnormal blood pressure during pregnancy, being employed during pregnancy, weight gain less than 5 Kg during pregnancy, pregnancy below the age of 20 can meaning fully increase the possibility of low birth weight in infant (α=0.05). The results were consisting with the previous findings and indicated that some of the applicable

  14. Characteristic interpersonal behavior in dependent and avoidant personality disorder can be observed within very short interaction sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Daniel; Sporberg, Doreen; Rehbein, Diana

    2006-08-01

    We present a behavior observation study of interpersonal behavior in 96 female subjects, who had been screened for the presence of dependent, avoidant, narcissistic and histrionic personality disorder features. Each subject took part in three short role-plays, taken from assertiveness training. Afterwards, both the subject and her role-play partner judged, how assertive the subject had been. Although observation time was very short, dependent and avoidant subjects could be easily identified from their overly submissive behavior in the role-plays. Histrionic and narcissistic subjects did not show distinctive interpersonal behavior. Contrary to a common belief, higher scores on some personality disorder (PD) scales were positively related to cross-situational variability of behavior. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for clinical diagnostics, therapy and the methodology of personality disorder research in general.

  15. The MMS observation of an off-equatorial dipolarization front and associated wave characteristics in the near-Earth magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Guo, L.; Zhou, M.; Cheng, Q.; Yu, X.; Huang, S.; Pang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we report the observation of the off-equatorial depolarization front structures by Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission at around X -8Re in the Earth's magnetotail. The dipolarization front was located at the flow rebounce region associated with a parallel electron beam. A large lower frequency electromagnetic wave fluctuation at the depolarization front is observed with the frequency near the ion gyrofrequency, left-handed polarization and a parallel propagation. A parallel current attributed to an electron beam coexist with the wave. The wave is believed to be generated by the current-driven ion cyclotron instability. Such instability is important because of its potential contribution to global electromagnetic energy conversion at the dipolarization front.

  16. Estimation of Crop Gross Primary Production (GPP): I. Impact of MODIS Observation Footprint and Impact of Vegetation BRDF Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Xiao, Xiangming; Suyker, Andrew; Verma, Shashi; Tan, Bin; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimation of gross primary production (GPP) is essential for carbon cycle and climate change studies. Three AmeriFlux crop sites of maize and soybean were selected for this study. Two of the sites were irrigated and the other one was rainfed. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), the green band chlorophyll index (CIgreen), and the green band wide dynamic range vegetation index (WDRVIgreen) were computed from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data. We examined the impacts of the MODIS observation footprint and the vegetation bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) on crop daily GPP estimation with the four spectral vegetation indices (VIs - NDVI, EVI, WDRVIgreen and CIgreen) where GPP was predicted with two linear models, with and without offset: GPP = a × VI × PAR and GPP = a × VI × PAR + b. Model performance was evaluated with coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and coefficient of variation (CV). The MODIS data were filtered into four categories and four experiments were conducted to assess the impacts. The first experiment included all observations. The second experiment only included observations with view zenith angle (VZA) = 35? to constrain growth of the footprint size,which achieved a better grid cell match with the agricultural fields. The third experiment included only forward scatter observations with VZA = 35?. The fourth experiment included only backscatter observations with VZA = 35?. Overall, the EVI yielded the most consistently strong relationships to daily GPP under all examined conditions. The model GPP = a × VI × PAR + b had better performance than the model GPP = a × VI × PAR, and the offset was significant for most cases. Better performance was obtained for the irrigated field than its counterpart rainfed field. Comparison of experiment 2 vs. experiment 1 was used to examine the observation

  17. Summer sea ice characteristics and morphology in the Pacific Arctic sector as observed during the CHINARE 2010 cruise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Xie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 2010, atmosphere–ice–ocean interaction was studied aboard the icebreaker R/V Xuelong during the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE, in the sea ice zone of the Pacific Arctic sector between 150° W and 180° W up to 88.5° N. The expedition lasted from 21 July to 28 August and comprised of ice observations and measurements along the cruise track, 8 short-term stations and one 12-day drift station. Ship-based observations of ice thickness and concentration are compared with ice thickness measured by an electromagnetic induction device (EM31 mounted off the ship's side and ice concentrations obtained from AMSR-E. It is found that the modal thickness from ship-based visual observations matches well with the modal thickness from the mounted EM31. A grid of 8 profiles of ice thickness measurements (four repeats was conducted at the 12-day drift station in the central Arctic (~ 86°50´ N–87°20´ N and an average melt rate of 2 cm day−1, primarily bottom melt, was found. As compared with the 2005 data from the Healy/Oden Trans-Arctic Expedition (HOTRAX for the same sector but ~ 20 days later (9 August to 10 September, the summer 2010 was first-year ice dominant (vs. the multi-year ice dominant in 2005, 70% or less in mean ice concentration (vs. 90% in 2005, and 94–114 cm in mean ice thickness (vs. 150 cm in 2005. Those changes suggest the continuation of ice thinning, less concentration, and younger ice for the summer sea ice in the sector since 2007 when a record minimum sea ice extent was observed. Overall, the measurements provide a valuable dataset of sea ice morphological properties over the Arctic Pacific Sector in summer 2010 and can be used as a benchmark for measurements of future changes.

  18. Observing Trip Chain Characteristics of Round-Trip Carsharing Users in China: A Case Study Based on GPS Data in Hangzhou City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing as a means to provide individuals with access to automobiles to complete a personal trip has grown significantly in recent years in China. However, there are few case studies based on operational data to show the role carsharing systems play in citizens’ daily trips. In this study, vehicle GPS data of a round-trip carsharing system in Hangzhou, China was used to describe the trip chain characteristics of users. For clearer delineation of carshare usage, the car use time length of all observations chosen in the study was within 24 h or less. Through data preprocessing, a large pool (26,085 of valid behavior samples was obtained, and several trip chaining attributes were selected to describe the characteristics. The pool of observations was then classified into five clusters, with each cluster having significant differences in one or two trip chain characteristics. The cluster results reflected that different use patterns exist. By a comparative analysis with trip survey data in Hangzhou, differences in trip chain characteristics exist between carsharing and private cars, but in some cases, shared vehicles can be a substitute for private cars to satisfy motorized travel. The proposed method could facilitate companies in formulating a flexible pricing strategy and determining target customers. In addition, traffic administration agencies could have a deeper understanding of the position and function of various carsharing modes in an urban transportation system.

  19. Detailed characteristics of radiation belt electrons revealed by CSSWE/REPTile measurements: Geomagnetic activity response and precipitation observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Gerhardt, D.; Zhao, H.; Millan, R.

    2017-08-01

    Earth's outer radiation belt electrons are highly dynamic. We study the detailed characteristics of relativistic electrons in the outer belt using measurements from the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) mission, a low Earth orbit (LEO) CubeSat, which traverses the radiation belt four times in one orbit ( 1.5 h) and has the advantage of measuring the dynamic activities of the electrons including their rapid precipitation. We focus on the measured electron response to geomagnetic activity for different energies to show that there are abundant sub-MeV electrons in the inner belt and slot region. These electrons are further enhanced during active times, while there is a lack of >1.63 MeV electrons in these regions. We also show that the variation of measured electron flux at LEO is strongly dependent on the local magnetic field strength, which is far from a dipole approximation. Moreover, a specific precipitation band, which happened on 19 January 2013, is investigated based on the conjunctive measurement of CSSWE, the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses, and one of the Polar Operational Environmental Satellites. In this precipitation band event, the net loss of the 0.58-1.63 MeV electrons (L = 3.5-6) is estimated to account for 6.8% of the total electron content.

  20. Observations on self-incineration characteristics in 24 years (1993-2016) of autopsies in the city of Milan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadasi, Alberto; Boracchi, Michele; Gentile, Guendalina; Maciocco, Francesca; Maghin, Francesca; Zoja, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    Self-incineration is one of the most dramatic and lethal suicide methods. It is rarely reported in Western countries and is more frequent in developing regions. We illustrate the forensic cases of self-immolation occurring over 24 years in the city of Milan, Italy, highlighting the main issues of such a complex and rare suicide. We selected 33 cases of self-incineration among 23,417 autopsies (4022 suicides) performed at the Department of Legal Medicine of the University of Milan over a period of 24 years (1993-2016). Several parameters were included and analysed: gender and age of the victims, pathological history, previous suicide intentions/attempts, duration of burning, place of death or discovery of the corpse, circumstantial data of fatal events and autopsy findings, with particular attention to thermal injuries. Self-incineration was found in 0.8% of total suicides and 0.14% of total autopsies. One of these cases involved a complex modality (association with plastic-bag suffocation). The typical characteristics of the victim were an Italian man with psychiatric illness, frequently moved by passion, existential discomfort and economic problems. During the 24-year period, the number of cases of self-incineration progressively reduced. This study provides a general overview in one of the biggest metropolitan Italian areas and is one of the few works performed on this topic. It may be helpful in understanding and studying such an unusual manner of suicide.

  1. A comparison between ion characteristics observed by the POLAR and DMSP spacecraft in the high-latitude magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Stubbs

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We study here the injection and transport of ions in the convection-dominated region of the Earth's magnetosphere. The total ion counts from the CAMMICE MICS instrument aboard the POLAR spacecraft are used to generate occurrence probability distributions of magnetospheric ion populations. MICS ion spectra are characterised by both the peak in the differential energy flux, and the average energy of ions striking the detector. The former permits a comparison with the Stubbs et al. (2001 survey of He2+ ions of solar wind origin within the magnetosphere. The latter can address the occurrences of various classifications of precipitating particle fluxes observed in the topside ionosphere by DMSP satellites (Newell and Meng, 1992. The peak energy occurrences are consistent with our earlier work, including the dawn-dusk asymmetry with enhanced occurrences on the dawn flank at low energies, switching to the dusk flank at higher energies. The differences in the ion energies observed in these two studies can be explained by drift orbit effects and acceleration processes at the magnetopause, and in the tail current sheet. Near noon at average ion energies of ≈1keV, the cusp and open LLBL occur further poleward here than in the Newell and Meng survey, probably due to convection- related time-of-flight effects. An important new result is that the pre-noon bias previously observed in the LLBL is most likely due to the component of this population on closed field lines, formed largely by low energy ions drifting earthward from the tail. There is no evidence here of mass and momentum transfer from the solar wind to the LLBL by non-reconnection coupling. At higher energies ≈2–20keV, we observe ions mapping to the auroral oval and can distinguish between the boundary and central plasma sheets. We show that ions at these energies relate to a transition from dawnward to duskward dominated flow, this is evidence of how ion drift orbits in the tail influence

  2. A comparison between ion characteristics observed by the POLAR and DMSP spacecraft in the high-latitude magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Stubbs

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We study here the injection and transport of ions in the convection-dominated region of the Earth's magnetosphere. The total ion counts from the CAMMICE MICS instrument aboard the POLAR spacecraft are used to generate occurrence probability distributions of magnetospheric ion populations. MICS ion spectra are characterised by both the peak in the differential energy flux, and the average energy of ions striking the detector. The former permits a comparison with the Stubbs et al. (2001 survey of He2+ ions of solar wind origin within the magnetosphere. The latter can address the occurrences of various classifications of precipitating particle fluxes observed in the topside ionosphere by DMSP satellites (Newell and Meng, 1992. The peak energy occurrences are consistent with our earlier work, including the dawn-dusk asymmetry with enhanced occurrences on the dawn flank at low energies, switching to the dusk flank at higher energies. The differences in the ion energies observed in these two studies can be explained by drift orbit effects and acceleration processes at the magnetopause, and in the tail current sheet. Near noon at average ion energies of ≈1keV, the cusp and open LLBL occur further poleward here than in the Newell and Meng survey, probably due to convection- related time-of-flight effects. An important new result is that the pre-noon bias previously observed in the LLBL is most likely due to the component of this population on closed field lines, formed largely by low energy ions drifting earthward from the tail. There is no evidence here of mass and momentum transfer from the solar wind to the LLBL by non-reconnection coupling. At higher energies ≈2–20keV, we observe ions mapping to the auroral oval and can distinguish between the boundary and central plasma sheets. We show that ions at these energies relate to a transition from dawnward to duskward dominated flow, this is evidence of how ion drift orbits in the

  3. Mouse Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cell Lines retain their phenotypic characteristics after transfection with Human Papilloma Virus: A new tool to further the study of RPE biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanuto, Paola; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Sanchez, Patricia; Salas, Pedro; Hernandez, Eleut; Cousins, Scott W.; Elliot, Sharon J.

    2009-01-01

    Development of immortalized mouse retinal pigmented epithelial cell (RPE) lines that retain many of their in vivo phenotypic characteristics, would aid in studies of ocular diseases including age related macular degeneration (AMD). RPE cells were isolated from 16 month old (estrogen receptor knockout) ERKOα and ERKOβ mice and their C57Bl/6 wild type littermates. RPE65 and cellular retinaldehyde binding protein (CRALBP) expression, in vivo markers of RPE cells, were detected by real-time RT-PCR and western analysis. We confirmed the presence of epithelial cell markers, ZO1, cytokeratin 8 and 18 by immunofluorescence staining. In addition, we confirmed the distribution of actin filaments and the expression of ezrin. To develop cell lines, RPE cells were isolated, propagated and immortalized using human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 (E6/E7). RPE-specific markers and morphology were assessed before and after immortalization. In wildtype littermate controls, there was no evidence of any alterations in the parameters that we examined including MMP-2, TIMP-2, collagen type IV, and estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ protein expression and ER copy number ratio. Therefore, immortalized mouse RPE cell lines that retain their in vivo phenotype can be isolated from either pharmacologically or genetically manipulated mice, and may be used to study RPE cell biology. PMID:19013153

  4. Perspective Biological Markers for Autism Spectrum Disorders: Advantages of the Use of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves in Evaluating Marker Sensitivity and Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provvidenza M. Abruzzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders. Recognized causes of ASD include genetic factors, metabolic diseases, toxic and environmental factors, and a combination of these. Available tests fail to recognize genetic abnormalities in about 70% of ASD children, where diagnosis is solely based on behavioral signs and symptoms, which are difficult to evaluate in very young children. Although it is advisable that specific psychotherapeutic and pedagogic interventions are initiated as early as possible, early diagnosis is hampered by the lack of nongenetic specific biological markers. In the past ten years, the scientific literature has reported dozens of neurophysiological and biochemical alterations in ASD children; however no real biomarker has emerged. Such literature is here reviewed in the light of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis, a very valuable statistical tool, which evaluates the sensitivity and the specificity of biomarkers to be used in diagnostic decision making. We also apply ROC analysis to some of our previously published data and discuss the increased diagnostic value of combining more variables in one ROC curve analysis. We also discuss the use of biomarkers as a tool for advancing our understanding of nonsyndromic ASD.

  5. Characteristics, distribution, origin, and significance of opaline silica observed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, S.W.; Farmer, J.D.; Calvin, W.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Morris, R.V.; Rice, M.S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Christensen, P.R.; Squyres, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of outcrops and soil (regolith) rich in opaline silica (???65-92 wt % SiO2) in association with volcanic materials adjacent to the "Home Plate" feature in Gusev crater is evidence for hydrothermal conditions. The Spirit rover has supplied a diverse set of observations that are used here to better understand the formation of silica and the activity, abundance, and fate of water in the first hydrothermal system to be explored in situ on Mars. We apply spectral, chemical, morphological, textural, and stratigraphic observations to assess whether the silica was produced by acid sulfate leaching of precursor rocks, by precipitation from silica-rich solutions, or by some combination. The apparent lack of S enrichment and the relatively low oxidation state of the Home Plate silica-rich materials appear inconsistent with the originally proposed Hawaiian analog for fumarolic acid sulfate leaching. The stratiform distribution of the silica-rich outcrops and their porous and brecciated microtextures are consistent with sinter produced by silica precipitation. There is no evidence for crystalline quartz phases among the silica occurrences, an indication of the lack of diagenetic maturation following the production of the amorphous opaline phase. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. THE LOW-FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF PSR J0437–4715 OBSERVED WITH THE MURCHISON WIDE-FIELD ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, N. D. R.; Ord, S. M.; Tremblay, S. E.; Tingay, S. J.; Oronsaye, S.; Emrich, D. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Deshpande, A. A. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Van Straten, W.; Briggs, F. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Bernardi, G. [Square Kilometre Array South Africa, 3rd Floor, The Park, Park Road, Pinelands, 7405 (South Africa); Bowman, J. D. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E. [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Goeke, R.; Hewitt, J. N. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Greenhill, L. J.; Kasper, J. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hazelton, B. J. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Kaplan, D. L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); and others

    2014-08-20

    We report on the detection of the millisecond pulsar PSR J0437–4715 with the Murchison Wide-field Array (MWA) at a frequency of 192 MHz. Our observations show rapid modulations of pulse intensity in time and frequency that arise from diffractive scintillation effects in the interstellar medium (ISM), as well as prominent drifts of intensity maxima in the time-frequency plane that arise from refractive effects. Our analysis suggests that the scattering screen is located at a distance of ∼80-120 pc from the Sun, in disagreement with a recent claim that the screen is closer (∼10 pc). Comparisons with higher frequency data from Parkes reveal a dramatic evolution of the pulse profile with frequency, with the outer conal emission becoming comparable in strength to that from the core and inner conal regions. As well as demonstrating the high time resolution science capabilities currently possible with the MWA, our observations underscore the potential to conduct low-frequency investigations of timing-array millisecond pulsars, which may lead to increased sensitivity in the detection of nanoHertz gravitational waves via the accurate characterization of ISM effects.

  7. Rain Characteristics and Large-Scale Environments of Precipitation Objects with Extreme Rain Volumes from TRMM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaping; Lau, William K M.; Liu, Chuntao

    2013-01-01

    This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data to study rainfall structure and environmental factors associated with extreme heavy rain events. Characteristics of instantaneous extreme volumetric PFs are examined and compared to those of intermediate and small systems. It is found that instantaneous PFs exhibit a much wider scale range compared to the daily gridded precipitation accumulation range. The top 1% of the rainiest PFs contribute over 55% of total rainfall and have 2 orders of rain volume magnitude greater than those of the median PFs. We find a threshold near the top 10% beyond which the PFs grow exponentially into larger, deeper, and colder rain systems. NCEP reanalyses show that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase steadily with increasingly larger PFs, along with a rapid increase of 500 hPa upward vertical velocity beyond the top 10%. This provides the necessary moisture convergence to amplify and sustain the extreme events. The rapid increase in vertical motion is associated with the release of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in mature systems, as is evident in the increase in CAPE of PFs up to 10% and the subsequent dropoff. The study illustrates distinct stages in the development of an extreme rainfall event including: (1) a systematic buildup in large-scale temperature and moisture, (2) a rapid change in rain structure, (3) explosive growth of the PF size, and (4) a release of CAPE before the demise of the event.

  8. Impact of osmotic stress on seedling growth observations, membrane characteristics and antioxidant defense system of different wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardees M. Mickky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to find out a straightforward technique for screening the tolerance of ten wheat genotypes to two levels of osmotic stress at early seedling stage. Data revealed that polyethylene glycol-induced drought had general negative effect on seedling morphological characters indicated by plumule and radicle length, number of adventitious roots as well as seedling biomass and water content. Water deficit could also suppress membrane integrity by stimulating lipid peroxidation with marked increase in membrane leakage and subsequent decrease in its stability index. For all the addressed germination parameters and seedling membrane features, the impact of severe drought was more pronounced than that of moderate drought. Simultaneously, moderate stress could activate peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and ascorbic peroxidase of the studied genotypes; but these enzymes were inhibited by severe stress. The activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase was conversely retarded by drought whether at moderate or severe level. More interestingly, a novel function “Stress Impact Index; SII” was introduced to rank the estimated morpho-physiological traits (SIItrait as well as the considered genotypes (SIIgenotype according to their sensitivity to stress. Values of SIItrait implied that germination parameters were generally affected by drought more intensively than membrane characteristics and finally came the antioxidant enzymes with the least degree of suppression when applying stress. Based on the magnitudes of SIIgenotype, Sids 13 seemed to be the most drought-tolerant wheat cultivar while Shandawel 1 could be the most sensitive one at their juvenile growth stage.

  9. Characteristic 7- and 5- states observed in the (p,t) reactions on even-even rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Y.; Kubono, S.; Iwasaki, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The (p,t) reactions have been studied for the even-even rare earth nuclei with 40 MeV proton beam from the INS SF cyclotron. A pair of 7 - and 5 - states was observed with large cross sections in each of the nuclei with the neutron number (N) ranging from 86 to 100. For sup(140,142)Nd of N = 80 and 82 the data were obtained at KVI in Groningen, and the data for 152 Sm of N = 90 at MSU. Q value systematics of (p,t) reactions to these states seem to suggest that these are excited by the two neutron pick-up from the neutron core of N = 82. The (p,t) cross sections leading to these states of N from 82 to 96 are nearly constant. (author)

  10. Long-term urban carbon dioxide observations reveal spatial and temporal dynamics related to urban characteristics and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Logan E; Lin, John C; Bowling, David R; Pataki, Diane E; Strong, Courtenay; Schauer, Andrew J; Bares, Ryan; Bush, Susan E; Stephens, Britton B; Mendoza, Daniel; Mallia, Derek; Holland, Lacey; Gurney, Kevin R; Ehleringer, James R

    2018-03-20

    Cities are concentrated areas of CO 2 emissions and have become the foci of policies for mitigation actions. However, atmospheric measurement networks suitable for evaluating urban emissions over time are scarce. Here we present a unique long-term (decadal) record of CO 2 mole fractions from five sites across Utah's metropolitan Salt Lake Valley. We examine "excess" CO 2 above background conditions resulting from local emissions and meteorological conditions. We ascribe CO 2 trends to changes in emissions, since we did not find long-term trends in atmospheric mixing proxies. Three contrasting CO 2 trends emerged across urban types: negative trends at a residential-industrial site, positive trends at a site surrounded by rapid suburban growth, and relatively constant CO 2 over time at multiple sites in the established, residential, and commercial urban core. Analysis of population within the atmospheric footprints of the different sites reveals approximately equal increases in population influencing the observed CO 2 , implying a nonlinear relationship with CO 2 emissions: Population growth in rural areas that experienced suburban development was associated with increasing emissions while population growth in the developed urban core was associated with stable emissions. Four state-of-the-art global-scale emission inventories also have a nonlinear relationship with population density across the city; however, in contrast to our observations, they all have nearly constant emissions over time. Our results indicate that decadal scale changes in urban CO 2 emissions are detectable through monitoring networks and constitute a valuable approach to evaluate emission inventories and studies of urban carbon cycles.

  11. Structure and Dissipation Characteristics of an Electron Diffusion Region Observed by MMS During a Rapid, Normal-Incidence Magnetopause Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Argall, M. R.; Alm, L.; Farrugia, C. J.; Forbes, T. G.; Giles, B. L.; Rager, A.; Dorelli, J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Wilder, F. D.; Ahmadi, N.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.

    2017-12-01

    On 22 October 2016, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft encountered the electron diffusion region (EDR) when the magnetosheath field was southward, and there were signatures of fast reconnection, including flow jets, Hall fields, and large power dissipation. One rapid, normal-incidence crossing, during which the EDR structure was almost stationary in the boundary frame, provided an opportunity to observe the spatial structure for the zero guide field case of magnetic reconnection. The reconnection electric field was determined unambiguously to be 2-3 mV/m. There were clear signals of fluctuating parallel electric fields, up to 6 mV/m on the magnetosphere side of the diffusion region, associated with a Hall-like parallel current feature on the electron scale. The width of the main EDR structure was determined to be 2 km (1.8 de). Although the MMS spacecraft were in their closest tetrahedral separation of 8 km, the divergences and curls for these thin current structures could therefore not be computed in the usual manner. A method is developed to determine these quantities on a much smaller scale and applied to compute the normal component of terms in the generalized Ohm's law for the positions of each individual spacecraft (not a barocentric average). Although the gradient pressure term has a qualitative dependence that follows the observed variation of E + Ve × B, the quantitative magnitude of these terms differs by more than a factor of 2, which is shown to be greater than the respective errors. Thus, future research is required to find the manner in which Ohm's law is balanced.

  12. Long-term urban carbon dioxide observations reveal spatial and temporal dynamics related to urban characteristics and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Logan E.; Lin, John C.; Bowling, David R.; Pataki, Diane E.; Strong, Courtenay; Schauer, Andrew J.; Bares, Ryan; Bush, Susan E.; Stephens, Britton B.; Mendoza, Daniel; Mallia, Derek; Holland, Lacey; Gurney, Kevin R.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2018-03-01

    Cities are concentrated areas of CO2 emissions and have become the foci of policies for mitigation actions. However, atmospheric measurement networks suitable for evaluating urban emissions over time are scarce. Here we present a unique long-term (decadal) record of CO2 mole fractions from five sites across Utah’s metropolitan Salt Lake Valley. We examine “excess” CO2 above background conditions resulting from local emissions and meteorological conditions. We ascribe CO2 trends to changes in emissions, since we did not find long-term trends in atmospheric mixing proxies. Three contrasting CO2 trends emerged across urban types: negative trends at a residential-industrial site, positive trends at a site surrounded by rapid suburban growth, and relatively constant CO2 over time at multiple sites in the established, residential, and commercial urban core. Analysis of population within the atmospheric footprints of the different sites reveals approximately equal increases in population influencing the observed CO2, implying a nonlinear relationship with CO2 emissions: Population growth in rural areas that experienced suburban development was associated with increasing emissions while population growth in the developed urban core was associated with stable emissions. Four state-of-the-art global-scale emission inventories also have a nonlinear relationship with population density across the city; however, in contrast to our observations, they all have nearly constant emissions over time. Our results indicate that decadal scale changes in urban CO2 emissions are detectable through monitoring networks and constitute a valuable approach to evaluate emission inventories and studies of urban carbon cycles.

  13. Methods of applying the 1994 case definition of chronic fatigue syndrome - impact on classification and observed illness characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, E R; Lin, J-M S; Tian, H; Gurbaxani, B M; Boneva, R S; Jones, J F

    2016-01-01

    Multiple case definitions are in use to identify chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Even when using the same definition, methods used to apply definitional criteria may affect results. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted two population-based studies estimating CFS prevalence using the 1994 case definition; one relied on direct questions for criteria of fatigue, functional impairment and symptoms (1997 Wichita; Method 1), and the other used subscale score thresholds of standardized questionnaires for criteria (2004 Georgia; Method 2). Compared to previous reports the 2004 CFS prevalence estimate was higher, raising questions about whether changes in the method of operationalizing affected this and illness characteristics. The follow-up of the Georgia cohort allowed direct comparison of both methods of applying the 1994 case definition. Of 1961 participants (53 % of eligible) who completed the detailed telephone interview, 919 (47 %) were eligible for and 751 (81 %) underwent clinical evaluation including medical/psychiatric evaluations. Data from the 499 individuals with complete data and without exclusionary conditions was available for this analysis. A total of 86 participants were classified as CFS by one or both methods; 44 cases identified by both methods, 15 only identified by Method 1, and 27 only identified by Method 2 (Kappa 0.63; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.53, 0.73 and concordance 91.59 %). The CFS group identified by both methods were more fatigued, had worse functioning, and more symptoms than those identified by only one method. Moderate to severe depression was noted in only one individual who was classified as CFS by both methods. When comparing the CFS groups identified by only one method, those only identified by Method 2 were either similar to or more severely affected in fatigue, function, and symptoms than those only identified by Method 1. The two methods demonstrated substantial concordance. While Method 2

  14. Characteristics of Water Vapor in the UTLS over the Tibetan Plateau Based on AURA/MLS Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water vapor (WV has a vital effect on global climate change. Using satellite data observed by AURA/MLS and ERA-Interim reanalysis datasets, the spatial distributions and temporal variations of WV were analyzed. It was found that high WV content in the UTLS over the southern Tibetan Plateau is more apparent in summer, due to monsoon-induced strong upward motions. The WV content showed the opposite distribution at 100 hPa, though, during spring and winter. And a different distribution at 121 hPa indicated that the difference in WV content between the northern and southern plateau occurs between 121 and 100 hPa in spring and between 147 and 121 hPa in winter. In the UTLS, it diminishes rapidly with increase in altitude in these two seasons, and it shows a “V” structure in winter. There has been a weak increasing trend in WV at 100 hPa, but a downtrend at 147 and 215 hPa, during the past 12 years. At the latter two heights, the WV content in summer has been much higher than in other seasons. Furthermore, WV variation showed a rough wave structure in spring and autumn at 215 hPa. The variation of WV over the Tibetan Plateau is helpful in understanding the stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE and climate change.

  15. Ground characteristics at observation site of strong motion in Hachinohe Inst. Tech. Hachinohe, Aomori; Hachinohe Kodai konai ni secchishita kyoshin kansokuten no jiban tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakajiri, N [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Discussions were given on ground structures in the city of Hachinohe and vibration characteristics of the grounds during earthquakes. In order to identify ground structures and vibration characteristics thereof in the city of Hachinohe, strong motion seismographs were installed in five locations of the city and in the Tohoku University. At the Hachinohe Institute of Technology, strong motion seismographs were installed underground (-65 m) and on the ground, where S-wave logging experiments were performed using the plank hammering method. The records therefrom were used to estimate Q values, and the Q values were used to compare the computed ground amplification characteristics with the spectral ratio of seismic waves in and on the ground. The analysis has conducted the Q value estimation on each bed from a depth greater than 4 m, whereas relatively reasonable values were derived only from sections from 4 m to 13 m, and other sections showed no stable values. According to the result of observations derived from the seismographs installed in and on the ground, the maximum amplitude of the ground surface seismograph was found about five times greater than that of underground in the NS components, about eight times in the EW components, and about six times in vertical movements. The result indicates that the amplitude is obviously affected greatly by the characteristics of the ground. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. A cohort evaluation of clinical use and performance characteristics of Ambu® AuraGain™: A prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devangi A Parikh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Ambu® AuraGain™ (AG (Ambu, Ballerup, Denmark is a supraglottic device which has a design facilitating its use as a conduit for intubation. We designed this prospective observational study to assess the ease of AG placement in paralysed patients, determine its position and alignment to the glottis and assess its utility as a conduit for intubation. Methods: One hundred patients, aged 18–60 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I–II, undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia were included in the study. The ease and number of attempts for successful insertion, ease of gastric tube insertion, leak pressures, fibre-optic grade of view, number of attempts and time for tracheal intubation, time for AG removal and complications were recorded. The mean, standard deviation (SD, interquartile range (IQR and range were calculated. The upper limit of confidence interval for overall failure rate was calculated using Wilson's score method. Results: AG was successfully inserted in all patients. The mean (SD time taken for insertion was 17.32 (8.48 s. The median [IQR] leak pressures were 24 [20–28] cm of H2O. Optimal laryngeal view for intubation was obtained in 68 patients. Eighty-eight patients could be intubated in the first attempt. Five patients could not be intubated. The overall failure rate of device was 9%. Conclusion: AMBU® AuraGain™ serves as an effective ventilating aid, but caution is suggested before using it as a conduit for endotracheal intubation.

  17. Direct observation of characteristic dissociation behaviors of hydrate-bearing cores by rapid-scanning X-ray CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinuma, T.; Oyama, H.; Utiumi, T.; Nagao, J.; Narita, H. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Toyohiraku, Sapporo (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Methane hydrate has significant potential as a new source of energy. Major considerations in developing production methods of methane from hydrates are the fundamental properties of hydrate-bearing sediments, and the dissociation behavior of methane hydrate and the gas and water flow generated by its dissociation in sediments. Marine methane hydrates occur several hundred meters below the sea floor, in a variety of forms. The pore-space filling-type is considered to be the most suited to exploitation, as it is contained within the pore spaces of sandy sediments, and has relatively larger gas permeability compared to other forms. However, shallow sandy sediments are not usually consolidated, and methane hydrate is unstable at normal pressure and temperature. Therefore, common methods are not suitable, and new experimental methods have been developed to study the properties of hydrate-bearing sediment and its dissociation process. This paper presented the results of an experimental study involving the dissociation of artificial methane-hydrate-bearing sediments. The experiment was performed using X-ray computed tomography in order to directly observe dissociation behavior in the sediments and the gas and water flows generated by dissociation. The paper described the depressurization process and presented a schematic diagram of rapid scanning X-ray computed tomography scanner and core holder with tri-axial structure. The experimental apparatus for dissociation of methane hydrate was also illustrated. The thermal stimulation process and hot water injection process were explained. It was concluded that dissociation by depressurization demonstrated that the temperature reduction induced by depressurization depended on the phase equilibrium state of methane hydrate, and that dissociation preferentially occurred at the periphery of the core. This behavior was due to the heat flux from the outside of the core, where the heat flux controlled the dissociation rate. 10 refs

  18. [Analysis of acid rain characteristics of Lin'an Regional Background Station using long-term observation data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Quan; Ma, Hao; Mao, Yu-Ding; Feng, Tao

    2014-02-01

    Using long-term observation data of acid rain at Lin'an Regional Background Station (Lin'an RBS), this paper studied the interannual and monthly variations of acid rain, the reasons for the variations, and the relationships between acid rain and meteorological factors. The results showed that interannual variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS had a general increasing trend in which there were two obvious intensifying processes and two distinct weakening processes, during the period ranging from 1985 to 2012. In last two decades, the monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS indicated that rain acidity and frequency of severe acid rain were increasing but the frequency of weak acid rain was decreasing when moving towards bilateral side months of July. Acid rain occurrence was affected by rainfall intensity, wind speed and wind direction. High frequency of severe acid rain and low frequency of weak acid rain were on days with drizzle, but high frequency of weak acid rain and low frequency of severe acid rain occurred on rainstorm days. With wind speed upgrading, the frequency of acid rain and the proportion of severe acid rain were declining, the pH value of precipitation was reducing too. Another character is that daily dominant wind direction of weak acid rain majorly converged in S-W section ,however that of severe acid rain was more likely distributed in N-E section. The monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS was mainly attributed to precipitation variation, the increasing and decreasing of monthly incoming wind from SSE-WSW and NWN-ENE sections of wind direction. The interannual variation of acid rain could be due to the effects of energy consumption raising and significant green policies conducted in Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Shanghai.

  19. [Dual insertion paths design characteristics and short-term clinical observation of rotational path removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Jiang, Ting; Li, Sai; Chen, Wei

    2013-02-18

    To investigate design methods of dual insertion paths and observe a short-term clinic overview of rotational path removable partial dentures (RPDs). In the study, 40 patients with partial edentulous arches were included and divided into two groups. The patients in group one were restored with rotational path RPDs (10 Kennedy class III and 10 Kennedy class IV respectively). The patients in group two (20 patients), whose edentulous area was matched with the patients' in group one, were restored with the linear path RPDs. After surveying and simulative preparation on diagnostic casts, the basic laws of designing rotational path RPDs were summarized. The oral preparation was accurately performed under the guidance of indices made on diagnostic casts after simulative preparation. The 40 dentures were recalled two weeks and one year after the insertion. The evaluations of the clinic outcome, including retention, stability, mastication function, esthetics and wearing convenience, were marked out as good, acceptable, and poor. The comparison of the evaluation results was performed between the two groups. In the rotational path design for Kennedy class III or IV RPDs, the angles (α) of dual insertion paths should be designed within a scope, approximate 10°-15°.When the angle (α) became larger, the denture retention turned to be better, but accordingly the posterior abutments needed more preparation. In the clinical application, the first insertions of the 40 dentures were all favorably accomplished. When the rotational path RPDs were compared to linear path RPDs, the time consuming on first insertion had no statistical difference[(32±8) min and (33±8) min respectively, P>0.05]. Recalled two weeks and one year after the insertion, in the esthetics evaluation, 20 rotational path RPDs were all evaluated as "A", but only 7(two weeks after) and 6 (one year after) linear path RPDs were evaluated as "A"(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in other evaluation results

  20. Biologic Therapy and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Ravi K; Busse, William W

    2018-02-01

    Although airway inflammation is an intrinsic and key feature of asthma, this response varies in its intensity and translation to clinical characteristics and responsiveness to treatment. The observations that clinical heterogeneity is an important aspect of asthma and a feature that likely dictates and determines responses to treatment in severe asthma, patient responsiveness to medication is incomplete, and risks for exacerbation are increased. The development of biologics, which target selected and specific components of inflammation, has been a promising advance to achieve asthma control in patients with severe disease. This article reviews the current biologics available and under development and how their use has affected asthma and which subpopulations appear to benefit the greatest. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Combating Terrorism Observations on the Threat of Chemical and Biological Terrorism. Statement of Henry L. Hinton, Jr., Assistant Comptroller General, National Security and International Affairs Division

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hinton, Henry

    1999-01-01

    According to the experts we consulted, in most cases terrorists would have to overcome significant technical and operational challenges to successfully make and release chemical or biological agents...

  2. Overweight and Obesity in Southern Italy: their association with social and life-style characteristics and their effect on levels of biologic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osella, Alberto R; Díaz, María Del Pilar; Cozzolongo, Rafaelle; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Franco, Isabella; Abrescia, Daniela Isabel; Bianco, Antonella; Giampiero, Elba Silvana; Petruzzi, José; Elsa, Lanzilota; Mario, Correale; Mastrosimni, Anna María; Giocchino, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, overweight and obesity have been transformed from minor public health issues to a major threat to public health affecting the most affluent societies and also the less developed ones. To estimate overweight-obesity prevalence in adults, their association with some social determinants and to assess the effect of these two conditions on levels of biologic and biochemical characteristics, by means of a population-based study. A random sample of the general population of Putignano was drawn. All participants completed a general pre-coded and a Food Frequency questionnaire; anthropometric measures were taken and a venous blood sample was drawn. All subjects underwent liver ultra-sonography. Data description was done by means of tables and then Quantile Regression was performed. Overall prevalence of overweight and obesity were 34.5% and 16.1% respectively. Both overweight and obesity were more frequent among male, married and low socio-economic position subjects. There were increasing frequencies of normal weight with higher levels of education. Overweight and obese subjects had more frequently Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hypertension and altered biochemical markers. Quantile regression showed a statistically significant association of age with overweight and obesity (maximum about 64.8 yo), gender (female) and low levels of education in both overweight and obesity. More than 10 gr/day of wine intake was associated with overweight. The prevention and treatment of overweight/obesity on a population wide basis are needed. Population-based strategies should also improve social and physical environmental contexts for healthful lifestyles.

  3. The effect of lichen-dominated biological soil crusts on growth and physiological characteristics of three plant species in a temperate desert of northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, W W; Serpe, M; Zhang, Y M

    2015-11-01

    Biocrusts (biological soil crusts) cover open spaces between vascular plants in most arid and semi-arid areas. Information on effects of biocrusts on seedling growth is controversial, and there is little information on their effects on plant growth and physiology. We examined impacts of biocrusts on growth and physiological characteristics of three habitat-typical plants, Erodium oxyrhynchum, Alyssum linifolium and Hyalea pulchella, growing in the Gurbantunggut Desert, northwest China. The influence of biocrusts on plant biomass, leaf area, leaf relative water content, photosynthesis, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)), chlorophyll, osmotic solutes (soluble sugars, protein, proline) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase) was investigated on sites with or without biocrust cover. Biomass, leaf area, leaf water content, photosynthesis, F(v)/F(m) and chlorophyll content in crusted soils were higher than in uncrusted soils during early growth and lower later in the growth period. Soluble sugars, proline and antioxidant enzyme activity were always higher in crusted than in uncrusted soils, while soluble protein content was always lower. These findings indicate that biocrusts have different effects on these three ephemeral species during growth in this desert, primarily via effects on soil moisture, and possibly on soil nutrients. The influence of biocrusts changes during plant development: in early plant growth, biocrusts had either positive or no effect on growth and physiological parameters. However, biocrusts tended to negatively influence plants during later growth. Our results provide insights to explain why previous studies have found different effects of biocrusts on vascular plant growth. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Distribution of important habitats for coastal and offshore biological resources and offshore sand resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, and locations of important habitats (for example, Essential Fish Habitats (EFH), nesting areas, strandings) for marine invertebrates, fish, reptiles, birds, and marine mammals. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map can be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are

  5. Biological evolution: Some genetic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Natural selection might be observed in nature but not in life. The concept of biological evolution is an illogic and insensible hypothesis since it stands in direct contradiction with our current knowledge regarding the behavior as well as the structural and functional characteristics of the human genome and human proteome. Additionally, almost all basic postulations of this concept can neither be tested nor imitated for experimentation, which is a prerequisite for acceptance and validation of any scientific hypotheses.

  6. Environmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschumi, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental biology illustrates the functioning of ecosystems and the dynamics of populations with many examples from limnology and terrestrial ecology. On this basis, present environmental problems are analyzed. The present environmental crisis is seen as a result of the failure to observe ecological laws. (orig.) [de

  7. Empirical Relationships Among Magnitude and Surface Rupture Characteristics of Strike-Slip Faults: Effect of Fault (System) Geometry and Observation Location, Dervided From Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, O.; Arrowsmith, J.

    2007-12-01

    In order to determine the magnitude of pre-historic earthquakes, surface rupture length, average and maximum surface displacement are utilized, assuming that an earthquake of a specific size will cause surface features of correlated size. The well known Wells and Coppersmith (1994) paper and other studies defined empirical relationships between these and other parameters, based on historic events with independently known magnitude and rupture characteristics. However, these relationships show relatively large standard deviations and they are based only on a small number of events. To improve these first-order empirical relationships, the observation location relative to the rupture extent within the regional tectonic framework should be accounted for. This however cannot be done based on natural seismicity because of the limited size of datasets on large earthquakes. We have developed the numerical model FIMozFric, based on derivations by Okada (1992) to create synthetic seismic records for a given fault or fault system under the influence of either slip- or stress boundary conditions. Our model features A) the introduction of an upper and lower aseismic zone, B) a simple Coulomb friction law, C) bulk parameters simulating fault heterogeneity, and D) a fault interaction algorithm handling the large number of fault patches (typically 5,000-10,000). The joint implementation of these features produces well behaved synthetic seismic catalogs and realistic relationships among magnitude and surface rupture characteristics which are well within the error of the results by Wells and Coppersmith (1994). Furthermore, we use the synthetic seismic records to show that the relationships between magntiude and rupture characteristics are a function of the observation location within the regional tectonic framework. The model presented here can to provide paleoseismologists with a tool to improve magnitude estimates from surface rupture characteristics, by incorporating the

  8. Characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar and GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01

    The wind velocity and temperature profiles observed in the middle atmosphere (altitude: 10-100 km) show perturbations resulting from superposition of various atmospheric waves, including atmospheric gravity waves. Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play an important role in determining the general circulation in the middle atmosphere by dynamical stresses caused by gravity wave breaking. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan, as well as novel satellite data obtained from global positioning system radio occultation (GPS RO) measurements. In particular, we focus on the behavior of gravity waves in the mesosphere (50-90 km), where considerable gravity wave attenuation occurs. We also report on the global distribution of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere (10-50 km), highlighting various excitation mechanisms such as orographic effects, convection in the tropics, meteorological disturbances, the subtropical jet and the polar night jet.

  9. Biological evolution: Some genetic considerations | Salem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Natural selection might be observed in nature but not in life. The concept of biological evolution is an illogic and insensible hypothesis since it stands in direct contradiction with our current knowledge regarding the behavior as well as the structural and functional characteristics of the human genome and human ...

  10. Clustering of nucleosides in the presence of alkali metals: Biologically relevant quartets of guanosine, deoxyguanosine and uridine observed by ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggerholm, Tenna; Nanita, Sergio C; Koch, Kim J; Cooks, R Graham

    2003-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra of nucleosides, recorded in the presence of alkali metals, display alkali metal ion-bound quartets and other clusters that may have implications for understanding non-covalent interactions in DNA and RNA. The tetramers of guanosine and deoxyguanosine and also their metaclusters (clusters of clusters), cationized by alkali metals, were observed as unusually abundant magic number clusters. The observation of these species in the gas phase parallels previous condensed-phase studies, which show that guanine derivatives can form quartets and metaclusters of quartets in solution in the presence of metal cations. This parallel behavior and also internal evidence suggest that bonding in the guanosine tetramers involves the bases rather than the sugar units. The nucleobases thymine and uracil are known to form magic number pentameric adducts with K+, Cs+ and NH4+ in the gas phase. In sharp contrast, we now show that the nucleosides uridine and deoxythymidine do not form the pentameric clusters characteristic of the corresponding bases. More subtle effects of the sugars are evident in the fact that adenosine and cytidine form numerous higher order clusters with alkali metals, whereas deoxyadenosine and deoxycytidine show no clustering. It is suggested that hydrogen bonding between the bases in the tetramers of dG and rG are the dominant interactions in the clusters, hence changing the ribose group to deoxyribose (and vice versa) generally has little effect. However, the additional hydroxyl group of RNA nucleosides enhances the non-selective formation of higher-order aggregates for adenosine and cytidine and results in the lack of highly stable magic number clusters. Some clusters are the result of aggregation in the course of ionization (ESI) whereas others appear to be intrinsic to the solution being examined. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Aerosol characteristics in Phimai, Thailand determined by continuous observation with a polarization sensitive Mie–Raman lidar and a sky radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Matsui, Ichiro; Jin, Yoshitaka; Khatri, Pradeep; Irie, Hitoshi; Takamura, Tamio; Aoki, Kazuma; Thana, Boossarasiri

    2015-01-01

    Distributions and optical characteristics of aerosols were continuously observed with a polarization-sensitive (532 nm), Mie-scattering (532 and 1064 nm) and Raman-scattering (607 nm) lidar and a sky radiometer in Phimai, Thailand. Polarization lidar measurements indicated that high concentration plumes of spherical aerosols considered as biomass burning smoke were often observed in the dry season. Plumes of non-spherical aerosols considered as long-range transported soil dust from Africa, the Middle East, or Northeast Asia were occasionally observed. Furthermore, low-concentration non-spherical aerosols were almost always observed in the atmospheric mixing layer. Extinction coefficient profiles of spherical aerosols and non-spherical dust exhibited different diurnal variations, and spherical aerosols including smoke were distributed in higher altitudes in the mixing layer and residual layer. The difference can be explained by hygroscopic growth of smoke particles and buoyancy of the smoke. Analysis of seasonal variations of optical properties derived from the Raman lidar and the sky radiometer confirmed that the lidar ratio, aerosol optical depth, and Angstrom exponent were higher in the dry season (October–May) and lower in the wet season (June–September). The single scattering albedo was lower in the dry season. These seasonal variations are explained by frequent biomass burning in the dry season consistent with previous studies in Southeast Asian region. At the same time, the present work confirmed that soil dust was a major aerosol component in Phimai, Thailand. (letter)

  12. Effects of exogenous IL-37 on the biological characteristics of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and the chemotaxis of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Zhou, Bi-Yun; Wu, Guo-Cai; Liao, De-Quan; Li, Jing; Liang, Si-Si; Wu, Xian-Jin; Xu, Jun-Fa; Chen, Yong-Hua; Di, Xiao-Qing; Lin, Qiong-Yan

    2018-02-14

    This study aims to investigate the effects of exogenous interleukin (IL)-37 on the biological characteristics of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and the chemotaxis of regulatory T (Treg) cells. After isolating the CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells from the peripheral blood, flow cytometry was used to detect the purity of the Treg cells. A549 cells were divided into blank (no transfection), empty plasmid (transfection with pIRES2-EGFP empty plasmid) or IL-37 group (transfection with pIRES2-EGFP-IL-37 plasmid). RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression of IL-37 and ELISA to determine IL-37 and MMP-9 expressions. Western blotting was applied to detect the protein expressions of PCNA, Ki-67, Cyclin D1, CDK4, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. MTT assay, flow cytometry, scratch test and transwell assay were performed to detect cell proliferation, cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Effect of exogenous IL-37 on the chemotaxis of Treg cells was measured through transwell assay. Xenograft models in nude mice were eastablished to detect the impact of IL-37 on A549 cells. The IL-37 group had a higher IL-37 expression, cell apoptosis in the early stage and percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase than the blank and empty plasmid groups. The IL-37 group had a lower MMP-9 expression, optical density (OD), percentage of cells in the S and G2/M phases, migration, invasion and chemotaxis of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg cells. The xenograft volume and weight of nude mice in the IL-37 group were lower than those in the blank and empty plasmid groups. Compared with the blank and empty plasmid groups, the IL-37 group had significantly reduced expression of PCNA, Ki-67, Cyclin D1 and CDK4 but elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. Therefore, exogenous IL-37 inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells as well as the chemotaxis of Treg cells while promoting the apoptosis of A549 cells.

  13. Biological and genetic characteristics of Glyptotendipes tokunagai (Diptera: Chironomidae) on the basis of successive rearing of forty-two generations over seven years under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min Jeong; Yoon, Tae Joong; Kang, Hyo Jeong; Bae, Yeon Jae

    2014-10-01

    Members of the nonbiting midge family Chironomidae have been used worldwide as water-quality indicators or toxicity test organisms. The purpose of this study was to establish the chironomid Glyptotendipes tokunagai Sasa as a new test species by conducting successive rearing under laboratory conditions. We monitored biological and genetic aspects of >42 successive generations over 7 yr, and also compared the development of the 39th generation with the fourth generation under five constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C. We observed that the number of eggs in an egg mass and the adult body sizes decreased rapidly in the early generations, and thereafter tended to stabilize from the fifth generation to the 42nd generation. In all generations, the mean hatching rate was >75%. Males were predominant in the early generations, but the sex ratio increased to 0.5 (ranged 0.24-0.61) in later generations. The genetic divergence of the reared generations, analyzed by using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene, decreased from 0.0049 to 0.0004 as the generations progressed. In comparison with the fourth generation, the mortality and developmental time of the 39th generation were generally greater, and the adult body sizes were generally smaller. The estimated low developmental threshold temperatures of eggs, male larvae to male adults, and female larvae to female adults were 9.6, 11.3, and 9.7°C, respectively. The optimal rearing temperature was determined to be 25°C. This is the first record of domesticated rearing of a wild chironomid species under laboratory conditions for >7 yr.

  14. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  15. Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae); Efeito da disponibilidade de hospedeiro e de alimento nas caracteristicas biologicas de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratissoli, Dirceu; Oliveira, Harley N. de; Oliveira, Regiane C. de; Zago, Hugo B. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: dirceu@npd.ufes.br, e-mail: hnoliveira@insecta.ufv.br; Vieira, Stella M.J. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2004-03-15

    Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 were evaluated in laboratory where these parasitoids were reared on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) with or without honey, and exposed to eggs of the host after 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours of emergence. The parasitism rate and viability showed higher for individuals that received food. The sex ratio was not influenced by food. The number of individuals per egg only showed difference for those adults that did not receive food and stayed six hours without the host eggs. Checking the effect of the availability of eggs, only the sex ratio, with or without honey, did not show differences. The results show that T. galloi needs a carbohydrate supply and the time can influence the reproductive capacity. (author)

  16. Gas-phase chemical characteristics of Asian emission plumes observed during ITCT 2K2 over the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, J. B.; Parrish, D. D.; Neuman, J. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Cooper, O. R.; Ryerson, T. B.; Nicks, D. K.; Flocke, F.; Roberts, J. M.; Atlas, E.; de Gouw, J. A.; Donnelly, S.; Dunlea, E.; Hübler, G.; Huey, L. G.; Schauffler, S.; Tanner, D. J.; Warneke, C.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2004-12-01

    The gas-phase chemical characteristics of emission plumes transported from Asia across the Pacific Ocean observed during the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation experiment in 2002 (ITCT 2K2) are described. Plumes measured in the troposphere from an aircraft were separated from the background air in data analysis using 1-s measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), total reactive nitrogen (NOy), and other gas-phase species along with back trajectory analysis. On the basis of these measurements, Asian transport plumes with CO mixing ratios greater than 150 ppbv were observed on seven flights. Correlations between 1-s observations of CO, ozone (O3), and NOy are used to characterize the plumes. The NOy/CO ratios were similar in each plume and significantly lower than those derived from estimated Asian emission ratios, indicating substantial removal of soluble NOy species during transport. Observations of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric acid (HNO3), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN), and alkyl nitrates are used with the NOy measurements to further distinguish the transport plumes by their NOy partitioning. NOy was primarily in the form of PAN in plumes that were transported in cold high-latitude and high-altitude regions, whereas in plumes transported in warmer, lower latitude and altitude regions, NOy was mainly HNO3. Additional gas-phase species enhanced in these plumes include sulfuric acid, methanol, acetone, propane, and ethane. The O3/CO ratio varied among the plumes and was affected by the mixing of anthropogenic and stratospheric influences. The complexity of this mixing prevents the determination of the relative contribution of anthropogenic and stratospheric influences to the observed O3 levels.

  17. Microphysical and Kinematic Characteristics of Regions of Flash Initiation in a Supercell Storm and a Multicell Storm Observed During the DC3 Field Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGangi, E.; MacGorman, D. R.; Ziegler, C.; Betten, D.; Biggerstaff, M. I.

    2017-12-01

    Lightning initiation in thunderstorms requires that the local electric field magnitude exceed breakdown values somewhere, and this tends to occur between regions of positive and negative charge, where the largest electric field magnitudes tend to occur. Past studies have demonstrated that, near updrafts, storms with very strong updrafts tend to elevate regions of charge and of flash initiations higher, as well as to have more flashes initiated by small pockets of charge, than in storms with much weaker updrafts. In all thunderstorms, the source of these charge regions is generally thought to be microscopic charge separation via the relative growth rate noninductive mechanism, followed by macroscopic charge separation via sedimentation, although other charge generation mechanisms can contribute to charge in some regions. Charge generation and lightning initiation are therefore inherently dependent on the microphysical and kinematic characteristics of a given storm. This study compares the results of a hydrometeor classification algorithm applied to C-band mobile radar data with mixing ratios calculated by a diabatic Lagrangian analysis retrieval from the dual-Doppler wind fields for two storms, the 29-30 May 2012 supercell storm and the 21 June 2012 multicell storm, observed during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry experiment. Using these data, we then compare the inferred microphysical and kinematic characteristics of regions in which the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array indicated that flashes were initiated in these two very different storms.

  18. Study on workloads of human care worker with the introduction of IT system - the characteristics of work loads by observational research and the suggestions for KAIZEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Matsuda, Fumiko; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Motegi, Nobuyuki; Ikegami, Thor; Sakai, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristic of workloads on human care worker with the introduction of IT system, and suggested the support measures for KAIZEN in Japan. The investigation method is workflow line and hearing with a focus on work observation. The objects were 8 human care workers of the acute hospital that introduced an electronic system. By the introduction of the electronic chart, the nurse station sojourn time decreased, sickroom sojourn time increased, and time about direct nursing care to a patient increased. In addition, access to patient information became easy, and the offer of the health care service based on correct information came to be possible in real time. By The point of workflow line, it was effect that moving lengths decreased in order to install the electronic chart in patients' rooms. Though, it was a problem that it hasn't formed where to place the instruments such as sphygmomanometer, clinical thermometer and others.

  19. A Comparative Analysis on the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Fire Characteristics in the Amazon and Equatorial Southern Africa Using Observations from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenfu; Arellano, Avelino. F.; Raman, Aishwarya

    2015-04-01

    Tropical forest fires significantly impact atmospheric composition and regional and global climate. In particular, fires in Equatorial Southern Africa (ESA) and Amazon comprise the two largest contributors to fire emissions of chemically and radiatively-active atmospheric constituents (such as CO, BC, CO2) across the globe. Here, we investigate the spatiotemporal trends in fire characteristics between these regions using combustion signatures observed from space. Our main goals are: 1) To identify key relationships between the trends in co-emitted constituents across these regions, and, 2) To explore linkages of the observed trends in fire characteristics with the main drivers of change such as meteorology, fire practice, development patterns, and ecosystem feedbacks. We take advantage of the similarity in latitude and land area between these regions in understanding some of these drivers. Our approach begins with a multi-species analysis of trends in the observed abundance of CO, NO2, and aerosols over these regions and across the time period 2004 to 2014. We use multi-spectral retrievals of CO from Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT), tropospheric column retrievals of NO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and aerosol optical depth retrievals from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. The long records from these retrievals provide a unique opportunity to study atmospheric composition across the most recent decade. While several studies in the past have reported trends over these regions, most of these studies have focused on a particular constituent. A unique aspect of this work involves understanding covariations in co-emitted constituents to provide a more comprehensive look at fire characteristics and behavior, which are yet to be fully understood. Our initial results show that the annual average of CO for ESA (~115 ppbv) is greater than that of Amazon (110 ppbv). This pattern is also seen in NO2 (ESA : ~215

  20. New evidence for primordial action site of Fluazifop-P-butyl on Acanthospermum hispidum seedlings: From the effects on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and histological observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuhong; Yang, Congjun; Liu, Zhihang; Song, Jiqing; Li, Pingliang; Li, Lingxu; Zhou, Fei; Xin, Hua; Wan, Fanghao; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Luo, Xiaoyong

    2017-10-01

    Acanthospermum hispidum DC, an Asteraceae weed species, was very susceptible to fluazifop-P-butyl, but tolerant to other aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides, such as haloxyfop-P-methyl. However, other Asteraceae weeds including Bidens pilosa were all tolerant to fluazifop-P-butyl. Membrane lipid peroxidation by increasing the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was proposed as an action mechanism of fluazifop-P-butyl in A. hispidum. To further clarify the primordial action site of fluazifop-P-butyl in this species, the effects on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and cytohistology of apical meristems were studied. Chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics (CFC) in sensitive A. hispidum seedlings were markedly affected by 10μM fluazifop-P-butyl, with the dark fluorescence yield (Fo), maximal fluorescence yield (Fm), maximal PS II quantum yield (Fv/Fm), effective photosystem II (PS II) quantum yield [Y(II)], and quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation [Y(NPQ)] declining, quantum yield of nonregulated energy dissipation [Y(NO)] rising, but these measures were not affected in Bidens pilosa. The effects of fluazifop-P-butyl on chlorophyll fluorescence properties were observed on the growing point before the mature leaves by about 4-6h. Haloxyfop-P-methyl, a control herbicide, had no effects on CFC of either A. hispidum or B. pilosa. In addition, damage to apical meristem cells of A. hispidum was observed at 6 HAT prior to changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters suggesting that the primary action site of fluazifop-P-butyl in this species is in the apical meristem and the effects on CFC may be the results of secondary action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of English language learner performance on the biology Massachusetts comprehensive assessment system: The impact of english proficiency, first language characteristics, and late-entry ELL status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mary A.

    This study analyzed English language learner (ELL) performance on the June 2012 Biology MCAS, namely on item attributes of domain, cognitive skill, and linguistic complexity. It examined the impact of English proficiency, Latinate first language, first language orthography, and late-entry ELL status. The results indicated that English proficiency was a strong predictor of performance and that ELLs at higher levels of English proficiency overwhelmingly passed. The results further indicated that English proficiency introduced a construct-irrelevant variance on the Biology MCAS and raised validity issues for using this assessment at lower levels of English proficiency. This study also found that ELLs with a Latinate first language consistently had statistically significant lower performance. Late-entry ELL status did not predict Biology MCAS performance.

  2. Work stress and patient safety: observer-rated work stressors as predictors of characteristics of safety-related events reported by young nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, A; Semmer, N K; Grebner, S

    This study investigates the link between workplace stress and the 'non-singularity' of patient safety-related incidents in the hospital setting. Over a period of 2 working weeks 23 young nurses from 19 hospitals in Switzerland documented 314 daily stressful events using a self-observation method (pocket diaries); 62 events were related to patient safety. Familiarity of safety-related events and probability of recurrence, as indicators of non-singularity, were the dependent variables in multilevel regression analyses. Predictor variables were both situational (self-reported situational control, safety compliance) and chronic variables (job stressors such as time pressure, or concentration demands and job control). Chronic work characteristics were rated by trained observers. The most frequent safety-related stressful events included incomplete or incorrect documentation (40.3%), medication errors (near misses 21%), delays in delivery of patient care (9.7%), and violent patients (9.7%). Familiarity of events and probability of recurrence were significantly predicted by chronic job stressors and low job control in multilevel regression analyses. Job stressors and low job control were shown to be risk factors for patient safety. The results suggest that job redesign to enhance job control and decrease job stressors may be an important intervention to increase patient safety.

  3. Characteristics of tropospheric ozone depletion events in the Arctic spring: analysis of the ARCTAS, ARCPAC, and ARCIONS measurements and satellite BrO observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-H. Koo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ozone depletion events (ODEs are caused by halogen catalyzed ozone loss. In situ chemistry, advection of ozone-poor air mass, and vertical mixing in the lower troposphere are important factors affecting ODEs. To better characterize the ODEs, we analyze the combined set of surface, ozonesonde, and aircraft in situ measurements of ozone and bromine compounds during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS, the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC, and the Arctic Intensive Ozonesonde Network Study (ARCIONS experiments (April 2008. Tropospheric BrO columns retrieved from satellite measurements and back trajectory calculations are also used to investigate the characteristics of observed ODEs. In situ observations from these field experiments are inadequate to validate tropospheric BrO columns derived from satellite measurements. In view of this difficulty, we construct an ensemble of tropospheric column BrO estimates from two satellite (OMI and GOME-2 measurements and with three independent methods of calculating stratospheric BrO columns. Furthermore, we select analysis methods that do not depend on the absolute magnitude of column BrO, such as time-lagged correlation analysis of ozone and tropospheric column BrO, to understand characteristics of ODEs. Time-lagged correlation analysis between in situ (surface and ozonesonde measurements of ozone and satellite derived tropospheric BrO columns indicates that the ODEs are due to either local halogen-driven ozone loss or short-range (∼1 day transport from nearby regions with ozone depletion. The effect of in situ ozone loss is also evident in the diurnal variation difference between low (10th and 25th percentiles and higher percentiles of surface ozone concentrations at Alert, Canada. Aircraft observations indicate low-ozone air mass transported from adjacent high-BrO regions. Correlation analyses of ozone

  4. Task-based detectability comparison of exponential transformation of free-response operating characteristic (EFROC) curve and channelized Hotelling observer (CHO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khobragade, P.; Fan, Jiahua; Rupcich, Franco; Crotty, Dominic J.; Gilat Schmidt, Taly

    2016-03-01

    This study quantitatively evaluated the performance of the exponential transformation of the free-response operating characteristic curve (EFROC) metric, with the Channelized Hotelling Observer (CHO) as a reference. The CHO has been used for image quality assessment of reconstruction algorithms and imaging systems and often it is applied to study the signal-location-known cases. The CHO also requires a large set of images to estimate the covariance matrix. In terms of clinical applications, this assumption and requirement may be unrealistic. The newly developed location-unknown EFROC detectability metric is estimated from the confidence scores reported by a model observer. Unlike the CHO, EFROC does not require a channelization step and is a non-parametric detectability metric. There are few quantitative studies available on application of the EFROC metric, most of which are based on simulation data. This study investigated the EFROC metric using experimental CT data. A phantom with four low contrast objects: 3mm (14 HU), 5mm (7HU), 7mm (5 HU) and 10 mm (3 HU) was scanned at dose levels ranging from 25 mAs to 270 mAs and reconstructed using filtered backprojection. The area under the curve values for CHO (AUC) and EFROC (AFE) were plotted with respect to different dose levels. The number of images required to estimate the non-parametric AFE metric was calculated for varying tasks and found to be less than the number of images required for parametric CHO estimation. The AFE metric was found to be more sensitive to changes in dose than the CHO metric. This increased sensitivity and the assumption of unknown signal location may be useful for investigating and optimizing CT imaging methods. Future work is required to validate the AFE metric against human observers.

  5. A UV multifunctional Raman lidar system for the observation and analysis of atmospheric temperature, humidity, aerosols and their conveying characteristics over Xi'an

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yufeng, Wang; Qiang, Fu; Meina, Zhao; Fei, Gao; Huige, Di; Yuehui, Song; Dengxin, Hua

    2018-01-01

    To monitor the variability and the correlation of multiple atmospheric parameters in the whole troposphere and the lower stratosphere, a ground-based ultraviolet multifunctional Raman lidar system was established to simultaneously measure the atmospheric parameters in Xi'an (34.233°N, 108.911°E). A set of dichroic mirrors (DMs) and narrow-band interference filters (IFs) with narrow angles of incidence were utilized to construct a high-efficiency 5-channel polychromator. A series of high-quality data obtained from October 2013 to December 2015 under different weather conditions were used to investigate the functionality of the Raman lidar system and to study the variability of multiple atmospheric parameters in the whole stratosphere. Their conveying characteristics are also investigated using back trajectories with a hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model (HYSPLIT). The lidar system can be operated efficiently under weather conditions with a cloud backscattering ratio of less than 18 and an atmospheric visibility of 3 km. We observed an obvious temperature inversion phenomenon at the tropopause height of 17-18 km and occasional temperature inversion layers below the boundary layer. The rapidly changing atmospheric water vapor is mostly concentrated at the lower troposphere, below ∼4-5 km, accounting for ∼90% of the total water vapor content at 0.5-10 km. The back trajectory analysis shows that the air flow from the northwest and the west mainly contributes to the transport of aerosols and water vapor over Xi'an. The simultaneous continuous observational results demonstrate the variability and correlation among the multiple atmospheric parameters, and the accumulated water vapor density in the bottom layer causes an increase in the aerosol extinction coefficient and enhances the relative humidity in the early morning. The long-term observations provide a large amount of reliable atmospheric data below the lower stratosphere, and can be

  6. Characteristics of aggression among psychiatric inpatients by ward type in Japan: Using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised (SOAS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Makiko; Noda, Toshie; Sugiyama, Naoya; Yoshihama, Fumihiro; Miyake, Michi; Ito, Hiroto

    2017-12-01

    Aggressive behaviour by psychiatric patients is a serious issue in clinical practice, and adequate management of such behaviour is required, with careful evaluation of the factors causing the aggression. To examine the characteristics of aggressive incidents by ward type, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted for 6 months between April 2012 and June 2013 using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised, Japanese version (SOAS-R) in 30 wards across 20 Japanese psychiatric hospitals. Participating wards were categorized into three types based on the Japanese medical reimbursement system: emergency psychiatric, acute psychiatric, and standard wards (common in Japan, mostly treating non-acute patients). On analyzing the 443 incidents reported, results showed significant differences in SOAS-R responses by ward type. In acute and emergency psychiatric wards, staff members were the most common target of aggression. In acute psychiatric wards, staff requiring patients to take medication was the most common provocation, and verbal aggression was the most commonly used means. In emergency psychiatric wards, victims felt threatened. In contrast, in standard wards, both the target and provocation of aggression were most commonly other patients, hands were used, victims reported experiencing physical pain, and seclusion was applied to stop their behaviour. These findings suggest that ward environment was an important factor influencing aggressive behaviour. Ensuring the quality and safety of psychiatric care requires understanding the characteristics of incidents that staff are likely to encounter in each ward type, as well as implementing efforts to deal with the incidents adequately and improve the treatment environment. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  7. The Clinical Research Center for Depression Study: Baseline Characteristics of a Korean Long-Term Hospital-Based Observational Collaborative Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Suk; Jeong, Seung Hee; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Yim, Hyeon-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study is a 9-year observational collaborative prospective cohort study for the clinical outcomes in participants with depressive disorders in Korea. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of the depressive participants as the hospital-based cohort. Methods Participants were assessed using various instruments including the Clinical Global Impression scale, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Scale for Suicide Ideation, and World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment instruments-abbreviated version. Also, personal histories of medical and psychiatric illnesses and the range of socio-epidemiologic and clinical data were collected from each participant. Results One thousand one hundred eighty three participants were recruited from 18 hospitals. The mean age of the participants was 47.9±15.9 year-old, 74.4% were female, 82.9% had been diagnosed of major depressive disorder, 40.9% were experiencing their first depressive episode, and 21.4% had a past history of suicide attempts. The majority (85.3%) of the participants were moderately to severely ill. The average HDRS-17 was 19.8±6.1. Significant gender differences at baseline were shown in age, education, marriage, employment, religion, and first depressive episode. Conclusion The baseline findings in the CRESCEND study showed some different characteristics of depression in Korea, suggesting a possibility of ethnic and cultural factors in depression. PMID:21519530

  8. A new source of mesenchymal stem cells for articular cartilage repair: MSCs derived from mobilized peripheral blood share similar biological characteristics in vitro and chondrogenesis in vivo as MSCs from bone marrow in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei-Li; Zhou, Chun-Yan; Yu, Jia-Kuo

    2014-03-01

    Bone marrow (BM) has been considered as a major source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but it has many disadvantages in clinical application. However, MSCs from peripheral blood (PB) could be obtained by a less invasive method and be more beneficial for autologous transplantation than BM MSCs, which makes PB a promising source for articular cartilage repair in clinical use. To assess whether MSCs from mobilized PB of New Zealand White rabbits have similar biological characteristics in vitro and chondrogenesis in vivo as BM MSCs. Controlled laboratory study. A combined method of drug administration containing granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) plus CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 was adopted to mobilize the PB stem cells of adult New Zealand White rabbits in vitro. The isolated cells were identified as MSCs by morphological characteristics, surface markers, and differentiation potentials. A comparison between PB MSCs and BM MSCs was made in terms of biological characteristics in vitro and chondrogenesis in vivo. This issue was investigated from the aspects of morphology, immune phenotype, multiple differentiation capacity, expansion potential, antiapoptotic capacity, and ability to repair cartilage defects in vivo of PB MSCs compared with BM MSCs. Peripheral blood MSCs were successfully mobilized by the method of combined drug administration, then isolated, expanded, and identified in vitro. No significant difference was found concerning the morphology, immune phenotype, and antiapoptotic capacity between PB MSCs and BM MSCs. Significantly, MSCs from both sources compounded with decalcified bone matrix showed the same ability to repair cartilage defects in vivo. For multipluripotency, BM MSCs exhibited a more osteogenic potential and higher proliferation capacity than PB MSCs, whereas PB MSCs possessed a stronger adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential than BM MSCs in vitro. Although there are some differences in the proliferation and

  9. An updated synthesis of the observed and projected impacts of climate change on the chemical, physical and biological processes in the oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Louise Howes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 5th Assessment Report (AR5 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC states with very high certainty that anthropogenic emissions have caused measurable changes in the physical ocean environment. These changes are summarized with special focus on those that are predicted to have the strongest, most direct effects on ocean biological processes; namely, ocean warming and associated phenomena (including stratification and sea level rise as well as deoxygenation and ocean acidification. The biological effects of these changes are then discussed for microbes (including phytoplankton, plants, animals, warm and cold-water corals, and ecosystems. The IPCC AR5 highlighted several areas related to both the physical and biological processes that required further research. As a rapidly developing field, there have been many pertinent studies published since the cut off dates for the AR5, which have increased our understanding of the processes at work. This study undertook an extensive review of recently published literature to update the findings of the AR5 and provide a synthesized review on the main issues facing future oceans. The level of detail provided in the AR5 and subsequent work provided a basis for constructing projections of the state of ocean ecosystems in 2100 under two the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP4.5 and 8.5. Finally the review highlights notable additions, clarifications and points of departure from AR5 provided by subsequent studies.

  10. Characteristics and practices of Traditional Chinese Medicine retail shops in London, UK: A cross-sectional study using an observational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lida; Shaw, Debbie; Barnes, Joanne

    2015-09-15

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a popular form of ethnomedicine in the UK, and is accessed by Western, Chinese and other ethnic groups. The current regulatory regime does not effectively protect the public against poor-quality and unsafe TCMs. Understanding ethnopharmacological information on how TCM is promoted and practiced may help to inform initiatives aimed at ensuring the safe use of TCMs in the UK, and put laboratory-based ethnopharmacological investigations of TCMs in a broader context. This study aimed to examine the characteristics and practices of TCM retail outlets in London, UK, and to identify factors relevant to the safe use of TCM in the UK. TCM retail outlets ('shops') in London, UK, were identified using a systematic approach. A structured questionnaire including questions on shop business type was used to recruit participant shops. Shops consenting to participate were visited within six weeks of providing consent. A piloted semi-structured questionnaire on shop characteristics was used for data collection following observation. The British National Formulary 53 was used to classify medical conditions/uses for TCMs promoted in the shops. Data were stored and analysed using MS Access 2003, MS Excel 2003 and SPSS 13. In total, 54 TCM shops in London were identified, of which 94% offered TCM consultations with a TCM practitioner. Detailed characteristics were described within 35/50 shops that gave consent to observing their premises. Most shops labelled and displayed over 150 Chinese Materia Medica (CMMs; crude materials, particularly herbs) for dispensing after consultations with a TCM practitioner. Medical conditions/uses and Patent Chinese Medicines (PCMs) were commonly promoted. In total, 794 occurrences of 205 different medical conditions/uses (median=32, QL=19, QU=48) were identified. These conditions/uses most commonly related to the following therapeutic systems: central nervous system (160/794, 20.2%); musculoskeletal and joint disease

  11. Observations of the effects of magnetic topology on the SOL characteristics of an electromagnetic coherent mode in the first experimental campaign of W7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. C.; Liang, Y.; Drews, P.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Han, X.; Nicolai, D.; Satheeswaran, G.; Wang, N. C.; Cai, J. Q.; Charl, A.; Cosfeld, J.; Fuchert, G.; Gao, Y.; Geiger, J.; Grulke, O.; Henkel, M.; Hirsch, M.; Hoefel, U.; Hollfeld, K. P.; Höschen, D.; Killer, C.; Knieps, A.; König, R.; Neubauer, O.; Pasch, E.; Rahbarnia, K.; Rack, M.; Sandri, N.; Sereda, S.; Schweer, B.; Wang, E. H.; Wei, Y. L.; Weir, G.; Windisch, T.; W7-X Team

    2018-04-01

    Turbulence is considered to play an important role in the edge cross field heat and particle transport in fusion devices. Scrape-off layer (SOL) turbulence characteristics were measured by the combined probe mounted on the multi-purpose manipulator during the first experimental campaign of W7-X. An electromagnetic coherent mode (EMCM) at 7 kHz has been observed by multiple diagnostics in both the plasma core and the SOL and exhibits a strong dependence of the magnetic topology. As demonstrated by the measurements of the combined probe, the EMCM starts to appear at a radius of R  =  6.15 m along the path of probe measurement and this location is shifted inwards in higher iota configurations. It propagates along the direction of electron diamagnetic drift in the far SOL with a poloidal velocity about 0.6 km s-1 while it turns to the opposite direction gradually in the near SOL in the laboratory frame, but keeps a velocity of about 0.6-0.7 km s-1 along the direction of electron diamagnetic drift in the plasma frame. This mode can be induced by raising the ECRH heating power in similar discharge conditions, which is probably linked to the gradient of electron temperature and pressure. The EMCM is enhanced significantly in the edge magnetic island with long connection length where the EMCM can grow up due to the long particle confinement time.

  12. An Intense Traveling Airglow Front in the Upper Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere with Characteristic of a Turbulent Bore Observed over Alice Springs, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Hickey, M. P.; Gelinas, L. J.; Vincent, R. A.; Reid, I. M.; Woithe, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Aerospace Corporation’s Nightglow Imager observed a large step-function change in airglow in the form of a traveling front in the OH and O2 airglow emissions over Alice Springs Australia on February 2, 2003. The front exhibited a stepwise increase of nearly a factor two in the OH brightness and a stepwise decrease in the O2 brightness. The change in brightness in each layer was associated with a strong leading disturbance followed by a train of weak barely visible waves. The OH airglow brightness behind the front was the brightness night for 02 at Alice Springs that we have measured in seven years of observations. The OH brightness was among the five brightest. The event was associated with a strong phase-locked two-day wave (TDW).We have analyzed the stability conditions for the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere and found that the airglow layers were found in a region of strong ducting. The thermal structure was obtained from combining data from the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite and the NRLMSISE-00 model. The wind profile was obtained by combining the HWM07 model and MF radar winds from Buckland Park Australia. We found that the TDW-disturbed profile was significantly more effective in supporting a high degree of ducting than a profile based only on HWM07 winds. Dramatic wall events have been interpreted as manifestations of undular bores (e.g., Smith et al. [2003]). Undular bores are nonlinear high Froude number events that must generate an ever increasing train of waves to carry the excess energy away from the bore front. Only a very weak wave train behind the initial disturbance was seen for the Alice Springs event. The form of the amplitude ordering was not typical of a nonlinear wave train. Therefore a bore interpretation requires another means of energy dissipation, namely turbulent dissipation. We suggest that a reasonable interpretation of the observed event is a turbulent bore. We are unaware of any previous event having

  13. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  14. Clinical and echographic characteristics of patients exposed to fenfluramin or its derivatives: Results of a prospective, single-centre, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon, David; Leclercq, Florence

    2015-03-01

    Fenfluramine and its derivatives have been associated with significant risk of developing valvular heart disease but its exact prevalence and severity are still debated. To evaluate the clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of patients hospitalized in a cardiology centre and who had past exposure to these drugs. Between July 2011 and February 2012, patients admitted to the hospitalization and intensive care units at the University Centre of Montpellier, France were questioned about past exposure to fenfluramine or its derivatives. In patients who reported exposure, a questionnaire assessing prescribing patterns and medical history was proposed and echocardiography performed. All of the usual echocardiographic variables were analysed. We applied criteria from a French multicentre registry for diagnosis of drug-induced valvulopathy: leaflets and subvalvular apparatus thickening and retraction, leaflets loss of coaptation, no calcification, and no stenosis. Ninety-five patients exposed to these drugs were included. The majority were female (n=62, 65.3%), 53.2% (n=50) had diabetes and 90.5% (n=86) were exposed to benfluorex. Mean treatment duration was 52.3months (95% confidence interval [CI] 39.0-65.6). Valvular regurgitations were observed in 64.0% of patients (n=57) while 19.8% (n=17) had pulmonary hypertension. Highly probable fenfluramine-induced regurgitations were present in 18.6% (n=16) of patients, possibly fenfluramine-induced regurgitations in 38.2% (n=34) of patients, and unlikely fenfluramine-induced regurgitations in 25.8% (n=23) of patients. Highly probable fenfluramine-induced regurgitations were mild to moderate in severity in all except three patients. Considering the frequency of probable or possible fenfluramine-induced regurgitations and in the absence of definite knowledge about the evolution of drug-induced valvular disease, systematic questioning about fenfluramine use may be advisable in hospitalized cardiac patients. Copyright © 2015

  15. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  16. [Effect of mineral N fertilizer reduction and organic fertilizer substitution on soil biological properties and aggregate characteristics in drip-irrigated cotton field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Tai, Rui; Wang, Dan; Chu, Gui-Xin

    2017-10-01

    A four year field study was conducted to determine how soil biological properties and soil aggregate stability changed when organic fertilizer and biofertilizer were used to reduce chemical fertilizer application to a drip irrigated cotton field. The study consisted of six fertilization treatments: unfertilized (CK); chemical fertilizer (CF, 300 kg N·hm -2 ; 90 kg P2O5 · hm -2 , 60 kg K2 O·hm -2 ); 80% CF plus 3000 kg·hm -2 organic fertilizer (80%CF+OF); 60% CF plus 6000 kg·hm -2 organic fertilizer (60%CF+OF); 80% CF plus 3000 kg·hm -2 biofertilizer (80%CF+BF); and 60% CF plus 6000 kg·hm -2 biofertilizer (60%CF+BF). The relationships among soil organic C, soil biological properties, and soil aggregate size distribution were determined. The results showed that organic fertilizer and biofertilizer both significantly increased soil enzyme activities. Compared with CF, the biofertilizer treatments increased urease activity by 55.6%-84.0%, alkaline phosphatise activity by 53.1%-74.0%, invertase activity by 15.1%-38.0%, β-glucosidase activity by 38.2%-68.0%, polyphenoloxidase activity by 29.6%-52.0%, and arylsulfatase activity by 35.4%-58.9%. Soil enzyme activity increased as the amount of organic fertilizer and biofertilizer increased (i.e., 60%CF+OF > 80%CF+OF, 60%CF+BF > 80%CF+BF). Soil basal respiration decreased significantly in the order BF > OF > CF > CK. Soil microbial biomass C and N were 22.3% and 43.5% greater, respectively, in 60%CF+BF than in CF. The microbial biomass C:N was significantly lower in 60%CF+BF than in CF. The organic fertilizer and the biofertilizer both improved soil aggregate structure. Soil mass in the >0.25 mm fraction was 7.1% greater in 80%CF+OF and 8.0% greater in (60%CF+OF) than in CF. The geometric mean diameter was 9.2% greater in 80%CF+BF than in 80%CF+OF. Redundancy analysis and cluster analysis both demonstrated that soil aggregate structure and biological activities increased when organic fertilizer and biofertilizer were

  17. Clinical characteristics, etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility among overweight and obese individuals with diarrhea: observed at a large diarrheal disease hospital, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumon Kumar Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and etiology of overweight and obese (OO individuals with diarrhea attending an urban Dhaka Hospital, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research (icddr,b, Bangladesh. METHODS: Total of 508 under-5 children, 96 individuals of 5-19 years and 1331 of >19 years were identified as OO from the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System (DDSS between 1993-2011. Two comparison groups such as well-nourished and malnourished individuals from respective age stratums were selected. RESULTS: Isolation rate of rotavirus was higher among OO under-5 children compared to malnourished group (46% vs. 28%. Rotavirus infection among OO individuals aged 5-19 years (9% vs. 3% (9% vs. 3% and >19 years (6% vs. 4% (6% vs. 3% was higher compared to well-nourished and malnourished children. Conversely, Vibrio cholerae was lower among all OO age groups compared to well-nourished and malnourished ones. Shigella (4% vs. 6% (4% vs. 8%, and Campylobacter (3% vs. 5% (3% vs. 5% were lower only among OO in >19 years individuals compared to their counterparts of the same age stratum. Salmonella was similarly isolated in all age strata and nutritional groups. In multinomial logistic regression among under-5 children, significant association was observed only with use of antimicrobials at home [OR-1.97] and duration of hospital stay [OR-0.68]. For individuals aged 5-19 years, use of antimicrobials at home (OR-1.83, some or severe dehydration (OR-3.12, having received intravenous saline (OR-0.46 and rotavirus diarrhea (OR-2.96 were found to be associated with OO respectively. Moreover, significant associations were also found for duration of diarrhea before coming to hospital (>24 hours (OR-1.24, Shigella (OR-0.46, and Campylobacter (OR-0.58 among >19 years OO individuals along with other associated co-variates in 5-19 years group (all p<0.05. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Higher proportion of OO were

  18. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method based on class characteristic fragmentation pathways to detect the class of indole-derivative synthetic cannabinoids in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarino, Monica; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco

    2014-07-21

    This article describes a liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric method, based on the use of precursor ion scan as the acquisition mode, specifically developed to detect indole-derived cannabinoids (phenylacetylindoles, naphthoylindoles and benzoylindoles) in biological fluids (saliva, urine and blood). The method is designed to recognize one or more common "structural markers", corresponding to mass spectral fragments originating from the specific portion of the molecular structure that is common to the aminoalkylindole analogues and that is fundamental for their pharmacological classification. As such, the method is also suitable for detecting unknown substances, provided they contain the targeted portion of the molecular structure. The pre-treatment procedure consists in a liquid/liquid extraction step carried out at neutral pH: this is the only pretreatment in the case of analyses carried out in saliva, while it follows an enzymatic hydrolysis procedure in the case of urine samples, or a protein precipitation step in the case of blood samples. The chromatographic separation is achieved using an octadecyl reverse-phase 5 μm fused-core particle column; while the mass spectrometric detection is carried out by a triple-quadrupole instrument in positive electrospray ionization and precursor ion scan as acquisition mode, selecting, as mass spectral fragments, the indole (m/z 144), the carbonylnaphthalenyl (m/z 155) and the naphthalenyl (m/z 127) moieties. Once developed and optimized, the analytical procedure was validated in term of sensitivity (lower limits of detection in the range of 0.1-0.5 ng mL(-1)), specificity (no interference was detected at the retention times of the analytes under investigation), recovery (higher than 65% with a satisfactory repeatability: CV% lower than 10), matrix effect (lower than 30% for all the biological specimens tested), repeatability of the retention times (CV% lower than 0.1), robustness, and carry over (the positive

  19. Evaluation of the Effects of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Some Physiological and Growth Characteristics of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Menbari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of soil-born microorganisms as biological fertilizers is considered to be a natural and most desirable solution to maintain sustainability of agricultural soil system. Potassium releasing bacteria, nitrogen fixing and phosphorus dissolving bacteria make mentioned elements available to plants. In order to evaluate the effects of bio-fertilizers Potabarvar 2, Sinorhizobium meliloti, as well as urea fertilizer on physiological properties and yield of Fenugreek, an experiment as complete randomized block design was conducted with five treatments and three replications. Treatments included biofertilizer Potabarvar 2, S. meliloti, inoculation with a mixture of Sinorhizobium+Potabarvar 2, positive control (based on soil analysis and negative control (no fertilization and inoculation.The results showed that all morphological traits were significant at 1%. Most physiological traits except for carotenoid were significantly affected by S. meliloti, and a mixture of Sinorhizobium+Potabarvar 2. Seed inoculation with biofertilizer Sinorhizobium meliloti and Potabarvar 2 lead to increase in growth and eventually shoot yield. Separate application of these biofertilizers led to better results than the integrated application. Symbiotic relationship of Sinorhizobium with Fenugreek increased physiological indices data, especially the absorption of nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as the amount of phenolic antioxidant have been significantly affected. In general, application of S. meliloti resulted in better and more effective increase in yield, quality and plant growth than fertilizer Potabarvar 2 and a mixture of Sinorhizobium+Potabarvar 2.

  20. Effects of gelling bath on the physical properties of alginate gel beads and the biological characteristics of entrapped HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongsheng; Liu, Yang; Wu, Hao; Ren, Ying; Ma, Xiaojun; Wu, Huijian; Sun, Guangwei

    2018-03-01

    Optimizing alginate gel beads is necessary to support the survival, proliferation, and function of entrapped hepatocytes. In this study, gelling bath was modified by decreasing calcium ion concentration and increasing sodium ion concentration. Alginate gel beads (using 36% G sodium alginate) prepared in the modified gelling bath had more homogeneous structure and better mass transfer properties compared with the traditional gelling bath that contains only calcium ions. Moreover, alginate gel beads generated in the modified gelling bath could significantly promote the HepG2 cell proliferation and the growth of cell spheroids, and maintain the albumin secretion ability similar to alginate gel beads prepared in the traditional gelling bath with only calcium ions. The mass transfer properties and cell proliferation were similar in ALG beads with different M/G ratio (36% G and 55% G) generated in the modified gelling bath, whereas they were significantly increased compared with alginate gel beads (55% G) in traditional gelling bath. These results indicated that adjusting the gelling bath was a simple and convenient method to enhance the mass transfer properties of alginate gel beads for 3D hepatocyte culture, which might provide more hepatocytes for the bioartificial liver support system. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Biodistribution and biological characteristics of p-[(bis-carboxymethyl) aminomethyl carboxyamino] hippuric acid (Pahida) labelled with technetium-99m. Establishment of pharmacokinetics parameters through compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, E.B. de.

    1990-01-01

    Biologic distribution of p- [(bis-carboxymethylaminomethyl carboxyamino)] hippuric acid (PAHIDA) labeled with sup(99m)Tc in Wistar rats, showed a selective renal uptake among the other organs and tissues. The compound is predominantly eliminated by urinary tract, with small enterohepatic percent of excretion Chromatographic analysis of urine showed the product and possible metabolites. PAHIDA- sup(99m)Tc blood clearance is relatively rapid and a good percent is transported by plasmatic proteins. The percent binding to the erythrocytes is significant after one hour, this is due probably to hydrolysed technetium. The extrapolation of the plasmatic curve denoted the existence of three exponentials, suggesting a model with three compartments: central or intravascular and two peripherics or extravasculars - rapid and slow exchange (retention). Exponential's half life and the transfer constant (k) among the compartments were determined. The compound retention was reaffirmed by whole body determination. The decomposition of the curve in two exponentials allowed to assess the component's half-life. The compartmental model proposed in agreement with the experimental results, showed the complex retention that may be related the binding with the blood components, the possibility of renal metabolization or a structural impediment in the interaction with the tubular cells receptors. (author)

  2. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  3. Bovine colostrum as a biologic in clinical medicine: a review. Part I: biotechnological standards, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics and principles of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struff, W G; Sprotte, G

    2007-04-01

    Mammals supply their newborn before birth, at birth or shortly after birth with antibodies, immunocytes and humoral constituents. This "borrowed immunity" is a form of passive immunization to protect the newborn against environmental pathogens until it establishes its own pathogen recognition and disposal systems. In cows, goats, horses and some other animal species, most immunoglobulins are obtained from the colostrum, the first milk after birth, via the gut but in humans the majority of immunoglobulins, and those of the IgG-class in particular, are acquired from the mother by placental transport in the weeks prior to parturition. It has long been known that the consumption of bovine colostrum by humans has therapeutic effects e.g. in gastrointestinal infections, but only since the second half of the last century has it been possible to prepare stable, standardized preparations of colostrum. These biologics are administered to patients in combination with standard therapies as so-called balanced supportive diets. Investigations with standardized colostrum preparations in animal models of human disease and estimates of bovine IgG activity in the human GI-tract, described in this review, have provided preclinical data supporting the use of bovine colostrum in human diseases. On the other hand, the number of bovine colostrum products with a sufficiently large and reliable database is limited and the precise nature of the therapeutic targets is still being evaluated.

  4. Karakteristik Beberapa Sifat Fisik, Kimia, Dan Biologi Tanah Pada Sistem Pertanian Organik

    OpenAIRE

    Rizky Dharmawan Margolang,, Rizky Dharmawan Margolang; Jamilah, Jamila; Sembiring, Mariani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study to determine the characteristis of some of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil in organic farming systems. The study was held about 6 month from November 2013 to April 2014 in Bioenvironment Education Center of Organic Farming Bahorok in Timbang Lawan village, Bahorok, at Langkat district for observe the characteristic of some physical, chemical, and biological characteristic of soil in organic farming system. This research was conducted with sur...

  5. Biological characteristics of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for three consecutive generations under different temperatures: understanding the possible impact of global warming on a soybean pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, D M; Hoffmann-Campo, C B; de Freitas Bueno, A; de Freitas Bueno, R C O; de Oliveira, M C N; Moscardi, F

    2012-06-01

    Climate changes can affect the distribution and intensity of insect infestations through direct effects on their life cycles. Experiments were carried out during three consecutive generations to evaluate the effect of different temperatures (25°C, 28°C, 31°C, 34°C and 37±1°C) on biological traits of the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The insects were fed on artificial diet and reared in environmental chambers set at 14 h photophase. The developmental cycle slowed with the increase in the temperature, within the 25°C to 34°C range. Male and female longevities were reduced with an increase in temperature from 25°C to 28°C. Egg viability was highest at 25°C, and the sex ratio was not influenced by temperature, in the three generations. There was no interactive effect between development time and temperature on pupal weight. The results suggested that the increase in the temperature negatively impacted A. gemmatalis development inside the studied temperature range, indicating a possible future reduction of its occurrence on soybean crops, as a consequence of global warming, mainly considering its impact on tropical countries where this plant is cropped. A. gemmatalis was not able to adapt to higher temperatures in a three-generation interval for the studied temperature range. However, a gradual increase and a longer adaptation period may favor insect selection and consequently adaptation, and must be considered in future studies in this area. Moreover, it is important to consider that global warming might turn cold areas more suitable to A. gemmatalis outbreaks. Therefore, more than a future reduction of A. gemmatalis occurrence due to global warming, we might expect changes regarding its area of occurrence on a global perspective.

  6. Endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals of concern in surface water, wastewater-treatment plant effluent, and bed sediment, and biological characteristics in selected streams, Minnesota-design, methods, and data, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Ferrey, Mark L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Martinovic, Dalma; Woodruff, Olivia R.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Brown, Greg K.; Taylor, Howard E.; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the study design, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for an integrated chemical and biological study of selected streams or lakes that receive wastewater-treatment plant effluent in Minnesota. This study was a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Cloud State University, the University of St. Thomas, and the University of Colorado. The objective of the study was to identify distribution patterns of endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other organic and inorganic chemicals of concern indicative of wastewater effluent, and to identify biological characteristics of estrogenicity and fish responses in the same streams. The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water, bed-sediment, and quality-assurance samples, and measured or recorded streamflow once at each sampling location from September through November 2009. Sampling locations included surface water and wastewater-treatment plant effluent. Twenty-five wastewater-treatment plants were selected to include continuous flow and periodic release facilities with differing processing steps (activated sludge or trickling filters) and plant design flows ranging from 0.002 to 10.9 cubic meters per second (0.04 to 251 million gallons per day) throughout Minnesota in varying land-use settings. Water samples were collected from the treated effluent of the 25 wastewater-treatment plants and at one point upstream from and one point downstream from wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges. Bed-sediment samples also were collected at each of the stream or lake locations. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, phytoestrogens and pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and other neutral organic chemicals, carboxylic acids, and steroidal hormones. A subset (25 samples) of the bed-sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, wastewater-indicator chemicals, and steroidal hormones; the

  7. FIELD INVESTIGATION OF BIOLOGICAL TOILET SYSTEMS AND GREY WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the field program was to determine the operational characteristics and overall acceptability of popular models of biological toilets and a few select grey water systems. A field observation scheme was devised to take advantage of in-use sites throughout the State...

  8. CHARACTERISTICS AND TROUBLES OF JOHN SEARLE'S BIOLOGICAL NATURALISM CARACTERÍSTICAS E DIFICULDADES DO NATURALISMO BIOLÓGICO DE JOHN SEARLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tárik de Athayde Prata

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at giving a general exposition of John Searle’s solution of the mind-body problem – biological naturalism – and examines its fundamental theses, and some of its consequences. The exam of such theses – which delineates the characteristics of Searle's theory – shows that the theory has three main difficulties, since it   holds some assertions which at first sight seem to be incompatible.