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Sample records for characteristic mirnome traits

  1. Characterization of miRNomes in Acute and Chronic Myeloid

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    Qian Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid leukemias are highly diverse diseases and have been shown to be associated with microRNA (miRNA expression aberrations. The present study involved an in-depth miRNome analysis of two human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cell lines, HL-60 and THP-1, and one human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML cell line, K562, via massively parallel signature sequencing. mRNA expression profiles of these cell lines that were established previously in our lab facilitated an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression patterns. miRNA expression profiling followed by differential expression analysis and target prediction suggested numerous miRNA signatures in AML and CML cell lines. Some miRNAs may act as either tumor suppressors or oncomiRs in AML and CML by targeting key genes in AML and CML pathways. Expression patterns of cell type-specific miRNAs could partially reflect the characteristics of K562, HL-60 and THP-1 cell lines, such as actin filament-based processes, responsiveness to stimulus and phagocytic activity. miRNAs may also regulate myeloid differentiation, since they usually suppress differentiation regulators. Our study provides a resource to further investigate the employment of miRNAs in human leukemia subtyping, leukemogenesis and myeloid development. In addition, the distinctive miRNA signatures may be potential candidates for the clinical diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of myeloid leukemias.

  2. Trait Characteristics of Diffusion Model Parameters

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    Anna-Lena Schubert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive modeling of response time distributions has seen a huge rise in popularity in individual differences research. In particular, several studies have shown that individual differences in the drift rate parameter of the diffusion model, which reflects the speed of information uptake, are substantially related to individual differences in intelligence. However, if diffusion model parameters are to reflect trait-like properties of cognitive processes, they have to qualify as trait-like variables themselves, i.e., they have to be stable across time and consistent over different situations. To assess their trait characteristics, we conducted a latent state-trait analysis of diffusion model parameters estimated from three response time tasks that 114 participants completed at two laboratory sessions eight months apart. Drift rate, boundary separation, and non-decision time parameters showed a great temporal stability over a period of eight months. However, the coefficients of consistency and reliability were only low to moderate and highest for drift rate parameters. These results show that the consistent variance of diffusion model parameters across tasks can be regarded as temporally stable ability parameters. Moreover, they illustrate the need for using broader batteries of response time tasks in future studies on the relationship between diffusion model parameters and intelligence.

  3. Characterization of miRNomes in Acute and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines

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    Qian Xiong; Jiangwei Yan; Songnian Hu; Xiangdong Fang; Yadong Yang; Hai Wang; Jie Li; Shaobin Wang; Yanming Li; Yaran Yang; Kan Cai; Xiuyan Ruan

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid leukemias are highly diverse diseases and have been shown to be associated with microRNA (miRNA) expression aberrations. The present study involved an in-depth miRNome analysis of two human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, HL-60 and THP-1, and one human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell line, K562, via massively parallel signature sequenc-ing. mRNA expression profiles of these cell lines that were established previously in our lab facil-itated an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression patterns. miRNA expression profiling followed by differential expression analysis and target prediction suggested numerous miRNA signatures in AML and CML cell lines. Some miRNAs may act as either tumor suppres-sors or oncomiRs in AML and CML by targeting key genes in AML and CML pathways. Expres-sion patterns of cell type-specific miRNAs could partially reflect the characteristics of K562, HL-60 and THP-1 cell lines, such as actin filament-based processes, responsiveness to stimulus and phag-ocytic activity. miRNAs may also regulate myeloid differentiation, since they usually suppress dif-ferentiation regulators. Our study provides a resource to further investigate the employment of miRNAs in human leukemia subtyping, leukemogenesis and myeloid development. In addition, the distinctive miRNA signatures may be potential candidates for the clinical diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of myeloid leukemias.

  4. Functional mapping imprinted quantitative trait loci underlying developmental characteristics

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    Li Gengxin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imprinting, a phenomenon referring to nonequivalent expression of alleles depending on their parental origins, has been widely observed in nature. It has been shown recently that the epigenetic modification of an imprinted gene can be detected through a genetic mapping approach. Such an approach is developed based on traditional quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping focusing on single trait analysis. Recent studies have shown that most imprinted genes in mammals play an important role in controlling embryonic growth and post-natal development. For a developmental character such as growth, current approach is less efficient in dissecting the dynamic genetic effect of imprinted genes during individual ontology. Results Functional mapping has been emerging as a powerful framework for mapping quantitative trait loci underlying complex traits showing developmental characteristics. To understand the genetic architecture of dynamic imprinted traits, we propose a mapping strategy by integrating the functional mapping approach with genomic imprinting. We demonstrate the approach through mapping imprinted QTL controlling growth trajectories in an inbred F2 population. The statistical behavior of the approach is shown through simulation studies, in which the parameters can be estimated with reasonable precision under different simulation scenarios. The utility of the approach is illustrated through real data analysis in an F2 family derived from LG/J and SM/J mouse stains. Three maternally imprinted QTLs are identified as regulating the growth trajectory of mouse body weight. Conclusion The functional iQTL mapping approach developed here provides a quantitative and testable framework for assessing the interplay between imprinted genes and a developmental process, and will have important implications for elucidating the genetic architecture of imprinted traits.

  5. The Relationship of Trait Indecisiveness to Vocational Uncertainty, Career Indecision, and Interpersonal Characteristics.

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    Cooper, Stewart E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between trait indecisiveness, vocational uncertainty, and interpersonal characteristics in 325 college freshmen who completed the Interpersonal Checklist and Trait Indecisiveness Scale. Limited support for the hypothesized relationship suggests the complex nature of career indecision. (JAC)

  6. Comparative Analysis of the miRNome of Bovine Milk Fat, Whey and Cells.

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    Li, Ran; Dudemaine, Pier-Luc; Zhao, Xin; Lei, Chuzhao; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline Mengwi

    2016-01-01

    Abundant miRNAs have been identified in milk and mammary gland tissues of different species. Typically, RNA in milk can be extracted from different fractions including fat, whey and cells and the mRNA transcriptome of milk could serve as an indicator of the transcriptome of mammary gland tissue. However, it has not been adequately validated if the miRNA transcriptome of any milk fraction could be representative of that of mammary gland tissue. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the miRNA expression spectra from three milk fractions- fat, whey and cells; (2) compare miRNome profiles of milk fractions (fat, whey and cells) with mammary gland tissue miRNome, and (3) determine which milk fraction miRNome profile could be a better representative of the miRNome profile of mammary gland tissue. Milk from four healthy Canadian Holstein cows in mid lactation was collected and fractionated. Total RNA extracted from each fraction was used for library preparation followed by small RNA sequencing. In addition, miRNA transcripts of mammary gland tissues from twelve Holstein cows in our previous study were used to compare our data. We identified 210, 200 and 249 known miRNAs from milk fat, whey and cells, respectively, with 188 universally expressed in the three fractions. In addition, 33, 31 and 36 novel miRNAs from milk fat, whey and cells were identified, with 28 common in the three fractions. Among 20 most highly expressed miRNAs in each fraction, 14 were expressed in common and 11 were further shared with mammary gland tissue. The three milk fractions demonstrated a clear separation from each other using a hierarchical cluster analysis with milk fat and whey being most closely related. The miRNome correlation between milk fat and mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.866) was significantly higher than the other two pairs (p whey/mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.755) and milk cell/mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.75), suggesting that milk fat could be an

  7. Discrimination of trait-based characteristics by trace element bioaccumulation in riverine fishes

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    Short, T.M.; DeWeese, L.R.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Relations between tissue trace element concentrations and species traits were examined for 45 fish species to determine the extent to which trait-based characteristics accounted for relative differences among species in trace element bioaccumulation. Percentages of fish species correctly classified by discriminant analysis according to traits predicted by tissue trace element concentrations ranged from 72% to 87%. Tissue concentrations of copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc appeared to have the greatest overall influence on differentiating species according to trait characteristics. Discrimination of trait characteristics did not appear to be strongly influenced by local sources of trace elements in the streambed sediment. Bioaccumulation was greatest for those species classified as primarily detritivores, having relatively large adult body size, considered nonmigratory with respect to reproductive strategy, occurring mostly in large or variable size streams and rivers, preferring depositional areas within the stream channel, and preferring benthic rather than open-water habitats. Our findings provide evidence of the strong relationship between bioaccumulation of environmental trace elements and trait-based factors that influence contaminant exposure. ?? 2008 NRC.

  8. Identification of quantitative trait loci for popping traits and kernel characteristics in sorghum grain

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    Popped grain sorghum has developed a niche among specialty snack-food consumers. In contrast to popcorn, sorghum has not benefited from persistent selective breeding for popping efficiency and kernel expansion ratio. While recent studies have already demonstrated that popping characteristics are h...

  9. Does trait affectivity predict work-to-family conflict and enrichment beyond job characteristics?

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    Tement, Sara; Korunka, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether negative and positive affectivity (NA and PA, respectively) predict different forms of work-to-family conflict (WFC-time, WFC-strain, WFC-behavior) and enrichment (WFE-development, WFE-affect, WFE-capital) beyond job characteristics (workload, autonomy, variety, workplace support). Furthermore, interactions between job characteristics and trait affectivity while predicting WFC and WFE were examined. Using a large sample of Slovenian employees (N = 738), NA and PA were found to explain variance in WFC as well as in WFE above and beyond job characteristics. More precisely, NA significantly predicted WFC, whereas PA significantly predicted WFE. In addition, several interactive effects were found to predict forms of WFC and WFE. These results highlight the importance of trait affectivity in work-family research. They provide further support for the crucial impact of job characteristics as well.

  10. Primary amenorrhea in anorexia nervosa: impact on characteristic masculine and feminine traits.

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    Baker, Jessica H; Sisk, Cheryl L; Thornton, Laura M; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steven; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Johnson, Craig; Jones, Ian; Kaplan, Allan S; Mitchell, James E; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D Blake; Berrettini, Wade H; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M; Klump, Kelly L

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies indicate that gonadal hormones at puberty have an effect on the development of masculine and feminine traits. However, it is unknown whether similar processes occur in humans. We examined whether women with anorexia nervosa (AN), who often experience primary amenorrhea, exhibit attenuated feminization in their psychological characteristics in adulthood due to the decrease/absence of gonadal hormones at puberty. Women with AN were compared on a number of psychological characteristics using general linear models on the basis of the presence/absence of primary amenorrhea. Although women with primary amenorrhea exhibited lower anxiety scores than those without primary amenorrhea, in general, results did not provide evidence of attenuated feminization in women with AN with primary amenorrhea. Future research should utilize novel techniques and direct hormone measurement to explore the effects of pubertal gonadal hormones on masculine and feminine traits.

  11. Examination of personality characteristics in a Turkish sample: development of Basic Personality Traits Inventory.

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    Gençöz, Tülin; Öcül, Öznur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor nature of personality. For this aim, an indigenous, psychometrically strong instrument measuring the basic personality dimensions within Turkish culture and language was developed through three consecutive studies. The first study aimed to reveal the adjectives that have been most frequently used to define people in the Turkish culture. In the second study, factor analysis of these personality characteristics revealed big five personality factors, along with the sixth factor, which had been called as the Negative Valence factor. The adjectives that most strongly represented and differentiated each factor constituted 45-item "Basic Personality Traits Inventory". Finally, in the third study, psychometric characteristics of the Basic Personality Traits Inventory were examined. Factor structure and psychometric properties of this instrument confirmed that five-factor nature of personality may not hold true in every culture.

  12. Agentic personality characteristics and coping: their relation to trait anxiety in college students.

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    Weigold, Ingrid K; Robitschek, Christine

    2011-04-01

    Anxiety and its disorders, often present before adulthood, have high personal and societal costs for men and women. This study tested a mediation model in which 3 forms of coping mediate the relation of 3 agentic personality characteristics (i.e., traits associated with the belief that people can effectively exercise control over their lives) to lower levels of anxiety within 1 subgroup of young adults (i.e., college students). The agentic personality characteristics were (a) hardiness, (b) personal growth initiative, and (c) coping self-efficacy. The forms of dispositional coping were (a) problem-focused, (b) emotion-focused, and (c) avoidant. Results suggest that agentic personality characteristics differentially relate to forms of coping and trait anxiety. In addition, coping appears to fully mediate the relations of the personality characteristics to anxiety. The results imply that agentic personality characteristics and coping are important in decreasing and/or protecting against anxiety, in part because of how they relate to forms of coping, and suggest the need for more research.

  13. Innovation and the "Dark Side" of Personality: Dysfunctional Traits and Their Relation to Self-Reported Innovative Characteristics

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    Zibarras, Lara D.; Port, Rebecca L.; Woods, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between self-reported innovative characteristics and dysfunctional personality traits. Participants (N = 207) from a range of occupations completed the Innovation Potential Indicator (IPI) and the Hogan Development Survey (HDS). Those who reported innovative characteristics also reported the following…

  14. Effect of ecological environments on subspecies characteristics and economic traits in filial generations of cross between indica and japonica rice

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    Hai XU; Wenfu CHEN; Hongguang LIU; Chunjie ZHU; Li YANG; Yanhua GUO; Jiayu WANG; Qianhua YANG; Zhengjin XU; Jiakui ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    Two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) populations, RILSA derived from the cross between "Zhongyouzao8" (indica) and "Toyonihiki" (japonica) rice cultivars, and RILSB derived from the cross between "Qishanzhan" (indica) and "Akihikari" (japonica) rice cultivars, were grown in Liaoning and Sichuan Provinces, China to understand the effects of ecological environments on the subspecies characteristics and economic traits in filial generations of cross between indica and japonica. The results showed that both the subspecies characteristics and economic traits changed significantly. The effects of ecological environments on Cheng's index and six subspecies characteristics were different on the basis of populations or characteristics. The distribution of Cheng's index in RILSA was japonicalinous in Liaoning and Sichuan. The distribution of Cheng's index in RILSB approached to normal distribution in Liaoning, but it wasjaponicalinous in Sichuan. As a whole, the two populations were more japonicalious in Sichuan than in Liaoning. The panicle number, seed setting rate and per-thousand-grain weight were decreased significantly in Sichuan. The grain number per panicle showed no significant change. A significant positive correlation was found between Cheng's index and the economic traits, including six subspe-cies traits. It suggested that the reason that the filial genera-tion of cross between indica and japonica in northern China showed japonieanous subspecies characteristics might be the artificial selection by breeders on the economic traits. In addition, indica-japonica differentiation and the relationship with ecological environments were discussed.

  15. The Study of Main and Interactive Effects of Attachment Dimension and Basic Personality Characteristics in Borderline Traits

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    Ali Mohammadzadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are models of the development of personality disorders which include individual differences in attachment relationships as causal factors contributed in explanation of these phenomena. The dimensional view of personality disorders represents these conditions as extreme variants of normal personality continua. This study investigated main and interactional effects of attachment styles and personality traits in relation to borderline characteristics. Materials and Methods: The current study was conducted in expo fact context. Randomly selected 603 participants (134 male  469 female from Tabriz Payam-e-Noor, Tarbait Moallem of Azarbaijan and Sarab Payam-e-Noor university students took part in this research. Participants answered to Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised, Short form (EPQ-RS and Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI. Data were analyzed using two way analysis of variance method.Results: Results indicate main effects of attachment styles and personality traits, so, individual with ambivalent insecure attachment experience more intensity of borderline traits than individual with avoidant insecure and secure attachments. Individual with high psychoticim and neuroticism traits experience more intensity of borderline characteristics than individual with extraversion personality traits. Also, there are no interactional effects of attachment styles and personality traits in relation to borderline characteristics. Conclusion: These findings reiterate contribution of childhood risk factors in developing borderline personality disorder, especially in children with emotionally vulnerability.

  16. Leadership and path characteristics during walks are linked to dominance order and individual traits in dogs.

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    Zsuzsa Ákos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Movement interactions and the underlying social structure in groups have relevance across many social-living species. Collective motion of groups could be based on an "egalitarian" decision system, but in practice it is often influenced by underlying social network structures and by individual characteristics. We investigated whether dominance rank and personality traits are linked to leader and follower roles during joint motion of family dogs. We obtained high-resolution spatio-temporal GPS trajectory data (823,148 data points from six dogs belonging to the same household and their owner during 14 30-40 min unleashed walks. We identified several features of the dogs' paths (e.g., running speed or distance from the owner which are characteristic of a given dog. A directional correlation analysis quantifies interactions between pairs of dogs that run loops jointly. We found that dogs play the role of the leader about 50-85% of the time, i.e. the leader and follower roles in a given pair are dynamically interchangable. However, on a longer timescale tendencies to lead differ consistently. The network constructed from these loose leader-follower relations is hierarchical, and the dogs' positions in the network correlates with the age, dominance rank, trainability, controllability, and aggression measures derived from personality questionnaires. We demonstrated the possibility of determining dominance rank and personality traits of an individual based only on its logged movement data. The collective motion of dogs is influenced by underlying social network structures and by characteristics such as personality differences. Our findings could pave the way for automated animal personality and human social interaction measurements.

  17. Prevalence and hematological characteristics of beta-thalassemia trait in Gaziantep urban area, Turkey.

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    Gurbak, Mehmet; Sivasli, Ercan; Coskun, Yavuz; Bozkurt, Ali Ihsan; Ergin, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most common hereditary disorders in the Mediterranean region and studies have shown that the prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait is high in the southern part of Turkey. Gaziantep is a city located near this region and, therefore, the authors investigated the prevalence and hematological characteristics of the beta-thalassemia traits in primary school students in Gaziantep. Sixty primary schools were selected from a list of all primary schools using a systematic sampling method. Data were collected by a face-to-face questionnaire. Osmotic fragility testing (OFT) using single-tube 0.36% NaCl solution was used for the screening of beta-thalassemia. Students who were positive in regard to OFT went through a series of testing, including a complete blood count, serum ferritin levels, serum iron, and hemoglobin electroforesis. Chi-square test was used in statistical analysis. Of the 2439 students enrolled to the study from the selected 60 classrooms, 1353 (55.5%) were male and 1086 (44.5%) were female. The OFT was positive in 115 (4.7%) of the participants. CEA and confirmatory HPLC results of the students who were positive OFT indicated that 70 (60.8%) had normal results, 33(28.7%) showed high HbA2 levels, 7 (6.1%) showed high HbA2 and HbF levels, 5(5.2%) showed high HbA2 and Fe-deficiency anemia, and none showed increased HbF levels. The overall prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait was 1.84%. No gender differentials and highest rates among the Kahramanmaras (3.5%) and Sanliurfa (1.7%) born students were the other significant findings of this study. Implementation of a routine carrier-screening program offering genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, and selective termination of affected fetuses would be a wise approach to eliminate this disease from the region.

  18. Spectral Characteristics of Vegetation Functional Traits across a Range of Thaw Gradients on Alaska's Seward Peninsula

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    Goswami, S.; Hayes, D. J.; Sloan, V. L.; Liebig, J. A.; Norby, R. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic and Boreal regions are warming rapidly, leading to the thawing of the underlying permafrost and associated changes in vegetation structure and composition. The thawing of ice-rich permafrost drives land surface dynamics called thermokarst, characterized by a variety of geomorphic surface features across high latitude landscapes. The development of these thermokarst or thermo-erosional features depends on factors such as local permafrost conditions, hydrology, geomorphology, vegetation, and climate, but their degree of dependence are not well understood across scales. The structure, functions and traits of the vegetation can work as effective indicators of these landscape changes. Our ability to characterize these vegetation characteristics across a wide range of thaw gradients at the local scale could help us to better understand the dependency as well as the impacts of thermokarst processes on them. This will also help us to develop capabilities to quantify these characteristics and dependencies from local to regional scales by using remote sensing and ecosystem modeling techniques. During the months of June - July of 2013 and 2014, we conducted field surveys at various sites across the central Seward Peninsula in Alaska covering a range of thaw gradients to collect data for vegetation functional traits, ancillary data and also hyperspectral data in the 400-2500 nm range using a field spectrometer. Data were collected from plots established along 50 m transects to capture transitional states of these thaw features from the upland zone, transition zone, and thaw lake basins as well as in polygonal features. Here we discuss the characteristics of vegetation functional traits and how they relate to the ground-based spectral measurements. Some of these findings could be scaled up using airborne and satellite remote sensing data. The findings from this study can improve our understanding of disturbance patterns and their feedbacks to local scale plant and

  19. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

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    Putkonen Hanna

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57. A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle and 4 (antisocial. Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective and facets 1 (interpersonal and 2 (affective. The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide

  20. Low temperature wheat germplasm and its leaf photosynthetic traits and structure characteristics

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    ZHANG Songwu; MIAO Fang; WANG Changfa

    2004-01-01

    Low temperature germplasm with constant low plant temperature was found in the nature through a long-time observation on wheat canopy temperature and traits; correspondingly, high temperature germplasm with constant high plant temperature also exists. Compared with the high temperature germplasm, the chlorophyll content and the net photosynthetic rate of the three functional leaves on the top of the low temperature wheat germplasm are higher and the structure tends to be more complicated, which is characterized by smaller mesophyll cells and more closely arranged cell layers, more and denser chloroplasts with thick stroma, more granas and well developed grana lamellae, a larger vascular bundle area with smaller interspace. All these characteristics embody the consistency of structure and function and provide the theoretical bases for looking for and cultivating the new low temperature materials in agricultural practice.

  1. Paradoxical response to an emotional task: trait characteristics and heart-rate dynamics.

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    Balocchi, Rita; Varanini, Maurizio; Paoletti, Giulia; Mecacci, Giulio; Santarcangelo, Enrica L

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the heart-rate dynamics of subjects reporting decreased (responders) or paradoxically increased relaxation (nonresponders) at the end of a threatening movie. Heart-rate dynamics were characterized by indices extracted through recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). These indices were studied as a function of a few individual characteristics: hypnotizability, gender, absorption, anxiety, and the activity of the behavioral inhibition and activation systems (BIS/BAS). Results showed that (a) the subjective experience of responsiveness is associated with the activity of the behavioral inhibition system and (b) a few RQA and DFA indices are able to capture the influence of cognitive-emotional traits, including hypnotizability, on the responsiveness to the threatening task.

  2. High-resolution analysis of the human retina miRNome reveals isomiR variations and novel microRNAs.

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    Karali, Marianthi; Persico, Maria; Mutarelli, Margherita; Carissimo, Annamaria; Pizzo, Mariateresa; Singh Marwah, Veer; Ambrosio, Concetta; Pinelli, Michele; Carrella, Diego; Ferrari, Stefano; Ponzin, Diego; Nigro, Vincenzo; di Bernardo, Diego; Banfi, Sandro

    2016-02-29

    MicroRNAs play a fundamental role in retinal development and function. To characterise the miRNome of the human retina, we carried out deep sequencing analysis on sixteen individuals. We established the catalogue of retina-expressed miRNAs, determined their relative abundance and found that a small number of miRNAs accounts for almost 90% of the retina miRNome. We discovered more than 3000 miRNA variants (isomiRs), encompassing a wide range of sequence variations, which include seed modifications that are predicted to have an impact on miRNA action. We demonstrated that a seed-modifying isomiR of the retina-enriched miR-124-3p was endowed with different targeting properties with respect to the corresponding canonical form. Moreover, we identified 51 putative novel, retina-specific miRNAs and experimentally validated the expression for nine of them. Finally, a parallel analysis of the human Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE)/choroid, two tissues that are known to be crucial for retina homeostasis, yielded notably distinct miRNA enrichment patterns compared to the retina. The generated data are accessible through an ad hoc database. This study is the first to reveal the complexity of the human retina miRNome at nucleotide resolution and constitutes a unique resource to assess the contribution of miRNAs to the pathophysiology of the human retina.

  3. Selected psychological traits and body image characteristics in females suffering from binge eating disorder

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    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This paper reports the results of the author’s own research aimed at diagnosing specific psychological (personality traits and body image characteristics in a population of selected females suffering from binge eating disorder (BED.Method. The methods applied in this research included an inventory (i.e. a Polish version of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI devised by David Garner, Marion P. Olmsted, and Janet Polivy, adapted by Cezary Żechowski; and the Socio-cultural Attitudes towards the Body and Appearance Questionnaire, constructed by the author of this study, based on the results of factor analysis and subject literature, as well as projective techniques such as Thompson’s Silhouette Test and a thematic drawing: “body image”. Theinventories and projective techniques applied in the research procedures aimed at diagnosing the level of selected psychological traits in the examined females.Results. Statistical analysis of the data obtained as a result of this research revealed that the examined females suffering from psychogenic overeating were overweight. Analysis of the study data concerning the subject’s evaluation of their body image pointed to a substantial discrepancy between the individuals’ perception of their current body shape, which they clearly did not approve of, and the ideal thin body that the females desired. The study data obtained as a result of the EDI inventory, aimed at diagnosing the level of selected psychological (personality traits exhibited by the examined females, revealed that the subjects received the highest (inappropriate score in the scale describing the individuals’ preoccupation with pursuit of thinness. It was also discovered that the study participants had a high level of internalization of socio-cultural norms about the ideal female body, promoting the “cult of thinness”, and they exhibited the feeling of insecurity and personal worthlessness, as well as a low level of interpersonal

  4. Study on Plant Morphological Traits and Production Characteristics of Super High-Yielding Soybean

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    AO Xue; XIE Fu-ti; HAN Xiao-ri; ZHAO Ming-hui; ZHU Qian; LI Jie; ZHANG Hui-jun; WANG Hai-ying; YU Cui-mei; LI Chun-hong; YAO Xing-dong

    2013-01-01

    Super high-yielding soybean cultivar Liaodou 14, soybean cultivars from Ohio in the United States, and the common soybean cultivars from Liaoning Province, China, with similar geographic latitudes and identical pod-bearing habits were used as the study materials for a comparison of morphological traits and production characteristics to provide a theoretical basis for the breeding of improved super high-yielding soybean cultivars. Using a randomized block design, different soybean cultivars from the same latitude were compared under conventional and unconventional treatments for their production characteristics, including morphological traits, leaf area index (LAI), net photosynthesis rate, and dry matter accumulation. The specific characteristics of the super high-yielding soybean cultivar Liaodou 14 were analyzed. The results showed that the plant height of Liaodou 14 was significantly lower than that of the common cultivars from Liaoning, whereas the number of its main-stem nodes was higher than that of the cultivars from Ohio or Liaoning. A high pod density was observed in Liaodou 14 under conventional treatments. Under both conventional and unconventional treatments, the branch number of Liaodou 14 was markedly higher than that of the common cultivars from Liaoning, and its branch length and leaf inclination angle were significantly higher than those of common cultivars from Liaoning or Ohio. Only small changes in the leaf inclination angle were observed in Liaodou 14 treated with conventional or unconventional methods. Under each treatment, Liaodou 14 exhibited the lowest amplitude of reduction in SPAD values and net photosynthesis rates from the grain-filling to ripening stages;the cultivars from Ohio and the common cultivars from Liaoning exhibited more significant reductions. Liaodou 14 reached its peak LAI later than the other cultivars but maintained its LAI at a higher level for a longer duration. Under both conventional and unconventional treatments

  5. Correlations of unfavorable movement characteristics in warmblood foals and mares with routinely assessed conformation and performance traits.

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    Becker, A-C; Stock, K F; Distl, O

    2013-01-01

    New movement traits reflecting unfavorable movement characteristics were defined on the basis of detailed movement evaluations (DME) of warmblood foals and mares performed in connection with regular breeding events of the Oldenburg horse breeding societies in 2009 and 2010. DME information was available for 3374 foals and 2844 mares and used for correlation analyses with conformation information on 1987 mares from studbook inspections (SBI) in 2009 and performance information on 2758 mares from mare performance tests (MPT) in 2000 to 2008. Analyses of variance revealed few significant differences between scores for SBI and MPT traits in mares without and with indications of imbalance (IMB) in general or specific findings like irregular tail tone or posture (TTP). SBI scores for general impression and development were significantly lower and MPT scores for trot under rider tended to be higher in IMB-positive mares. Genetic parameters were estimated in linear animal models with residual maximum likelihood. Additive genetic correlations and Pearson correlation coefficients between univariately predicted breeding values indicated unfavorable genetic correlations of IMB and TTP with dressage-related conformation and performance traits. For SBI and MPT traits, we found similarities between the correlation patterns for DME traits in foals and mares. The results implied that breeding of dressage horses may benefit from revision of current movement evaluation and consideration of specific movement characteristics.

  6. A comparison of milk clotting characteristics and quality traits of Rendena and Holstein-Friesian cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Varotto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Milk coagulation properties (MCP and composition, as predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS, were compared between Rendena (RE local breed and Holstein- Friesian (HF cows using 4614 individual milk samples from 28 single-breed herds. Records of rennet coagulation time (RCT, min, curd firmness (a30, mm, daily milk yield and quality traits were analysed using a linear mixed model which included fixed effects of breed, herd-test-date nested within breed, lactation stage, parity, and two-way interactions between the main effects. Random effects were cow nested within breed and residual. Milk from RE coagulated 2.1 min earlier and showed a firmer curd by 4.8 mm than that of HF cows (P<0.05. Milk yield (+9.7 kg/d and fat content (+0.22 g/100 g were greater for HF than RE (P<0.05, while protein (+0.05 g/100 g and casein (+0.06 g/100 g contents were greater in milk from RE cows (P<0.05. Rennet coagulation time was shortest at the beginning of lactation, and a30 was firmest at the beginning and end of lactation. Results from this study suggest that milk of RE is more suitable for cheese processing than that of HF cows. Milk clotting characteristics of the local breed should be taken into account when developing strategies useful for its valorisation.

  7. Herd characteristics influence farmers’ preferences for trait improvements in Danish Red and Danish Jersey cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagboom, Margot; Kargo, Morten; Edwards, David;

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize preferences of farmers for breeding goal traits with Danish Red (DR) or Danish Jersey (DJ) cows. A breed-specific survey was established to characterize farmers’ preferences for improvements in 10 traits, by means of pairwise rankings using the online...

  8. Host Characteristics and Bacterial Traits Predict Experimental Virulence for Escherichia coli Bloodstream Isolates From Patients With Urosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James R; Porter, Stephen; Johnston, Brian; Kuskowski, Michael A; Spurbeck, Rachel R; Mobley, Harry L T; Williamson, Deborah A

    2015-09-01

    Background.  Extraintestinal Escherichia coli infections are common, costly, and potentially serious. A better understanding of their pathogenesis is needed. Methods.  Sixty-seven E coli bloodstream isolates from adults with urosepsis (Seattle, WA; 1980s) underwent extensive molecular characterization and virulence assessment in 2 infection models (murine subcutaneous sepsis and moth larval lethality). Statistical comparisons were made among host characteristics, bacterial traits, and experimental virulence. Results.  The 67 source patients were diverse for age, sex, and underlying medical and urological conditions. The corresponding E coli isolates exhibited diverse phylogenetic backgrounds and virulence profiles. Despite the E coli isolates' common bloodstream origin, they exhibited a broad range of experimental virulence in mice and moth larvae, in patterns that (for the murine model only) corresponded significantly with host characteristics and bacterial traits. The most highly mouse-lethal strains were enriched with classic "urovirulence" traits and typically were from younger women with anatomically and functionally normal urinary tracts. The 2 animal models corresponded poorly with one another. Conclusions.  Host compromise, including older age and urinary tract abnormalities, allows comparatively low-virulence E coli strains to cause urosepsis. Multiple E coli traits predict both experimental and epidemiological virulence. The larval lethality model cannot be a substitute for the murine sepsis model.

  9. High trait anger Mexican youth: characteristics, parental anger, and counseling needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Olán, Raúl J; Deffenbacher, Jerry L

    2013-01-01

    This study compared three groups of Mexican youth: (1) high trait anger adolescents recognizing anger problems (HR); (2) high trait anger youth not reporting anger problems (HNR); and (3) low trait anger adolescents not reporting anger problems (LNR). The HR group was sizable, representing 21% of all students and 72% of high anger youth. Compared to LNR, high anger groups (HR and HNR) experienced more angry feelings, engaged in anger suppression (e.g., holding anger in and harboring grudges) and aggressive anger expression (e.g., urges to aggression, physical aggressive anger expression toward others and toward self and objects), and reported lower internal and external anger control (e.g., relaxing and controlling one's behavior when angry). High anger groups also reported greater trait anger in both parents than LNR, suggesting parent's anger is a risk factor for anger in adolescents. HR and HNR groups, however, did not differ on any variable. Findings for high anger groups supported the intensity, aggression, and reduced positive coping hypotheses of State-Trait Anger Theory. Findings were also discussed in terms of the counseling needs of high anger Mexican youth and State-Trait Theory.

  10. Effects of variation in porcine MYOD1 gene on muscle fiber characteristics, lean meat production, and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C

    2012-09-01

    Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits.

  11. Clinical Characteristics of Preschool Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Domènech, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to know whether callous-unemotional (CU) traits identify a more severe group of oppositional defiant children (ODD). The aim of this study is to ascertain cross-sectionally and longitudinally the specific contribution of CU levels and the presence of ODD in the psychological state of preschool children from the general population. A total of 622 children were assessed longitudinally at ages 3 and 5 with a semi-structured diagnostic interview and questionnaires filled out by parents and teachers. In multivariate models simultaneously including ODD diagnosis and CU levels, controlling by socioeconomic status, ethnicity, sex, severity of conduct disorder symptoms and other comorbidity, high CU scores were related to higher levels of aggression, withdrawn, externalizing and global symptomatology, functional impairment and higher probability of comorbid disorders and use of services. The contribution of CU traits on children’s psychological state was not moderated by the presence/absence of ODD. Stability for CU traits and number of ODD-symptoms between ages 3 and 5 was statistically significant but moderate-low (intra-class correlation under .40). Assessment and identification of CU traits from preschool might help to identify a subset of children who could have socialization problems, not only among those with ODD but also among those without a diagnosis of conduct problems. PMID:26418062

  12. Early seedling growth characteristics relates to the stay-green traits and dhurrin levels in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurrin content in leaves of mature sorghum plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre-and postflowering drought tolerance, with high dhurrin contents expressed in postflowering drought tolerant lines. Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum has been link to the staygreen trait, associat...

  13. Clinical Characteristics of Preschool Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available There is a need to know whether callous-unemotional (CU traits identify a more severe group of oppositional defiant children (ODD. The aim of this study is to ascertain cross-sectionally and longitudinally the specific contribution of CU levels and the presence of ODD in the psychological state of preschool children from the general population. A total of 622 children were assessed longitudinally at ages 3 and 5 with a semi-structured diagnostic interview and questionnaires filled out by parents and teachers. In multivariate models simultaneously including ODD diagnosis and CU levels, controlling by socioeconomic status, ethnicity, sex, severity of conduct disorder symptoms and other comorbidity, high CU scores were related to higher levels of aggression, withdrawn, externalizing and global symptomatology, functional impairment and higher probability of comorbid disorders and use of services. The contribution of CU traits on children's psychological state was not moderated by the presence/absence of ODD. Stability for CU traits and number of ODD-symptoms between ages 3 and 5 was statistically significant but moderate-low (intra-class correlation under .40. Assessment and identification of CU traits from preschool might help to identify a subset of children who could have socialization problems, not only among those with ODD but also among those without a diagnosis of conduct problems.

  14. High-throughput characterization of Echinococcus spp. metacestode miRNomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucher, Marcela; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Kamenetzky, Laura; Maldonado, Lucas; Brehm, Klaus; Rosenzvit, Mara Cecilia

    2015-03-01

    Echinococcosis is a worldwide zoonosis of great public health concern, considered a neglected disease by the World Health Organisation. The cestode parasites Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) and Echinococcus multilocularis are the main aetiological agents. In the intermediate host, these parasites display particular developmental traits that lead to different patterns of disease progression. In an attempt to understand the causes of these differences, we focused on the analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding regulatory RNAs with major roles in development of animals and plants. In this work, we analysed the small RNA expression pattern of the metacestode, the stage of sanitary relevance, and provide a detailed description of Echinococcus miRNAs. Using high-throughput small RNA sequencing, we believe that we have carried out the first experimental identification of miRNAs in E. multilocularis and have expanded the Echinococcus miRNA catalogue to 38 miRNA genes, including one miRNA only present in E. granulosus s. l. Our findings show that although both species share the top five highest expressed miRNAs, 13 are differentially expressed, which could be related to developmental differences. We also provide evidence that uridylation is the main miRNA processing mechanism in Echinococcus spp. These results provide detailed information on Echinococcus miRNAs, which is the first step in understanding their role in parasite biology and disease establishment and/or progression, and their future potential use as drug or diagnostic targets.

  15. Vocations as a source of identity: reciprocal relations between Big Five personality traits and RIASEC characteristics over 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Bart; De Fruyt, Filip

    2014-03-01

    Although work is a core part of life, the direction of influence from personality to work has typically been conceived as only unidirectional. The present study aims to contribute to the literature by considering reciprocal relations between personality and occupational characteristics, drawing on current perspectives from personality psychology (i.e., the social investment principle) and using a well-established framework to conceptualize career development (i.e., Holland's RIASEC theory). For this purpose, a longitudinal cohort of college alumni (N = 266) was tracked across a substantial and significant period in their professional career. Big Five personality traits and RIASEC occupational characteristics were assessed at the career start and 15 years later when their careers had unfolded. A combination of observed and latent variable analyses were used to disentangle the longitudinal and reciprocal relations between traits and occupational characteristics. Our results indicate that personality shapes and is shaped by our vocational experiences, suggesting that work can be a source of identity. The implications for theory and research on personality in the industrial and organizational literature are discussed alongside a number of practical implications for organizational and counseling settings.

  16. Impact of the genetic background on the composition of the chicken plasma MiRNome in response to a stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Endale Ahanda

    Full Text Available Circulating extra-cellular microRNAs (miRNAs have emerged as promising minimally invasive markers in human medicine. We evaluated miRNAs isolated from total plasma as biomarker candidates of a response to an abiotic stress (feed deprivation in a livestock species. Two chicken lines selected for high (R+ and low (R- residual feed intake were chosen as an experimental model because of their extreme divergence in feed intake and energy metabolism. Adult R+ and R- cocks were sampled after 16 hours of feed deprivation and again four hours after re-feeding. More than 292 million sequence reads were generated by small RNA-seq of total plasma RNA. A total of 649 mature miRNAs were identified; after quality filtering, 148 miRNAs were retained for further analyses. We identified 23 and 19 differentially abundant miRNAs between feeding conditions and between lines respectively, with only two miRNAs identified in both comparisons. We validated a panel of six differentially abundant miRNAs by RT-qPCR on a larger number of plasma samples and checked their response to feed deprivation in liver. Finally, we evaluated the conservation and tissue distribution of differentially abundant miRNAs in plasma across a variety of red jungle fowl tissues. We show that the chicken plasma miRNome reacts promptly to the alteration of the animal physiological condition driven by a feed deprivation stress. The plasma content of stress-responsive miRNAs is strongly influenced by the genetic background, with differences reflecting the phenotypic divergence acquired through long-term selection, as evidenced by the profiles of conserved miRNAs with a regulatory role in energy metabolism (gga-miR-204, gga-miR-let-7f-5p and gga-miR-122-5p. These results reinforce the emerging view in human medicine that even small genetic differences can have a considerable impact on the resolution of biomarker studies, and provide support for the emerging interest in miRNAs as potential novel and

  17. Platelet (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding in affective disorders: trait versus state characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, M.; Barkai, A.; Gruen, R.; Peselow, E.; Fieve, R.R.; Quitkin, F.

    1986-06-01

    Platelet (3H)imipramine binding (Bmax) was determined in 67 patients with major affective illness (33 euthymic bipolar, 34 depressed unipolar) and 58 normal control subjects. Bipolar patients had significantly lower Bmax values than did control subjects. The mean Bmax in the unipolar patients was lower than in the control subjects, but the difference was not statistically significant. Dissociation constant (Kd) values did not distinguish patients in either category from control subjects. The significantly lower Bmax in euthymic bipolar patients and the apparent state independence of Bmax in some but not all unipolar patients suggest that platelet imipramine binding may be a trait marker in a subset of affective disorders.

  18. Comparison of muscle fibre characteristics and production traits among offspring from Meishan dams mated to different sires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Chang Hong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated how various porcine sires affected muscle fibre characteristics, with respect to production traits. Sires from Berkshire, Duroc, Meishan, and Yorkshire pigs were mated to Meishan dams (BM, DM, MM, and YM offspring, respectively. A total of 96 pigs were evaluated for muscle fibre characteristics and production traits. The progeny from Duroc and Yorkshire sires had the greatest number of total fibres (P<0.05 and exhibited less backfat thickness (P<0.001 and larger loin muscle areas (P<0.05 than BM pigs. The DM and BM crossbreds showed higher marbling (P<0.01, and colour scores (P<0.05, as well as lower shear force scores (P<0.001. The MM pigs had greater proportional area of type IIb muscle fibres (P<0.05, and also displayed higher drip loss (P<0.01, higher lightness (P<0.001, and a greater incidence of PSE pork (pale, soft, and exudative; 25% than DM, BM, and YM. These results showed that a greater number of total muscle fibres without increasing the cross sectional area of fibres improved lean meat production, and that a lower proportion of type IIb fibres was associated with better meat quality. For these reasons, the Duroc sire × Meishan dam crossbreed emerged as the most appropriate mating type examined herein to simultaneously enhance both lean meat production and meat quality.

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF SUNFLOWER OPEN-POLLINATED VARIETIES FOR MAIN SEED TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigay K. I.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of confectionery sunflower openpollinated varieties (OP-varieties is a prospect direction in sunflower breeding. High price level for confectionery sunflower seeds pushes forward the breeding program. Contrary, it is necessary to offer product, meeting consumer’s expectation for large seeds, good dehulling rate, proper oil and husk content. The aim of our work is to study morphometric peculiarities of seed structure for sunflower OP-varieties of different types – oil and confectionery, and to identify the best samples for using in the breeding program as an initial material. The study was done at All-Russia Oil Crops Research Institute (VNIIMK named by V.S. Pustovoit (Krasnodar in 2014 and 2015. Seeds of 6 OP sunflower varieties of VNIIMK breeding were used as a material (confectionery type – Dzhinn, SPK, Lakomka, Oreshek, Borodinskiy and oil-type – Muster. OP-varieties were sown by randomized blocks with 3 replications. Every plot had 4 rows. It was shown that seeds of confectionery sunflower OP-varieties had higher values of main traits (length, width and thickness in comparison with oil-type sunflower. Seed traits analyses allowed identifying the best confectionery samples (Dzhinn and Oreshek for future breeding

  20. The Relationship of Students' Personality Traits and Psychosocial Characteristics with Academic Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munt, Jane A.; Merydith, Scott P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic non-achievers differed from academic achievers in terms of their personal characteristics. A sample of 216 undergraduate students that were either enrolled in a college restoration program or part of a control group were administered the "16PF-5 Personality Questionnaire" (Cattell, Cattell, & Cattell, 1993)…

  1. Associations of the variation in the porcine myogenin gene with muscle fibre characteristics, lean meat production and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J M; Choi, B D; Kim, B C; Park, S S; Hong, K C

    2009-04-01

    Pig breeding is aimed at improving lean meat production ability as well as meat quality, and muscle fibre characteristics may be important for enhancing these traits. Therefore, new molecular markers have been demanded for selecting lean meat production ability and meat quality in live animals. Myogenin belongs to the MyoD gene family, and is a candidate gene responsible for muscle fibre characteristics. We identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site in the 5' upstream region of the myogenin gene (nucleotides C and T). A total of 252 pigs of three breeds were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism using BspCNI. Additionally, they were genotyped for the previously detected MspI site in the 3'-flanking region (alleles A and B). The CCBB diplotype had the highest frequency over breeds, followed by TCBB and CCAB. The other diplotypes were not found in studied pigs. Association analysis performed for the markers found that the TCBB diplotype has desirable effects on the total number of fibres (p lean meat production ability with good meat quality.

  2. Studies on the Morphologic Characteristics and Economic Traits of Different Ploidy Materials of Ramie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chun-geng; CAO Rui-fang; ZHENG Zong-dao; ZHENG Si-xiang; CUI Guo-xian

    2003-01-01

    Different ploidy ramie materials were studied via microscopic observation on stem sections andmacerated fiber cells. Morphologic differences between different ploidy plants were analyzed. Average barkarea percentages in ramie stem transection of hapioids, tetraploids, diploids and triploids were 28.91, 27. 05,26.97 and 24.77 % respectively. Average percentages of fiber layer area of diploids, haploids, tetraploids andtriploids were 16.80, 16.58, 15.52 and 13.78% respectively. Average fiber cell diameter and cell wall thick-ness were increased along with the increase of the ploidy of the plants. Average fiber length of diploids, trip-loids and haploids were 8.49, 7. 96 and 6.93 em respectively. Average L/B (length/breadth) of diploids,triploids and haploids were 2 470.7, 2 390.6 and 1 616.3 respectively. Average breadths of fiber of haploids,diploids and triploids were 29.30, 33. 87 and 49. 20 μm respectively. However, there were relatively largevariations in the above characteristics among the ramie materials of the same ploidy levels. Field performanceof different ploidy plants was also investigated. As the chromosome ploidy increasing, there was a tendency ofdeclining in shoot number per plant and increasing in stem diameter. Average shoots per plant of haploids,diploids, triploids and tetrapioids were 5.83, 5.30, 3.77 and 3.65 whereas their average stem diameters were0.66, 0.67, 0. 74 and 0. 76 cm respectively. Triploids were the tallest, while haploids were the shortest.Triploids had strong growth vigour, diploids and tetraploids had moderate growth vigour, while haploids ap-peared to be lack of growth vigour. Cold stress tolerance of tetraploids were the strongest, diploid had themoderate tolerance, while haploids and triploids were the least tolerant to cold stress. Both haploids and trip-loids were sterile.

  3. Use of Allelopathic Traits of Several Medicinal Plants on Some Germination Characteristics and Early Growth of Wheat and Wild Oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Piraste Anoshe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem pollution and weed resistance to herbicides have led researchers to pay more attention to natural herbicides. To examine allelopathic effects of liquorice, rosemary, chamomile and eucalypt on germination characteristics and early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and wild oat (Avena fatua L., a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with 20 treatments and four replicates was conducted at Cereal Laboratory of College of Agricultural, Shiraz University, Iran in 2010. The results showed that rosemary essential oil had most negative effect on germination percentage (G%, seedling length (SL, radicle length (RL, shoot to root length ratio (S/R, relative water content (RWC and total water content (TWC. The lowest negative effect on G%, SL, RL and TWC was obtained from eucalypt essential oil and the least effect on RWC was observed from liquorice essential oil treatments. Most reduction on S/R was obtained from chamomile essential oil. The effect of stem essential oil on all measured traits, except G%, was more than leaf essential oil. Also wild oat was found to be more responsive than wheat to rosemary and chamomile essential oils. Considering these results, it appeared that control of wild oat by using such essential oil as rosemary and chamomile might be possible under some conditions with appropriate cautions.

  4. Detection of quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 1,2,3,12,14,15, X in pigs: performance characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paixao, D.M.; Carneiro, P.L.S.; Paiva, S.R.; Sousa, K.R.S.; Verardo, L.L.; Braccini Neto, J.; Pinto, A.P.G.; Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Nascimento, C.; Périssé, I.V.; Lopes, P.S.; Guimaraes, S.E.F.

    2013-01-01

    The accomplishment of the present study had the objective of mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) related to performance traits in a F2 pig population developed by mating two Brazilian Piau breed sires with 18 dams from a commercial line (Landrace × Large White × Pietrain). The linkage map for this

  5. Carcass characteristics and meat quality traits of the Padovana chicken breed, a commercial line, and their cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the Padovana Camosciata local chicken breed (PC; n=59, the slow-growing line Berlanda- Gaina (BG; n=62, and their cross (BGxPC; n=57 for carcass and meat quality features. Animals were reared under the same experimental conditions and slaughtered at 3 different ages. An analysis of variance was performed on carcass and meat traits using a linear model that included fixed effects of genotype, sex, age at slaughter, and interactions between them. The PC local breed was approximately 1 kg lighter (P<0.001 at slaughter and exhibited greater dressing percentage (+1.50%; P<0.05 than BG. Breast skin of PC was bluer (-2.74; P<0.001, and breast muscle was darker (-2.65; P<0.001 and redder (+0.48; P<0.001 than that of BG. The pH (+0.16; P<0.001, thawing (+0.90%; P<0.01 and cooking (+2.28%; P<0.001 losses determined on breast muscle were higher for PC than BG. Crossbred animals performed better than the average of BG and PC chickens for breast weight (+22.81 g; P<0.01 and dressing percentage (+1.38%; P<0.05. Breast skin of BGxPC was darker (-1.74; P<0.05, less red (-0.23; P<0.05, and bluer (-1.54; P<0.01 than the average of BG and PC, and breast muscle was more yellow (+0.64; P<0.05 for BGxPC. Cooking losses were lower (-0.99%; P<0.05 for crossbred than the average of BG and PC chickens. Results confirmed the specificity of meat characteristics of PC local breed and demonstrated the potential benefit of crossbreeding to improve production traits of PC breed without compromising the peculiar quality of its meat.

  6. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass characteristics in commercial crossbred pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Miar

    Full Text Available Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch, covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age, random effects (additive, litter and maternal were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n = 9 with meat quality (n = 25 and carcass (n = 19 traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE, ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations.

  7. Effect of feed-related farm characteristics on relative values of genetic traits in dairy cows to reduce greenhouse gas emissions along the chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; Dijkstra, J; Van Arendonk, J A M; De Boer, I J M

    2015-07-01

    Breeding has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farming. Evaluating the effect of a 1-unit change (i.e., 1 genetic standard deviation improvement) in genetic traits on GHG emissions along the chain provides insight into the relative importance of genetic traits to reduce GHG emissions. Relative GHG values of genetic traits, however, might depend on feed-related farm characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed-related farm characteristics on GHG values by comparing the values of milk yield and longevity for an efficient farm and a less efficient farm. The less efficient farm did not apply precision feeding and had lower feed production per hectare than the efficient farm. Greenhouse gas values of milk yield and longevity were calculated by using a whole-farm model and 2 different optimization methods. Method 1 optimized farm management before and after a change in genetic trait by maximizing labor income; the effect on GHG emissions (i.e., from production of farm inputs up to the farm gate) was considered a side effect. Method 2 optimized farm management after a change in genetic trait by minimizing GHG emissions per kilogram of milk while maintaining labor income and milk production at least at the level before the change in trait; the effect on labor income was considered a side effect. Based on maximizing labor income (method 1), GHG values of milk yield and longevity were, respectively, 279 and 143kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/unit change per cow per year on the less efficient farm, and 247 and 210kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the efficient farm. Based on minimizing GHG emissions (method 2), GHG values of milk yield and longevity were, respectively, 538 and 563kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the less efficient farm, and 453 and 441kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the efficient farm. Sensitivity analysis showed that, for both methods, the absolute effect of a

  8. 个体特质推论与行为推论的性别差异%Gender Differences in Characteristics of Trait Inferences and Behavior Inferences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫春平; 申鲁军; 杜卫; 高红丽; 杨世昌

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the gender differences in characteristics of trait inferences and behavior inferences.Methods: The experiment which used Maass' paradigm was carried out in 30 male and 34 female college students.Results: ①Male subjects' recognition accuracy of trait word was lower than female subjects' (P<0.001).②Male subjects' reaction time of trait word and behavior information was longer than female subjects' (P<0.001).③Male subjects' trait inferences were less than female subjects' (P<0.001).④Male subjects' reaction time of trait inferences was longer than female's (P<0.001).Conclusion: Females are better at trait inference than male,but there is no significant gender difference in behavior inference.%目的:探讨个体特质推论与行为推论的性别差异.方法:采用Maass等人提出的反应时研究范式对30名男大学生和34名女大学生进行实验研究.结果:①就信息再认正确率而言,男生对特质词的反应显著低于女生(P<0.001) ;②男生对特质词和行为信息的反应时均显著高于女生(P<0.001);③男生特质推论数量显著低于女生(P<0.001);④在反应时上,男生特质推论显著高于女生(P<0.001).结论:在特质推论方面女生好于男生,行为推论上二者没有差异.

  9. An examination of associations between the inability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and clinical characteristics and trait markers in first-episode, nonaffective psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Ionescu, Dawn F; Broussard, Beth; Cristofaro, Sarah L; Johnson, Stephanie; Haggard, Patrick J; Potts, Amy A; Wan, Claire Ramsay; Walker, Elaine F

    2013-08-30

    Research findings are mixed as to whether or not the inability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) might represent an endophenotypic trait marker for schizophrenia. We hypothesized associations between PTC-tasting status and select clinical characteristics and trait markers in patients with psychotic disorders that, if present, would provide support for the inability to taste PTC as a trait marker. In a first-episode psychosis sample (n=93), we measured PTC tasting, family history of psychosis, age at onset of prodrome and psychosis, severity of positive and negative symptoms, global impairment in functioning, neurological soft signs, and four neurocognitive domains (verbal learning/memory, visual learning/memory, verbal working memory, and spatial working memory). Associations between PTC-non-tasting and clinical/neurocognitive variables were examined with χ(2) tests and independent samples t tests. Among participants, 67.7% tasted PTC in comparison to a strip of control paper, and 25.8% were non-tasters. Tasters and non-tasters did not show statistically significant differences with respect to family history, age at onset, severity of symptoms, neurological soft signs, or the four neurocognitive domains. In conjunction with other findings, it is unlikely that PTC-non-tasting is a trait marker of schizophrenia, though a conclusive study is warranted.

  10. Quantitative trait loci and candidate genes associated with starch pasting viscosity characteristics in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanyasiriwat, T; Sraphet, S; Whankaew, S; Boonseng, O; Bao, J; Lightfoot, D A; Tangphatsornruang, S; Triwitayakorn, K

    2014-01-01

    Starch pasting viscosity is an important quality trait in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars. The aim here was to identify loci and candidate genes associated with the starch pasting viscosity. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for seven pasting viscosity parameters was carried out using 100 lines of an F1 mapping population from a cross between two cassava cultivars Huay Bong 60 and Hanatee. Starch samples were obtained from roots of cassava grown in 2008 and 2009 at Rayong, and in 2009 at Lop Buri province, Thailand. The traits showed continuous distribution among the F1 progeny with transgressive variation. Fifteen QTL were identified from mean trait data, with Logarithm of Odds (LOD) values from 2.77-13.01 and phenotype variations explained (PVE) from10.0-48.4%. In addition, 48 QTL were identified in separate environments. The LOD values ranged from 2.55-8.68 and explained 6.6-43.7% of phenotype variation. The loci were located on 19 linkage groups. The most important QTL for pasting temperature (PT) (qPT.1LG1) from mean trait values showed largest effect with highest LOD value (13.01) and PVE (48.4%). The QTL co-localised with PT and pasting time (PTi) loci that were identified in separate environments. Candidate genes were identified within the QTL peak regions. However, the major genes of interest, encoding the family of glycosyl or glucosyl transferases and hydrolases, were located at the periphery of QTL peaks. The loci identified could be effectively applied in breeding programmes to improve cassava starch quality. Alleles of candidate genes should be further studied in order to better understand their effects on starch quality traits.

  11. Identification of miRNomes in human stomach and gastric carcinoma reveals miR-133b/a-3p as therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yujing; Hu, Zunqi; Yang, Dejun; Wang, Changming; Guo, Meng; Cai, Qingping

    2015-12-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most frequent malignant disease and the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this clinically heterogeneous disease are complex and remain far from completely understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that abnormal microRNA (miRNA) expression is involved in tumorigenesis. However, their accurate expression pattern, function, and mechanism in GC remain unclear. Here, a heatmap analysis of the miRNomes was performed across TCGA datasets and the expression of miR-133 family was found to be consistently downregulated in GC. This result was confirmed in two GC cell lines and 20 pairs of primary GC tissues, and further study demonstrated that the downregulation of miR-133 was mainly mediated by histone modification within its promoter region. Importantly, restoration of miR-133b/a-3p expression could suppress GC cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis by targeting anti-apoptotic molecules Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL. Consistent with in vitro results, reintroducing of miR-133b/a-3p expression significantly delayed tumor formation and reduced tumor size of GC cells in xenograft nude mice. And the inverse relationship between miR-133b/a-3p and its targets was verified in xenograft mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-133b/a-3p acts as a tumor suppressor in GC by directly targeting Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL. Revealing novel mechanism for oncogene inhibition by miRNA-mediated pathways offers new avenues for GC treatment.

  12. The miRnome of Fasciola hepatica juveniles endorses the existence of a reduced set of highly divergent micro RNAs in parasitic flatworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla, Santiago; Dell'Oca, Nicolás; Smircich, Pablo; Tort, José F; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2015-12-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a foodborne zoonotic parasite affecting livestock worldwide, with increasing relevance in human health. The first developmental stage that the host meets after ingestion of the parasite is the newly excysted juvenile, that actively transverses the gut wall and migrates to its final location in the liver. The regulation of the early developmental events in newly excysted juveniles is still poorly understood and a relevant target for control strategies. Here we investigated the putative involvement of small regulatory RNAs in the invasion process. The small RNA population of the newly excysted juvenile fall into two classes, one represented by micro (mi)RNAs and a secondary group of larger (32-33 nucleotides) tRNA-derived sequences. We identified 40 different miRNAs, most of those belonging to ancient miRNAs conserved in protostomes and metazoans, notably with a highly predominant miR-125b variant. Remarkably, several protostomian and metazoan conserved families were not detected in consonance with previous reports of drastic miRnome reduction in parasitic flatworms. Additionally, a set of five novel miRNAs was identified, probably associated with specific gene regulation expression needs in F. hepatica. While sequence conservation in mature miRNA is high across the metazoan tree, we observed that flatworm miRNAs are more divergent, suggesting that mutation rates in parasitic flatworms could be high. Finally, the distinctive presence of tRNA-derived sequences, mostly 5' tRNA halves of selected tRNAs in the small RNA population of newly excysted juveniles, raises the possibility that both miRNA and tRNA fragments participate in the regulation of gene expression in this parasite.

  13. Weighing the Evidence: Likability and Trait Attributions of a Peer as a Function of Behavioral Characteristics, Body Weight, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Used vignettes to investigate children's integration of information on behavior, body weight, and sex when forming peer impressions. Found that positively behaving peers were liked more and attributed more positive traits than negatively behaving peers. Also found that boys, but not girls, believed that peers would evaluate average weight,…

  14. An evaluation of the relations between flow regime components, stream characteristics, species traits and meta-demographic rates of warmwater stream fishes: Implications for aquatic resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James T.; Shea, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Fishery biologists are increasingly recognizing the importance of considering the dynamic nature of streams when developing streamflow policies. Such approaches require information on how flow regimes influence the physical environment and how those factors, in turn, affect species-specific demographic rates. A more cost-effective alternative could be the use of dynamic occupancy models to predict how species are likely to respond to changes in flow. To appraise the efficacy of this approach, we evaluated relative support for hypothesized effects of seasonal streamflow components, stream channel characteristics, and fish species traits on local extinction, colonization, and recruitment (meta-demographic rates) of stream fishes. We used 4 years of seasonal fish collection data from 23 streams to fit multistate, multiseason occupancy models for 42 fish species in the lower Flint River Basin, Georgia. Modelling results suggested that meta-demographic rates were influenced by streamflows, particularly short-term (10-day) flows. Flow effects on meta-demographic rates also varied with stream size, channel morphology, and fish species traits. Small-bodied species with generalized life-history characteristics were more resilient to flow variability than large-bodied species with specialized life-history characteristics. Using this approach, we simplified the modelling framework, thereby facilitating the development of dynamic, spatially explicit evaluations of the ecological consequences of water resource development activities over broad geographic areas. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Immune-spaying as an alternative to surgical spaying in Iberian×Duroc females: effect on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Negrón, Rafael; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Ventanas, Jesús; García, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of immune-spaying on production traits and meat quality characteristics of fresh loin (longissimus dorsi) by comparing 3 groups of Iberian×Duroc females (N=12 per batch): surgically spayed, immune-spayed and entire females. Carcass traits and physicochemical parameters, including fatty acid profile, were investigated. The only carcass trait significantly affected by castration was the ham fat thickness, where both immune-spayed and surgically spayed females showed higher values against entire females (57±9.5mm, 62±2.5mm and 51±10.1mm, respectively; p<0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the quality parameters of fresh meat. These results are important regarding animal welfare, since in Europe, there is a plan to voluntarily end the surgical castration of pigs by 2018. Therefore, with an adequate vaccination protocol, immune-spaying might represent a good alternative to surgical spaying. The reliability of immune-spaying over long periods should be evaluated.

  16. Evaluation of performance characteristics in a diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. II. Carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K; Johnson, M H

    1988-02-01

    Evaluations of steer and heifer progeny from a diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle over 5 yr are presented. Traits evaluated included final weight, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, dressing percentage and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. Progeny of Simmental sires were heavier at slaughter than those with Brahman sires (P less than .05), but no differences were found for carcass weight. Dressing percentage was higher for Limousin crosses compared with progeny of other sire breeds (P less than .05). Similar results were found for dam breeds, except that progeny of Limousin dams had heavier carcasses with a higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) than Brahman crosses. Crosses of Limousin and Simmental had larger ribeye areas (P less than .05) compared with calves of the other breeds. Progeny of Polled Hereford dams had higher marbling scores and were fatter than progeny of dams of other breeds (P less than .05). Heterosis estimates were significant for all Brahman crosses for final weight, carcass weight and ribeye area, but these contrasts were negligible for other traits. Estimates of general combining ability were positive and significant for Simmental for final weight, carcass weight, ribeye area and marbling score and were significant and negative for Limousin for final weight, fat thickness and yield grade. Maternal values were generally small.

  17. Characteristics Expected in Fields of Higher Education and Gender Stereotypical Traits Related to Academic Success: A Mirror Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verniers, Catherine; Martinot, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether the content of a gender stereotype concerning general academic achievement matched the characteristics deemed to predict success in the fields of higher education dominated by women and men respectively. A sample of 207 undergraduate students rated the extent to which characteristics ascribed to…

  18. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Traits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.

  19. The relationship between diaspore characteristics with phylogeny, life history traits, and their ecological adaptation of 150 species from the cold desert of Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Dao-Yuan; Duan, Shi-Min; Wang, Xi-Yong; Song, Ming-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Diaspore characteristics of 22 families, including 102 genera and 150 species (55 represented by seeds and 95 by fruits) from the Gurbantunggut Desert were analyzed for diaspore biological characteristics (mass, shape, color, and appendage type). The diaspore mass and shape were significantly different in phylogeny group (APG) and dispersal syndromes; vegetative periods significantly affected diaspore mass, but not diaspore shape; and ecotypes did not significantly affect diaspore mass and shape, but xerophyte species had larger diaspore mass than mesophyte species. Unique stepwise ANOVA results showed that variance in diaspore mass and shape among these 150 species was largely dependent upon phylogeny and dispersal syndromes. Therefore, it was suggested that phylogeny may constrain diaspore mass, and as dispersal syndromes may be related to phylogeny, they also constrained diaspore mass and shape. Diaspores of 85 species (56.67%) had appendages, including 26 with wings/bracts, 18 with pappus/hair, 14 with hooks/spines, 10 with awns, and 17 with other types of appendages. Different traits (mass, shape, color, appendage, and dispersal syndromes) of diaspore decided plants forming different adapted strategies in the desert. In summary, the diaspore characteristics were closely related with phylogeny, vegetative periods, dispersal syndromes, and ecotype, and these characteristics allowed the plants to adapt to extreme desert environments.

  20. Psychological characteristics and subjective intolerance for xenobiotic agents of normal young adults with trait shyness and defensiveness. A parkinsonian-like personality type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, I R; Schwartz, G E; Amend, D; Peterson, J M; Kaszniak, A W; Miller, C S

    1994-07-01

    The present study examines the psychological characteristics and self-reported responses to xenobiotic agents such as tobacco smoke and pesticide of normal young adults with personality traits similar to those claimed for Parkinsonian patients. Previous research, though controversial, has suggested that persons with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) have premorbid personality traits that may include shyness and repressive defensiveness. Other epidemiological evidence indicates that PD patients may have premorbidly increased prevalence of anxiety, affective, and/or somatoform disorders; decreased rates of smoking and alcohol consumption; and elevated exposure to herbicides or pesticides. A total of 783 college students enrolled in an introductory psychology course completed the Cheek-Buss Scale (shyness), the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (defensiveness), Symptom Checklist 90 (revised), the Mastery Scale, a health history checklist, and rating scales for frequency of illness from alcohol and 10 common environmental chemicals. Subjects were divided into four groups on the basis of above- versus below-median scores on the Cheek-Buss and Marlowe-Crowne scales (persons high in shyness and defensiveness, those high only in shyness, those high only in defensiveness, and those low in both shyness and defensiveness). The group high in shyness but low in defensiveness had the highest, whereas the group low in shyness but high in defensiveness had the lowest, total scores on the SCL-90-R; the two shyest groups were lowest in sense of mastery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Growth performance, carcass traits, physiochemical characteristics and intramuscular fatty acid composition of finishing Japanese black steers fed soybean curd residue and soy sauce cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Kaori; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Takemi; Kumagai, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary soybean curd residue (SCR) and soy sauce cake (SSC) on the growth performance, carcass traits and physiochemical and intramuscular fatty acid (FA) characteristics in Japanese Black steers. Ten steers (29.7 ± 0.3 months old, 856.6 ± 24.4 kg body weight) were assigned to either treatment C, fed a conventional concentrate or T, fed the test diet including dried SCR and SSC for 3 months. In growth performance, dry matter (DM) intake and average daily gain, and carcass traits did not differ significantly between the treatments. Color of beef was affected by the dietary treatments and meat samples from T showed higher a(*) value and chroma than those in C. On FA composition, there was no significant difference between the treatments in neutral lipids, whereas in polar lipids, meat samples from T had higher C16:1 (P < 0.05) and tended to have higher C16:0 (P = 0.05) and C18:1 (P = 0.08), but lower C17:0 (P = 0.098), C18:2 (P = 0.06) and C20:4 (P = 0.07) than those from C. The study suggested that SCR and SSC could be used as a substitute for conventional concentrate and would influence meat color and intramuscular FA composition of polar lipids.

  2. [The application of dermatoglyphics as a method for the characteristic of the personality traits for the purpose of the forensic medical identification expertise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhchenko, A P; Teplov, K V; Nazarova, N E; Nazarov, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The authors report a case of forensic medical expertise demonstrating the potential of the dermatoglyphic technique as a tool for the identification of the personality traits of unknown individuals including their race and ethnic background, biological age, constitutional characteristics, congenital and acquired pathologies and injuries. It was shown that the results of the dermatoglyphic studies agree with and complement the data obtained with the help of a set of traditional forensic medical investigations, such as urological, odontoscopic, and roentgenological ones. An important advantage of the dermatoglyphic techniques is the possibility of their application under conditions when the choice and the use of the alternative methods are limited by the specific features of the objects of forensic medical expertise and the lack of time.

  3. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Hemicellulose Characteristics Based on Cell Wall Composition in a Wild and Cultivated Rice Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Ju Zhang; Xue-Qin Song; Bai-Sheng Yu; Bao-Cai Zhang; Chuan-Qing Sun; J. Paul Knox; Yi-Hua Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Cell wall hemicellulosic polysaccharides are structurally complex and diverse.Knowledge about the synthesisof cell wall hemicelluloses and their biological roles is limited.Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is a helpful tool for the dissection of complex phenotypes for gene identification.In this study,we exploited the natural variation in cell wall monosaccharide levels between a common wild rice,Yuanj,and an elite indica cultivar,Teqing,and performed QTL mapping with their introgression lines (ILs).Chemical analyses conducted on the culms of Yuanj and Teqing showed that the major alterations are found in glucose and xylose levels,which are correlated with specific hemicellulosic polymers.Glycosidic linkage examination revealed that,in Yuanj,an increase in glucose content results from a higher level of mixed linkage β-glucan (MLG),whereas a reduction in xylose content reflects a low level of xylan backbone and a varied arabinoxylan (AX) structure.Seventeen QTLs for monosaccharides have been identified through composition analysis of the culm residues of 95 core ILs.Four major QTLs affecting xylose and glucose levels are responsible for 19 and 21% of the phenotypic variance,respectively.This study provides a unique resource for the genetic dissection of rice cell wall formation and remodeling in the vegetative organs.

  4. A Spatially-Explicit Modeling Approach to Examine the Interaction of Reproductive Traits and Landscape Characteristics on Arctic Shrub Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, A. T.; Cairns, D. M.; Feldman, R. M.; Grant, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    Shrub expansion is one of the most recognized components of terrestrial Arctic change. While experimental work has provided valuable insights into its fine-scale drivers and implications, the contribution of shrub reproductive characteristics to their spatial patterns is poorly understood at broader scales. Building upon our previous work in river valleys in northern Alaska, we developed a C#-based spatially-explicit model that simulates historic landscape-scale shrub establishment between the 1970s and the late 2000s on a yearly time-step while accounting for parameters relating to different reproduction modes (clonal development with and without the "mass effect" and short-distance dispersal), as well as the presence and absence of the interaction of hydrologic constraints using the topographic wetness index. We examined these treatments on floodplains, valley slopes, and interfluves in the Ayiyak, Colville, and Kurupa River valleys. After simulating 30 landscape realizations using each parameter combination, we quantified the spatial characteristics (patch density, edge density, patch size variability, area-weighted shape index, area-weighted fractal dimension index, and mean distance between patches) of the resulting shrub patches on the simulation end date using FRAGSTATS. We used Principal Components Analysis to determine which treatments produced spatial characteristics most similar to those observed in the late 2000s. Based upon our results, we hypothesize that historic shrub expansion in northern Alaska has been driven in part by clonal reproduction with the "mass effect" or short-distance dispersal (sexual reproductive strategy, this model may facilitate predictions regarding future Arctic vegetation patterns.

  5. Analysis of the Traits, Utilizing Characteristics & Rules of Users' Demand for Network Information%网络信息用户需求的特点与利用特征及规律浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宇

    2003-01-01

    The article puts forward the general meaning and traits of users' demand for network information. Mean-while, in order to satisfy the users' demand for network information better, it also analyzes the characteristics and rules of the users in acquiring and utilizing network information.

  6. Cerebellum and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosini, Laura; Cutuli, Debora; Picerni, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Personality traits are multidimensional traits comprising cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics, and a wide array of cerebral structures mediate individual variability. Differences in personality traits covary with brain morphometry in specific brain regions. A cerebellar role in emotional and affective processing and on personality characteristics has been suggested. In a large sample of healthy subjects of both sexes and differently aged, the macro- and micro-structural variations of the cerebellum were correlated with the scores obtained in the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) by Cloninger. Cerebellar volumes were associated positively with Novelty Seeking scores and negatively with Harm Avoidance scores. Given the cerebellar contribution in personality traits and emotional processing, we investigated the cerebellar involvement even in alexithymia, construct of personality characterized by impairment in cognitive, emotional, and affective processing. Interestingly, the subjects with high alexithymic traits had larger volumes in the bilateral Crus 1. The cerebellar substrate for some personality dimensions extends the relationship between personality and brain areas to a structure up to now thought to be involved mainly in motor and cognitive functions, much less in emotional processes and even less in personality individual differences. The enlarged volumes of Crus 1 in novelty seekers and alexithymics support the tendency to action featuring both personality constructs. In fact, Novelty Seeking and alexithymia are rooted in behavior and inescapably have a strong action component, resulting in stronger responses in the structures more focused on action and embodiment, as the cerebellum is.

  7. Assessment of Drying Characteristics and Texture in 
Relation with Micromorphological Traits of Carob 
(Ceratonia silliqua L.) Pods and Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benković, Maja; Srečec, Siniša; Bauman, Ingrid; Ježek, Damir; Karlović, Sven; Kremer, Dario; Karlović, Ksenija; Erhatić, Renata

    2016-12-01

    Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is a perennial leguminous evergreen tree native to the coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin and is considered to be an important component of vegetation for economic and environmental reasons. Two constituents of the pod, pulp and seeds, can be used as feed or in food production. In this study, drying characteristics, texture and microstructure of carob pods were studied. Three different carob samples were prepared: whole carob pod, carob pod parts and carob seed. The drying experiments and the modelling showed that carob seeds had the highest drying rate, followed by pod parts and the whole, intact carob fruit. Texture studies showed that the maximum compression force depended on the area of the carob fruit on which compression tests were performed. The seeds showed the highest compression force, followed by the stem zone, the tip and the centre of the fruit. Differences in drying behaviour and texture of carob pods can successfully be interpreted by the micromorphology of the carob pods and seeds. Determining the drying rate, maximum compressive force and micromorphological traits is of great importance for further carob processing (e.g. milling, sieving, carob bean gum production or usage in food or feed products).

  8. Assessment of Drying Characteristics and Texture in 
Relation with Micromorphological Traits of Carob 
(Ceratonia silliqua L.) Pods and Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benković, Maja; Srečec, Siniša; Ježek, Damir; Karlović, Sven; Kremer, Dario; Karlović, Ksenija; Erhatić, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Summary Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is a perennial leguminous evergreen tree native to the coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin and is considered to be an important component of vegetation for economic and environmental reasons. Two constituents of the pod, pulp and seeds, can be used as feed or in food production. In this study, drying characteristics, texture and microstructure of carob pods were studied. Three different carob samples were prepared: whole carob pod, carob pod parts and carob seed. The drying experiments and the modelling showed that carob seeds had the highest drying rate, followed by pod parts and the whole, intact carob fruit. Texture studies showed that the maximum compression force depended on the area of the carob fruit on which compression tests were performed. The seeds showed the highest compression force, followed by the stem zone, the tip and the centre of the fruit. Differences in drying behaviour and texture of carob pods can successfully be interpreted by the micromorphology of the carob pods and seeds. Determining the drying rate, maximum compressive force and micromorphological traits is of great importance for further carob processing (e.g. milling, sieving, carob bean gum production or usage in food or feed products). PMID:28115900

  9. The effect of lemon grape and apple pulps on performance, carcass traits, digestive tract characteristic, intestinal morphology and immune status of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kivan Sadighi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iran has good condition in fruit production among all countries in the world. Lemon, grape and apple are fruits that are produced in large scale in our country. For economical use of these fruits, there are different factories which produce fruit juices. Pulps are the main waste that remain after juicing fruits. Pulps contain some nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and secondary substances, also in contrast to common diets ingredients, there are very cheap and using them in diets may reduce the production price. As pulps contain high level of fiber, can be easily used without any adverse effects in ruminant, but in poultry, especially in broilers using higher level of pulps may be not possible. However, using low level of pulps do not have any adverse effects on performance and blood parameters and can improve the meat quality and blood biochemical and immune parameters. Moreover discharge of these wastes to environment can cause serious environmental problems. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of lemon, grape and apple pulps on performance, carcass traits, digestive tract characteristic, intestinal morphology and immune status of broilers. Materials and Methods In this experiment 240 Ross-308 broilers were used in 5 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 chicks in each replicate in a completely randomized design. Experimental groups included: 1 control group (without using pulp, 2 group with 150 mg/kg vitamin E (as positive control group, 3 group with 3% lemon pulp, 4 group with 3% grape pulp, 5 group with 3% apple pulp. Grower diets from 11 to 24 days and finisher diets from 25 to 42 days were used by broilers. In the experimental periods all chickens in experimental groups had free accsess to feed and water. The lighting program included: 23 h light and 1 h darkness in all the experimental period.Feed intake and weight gain were measured at the end of growing and finishing and whole periods. Feed conversion

  10. Effect of light-emitting diode vs. fluorescent lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 1 - Operational characteristics of lights and production traits of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Wang, T; Ning, Z; Xin, H

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) lights are becoming more affordable for agricultural applications. Despite many lab-scale studies concerning impact of LED on poultry, little research has been documented under field production conditions, especially for laying hens. This 15-month field study was carried out to evaluate the effects of LED vs. fluorescent (FL) lights on laying hens (Dekalb white breed) using 4 (2 pairs) aviary hen houses each at a nominal capacity of 50,000 hens. The evaluation was done regarding operational characteristics of the lights and hen production traits. The results show that spatial distribution of the LED light was less uniform than that of the FL light. Light intensity of the LED light decreased by 27% after 3,360 h use but remained quite steady from 3,360 to 5,760 h use. Eleven out of 762 (1.44%) LED lamps (new at onset of the study) in the 2 houses failed during the 15-month experiment period. The neck area of the LED lamp was hottest, presumably the primary reason for the lamp failure as cracks were noticed in the neck region of all failed LED lamps. No differences were observed in egg weight, hen-day egg production, feed use, and mortality rate between LED and FL regimens. However, hens under the FL had higher eggs per hen housed and better feed conversion than those under the LED during 20 to 70 wk production (P Hens under the LED tended to have less feather uniformity and insulation than those under the FL (P hens under the LED showed a larger median avoidance distance than those under the FL at 36 wk age (P hens under the LED were more alert; but no difference at 60 wk age. More comparative research to quantify behavioral and production responses of different breeds of hens to LED vs. FL lighting seems warranted.

  11. Meta-analysis on the effects of the physical environment, animal traits, feeder and feed characteristics on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, X; Brossard, L; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Edwards, S A; Meunier-Salaün, M C

    2012-08-01

    A meta-analysis, using information from 45 experiments on growing-finishing pigs published in 39 manuscripts, was carried out to determine the simultaneous effects of the physical environment (space allowance, group size, flooring conditions, temperature, presence of enrichment), pig traits (initial body weight (BW) for each studied time interval, sex, genetics), feeder characteristics (water provision within the feeder, feeder design (individual/collective), feeder places/pig, presence of feeder protection) and feed characteristics (feed allowance (ad libitum/restricted), net energy content, crude protein (CP) content), as well as their potential interactions, on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs. The detrimental effect of low temperature on performance was particularly evident for restricted-fed pigs (P < 0.05). At reduced feeder space allowance, a reduction in the percentage of time spent eating was predicted when increasing initial BW, whereas the opposite was predicted for larger feeder space allowances (P < 0.001). The reduction in visit duration to the feeder in higher BW groups became gradually more important with increasing feeder space allowance (P < 0.01), whereas the increase in the ingestion rate and average daily feed intake (ADFI) with increasing initial BW became smaller with increasing feeder space (P < 0.05). The model predicted a reduction in feed conversion ratio (FCR) with increasing group size (P < 0.05) and floor space allowance (P < 0.01) and on solid floors with or without bedding (P < 0.05). In comparison with other feeders, wet/dry feeders were associated with more frequent but shorter feeder visits (P < 0.05), higher ingestion rates (P < 0.001) and higher ADFI (P < 0.10). The use of protection within individual feeders increased the time spent feeding (P < 0.001), reduced the number of visits per day (P < 0.01), the ingestion rate (P < 0.001) and FCR (P < 0.01) in comparison with other feeder types. Sex

  12. Genome-wide mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for fatness, fat cell characteristics and fat metabolism in three porcine F2 crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartenschlager Heinz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background QTL affecting fat deposition related performance traits have been considered in several studies and mapped on numerous porcine chromosomes. However, activity of specific enzymes, protein content and cell structure in fat tissue probably depend on a smaller number of genes than traits related to fat content in carcass. Thus, in this work traits related to metabolic and cytological features of back fat tissue and fat related performance traits were investigated in a genome-wide QTL analysis. QTL similarities and differences were examined between three F2 crosses, and between male and female animals. Methods A total of 966 F2 animals originating from crosses between Meishan (M, Pietrain (P and European wild boar (W were analysed for traits related to fat performance (11, enzymatic activity (9 and number and volume of fat cells (20. Per cross, 216 (M × P, 169 (W × P and 195 (W × M genome-wide distributed marker loci were genotyped. QTL mapping was performed separately for each cross in steps of 1 cM and steps were reduced when the distance between loci was shorter. The additive and dominant components of QTL positions were detected stepwise by using a multiple position model. Results A total of 147 genome-wide significant QTL (76 at P CAPN6. Additional genome-wide significant QTL were found on SSC8, 12, 13, 14, 16, and 18. In many cases, the QTL are mainly additive and differ between F2 crosses. Many of the QTL profiles possess multiple peaks especially in regions with a high marker density. Sex specific analyses, performed for example on SSC6, SSC7 and SSCX, show that for some traits the positions differ between male and female animals. For the selected traits, the additive and dominant components that were analysed for QTL positions on different chromosomes, explain in combination up to 23% of the total trait variance. Conclusions Our results reveal specific and partly new QTL positions across genetically diverse pig crosses

  13. Meta-analysis on the effects of the physical environment, animal traits, feeder and feed characteristics on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Averos, X.; Brossard, L.; Dourmad, J.Y.; Greef, de K.H.; Edwards, S.A.; Meunier-Salaün, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis, using information from 45 experiments on growing-finishing pigs published in 39 manuscripts, was carried out to determine the simultaneous effects of the physical environment (space allowance, group size, flooring conditions, temperature, presence of enrichment), pig traits (initial

  14. Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Tse, Samson

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale - Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β=0.15, pneuroticism (β=0.15, p<0.001) and extraversion (β=0.10, p<0.01) were significantly associated with social networking addiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs.

  15. Multiyear Multiseasonal Changes in Leaf and Canopy Traits Measured by AVIRIS over Ecosystems with Different Functional Type Characteristics Through the Progressive California Drought 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustin, S.; Roth, K. L.; Huesca, M.; Casas, A.; Adeline, K.; Drewry, D.; Koltunov, A.; Ramirez, C.

    2015-12-01

    Given the known heterogeneity in ecological processes within plant communities in California, we questioned whether the concept of conventional plant functional types (cPFTs) was adequate to characterize the functionality of the dominant species in these communities. We examined seasonal (spring, summer, fall) airborne AVIRIS and MASTER imagery collected during three years of progressive drought in California, and airborne LiDAR acquired once, for ecosystems that represent a wide range of plant functional types, from annual agriculture and herbaceous perennial wetlands, to forests and shrublands, including broadleaf deciduous and evergreen species and conifer species. These data were used to determine the extent to which changes in canopy chemistry could be detected, quantified, and related to leaf and canopy traits that are indicators of physiological functioning (water content, Leaf Mass Area, total C, N, and pigments (chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids). At the canopy scale we measured leaf area index, and for forests — species, height, canopy area, DBH, deciduous or evergreen, broadleaf or needleleaf, and gap size. Strong correlations between leaf and canopy traits were predictable and quantifiable from spectroscopy data. Key structural properties of canopy height, biomass and complexity, a measure of spatial and vertical heterogeneity, were predicted by AVIRIS and validated against LiDAR data. Our data supports the hypothesis that optical sensors provide more detailed information about the distribution and variability in leaf and canopy traits related to plant functionality than cPFTs.

  16. Sickle Cell Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... pass the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  17. THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND WEANING ON LAMB CARCASS TRAITS AND MEAT CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTOCHTHONOUS JEZERSKO-SOLČAVA BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cividini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Jezersko-Solčava lambs were used in a 2X2 factorial design to evaluate the effect of production system (fattening in stable with hay and cereals ad libitum or on the pasture and weaning (suckling or weaned lambs on carcass and meat traits of lambs. Suckling lambs were slaughtered at 125 days of age (30 kg of live weight and weaned lambs were slaughtered at 165 days (38 kg of live weight. No significant differences in daily gain and dressing percentage compared to the production system or weaning were observed. Lambs from pasture had greater percentage of liver, heart and spleen. They had longer and wider carcasses and lower carcass fatness as indicated by lower percentage of kidney fat (1.16 vs. 1.99 and lower percentage of fat in leg than lambs from stable. They also had higher percentage of shoulder and leg and lower percentage of back, loin and rib with flank. Production system also affected meat color. Lambs from pasture had higher CIE L, a and b values of Longissimus dorsi muscle. Mostly, weaning influenced carcass fatness and related traits. Suckling lambs had lower fatness score (4.94 vs. 6.25, lower percentage of kidney fat and fat in leg (8.66 vs. 10.31 and lower percentage of rib with flank than weaned lambs. Meat from suckling lambs was also of lighter colour. There was no significant interaction between production system and weaning on studied carcass or meat traits.

  18. Effects of feeding extruded full-fat cottonseed pellets in place of tallow as a fat source for finishing heifers on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, sensory traits, display color, and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzleni, A M; Froetschel, M A; Pringle, T D

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of supplemental feeding of full-fat extruded cottonseed pellets (FFECS) compared with tallow on carcass characteristics, sensory traits, retail display color, and fatty acid profiles, especially CLA isomers in finishing heifers. Twenty-one Angus heifers (450 ± 5 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 experimental diets: 1) 100% supplemental fat from tallow at 4.1% of ration DM (TAL), 2) a 50:50 ratio of supplemental fat from a combination of tallow at 2.1% and FFECS at 12.8% of ration DM (TAL/ECS), and 3) 100% supplemental fat from FFECS at 25.6% ration DM (ECS). All rations were formulated to contain 7.5% fat on a DM basis. Heifers were individually fed, ad libitum, for 82 d, and BW, G:F, DMI, ADG, and body composition via ultrasound were collected at 3 to 4 wk intervals. After 82 d on feed heifers were slaughtered under federal inspection, and carcass characteristics were measured (at 24 h). The LM was removed for retail display color (1, 3, 6, 10 d), Warner-Bratzler shear force (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 d postmortem aging), sensory analysis (1, 7, 14, 21 d postmortem aging), and fatty acid profile analysis. Subcutaneous fat, including all layers, was removed from the LM for fatty acid profile analysis, and ground beef patties (80:20) were produced with lean from the brisket and fat from the plate for retail color analysis (1, 2, 4, 7 d). Supplemental fat source did not influence feedlot performance for any of the traits measured (P > 0.12) or any carcass traits related to yield, quality, or LM color at the 12th- to 13th-rib interface (P > 0.15). Supplemental fat source did not affect Warner-Bratzler shear force or any sensory traits (P > 0.20), but LM steaks became more tender as postmortem aging time increased up to 14 d (P tallow increased linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6)) in both intramuscular and subcutaneous fat (P 0.90). Full-fat extruded cottonseed pellets are interchangeable with tallow in heifer finishing diets

  19. Spontaneous Trait Inferences on Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates whether spontaneous trait inferences occur under conditions characteristic of social media and networking sites: nonextreme, ostensibly self-generated content, simultaneous presentation of multiple cues, and self-paced browsing. We used an established measure of trait inferences (false recognition paradigm) and a direct assessment of impressions. Without being asked to do so, participants spontaneously formed impressions of people whose status updates they saw. Our results suggest that trait inferences occurred from nonextreme self-generated content, which is commonly found in social media updates (Experiment 1) and when nine status updates from different people were presented in parallel (Experiment 2). Although inferences did occur during free browsing, the results suggest that participants did not necessarily associate the traits with the corresponding status update authors (Experiment 3). Overall, the findings suggest that spontaneous trait inferences occur on social media. We discuss implications for online communication and research on spontaneous trait inferences. PMID:28123646

  20. TRY - a global database of plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattge, J.; Diaz, S.; Lavorel, S.; Prentice, C.; Leadley, P.; Boenisch, G.; Garnier, E.; Westoby, M.; Reich, P. B.; Wright, I. J.; Cornelissen, J. H. C.; Violle, C.; Harrison, S. P.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Reichstein, M.; Enquist, B. J.; Soudzilovskaia, N. A.; Ackerly, D. D.; Anand, M.; Atkin, O.; Bahn, M.; Baker, T. R.; Baldocchi, D.; Bekker, R.; Blanco, C. C.; Blonder, B.; Bond, W. J.; Bradstock, R.; Bunker, D. E.; Casanoves, F.; Cavender-Bares, J.; Chambers, J. Q.; Chapin, F. S.; Chave, J.; Coomes, D.; Cornwell, W. K.; Craine, J. M.; Dobrin, B. H.; Duarte, L.; Durka, W.; Elser, J.; Esser, G.; Estiarte, M.; Fagan, W. F.; Fang, J.; Fernandez-Mendez, F.; Fidelis, A.; Finegan, B.; Flores, O.; Ford, H.; Frank, D.; Freschet, G. T.; Fyllas, N. M.; Gallagher, R. V.; Green, W. A.; Gutierrez, A. G.; Hickler, T.; Higgins, S. I.; Hodgson, J. G.; Jalili, A.; Jansen, S.; Joly, C. A.; Kerkhoff, A. J.; Kirkup, D.; Kitajima, K.; Kleyer, M.; Klotz, S.; Knops, J. M. H.; Kramer, K.; Kuehn, I.; Kurokawa, H.; Laughlin, D.; Lee, T. D.; Leishman, M.; Lens, F.; Lenz, T.; Lewis, S. L.; Lloyd, J.; Llusia, J.; Louault, F.; Ma, S.; Mahecha, M. D.; Manning, P.; Massad, T.; Medlyn, B. E.; Messier, J.; Moles, A. T.; Mueller, S. C.; Nadrowski, K.; Naeem, S.; Niinemets, Ue.; Noellert, S.; Nueske, A.; Ogaya, R.; Oleksyn, J.; Onipchenko, V. G.; Onoda, Y.; Ordonez, J.; Overbeck, G.; Ozinga, W. A.; Patino, S.; Paula, S.; Pausas, J. G.; Penuelas, J.; Phillips, O. L.; Pillar, V.; Poorter, H.; Poorter, L.; Poschlod, P.; Prinzing, A.; Proulx, R.; Rammig, A.; Reinsch, S.; Reu, B.; Sack, L.; Salgado-Negre, B.; Sardans, J.; Shiodera, S.; Shipley, B.; Siefert, A.; Sosinski, E.; Soussana, J. -F.; Swaine, E.; Swenson, N.; Thompson, K.; Thornton, P.; Waldram, M.; Weiher, E.; White, M.; White, S.; Wright, S. J.; Yguel, B.; Zaehle, S.; Zanne, A. E.; Wirth, C.

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits - the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs - determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from spe

  1. Assessment of Drying Characteristics and Texture in 
Relation with Micromorphological Traits of Carob 
(Ceratonia silliqua L.) Pods and Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Benković, Maja; Srečec, Siniša; Bauman, Ingrid; Ježek, Damir; Karlović, Sven; Kremer, Dario; Karlović, Ksenija; Erhatić, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is a perennial leguminous evergreen tree native to the coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin and is considered to be an important component of vegetation for economic and environmental reasons. Two constituents of the pod, pulp and seeds, can be used as feed or in food production. In this study, drying characteristics, texture and microstructure of carob pods were studied. Three different carob samples were prepared: whole carob pod, carob pod parts and ...

  2. Cultural traits as units of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael J; Lyman, R Lee; Mesoudi, Alex; VanPool, Todd L

    2010-12-12

    Cultural traits have long been used in anthropology as units of transmission that ostensibly reflect behavioural characteristics of the individuals or groups exhibiting the traits. After they are transmitted, cultural traits serve as units of replication in that they can be modified as part of an individual's cultural repertoire through processes such as recombination, loss or partial alteration within an individual's mind. Cultural traits are analogous to genes in that organisms replicate them, but they are also replicators in their own right. No one has ever seen a unit of transmission, either behavioural or genetic, although we can observe the effects of transmission. Fortunately, such units are manifest in artefacts, features and other components of the archaeological record, and they serve as proxies for studying the transmission (and modification) of cultural traits, provided there is analytical clarity over how to define and measure the units that underlie this inheritance process.

  3. Traits traded off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueffler, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness la

  4. Characteristics and Relationships of Foliar Water and Leaf Functional Traits of Desert Plants%荒漠植物叶片水分和功能性状特征及其相互关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李善家; 苏培玺; 张海娜; 周紫鹃; 解婷婷

    2013-01-01

    Selected 14 dominant desert plant species in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, and 8 foliar water and leaf functional traits including stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C), total water content (TWO), relative water content (RWC), dry weight water content (DWWC), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf water potential (LWP), specific leaf area (SLA) and specific leaf volume (SLV) were measured, studying on the characteristics and relationships of leaf functional traits of desert plants, and finding typical and crucial leaf functional traits which reflect plant adaptations to the harsh environment. The present results showed that foliar δ13C values of C4 plants ranged from -18%~15‰, including Salsola passerina, Haloxylon ammodendron and Calligo-num mongolicum, and foliar δ13C values of the other C3 plants ranged from -29‰~24‰. Among them, δ13C values of Hedysarum scoparium and Reaumuria soongorica exhibited the minimum and maximum values of -28.34‰and -24.63‰, respectively. The relationship between the traits obtained from C3 plants revealed that SLV was significantly negatively correlated with LDMC (P<0.0l), and positively correlated with TWC and DWWC (P<0.01). SLA was negatively correlated with LDMC (P=0.02), and δ13C was negatively correlated with LWP (P<0.01). SLV may serve as a key index of the characteristics of leaf traits of desert plants. Both the characteristics of leaf water content and functional traits and the responses to habitats demonstrate ecological strategies and adaptive ways of desert plants.%选取黑河流域中游荒漠区14种优势植物,测定了8个叶片水分与功能性状指标:稳定碳同位素组成(δ13C)、总含水量(TWC)、相对含水量(RWC)、干重含水量(DWWC)、叶干物质含量(LDMC)、叶片水势(LWP)、比叶面积(SLA)、比叶体积(SLV),探讨荒漠植物叶片水分与功能性状的特征以及相互之间的内在联系,探寻反映荒漠植物适应严酷环境的典型

  5. 慢性颈腰痛患者社会支持和人格特征对心理状况影响%Influence of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic of patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫杰; 赵平; 陈立君; 秦慧卿; 施旺红; 郭伟; 甄鹰

    2012-01-01

    Objective :To explore the effects of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic of patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia and improve the level of diagnosis and treatment. Methods: From August 2009 to April 2010,231 patients (obtained 217 effective responses) with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia were recruited. Among the patients,there were 123 males and 94 females,with an average age of (38.00±5.67) years (ranged from 15 to 66 years). Social Support Rating Scale(SSRS) .Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used to test social support and psychological characteristic and compared the difference of psychological, personality traits and norm,then analyzed the effect of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic. Re-sultS:Two hundred and seventeen (93.9%) patients completed the questionnaire. Compared with normal 16PF scores,there were significant differences in factor scores of intelligence,stability,excitability,perseverance,social boldness,vigilance,sophistication , experimental, independenceand tonicity (P<0.01). And for SCL-90, the score of somatization, depression, anxiety,rivah-ounsness,horror,bigotry,total score and mean score were higher than norm (P<0.01). For SSRS,subjective support points and total points had positive effects;While intelligence,stability,perseverance,self-discipline had positive effects,vigilance and anxiety had negative effects. Conclusion:There were significant differences in personality traits and psychological characteristic between patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia and norms. Improving social support level and optimizing personality traits can improve psychological profile of these patients.%目的:研究慢性颈腰痛患者社会支持和人格特征对心理状况的影响,提高慢性颈腰痛整体诊治水平.方法:2009年8月至2010年4月,将231例慢性颈腰

  6. FishTraits Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  7. Try-A Global Database of Plant Traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Peter E [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world s 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in

  8. Research on the Interactive Impact of Knowledge Capital and Characteristic Trait on Organizational Performance%知识资本与性格特质对企业绩效的交互作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻登科; 肖欢; 彭静; 薄秋实

    2016-01-01

    企业作为一个有机实体,拥有独立的知识构成和性格特质,两者均为企业竞争优势的源泉.然而,目前关于二者交互作用于企业绩效的研究鲜见.以我国内地30家上市公司为样本,将回归分析与双因素分析法相结合,探索性地使用财务与治理数据研究知识资本、企业性格与企业绩效的关系,同时测量二者在驱动绩效提高过程中的交互作用,得出结论:知识资本中的人力资本与性格特质中的股东态度、员工感受、社会责任等均对企业绩效有正向影响,且大部分知识资本要素与性格特质要素之间存在显著的交互作用;企业组织可通过调节知识资本与性格特质的投资组合,利用二者交互影响来提升企业绩效.这为知识资本与性格特质协同治理思想的提出提供了启示,也为企业经营管理实践提供了一种新的理论指导.%As an organic entity ,enterprise has independent knowledge structure and characteristic traits ,both of which are the source of competitive advantage .However ,there are few studies about interaction effect between the two .This paper takes 30 listed companies as samples ,combining the regression analysis and two-way analysis methods ,to study the rela-tionship between them two on the enterprise performance exploratory using financial and governance data ,and meanwhile measure the interaction effect of them two in the process of driving enterprise performance improvement .It is mainly con-cluded that both human capital and shareholder attitudes ,feeling of employees and social responsibility have a positive im-pact on corporate performance ,and there is significant interaction effect between the majority of knowledge capital factors and characteristic trait factors .Enterprise can improve their performance by adjusting investment combination of them two .It provides inspiration for the idea of collaborative governance of the two factors and also provides a new

  9. Statistics Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Learning Behavior, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…

  10. Trait-based ecological risk assessment (TERA): the New Frontier?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, D.J.; Rubach, M.N.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Traits describe the physical characteristics, ecological niche, and functional role of species within ecosystems, and trait-based approaches are now being introduced into the field of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA). The costs and benefits arising from the adoption of these approaches in the assess

  11. Characteristics of Dissociative Trait in Medlical College Students and Its Relationship with Childhood Abuse%儿童期受虐医学生分离特质的特点及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱相华; 李娇; 乔娟; 赵后锋; 杨永杰; 耿德勤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of dissociative trait in medical college students and its relationship with childhood abuse.Methods Through stratified sampling,262 medical college students were investigated by Personal Report of Childhood Abuse (PRCA),Dissociative Trait Scale(DTS),Self-Rating Feeling of Insecurity Scale(SRFIS),Revised NEO Five-Factor Inventory(NEO-FFI-R) ,Defense Style Questionnaire ( DSQ) ,Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale( SES) ,General self-efficacy scale( GSES) and Social Population Economics Scale.Results Compared with no-abused students,the abused students had significantly higher total and factor scores of DTS(t=2.609~3.860,P<0.01).The DTS scores of students were related positively with physical abuse,emotional abuse, sexual abuse,neglect abuse,neuroticism,insecurity,immature defense style,middle defense style and the covering factor of defense style (r=0.13~0.69,P<0.05),negatively with extraversion,openness,agreeableness,conscientiousness,self-esteem and general self-ef-ficacy (r=-0.13~-0.56,P<0.05).Stepwise regression showed that the dissociative trait was predicted positively by immature defense style,insecurity,childhood abuse and neuroticism (Beta=0.093 ~0.463,P<0.05),negatively by extraversion,openness,conscien-tiousness and general self -efficacy (Beta =-0.099 ~-0.381,P <0.05).Conclusion The dissociative trait of medical college students is influenced by childhood abuse,immature defense style,insecurity and personality.%目的:研究儿童期受虐待医学生分离特质的特点及其影响因素。方法采用整群抽样法,对262名医学生进行儿童期虐待史自评量表( PRCA)、解离特质量表( DTS)、不安全感心理自评量表( SRFIS)、简式大五人格问卷( NEO-FFI-R)、防御方式问卷( DSQ)、自尊量表( SES)、一般自我效能感量表( GSES)、人口社会经济学资料调查问卷等测试。结果儿童期受虐待医学生的分离特质总分和各维度分

  12. Latent Trait Estimation: Theory vs. Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakowski, Donald

    Empirical results are presented as regards the implementation of a latent-trait psychometric model by means of conditional maximum likelihood estimation. Items are scored polychotomously into varying numbers of nominal categories and the test and item characteristic curves and information functions are examined. It is concluded that scoring items…

  13. Same Traits, Different Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie S. Churchyard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Personality trait questionnaires are regularly used in individual differences research to examine personality scores between participants, although trait researchers tend to place little value on intra-individual variation in item ratings within a measured trait. The few studies that examine variability indices have not considered how they are related to a selection of psychological outcomes, so we recruited 160 participants (age M = 24.16, SD = 9.54 who completed the IPIP-HEXACO personality questionnaire and several outcome measures. Heterogenous within-subject differences in item ratings were found for every trait/facet measured, with measurement error that remained stable across the questionnaire. Within-subject standard deviations, calculated as measures of individual variation in specific item ratings within a trait/facet, were related to outcomes including life satisfaction and depression. This suggests these indices represent valid constructs of variability, and that researchers administering behavior statement trait questionnaires with outcome measures should also apply item-level variability indices.

  14. Personality traits and personal values: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks-Leduc, Laura; Feldman, Gilad; Bardi, Anat

    2015-02-01

    Personality traits and personal values are important psychological characteristics, serving as important predictors of many outcomes. Yet, they are frequently studied separately, leaving the field with a limited understanding of their relationships. We review existing perspectives regarding the nature of the relationships between traits and values and provide a conceptual underpinning for understanding the strength of these relationships. Using 60 studies, we present a meta-analysis of the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits and the Schwartz values, and demonstrate consistent and theoretically meaningful relationships. However, these relationships were not generally large, demonstrating that traits and values are distinct constructs. We find support for our premise that more cognitively based traits are more strongly related to values and more emotionally based traits are less strongly related to values. Findings also suggest that controlling for personal scale-use tendencies in values is advisable.

  15. TRY – a global database of plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattge, J.; Lens, F.

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from spe

  16. Power and Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  17. Power and Autistic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Overskeid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness -- and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits

  18. High trait anger is hypothesized to be the main personality characteristics and important pathogenic condition for anger induced diseases%“易怒”应为怒致病的主要个性特征和重要发病条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文燕; 乔明琦

    2012-01-01

    Through document analysis, high trait anger as the hazard factor for the occurrence of many diseases was proposed. The high trait anger should be the main personality characteristics and important pathogenic condition for anger induced diseases. It is expected to find out more effective treatment and prevention pathways for anger induced diseases.%通过对古今文献的探讨,提出“易怒”是多种疾病发生的危险因素、易怒应为怒致病的主要个性特征和重要发病条件,以期为怒致病寻找更为有效的治疗和预防途径.

  19. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-09-30

    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder.

  20. Evaluating Callous-Unemotional Traits as a Personality Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J; Ray, James V

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the importance of callous-unemotional (CU) traits as a personality construct in isolation from other facets of psychopathy. Specifically, we review research suggesting that these traits are useful for designating a subgroup of youth with serious conduct problems who differ from other antisocial youth on important biological, emotional, cognitive, and social characteristics. In addition, the temperamental features related to CU traits are risk factors for impairments in conscience development in young children. Thus, these traits could advance theoretical models explaining the development of severe antisocial behavior and psychopathy. CU traits also have important clinical utility because they designate a particularly severe and impaired subgroup of antisocial youth, leading to their inclusion in the DSM-5. As a result of this inclusion in diagnostic classification, there has been an increased focus on how to best assess CU traits, and we discuss several key issues in their assessment, highlighting several limitations in existing measures. Finally, the increased use of CU traits, separately from other facets of psychopathy, makes it important to determine how these traits relate to other personality constructs. Thus, we examine how measures of CU traits relate to the broader construct of psychopathy and to other basic personality dimensions.

  1. Relationship of Leaf Photosynthetic Characteristics and Root Physiological Traits with Grain Yield in Super Rice%超级稻叶片光合特性和根系生理性状与产量的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付景; 陈露; 黄钻华; 王志琴; 杨建昌

    2012-01-01

    为阐明超级稻产量形成机制,以4个超级稻品种[两优培九和Ⅱ优084(杂交籼稻)、淮稻9号和武粳15(粳稻)]为材料,2个高产品种[汕优63(杂交籼稻)和扬辐粳8号(粳稻)]为对照,观测了不同生育时期叶片光合性状和根系生理性状的变化特点.结果表明,4个超级稻品种的平均总颖花量和产量较两个对照品种分别高出43.5%和16.1%,但超级稻的结实率较对照品种低15.3个百分点.超级稻品种在生育前期叶片中叶绿素a含量、叶绿素b含量、总叶绿索含量、类胡萝卜素含量、光合速率、蒸腾速率、气孔导度和根系中单位干重根系活力、每株根系活力、总根系吸收面积、活跃吸收面积和比表面积均高于对照品种,而在生育后期以上性状指标下降速率大于各自对照品种,直至齐穗后20 d前以上性状指标均小于各自对照品种.说明超级稻强大的产量库容与其生育前中期较强的叶片光合能力和较好的根系生理性状密切相关,生育后期叶片光合能力和根系生理活性下降快导致其结实率下降,从而限制了其产量潜力的发挥.提高生育后期特别是结实后期根系生理活性是进一步提高超级稻产量的重要途径.%The success in super rice breeding has been considered as a great progress in rice production in China. This study aimed to understand the mechanism underlying the yield formation of super rice. Four super rice cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu and Ilyou 084 (indica hybrids), Huaidao 9 and Wujing 15 (japonica), and two elite check cultivars, Shanyou 63 (Mica hybrids) and Yangfujing 8 (japonica), were grown in field. Leaf photosynthetic characteristics and root physiological traits were investigated at different growth stages. The results showed that average total spilcelet number and grain yield of the four super rice cultivars were 43.5% and 16.1%, respectively, more than those of two elite check cultivars, but the seed

  2. Multivariate identification of plant functional response and effect traits in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakeman, Robin J

    2011-06-01

    Plant functional traits have been proposed as a linkage between the environmental control of vegetation and ecosystem function. Identification of traits that mediate the response of plant species to the environment is well established, but the identification of effect traits and the linkage between the two sets is less developed. This was attempted for a study of eight contrasting land uses in a marginal agricultural landscape where data on vegetation, management controls of the disturbance regime, and soil characteristics, including nitrogen release, were measured simultaneously with measures of ecosystem function such as litter decomposition rates and primary productivity on 30 sites. Trait data were assembled from databases, and an iterative multivariate approach using the three table (species, trait, environment) method RLQ was employed to identify a parsimonious set of traits that predict plant species responses to the environment and a parsimonious set of traits that link vegetation to ecosystem function. The lists of response and effect traits were similar, and where differences were observed, traits were usually highly correlated with at least one trait in the other list. This approach identified a small number of traits (canopy height, leaf dry matter content, leaf size, and specific leaf area) that provide a means of linking vegetation responses to environmental change with changes in ecosystem function. Other response traits included vegetative spread strategy, start of flowering, and seed terminal velocity, but within the system studied these traits were all significantly correlated to the traits shared between the response and effect lists.

  3. TRY – a global database of plant traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattge, J.; Diaz, S.; Lavorel, S.

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from...... characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log‐normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation...... is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs...

  4. Polytraits: A database on biological traits of marine polychaetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Faulwetter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of ecosystem functioning – the role which organisms play in an ecosystem – is becoming increasingly important in marine ecological research. The functional structure of a community can be represented by a set of functional traits assigned to behavioural, reproductive and morphological characteristics. The collection of these traits from the literature is however a laborious and time-consuming process, and gaps of knowledge and restricted availability of literature are a common problem. Trait data are not yet readily being shared by research communities, and even if they are, a lack of trait data repositories and standards for data formats leads to the publication of trait information in forms which cannot be processed by computers. This paper describes Polytraits (http://polytraits.lifewatchgreece.eu, a database on biological traits of marine polychaetes (bristle worms, Polychaeta: Annelida. At present, the database contains almost 20,000 records on morphological, behavioural and reproductive characteristics of more than 1,000 marine polychaete species, all referenced by literature sources. All data can be freely accessed through the project website in different ways and formats, both human-readable and machine-readable, and have been submitted to the Encyclopedia of Life for archival and integration with trait information from other sources.

  5. Personality Traits and Administrators

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha V

    2008-01-01

    Administration is the art of getting tasks done by utilizing the resources and coordinating the people. Administrators give trigger to the administration by coordinating, and directing all parts of an organization by managing the tangible and intangible resources of the organization. The qualities of leadership are therefore a critical determinant of organizational success. The theories of leadership (Trait to Transformational leadership theory) have strived to look into the aspects that make...

  6. Thalassaemia trait and pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    The haematological variables, haematinic state, and placental function of more than 2000 pregnant women, heterozygous for either alpha- or beta-thalassaemia genes, were examined during pregnancy. Four features emerged. Firstly, it was possible by discriminant function analysis of haematological variables to distinguish in pregnant patients between the anaemia caused by thalassaemia trait and that caused by iron deficiency. Secondly, patients with thalassaemia become significantly more anaemic...

  7. Evolutionary changes in correlations among functional traits in Ceanothus in response to Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Hardig

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceanothus is a widely speciated genus with two sections that differ markedly in size, patterns of biomass allocation and reproductive strategies. On greenhouse-grown seedlings we tested whether divergence occurred in single traits or in suites of traits, and whether taxonomic affinity or the ability to fix nitrogen (N influenced the relationships among functional traits. Species of the subgenus Cerastes differed from species in the subgenus Ceanothus in the following characteristics: reproduction by seed rather than primarily resprouting, high rates of photosynthesis and high stomatal conductance, thick leaves, low root allocation, and high leaf allocation. Correlations of traits across the entire genus showed positive correlations among traits that maximize photosynthesis and tradeoffs between root allocation and carbon gain patterns frequently observed in other broad taxonomic comparisons. Trait correlations differed between the two subgenera (divergence in allocation-photosynthesis tradeoffs in Ceanothus and divergence of growth-related traits in Cerastes. Similarly, N-fixers, which were distributed broadly between the two subgenera, differed in trait correlations (primarily among traits related to photosynthesis from non-fixers (primarily among traits related to growth and allocation. These results indicate that 1 divergence in genus Ceanothus was associated with changes in entire suite of traits, rather than independent changes in individual traits and 2 evolution occurring under different environmental or nutritional circumstances alters the suites of traits exhibited by plants.

  8. The analysis of association between traits when differences between trait States matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorius, Hans-Rolf

    2011-12-01

    Because of their elementary significance in almost all fields of science, measures of association between two variables or traits are abundant and multiform. One aspect of association that is of considerable interest, especially in population genetics and ecology, seems to be widely ignored. This aspect concerns association between complex traits that show variable and arbitrarily defined state differences. Among such traits are genetic characters controlled by many and potentially polyploid loci, species characteristics, and environmental variables, all of which may be mutually and asymmetrically associated. A concept of directed association of one trait with another is developed here that relies solely on difference measures between the states of a trait. Associations are considered at three levels: between individual states of two variables, between an individual state of one variable and the totality of the other variable, and between two variables. Relations to known concepts of association are identified. In particular, measures at the latter two levels turn out to be interpretable as measures of differentiation. Examples are given for areas of application (search for functional relationships, distribution of variation over populations, genomic associations, spatiogenetic structure).

  9. Is Variability in Mate Choice Similar for Intelligence and Personality Traits? Testing a Hypothesis about the Evolutionary Genetics of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Emily A.; Shackelford, Todd K.; Buss, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis presented by Penke, Denissen, and Miller (2007a) that condition-dependent traits, including intelligence, attractiveness, and health, are universally and uniformly preferred as characteristics in a mate relative to traits that are less indicative of condition, including personality traits. We analyzed…

  10. Contrasting effects of intraspecific trait variation on trait-based niches and performance of legumes in plant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Schmid, Bernhard; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Niche differentiation, assumed to be a key mechanism of species coexistence, requires that species differ in their functional traits. So far it remains unclear to which extent trait plasticity leads to niche shifts of species at higher plant diversity, thereby increasing or decreasing niche overlap between species. To analyse this question it is convenient to measure niches indirectly via the variation in resource-uptake traits rather than directly via the resources used. We provisionally call these indirectly measured niches trait-based niches. We studied shoot- and leaf-morphological characteristics in seven legume species in monoculture and multi-species mixture in experimental grassland. Legume species varied in the extent of trait variation in response to plant diversity. Trait plasticity led to significant shifts in species niches in multiple dimensions. Single-species niches in several traits associated with height growth and filling of canopy space were expanded, while other niche dimensions were compressed or did not change with plant diversity. Niche separation among legumes decreased in dimensions related to height growth and space filling, but increased in dimensions related to leaf size and morphology. The total extent of occupied niche space was larger in mixture than in the combined monocultures for dimensions related to leaf morphology and smaller for dimensions related to whole-plant architecture. Taller growth, greater space filling and greater plasticity in shoot height were positively, while larger values and greater plasticity in specific leaf area were negatively related with increased performance of species in mixture. Our study shows that trait variation in response to plant diversity shifts species niches along trait axes. Plastically increased niche differentiation is restricted to niche dimensions that are apparently not related to size-dependent differences between species, but functional equivalence (convergence in height growth) rather

  11. Personality Traits and Social Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    During many decades, sociologists have downplayed the role that personality traits play in shaping individual’s lives. However, recent studies, mostly in economics, have shown the influence of these traits on a several educational and occupational outcomes. This thesis is an attempt to shed more light on this topic. By using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, it first investigates how the Big Five personality traits affect two important labor market outcomes: unemployment...

  12. Automatic prediction of facial trait judgments: appearance vs. structural models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rojas

    Full Text Available Evaluating other individuals with respect to personality characteristics plays a crucial role in human relations and it is the focus of attention for research in diverse fields such as psychology and interactive computer systems. In psychology, face perception has been recognized as a key component of this evaluation system. Multiple studies suggest that observers use face information to infer personality characteristics. Interactive computer systems are trying to take advantage of these findings and apply them to increase the natural aspect of interaction and to improve the performance of interactive computer systems. Here, we experimentally test whether the automatic prediction of facial trait judgments (e.g. dominance can be made by using the full appearance information of the face and whether a reduced representation of its structure is sufficient. We evaluate two separate approaches: a holistic representation model using the facial appearance information and a structural model constructed from the relations among facial salient points. State of the art machine learning methods are applied to a derive a facial trait judgment model from training data and b predict a facial trait value for any face. Furthermore, we address the issue of whether there are specific structural relations among facial points that predict perception of facial traits. Experimental results over a set of labeled data (9 different trait evaluations and classification rules (4 rules suggest that a prediction of perception of facial traits is learnable by both holistic and structural approaches; b the most reliable prediction of facial trait judgments is obtained by certain type of holistic descriptions of the face appearance; and c for some traits such as attractiveness and extroversion, there are relationships between specific structural features and social perceptions.

  13. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Endosperm Traits with Molecular Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chen-wu; LI Tao; SUN Chang-sen; GU Shi-liang

    2002-01-01

    Based on the genetic models for triploid endosperm traits and on the methods for mapping diploid quantitative traits loci (QTLs), the genetic constitutions, components of means and genetic variances of QTL controlling endosperm traits under flanking marker genotypes of different generations were presented. From these results, a multiple linear regression method for mapping QTL underlying endosperm traits in cereals was proposed, which used the means of endosperm traits under flanking marker genotypes as a dependent variable, the coefficient of additive effect ( d ) and dominance effect ( h 1 and/or h2 ) of a putative QTL in a given interval as independent variables. This method can work at any position in a genome covered by markers and increase the estimation precision of QTL location and their effects by eliminating the interference of other relative QTLs. This method can also be easily used in other uneven data such as markers and quantitative traits detected or measured in plants and tissues different either in generations or at chromosomal ploidy levels, and in endosperm traits controlled by complicated genetic models considering the effects produced by genotypes of both maternal plants and seeds on them.

  14. Quantitative trait loci underlying udder morphology traits in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J J

    2008-09-01

    A genome scan was conducted on the basis of the daughter design to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing udder morphology traits in Spanish Churra dairy sheep. A total of 739 ewes belonging to 11 half-sib families were genotyped for 182 microsatellite markers covering 3,248.2 cM (Kosambi) of the ovine autosomal genome. Phenotypic traits included scores for 5 linear udder traits: udder depth, udder attachment, teat placement, teat size, and udder shape. Quantitative measurements for the QTL analysis were calculated for each trait from evaluation scores using within-family yield deviations corrected for fixed environmental effects. Joint analysis of all families using Haley-Knott regression identified 5 regions that exceeded the 5% chromosome-wise significance threshold on chromosomes 7, 14, 15, 20, and 26. Based on the across-family results, a within-family analysis was carried out to identify families segregated according to the QTL and to estimate the QTL effect. The allelic substitution effect for individual families ranged from 0.47 to 1.7 phenotypic standard deviation units for udder shape on chromosome 15 and udder depth on chromosome 14, respectively. These QTL regions provide a starting point for further research aimed at the characterization of genetic variability involved in udder traits in Churra sheep. This paper presents the first report of a sheep genome scan for udder-related traits in a dairy sheep outbred population.

  15. Quantitative trait loci underlying milk production traits in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J-J

    2009-08-01

    Improvement of milk production traits in dairy sheep is required to increase the competitiveness of the industry and to maintain the production of high quality cheese in regions of Mediterranean countries with less favourable conditions. Additional improvement over classical selection could be reached if genes with significant effects on the relevant traits were specifically targeted by selection. However, so far, few studies have been undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) in dairy sheep. In this study, we present a complete genome scan performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to identify chromosomal regions associated with phenotypic variation observed in milk production traits. Eleven half-sib families, including a total of 1213 ewes, were analysed following a daughter design. Genome-wise multi-marker regression analysis revealed a genome-wise significant QTL for milk protein percentage on chromosome 3. Eight other regions, localized on chromosomes 1, 2, 20, 23 and 25, showed suggestive significant linkage associations with some of the analysed traits. To our knowledge, this study represents the first complete genome scan for milk production traits reported in dairy sheep. The experiment described here shows that analysis of commercial dairy sheep populations has the potential to increase our understanding of the genetic determinants of complex production-related traits.

  16. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Freshwater Biological Traits Database. This report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biological traits. The database combines several existing traits databases into an online format. The database is also...

  17. Quantitative Trait Loci for Fertility Traits in Finnish Ayrshire Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S

    2008-01-01

    A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate...... if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments...

  18. State Dependence and Trait Stability of Perfectionism: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Aldea, Mirela A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined state dependency on depression, trait stability, and state-trait characteristics of perfectionism in a short-term longitudinal study of university students. Relative stability of perfectionism was assessed with test-retest correlations across 3 time points, and results showed higher rank order and relative stability for…

  19. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  20. The construction of a joint taxonomy of traits and situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berge, Maarten; De Raad, B.

    2001-01-01

    This study implements the first steps to be taken in the Construction of a taxonomy of situations front a trait psychological perspective. Taking the AB(5)C model of personality characteristics (De Raad et al., 1992) as a point of departure, a collection of situations that is linked to the personali

  1. The Impact of Vision Loss on Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Koustriava, Eleni; Charalampidou, Maria; Gerapostolou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the differences in personality traits amongst adults with blindness, adults with low vision and sighted adults. Moreover, the relationship between the four scales of Eysenck's personality questionnaire and the demographic characteristics of participants with visual impairments was examined. There are no…

  2. Perceived Personality Traits of Individuals with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Jessica E.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prior research has found evidence of a general negative personality stereotype for individuals who have anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods: This study examined the expected personality characteristics of individuals with AN using the Five-Factor Model of personality to allow identification of specific personality traits that are part of…

  3. Authoritarian Personality Traits Among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of an investigation into the social attitudes of the total population (800) of one English university using Adorno's F scale to measure authoritarian personality traits. (Author)

  4. Forming impressions from incongruent traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselden, P A; Hampson, S E

    1990-08-01

    The factors that affect the ease with which impressions are formed from incongruent trait pairs are investigated. In Experiments 1 and 2, trait pairs that were both descriptively and evaluatively congruent, as well as ones that were only evaluatively congruent, were found to be more imaginable and to be perceived as more frequently co-occurring than incongruent trait pairs. In Experiment 3, response latency provided a converging measure of ease of imaginability. Experiment 4 examined written descriptions of targets described by these trait pairs, and found more attempts to integrate the congruent than the incongruent pairs. These findings are discussed in terms of the relation between laypersons' impressions of personality and formal personality assessment.

  5. Genetic diversity analysis of fruit characteristics of hawthorn germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, K; Guo, Y S; Wang, G; Zhao, Y H; Dong, W X

    2015-12-07

    One hundred and six accessions of hawthorn intraspecific resources, from the National Germplasm Repository at Shenyang, were subjected to genetic diversity and principal component analysis based on evaluation data of 15 fruit traits. Results showed that the genetic diversity of hawthorn fruit traits varied. Among the 15 traits, the fruit shape variable coefficient had the most obvious evaluation, followed by fruit surface state, dot color, taste, weight of single fruit, sepal posture, peduncle form, and metula traits. These are the primary traits by which hawthorn could be classified in the future. The principal component demonstrated that these traits are the most influential factors of hawthorn fruit characteristics.

  6. 地形和土壤特性对亚热带常绿阔叶林内植物功能性状的影响%Effects of topographic variations and soil characteristics on plant functional traits in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁佳; 吴茜; 闫慧; 张守仁

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the driving factors behind plant functional traits, especially in mountainous areas, we explored how variation in topography and soil characteristics affects ecophysiological and morphological traits of woody plants within the Gutianshan 24-ha plot in Zhejiang Province. This site is in a typical subtropical broad-leaved forest. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, we measured three ecophysiological traits (chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fy/Fro and PIABS, and stem sapwood xylem specific hydraulic conductivity) and four morphological traits (stomata density, specific leaf area, leaf thickness, and ratio of leaf length to leaf width) among 115 woody species in the field. Redundancy analysis was conducted to identify the most influential environmental factors from our topographical factors (mean elevation, convexity, slope, and aspect) and five soil parameters (moisture, total nitrogen content, total phosphorus content, total carbon content, and pH). Leaf chlorophyll content was negatively correlated with elevation and convexity, but positively correlated with soil moisture and total nitrogen content. The two chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm and PlABS) were strongly negatively correlated with soil total nitrogen and phosphorus content; these variables were likely interrelated with low soil pH values. Stem sapwood xylem specific hydraulic conductivity was positively correlated with soil moisture and specific leaf area was positively correlated with elevation. Topographical variables explained 10.4% of total variation in functional traits;mean elevation was the most powerful explanatory variable, followed by convexity, slope and finally, aspect.Soil parameters explained 13.9% of the total functional trait variation; and soil moisture was the most powerful factor, followed by total nitrogen content, pH value, total phosphorous content, total carbon content and the ratio of nitrogen and phosphorous. At this scale and at

  7. 苏打盐碱稻区东稻4、长白9生育特性及穗部性状比较研究%The Comparative Study on Growth and Development Characteristics and Panicle Traits in Saline-alkaline Soil of Rice Dongdao 4 and Changbai 9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左静红; 李景鹏; 杨福

    2013-01-01

    Rice varieties of Dongdao 4 and Changbai 9 were used to study the growth and development charac-teristics and panicle traits planted in saline-alkaline soil.The results showed that,compared with Changbai 9,which is the chief rice variety planted in Jilin Province ,both the aboveground and underground biomass of Dongdao 4 were heavier with the plant still alive when maturing .Besides ,the specific leaf weights of main functional leaves of Dong-dao 4 were significantly higher ,whose leaves were still green long after harvested .What′s more,Dongdao 4 had a stronger root system which degenerated later while planted in the same condition .The panicle traits analysis results showed that,with more primary branches,more fulfilled grains in the primary branches,higher seed setting rate of the secondary branches ,heavier 1000-grains weight ,Dongdao 4 had superiority in the panicle traits especially under saline-alkaline stress .%以北方粳稻品种东稻4、长白9为材料,研究了在苏打盐碱土壤种植条件下东稻4、长白9的生长发育特性及穗部性状。结果表明:在完全相同条件下种植,与吉林省主推品种长白9相比,东稻4地上、地下生物量高且活秆成熟,叶片比叶重高且叶片退化晚,根系发达且退化慢;穗部性状研究发现:与长白9相比,东稻4的1次枝梗数多、1次枝梗实粒数多、2次枝梗结实率高、千粒质量大可能均为东稻4在苏打盐碱水田种植条件下产量较高的原因。

  8. Basic traits predict the prevalence of personality disorder across the life span: the example of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A; Miller, Joshua D; McCrae, Robert R; Costa, Paul T

    2013-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) may be better understood in terms of dimensions of general personality functioning rather than as discrete categorical conditions. Personality-trait descriptions of PDs are robust across methods and settings, and PD assessments based on trait measures show good construct validity. The study reported here extends research showing that basic traits (e.g., impulsiveness, warmth, straightforwardness, modesty, and deliberation) can re-create the epidemiological characteristics associated with PDs. Specifically, we used normative changes in absolute trait levels to simulate age-related differences in the prevalence of psychopathy in a forensic setting. Results demonstrated that trait information predicts the rate of decline for psychopathy over the life span; discriminates the decline of psychopathy from that of a similar disorder, antisocial PD; and accurately predicts the differential decline of subfactors of psychopathy. These findings suggest that basic traits provide a parsimonious account of PD prevalence across the life span.

  9. The Role of Trait and State Absorption in the Enjoyment of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the role of state versus trait characteristics on our enjoyment of music. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of state and trait absorption upon preference for music, particularly preference for music that evokes negative emotions. The sample consisted of 128 participants who were asked to listen to two pieces of self-selected music and rate the music on variables including preference and felt and expressed emotions. Participants completed a brief measure of state absorption after listening to each piece, and a trait absorption inventory. State absorption was strongly positively correlated with music preference, whereas trait absorption was not. Trait absorption was related to preference for negative emotions in music, with chi-square analyses demonstrating greater enjoyment of negative emotions in music among individuals with high trait absorption. This is the first study to show that state and trait absorption have separable and distinct effects on a listener’s music experience, with state characteristics impacting music enjoyment in the moment, and trait characteristics influencing music preference based on its emotional content. PMID:27828970

  10. Trait-based ecological risk assessment (TERA): the new frontier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Donald J; Rubach, Mascha N; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    Traits describe the physical characteristics, ecological niche, and functional role of species within ecosystems, and trait-based approaches are now being introduced into the field of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA). The costs and benefits arising from the adoption of these approaches in the assessment of risks from toxic substances are described, and the path forward for this new frontier in risk assessment science is presented. In particular, the necessity for more open collaboration and web-based data-sharing to facilitate the development of these exciting new tools is stressed, and the role of scientific organizations such as SETAC as promoters of this ambitious program is highlighted.

  11. Quantitative trait loci analysis of swine meat quality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H D; Lund, M S; Christensen, O F

    2010-01-01

    were estimated from a posterior distribution of the QTL position. In total, 31 QTL for the 6 meat quality traits were found to be significant at the 5% chromosome-wide level, among which 11 QTL were significant at the 5% genome-wide level and 5 of these were significant at the 0.1% genome-wide level......A QTL study was performed in large half-sib families to characterize the genetic background of variation in pork quality traits as well as to examine the possibilities of including QTL in a marker-assisted selection scheme. The quality traits included ultimate pH in LM and the semimembranosus, drip...... the same. In addition, a strong correlation of the estimated effects of these QTL was found between the 4 traits, indicating that the same genes control these traits. A similar pattern was seen on SSC15 for the QTL affecting ultimate pH in the 2 muscles and drip loss. The results from this study...

  12. Combined expression trait correlations and expression quantitative trait locus mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated regulation of gene expression levels across a series of experimental conditions provides valuable information about the functions of correlated transcripts. The consideration of gene expression correlation over a time or tissue dimension has proved valuable in predicting gene function. Here, we consider correlations over a genetic dimension. In addition to identifying coregulated genes, the genetic dimension also supplies us with information about the genomic locations of putative regulatory loci. We calculated correlations among approximately 45,000 expression traits derived from 60 individuals in an F2 sample segregating for obesity and diabetes. By combining the correlation results with linkage mapping information, we were able to identify regulatory networks, make functional predictions for uncharacterized genes, and characterize novel members of known pathways. We found evidence of coordinate regulation of 174 G protein-coupled receptor protein signaling pathway expression traits. Of the 174 traits, 50 had their major LOD peak within 10 cM of a locus on Chromosome 2, and 81 others had a secondary peak in this region. We also characterized a Riken cDNA clone that showed strong correlation with stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression. Experimental validation confirmed that this clone is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. We conclude that trait correlation combined with linkage mapping can reveal regulatory networks that would otherwise be missed if we studied only mRNA traits with statistically significant linkages in this small cross. The combined analysis is more sensitive compared with linkage mapping alone.

  13. Deep characterization of blood cell miRNomes by NGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Eva C; Backes, Christina; Knörck, Arne; Ludwig, Nicole; Leidinger, Petra; Hoxha, Cora; Schwär, Gertrud; Grossmann, Thomas; Müller, Sabine C; Hart, Martin; Haas, Jan; Galata, Valentina; Müller, Isabelle; Fehlmann, Tobias; Eichler, Hermann; Franke, Andre; Meder, Benjamin; Meese, Eckart; Hoth, Markus; Keller, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    A systematic understanding of different factors influencing cell type specific microRNA profiles is essential for state-of-the art biomarker research. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of the biological variability and changes in cell type pattern over time for different cell types and different isolation approaches in technical replicates. All combinations of the parameters mentioned above have been measured, resulting in 108 miRNA profiles that were evaluated by next-generation-sequencing. The largest miRNA variability was due to inter-individual differences (34 %), followed by the cell types (23.4 %) and the isolation technique (17.2 %). The change over time in cell miRNA composition was moderate (web resource.

  14. Seasonal succession in zooplankton feeding traits reveals trophic trait coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenitz, Kasia; Visser, Andre; Mariani, Patrizio

    2017-01-01

    The seasonal forcing of pelagic communities invokes a succession of the dominant phytoplankton and zooplankton species. Here, we characterize the seasonal succession of the plankton traits and their interactions using observations and model simulations of the plankton community in the western...... English Channel. We focus on activity traits that characterize the defensive and feeding abilities of zooplankton and distinguish between low risk, low return ambush feeders and high risk, high return feeding-current feeders. While the phytoplankton succession depends on traits related to nutrient...... non-motile cells flourishing in spring and motile community dominating during summer. The zooplankton community is dominated by active feeding-current feeders with peak biomass in the late spring declining during summer. The model reveals how zooplankton grazing reinforces protist plankton seasonal...

  15. Perceived importance of employees' traits in the service industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rense; Houran, James

    2009-04-01

    Selection assessments are common practice to help reduce employee turnover in the service industry, but as too little is known about employees' characteristics, which are valued most highly by human resources professionals, a sample of 108 managers and human resources professionals rated the perceived importance of 31 performance traits for Line, Middle, and Senior employees. Rasch scaling analyses indicated strong consensus among the respondents. Nonsocial skills, abilities, and traits such as Ethical Awareness, Self-motivation, Writing Skills, Verbal Ability, Creativity, and Problem Solving were rated as more important for higher level employees. By contrast, traits which directly affect the interaction with customers and coworkers (Service Orientation, Communication Style, Agreeableness, Sense of Humor, Sensitivity to Diversity, Group Process, and Team Building) were rated as more important for lower level employees. Respondents' age and sex did not substantially alter these findings. Results are discussed in terms of improving industry professionals' perceived ecological and external validities of generic and customized assessments of employee.

  16. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  17. Giraffe browsing in response to plant traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahenya, Obeid; Ndjamba, Johannes Kambinda; Mathisen, Karen Marie; Skarpe, Christina

    2016-08-01

    Intake rates by large herbivores are governed by among other things plant traits. We used Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi Matschie) as study animals, testing whether they as very large browsers would follow the Jarman-Bell principle and maximize intake rate while tolerating low forage quality. We worked in Arusha National Park, Tanzania. We investigated how intake rate was determined by bite mass and bite rate, and show that bite mass and bite rate were determined by plant characteristics, governed by inherent plant traits, plant traits acquired from previous years' browsing, and season. We predicted that; (1) bite mass would be larger in trees without spines than with (2) bite mass would be larger in the wet season than in the dry, (3) bite rate would be higher in spinescent trees than in non-spinescent, (4) bite rate and/or bite mass would increase with previous years' browsing, (5) bite mass, bite rate or browsing time per tree would be highest for high trees with large, although still available canopies. Visual observations were used to collect data on tree attributes, number of bites taken and time of browsing. Sample size was 132 observed giraffe. We found that bite mass was larger in spineless than in spinescent trees and was larger in the wet season than in the dry. Bite rate, but not bite mass, increased with increasing browsing in previous years and was highest on two to three meter high trees and in spinescent trees. Intake rate followed bite mass more than bite rate and was higher in spineless than in spinescent trees, higher in the wet season than in the dry, and tended to increase with tree height. Giraffe did not prioritize the highest intake rate, but browsed much on Acacias giving a high quality diet but a low intake rate.

  18. Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings.

  19. Genome scan for meat quality traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizioto, P C; Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Schnabel, R D; Mudadu, M A; Silva, F L; Mourão, G B; Coutinho, L L; Tholon, P; Sonstegard, T S; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Tullio, R R; Medeiros, S R; Nassu, R T; Feijó, G L D; Silva, L O C; Torres, R A; Siqueira, F; Higa, R H; Regitano, L C A

    2013-11-01

    Meat quality traits are economically important because they affect consumers' acceptance, which, in turn, influences the demand for beef. However, selection to improve meat quality is limited by the small numbers of animals on which meat tenderness can be evaluated due to the cost of performing shear force analysis and the resultant damage to the carcass. Genome wide-association studies for Warner-Bratzler shear force measured at different times of meat aging, backfat thickness, ribeye muscle area, scanning parameters [lightness, redness (a*), and yellowness] to ascertain color characteristics of meat and fat, water-holding capacity, cooking loss (CL), and muscle pH were conducted using genotype data from the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip array to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in all phenotyped Nelore cattle. Phenotype count for these animals ranged from 430 to 536 across traits. Meat quality traits in Nelore are controlled by numerous QTL of small effect, except for a small number of large-effect QTL identified for a*fat, CL, and pH. Genomic regions harboring these QTL and the pathways in which the genes from these regions act appear to differ from those identified in taurine cattle for meat quality traits. These results will guide future QTL mapping studies and the development of models for the prediction of genetic merit to implement genomic selection for meat quality in Nelore cattle.

  20. Appearance traits in fish farming: progress from classical genetics to genomics, providing insight into current and potential genetic improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Appearance traits in fish, those external body characteristics that influence consumer acceptance at point of sale, have come to the forefront of commercial fish farming, as culture profitability is closely linked to management of these traits. Appearance traits comprise mainly body shape and skin pigmentation. Analysis of the genetic basis of these traits in different fish reveals significant genetic variation within populations, indicating potential for their genetic improvement. Work into ascertaining the minor or major genes underlying appearance traits for commercial fish is emerging, with substantial progress in model fish in terms of identifying genes that control body shape and skin colors. In this review, we describe research progress to date, especially with regard to commercial fish, and discuss genomic findings in model fish in order to better address the genetic basis of the traits. Given that appearance traits are important in commercial fish, the genomic information related to this issue promises to accelerate the selection process in coming years. PMID:25140172

  1. Plant traits determine forest flammability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, Philip; Bradstock, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems are influenced by their inherent flammability - a property determined by the traits of the component plant species that form the fuel and influence the micro climate of a fire. In the absence of a model capable of explaining the complexity of such a system however, flammability is frequently represented by simple metrics such as surface fuel load. The implications of modelling fire - flammability feedbacks using surface fuel load were examined and compared to a biophysical, mechanistic model (Forest Flammability Model) that incorporates the influence of structural plant traits (e.g. crown shape and spacing) and leaf traits (e.g. thickness, dimensions and moisture). Fuels burn with values of combustibility modelled from leaf traits, transferring convective heat along vectors defined by flame angle and with plume temperatures that decrease with distance from the flame. Flames are re-calculated in one-second time-steps, with new leaves within the plant, neighbouring plants or higher strata ignited when the modelled time to ignition is reached, and other leaves extinguishing when their modelled flame duration is exceeded. The relative influence of surface fuels, vegetation structure and plant leaf traits were examined by comparing flame heights modelled using three treatments that successively added these components within the FFM. Validation was performed across a diverse range of eucalypt forests burnt under widely varying conditions during a forest fire in the Brindabella Ranges west of Canberra (ACT) in 2003. Flame heights ranged from 10 cm to more than 20 m, with an average of 4 m. When modelled from surface fuels alone, flame heights were on average 1.5m smaller than observed values, and were predicted within the error range 28% of the time. The addition of plant structure produced predicted flame heights that were on average 1.5m larger than observed, but were correct 53% of the time. The over-prediction in this

  2. 倒毛鸡生物学特性、屠宰性能及肉质性状研究%Study on the Biological Characteristics of Chicken,Slaughter Performance and Meat Quality Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凡; 刘忠伟; 金志强; 文明; 欧德渊

    2016-01-01

    For protection in Guizhou hair down chicken germplasm resources and genetic diversity of on the growth performance and meat value. The test of Guizhou down gross chicken biological characteristics,slaughter performance and meat quality were determined. The results showed that the egg weight of the inverted chicken was(42.75 ± 2.18)g,and the hatching rate was about 75%. But gross chicken at postnatal day 0,the weight differ ̄ence between male and female was not significant ( P>0.05) . After 30 days of age difference reached significant level ( P0.05) . Taste the experiment showed that the hair down chicken meat tender and delicious, is more popular than ordinary chicken. Conclusion: it has good performance of chicken meat, has great development value and development prospects.%为保护贵州地区倒毛鸡的种质资源和遗传多样性,研究其生长性能和肉用价值,试验对倒毛鸡的生物学特性、屠宰性能及肉品质进行了测定。结果表明:倒毛鸡的蛋重为(42.75±2.18)g,孵化率约为75%。倒毛鸡在0日龄时,公、母鸡之间的体重差异不显著(P>0.05),30日龄后差异达显著水平(P0.05)。品尝实验显示,倒毛鸡肉质细嫩、味道鲜美,比普通土鸡更受欢迎。结论:倒毛鸡具有较好的肉用性能,有较大开发价值和发展前景。

  3. Genetic parameters of wool colour and skin traits in Corriedale sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Benavides

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean wool colour (CWC is an important wool price determinant and has been related to suint characteristics, i.e. sudoriparous and sebaceous gland secretions, such as suint percentage and suint K content. In this work heritability, phenotypic and genetic correlations among wool colour and skin traits were examined. The genetic estimates were assessed by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML procedures using average information algorithm (AIREML in a Corriedale flock. The traits analysed were wool colour traits (CWC, yellow predictive colour (YPC, and Visual Score; suint traits such as suint percentage and potassium and sodium concentrations in suint, and physiological traits such as potassium and sodium concentrations in the skin, including plasma and red blood cells. The objectives of this study were to assess phenotypic and genetic correlations between wool colour and skin traits, and to find the suitability of these traits as indirect selection criteria for clean wool colour. Suint traits were highly genetically correlated to YPC. Suint K, but not suint percentage, was found to have a high genetic correlation with CWC. Skin K, Visual Score, YPC and suint K were amongst the best indirect selection criteria for clean wool colour. However, selection using these traits was expected to reduce CWC from 52% to 49% of that estimated under direct selection.

  4. Populus trichocarpa cell wall chemistry and ultrastructure trait variation, genetic control and genetic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Ilga; Klápště, Jaroslav; Skyba, Oleksandr; Lai, Ben S K; Geraldes, Armando; Muchero, Wellington; Tuskan, Gerald A; Douglas, Carl J; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2013-02-01

    The increasing ecological and economical importance of Populus species and hybrids has stimulated research into the investigation of the natural variation of the species and the estimation of the extent of genetic control over its wood quality traits for traditional forestry activities as well as the emerging bioenergy sector. A realized kinship matrix based on informative, high-density, biallelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic markers was constructed to estimate trait variance components, heritabilities, and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Seventeen traits related to wood chemistry and ultrastructure were examined in 334 9-yr-old Populus trichocarpa grown in a common-garden plot representing populations spanning the latitudinal range 44° to 58.6°. In these individuals, 9342 SNPs that conformed to Hardy-Weinberg expectations were employed to assess the genomic pair-wise kinship to estimate narrow-sense heritabilities and genetic correlations among traits. The range-wide phenotypic variation in all traits was substantial and several trait heritabilities were > 0.6. In total, 61 significant genetic and phenotypic correlations and a network of highly interrelated traits were identified. The high trait variation, the evidence for moderate to high heritabilities and the identification of advantageous trait combinations of industrially important characteristics should aid in providing the foundation for the enhancement of poplar tree breeding strategies for modern industrial use.

  5. Drivers of carabid functional diversity: abiotic environment, plant functional traits, or plant functional diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakeman, Robin J; Stockan, Jenni A

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how community assembly is controlled by the balance of abiotic drivers (environment or management) and biotic drivers (community composition of other groups) is important in predicting the response of ecosystems to environmental change. If there are strong links between plant assemblage structure and carabid beetle functional traits and functional diversity, then it is possible to predict the impact of environmental change propagating through different functional and trophic groups. Vegetation and pitfall trap beetle surveys were carried out across twenty four sites contrasting in land use, and hence productivity and disturbance regime. Plant functional traits were very successful at explaining the distribution of carabid functional traits across the habitats studied. Key carabid response traits appeared to be body length and wing type. Carabid functional richness was significantly smaller than expected, indicating strong environmental filtering, modulated by management, soil characteristics, and by plant response traits. Carabid functional divergence was negatively related to plant functional evenness, while carabid functional evenness was positively correlated to plant functional evenness and richness. The study shows that there are clear trait linkages between the plant and the carabid assemblage that act not only through the mean traits displayed, but also via their distribution in trait space; powerful evidence that both the mean and variance of traits in one trophic group structure the assemblage of another.

  6. Differentiating Dark Triad Traits Within and Across Interpersonal Circumplex Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowgwillo, Emily A; Pincus, Aaron L

    2017-01-01

    Recent discussions surrounding the Dark Triad (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) have centered on areas of distinctiveness and overlap. Given that interpersonal dysfunction is a core feature of Dark Triad traits, the current study uses self-report data from 562 undergraduate students to examine the interpersonal characteristics associated with narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism on four interpersonal circumplex (IPC) surfaces. The distinctiveness of these characteristics was examined using a novel bootstrapping methodology for computing confidence intervals around circumplex structural summary method parameters. Results suggest that Dark Triad traits exhibit distinct structural summary method parameters with narcissism characterized by high dominance, psychopathy characterized by a blend of high dominance and low affiliation, and Machiavellianism characterized by low affiliation on the problems, values, and efficacies IPC surfaces. Additionally, there was some heterogeneity in findings for different measures of psychopathy. Gender differences in structural summary parameters were examined, finding similar parameter values despite mean-level differences in Dark Triad traits. Finally, interpersonal information was integrated across different IPC surfaces to create profiles associated with each Dark Triad trait and to provide a more in-depth portrait of associated interpersonal dynamics.

  7. Effects of long-term nitrogen addition on photosynthetic characteristics and leaf traits of Stipa baicalensis in Inner Mongolia,China%贝加尔针茅光合特征与叶片功能特性对长期氮添加的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红梅; 李洁; 皇甫超河; 陈新微; 杨殿林

    2016-01-01

    an S.baicalensis grassland in Inner Mongolia.This study was conducted from 2010-2015.Five treatments including N0 (0 kg N/ha),N30 (30 kg N/ha),N50 (50 kg N/ha),N100 (100 kg N/ha)and N150 (150 kg N/ha)were set up and forty-eight plots, sized 8 m×8 m,were established with 2 m strips between each plot.The objective was to determine how pho-tosynthetic characteristics and leaf traits vary with nitrogen addition and what causes these differences.Photo-synthetic traits and leaf traits differed among different nitrogen addition treatments.Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE), photosynthetic energy use efficiency (PEUE)under N30 ,N50 ,N100 ,and N150 treatments were lower or signifi-cantly lower than those under N0 .Specific leaf area (SLA),leaf N content (N mass), leaf construction cost (CC mass), leaf N∶P under N30 ,N50 ,N100 ,N150 treatments tended to be higher or were significantly higher than those under N0 .Correlation analysis showed that Pn was positively correlated with Gs ,Tr ,PNUE,PEUE, leaf P content (P mass), N mass and soil N,P while Pn was negatively correlated with SLA,N mass ,CC mass ,soil wa-ter content and soil pH;N mass was positively correlated with SLA,CC mass and soil N,P,and N mass was negative-ly correlated with PNUE,PEUE,P mass ,soil water content and soil pH.In conclusion,long-term nitrogen ad-dition induced decreases in Pn and nutrient use efficiency of S .baicalensis ,and increases in leaf CC mass and N∶P.Soil water content and pH decreased with nitrogen addition.This suggests that water content and soil pH are two important factors affecting photosynthetic characteristics and leaf traits of S.baicalensis under different nitrogen addition regimes.

  8. Analyse micro-locale l-adique en caracteristique p>0: Le cas d'un trait

    OpenAIRE

    Abbes, Ahmed; Saito, Takeshi

    2006-01-01

    We develop, for an l-adic etale sheaf on a complete trait of characteristic p>0, the notion of characteristic variety. Our approach, inspired by the microlocal analysis of Kashiwara and Schapira, is a complement to our ramification theory for local fields with general residue fields. We formulate the main property that should be satisfied by the characteristic variety (the isogeny conjecture), and prove it for rank one sheaves unconditionally on the trait, or unconditionally on the sheaf if t...

  9. Influence analysis in quantitative trait loci detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaoling; Kuriki, Satoshi; Maeno, Akiteru; Takada, Toyoyuki; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents systematic methods for the detection of influential individuals that affect the log odds (LOD) score curve. We derive general formulas of influence functions for profile likelihoods and introduce them into two standard quantitative trait locus detection methods-the interval mapping method and single marker analysis. Besides influence analysis on specific LOD scores, we also develop influence analysis methods on the shape of the LOD score curves. A simulation-based method is proposed to assess the significance of the influence of the individuals. These methods are shown useful in the influence analysis of a real dataset of an experimental population from an F2 mouse cross. By receiver operating characteristic analysis, we confirm that the proposed methods show better performance than existing diagnostics.

  10. Personality traits and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, I J; Peter, A; Austin, E; Gibson, G

    1998-11-01

    The structure of personality disorder traits was examined in a sample of 400 undergraduates who completed the personality disorder questionnaire from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-II). The relations between personality disorder and normal personality traits indexed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) were examined. The three-cluster model of personality traits--as described in the DSM scheme--found equivocal support. Exploratory principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis found four broad factors of personality disorder that overlapped with normal personality traits: an asthenic factor related to neuroticism; an antisocial factor associated with psychoticism; an asocial factor linked to introversion-extraversion; and an anankastic (obsessive-compulsive) factor. There is growing agreement about the number and type of broad personality disorder dimensions; similar dimensions may be found in clinical and non-clinical samples, suggesting that those people with personality disorders differ quantitatively rather than qualitatively from others; and there is substantial overlap between normal and abnormal personality dimensions.

  11. Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

    2014-10-30

    Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders.

  12. Stability of personality traits in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Allemand, Mathias; Gruenenfelder-Steiger, Andrea E; Hill, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    Stability represents a fundamental concept in developmental theory and research. In this article we give an overview of recent work on personality traits and their stability in adulthood. First, we define personality traits and stability. Second, we present empirical evidence supporting change and stability of personality traits across the adult years with respect to conceptually and statistically different forms of stability. Third, we describe mechanisms and processes that enable trait stab...

  13. A trait database for marine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Philipp Georg; Payne, Mark; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The trait-based approach is gaining increasing popularity in marine plankton ecology but the field urgently needs more and easier accessible trait data to advance.We compiled trait information on marine pelagic copepods, a major group of zooplankton, from the published literature and from experts...

  14. Personality Traits, Learning and Academic Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…

  15. Quantitative trait loci for flowering time and morphological traits in multiple populations of Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, P.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Kim, J.S.; Shen, Shuxing; Pino del Carpio, D.; Song, Xiaofei; Jin, M.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Wang, Xiaowu; Koornneef, M.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    Wide variation for morphological traits exists in Brassica rapa and the genetic basis of this morphological variation is largely unknown. Here is a report on quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of flowering time, seed and pod traits, growth-related traits, leaf morphology, and turnip formation in

  16. Do the Traits of Autism-Spectrum Overlap with Those of Schizophrenia or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the General Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Akio; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Ashwin, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Social and communicative deficits, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors are diagnostic features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study examined the relationship between autistic characteristics and schizophrenia-spectrum traits as well as between autistic characteristics and obsessive-compulsive traits in typically…

  17. State and trait effects on individual differences in children's mathematical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Drew H; Watts, Tyler W; Littlefield, Andrew K; Geary, David C

    2014-11-01

    Substantial longitudinal relations between children's early mathematics achievement and their much later mathematics achievement are firmly established. These findings are seemingly at odds with studies showing that early educational interventions have diminishing effects on children's mathematics achievement across time. We hypothesized that individual differences in children's later mathematical knowledge are more an indicator of stable, underlying characteristics related to mathematics learning throughout development than of direct effects of early mathematical competency on later mathematical competency. We tested this hypothesis in two longitudinal data sets, by simultaneously modeling effects of latent traits (stable characteristics that influence learning across time) and states (e.g., prior knowledge) on children's mathematics achievement over time. Latent trait effects on children's mathematical development were substantially larger than state effects. Approximately 60% of the variance in trait mathematics achievement was accounted for by commonly used control variables, such as working memory, but residual trait effects remained larger than state effects. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  18. Quantitative genetics of disease traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, N R; Visscher, P M

    2015-04-01

    John James authored two key papers on the theory of risk to relatives for binary disease traits and the relationship between parameters on the observed binary scale and an unobserved scale of liability (James Annals of Human Genetics, 1971; 35: 47; Reich, James and Morris Annals of Human Genetics, 1972; 36: 163). These two papers are John James' most cited papers (198 and 328 citations, November 2014). They have been influential in human genetics and have recently gained renewed popularity because of their relevance to the estimation of quantitative genetics parameters for disease traits using SNP data. In this review, we summarize the two early papers and put them into context. We show recent extensions of the theory for ascertained case-control data and review recent applications in human genetics.

  19. FRIENDSHIP FUNCTIONS AND PERSONALITY TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Pedovic

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our study was exploration of the factor structure of the MFQ-FF inventory on a sample from Serbian population, and the relations of measures from this inventory (friendship functions with personality traits, as operationalized by the seven factor model proposed by Tellegen and Waller. For this purpose 154 University of Nis students completed the Serbian version of the MFQ-FF inventory and Lexi-70. The results show that factor structures of certain MFQ-FF scales devia-te somewhat from theoretical expectations. Confirmatory factor analysis produced relatively poor levels of fit, while exploratory factor analysis showed that loadings of five items differ substantially from theoretical expectations. As for correlations with personality traits, evaluative dimensions and negative emotionality were found to correlate with the MFQ-FF general factor, and correlations of specific functions with Openness to experience, Positive emotionality and Consciousness were also found. All obtained correlations were low.

  20. On the reality and relevance of traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, R

    1977-04-01

    A review of published research on traits of personality is focused on the controversy over situationism vs. trait theory. Extreme emphasis on situationism is interpreted as a return to the atomistic psychologies of Wundt, Titchener, Watson, and Weiss. Available data are interpreted to indicate that "trait" can be defined operationally, that existing measures are adequately reliable, and that stability over long periods of time contradicts the situationist thesis. Trait measures predict behavior in the laboratory, in education, and industry. The trait construct should be retained in the vocabulary of scientific psychology.

  1. Using plant traits to explain plant-microbe relationships involved in nitrogen acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarel, Amélie A M; Pommier, Thomas; Desclos-Theveniau, Marie; Diquélou, Sylvain; Dumont, Maxime; Grassein, Fabrice; Kastl, Eva-Maria; Grigulis, Karl; Laîné, Philippe; Lavorel, Sandra; Lemauviel-Lavenant, Servane; Personeni, Emmanuelle; Schloter, Michael; Poly, Franck

    2015-03-01

    It has long been recognized that plant species and soil microorganisms. are tightly linked, but understanding how different species vary in their effects on soil is currently limited. In this study, we identified those. plant characteristics (identity, specific functional traits, or resource acquisition strategy) that were the best predictors of nitrification and denitrification processes. Ten plant populations representing eight species collected from three European grassland sites were chosen for their contrasting plant trait values and resource acquisition strategies. For each individual plant, leaf and root traits and the associated potential microbial activities (i.e., potential denitrification rate [DEA], maximal nitrification rate [NEA], and NH4+ affinity of the microbial community [NHScom]) were measured at two fertilization levels under controlled growth conditions. Plant traits were powerful predictors of plant-microbe interactions, but relevant plant traits differed in relation to the microbial function studied. Whereas denitrification was linked to the relative growth rate of plants, nitrification was strongly correlated to root trait characteristics (specific root length, root nitrogen concentration, and plant affinity for NH4+) linked to plant N cycling. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) that commonly serves as an indicator of resource acquisition strategies was not correlated to microbial activity. These results suggest that the LES alone is not a good predictor of microbial activity, whereas root traits appeared critical in understanding plant-microbe interactions.

  2. Phishing, Personality Traits and Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Phishing attacks have become an increasing threat to online users. Recent research has begun to focus on the factors that cause people to respond to them. Our study examines the correlation between the Big Five personality traits and email phishing response. We also examine how these factors affect users behavior on Facebook, including posting personal information and choosing Facebook privacy settings. Our research shows that when using a prize phishing email, we find a strong correlation be...

  3. Child maltreatment and risk behaviors: The roles of callous/unemotional traits and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Matthew; Oshri, Assaf; Kwon, Josephine

    2015-12-01

    Child maltreatment poses significant risk to the development of callous/unemotional traits as well as risk behaviors such as engaging in violence, having sex with strangers, and binge drinking. In the current study, the indirect pathway from child maltreatment to risk behaviors was examined via callous/unemotional traits; whereas the conscientious personality trait was tested as a moderator of this indirect pathway. Young adults and parents (N=361; Mage=19.14, SD=1.44) completed questionnaires on child maltreatment histories, callousness/unemotional traits, personality characteristics, and risk behaviors. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesized direct, indirect and conditional indirect effects. Findings showed indirect links between the child maltreatment latent factor and physical fighting, having sex with strangers, and binge drinking via callous/unemotional traits. Furthermore, the conscientiousness personality type significantly buffered the connection between callous/unemotional traits and physical fighting, supporting a conditional indirect effects. Callous/unemotional traits are important factors in the underlying mechanism between child maltreatment and risk behaviors among young adults, and conscientiousness serves as a protective factor against violence. Preventive intervention programs and clinicians may benefit from focusing in addressing callous/unemotional traits among youth who report childhood maltreatment experiences as well as targeting conscientiousness as a protective factor.

  4. The Prediction of Item Parameters Based on Classical Test Theory and Latent Trait Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Duygu

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the prediction power of the item characteristics based on the experts' predictions on conditions try-out practices cannot be applied was examined for item characteristics computed depending on classical test theory and two-parameters logistic model of latent trait theory. The study was carried out on 9914 randomly selected students…

  5. Coordination of physiological and structural traits in Amazon forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S.; Fyllas, N. M.; Baker, T. R.; Paiva, R.; Quesada, C. A.; Santos, A. J. B.; Schwarz, M.; Ter Steege, H.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2012-02-01

    construction costs coordinate independently of structural characteristics such as maximum height, others such as the classical "leaf economic spectrum" covary with structural traits such as leaf size and ΦLS. Coordinated structural and physiological adaptions are also associated with light acquisition/shade tolerance strategies with several traits such as MA and [C] being significant components of more than one ecological strategy dimension. This is argued to be a consequence of a range of different potential underlying causes for any observed variation in such "ambiguous" traits. Environmental effects on structural and physiological characteristics are also coordinated but in a different way to the gamut of linkages associated with genotypic differences.

  6. Genetic parameters of wool colour and skin traits in Corriedale sheep

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Clean wool colour (CWC) is an important wool price determinant and has been related to suint characteristics, i.e. sudoriparous and sebaceous gland secretions, such as suint percentage and suint K content. In this work heritability, phenotypic and genetic correlations among wool colour and skin traits were examined. The genetic estimates were assessed by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) procedures using average information algorithm (AIREML) in a Corriedale flock. The traits analysed were...

  7. Quantitative trait loci analysis for rice seed vigor during the germination stage*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhou-fei; Wang,Jian-fei; Bao, Yong-Mei; Wang, Fu-Hua; Zhang, Hong-sheng

    2010-01-01

    Seed vigor is an important characteristic of seed quality, and rice cultivars with strong seed vigor are desirable in direct-sowing rice production for optimum stand establishment. In the present study, the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of three traits for rice seed vigor during the germination stage, including germination rate, final germination percentage, and germination index, were investigated using one recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between japonica Dagua...

  8. Angry drivers: a test of state-trait theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Richards, Tracy L; Filetti, Linda B; Lynch, Rebekah S

    2005-08-01

    Tested hypotheses from state-trait theory applied to anger while driving. College student drivers high in trait driving anger were compared to drivers low in trait driving anger. High anger drivers were more frequently angered in day-to-day driving (frequency hypothesis). They reported more intense anger in their most angering driving situations, when visualizing provocative driving events, and in day-to-day driving (intensity hypothesis). Driving diaries and surveys showed they engaged in more aggressive behavior and expressed their anger through more verbal, physical, and vehicular means (aggression hypothesis). They reported handling of their anger less well when visualizing provocative events and on the Adaptive/Constructive Expression scale (reduced adaptive expression hypothesis). They engaged in risky behavior (risky behavior hypothesis) and experienced more moving violations, close calls, and losses of concentration, but not more major or minor accidents (partial support for crash-related outcomes hypothesis). High anger drivers were more generally angry and impulsive and employed more negative, less controlled forms of general anger expression. Results supported state-trait theory and added to the literature showing that high anger drivers have some other psychological and behavioral characteristics that may interact negatively with anger behind the wheel.

  9. Retrospectively evaluated preinjury personality traits influence postconcussion symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kit-Man; Tsai, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wei-Chi; Yang, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Sheng-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Postconcussion symptoms (PCS) are not uncommon following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Personality traits have always been viewed as one of the most important explanations for persistent postconcussion symptoms (PPCS). Unfortunately, studies on the association between preinjury personality traits and the PPCS are still limited. This study thus aimed to examine the relationship between the preinjury personality and PCS in patients with mTBI. A total of 106 participants including 53 healthy participants were recruited. All participants complete the modified Checklist of Postconcussion Symptoms and the Health, Personality, & Habit Scale. Participants were evaluated within 4 weeks and at 4 months, respectively, after injury. The results showed patients reported significantly more PCS than healthy participants did within 4 weeks postinjury. A significant positive association between PCS and retrospectively evaluated preinjury personality was found. Specifically, patients who reported that their preinjury personality was depressive or anxious-related presented more PCS. This study might be the first to directly demonstrate that preinjury personality traits are closely linked to PCS reporting in patients with mTBI. Importantly, PCS reporting might be associated with different personality traits at different periods after injuries, and thus, a careful evaluation for personality characteristics is merited after mTBI.

  10. Personality traits of a music teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Blanka D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of individual musical instrument teaching, pedagogical abilities of a music teacher and the atmosphere he creates, result from his personality traits and can be of crucial importance for the initial and further progress of his students. The paper seeks to: describe the personality of a music instrument teacher, determine the differences in comparison to a group of non-musicians, and determine the position of personal characteristics in the structure of general and professional teacher profile. The sample comprised 60 individuals, teaching various musical instruments in five primary music schools. The research method is explorative and based on the use of the five-factor personality model (NEO PI-R was administered. The findings show that music teachers display a higher level of: openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. The degree of congruence with the findings of other research is discussed and certain similarities were found, as well as differences stemming from professional and cultural specificities. Differences are proved to exist in relation to gender, musical instrument, working experience, degree of musical education and active public performance. Compared to non-musical population, it is confirmed that teachers of instrument in musical education represent a distinctive group. There are also differences between teachers who are oriented to pedagogic work only and those who, in addition, actively perform in public. Selection of teachers, according to characteristics which may be connected to students’ accomplishment, is a practical implication relevant for the music education.

  11. Genetic analysis of fleece and post-weaning body weight traits in Makuie sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, S; Hashemi, A

    2014-02-20

    Estimation of genetic parameters is the most important component of an organized selection program. With respect to economic traits, such as wool and mutton traits, production costs can be reduced through a suitable selection program focused on genetic improvement. This study aimed to evaluate genetic parameters of fleece and post-weaning growth traits in sheep. Greasy fleece weight at 6, 16, 28, 40, and 52 months of age (GFW1, GFW2, GFW3, GFW4, and GFW5) represented characteristics of wool quantity. Staple length at shoulder, side, and rump (SL1, SL2, and SL3), fiber diameter, and percentage of true wool (TW%) were used as characteristics of wool quality. Live body weight at 6, 9, and 12 months of age (BW6, BW9, and BW12) reflected post-weaning growth characteristics. These data were collected over 23 years, from 1989 to 2012, at the Makuie Sheep Breeding and Raising Station (MSBS). Estimations were calculated using the derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood (DFREML) model. Direct heritability estimates, based on single-trait analyses, ranged from 0.10 (GFW1) to 0.80 (TW%). Additive genetic correlations among the traits ranged from highly negative (-0.46) to highly positive (0.99). The log likelihood ratio test (LRT) was used for selection of the most appropriate model. Based on the LRT, direct additive genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects were considered as the main sources of variation in the studied traits.

  12. Multiple trait genetic evaluation of ewe traits in Icelandic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, T; Jónmundsson, J V

    2008-12-01

    The prolificacy of the ewes was measured as the number of lambs born per ewe mated (NLB) when the ewes were 1-4 years of age. The ewe productivity related to the same age interval was measured by special ewe production indices (EPI). The genetic parameters for these traits were estimated by a series of bivariate REML analyses using animal models. The material used for the genetic analysis contained records on 193,213 ewes. The heritability estimates for NLB were h(2) = 0.17, 0.13, 0.11, 0.10 for the four respective age classes. Corresponding estimates for EPI were h(2) = 0.16, 0.17, 0.17, 0.15. The genetic correlations among NLB at different ages ranged from 0.63 to 0.98 and among EPI from 0.82 to 0.99. The genetic correlations between NLB and EPI were generally low. The material used for estimating the breeding values by the MT-BLUP Animal Model consisted of 1.5 million individuals in the pedigree file. In total 815,782 ewes had records for the NLB and 763,491 ewes had production index (at least 1 year). The records were registered in the years 1990-2006. All possible missing patterns were present in the data. In the iteration process expected values for missing traits were generated and solutions were obtained on canonical transformed scale. The genetic evaluations were run independently for NLB and EPI for computational convenience given the correlations between these traits were negligible.

  13. Relation between Managers’ Traits with their Assessment of the Successful Criterion in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikeh Beheshtifar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems being investigated about human behavior is the recognition of the influential traits on the behavior formation. We can recognize individual behavior through splitting up the behavioral patterns into some smaller units namely the traits. One of the results of the survey of traits in behavior form is individual success. Recognizing the successful managers` characteristics enables us to describe the effective patterns in society and specify the definite traits leading to desirable behaviors in organization. This study has applied the correlation method. The statistical population include of 68 top managers in Kerman public organizations. To collect the data 3 questionnaires pertaining to personality characteristics, motivation characteristics and managers’ successful and to analyze data used SPSS software. The questionnaires’ validity and reliability were assessed to be 0.93 and 0. 90. The findings of this study indicate the positive and significant relation between managers’ personality traits such as ingenuity, supervisory ability, self-confidence, decisiveness and maturity with their assessment of the successful criterion. Furthermore, the positive and significant relation between the managers’ motivational characteristics such as need for job achievement, need for self – actualization with their assessment. However, no significant relation has been noticed between managers’ personality traits such as intelligence, affiliation to personal and humane with their assessment of the successful criterion. No significant relation between motivational characteristics of managers such as need for power, need for Bonus and need for job – security with their assessment of the successful criterion has been discerned either. The managers who have a positive assessment about their successful share specific personality and motivational traits. It leads them to follow the definite desirable behaviors bringing about

  14. Trait-based tests of coexistence mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter B; Fajardo, Alex; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Kraft, Nathan J B

    2013-10-01

    Recent functional trait studies have shown that trait differences may favour certain species (environmental filtering) while simultaneously preventing competitive exclusion (niche partitioning). However, phenomenological trait-dispersion analyses do not identify the mechanisms that generate niche partitioning, preventing trait-based prediction of future changes in biodiversity. We argue that such predictions require linking functional traits with recognised coexistence mechanisms involving spatial or temporal environmental heterogeneity, resource partitioning and natural enemies. We first demonstrate the limitations of phenomenological approaches using simulations, and then (1) propose trait-based tests of coexistence, (2) generate hypotheses about which plant functional traits are likely to interact with particular mechanisms and (3) review the literature for evidence for these hypotheses. Theory and data suggest that all four classes of coexistence mechanisms could act on functional trait variation, but some mechanisms will be stronger and more widespread than others. The highest priority for future research is studies of interactions between environmental heterogeneity and trait variation that measure environmental variables at within-community scales and quantify species' responses to the environment in the absence of competition. Evidence that similar trait-based coexistence mechanisms operate in many ecosystems would simplify biodiversity forecasting and represent a rare victory for generality over contingency in community ecology.

  15. Why species tell more about traits than traits about species: predictive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James S

    2016-08-01

    Trait analysis aims to understand relationships between traits, species diversity, and the environment. Current methods could benefit from a model-based probabilistic framework that accommodates covariance between traits and quantifies contributions from inherent trait syndromes, species interactions, and responses to the environment. I develop a model-based approach that separates these effects on trait diversity. Application to USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data in the eastern United States demonstrates an apparent paradox, that the analysis of species better explains and predicts traits than does direct analysis of the traits themselves; trait data contain less, not more, information than species on environmental responses. Whereas variation in some traits is dominated by inherent syndromes (tendency for certain traits to be associated with others within an individual and species), others are strongly controlled by variation in species diversity. There is substantial variation in environmental control on trait patterns, between traits and regionally. In terms of environmental response traits do not aggregate into defined plant functional types, as would be desirable for models.

  16. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting haematological traits in swine via genome scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Xiao-Yan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological traits, which consist of mainly three components: leukocyte traits, erythrocyte traits and platelet traits, play extremely important role in animal immune function and disease resistance. But knowledge of the genetic background controlling variability of these traits is very limited, especially in swine. Results In the present study, 18 haematological traits (7 leukocyte traits, 7 erythrocyte traits and 4 platelet traits were measured in a pig resource population consisting of 368 purebred piglets of three breeds (Landrace, Large White and Songliao Black Pig, after inoculation with the swine fever vaccine when the pigs were 21 days old. A whole-genome scan of QTL for these traits was performed using 206 microsatellite markers covering all 18 autosomes and the X chromosome. Using variance component analysis based on a linear mixed model and the false discovery rate (FDR test, 35 QTL with FDR FDR FDR Conclusions Very few QTL were previously identified for hematological traits of pigs and never in purebred populations. Most of the QTL detected here, in particular the QTL for the platelet traits, have not been reported before. Our results lay important foundation for identifying the causal genes underlying the hematological trait variations in pigs.

  17. Plants with useful traits and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, Sally Ann; De la Rosa Santamaria, Roberto

    2016-10-25

    The present invention provides methods for obtaining plants that exhibit useful traits by transient suppression of the MSH1 gene of the plants. Methods for identifying genetic loci that provide for useful traits in plants and plants produced with those loci are also provided. In addition, plants that exhibit the useful traits, parts of the plants including seeds, and products of the plants are provided as well as methods of using the plants.

  18. Social personality trait and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, J; Dreiss, A; Clobert, J

    2008-12-22

    Several recent studies have explored various aspects of animal personality and their ecological consequences. However, the processes responsible for the maintenance of personality variability within a population are still largely unknown. We have recently demonstrated that social personality traits exist in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) and that the variation in sociability provides an explanation for variable dispersal responses within a given species. However, we need to know the fitness consequences of variation in sociability across environmental contexts in order to better understand the maintenance of such variation. In order to achieve this, we investigated the relationship between sociability and survival, body growth and fecundity, in one-year-old individuals in semi-natural populations with varying density. 'Asocial' and 'social' lizards displayed different fitness outcomes in populations of different densities. Asocial lizards survived better in low-density populations, while social females reproduced better. Spatiotemporal variation in environmental conditions might thus be the process underlying the maintenance of these personality traits within a population. Finally, we also discuss the position of sociability in a more general individual behavioural pattern including boldness, exploration and aggressiveness.

  19. A trait database for marine copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Philipp; Payne, Mark R.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The trait-based approach is gaining increasing popularity in marine plankton ecology but the field urgently needs more and easier accessible trait data to advance. We compiled trait information on marine pelagic copepods, a major group of zooplankton, from the published literature and from experts and organized the data into a structured database. We collected 9306 records for 14 functional traits. Particular attention was given to body size, feeding mode, egg size, spawning strategy, respiration rate, and myelination (presence of nerve sheathing). Most records were reported at the species level, but some phylogenetically conserved traits, such as myelination, were reported at higher taxonomic levels, allowing the entire diversity of around 10 800 recognized marine copepod species to be covered with a few records. Aside from myelination, data coverage was highest for spawning strategy and body size, while information was more limited for quantitative traits related to reproduction and physiology. The database may be used to investigate relationships between traits, to produce trait biogeographies, or to inform and validate trait-based marine ecosystem models. The data can be downloaded from PANGAEA, http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.862968" target="_blank">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.862968.

  20. Plant functional traits and diversity in sand dune ecosystems across different biogeographic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, P.; Bergmeier, E.

    2016-07-01

    Plant species of a functional group respond similarly to environmental pressures and may be expected to act similarly on ecosystem processes and habitat properties. However, feasibility and applicability of functional groups in ecosystems across very different climatic regions have not yet been studied. In our approach we specified the functional groups in sand dune ecosystems of the Mediterranean, Hyrcanian and Irano-Turanian phytogeographic regions. We examined whether functional groups are more influenced by region or rather by habitat characteristics, and identified trait syndromes associated with common habitat types in sand dunes (mobile dunes, stabilized dunes, salt marshes, semi-wet sands, disturbed habitats). A database of 14 traits, 309 species and 314 relevés was examined and trait-species, trait-plot and species-plot matrices were built. Cluster analysis revealed similar plant functional groups in sand dune ecosystems across regions of very different species composition and climate. Specifically, our study showed that plant traits in sand dune ecosystems are grouped reflecting habitat affiliation rather than region and species pool. Environmental factors and constraints such as sand mobility, soil salinity, water availability, nutrient status and disturbance are more important for the occurrence and distribution of plant functional groups than regional belonging. Each habitat is shown to be equipped with specific functional groups and can be described by specific sets of traits. In restoration ecology the completeness of functional groups and traits in a site may serve as a guideline for maintaining or restoring the habitat.

  1. Five-factor trait instability in borderline relative to other personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Zanarini, Mary C

    2010-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is related to five-factor model (FFM) traits and can be characterized as involving psychological and behavioral instability. A previous study comparing the FFM trait stability across individuals with borderline and other personality disorders found that the BPD group tended to have lower stability, particularly on neuroticism and conscientiousness and the overall configuration of FFM profiles over 6 years, suggesting that associated psychological and behavioral variability may be due to trait variability. The current study was designed to test the degree to which these findings replicate in another sample using different diagnostic and trait measures and extending the measurement period to 10 years. Results are consistent with previous findings in showing lower differential (rank-order) stability on conscientiousness, greater mean-level decreases on neuroticism, lower individual-level stability on conscientiousness, and lower ipsative stability of trait profile configurations among those with BPD. However, unlike the previous study, no differences were observed for differential or individual-level neuroticism or mean-level conscientiousness. Overall, findings show that the instability characteristic of BPD extends into typically stable personality traits, and that it does so with some specificity in terms of which traits are affected and how instability manifests.

  2. 超微细磷矿粉包膜缓释肥的缓释特征及其对大白菜生理特性的影响%NUTRIENT RELEASE CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROLLED RELEASE FERTILIZERS COATED WITH SUPERFINE PHOSPHATE ROCK POWDER AND ITS EFFECTS ON PHYSIOLOGIC TRAITS OF CHINESE CABBAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯俊; 董元杰; 刘春生; 盖国胜; 邱现奎; 王全辉; 范振义

    2012-01-01

    Four types of controlled release fertilizers, CRF2 , CRF3 , CRF4 and CRF5, were prepared out of a common compound fertilizer (N-P2 O5-K2O: 15 - 15 - 15) by coating it with superfine phosphate rock powder ( SPRP) , which accounted for 0% , 40% , 50% and 60% of the total coating in mass, separately. Electronic microscope scanning, static water releasing, soil incubation and a field experiment were conduced to explore characteristics of their nutrient release and their effects on physiologic traits of Chinese cabbage. Results show that the use of superfine phosphate rock powder in coating markedly improved evenness and density of the surface of the coating and hence its capability of controlling nutrient release, and the effect increased with the proportion of the powder in coating. The four kinds of homemade SPRP-coated fertilizers had a nutrient releasing period ,58-68 days longer than the common compound fertilizer had but still shorter than 88 days the resin coated fertilizers ( CRF1) had. However, their apparent nitrogen release rates were approximate to that of CRF1. Besides, the four SPRP-coated fertilizers increased the chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate in the leaves of the plant during its middle and late growth stages, the activities of SOD, CAT and POD during its balling period, the biomass per head by 0. 17 ~0. 77kg, the yield by 6. 66% ~ 35.50% , and sugar/ acid ratio, soluble sugar content, and VC content of the head of the plant at the harvest stage. Comparison with CRF1 shows that they made no big differences in physiological traits of the plant. In terms of nutrient release and effects on physiological traits of the plant the four homemade fertilizers follow the order of CRF4≈CRF5 > CRF3 > CRF2.%以超微细磷矿粉为主要膜材料对普通复合肥(N-P2O5-K2O:15-15-15)进行包膜,制备了超微细磷矿粉分别占膜材料质量0%、40%、50%和60%比例的4种包膜缓释肥料,分别为CRF2、CRF3

  3. How do people respond to health news? The role of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Sara J; Jackson, Joshua J

    2016-06-01

    When a patient receives a health diagnosis, their response (e.g. changes in behaviour, seeking support) can have significant consequences for long-term health and well-being. Characteristics of health news are known to influence these responses, but personality traits have been omitted from this line of research. The current study examines the role of personality traits in predicting response to health news. Participants (N = 298) read scenarios in which they received health news that was manipulated to vary in severity, controllability and likelihood of outcomes. Participants then rated how likely they were to engage in a number of response behaviours. We examined the main effects and interaction of situational manipulations and personality traits on ratings of these behaviours. Both situations and personality traits influenced behavioural responses to health events. In particular, conscientiousness predicted taking action and seeking social support. Neuroticism predicted both maladaptive and adaptive behavioural responses, providing support for the 'healthy neurotic' hypothesis. Moreover, personality traits predicted best in weak (unlikely, controllable) situations. Both personality traits and situational characteristics contribute to behavioural responses to health news.

  4. Beware the angry leader: Trait anger and trait anxiety as predictors of petty tyranny

    OpenAIRE

    Kant, Leo; SKOGSTAD, Anders; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Einarsen, Ståle

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the general aggression model and theories of victimization and temperamental goodness-of-fit, we investigated trait anger and trait anxiety as antecedents of petty tyranny: employing a multilevel design with data from 84 sea captains and 177 crew members. Leader trait anger predicted subordinate-reported petty tyranny. Subordinate trait anxiety was associated with subordinate-reported petty tyranny. Theassociation between leader traitanger and subordinate-reported pe...

  5. Quantitative trait loci analysis of osteocondrosis traits in the elbow joint of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, O F; Busch, M E; Gregersen, V R;

    2010-01-01

    Osteochondrosis is a growth disorder in the cartilage of young animals and is characterised by lesions found in the cartilage and bone. This study identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with six osteochondrosis lesion traits in the elbow joint of finishing pigs. The traits were...

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available : It is often argued that a blend of personality characteristics is necessary for people to be successful in their career. Educators, researchers, and psychologists have been constantly searching for parsimonious set of variables that predicts patterns of students’ behaviours and their relationship to academic achievement .so this study was done to find out the relationship between Big Five personality traits and academic achievement in an undergraduate medical students (n=150 .In this study All personality traits are positively and significantly predicted students overall grade except Extraversion. Of all traits Openness and Neuroticism were positively related to student’s academic achievement than agreeableness and conscientiousness and are more important predictors of overall grade of the students. Extraversion was positively related (r =.150 but not statistically significant. The present results provide evidence supporting the Relationship between Personality Traits and Academic Performance in medical students.

  7. The flora phenotype ontology (FLOPO): tool for integrating morphological traits and phenotypes of vascular plants

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2016-11-14

    Background The systematic analysis of a large number of comparable plant trait data can support investigations into phylogenetics and ecological adaptation, with broad applications in evolutionary biology, agriculture, conservation, and the functioning of ecosystems. Floras, i.e., books collecting the information on all known plant species found within a region, are a potentially rich source of such plant trait data. Floras describe plant traits with a focus on morphology and other traits relevant for species identification in addition to other characteristics of plant species, such as ecological affinities, distribution, economic value, health applications, traditional uses, and so on. However, a key limitation in systematically analyzing information in Floras is the lack of a standardized vocabulary for the described traits as well as the difficulties in extracting structured information from free text. Results We have developed the Flora Phenotype Ontology (FLOPO), an ontology for describing traits of plant species found in Floras. We used the Plant Ontology (PO) and the Phenotype And Trait Ontology (PATO) to extract entity-quality relationships from digitized taxon descriptions in Floras, and used a formal ontological approach based on phenotype description patterns and automated reasoning to generate the FLOPO. The resulting ontology consists of 25,407 classes and is based on the PO and PATO. The classified ontology closely follows the structure of Plant Ontology in that the primary axis of classification is the observed plant anatomical structure, and more specific traits are then classified based on parthood and subclass relations between anatomical structures as well as subclass relations between phenotypic qualities. Conclusions The FLOPO is primarily intended as a framework based on which plant traits can be integrated computationally across all species and higher taxa of flowering plants. Importantly, it is not intended to replace established

  8. Fear inhibition in high trait anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.; Soeter, M.

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows f

  9. Morbidity associated with sickle cell trait carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Seck

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: This work has allowed us to find that the symptoms presented by sickle cell trait patients are dominated by painful events. This morbidity associated with porting sickle cell trait was not secondary to inflammatory or metabolic disorders or physical activity.

  10. A Simple Analysis of an Inherited Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Stanley; Keller, Elhannan

    1977-01-01

    Described is a classroom activity for analyzing an inherited human trait, the ability to tast phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). Formulas for analyzing gene frequency are given for classroom and neighborhood samples. Additional tables include statistics on the ability to taste PTC and other easily sampled human traits. (MA)

  11. A Multicomponent Latent Trait Model for Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embretson, Susan E.; Yang, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a noncompensatory latent trait model, the multicomponent latent trait model for diagnosis (MLTM-D), for cognitive diagnosis. In MLTM-D, a hierarchical relationship between components and attributes is specified to be applicable to permit diagnosis at two levels. MLTM-D is a generalization of the multicomponent latent trait…

  12. Sickle Cell Trait and the Athlete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.Randy Eichner

    2007-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS ·Sickle cell trait is an inherited condition of the oxygencarrying protein,hemoglobin,in red blood cells.This genetic trait is generally benign,but during maximal exercise,the oxygen levels in muscles can decrease sufficiently to cause some of the red cells to change from the normal disk shape to a crescent or sickle shape.

  13. Towards an evolutionary ecology of sexual traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwallis, Charlie K; Uller, Tobias

    2010-03-01

    Empirical studies of sexual traits continue to generate conflicting results, leading to a growing awareness that the current understanding of this topic is limited. Here we argue that this is because studies of sexual traits fail to encompass three important features of evolution. First, sexual traits evolve via natural selection of which sexual selection is just one part. Second, selection on sexual traits fluctuates in strength, direction and form due to spatial and temporal environmental heterogeneity. Third, phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and generates selection and responses to selection within and across generations. A move from purely gene-focused theories of sexual selection towards research that explicitly integrates development, ecology and evolution is necessary to break the stasis in research on sexual traits.

  14. Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community...... and ecosystem models is necessary to generate realistic predictions on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems but remains extremely challenging. We propose that the use of trait-based approaches is a promising way to reduce complexity while retaining realism in developing novel descriptions of zooplankton...... traits, such as body size and motility, transcend several functions and are major determinants of zooplankton ecological strategies. Future developments of trait-based approaches to zooplankton should assemble a comprehensive matrix of key traits for diverse groups and explore it for general patterns...

  15. Genetics of qualitative traits in domesticated chia (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, J P; Provance, M C

    2002-01-01

    In Salvia hispanica L., several changes in qualitative characters, including seed coat color, stem pigmentation, and shattering, have evolved with cultivation and domestication. Three F(2) segregating generations from crosses between wild and domesticated parents were scored for three qualitative traits. A single recessive gene, designated scc, was found to govern the white seed characteristic. A single dominant gene, designated SSP, was found to control striated stem pigmentation. A complete dominance of open calyx over closed calyx was observed in F(1) generations and small numbers of plants with closed calyxes were observed in F(2) generations, not conforming to Mendelian ratios. For this non-shattering trait, a complementation test was conducted between two lines representative of geographically and morphologically divergent domesticated varieties. Complementary gene action was not observed in any F(1) plants, and all F(2) plants were homogeneous with respect to the trait, suggesting the same genetic control for non-shattering among domesticated varieties. An analysis of limited data for linkage of SSP and scc indicated that the two loci segregate independently.

  16. Landscape heterogeneity as an ecological filter of species traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duflot, Rémi; Georges, Romain; Ernoult, Aude; Aviron, Stéphanie; Burel, Françoise

    2014-04-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is a major driver of biodiversity in agricultural areas and represents an important parameter in conservation strategies. However, most landscape ecology studies measure gamma diversity of a single habitat type, despite the assessment of multiple habitats at a landscape scale being more appropriate. This study aimed to determine the effects of landscape composition and spatial configuration on life-history trait distribution in carabid beetle and herbaceous plant communities. Here, we assessed the gamma diversity of carabid beetles and plants by sampling three dominant habitats (woody habitats, grasslands and crops) across 20 landscapes in western France. RLQ and Fourth Corner three-table analyses were used to assess the association of dispersal, phenology, reproduction and trophic level traits with landscape characteristics. Landscape composition and configuration were both significant in explaining functional composition. Carabid beetles and plants showed similar response regarding phenology, i.e. open landscapes were associated with earlier breeding species. Carabid beetle dispersal traits exhibited the strongest relationship with landscape structure; for instance, large and apterous species preferentially inhabited woody landscapes, whereas small and macropterous species preferentially inhabited open landscapes. Heavy seeded plant species dominated in intensified agricultural landscapes (high % crops), possibly due to the removal of weeds (which are usually lightweight seeded species). The results of this study emphasise the roles of landscape composition and configuration as ecological filters and the importance of preserving a range of landscape types to maintain functional biodiversity at regional scales.

  17. The influences of family environment on personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, K; Takaishi, J; Tatsuta, K; Katayama, H; Iwase, M; Yorifuji, K; Takeda, M

    2000-02-01

    In order to clarify the influences of family environment on the development of personality traits, 150 children (104 males and 46 females, mean age 13.2 +/- 2.4 years) who had been interviewed at the Child Guidance Clinic in Osaka were investigated. From 13 behavioral characteristics (activity, talkativeness, sociability, social skills, rule-keeping, will, aggression, emotional control, imagination, anxiety, maturity, intelligence, and neuroticism), factor analysis identified three personality traits: extraversion, maturity, and intellect. The effects of family environment (maternal and paternal participation in child rearing before and after 4years of age, child-rearing style, parental relationship, sibling relationship, number of siblings, birth order, and socioeconomic status) on these personality traits were examined based on a structural equation model. The results found, first, that extraversion was negatively associated with overprotection/interference and with maternal participation in child rearing. Maturity correlated with high socioeconomic status, appropriate child-rearing style, and paternal participation in child rearing. Intellect was related to high socioeconomic status and maternal participation in child rearing. Second, path analysis with selected variables revealed that 8% of variance in extraversion, 14% in maturity, and 10% in intellect was due to family environment. Third, children with high introversion or high intellect had stronger influences from family environment than did those with high extraversion or low intellect.

  18. VIDEO GAMES CONTRIBUTION TO STUDENTS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL TRAITS AND INTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra PERJU-MITRAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the popularity of video games and the influences they may pose on individuals’ psychology and behavior, the present study analyses whether video game playing among university students can be correlated with traits associated with an entrepreneur’s profile, which may, in turn, lead to an entrepreneurial intent. The results of the study reveal that students who do play video games show a higher entrepreneurial intent, this relationship being mediated by several psychological and cognitive characteristics. With regards to the psychological and cognitive factors studied, the results also suggest that a favorable attitude towards playing videogames fosters students’ entrepreneurial potential and has a positive effect on the entrepreneurial intent.

  19. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R;

    1989-01-01

    as controls. Four clinical meaningful dimensions of included personality traits were identified: ixoide, ideational, obsessive-compulsive and affective features. Analyses based on the Rasch model approved of all dimensions except for affective features. The epilepsy group obtained the highest scores on all 3......Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...... dysfunction in the epilepsy group, the mere presence of a chronic disorder with potential social stigmatization influences personality....

  20. Trait canalization analysis of water quality, temperature, and developmental associations with early life stages of two fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas P

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of trait robustness based on environmental fluctuation in ontogenetic life stages are needed to evaluate stability and trait response during critical developmental events. Hardness, alkalinity, acidity, light intensity, and thermal differences were studied for trait canalization variation in morphometric, meristic, ontogenetic processes, and pigment characteristics. Trait canalization was observed with no statistical differences (p > 0.05) in mixed random two-way ANOVA comparisons between various block and treatment effects for hardness, alkalinity or acidity. Thermal block variation differences in six measures, including mandible length, yolk sac length, midpostanal depth, and head width, incubation, and hatching length, varied significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with declining temperatures. Water quality and thermal attributes exhibited trait canalization and did not increase character state variation in the early life stage morphological expression, which result in stable phenotypic inheritance rather than variable environmental conditions during embryonic and larval development.

  1. Predictors of leadership: The usual suspects and the suspect traits

    OpenAIRE

    Antonakis, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, I review literature on traits (i.e., individual differences) and their links to leader outcomes. I present an integrated model, the ascription-actuality trait theory, to explain two routes to leader outcomes that stem from traits: the route that objectively matters and the route that appears to matter but objectively may not. I discuss the history of trait research and provide criteria by which we should judge the validity of trait models. Finally, I review trait models that ...

  2. Convergent elevation trends in canopy chemical traits of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E

    2016-06-01

    The functional biogeography of tropical forests is expressed in foliar chemicals that are key physiologically based predictors of plant adaptation to changing environmental conditions including climate. However, understanding the degree to which environmental filters sort the canopy chemical characteristics of forest canopies remains a challenge. Here, we report on the elevation and soil-type dependence of forest canopy chemistry among 75 compositionally and environmentally distinct forests in nine regions, with a total of 7819 individual trees representing 3246 species collected, identified and assayed for foliar traits. We assessed whether there are consistent relationships between canopy chemical traits and both elevation and soil type, and evaluated the general role of phylogeny in mediating patterns of canopy traits within and across communities. Chemical trait variation and partitioning suggested a general model based on four interconnected findings. First, geographic variation at the soil-Order level, expressing broad changes in fertility, underpins major shifts in foliar phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca). Second, elevation-dependent shifts in average community leaf dry mass per area (LMA), chlorophyll, and carbon allocation (including nonstructural carbohydrates) are most strongly correlated with changes in foliar Ca. Third, chemical diversity within communities is driven by differences between species rather than by plasticity within species. Finally, elevation- and soil-dependent changes in N, LMA and leaf carbon allocation are mediated by canopy compositional turnover, whereas foliar P and Ca are driven more by changes in site conditions than by phylogeny. Our findings have broad implications for understanding the global ecology of humid tropical forests, and their functional responses to changing climate.

  3. REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS SELECTION IN NELORE BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Luis Moreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding programs of beef cattle in Brazil are including new features, mainly related to reproductive efficiency.Thus, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of selection and quantify genetic gain for these traits in herds. This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits used in breeding programs for Nelore beef cattle. The traits studied were the scrotal circumference (SC at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450, age at first calving (AFC and gestation length, as a cow trait (GLcow and a calf trait (GLcalf. The (covariance components were obtained with the Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methodology in a single and double-trait analysis of the animal model. For scrotal circumference (SC365 and SC450, positive and favorable genetic gains were observed. For AFC, GLcow and GLcalf, the trends were favorable for selection, but without significant genetic gain. Selection for large SC may reduce AFC and improve female reproductive efficiency. The selection for reproductive traits (SC365, SC450, AFC and GL may improve reproductive and productive efficiency of Nelore cattle, if used as a selection criterion.

  4. The characteristics of successful entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokrajčić Dragana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the economic, psychological and social-behavioral theories of the entrepreneur in order to determine the characteristics of a successful entrepreneur. The major contribution of economic theories of the entrepreneur is better understanding of the entrepreneur and his/her role in economic development. The psychological characteristic theory of entrepreneur argues that successful entrepreneurs possess certain personality traits that mark them out as special, and tries to determine and to evaluate these special traits. The social-behavioral theories stress the influence of experience, knowledge, social environment and ability to learn on the entrepreneur’s success as well as his/her personality traits. Neither of the examined theories of entrepreneur gives a satisfactory explanation of the entrepreneur’s success, but taken as a whole, they can explain key factors of entrepreneur’s success. The entrepreneur’s success comes about as a result of his/her personality traits, ability to learn from experience and ability to adjust to his/her environment.

  5. iTAG Barley: A grade 7-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the basic concepts in biology is that an organism’s physical traits are controlled by its DNA. In other words, one’s genotype for a particular trait controls the phenotype that is expressed. Yet, this connection between DNA and physical characteristic is not always made. The ‘Inheritance o...

  6. Beyond traits: personality as intersubjective themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The author argues that research in the idiographic tradition is more conducive to effective clinical work than the uncritical adoption of specific "evidence-based therapies" for discrete symptomatic disorders. She views pressures on therapists to adopt evidence-based therapies without consideration of individual differences and personal subjectivity as the misapplication of a research paradigm to the clinical situation. Reviewing some recent empirical work on individuality and therapeutic process, she critiques efforts to formulate personality diagnosis on the basis of externally observable traits without attention to internal experience, and she contends that intrapsychic themes account for personality differences more powerfully than traits, even when traits are construed dimensionally.

  7. Predicting early academic achievement: The role of higher-versus lower-order personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupančič Maja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explored the role of children’s (N = 193 individual differences and parental characteristics at the beginning of the first year of schooling in predicting students’ attainment of academic standards at the end of the year. Special attention was paid to children’s personality as perceived by the teachers’ assistants. Along with parents’ education, parenting practices and first-graders’ cognitive ability, the incremental predictive power of children’s higher-order (robust personality traits was compared to the contribution of lower-order (specific traits in explaining academic achievement. The specific traits provided a somewhat more accurate prediction than the robust traits. Unique contributions of maternal authoritative parenting, children’s cognitive ability, and personality to academic achievement were established. The ratings of first-graders’ conscientiousness (a higher-order trait improved the prediction of academic achievement based on parenting and cognitive ability by 12%, whereas assistant teacher’s perceived children’s intelligence and low antagonism (lower-order traits improved the prediction by 17%.

  8. Pathological personality traits among patients with absent, current, and remitted substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E; Sanislow, Charles A; Grilo, Carlos M; Ansell, Emily B; McGlashan, Thomas H; Markowitz, John C; Pinto, Anthony; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M Tracie; Gunderson, John G; Zanarini, Mary C; Stout, Robert L

    2011-11-01

    Personality traits may provide underlying risk factors for and/or sequelae to substance use disorders (SUDs). In this study Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits were compared in a clinical sample (N=704, age 18-45) with current, past, or no historical alcohol or non-alcohol substance use disorders (AUD and NASUD) as assessed by DSM-IV semi-structured interview. Results corroborated previous research in showing associations of negative temperament and disinhibition to SUD, highlighting the importance of these traits for indicating substance use proclivity or the chronic effects of substance use. Certain traits (manipulativeness, self-harm, disinhibition, and impulsivity for AUD, and disinhibition and exhibitionism for NASUD) were higher among individuals with current relative to past diagnoses, perhaps indicating concurrent effects of substance abuse on personality. The positive temperament characteristics detachment and entitlement distinguished AUDs and NASUDs, respectively, perhaps clarifying why this higher order trait tends to show limited relations to SUD generally. These findings suggest the importance of systematically integrating pathological and normative traits in reference to substance-related diagnosis.

  9. High and Low Trait Anger, Angry Thoughts, and the Recognition of Anger Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Olán, Raúl J; Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Hernández Guzmán, Laura; Jurado Cárdenas, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This research had two goals: (1) it tested hypotheses of the State-Trait Model of anger, and (2) it explored characteristics that may distinguish individuals with high trait anger who recognize problems with their anger from those who do not recognize anger problems. Regarding the first goal, findings supported three hypotheses tested. In particular, compared to those low in trait anger, individuals with high trait anger reported: (a) more intense anger (intensity hypothesis), p anger expression (anger-out), p anger suppression (anger-in), p anger control-in), p anger control-out), p anger: those who identified anger as a personal problem and wanted help, and those who did not identify anger as a personal issue. As a result, compared to those who did not report anger problems, those who reported anger problems demonstrated a higher overall propensity to experience anger (i.e., higher trait anger), p anger suppression and harboring grudges (anger-in), p anger-control-in), p anger-control-out), p anger or anger problem recognition. Findings were discussed in terms of State-Trait Theory and implications for anger interventions.

  10. Welcome to Estonia! From the Folk Theory of Emotions and Character Traits to Brand EstoniaWelcome to Estonia! From the Folk Theory of Emotions and Character Traits to Brand Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heili Orav

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to (reconstruct the possible correlation of two folk theories of the Estonians – the theories of character traits and emotions. The case study is based on two separately conducted experiments: Heili Orav collected Estonian lexis on characteristic personality traits and Ene Vainik collected emotion lexicon. The authors attempt to determine the relationship between töökas ‘diligent’ or ‘hard-working’ as the most prototypical personality trait and viha ‘anger’ as the most typical emotion of the Estonians.

  11. Life history traits as predictors of plant rarity, with particular reference to hemiparasitic Orobanchaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Kwak, MM

    2005-01-01

    We made a comparison between life history and reproductive characteristics of a group of Dutch rare (30) and common (105) plant species, all dicotyledonous and insect-visited forbs. The traits life span, clonality, breeding system, seed production, seed dispersal, and soil seed bank longevity are co

  12. Traits and states at work: lure, risk and personality as predictors of occupational crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, van Jean-Louis; Vries, de Reinout E.

    2016-01-01

    This study linked individual characteristics to proximate factors operating in the moment of decision-making to predict occupational crime. We distinguished between people’s task-related conscience, as embodied by the Conscientiousness personality trait, and a more general moral conscience as embodi

  13. How Are Trait Emotional Intelligence and Social Skills Related to Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Trait emotional intelligence construct shifted the interest in personality research to the investigation of the effect of global personality characteristics on behaviour. The Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) movement emphasised the cultivation of social skills for positive relationships. In this paper we investigate the role of students' global…

  14. Successful Graduate Students: The Roles of Personality Traits and Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grehan, Patrick M.; Flanagan, Rosemary; Malgady, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    Given the complex role of school psychologists, it is in the interest of stakeholders to identify characteristics related to student success in graduate training, which is suggestive of their effectiveness as practitioners. This study explores the relationship of personality traits and Emotional Intelligence (EI) to graduate students' performance…

  15. How Are Trait Emotional Intelligence and Social Skills Related to Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Trait emotional intelligence construct shifted the interest in personality research to the investigation of the effect of global personality characteristics on behaviour. The Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) movement emphasised the cultivation of social skills for positive relationships. In this paper we investigate the role of students'…

  16. Leaf economics traits predict litter decomposition of tropical plants and differ among land use types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.A.; Carreño Rocabado, G.; Poorter, L.

    2011-01-01

    1. Decomposition is a key ecosystem process that determines nutrient and carbon cycling. Individual leaf and litter characteristics are good predictors of decomposition rates within biomes worldwide, but knowledge of which traits are the best predictors for tropical species remains scarce. Also, the

  17. Molecular Diagnostics for Complex Pest and Disease Resistance and Tuber Quality Traits: Concept, Achievements and Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebhardt, C.; Urbany, C.; Li, L.; Stich, B.; Caldas Paulo, M.J.; Draffehn, A.; Ballvora, A.

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the concept of molecular diagnostic of complex traits related to pest and disease resistance and to tuber quality of potato, and describe recent achievements and perspectives. Many potato characteristics are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Knowing the genes and

  18. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  19. Relations of Distinct Psychopathic Personality Traits with Anxiety and Fear: Findings from Offenders and Non-Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Steven M; Mitchell, Ian J; Satherley, Rose-Marie; Beech, Anthony R; Rotshtein, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Early descriptions of psychopathy emphasise fearlessness and a lack of nervousness or anxiety as key characteristics of the disorder. However, conflicting evidence suggests that anxiety may be positively correlated with some aspects of the psychopathy construct. This position may seem somewhat paradoxical when considered alongside impaired processing of fear related stimuli in psychopathic personality. The aim of the current paper was to examine the distinct relations of callous, egocentric, and antisocial psychopathic traits with measures of anxiety and social anxiety in samples of non-offenders (Study 1) and violent offenders (Study 2). In Study 2 we also used an emotion recognition task to examine fearful face recognition. In Studies 1 and 2 we showed distinct and opposite significant relationships of egocentric and antisocial psychopathic traits with trait anxiety. Thus, while trait anxiety was negatively predicted by egocentric traits, it was predicted in a positive direction by antisocial traits in both samples. In Study 2 we found that callous traits were predictive of greater impairments in fearful face recognition. These findings suggest that anxiety and fear are distinguishable constructs in relation to psychopathic personality traits, and are discussed in terms of potentially separable mechanisms for these two constructs.

  20. Trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna communities as explained by pesticides and water chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieromina, O; Musters, C J M; Bodegom, P M; Peijnenburg, W J G M; Vijver, M G

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing functional species' characteristics (species traits) that represent physiological, life history and morphological characteristics of species help understanding the impacts of various stressors on aquatic communities at field conditions. This research aimed to study the combined effects of pesticides and other environmental factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, floating macrophytes cover, phosphate, nitrite, and nitrate) on the trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna communities. To this purpose, a field inventory was performed in a flower bulb growing area of the Netherlands with significant variation in pesticides pressures. Macrofauna community composition, water chemistry parameters and pesticide concentrations in ditches next to flower bulb fields were determined. Trait modalities of nine traits (feeding mode, respiration mode, locomotion type, resistance form, reproduction mode, life stage, voltinism, saprobity, maximum body size) likely to indicate pesticides impacts were analyzed. According to a redundancy analysis, phosphate -and not pesticides- constituted the main factor structuring the trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna. The functional composition could be ascribed for 2-4 % to pesticides, and for 3-11 % to phosphate. The lack of trait responses to pesticides may indicate that species may have used alternative strategies to adapt to ambient pesticides stress. Biomass of animals exhibiting trait modalities related to feeding by predation and grazing, presence of diapause form or dormancy, reproduction by free clutches and ovoviviparity, life stage of larvae and pupa, was negatively correlated to the concentration of phosphate. Hence, despite the high pesticide pollution in the area, variation in nutrient-related stressors seems to be the dominant driver of the functional composition of aquatic macrofauna assembly in agricultural ditches.

  1. The relationship between temperament and autistic traits in a non-clinical students sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    Full Text Available Since temperament affects the development of social behaviours and interpersonal relations, the possible links between autistic traits and temperament are of particular interest. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships between autistic traits and temperamental characteristics in the framework of the Regulative Temperament Theory by Strelau, and the Emotionality, Activity and Sociability theory by Buss and Plomin, with particular emphasis on gender differences. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ, Formal Characteristics of Behaviour--Temperament Inventory and Temperament Survey for Adults were administered. The participants were 593 university students, including 364 females and 229 males. Results showed positive correlations between autistic traits and Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress, Fear and Anger, and negative correlations with Activity, Briskness, Endurance and Sociability. The results of multiple regression analyses involving the Autism Spectrum Quotient score as a dependent measure were different for females and males. Results of exploratory PCA analysis showed that AQ score, Sociability and Activity loaded one factor (with AQ loading being opposite to two others. High AQ scorers demonstrated higher Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress and Anger, and lower Briskness, Endurance, Activity and Sociability as compared to norms for the general population. In this study we showed that temperament measures were able to identify items that correlated in parts with autistic traits, while other items were obverse. The relationships between temperament and autistic traits differ slightly between genders. We assume that with regard to the broader autism phenotype, temperaments might be helpful in characterizing healthy control samples.

  2. A "fuzzy"-logic language for encoding multiple physical traits in biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszawski, Shira; Netzer, Ravit; Tawfik, Dan S; Fleishman, Sarel J

    2014-12-12

    To carry out their activities, biological macromolecules balance different physical traits, such as stability, interaction affinity, and selectivity. How such often opposing traits are encoded in a macromolecular system is critical to our understanding of evolutionary processes and ability to design new molecules with desired functions. We present a framework for constraining design simulations to balance different physical characteristics. Each trait is represented by the equilibrium fractional occupancy of the desired state relative to its alternatives, ranging from none to full occupancy, and the different traits are combined using Boolean operators to effect a "fuzzy"-logic language for encoding any combination of traits. In another paper, we presented a new combinatorial backbone design algorithm AbDesign where the fuzzy-logic framework was used to optimize protein backbones and sequences for both stability and binding affinity in antibody-design simulation. We now extend this framework and find that fuzzy-logic design simulations reproduce sequence and structure design principles seen in nature to underlie exquisite specificity on the one hand and multispecificity on the other hand. The fuzzy-logic language is broadly applicable and could help define the space of tolerated and beneficial mutations in natural biomolecular systems and design artificial molecules that encode complex characteristics.

  3. The relationship between temperament and autistic traits in a non-clinical students sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, Ewa; Kawa, Rafał; Danielewicz, Dorota; Pisula, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Since temperament affects the development of social behaviours and interpersonal relations, the possible links between autistic traits and temperament are of particular interest. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships between autistic traits and temperamental characteristics in the framework of the Regulative Temperament Theory by Strelau, and the Emotionality, Activity and Sociability theory by Buss and Plomin, with particular emphasis on gender differences. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Formal Characteristics of Behaviour--Temperament Inventory and Temperament Survey for Adults were administered. The participants were 593 university students, including 364 females and 229 males. Results showed positive correlations between autistic traits and Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress, Fear and Anger, and negative correlations with Activity, Briskness, Endurance and Sociability. The results of multiple regression analyses involving the Autism Spectrum Quotient score as a dependent measure were different for females and males. Results of exploratory PCA analysis showed that AQ score, Sociability and Activity loaded one factor (with AQ loading being opposite to two others). High AQ scorers demonstrated higher Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress and Anger, and lower Briskness, Endurance, Activity and Sociability as compared to norms for the general population. In this study we showed that temperament measures were able to identify items that correlated in parts with autistic traits, while other items were obverse. The relationships between temperament and autistic traits differ slightly between genders. We assume that with regard to the broader autism phenotype, temperaments might be helpful in characterizing healthy control samples.

  4. Giants, dwarfs and the environment - metamorphic trait plasticity in the common frog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Grözinger

    Full Text Available In order to understand adaptation processes and population dynamics, it is central to know how environmental parameters influence performance of organisms within populations, including their phenotypes. The impact of single or few particular parameters in concert was often assessed in laboratory and mesocosm experiments. However, under natural conditions, with many biotic and abiotic factors potentially interacting, outcomes on phenotypic changes may be different. To study the potential environmental impact on realized phenotypic plasticity within a natural population, we assessed metamorphic traits (developmental time, size and body mass in an amphibian species, the European common frog Rana temporaria, since a larval amphibians are known to exhibit high levels of phenotypic plasticity of these traits in response to habitat parameters and, b the traits' features may strongly influence individuals' future performance and fitness. In 2007 we studied these metamorphic traits in 18 ponds spread over an area of 28 km2. A subset of six ponds was reinvestigated in 2009 and 2010. This study revealed locally high variances in metamorphic traits in this presumed generalist species. We detected profound differences between metamorphing froglets (up to factor ten; both between and within ponds, on a very small geographic scale. Parameters such as predation and competition as well as many other pond characteristics, generally expected to have high impact on development, could not be related to the trait differences. We observed high divergence of patterns of mass at metamorphosis between ponds, but no detectable pattern when metamorphic traits were compared between ponds and years. Our results indicate that environment alone, i.e. as experienced by tadpoles sharing the same breeding pond, can only partly explain the variability of metamorphic traits observed. This emphasizes the importance to assess variability of reaction norms on the individual level to

  5. Survey of the Heritability and Sparse Architecture of Gene Expression Traits across Human Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Heather E.; Shah, Kaanan P.; Brenner, Jonathon; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Aquino-Michaels, Keston; Cox, Nancy J.; Nicolae, Dan L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of gene expression traits is key to elucidating the underlying mechanisms of complex traits. Here, for the first time, we perform a systematic survey of the heritability and the distribution of effect sizes across all representative tissues in the human body. We find that local h2 can be relatively well characterized with 59% of expressed genes showing significant h2 (FDR compute distal h2. Bayesian Sparse Linear Mixed Model (BSLMM) analysis provides strong evidence that the genetic contribution to local expression traits is dominated by a handful of genetic variants rather than by the collective contribution of a large number of variants each of modest size. In other words, the local architecture of gene expression traits is sparse rather than polygenic across all 40 tissues (from DGN and GTEx) examined. This result is confirmed by the sparsity of optimal performing gene expression predictors via elastic net modeling. To further explore the tissue context specificity, we decompose the expression traits into cross-tissue and tissue-specific components using a novel Orthogonal Tissue Decomposition (OTD) approach. Through a series of simulations we show that the cross-tissue and tissue-specific components are identifiable via OTD. Heritability and sparsity estimates of these derived expression phenotypes show similar characteristics to the original traits. Consistent properties relative to prior GTEx multi-tissue analysis results suggest that these traits reflect the expected biology. Finally, we apply this knowledge to develop prediction models of gene expression traits for all tissues. The prediction models, heritability, and prediction performance R2 for original and decomposed expression phenotypes are made publicly available (https://github.com/hakyimlab/PrediXcan). PMID:27835642

  6. Darwin's Difficulties and Students' Struggles with Trait Loss: Cognitive-Historical Parallelisms in Evolutionary Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.

    2014-05-01

    Although historical changes in scientific ideas sometimes display striking similarities with students' conceptual progressions, some scholars have cautioned that such similarities lack meaningful commonalities. In the history of evolution, while Darwin and his contemporaries often used natural selection to explain evolutionary trait gain or increase, they struggled to use it to convincingly account for cases of trait loss or decrease. This study examines Darwin's evolutionary writings about trait gain and loss in the Origin of Species (On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. D. Appleton, New York, 1859) and compares them to written evolutionary explanations for trait gain and loss in a large (n > 500), cross-cultural and cross-sectional sample (novices and experts from the USA and Korea). Findings indicate that significantly more students and experts applied natural selection to cases of trait gain, but like Darwin and his contemporaries, they more often applied `use and disuse' and `inheritance of acquired characteristics' to episodes of trait loss. Although the parallelism between Darwin's difficulties and students' struggles with trait loss are striking, significant differences also characterize explanatory model structure. Overall, however, students and scientists struggles to explain trait loss—which is a very common phenomenon in the history of life—appear to transcend time, place, and level of biological expertise. The significance of these findings for evolution education are discussed; in particular, the situated nature of biological reasoning, and the important role that the history of science can play in understanding cognitive constraints on science learning.

  7. A bivariate quantitative genetic model for a threshold trait and a survival trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damgaard Lars

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many of the functional traits considered in animal breeding can be analyzed as threshold traits or survival traits with examples including disease traits, conformation scores, calving difficulty and longevity. In this paper we derive and implement a bivariate quantitative genetic model for a threshold character and a survival trait that are genetically and environmentally correlated. For the survival trait, we considered the Weibull log-normal animal frailty model. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was adopted in which model parameters were augmented with unobserved liabilities associated with the threshold trait. The fully conditional posterior distributions associated with parameters of the threshold trait reduced to well known distributions. For the survival trait the two baseline Weibull parameters were updated jointly by a Metropolis-Hastings step. The remaining model parameters with non-normalized fully conditional distributions were updated univariately using adaptive rejection sampling. The Gibbs sampler was tested in a simulation study and illustrated in a joint analysis of calving difficulty and longevity of dairy cattle. The simulation study showed that the estimated marginal posterior distributions covered well and placed high density to the true values used in the simulation of data. The data analysis of calving difficulty and longevity showed that genetic variation exists for both traits. The additive genetic correlation was moderately favorable with marginal posterior mean equal to 0.37 and 95% central posterior credibility interval ranging between 0.11 and 0.61. Therefore, this study suggests that selection for improving one of the two traits will be beneficial for the other trait as well.

  8. A bivariate quantitative genetic model for a threshold trait and a survival trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Lars Holm; Korsgaard, Inge Riis

    2006-01-01

    Many of the functional traits considered in animal breeding can be analyzed as threshold traits or survival traits with examples including disease traits, conformation scores, calving difficulty and longevity. In this paper we derive and implement a bivariate quantitative genetic model for a threshold character and a survival trait that are genetically and environmentally correlated. For the survival trait, we considered the Weibull log-normal animal frailty model. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was adopted in which model parameters were augmented with unobserved liabilities associated with the threshold trait. The fully conditional posterior distributions associated with parameters of the threshold trait reduced to well known distributions. For the survival trait the two baseline Weibull parameters were updated jointly by a Metropolis-Hastings step. The remaining model parameters with non-normalized fully conditional distributions were updated univariately using adaptive rejection sampling. The Gibbs sampler was tested in a simulation study and illustrated in a joint analysis of calving difficulty and longevity of dairy cattle. The simulation study showed that the estimated marginal posterior distributions covered well and placed high density to the true values used in the simulation of data. The data analysis of calving difficulty and longevity showed that genetic variation exists for both traits. The additive genetic correlation was moderately favorable with marginal posterior mean equal to 0.37 and 95% central posterior credibility interval ranging between 0.11 and 0.61. Therefore, this study suggests that selection for improving one of the two traits will be beneficial for the other trait as well.

  9. Stereotypes about sex related personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Avsec

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In present research, stereotypes about sex differences in personality traits were examined. They were compared to traits, included in two masculinity and femininity questionnaires and to big five factors. Results indicate the presence of gender stereotypes and their similarity to stereotypes, discovered in other studies. The majority of attributes that comprise stereotypes about average man pertain to assertive and controlling tendency, but in stereotypes about average woman caring and nurturant qualities predominate.

  10. Consumer preferences for apple quality traits

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the marginal values consumers place on apple quality traits as part of a larger SCRI project whose goal is to increase the long-term economic sustainability of Rosacea crops by increasing the U.S. per-capita consumption of fruits. Information on consumers’ preferences and the value they place on fruit quality is important and may help breeders better establish trait priorities and make the breeding process more efficient. We conducted sensory tasting tests and experime...

  11. Fear inhibition in high trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Merel; Soeter, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study--High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n = 32. We replicated earlier findings that a transfer of conditioned inhibition for startle responses requires contingency awareness. However, contrary to the fear inhibition hypothesis, our data suggest that high trait anxious individuals show a normal fear inhibition of conditioned startle responding. Only at the cognitive level the high trait anxious individuals showed evidence for impaired inhibitory learning of the threat cue. Together with other findings where impaired fear inhibition was only observed in those PTSD patients who were either high on hyperarousal symptoms or with current anxiety symptoms, we question whether impaired fear inhibition is a biomarker for the development of anxiety disorders.

  12. Using IRT Trait Estimates versus Summated Scores in Predicting Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Stone, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that item response theory trait estimates should be used in analyses rather than number right (NR) or summated scale (SS) scores. Thissen and Orlando postulated that IRT scaling tends to produce trait estimates that are linearly related to the underlying trait being measured. Therefore, IRT trait estimates can be more useful…

  13. Personality Traits and Investment Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I construct a unique dataset to test the role of individual characteristics in affecting the investor behaviour. In particular, I present two empirical research papers that investigate trading patterns unlikely to be driven by rational models, and a literature review in which are summarized the main findings within the new field of “personality finance”. Using an experimental analysis that combine a trading simulation with a Big-Five personality questionnaire, Paper 1 and Paper...

  14. Crossbreeding parameters for fertility traits in a rotational crossbreeding between Landrace and Pi6train pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕; 傅衍; 牛冬; 阮晖

    2002-01-01

    The reproduction characteristics of 343 sows in six different breeding gxoups wexe anal3nmd to estimate the crcesbreeding parameters. The results indicated that the ovulation rate and the weights of uterus and ovary are mainly determined by the additive genetic effects while the nonadditive genetic effects play an important role in embryonal traits and litter perfcm-nance. The heterosis effects in the first litter are larger than those in the second litter becatme of heterosis ac environment interaction. The results also showed the existence of a highly significant maternal heterosis effect on the fertility traits of sows.

  15. Organic dairy farmers put more emphasis on production traits than conventional farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagboom, M; Kargo, M; Edwards, D; Sørensen, A C; Thomasen, J R; Hjortø, L

    2016-12-01

    The overall aim of this research was to characterize the preferences of Danish dairy farmers for improvements in breeding goal traits. The specific aims were (1) to investigate the presence of heterogeneity in farmers' preferences by means of cluster analysis, and (2) to associate these clusters with herd characteristics and production systems (organic or conventional). We established a web-based survey to characterize the preferences of farmers for improvements in 10 traits, by means of pairwise rankings. We also collected a considerable number of herd characteristics. Overall, 106 organic farmers and 290 conventional farmers answered the survey, all with Holstein cows. The most preferred trait improvement was cow fertility, and the least preferred was calving difficulty. By means of cluster analysis, we identified 4 distinct clusters of farmers and named them according to the trait improvements that were most preferred: Health and Fertility, Production and Udder Health, Survival, and Fertility and Production. Some herd characteristics differed between clusters; for example, farmers in the Survival cluster had twice the percentage of dead cows in their herds compared with the other clusters, and farmers that gave the highest ranking to cow and heifer fertility had the lowest conception rate in their herds. This finding suggests that farmers prefer to improve traits that are more problematic in their herd. The proportion of organic and conventional farmers also differed between clusters; we found a higher proportion of organic farmers in the production-based clusters. When we analyzed organic and conventional data separately, we found that organic farmers ranked production traits higher than conventional farmers. The herds of organic farmers had lower milk yields and lower disease incidences, which might explain the high ranking of milk production and the low ranking of disease traits. This study shows that heterogeneity exists in farmers' preferences for

  16. Trait stacking via targeted genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, William M; Sastry-Dent, Lakshmi; Welter, Mary E; Murray, Michael G; Zeitler, Bryan; Amora, Rainier; Corbin, David R; Miles, Rebecca R; Arnold, Nicole L; Strange, Tonya L; Simpson, Matthew A; Cao, Zehui; Carroll, Carley; Pawelczak, Katherine S; Blue, Ryan; West, Kim; Rowland, Lynn M; Perkins, Douglas; Samuel, Pon; Dewes, Cristie M; Shen, Liu; Sriram, Shreedharan; Evans, Steven L; Rebar, Edward J; Zhang, Lei; Gregory, Phillip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Webb, Steven R; Petolino, Joseph F

    2013-12-01

    Modern agriculture demands crops carrying multiple traits. The current paradigm of randomly integrating and sorting independently segregating transgenes creates severe downstream breeding challenges. A versatile, generally applicable solution is hereby provided: the combination of high-efficiency targeted genome editing driven by engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) with modular 'trait landing pads' (TLPs) that allow 'mix-and-match', on-demand transgene integration and trait stacking in crop plants. We illustrate the utility of nuclease-driven TLP technology by applying it to the stacking of herbicide resistance traits. We first integrated into the maize genome an herbicide resistance gene, pat, flanked with a TLP (ZFN target sites and sequences homologous to incoming DNA) using WHISKERS™-mediated transformation of embryogenic suspension cultures. We established a method for targeted transgene integration based on microparticle bombardment of immature embryos and used it to deliver a second trait precisely into the TLP via cotransformation with a donor DNA containing a second herbicide resistance gene, aad1, flanked by sequences homologous to the integrated TLP along with a corresponding ZFN expression construct. Remarkably, up to 5% of the embryo-derived transgenic events integrated the aad1 transgene precisely at the TLP, that is, directly adjacent to the pat transgene. Importantly and consistent with the juxtaposition achieved via nuclease-driven TLP technology, both herbicide resistance traits cosegregated in subsequent generations, thereby demonstrating linkage of the two independently transformed transgenes. Because ZFN-mediated targeted transgene integration is becoming applicable across an increasing number of crop species, this work exemplifies a simple, facile and rapid approach to trait stacking.

  17. Sample size for morphological traits of pigeonpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Facco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the sample size (i.e., number of plants required to accurately estimate the average of morphological traits of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. and to check for variability in sample size between evaluation periods and seasons. Two uniformity trials (i.e., experiments without treatment were conducted for two growing seasons. In the first season (2011/2012, the seeds were sown by broadcast seeding, and in the second season (2012/2013, the seeds were sown in rows spaced 0.50 m apart. The ground area in each experiment was 1,848 m2, and 360 plants were marked in the central area, in a 2 m × 2 m grid. Three morphological traits (e.g., number of nodes, plant height and stem diameter were evaluated 13 times during the first season and 22 times in the second season. Measurements for all three morphological traits were normally distributed and confirmed through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Randomness was confirmed using the Run Test, and the descriptive statistics were calculated. For each trait, the sample size (n was calculated for the semiamplitudes of the confidence interval (i.e., estimation error equal to 2, 4, 6, ..., 20% of the estimated mean with a confidence coefficient (1-? of 95%. Subsequently, n was fixed at 360 plants, and the estimation error of the estimated percentage of the average for each trait was calculated. Variability of the sample size for the pigeonpea culture was observed between the morphological traits evaluated, among the evaluation periods and between seasons. Therefore, to assess with an accuracy of 6% of the estimated average, at least 136 plants must be evaluated throughout the pigeonpea crop cycle to determine the sample size for the traits (e.g., number of nodes, plant height and stem diameter in the different evaluation periods and between seasons. 

  18. Trait valence and the better-than-average effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ron S; Brown, Mark G

    2011-12-01

    People tend to regard themselves as having superior personality traits compared to their average peer. To test whether this "better-than-average effect" varies with trait valence, participants (N = 154 students) rated both themselves and the average student on traits constituting either positive or negative poles of five trait dimensions. In each case, the better-than-average effect was found, but trait valence had no effect. Results were discussed in terms of Kahneman and Tversky's prospect theory.

  19. Comparative genetic analysis of quantitative traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). 2. Characterisation of QTL involved in developmental and agronomic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, P-F; Jouan, I; Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D; Serre, F; Philippon, J; Nicolas, P; Vear, F

    2003-06-01

    Seed weight and oil content are important properties of cultivated sunflower under complex genetic and environmental control, and associated with morphological and developmental characteristics such as plant height or flowering dates. Using a genetic map with 290 markers for a cross between two inbred sunflower lines and 2 years of observations on F3 families, QTL controlling seed weight, oil content, plant height, plant lodging, flowering dates, maturity dates and delay from flowering to maturity were detected. QTL detected were compared between the F2 and F3 generations and between the 2 years of testing for the F3 families in 1997 and 1999. Some of the QTL controlling seed weight overlapped with those controlling oil content. Several other co-localisations of QTL controlling developmental or morphological characteristics were observed and the relationships between the traits were also shown by correlation analyses. The relationships between all these traits and with resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Diaporthe helianthi are discussed.

  20. Mapping quantitative trait loci for plant adaptation and morphology traits in wheat using single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) morphological and adaptation-related traits that are controlled by quantitative traits loci (QTL) define potential growing areas of a wheat cultivar. To dissect the QTL for heading date (HD), lodging resistance (LR), shattering resistance (SR), cold tolerance (CT), plant...

  1. Towards a reference plant trait ontology for modeling knowledge of plant traits and phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontology engineering and knowledge modeling for the plant sciences is expected to contribute to the understanding of the basis of plant traits that determine phenotypic expression in a given environment. Several crop- or clade-specific plant trait ontologies have been developed to describe plant tr...

  2. Whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci for conformation and functional traits in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, C.; Bovenhuis, H.; Coppieters, W.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    A granddaughter design was used to locate quantitative trait loci determining conformation and functional traits in dairy cattle. In this granddaughter design, consisting of 20 Holstein Friesian grandsires and 833 sons, genotypes were determined for 277 microsatellite markers covering the whole geno

  3. Genome Scan Detects Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Female Fertility Traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Guldbrandtsen, B; Su, G;

    2009-01-01

    Data from the joint Nordic breeding value prediction for Danish and Swedish Holstein grandsire families were used to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. Up to 36 Holstein grandsires with over 2,000 sons were genotyped for 416 mic...

  4. Quantitative trait loci for yield and morphological traits in maize under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss. In order to develop maize varieties with drought tolerance, it is necessary to explore the genetic basis. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the yield and associate agronomic traits is one way of understanding drought genetics. QTLs associated with grain yield (GY, leaf width (LW3, LW4 plant height (PH, ear height (EH, leaf number (NL, tassel branch number (TBN and tassel length (TL were studied with composite interval mapping. A total of 43 QTLs were detected, distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome 9. Phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 20.99 to 87.24%. Mapping analysis identified genomic regions associated with two traits in a manner that was consistent with phenotypic correlation among traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage among QTLs.

  5. The age distribution of self-reported personality disorder traits in a household population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy

    2009-04-01

    Stability over time is an essential criterion for the diagnosis of a personality disorder (PD) according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. However, both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have demonstrated considerable changes of personality disorder traits during life-span, an observation which challenges this assumption. We measured self-reported DSM-IV personality disorder traits in a nationally representative community sample using a cross-sectional design. We investigated the association of dimensional PD scores with age. Our analyses confirmed a decreasing prevalence of personality disorder mean scores across age groups in the population, particularly Cluster B, with an increase in self-reported schizoid and obsessive-compulsive scores. Furthermore, specific interactions of demographic characteristics and age were identified. Analyses of transition points in the distribution of personality disorders across different age groups did not demonstrate increasing stability after age 30 as previously observed for normal personality traits. Significant changes occurred primarily after the third decade.

  6. Multiple quantitative trait analysis using bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutari, Marco; Howell, Phil; Balding, David J; Mackay, Ian

    2014-09-01

    Models for genome-wide prediction and association studies usually target a single phenotypic trait. However, in animal and plant genetics it is common to record information on multiple phenotypes for each individual that will be genotyped. Modeling traits individually disregards the fact that they are most likely associated due to pleiotropy and shared biological basis, thus providing only a partial, confounded view of genetic effects and phenotypic interactions. In this article we use data from a Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) winter wheat population to explore Bayesian networks as a convenient and interpretable framework for the simultaneous modeling of multiple quantitative traits. We show that they are equivalent to multivariate genetic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and that they are competitive with single-trait elastic net and single-trait GBLUP in predictive performance. Finally, we discuss their relationship with other additive-effects models and their advantages in inference and interpretation. MAGIC populations provide an ideal setting for this kind of investigation because the very low population structure and large sample size result in predictive models with good power and limited confounding due to relatedness.

  7. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa eMarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive and neutral, participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions and individual differences in regulating emotions.

  8. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Tessa; Regina, Antonio; Righi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive, and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions, and individual differences in regulating emotions.

  9. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

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    de León Francisco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi, we examined three components of this interaction: 1 spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2 whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3 whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses.

  10. 扁平足与正常足男大学生足底压力及步态特征比较%Comparative research of characteristics on foot pole pressure and foot trait of college students with fiat foot and normal foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德刚; 高虹; 王璐

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析扁平足大学生的足底压力及步态特征,为相关领域开展深入研究提供参考依据.方法 运用比利时Footscan足底压力测试系统,对从河北工程大学1 216名男大学生中筛查出的113名扁平足大学生(扁平足组)和807名正常足大学生(正常足组)进行测试并比较.结果 正常足组大学生左足的第4,5跖骨,足跟外侧及右足的第2~5趾骨,第2~5跖骨,足弓,足跟内、外侧峰值压强均大于扁平足组;左足第1跖骨,第2跖骨,足弓及右足第1,2,5跖骨、足跟外侧达峰值压强时间均晚于扁平足组(P<0.05或P<0.01);正常足组的左足第4,5跖骨,足弓及右足第1趾骨,第3,4跖骨,足弓,足跟内侧负荷率均大于扁平足组(P<0.05或P<0.01);正常足组的左足第2,4,5跖骨,足跟外侧及右足第2~5趾骨,第2~5跖骨,足跟内、外侧冲量均大于扁平足组(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 扁平足组大学生足底各区域呈现出峰值压强和冲量偏小,达峰值压强时间偏早,左、右足负荷率在第1,3跖骨及足弓差异较大的特征.%Objective To measure the characteristics of foot pole pressure and foot trait in college students with fiat foot.Methods Flat panel type FOOTSCAN foot pole pressure test system (Belgium) was used to study the difference between college students with flat foot (n =113) and normal foot (n =807) in Hebei Engineering University.Results In terms of Peak Torque,there were highly significant difference in Meta4,Meta5 and Heel lateral (P < 0.05) in left feet and in Toe2-5,Meta2,Meta3,Meta4,Meta5,Arch,Heel Medial and Heel Lateral (P < 0.05) in right feet,the normal foot group was bigger.In terms of the time to reach Peak Torque,there were highly significant difference in Meta1,Meta2 and Arch (P < 0.05) in left feet and in Meta1,Meta2,Meta5 and Heel Lateral (P <0.05) in right feet,the normal foot group was late.In terms of load rate,there were highly significant difference in Meta

  11. Building relationships between plant traits and leaf spectra to reduce uncertainty in terrestrial ecosystem models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman-Cribbin, W.; Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Ely, K.

    2015-12-01

    Despite climate projections, there is uncertainty in how terrestrial ecosystems will respond to warming temperatures and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Earth system models are used to determine how ecosystems will respond in the future, but there is considerable variation in how plant traits are represented within these models. A potential approach to reducing uncertainty is the establishment of spectra-trait linkages among plant species. These relationships allow the accurate estimation of biochemical characteristics of plants from their shortwave spectral profiles. Remote sensing approaches can then be implemented to acquire spectral data and estimate plant traits over large spatial and temporal scales. This paper describes a greenhouse experiment conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory in which spectra-trait relationships were investigated for 8 different plant species. This research was designed to generate a broad gradient in plant traits, using a range of species grown in different sized pots with different soil type. Fertilizer was also applied in different amounts to generate variation in plant C and N status that will be reflected in the traits measured, as well as the spectra observed. Leaves were sampled at different developmental stages to increase variation. Spectra and plant traits were then measured and a partial least-squares regression (PLSR) modeling approach was used to establish spectra-trait relationships. Despite the variability in growing conditions and plant species, our PLSR models could be used to accurately estimate plant traits from spectral signatures, yielding model calibration R2 and root mean square error (RMSE) values, respectively, of 0.85 and 0.30 for percent nitrogen by mass (Nmass%), R2 0.78 and 0.75 for carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio, 0.87 and 2.39 for leaf mass area (LMA), and 0.76 R2 and 15.16 for water (H2O) content. This research forms the basis for establishing new and more comprehensive spectra-trait

  12. Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Sorghum Plant Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, L.; Chen, Y.; Darnault, C. J. G.; Rauh, B.; Kresovich, S.; Korte, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials are considered as the development of the modern science. However, besides with that wide application, nanoparticles arouse to the side effects on the environment and human health. As the catalyst of ceramics and fuel industry, Cerium (IV) oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) can be found in the environment following their use and life-cycle. Therefore, it is critical to assess the potential effects that CeO2 NPs found in soils may have on plants. In this study, CeO2 NPs were analyzed for the potential influence on the sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] (Reg. no. 126) (PI 154844) growth and traits. The objectives of this research were to determine whether CeO2 NPs impact the sorghum germination and growth characteristics. The sorghum was grown in the greenhouse located at Biosystems Research Complex, Clemson University under different CeO2 NPs treatments (0mg; 100mg; 500mg; 1000mg CeO2 NPs/Kg soil) and harvested around each month. At the end of the each growing period, above ground vegetative tissue was air-dried, ground to 2mm particle size and compositional traits estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy. Also, the NPK value of the sorghum tissue was tested by Clemson Agriculture Center. After the first harvest, the result showed that the height of above ground biomass under the nanoparticles stress was higher than that of control group. This difference between the control and the nanoparticles treatments was significant (F>F0.05; LSD). Our results also indicated that some of the compositional traits were impacted by the different treatments, including the presence and/or concentrations of the nanoparticles.

  13. Marine reserves: fish life history and ecological traits matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, J; Osenberg, C W; Domenici, P; Badalamenti, F; Milazzo, M; Falcón, J M; Bertocci, I; Benedetti-Cecchi, L; García-Charton, J A; Goñi, R; Borg, J A; Forcada, A; De Lucia, G A; Perez-Ruzafa, A; Afonso, P; Brito, A; Guala, I; Le Diréach, L; Sanchez-Jerez, P; Somerfield, P J; Planes, S

    2010-04-01

    Marine reserves are assumed to protect a wide range of species from deleterious effects stemming from exploitation. However, some species, due to their ecological characteristics, may not respond positively to protection. Very little is known about the effects of life history and ecological traits (e.g., mobility, growth, and habitat) on responses of fish species to marine reserves. Using 40 data sets from 12 European marine reserves, we show that there is significant variation in the response of different species of fish to protection and that this heterogeneity can be explained, in part, by differences in their traits. Densities of targeted size-classes of commercial species were greater in protected than unprotected areas. This effect of protection increased as the maximum body size of the targeted species increased, and it was greater for species that were not obligate schoolers. However, contrary to previous theoretical findings, even mobile species with wide home ranges benefited from protection: the effect of protection was at least as strong for mobile species as it was for sedentary ones. Noncommercial bycatch and unexploited species rarely responded to protection, and when they did (in the case of unexploited bentho-pelagic species), they exhibited the opposite response: their densities were lower inside reserves. The use of marine reserves for marine conservation and fisheries management implies that they should ensure protection for a wide range of species with different life-history and ecological traits. Our results suggest this is not the case, and instead that effects vary with economic value, body size, habitat, depth range, and schooling behavior.

  14. QTL consistency for agronomic traits across three generations and potential applications in popcorn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yong-bin; ZHANG Zhong-wei; SHI Qing-ling; WANG Qi-lei; ZHOU Qiang; DENG Fei; MA Zhi-yan; QIAO Da-he; LI Yu-ling

    2015-01-01

    Favorable agronomic traits are important to improve productivity of popcorn. In this study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 258 lines was evaluated to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for nine agronomic traits (plant height, ear height, top height (plant height subtracted ear height), top height/plant height, number of leaves above the top ear, leaf area, stalk diameter, number of tassel branches and the length of tassel) under three environments. Meta-anal-ysis was conducted then to integrate QTLs identiifed across three generations (RIL, F2:3 and BC2F2) developed from the same crosses. In total, 179 QTLs and 36 meta-QTLs (mQTL) were identiifed. The percentage of phenotypic variation (R2) explained by any single QTL varied from 3.86 to 28.4%, and 24 QTLs with contributions over 15%. Nine common QTLs located in the same or similar chromosome regions were detected across three generations. Five meta-QTLs were identiifed including QTLs in three independent studies. Seven important mQTLs were composed of 11–26 QTLs for 4–7 traits, respectively. Only 11 mQTLs were commonly identiifed in the same or similar chromosome regions across agronomic traits, popping characteristics (popping fold, popping volume and popping rate) and grain yield components (ear weight per plant, grain weight per plant, 100-grain weight, ear length, kernel number per row, ear diameter, row number per ear and kernel ratio) by meta-QTL analysis. In conclusion, we identiifed a list of QTLs, some of which with much higher contributions to agronomic traits should be valuable for further study in improving both popping characteristics and grain yield components in popcorn.

  15. The association of personality traits and coping styles according to stress level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Mazaheri, Mina; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some personality traits and coping styles could be as risk factors in stressful situations. This study aimed to investigate the association of personality traits and coping styles according to the stress level. Meterials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011. A total of 4628 individuals over 20 years were selected by random sampling from nonacademic employees that working in 50 different centers across Isfahan province. Data were collected using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Big Five Personality Inventory Short Form and coping strategies scale, and individuals were divided into high and low-stress groups in term of GHQ-12. To analyze the data, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Mean age of participants was 36.3 ± 7.91 years and 56.26% (2604) of them were female. Neuroticism with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of personality traits was a risk factor for stress level with odds ratios (OR) OR:1.24; but other personality traits were protective. Also, active coping styles were protective factors for OR of stress level with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of coping styles, and positive reinterpretation and growth was the most effective of coping style with OR:0.84. Conclusion: Some personality traits are associated with passive copings and cause high-stress level. So, it could be concluded that improve and strengthen effective coping strategies in individual with maladaptive traits should be considered as a crucial component of prevention and control programs of stress. PMID:26109990

  16. The association of personality traits and coping styles according to stress level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Afshar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some personality traits and coping styles could be as risk factors in stressful situations. This study aimed to investigate the association of personality traits and coping styles according to the stress level. Meterials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011. A total of 4628 individuals over 20 years were selected by random sampling from nonacademic employees that working in 50 different centers across Isfahan province. Data were collected using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Big Five Personality Inventory Short Form and coping strategies scale, and individuals were divided into high and low-stress groups in term of GHQ-12. To analyze the data, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Mean age of participants was 36.3 ± 7.91 years and 56.26% (2604 of them were female. Neuroticism with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of personality traits was a risk factor for stress level with odds ratios (OR OR:1.24; but other personality traits were protective. Also, active coping styles were protective factors for OR of stress level with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of coping styles, and positive reinterpretation and growth was the most effective of coping style with OR:0.84. Conclusion: Some personality traits are associated with passive copings and cause high-stress level. So, it could be concluded that improve and strengthen effective coping strategies in individual with maladaptive traits should be considered as a crucial component of prevention and control programs of stress.

  17. Empathy Impairments in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators With Antisocial and Borderline Traits: A Key Factor in the Risk of Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic personality traits have been described as characteristics of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Furthermore, deficits in cognitive empathy and impairments in emotional decoding processes may at least partially explain conduct disorders and social dysfunction in general. However, previous research has not explored potential associations between empathy deficits and the aforementioned traits or whether they are reflected in recidivism in IPV perpetrators. Accordingly, the main aim of this study was to explore associations between empathy deficits, antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic traits and the risk of recidivism in this population. The sample consisted of 144 IPV perpetrators (mean age = 41 years). High antisocial and borderline personality traits in this sample were associated with a high risk of recidivism, these relationships being moderated by poor empathy skills. Moreover, in IPV perpetrators with both antisocial and borderline personality traits, the risk of recidivism was higher than in those with only one of these traits. In contrast, narcissistic traits were unrelated to the risk of recidivism and impairments in empathy. The results of our study highlight the importance of empathy deficits and may help professionals to develop specific intervention programs focusing on improving empathy skills in antisocial and borderline IPV perpetrators.

  18. Use of network analysis to capture key traits affecting tomato organoleptic quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Paola; Arima, Serena; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Tardella, Luca; Frusciante, Luigi; Ercolano, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    The long-term objective of tomato breeders is to identify metabolites that contribute to defining the target flavour and to design strategies to enhance it. This paper reports the results of network analysis, based on metabolic phenotypic and sensory data, to highlight important relationships among such traits. This tool allowed a reduction in data set complexity, building a network consisting of 35 nodes and 74 links corresponding to the 74 significant (positive or negative) correlations among the variables studied. A number of links among traits contributing to fruit organoleptic quality and to the perception of sensory attributes were identified. Modular partitioning of the characteristics involved in fruit organoleptic perception captured the essential fruit parameters that regulate interactions among different class traits. The main feature of the network was the presence of three nodes interconnected among themselves (dry matter, pH, and degrees Brix) and with other traits, and nodes with widely different linkage degrees. Identification of strong associations between some metabolic and sensory traits, such as citric acid with tomato smell, glycine with tomato smell, and granulosity with dry matter, suggests a basis for more targeted investigations in the future.

  19. Temperamental Traits Versus Individual Physical Fitness Components and a Physical Activity Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernatowicz Dominik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to examine whether relationships exist between particular temperamental traits within the concept of Regulative Theory of Temperament and components of physical fitness, that are most crucial for success in sport. The research involved 108 individuals including 63 men (age 21.1 ± 1.6 yrs and 45 women (age 20.7 ± 1.3 yrs. None of the respondents were professionally engaged in sport. Components of physical fitness included: aerobic capacity, strength, agility, static-dynamic balance and reaction time. The respondents also completed two questionnaires: the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour – Temperament Inventory and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The results indicate that the temperamental traits had average to poor correlations with the components of physical fitness, whereas more statistically significant correlations were observed in women. Negative correlations were obtained between emotional reactivity and agility, which was a result confirmed by previous research. All temperamental traits related with the energetic aspects of behaviour correlated with simple reaction time in women. Physical activity and aerobic capacity did not correlate with any of the studied traits. The results do not allow for any general conclusions to be drawn, but can serve as a reference point for future research on temperamental traits as delineated by Regulative Theory of Temperament and their relationship with the components of physical fitness.

  20. Axiom, anguish and amazement: How autistic traits modulate emotional and proprioceptive mental imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eEsposito

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to feel their own and others’ internal states, with those that have more autistic and less empathic traits clustering at the clinical end of the spectrum. However, when we consider semantic competence, we would expect this group to compensate with a higher capacity to imagine the meaning of words referring to emotions. This is indeed what we found when we asked people with different levels of autistic and empathic traits to rate the degree of imageability of various kinds of words. But this was not the whole story. Individuals with marked autistic traits demonstrated outstanding ability to imagine theoretical concepts, i.e. concepts that are commonly grasped linguistically through their definitions. This distinctive characteristic was so pronounced that, using tree-based predictive models, it was possible to accurately predict participants’ inclination to manifest autistic traits, as well as their adherence to autistic profiles – including whether they fell above or below the diagnostic threshold – from their imageability ratings. We speculate that this quasi-perceptual ability to imagine theoretical concepts, coupled with a lowered ability to imagine emotional terms represents a specific cognitive pattern that, while hindering social interaction, may favour problem solving in abstract, non-socially related tasks. This would allow people with marked autistic traits to make use of perceptual, possibly visuo-spatial, information for higher cognitive processing.

  1. Personality traits moderate the effect of workload sources on perceived workload in flying column police officers

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    Carlo eChiorri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that personality traits of the Five Factor Model play a role in worker's response to workload. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of personality traits of first responders with their perceived workload in real-life tasks. A flying column of 269 police officers completed a measure of subjective workload (NASA-Task Load Index after intervention tasks in a major public event. Officers' scores on a measure of Five Factor Model personality traits were obtained from archival data. Linear Mixed Modeling was used to test the direct and interaction effects of personality traits on workload scores once controlling for background variables, task type and workload source (mental, temporal and physical demand of the task, perceived effort, dissatisfaction for the performance and frustration due to the task. All personality traits except extraversion significantly interacted at least with one workload source. Perceived workload in flying column police officers appears to be the result of their personality characteristics interacting with the workload source. The implications of these results for the development of support measures aimed at reducing the impact of workload in this category of workers are discussed.

  2. Psychopathy-related personality traits and shame management strategies in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Markus B T; Mikkelsen, Fredrik

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a correlation between the amount of psychopathy-related personality traits and the type of shame management in adolescents. Two hypotheses were examined; first, that there is a positive correlation between psychopathy-related personality traits and more unconscious and externalized shame management strategies, and second, that there is a negative correlation between psychopathy-related personality traits and more conscious and internalized shame management strategies. Gender differences were also examined. In total, 236 participants were available for the study. All were secondary-level students, aged 16 to 21 years. Of these, 196 were examined: 96 were male and 100 female. The study used two self-assessment forms-the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI) and the Compass of Shame Scale (CoSS)-to measure the relevant personality characteristics. The results indicated gender differences, which led to all the analyses being conducted separately for males and females. Support was found for the study's first hypothesis, but not for the second, which was true for both males and females. Our results may have implications for the treatment of adolescents with a high percentage of psychopathy-related personality traits; they also indicate the need for more research on the association between psychopathy and shame management.

  3. Sickle Cell Trait Causing Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis

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    Priyanka Saxena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell trait is considered as a benign condition as these individuals carry only one defective gene and typically have their life span similar to the normal population without any health problems related to sickle cell. Only under extreme conditions, red cells become sickled and can cause clinical complications including hematuria and splenic infarction. Although twofold increased risk of venous thrombosis has been described in African Americans, there is no data available from Indian population. We here report a case of sickle cell trait from India whose index presentation was thrombosis of unusual vascular territory.

  4. Evaluation of Yield and Quality Traits of Wheat Cultivars

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    Seydi Aydoğan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine grain yield and some quality traits of 18 bread wheat varieties in dry conditions and location in the center of Konya in 2009-2010 growing seasons. Grain yield and some quality characteristics (protein content, zeleny sedimentation, gluten index, alveograph energy value, alveograph P/L, mixograph development time, mixograph peak height, and mixograph softening value and mixograph total area were examined. According to the results including means ranged between; grain yield 331.85-749.05 kg/da, Protein content 12.62-15.23%, gluten index value of 41.81-98.19%, zeleny sedimentation value 27.00-51.50 ml, alveograph energy 59.70-235.43 10-4 Joules alveograph P/L 0.38 to 1.29, micsograph development time 1.44-4.95 min., mixograph peak height, 42.46-60.67%, mixograph right peak slope 10.13-45.52%, mixograph total area 239.12-322.28% Tq*dak, was found. The experiment has been found significant correlations between traits.

  5. Siblings' personality traits and types of sibling relationship in childhood

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    Tina Kavčič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents a follow-up study of sibling relationship and personality in 87 sibling dyads in early/middle childhood from parental perspective. At Time 1 all siblings attended pre-school and one year later approximately half of the older siblings entered compulsory school. At both times of measurement siblings' mothers and fathers independently reported on their children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003; Slovene adaptation, Zupančič & Kavčič, 2009 and on the observed sibling warmth, agonism, and rivalry using the Parental Expectations and Perceptions of Children's Sibling Relationships Questionnaire (Kramer, 2001. The predictive relationship obtained by two sets of cross-rater analyses (between maternal ratings of child personality and paternal reports on sibling relationship, and vice versa suggested that (a personality traits of both siblings and (b the match between siblings' personalities are associated with sibling type (affectionate, involved or average membership. Among personality traits, disagreeableness seems to be an especially significant contributor to sibling relationship quality.

  6. Personality Traits in Patients with Subjective Idiopathic Tinnitus

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    Mahboobeh Adami Dehkordi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tinnitus is a common complaint in patients referred to otorhinolaryngology clinics and is a condition where one hears a sound without any distinguishable external acoustic source or electrical stimulus. About 3-30% of adults experience different degrees of tinnitus during their life. This study aims to ascertain and compare personality traits between patients with tinnitus and a control group.   Materials and Methods: In a case control study, 66 participants were assessed. The case group consisted of 33 patients who suffered from tinnitus for at least two months, in addition to 33 healthy volunteers who were selected among their family (preferably of the same age and sex. A standard demographic questionnaire and an Eyzenck personality questionnaire were filled for both groups. A tinnitus severity index (TSI questionnaire was only filled for the case group. Data from each group was compared by Mann-Whitney U and Chi-Square tests. SPSS V.18 was the selected software.   Results: Statistical analysis showed a meaningful difference in neuroticism (P=0.001 and extraversion (P=0.001 between the patients and the controls; however, there was no statistical difference between these groups regarding psychotism.   Conclusion:  Tinnitus can be associated with personality characteristics. This study showed that in patients with tinnitus, neuroticism increases and extraversion decreases. Considering the personality and psychotic traits observed in the patients with tinnitus, psychiatric consultation is recommended.

  7. Speech spectrum's correlation with speakers' Eysenck personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao; Wang, Qiandong; Short, Lindsey A; Fu, Genyue

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored the correlation between speakers' Eysenck personality traits and speech spectrum parameters. Forty-six subjects completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. They were instructed to verbally answer the questions shown on a computer screen and their responses were recorded by the computer. Spectrum parameters of /sh/ and /i/ were analyzed by Praat voice software. Formant frequencies of the consonant /sh/ in lying responses were significantly lower than that in truthful responses, whereas no difference existed on the vowel /i/ speech spectrum. The second formant bandwidth of the consonant /sh/ speech spectrum was significantly correlated with the personality traits of Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism, and the correlation differed between truthful and lying responses, whereas the first formant frequency of the vowel /i/ speech spectrum was negatively correlated with Neuroticism in both response types. The results suggest that personality characteristics may be conveyed through the human voice, although the extent to which these effects are due to physiological differences in the organs associated with speech or to a general Pygmalion effect is yet unknown.

  8. Quantitative trait locus analysis of multiple agronomic traits in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Takahiro; Sato, Shusei; Okumura, Kenji; Tabata, Satoshi; Akashi, Ryo; Isobe, Sachiko

    2007-07-01

    The first quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of multiple agronomic traits in the model legume Lotus japonicus was performed with a population of recombinant inbred lines derived from Miyakojima MG-20 x Gifu B-129. Thirteen agronomic traits were evaluated in 2004 and 2005: traits of vegetative parts (plant height, stem thickness, leaf length, leaf width, plant regrowth, plant shape, and stem color), flowering traits (flowering time and degree), and pod and seed traits (pod length, pod width, seeds per pod, and seed mass). A total of 40 QTLs were detected that explained 5%-69% of total variation. The QTL that explained the most variation was that for stem color, which was detected in the same region of chromosome 2 in both years. Some QTLs were colocated, especially those for pod and seed traits. Seed mass QTLs were located at 5 locations that mapped to the corresponding genomic positions of equivalent QTLs in soybean, pea, chickpea, and mung bean. This study provides fundamental information for breeding of agronomically important legume crops.

  9. A bivariate quantitative genetic model for a linear Gaussian trait and a survival trait

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    Damgaard Lars

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the increasing use of survival models in animal breeding to address the genetic aspects of mainly longevity of livestock but also disease traits, the need for methods to infer genetic correlations and to do multivariate evaluations of survival traits and other types of traits has become increasingly important. In this study we derived and implemented a bivariate quantitative genetic model for a linear Gaussian and a survival trait that are genetically and environmentally correlated. For the survival trait, we considered the Weibull log-normal animal frailty model. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was adopted. Model parameters were inferred from their marginal posterior distributions. The required fully conditional posterior distributions were derived and issues on implementation are discussed. The twoWeibull baseline parameters were updated jointly using a Metropolis-Hastingstep. The remaining model parameters with non-normalized fully conditional distributions were updated univariately using adaptive rejection sampling. Simulation results showed that the estimated marginal posterior distributions covered well and placed high density to the true parameter values used in the simulation of data. In conclusion, the proposed method allows inferring additive genetic and environmental correlations, and doing multivariate genetic evaluation of a linear Gaussian trait and a survival trait.

  10. A bivariate quantitative genetic model for a linear Gaussian trait and a survival trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Lars Holm; Korsgaard, Inge Riis

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing use of survival models in animal breeding to address the genetic aspects of mainly longevity of livestock but also disease traits, the need for methods to infer genetic correlations and to do multivariate evaluations of survival traits and other types of traits has become increasingly important. In this study we derived and implemented a bivariate quantitative genetic model for a linear Gaussian and a survival trait that are genetically and environmentally correlated. For the survival trait, we considered the Weibull log-normal animal frailty model. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was adopted. Model parameters were inferred from their marginal posterior distributions. The required fully conditional posterior distributions were derived and issues on implementation are discussed. The two Weibull baseline parameters were updated jointly using a Metropolis-Hasting step. The remaining model parameters with non-normalized fully conditional distributions were updated univariately using adaptive rejection sampling. Simulation results showed that the estimated marginal posterior distributions covered well and placed high density to the true parameter values used in the simulation of data. In conclusion, the proposed method allows inferring additive genetic and environmental correlations, and doing multivariate genetic evaluation of a linear Gaussian trait and a survival trait.

  11. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL in sheep. II. Meta-assembly and identification of novel QTL for milk production traits in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Mary K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An (Awassi × Merino × Merino backcross family of 172 ewes was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL for different milk production traits on a framework map of 200 loci across all autosomes. From five previously proposed mathematical models describing lactation curves, the Wood model was considered the most appropriate due to its simplicity and its ability to determine ovine lactation curve characteristics. Derived milk traits for milk, fat, protein and lactose yield, as well as percentage composition and somatic cell score were used for single and two-QTL approaches using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. A total of 15 significant (P P http://crcidp.vetsci.usyd.edu.au/cgi-bin/gbrowse/oaries_genome/. Many of the QTL for milk production traits have been reported on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 16 and 20. Those on chromosomes 3 and 20 are in strong agreement with the results reported here. In addition, novel QTL were found on chromosomes 7, 8, 9, 14, 22 and 24. In a cross-species comparison, we extended the meta-assembly by comparing QTL regions of sheep and cattle, which provided strong evidence for synteny conservation of QTL regions for milk, fat, protein and somatic cell score data between cattle and sheep.

  12. Genetic improvement of trees for wood production, with particular refeference to wood traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocetti M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of selected propagation material from tree improvement programs is expected to lead to a more homogenous product, generally appreciated by industry. So far, breeding strategy have been mainly targeted to maximize acclimation/adaptation to specific environment conditions, tree growth and disease resistance, but it is not obvious that such strategy might lead to improvement of wood characteristics at the same time. Therefore, it seems important to introduce wood traits improvement as specific target of the selection process in tree breeding programs, and/or to assess heritability of wood technological properties of trees previously selected based on different criteria. Investigations reported so far have revealed that several wood traits are under a medium to high genetic control. The main goal of this work is to discuss the suitability of wood traits improvement as main target of specific breeding programs, with particular attention to wood technological characteristics to be considered in the tree selection process. Finally, we focused on noble hardwoods, that have been the target species for many improvement programs developed in Italy, and particularly on wild cherry, where studies on the genetic control of wood traits are rare.

  13. Personality traits and environmental choices: On the search for understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farizo, Begoña A; Oglethorpe, David; Soliño, Mario

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we hypothesize that individuals will choose among alternative courses of action for power generation from wind farms according to their personality profiles. Through a factor analysis we found that certain characteristics of personality do indeed have an effect on environmental choice. The study involves an extensive survey based on the Big Five Traits model to find a pattern of choice that will help to better understand environmental decisions and be useful for policy makers to identify target groups and preview reactions to different courses of action. The research is potentially useful for the better preparation and design of publicity material, awareness raising campaigns and information provision for complex or unpopular policies affecting the environment or in environmental education in general. This research is especially interested in shedding some light on how personality is involved in the processes of environmental decision making, despite the limitations of the present study.

  14. Firm Traits and Web Based Disclosures in Top Nigerian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Ayuba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of the internet as a medium of dissemination of information to stakeholders is increasingly gaining grounds. This study extends existing literature on web disclosures by investigating the characteristics that predict the extent of web-based disclosures. In this study, corporate websites of top Nigerian firms are used as sources of data, while a regression analysis is employed to examine the extent of prediction. Results indicate that the firm size and industry type are significant determinants of web disclosures. However, other firm traits such as ownership dispersion and financial performance do not significantly explain the extent of internet disclosures. The study recommends that a regulatory template for corporate web disclosures be put in place by government regardless of the size or industry classification of the firm. This is with a view to considerably reduce agency conflicts arising from information asymmetry in publicly listed firms in Nigeria.

  15. Rethinking Trait Conceptions of Social Desirability Scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Reinout E.; Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, Benjamin E.

    2014-01-01

    found for both IM (r = .45) and Self-Deceptive Enhancement (SDE; r = .34), supporting a trait conception of IM and SDE. In both self- and other ratings, the most important predictors of SDE were (low) Emotionality, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. IM was associated with Conscientiousness...

  16. Animal models of eating disorder traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Martien J H; Adan, Roger A H

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are psychiatric disorders that are likely determined by a complex interaction between genetic variations, developmental processes, and certain life events. Cross-species analysis of traits related to eating disorders may provide a way to functi

  17. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; ter Weel, Bas

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research. The paper…

  18. Interval Mapping of Multiple Quantitative Trait Loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Ritsert C.

    1993-01-01

    The interval mapping method is widely used for the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in segregating generations derived from crosses between inbred lines. The efficiency of detecting and the accuracy of mapping multiple QTLs by using genetic markers are much increased by employing multiple Q

  19. Complex plant traits : time for polygenic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Ritsert C.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, mapping of genes for complex traits is an area of active theoretical research at the interface of genetics and statistics. Much progress has been made over the past few years in handling statistically complex but realistic multilocus models. Here, I describe the state of the art and discu

  20. The trait-coverage of emotional intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B

    2005-01-01

    In this paper it is explored to what extent emotional intelligence can be expressed in terms of a standard trait model. Two studies were performed. In Study 1 a total of 437 items from several emotional intelligence questionnaires were used. The items were classified into the categories comprised by

  1. Phylogenetics Exercise Using Inherited Human Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuimala, Jarno

    2006-01-01

    A bioinformatics laboratory exercise based on inherited human morphological traits is presented. It teaches how morphological characters can be used to study the evolutionary history of humans using parsimony. The exercise can easily be used in a pen-and-paper laboratory, but if computers are available, a more versatile analysis can be carried…

  2. The Trait Structure of Cloze Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.

    1982-01-01

    Presents study designed to examine trait structure of a cloze test using confirmatory factor analysis. Results suggest that a modified cloze passage, using rational deletions, is capable of measuring syntactic- and discourse-level relationships in a text, and this advantage may outweigh considerations of reduced redundancy which underlie random…

  3. Perverse political correctness and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neduva, Alexander; Kanevsky, Michael; Lerner, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Political correctness (PC) commonly refers to a mutual respect for the views and beliefs of others, including enemies, and while differing in opinions, the willfulness to overcome the existing disagreements, and to prevent animosity. To date however, the term PC is sometimes used in a perverted sense aimed for disintegration of solidarity in a society, thus giving birth to a new powerful conceptual tool, the perverse political correctness (PPC). PPC ideology resides in people with certain psychological types. We assume that there are basic psychological variations of personality traits and the mechanisms of their formation that promote not only insertion, but rapid distribution of modern PPC ideology. Although the dimension of their behavior is very similar, the personality traits of these persons can be divided into three groups: The subjects from the first group are characterized by general traits of one's personality, such as kindness, empathy, and humanism. This is true PC--an expression of proper humanistic personality traits, which are developed in a specific kind of environment. The subjects from second group are usually artistic, theatrical, vain and narcissistic, poseurs who need attention at any cost. Their views on life in general, as well as on questions of PC are characterized by colorfulness, picturesqueness and emotional satiety. The subjects from the third group, conjoined with the previous variety of demonstrative-theatrical PC, use mystical and religious contents as part of their propaganda of PPC activity.

  4. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  5. Contributions to an animal trait ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsegge, B; Smits, M A; te Pas, M F W; Woelders, H

    2012-06-01

    Improved understanding of the biology of traits of livestock species necessitates the use and combination of information that is stored in a variety of different sources such as databases and literature. The ability to effectively combine information from different sources, however, depends on a high level of standardization within and between various resources, at least with respect to the used terminology. Ontologies represent a set of concepts that facilitate standardization of terminology within specific domains of interest. The biological mechanisms underlying quantitative traits of farm animal species related to reproduction and host pathogen interactions are complex and not well understood. This knowledge could be improved through the availability of domain-specific ontologies that provide enhanced possibilities for data annotation, data retrieval, data integration, data exchange, data analysis, and ontology-based searches. Here we describe a framework for domain-specific ontologies and the development of 2 first-generation ontologies: Reproductive Trait and Phenotype Ontology (REPO) and Host Pathogen Interactions Ontology . In these first-generation ontologies, we focused on "female fertility in cattle" and "interactions between pigs and Salmonella". Through this, we contribute to the global initiative toward the development of an Animal Trait Ontology for livestock species. To demonstrate its usefulness, we show how REPO can be used to select candidate genes for fertility.

  6. Contributions to an animal trait ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, B.; Smits, M.A.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Woelders, H.

    2012-01-01

    Improved understanding of the biology of traits of livestock species necessitates the use and combination of information that is stored in a variety of different sources such as databases and literature. The ability to effectively combine information from different sources, however, depends on a hig

  7. Multi-ethnic studies in complex traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Jingyuan; Festen, Eleonora A. M.; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2011-01-01

    The successes of genome-wide association (GWA) studies have mainly come from studies performed in populations of European descent. Since complex traits are characterized by marked genetic heterogeneity, the findings so far may provide an incomplete picture of the genetic architecture of complex trai

  8. A Genetic Epidemiological Study of Behavioral Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Amin (Najaf)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHuman behavioural genetics aims to unravel the genetic and environmental contributions to variations in human behaviour. Behaviour is a complex trait, involving multiple genes that are affected by a variety of other factors. Genetic epidemiological research of behaviour goes back to Sir

  9. Trait Affect and Job Search Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Stephane; Saks, Alan M.; Zikic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the role of trait affect in job search. One hundred and twenty-three university students completed measures of positive and negative affectivity, conscientiousness, job search self-efficacy, job search clarity, and job search intensity during their last year of school while on the job market. At the end of the school…

  10. Transmission-disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, D.B. [Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) of Spielman et al. is a family-based linkage-disequilibrium test that offers a powerful way to test for linkage between alleles and phenotypes that is either causal (i.e., the marker locus is the disease/trait allele) or due to linkage disequilibrium. The TDT is equivalent to a randomized experiment and, therefore, is resistant to confounding. When the marker is extremely close to the disease locus or is the disease locus itself, tests such as the TDT can be far more powerful than conventional linkage tests. To date, the TDT and most other family-based association tests have been applied only to dichotomous traits. This paper develops five TDT-type tests for use with quantitative traits. These tests accommodate either unselected sampling or sampling based on selection of phenotypically extreme offspring. Power calculations are provided and show that, when a candidate gene is available (1) these TDT-type tests are at least an order of magnitude more efficient than two common sib-pair tests of linkage; (2) extreme sampling results in substantial increases in power; and (3) if the most extreme 20% of the phenotypic distribution is selectively sampled, across a wide variety of plausible genetic models, quantitative-trait loci explaining as little as 5% of the phenotypic variation can be detected at the .0001 a level with <300 observations. 57 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions…

  12. Statistical methods for analysing complex genetic traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Galta, Rachid

    2006-01-01

    Complex traits are caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors, and are therefore difficult to study compared with simple Mendelian diseases. The modes of inheritance of Mendelian diseases are often known. Methods to dissect such diseases are well described in literature. For complex geneti

  13. Stereotype Traits can be Processed Automatically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    functional, providing the individual with a psychological justification for prejudice ( Adorno , Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, & Sanford, 1950; Katz, 1960...stereotypes outlined by Deaux and iLewmis (1983). 1% Stereotype traits page 26 References - Adorno , T. V., Frenkel-Brunawik, E., Levinson, D. J., & Sanford, R

  14. Characterizing psychopathy using DSM-5 personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Casey M; Drislane, Laura E; Lucy, Megan; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    Despite its importance historically and contemporarily, psychopathy is not recognized in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR). Its closest counterpart, antisocial personality disorder, includes strong representation of behavioral deviance symptoms but weak representation of affective-interpersonal features considered central to psychopathy. The current study evaluated the extent to which psychopathy and its distinctive facets, indexed by the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, can be assessed effectively using traits from the dimensional model of personality pathology developed for DSM-5, operationalized by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Results indicate that (a) facets of psychopathy entailing impulsive externalization and callous aggression are well-represented by traits from the PID-5 considered relevant to antisocial personality disorder, and (b) the boldness facet of psychopathy can be effectively captured using additional PID-5 traits. These findings provide evidence that the dimensional model of personality pathology embodied in the PID-5 provides effective trait-based coverage of psychopathy and its facets.

  15. Trait diversity promotes stability of community dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Knudsen, Kim;

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical exploration of how diversity influences stability has traditionally been approached by species-centric methods. Here we offer an alternative approach to the diversity–stability problem by examining the stability and dynamics of size and trait distributions of individuals. The anal...

  16. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R;

    1989-01-01

    Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...... as controls. Four clinical meaningful dimensions of included personality traits were identified: ixoide, ideational, obsessive-compulsive and affective features. Analyses based on the Rasch model approved of all dimensions except for affective features. The epilepsy group obtained the highest scores on all 3...... dimensions, healthy volunteers the lowest, while the psoriasis group repeatedly held an intermediate position in all sets of assessment (subjects, interviewers and relatives). A logistic regression analysis showed ixoide features being most important when the entire epilepsy group was compared with other...

  17. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic

  18. Utilizing mutual information for detecting rare and common variants associated with a categorical trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiming Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Genome-wide association studies have succeeded in detecting novel common variants which associate with complex diseases. As a result of the fast changes in next generation sequencing technology, a large number of sequencing data are generated, which offers great opportunities to identify rare variants that could explain a larger proportion of missing heritability. Many effective and powerful methods are proposed, although they are usually limited to continuous, dichotomous or ordinal traits. Notice that traits having nominal categorical features are commonly observed in complex diseases, especially in mental disorders, which motivates the incorporation of the characteristics of the categorical trait into association studies with rare and common variants. Methods. We construct two simple and intuitive nonparametric tests, MIT and aMIT, based on mutual information for detecting association between genetic variants in a gene or region and a categorical trait. MIT and aMIT can gauge the difference among the distributions of rare and common variants across a region given every categorical trait value. If there is little association between variants and a categorical trait, MIT or aMIT approximately equals zero. The larger the difference in distributions, the greater values MIT and aMIT have. Therefore, MIT and aMIT have the potential for detecting functional variants. Results.We checked the validity of proposed statistics and compared them to the existing ones through extensive simulation studies with varied combinations of the numbers of variants of rare causal, rare non-causal, common causal, and common non-causal, deleterious and protective, various minor allele frequencies and different levels of linkage disequilibrium. The results show our methods have higher statistical power than conventional ones, including the likelihood based score test, in most cases: (1 there are multiple genetic variants in a gene or region; (2 both

  19. Personality traits and ego-network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centellegher, Simone; López, Eduardo; Saramäki, Jari; Lepri, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Strong and supportive social relationships are fundamental to our well-being. However, there are costs to their maintenance, resulting in a trade-off between quality and quantity, a typical strategy being to put a lot of effort on a few high-intensity relationships while maintaining larger numbers of less close relationships. It has also been shown that there are persistent individual differences in this pattern; some individuals allocate their efforts more uniformly across their networks, while others strongly focus on their closest relationships. Furthermore, some individuals maintain more stable networks than others. Here, we focus on how personality traits of individuals affect this picture, using mobile phone calls records and survey data from the Mobile Territorial Lab (MTL) study. In particular, we look at the relationship between personality traits and the (i) persistence of social signatures, namely the similarity of the social signature shape of an individual measured in different time intervals; (ii) the turnover in egocentric networks, that is, differences in the set of alters present at two consecutive temporal intervals; and (iii) the rank dynamics defined as the variation of alter rankings in egocentric networks in consecutive intervals. We observe that some traits have effects on the stability of the social signatures as well as network turnover and rank dynamics. As an example, individuals who score highly in the Openness to Experience trait tend to have higher levels of network turnover and larger alter rank variations. On broader terms, our study shows that personality traits clearly affect the ways in which individuals maintain their personal networks.

  20. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K Hatemi

    Full Text Available The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area.

  1. Personality traits and ego-network dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centellegher, Simone; López, Eduardo; Saramäki, Jari; Lepri, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Strong and supportive social relationships are fundamental to our well-being. However, there are costs to their maintenance, resulting in a trade-off between quality and quantity, a typical strategy being to put a lot of effort on a few high-intensity relationships while maintaining larger numbers of less close relationships. It has also been shown that there are persistent individual differences in this pattern; some individuals allocate their efforts more uniformly across their networks, while others strongly focus on their closest relationships. Furthermore, some individuals maintain more stable networks than others. Here, we focus on how personality traits of individuals affect this picture, using mobile phone calls records and survey data from the Mobile Territorial Lab (MTL) study. In particular, we look at the relationship between personality traits and the (i) persistence of social signatures, namely the similarity of the social signature shape of an individual measured in different time intervals; (ii) the turnover in egocentric networks, that is, differences in the set of alters present at two consecutive temporal intervals; and (iii) the rank dynamics defined as the variation of alter rankings in egocentric networks in consecutive intervals. We observe that some traits have effects on the stability of the social signatures as well as network turnover and rank dynamics. As an example, individuals who score highly in the Openness to Experience trait tend to have higher levels of network turnover and larger alter rank variations. On broader terms, our study shows that personality traits clearly affect the ways in which individuals maintain their personal networks. PMID:28253333

  2. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area.

  3. Overlapping chromosomal regions for fertility traits and production traits in the Danish Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Buitenhuis, A J; Guldbrandtsen, B;

    2009-01-01

    , it is of interest to validate which of the subtraits are affected by the QTL. Phenotypic and marker data were collected from 34 grandsire families from the Danish Holstein population. First, the trait data for "fertility treatments" were separated into their underlying subtraits: uterine infections, antibiotics...... placed in the placenta, and abortions. In addition, retained placenta was selected for analysis because it is related to uterine infections. A genome scan was performed using 416 microsatellite markers for the fertility treatment subtraits and retained placenta, and an additional genome scan for milk...... production traits conditional on the QTL regions for the subtraits and retained placenta was conducted. Second, we selected 24 genomic regions harboring QTL for fertility traits from a previous study. A QTL scan for milk production traits conditional on the selected regions was conducted. We found that 16...

  4. Sickle Cell Trait in Blacks Can Skew Diabetes Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163463.html Sickle Cell Trait in Blacks Can Skew Diabetes Test Results ... less accurate in black people who have the sickle cell anemia trait, a new study says. The test ...

  5. Genetic architecture of domestication-related traits in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong directional selection occurred during the domestication of maize from its wild ancestor teosinte, reducing its genetic diversity, particularly at genes controlling domestication-related traits. Nevertheless, variability for some domestication-related traits is maintained in maize. The genet...

  6. Mapping quantitative trait loci for binary trait in the F2:3 design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chengsong Zhu; Yuan-Ming Zhang; Zhigang Guo

    2008-12-01

    In the analysis of inheritance of quantitative traits with low heritability, an F2:3 design that genotypes plants in F2 and phenotypes plants in F2:3 progeny is often used in plant genetics. Although statistical approaches for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the F2:3 design have been well developed, those for binary traits of biological interest and economic importance are seldom addressed. In this study, an attempt was made to map binary trait loci (BTL) in the F2:3 design. The fundamental idea was: the F2 plants were genotyped, all phenotypic values of each F2:3 progeny were measured for binary trait, and these binary trait values and the marker genotype informations were used to detect BTL under the penetrance and liability models. The proposed method was verified by a series of Monte–Carlo simulation experiments. These results showed that maximum likelihood approaches under the penetrance and liability models provide accurate estimates for the effects and the locations of BTL with high statistical power, even under of low heritability. Moreover, the penetrance model is as efficient as the liability model, and the F2:3 design is more efficient than classical F2 design, even though only a single progeny is collected from each F2:3 family. With the maximum likelihood approaches under the penetrance and the liability models developed in this study, we can map binary traits as we can do for quantitative trait in the F2:3 design.

  7. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Seed Physical and Nutrient Traits in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xian-liang; ZHANG Tian-zhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the leading fiber crop,and an important source of the important edible oil and protein meals in the world.Complex genetics and strong environmental effects hinder much progress in seed quality trait breeding in cotton.The use of molecular markers will improve our understanding of the genetic factors conferring seed quality traits,and it is expected to assist in selection of superior genotypes.

  8. Environmental context and trophic trait plasticity in a key species, the tellinid clam Macoma balthica L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnroos, Anna; Nordström, M. C.; Aarnio, K.;

    2015-01-01

    showing differing isotopic signatures from clams at their original habitat, over time mirroring the changes in clams in the site to which they were transferred. The shift in carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of the clams provides insights into the context-dependent intraspecific feeding plasticity......Species show varying levels of plasticity regarding morphology, physiology and behaviour in relation to their immediate environment, and several trait characteristics are habitat-dependent. Determining when and how the environmental context changes trait expression is of key importance...... food uptake by using stable isotope signatures (delta C-13 and delta N-15). We transplanted individuals between and within two shallow bays differing in exposure (exposed sheltered) and sediment characteristics. Our results show that isotope signatures of clams differed between the two habitats...

  9. A primary screen of the bovine genome for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass and growth traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R T; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Kappes, S M; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-06-01

    A primary genomic screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass and growth traits was performed by genotyping 238 microsatellite markers on 185 out of 300 total progeny from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire mated to Bos taurus cows. The following traits were analyzed for QTL effects: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MAR), longissimus muscle area (LMA), rib bone (RibB), rib fat (RibF), and rib muscle (RibM), and the predicted whole carcass traits, retail product yield (RPYD), fat trim yield (FATYD), bone yield (BOYD), retail product weight (RPWT), fat weight (FATWT), and bone weight (BOWT). Data were analyzed by generating an F-statistic profile computed at 1-cM intervals for each chromosome by the regression of phenotype on the conditional probability of receiving the Brahman allele from the sire. There was compelling evidence for a QTL allele of Brahman origin affecting an increase in RibB and a decrease in DP on chromosome 5 (BTA5). Putative QTL at or just below the threshold for genome-wide significance were as follows: an increase in RPYD and component traits on BTA2 and BTA13, an increase in LMA on BTA14, and an increase in BWT on BTA1. Results provided represent a portion of our efforts to identify and characterize QTL affecting carcass and growth traits.

  10. Quantitative trait loci linked to PRNP gene controlling health and production traits in INRA 401 sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunel Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the potential association of PrP genotypes with health and productive traits was investigated. Data were recorded on animals of the INRA 401 breed from the Bourges-La Sapinière INRA experimental farm. The population consisted of 30 rams and 852 ewes, which produced 1310 lambs. The animals were categorized into three PrP genotype classes: ARR homozygous, ARR heterozygous, and animals without any ARR allele. Two analyses differing in the approach considered were carried out. Firstly, the potential association of the PrP genotype with disease (Salmonella resistance and production (wool and carcass traits was studied. The data used included 1042, 1043 and 1013 genotyped animals for the Salmonella resistance, wool and carcass traits, respectively. The different traits were analyzed using an animal model, where the PrP genotype effect was included as a fixed effect. Association analyses do not indicate any evidence of an effect of PrP genotypes on traits studied in this breed. Secondly, a quantitative trait loci (QTL detection approach using the PRNP gene as a marker was applied on ovine chromosome 13. Interval mapping was used. Evidence for one QTL affecting mean fiber diameter was found at 25 cM from the PRNP gene. However, a linkage between PRNP and this QTL does not imply unfavorable linkage disequilibrium for PRNP selection purposes.

  11. Morphological Traits of Two Seed-Feeding Beetle Species and the Relationship to Resource Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, L F; Tuller, J; Faria, L D B

    2017-02-01

    Morphological traits are useful to investigate insect sex-related differences in body size and to reveal differences in resource use. It has been suggested that as the resource increases, so does the body size of organisms interacting with the resource, highlighting the crucial role of resource quality and quantity in determining the morphological traits of organisms interacting with the resource. Here, we describe morphological traits of two species of Bruchinae, Merobruchus terani (Kingsolver 1980) and Stator maculatopygus (Pic 1930), consuming seeds of Senegalia tenuifolia (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). We evaluated the influence of monthly sample and sampling sites on tibia and femur length and biomass. In addition, we tested two predictions in which body size related to resource amount and body size related to longevity. Males of M. terani were heavier than females, whereas the two sexes of S. maculatopygus did not differ in biomass. Both species had larger body sizes in the late ripe-fruit stage. With respect to sampling sites, biomass of M. terani did not differ, whereas S. maculatopygus did differ in biomass. Merobruchus terani showed a positive relationship with seed traits, whereas S. maculatopygus showed no relationship. At the same time, fruit traits showed a negative effect on morphological traits for both beetle species. The longevity experiment, performed using only M. terani, showed an equal longevity and seed consumption rate for both sexes. Our study indicates that different species, interacting in the same system and performing similar functional behaviors, respond differently to the same resource.

  12. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Heritability of Fruit Traits in Capsicum annuum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel P Naegele

    Full Text Available Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungency, and color, and often lack resistance traits. Fruit characteristics (e.g. shape and pericarp thickness are major determinants for cultivar selection, and their association with disease susceptibility can reduce breeding efficacy. This study evaluated a diverse collection of peppers for mature fruit phenotypic traits, correlation among fruit traits and Phytophthora fruit rot resistance, genetic diversity, population structure, and trait broad sense heritability. Significant differences within all fruit phenotype categories were detected among pepper lines. Fruit from Europe had the thickest pericarp, and fruit from Ecuador had the thinnest. For fruit shape index, fruit from Africa had the highest index, while fruit from Europe had the lowest. Five genetic clusters were detected in the pepper population and were significantly associated with fruit thickness, end shape, and fruit shape index. The genetic differentiation between clusters ranged from little to very great differentiation when grouped by the predefined categories. Broad sense heritability for fruit traits ranged from 0.56 (shoulder height to 0.98 (pericarp thickness. When correlations among fruit phenotypes and fruit disease were evaluated, fruit shape index was negatively correlated with pericarp thickness, and positively correlated with fruit perimeter. Pepper fruit pericarp, perimeter, and width had a slight positive correlation with Phytophthora fruit rot, whereas fruit shape index had a slight negative correlation.

  13. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Heritability of Fruit Traits in Capsicum annuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, Rachel P.; Mitchell, Jenna; Hausbeck, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungency, and color, and often lack resistance traits. Fruit characteristics (e.g. shape and pericarp thickness) are major determinants for cultivar selection, and their association with disease susceptibility can reduce breeding efficacy. This study evaluated a diverse collection of peppers for mature fruit phenotypic traits, correlation among fruit traits and Phytophthora fruit rot resistance, genetic diversity, population structure, and trait broad sense heritability. Significant differences within all fruit phenotype categories were detected among pepper lines. Fruit from Europe had the thickest pericarp, and fruit from Ecuador had the thinnest. For fruit shape index, fruit from Africa had the highest index, while fruit from Europe had the lowest. Five genetic clusters were detected in the pepper population and were significantly associated with fruit thickness, end shape, and fruit shape index. The genetic differentiation between clusters ranged from little to very great differentiation when grouped by the predefined categories. Broad sense heritability for fruit traits ranged from 0.56 (shoulder height) to 0.98 (pericarp thickness). When correlations among fruit phenotypes and fruit disease were evaluated, fruit shape index was negatively correlated with pericarp thickness, and positively correlated with fruit perimeter. Pepper fruit pericarp, perimeter, and width had a slight positive correlation with Phytophthora fruit rot, whereas fruit shape index had a slight negative correlation. PMID:27415818

  14. Changes in metabolic correlates of personality traits in healthy elderly women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Personality traits are generally known to be stable, although the brain changes with aging. Especially women experience striking alterations in the neuroendocrinergic system at menopause, which may cause considerable changes in personality traits and alter their underlying neural substrates. To investigate changes in the neural substrates underlying personality traits, we investigated metabolic correlates of personality traits in women before and after menopause. We obtained FDG PET images from 13 young (24.0{+-}3.1 y) and 11 elderly females (66.8{+-}3.3 y). Three factors of personality traits (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Characteristic Inventory. Three ANCOVA maps were created in SPM2 (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100), each constructed to assess the metabolic correlates of each temperament factor. In young females NS scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right insula and right cingulate; in elderly females, the right cuneus. In young females HA scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right lingual gyrus; in elderly females, the left anterior cingulate and bilateral hippocampus. Only in elderly females, HA scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right orbital gyrus and bilateral frontal gyri. In young females, RD scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the bilateral frontal gyri and bilateral cingulate; in elderly females, the right middle frontal gyrus. In young females, RD scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right precuneus; in elderly females, the left insula. We found that neural substrates underlying personality traits in females were dissociable across young and elderly women. These results may provide better understanding of differential prevalence and susceptibility to psychiatric illnesses in young and elderly females.

  15. Phylogenetic signal in phenotypic traits related to carbon source assimilation and chemical sensitivity in Acinetobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Ado; Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; de Breij, Anna; De Brabanter, Joseph; Willems, Kris A; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Lievens, Bart

    2017-01-01

    A common belief is that the phylogeny of bacteria may reflect molecular functions and phenotypic characteristics, pointing towards phylogenetic conservatism of traits. Here, we tested this hypothesis for a large set of Acinetobacter strains. Members of the genus Acinetobacter are widespread in nature, demonstrate a high metabolic diversity and are resistant to several environmental stressors. Notably, some species are known to cause opportunistic human infections. A total of 133 strains belonging to 33 species with validly published names, two genomic species and species of an as-yet unknown taxonomic status were analyzed using the GENIII technology of Biolog, which allows high-throughput phenotyping. We estimated the strength and significance of the phylogenetic signal of each trait across phylogenetic reconstructions based on partial RNA polymerase subunit B (rpoB) and core genome sequences. Secondly, we tested whether phylogenetic distance was a good predictor of trait differentiation by Mantel test analysis. And finally, evolutionary model fitting was used to determine if the data for each phenotypic character was consistent with a phylogenetic or an essentially random model of trait distribution. Our data revealed that some key phenotypic traits related to substrate assimilation and chemical sensitivity are linked to the phylogenetic placement of Acinetobacter species. The strongest phylogenetic signals found were for utilization of different carbon sources such as some organic acids, amino acids and sugars, thus suggesting that in the diversification of Acinetobacter carbon source assimilation has had a relevant role. Future work should be aimed to clarify how such traits have shaped the remarkable ability of this bacterial group to dominate in a wide variety of habitats.

  16. The comparison of ewe udder morphology traits of Improved Valachian, Tsigai, Lacaune breeds and their crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Makovický

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphological udder traits are very important for dairy animals. During this experiment, mor¬phological udder traits were subjectively assessed with the use of linear scores from selected ewes (381 ewes belonging to nine genotypes based on the basis of Improved Valachian, Tsigai and Lacaune breeds (7 udder traits; using a scale of 9 points; 1275 statements for each trait during the milking period from 2002 to 2008. Linear udder traits were: udder depth, cistern depth, teat position, teat size, udder cleft, udder attachment and udder shape. Collected data were processed with restricted methodology and maximal probability using a MIXED procedure from the SAS statistical package. During the research, all traits were influenced by the ewe genotype (P<0.001, furthermore, parity and stage of lactation had its effect as well. In most cases, crosses with 25 to 75 % share of dairy breeds, such as Lacaune and East Friesian, had larger udder cisterns than purebred Tsigai ewes and Improved Valachian breed. In¬convenient teat placement was found in the purebred Lacaune ewes, which, also, had the largest udders and cisterns among studied genotypes. Tsigai crossbreds and Improved Valachian breed, together with specialized dairy breeds had larger udders than purebred ewes (Tsigai and Improved Valachian breeds, but with negative placement of teat for milking. Compliances were statistically significant (P<0.001 due to influences on parameters for determining the size of udder (udder depth, cistern depth, teat size and udder attachment. In conclusion, udder depth, teat position and teat size may be used as suitable characteristics for marker selection, to improve milking ability of listed breeds.

  17. Trophic niche-space imaging, using resource and consumer traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Rossberg, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    The strength of trophic (feeding) links between two species depends on the traits of both the consumer and the resource. But which traits of consumer and resource have to be measured to predict link strengths, and how many? A novel theoretical framework for systematically determining trophic traits

  18. Do Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders Infer Traits from Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rajani; Mitchell, Peter; Ropar, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Background: Traits and mental states are considered to be inter-related parts of theory of mind. Attribution research demonstrates the influential role played by traits in social cognition. However, there has been little investigation into how individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) understand traits. Method: The ability of individuals…

  19. Selection for production and reproduction traits in pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de A.G.

    1989-01-01

    IntroductionReproduction traits are important for piglet production, whereas production traits are important for fattening. Pig breeding organizations improve both groups of traits by selection in nucleus populations. Optimization of selection in these nucleus populations is important, becaus

  20. TOWARDS A REFINED STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY-TRAITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DERAAD, B; HENDRIKS, AAJ; HOFSTEE, WKB

    1992-01-01

    In this article we pursue two goals. The first is a further articulation of the dimensionality of the Dutch trait domain. The second is a detailed mapping of the factorial trait structure, one which includes intelligible and proper niches for various nuances of the trait language and for different i

  1. TRAIT PROCRASTINATION AND THE BIG-5 FACTORS OF PERSONALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOUWENBURG, HC; LAY, CH

    1995-01-01

    Trait procrastination is viewed as a summary variable linked to the predisposition to engage in dilatory behaviour. This paper sought to trace the sources of trait procrastination by locating it within the five-factor personality structure. Study 1 concerned self-ratings on trait adjectives (in Dutc

  2. Going underground: root traits as drivers of ecosystem processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardgett, R.D.; Mommer, L.; Vries, de F.T.

    2014-01-01

    Ecologists are increasingly adopting trait-based approaches to understand how community change influences ecosystem processes. However, most of this research has focussed on aboveground plant traits, whereas it is becoming clear that root traits are important drivers of many ecosystem processes, suc

  3. A unified framework for diversity gradients : the adaptive trait continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carnicer, Jofre; Stefanescu, Constanti; Vila, Roger; Dinca, Vlad; Font, Xavier; Penuelas, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Aim Adaptive trait continua are axes of covariation observed in multivariate trait data for a given taxonomic group. These continua quantify and summarize life-history variation at the inter-specific level in multi-specific assemblages. Here we examine whether trait continua can provide a useful fra

  4. Students' perceptions of school climate and trait test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang Yang

    2012-12-01

    In a sample of 916 Chinese high school students, the relations among the students' perceptions of school climate and their trait test anxiety were examined. The results indicated that students' perceptions of teacher-student relationships and student-student relationships negatively predicted their trait test anxiety. Furthermore, girls had higher scores on trait test anxiety than boys.

  5. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  6. Taxonomies of situations from a trait psychological perspective. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, MA; De Raad, B

    1999-01-01

    In this article we review studies of situations and situation taxonomies from the perspective of trait psychology. Objections to trait psychology are discussed and several refutations are recapitulated The relation between traits and situations is analysed, as well as the affinity that both concepts

  7. Cognitive Ability and Non-Ability Trait Determinants of Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional approaches to understanding individual differences determinants of domain-specific expertise have focused on individual trait components, such as ability or topic interest. In contrast, trait complex approaches consider whether combinations of cognitive, affective, and conative traits are particularly facilitative or impeding of the…

  8. An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Career Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, John W.; Loveland, James M.; Sundstrom, Eric D.; Gibson, Lucy W.; Drost, Adam W.; Hamrick, Frances L.

    2003-01-01

    Personality traits related to career satisfaction for 5,932 individuals were measured for the group and in 14 occupations. Traits related to satisfaction across occupations were emotional resilience, optimism, and work drive. The Big Five traits of conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness were also correlated with career satisfaction.…

  9. Help! How Can I Do the Six Traits, Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Annie

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Six Traits of Writing and how school librarians can use storytime to teach the Six Traits, use picture books that demonstrate them, develop active participation strategies for listening comprehension, and teach group and individual composition highlighting each trait. (LRW)

  10. Sex-specific Association between Psychopathic Traits and Electrodermal Reactivity in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Isen, Joshua; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura; Dawson, Michael; Bezdjian, Serena; LOZANO, DORA ISABEL

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of skin conductance response (SCR) to a child psychopathy measure. Blunted electrodermal activity is a theoretically important characteristic of psychopathy, but has not been fully explored in preadolescents or females. We tested the hypothesis that reduced SCR magnitude is associated with psychopathic-like traits in boys and girls. Participants were drawn from an ethnically diverse community sample of 9-10 year old twins. Given the fact that members o...

  11. 中国北方荷斯坦奶牛乳成分及相关指标的季节性与胎次变化规律研究%Study on Seasonal and Parity Variation Characteristics of Raw Milk Composition and Related Traits of Chinese Holstein in the North of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊本海; 易渺; 杨琴; 庞之洪; 杨亮

    2013-01-01

    给提供了决策依据.%To meet the seasonal regulation of production management and to explore the variation features of milk compositions and some related traits, based on the DHI data and derived data of Chinese Holstein lactating cows in the north of China, the data were grouped by parities and the natural months and the abnormal ones are deleted to obtain complete data 6 520 sets which contain 9 traits-daily milk yield(DMP) , milk solid percentage(MSP) , milk fat percentage(MFP), milk protein percentage(MPP), milk lactose percentage(MLP), somatic cell count(SCC), body condition score(BCS), lossed milk production(LMP) and fat-to-protein rate(FPR). The natural month, parity and their interaction were assumed as factors affecting the 9 traits. A GLM variance analysis method of SAS software showed that both of the natural months and lactation parities affected the above 9 traits significantly (P0. 05) while their interaction showed significant effect on DMP (P< 0.000 1), MLP, BCS and LMP(P<0. 05). The Duncan multiple comparison of natural months showed that DMP(23. 58 kg· d-1), MSPC12. 35%), MPP(3. 02%) and MFP(3. 81%) all were the lowest in June and SCC was the highest (385. 2×1 000 · mL-1) in August and LMP was the highest (1. 12 kg · D-1) in November and FPR was the highest (1. 32) in February which means the cows consumed the body fat quickly. The Duncan multiple comparison of parity showed that MSP, MPP and MLP dropped rapidly in parity 4 (P<0. 05). The SCC went up significantly in parity 4 and LMP increased significantly following the parity (P<0. 05) , and this means that the quality of the milk and sanitation indexes of milk production deteriorated and the milk loss production increased following the parity. Secondly, the canonical correlation analysis of the 9 traits showed that BCS were high positive correlation with SCC (0. 830 6) and LMP (0. 836 0) while SCC and LMP were high positive correlation (0. 786 1). Thirdly, the relation equations between MSP(%) or MLP(%) and the

  12. Personal Characteristics of Teachers, Situational Variables and Deliberations in Planning Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Lya

    This study reveals possible relationships among teachers' personality traits, situational variables, and deliberation characteristics in planning instruction. Dogmatism and locus of control perceptions were the personality traits studied, and the situations compared student teachers with elementary and secondary school teachers. Both groups were…

  13. Relationship between PTSD and pathological personality traits in context of disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ana Maria; de Francisco Carvalho, Lucas; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-07-30

    One of the recurrent outcomes after a stressor event as a disaster is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which appears to be mediated, in part, by emotional, behavioral, and psychological responses, arising from the belief system associated with the traumatic experience. Studies suggest that personality traits are related to how individuals face or adapt in the event of disaster phenomena. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between PTSD, posttraumatic beliefs and personality traits in people who experienced disasters. 113 individuals participated in the survey, of both sexes (58.4% women) with ages ranging between 19 and 63 years (M=37.5; SD=12.1). We used the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (IDCP), the Brazilian version of the Davidson Trauma Scale, and the Brazilian version of the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory. Among the findings, pathological personality characteristics relate positively with PTSD symptomatology, individuals who experienced disaster events presented more pathological personality traits when compared to those who did not experience these events, and negative beliefs were positively related with pathological characteristics of personality. We highlight the need for research on the relationships between personality characteristics and post-traumatic beliefs in order to promote more adequate interventions given the possible disease chronicity.

  14. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling root and shoot traits associated with drought tolerance in a lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Idrissi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting lentil productivity in rainfed production systems. Specific rooting patterns can be associated with drought avoidance mechanisms that can be used in lentil breeding programs. In all, 252 co-dominant and dominant markers were used for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL analysis on 132 lentil recombinant inbred lines based on greenhouse experiments for root and shoot traits during two seasons under progressive drought-stressed conditions. Eighteen QTLs controlling a total of 14 root and shoot traits were identified. A QTL-hotspot genomic region related to a number of root and shoot characteristics associated with drought tolerance such as dry root biomass, root surface area, lateral root number, dry shoot biomass and shoot length was identified. Interestingly, a QTL related to root-shoot ratio, an important trait for drought avoidance, explaining the highest phenotypic variance of 27.6 % and 28.9 % for the two consecutive seasons, respectively, was detected. This QTL was closed to the co-dominant SNP marker TP6337 and also flanked by the two SNP TP518 and TP1280. An important QTL related to lateral root number was found close to TP3371 and flanked by TP5093 and TP6072 SNP markers. Also, a QTL associated with specific root length was identified close to TP1873 and flanked by F7XEM6b SRAP marker and TP1035 SNP marker. These two QTLs were detected in both seasons. Our results could be used for marker-assisted selection in lentil breeding programs targeting root and shoot characteristics conferring drought avoidance as an efficient alternative to slow and labour-intensive conventional breeding methods.

  15. Trait contributions to fish community assembly emerge from trophicinteractions in an individual-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Henrique C.; DeAngelis, Donald; Trexler, Joel C.; Petrere, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Community ecology seeks to understand and predict the characteristics of communities that can develop under different environmental conditions, but most theory has been built on analytical models that are limited in the diversity of species traits that can be considered simultaneously. We address that limitation with an individual-based model to simulate assembly of fish communities characterized by life history and trophic interactions with multiple physiological tradeoffs as constraints on species performance. Simulation experiments were carried out to evaluate the distribution of 6 life history and 4 feeding traits along gradients of resource productivity and prey accessibility. These experiments revealed that traits differ greatly in importance for species sorting along the gradients. Body growth rate emerged as a key factor distinguishing community types and defining patterns of community stability and coexistence, followed by egg size and maximum body size. Dominance by fast-growing, relatively large, and fecund species occurred more frequently in cases where functional responses were saturated (i.e. high productivity and/or prey accessibility). Such dominance was associated with large biomass fluctuations and priority effects, which prevented richness from increasing with productivity and may have limited selection on secondary traits, such as spawning strategies and relative size at maturation. Our results illustrate that the distribution of species traits and the consequences for community dynamics are intimately linked and strictly dependent on how the benefits and costs of these traits are balanced across different conditions.

  16. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fruit quality traits and number of weeks of flowering in the cultivated strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit quality traits and dayneutrality are two major foci of several strawberry breeding programs. The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and molecular markers linked to these traits could improve breeding efficiency. In this work, an F1 population derived from the cross ‘Delmarvel’ × ...

  17. Successful restrained eating and trait impulsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Aarts, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Restrained eaters with high scores on the Perceived Self-Regulatory Success in Dieting Scale (PSRS) are more successful than low scorers in regulating their food intake. According to the theory of temptation-elicited goal activation (Fishbach, Friedman, & Kruglanski, 2003), they have become successful because, due to earlier repeated instances of successful self-control, they formed an associative link between temptations and thoughts of dieting. It is unclear, however, why they should have been more successful in earlier attempts at self-control than their unsuccessful counterparts. We examined whether trait impulsiveness plays a role by investigating the associations between dietary restraint, trait impulsiveness, and PSRS. Results showed that the interaction between dietary restraint and impulsiveness predicted dieting success: A lower level of impulsiveness was associated with greater dieting success among restrained eaters. These results suggest that restrained eaters who are less impulsive are more likely to become successful restrained eaters as identified with the PSRS.

  18. Personality Traits and Motives for Volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Juzbasic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the possibility of predicting volunteer motives based on five-factor model of personality in a sample of 159 volunteers from Zagreb, Osijek and Split. Data was collected using IPIP-300 personality questionnaire and Volunteer Functions Inventory. Results indicate that Croatian volunteers are agreeable, conscientious, altruistic, dutiful, and moral persons with artistic interests. Their most salient motives for volunteering are understanding and values. Hierarchical regression analysis confirmed that the five-factor model personality traits independently predict 17% of protective motive variance, 12% of values motive, 18% of career motive, 10% of understanding motive, and 12% of enhancement motive. Social motive was not explained by personality traits.

  19. Trait Mindfulness and Cognitive Task Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emalee J. W. Quickel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness meditation (MM training has been shown to have positive effects on working memory and focused attention tasks. Clarifying the construct of mindfulness is important so that mindfulness can be studied effectively in individual differences and cognition research. The current study tested whether trait mindfulness alone explains any of the variability on task performance. Five commonly used mindfulness scales, as well as six standardized and experimental attention and working memory tasks were administered to 164 participants with no meditation experience. Confirmatory factor analysis found that the common variance denoted by measures of trait mindfulness is unrelated to the common variance among tasks requiring focused attention. These results indicate that mindfulness scales may not be capturing the attentional aspects of mindfulness. Individuals who score high on mindfulness scales do not perform better on focused attention tasks than those who score lower on mindfulness scales. These results have implications for defining and operationalizing mindfulness.

  20. Genetic parameters and mapping quantitative trait loci associated with tibia traits in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragognetti, B N N; Stafuzza, N B; Silva, T B R; Chud, T C S; Grupioni, N V; Cruz, V A R; Peixoto, J O; Nones, K; Ledur, M C; Munari, D P

    2015-12-21

    Selection among broilers for performance traits is resulting in locomotion problems and bone disorders, once skeletal structure is not strong enough to support body weight in broilers with high growth rates. In this study, genetic parameters were estimated for body weight at 42 days of age (BW42), and tibia traits (length, width, and weight) in a population of broiler chickens. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for tibia traits to expand our knowledge of the genetic architecture of the broiler population. Genetic correlations ranged from 0.56 ± 0.18 (between tibia length and BW42) to 0.89 ± 0.06 (between tibia width and weight), suggesting that these traits are either controlled by pleiotropic genes or by genes that are in linkage disequilibrium. For QTL mapping, the genome was scanned with 127 microsatellites, representing a coverage of 2630 cM. Eight QTL were mapped on Gallus gallus chromosomes (GGA): GGA1, GGA4, GGA6, GGA13, and GGA24. The QTL regions for tibia length and weight were mapped on GGA1, between LEI0079 and MCW145 markers. The gene DACH1 is located in this region; this gene acts to form the apical ectodermal ridge, responsible for limb development. Body weight at 42 days of age was included in the model as a covariate for selection effect of bone traits. Two QTL were found for tibia weight on GGA2 and GGA4, and one for tibia width on GGA3. Information originating from these QTL will assist in the search for candidate genes for these bone traits in future studies.

  1. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting body conformation traits in Spanish Churra dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Alvarez, L; de la Fuente, L F; Sanchez, J P; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J J

    2011-08-01

    A genome scan for chromosomal regions influencing body conformation traits was conducted for a population of Spanish Churra dairy sheep following a daughter design. A total of 739 ewes from 11 half-sib sire families were included in the study. The ewes were scored for the 5 linear traits used in the breeding scheme of the Churra breed to assess body conformation: stature, rear legs-rear view, foot angle, rump width, and general appearance. All the animals, including the 11 sires, were genotyped for 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed across the 26 sheep autosomes. Using the yield deviations of the raw scores adjusted for fixed factors as phenotypic measurements, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on the basis of a multi-marker regression method. Seven suggestive QTL were identified on chromosomes Ovis aries (OAR)2, OAR5, OAR16, OAR23, and OAR26, but none reached a genome-wise significance level. Putative QTL were identified for all of the traits analyzed, except for general appearance score. The suggestive QTL showing the highest test statistic influenced rear legs-rear view and was localized on OAR16, close to the growth hormone receptor coding gene, GHR. Some of the putative linkage associations reported here are consistent with previously reported QTL in cattle for similar traits. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first report of QTL for body conformation traits in dairy sheep; further studies will be needed to confirm and redefine the linkage associations reported herein. It is expected that future genome-wide association analyses of larger families will help identify genes underlying these putative genetic effects and provide useful markers for marker-assisted selection of such functional traits.

  2. Reinforcing loose foundation stones in trait-based plant ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Bill; De Bello, Francesco; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Laliberté, Etienne; Laughlin, Daniel C; Reich, Peter B

    2016-04-01

    The promise of "trait-based" plant ecology is one of generalized prediction across organizational and spatial scales, independent of taxonomy. This promise is a major reason for the increased popularity of this approach. Here, we argue that some important foundational assumptions of trait-based ecology have not received sufficient empirical evaluation. We identify three such assumptions and, where possible, suggest methods of improvement: (i) traits are functional to the degree that they determine individual fitness, (ii) intraspecific variation in functional traits can be largely ignored, and (iii) functional traits show general predictive relationships to measurable environmental gradients.

  3. The key ingredients of personality traits: situations, behaviors, and explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Read, Stephen J; Denson, Thomas F; Xu, Yiyuan; Zhang, Jin; Pedersen, William C

    2014-01-01

    The trait and social cognitive perspectives are considered disparate approaches to understanding personality. We suggest an integrative view in which three elements derived from the social cognitive perspective (i.e., situations, behaviors, and explanations [SBEs]) form the basis of personality traits. Study 1 demonstrated strong associations between traits and SBEs across the Big Five dimensions. Studies 2 through 7 tested the discriminative validity, internal structure, and unique contributions of the individual components of SBEs. Studies 8 and 9 demonstrated that the strong associations between traits and SBEs generalize to different cultures. The present work suggests that SBEs may be a universal folk psychological mechanism underlying personality traits.

  4. Water relations traits of C4 grasses depend on phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and habitat water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Osborne, Colin P

    2015-02-01

    The repeated evolution of C4 photosynthesis in independent lineages has resulted in distinct biogeographical distributions in different phylogenetic lineages and the variants of C4 photosynthesis. However, most previous studies have only considered C3/C4 differences without considering phylogeny, C4 subtype, or habitat characteristics. We hypothesized that independent lineages of C4 grasses have structural and physiological traits that adapt them to environments with differing water availability. We measured 40 traits of 33 species from two major C4 grass lineages in a common glasshouse environment. Chloridoideae species were shorter, with narrower and longer leaves, smaller but denser stomata, and faster curling leaves than Panicoideae species, but overall differences in leaf hydraulic and gas exchange traits between the two lineages were weak. Chloridoideae species had two different ways to reach higher drought resistance potential than Panicoideae; NAD-ME species used water saving, whereas PCK species used osmotic adjustment. These patterns could be explained by the interactions of lineage×C4 subtype and lineage×habitat water availability in affected traits. Specifically, phylogeny tended to have a stronger influence on structural traits, and C4 subtype had more important effects on physiological traits. Although hydraulic traits did not differ consistently between lineages, they showed strong covariation and relationships with leaf structure. Thus, phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and adaptation to habitat water availability act together to influence the leaf water relations traits of C4 grasses. This work expands our understanding of ecophysiology in major C4 grass lineages, with implications for explaining their regional and global distributions in relation to climate.

  5. Water relations traits of C4 grasses depend on phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and habitat water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Osborne, Colin P.

    2015-01-01

    The repeated evolution of C4 photosynthesis in independent lineages has resulted in distinct biogeographical distributions in different phylogenetic lineages and the variants of C4 photosynthesis. However, most previous studies have only considered C3/C4 differences without considering phylogeny, C4 subtype, or habitat characteristics. We hypothesized that independent lineages of C4 grasses have structural and physiological traits that adapt them to environments with differing water availability. We measured 40 traits of 33 species from two major C4 grass lineages in a common glasshouse environment. Chloridoideae species were shorter, with narrower and longer leaves, smaller but denser stomata, and faster curling leaves than Panicoideae species, but overall differences in leaf hydraulic and gas exchange traits between the two lineages were weak. Chloridoideae species had two different ways to reach higher drought resistance potential than Panicoideae; NAD-ME species used water saving, whereas PCK species used osmotic adjustment. These patterns could be explained by the interactions of lineage×C4 subtype and lineage×habitat water availability in affected traits. Specifically, phylogeny tended to have a stronger influence on structural traits, and C4 subtype had more important effects on physiological traits. Although hydraulic traits did not differ consistently between lineages, they showed strong covariation and relationships with leaf structure. Thus, phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and adaptation to habitat water availability act together to influence the leaf water relations traits of C4 grasses. This work expands our understanding of ecophysiology in major C4 grass lineages, with implications for explaining their regional and global distributions in relation to climate. PMID:25504656

  6. Examining the Genetic and Environmental Associations between Autistic Social and Communication Deficits and Psychopathic Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth O'Nions

    Full Text Available Difficulties in appropriate social interaction are characteristic of both children with autism spectrum disorders and children with callous-unemotional traits (who are at risk of developing psychopathy. Extant experimental studies suggest that the nature of atypical social cognition that characterises these two profiles is not identical. However, 'empathizing' difficulties have been hypothesised for both groups, raising questions about the degree of aetiological separation between social impairments that characterize each disorder. This study explored the relative contribution of independent vs. shared aetiological influences to social and communication impairments associated with autistic traits and callous-unemotional traits, indexed by parent-report in a population-based cohort of twins.Participants were over 5,000 twin pairs from a UK cohort (the Twins Early Development Study; TEDS, assessed for callous-unemotional traits at 7 years and autistic social and communication impairments at 8 years. Multivariate model-fitting was used to explore the relative contribution of independent vs. overlapping genetic/environmental influences on these traits.Both social and communication impairments and callous-unemotional traits were highly heritable, although the genetic and environmental influences accounting for individual differences on each domain were predominantly independent.Extant evidence from experimental and neuro-imaging studies has suggested that, despite some superficially overlapping behaviours, the social difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and callous-unemotional traits are largely distinct. The current study is the first to demonstrate considerable aetiological independence of the social interaction difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and those with callous-unemotional traits.

  7. Variation in acoustic signalling traits exhibits footprints of sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Klaus

    2011-03-01

    Phenotypic variation is ubiquitous in nature and a precondition for adaptive evolution. However, theory predicts that the extent of phenotypic variation should decrease with increasing strength of selection on a trait. Comparative analyses of trait variability have repeatedly used this expectation to infer the type or strength of selection. Yet, the suggested influence of selection on trait variability has rarely been tested empirically. In the present study, I compare estimates of sexual selection strength and trait variability from published data. I constricted the analysis to acoustic courtship traits in amphibians and insects with known variability and corresponding results of female binary choice experiments on these traits. Trait variability and strength of sexual selection were significantly correlated, and both were correlated with signal duration. Because traits under stronger selection had lower variation even after the effect of signal duration was eliminated, I conclude that traces of the strength of selection can be observed with respect to variation of acoustic signaling traits in insects and amphibians. The analysis also shows that traits under stabilizing selection have significantly lower phenotypic variability than traits under directional selection.

  8. Young children's beliefs about the stability of traits: protective optimism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Kristi L; Chang, Bernard; Story, Tyler

    2002-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated individual differences in children's beliefs about the stability of traits, but this focus on individuals may have masked important developmental differences. In a series of four studies, younger children (5-6 years old, Ns = 53, 32, 16, and 16, respectively) were more optimistic in their beliefs about traits than were older children (7-10 years old, Ns = 60, 32, 16, and 16, respectively) and adults (Ns = 130, 100, 48, and 48, respectively). Younger children were more likely to believe that negative traits would change in an extreme positive direction over time (Study 1) and that they could control the expression of a trait (Study 3). This was true not only for psychological traits, but also for biological traits such as missing a finger and having poor eyesight. Young children also optimistically believed that extreme positive traits would be retained over development (Study 2). Study 4 extended these findings to groups, and showed that young children believed that a majority of people can have above average future outcomes. All age groups made clear distinctions between the malleability of biological and psychological traits, believing negative biological traits to be less malleable than negative psychological traits and less subject to a person's control. Hybrid traits (such as intelligence and body weight) fell midway between these two with respect to malleability. The sources of young children's optimism and implications of this optimism for age differences in the incidence of depression are discussed.

  9. QTL Analysis of Major Agronomic Traits in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-shan; ZHANG Zhong-chen; LIU Chun-yan; XIN Da-wei; QIU Hong-mei; SHAN Da-peng; SHAN Cai-yun; HU Guo-hua

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a main crop, and most agronomic traits of soybean are quantitative; therefore, there is very important studying and applying value to locating these traits. A F2:10 RIL population containing 154 lines, derived from the cross between Charleston as female and Dongnong 594 as male parent, were used in this experiment. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 164 SSR primers, which were screened with the two parents and amplified on the 154 lines. 12 agronomic traits different between the two parents were investigated, and QTLs of all the traits were analyzed using the software Windows QTL Cartographer V2.0. The agronomic traits included quality traits: protein content, oil content, and content of protein and oil; yield traits: pods per plant, seed weight per plant, arnd 100 seeds weight; and other agronomic traits: plant height, days to maturity, branches, nod number in main stem, average leaf length, and average leaf width. The results showed that 68 QTLs in total were found for the 12 agronomic traits. The number of QTLs per trait varied from 3 for the average leaf width to 11 for 100 seeds weight and plant height, and was 5.8 on average. Good accordance was seen in many QTLs between the results of this study and the results obtained by other similar studies; therefore, these QTLs may be valuable for molecular marker assistant selection in soybean. In this study, 68 major QTLs of 12 important traits of soybean were analyzed.

  10. Naturalization of central European plants in North America: species traits, habitats, propagule pressure, residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyšek, Petr; Manceur, Ameur M; Alba, Christina; McGregor, Kirsty F; Pergl, Jan; Stajerová, Katerina; Chytrý, Milan; Danihelka, Jiří; Kartesz, John; Klimesova, Jitka; Lucanova, Magdalena; Moravcová, Lenka; Nishino, Misako; Sadlo, Jiri; Suda, Jan; Tichy, Lubomir; Kühn, Ingolf

    2015-03-01

    The factors that promote invasive behavior in introduced plant species occur across many scales of biological and ecological organization. Factors that act at relatively small scales, for example, the evolution of biological traits associated with invasiveness, scale up to shape species distributions among different climates and habitats, as well as other characteristics linked to invasion, such as attractiveness for cultivation (and by extension propagule pressure). To identify drivers of invasion it is therefore necessary to disentangle the contribution of multiple factors that are interdependent. To this end, we formulated a conceptual model describing the process of invasion of central European species into North America based on a sequence of "drivers." We then used confirmatory path analysis to test whether the conceptual model is supported by a statistical model inferred from a comprehensive database containing 466 species. The path analysis revealed that naturalization of central European plants in North America, in terms of the number of North American regions invaded, most strongly depends on residence time in the invaded range and the number of habitats occupied by species in their native range. In addition to the confirmatory path analysis, we identified the effects of various biological traits on several important drivers of the conceptualized invasion process. The data supported a model that included indirect effects of biological traits on invasion via their effect on the number of native range habitats occupied and cultivation in the native range. For example, persistent seed banks and longer flowering periods are positively correlated with number of native habitats, while a stress-tolerant life strategy is negatively correlated with native range cultivation. However, the importance of the biological traits is nearly an order of magnitude less than that of the larger scale drivers and highly dependent on the invasion stage (traits were associated

  11. The role of Trait Emotional Intelligence and social and emotional skills in students’ emotional and behavioural strengths and difficulties: A study of Greek adolescents’ perceptions.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of the Trait Emotional Intelligence construct shifted the interest in personality research to the investigation of the effect of global personality characteristics on behaviour. A second body of research in applied settings, the Social and Emotional Learning movement, emphasized the cultivation of emotional and social skills for positive relationships in a school environment. In this paper we investigate the role of both personality traits and social and emotional skills, in the...

  12. Genetic parameters for type traits in Holstein cows in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viegas Campos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from 26,558 Holstein cows in 802 herds were used to estimate genetic, residual and phenotypic parameters for 22 type traits. The model included the fixed effects of herd-year, period of classification, classifier, stage of lactation and age of cows at calving (covariate and random genetic and residual effects. Heritability for type traits ranged from 0.10 to 0.39. The genetic variability in these traits suggested the possibility for moderate genetic gains through selection. The phenotypic correlations were moderated, mainly in the section conformation. Genetic correlations between type traits ranged from -0.44 to 0.85. High genetic correlations indicated that breeding programs could be successful without including all type traits. The selection for the final score at the expense of other traits must be performed with restraint, because in the long term, this may promote undesirable changes in some type traits.

  13. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters.

  14. Impulsivity and pathological gambling: Is it a state or a trait problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Florence DM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study tested 37 Chinese male pathological gamblers and 40 controls to understand the relationship between pathological gambling and impulsivity as a long-term trait or a short-term state in the cognitive and affective domain. Results Trait impulsivity was measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11. State impulsivity in the cognitive and affective domains were measured by the Stroop Color Word Test and the Emotional Conflict Task, respectively. The pathological gamblers scored significantly higher than the controls on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11. However, there were no significant group differences in performance on the Stroop Color Word Test or the Emotional Conflict Task. Conclusions Findings clearly show that pathological gambling is associated with trait but not state impulsivity. In other words, pathological gambling is associated with an impulsivity stemming from enduring personality characteristics that lead gamblers to focus on short-term gains (trait impulsivity rather than momentary cognitive or affective disinhibition (state impulsivity. Interventions should aim to change pathological gamblers' habitual functioning style by cultivating healthy reflection habits and focusing on long-term rewards.

  15. The sadistic trait predicts minimization of intention and causal responsibility in moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémolière, Bastien; Djeriouat, Hakim

    2016-01-01

    The present research tests the hypothesis that specific socially aversive traits-subclinical sadism in particular-are associated with an impaired judgment of moral wrongness, guilt, and punishment in various moral scenarios manipulating intent, cause and consequence of harm. In three online studies (total N=1069), participants completed a battery of tests scaled to assess sadism and the Dark Triad constructs, then faced different situations involving moral issues (attempted harm, intentional harm, accidental harm). Study 1 revealed that a sadistic personality trait was associated with minimization of the importance of harmful intent in moral judgment. Study 2 showed that a sadistic personality trait predicted minimization of the importance of causal mechanisms to harmful consequences in moral judgment. Study 3 showed that these effects were mediated by enjoyment of cruelty, a characteristic unique to sadists. In the light of Cushman's (2008) two-process model of moral judgment, this set of studies provides the first evidence that deficits in the integration of the theory of mind and causality can be observed in personality traits. The independent predictive value of sadism highlights that features other than emotional deficits are essential in explaining impaired moral evaluations.

  16. Multi-trait BLUP model indicates sorghum hybrids with genetic potential for agronomic and nutritional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Filho, J E; Tardin, F D; Guimarães, J F R; Resende, M D V; Silva, F F; Simeone, M L; Menezes, C B; Queiroz, V A V

    2016-02-26

    The breeding of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, aimed at improving its nutritional quality, is of great interest, since it can be used as a highly nutritive alternative food source and can possibly be cultivated in regions with low rainfall. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential and genetic diversity of grain-sorghum hybrids for traits of agronomic and nutritional interest. To this end, the traits grain yield and flowering, and concentrations of protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, and zinc in the grain were evaluated in 25 grain-sorghum hybrids, comprising 18 experimental hybrids of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo and seven commercial hybrids. The genetic potential was analyzed by a multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) model, and cluster analysis was accomplished by squared Mahalanobis distance using the predicted genotypic values. Hybrids 0306037 and 0306034 stood out in the agronomic evaluation. The hybrids with agronomic prominence, however, did not stand out for the traits related to the nutritional quality of the grain. Three clusters were formed from the dendrogram obtained with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean method. From the results of the genotypic BLUP and the analysis of the dendrogram, hybrids 0577337, 0441347, 0307651, and 0306037 were identified as having the potential to establish a population that can aggregate alleles for all the evaluated traits of interest.

  17. Genomic Distribution of Quantitative Trait Loci for Yield and Yield-related Traits in Common Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Yi Zhang; Dong-Cheng Liu; Xiao-Li Guo; Wen-Long Yang; Jia-Zhu Sun; Dao-Wen Wang; Aimin Zhang

    2010-01-01

    A major objective of quantitative trait locus(QTL)studies is to find genes/markers that can be used in breeding programs via marker assisted selection(MAS).We surveyed the QTLs for yield and yield related traits and their genomic distributions in common wheat(Triticum aestivum L.)in the available published reports.We then carried out a meta-QTL(MQTL)analysis to identify the major and consistent QTLs for these traits.In total,55 MQTLs were identified,of which 12 significant MQTLs were located on wheat chromosomes 1A,1B,2A,2D,3B,4A,4B,4D and 5A.Our study showed that the genetic control of yield and its components in common wheat involved the important genes such as Rht and Vrn.Furthermore,several significant MQTLs were found in the chromosomal regions corresponding to several rice genomic locations containing important QTLs for yield related traits.Our results demonstrate that meta-QTL analysis is a powerful tool for confirming the major and stable QTLs and refining their chromosomal positions in common wheat,which may be useful for improving the MAS efficiency of yield related traits.

  18. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for seed quality traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Badigannavar; Gerald O. Myers

    2015-03-01

    Cottonseed contains 16% seed oil and 23% seed protein by weight. High levels of palmitic acid provides a degree of stability to the oil, while the presence of bound gossypol in proteins considerably changes their properties, including their biological value. This study uses genetic principles to identify genomic regions associated with seed oil, protein and fibre content in upland cotton cultivars. Cotton association mapping panel representing the US germplasm were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, yielding 234 polymorphic DNA fragments. Phenotypic analysis showed high genetic variability for the seed traits, seed oil range from 6.47–25.16%, protein from 1.85–28.45% and fibre content from 15.88–37.12%. There were negative correlations between seed oil and protein content. With reference to genetic diversity, the average estimate of ST was 8.852 indicating a low level of genetic differentiation among subpopulations. The AMOVA test revealed that variation was 94% within and 6% among subpopulations. Bayesian population structure identified five subpopulations and was in agreement with their geographical distribution. Among the mixed models analysed, mixed linear model (MLM) identified 21 quantitative trait loci for lint percentage and seed quality traits, such as seed protein and oil. Establishing genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for the seed quality traits could be valuable in understanding the genetic relationships and their utilization in breeding programmes.

  19. Quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping for growth traits on bovine chromosome 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Miyata

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping in livestock allows the identification of genes that determine the genetic variation affecting traits of economic interest. We analyzed the birth weight and weight at 60 days QTL segregating on bovine chromosome BTA14 in a F2 resource population using genotypes produced from seven microsatellite markers. Phenotypes were derived from 346 F2 progeny produced from crossing Bos indicus Gyr x Holstein Bos taurus F1 parents. Interval analysis to detect QTL for birth weight revealed the presence of a QTL (p < 0.05 at 1 centimorgan (cM from the centromere with an additive effect of 1.210 ± 0.438 kg. Interval analysis for weight at 60 days revealed the presence of a QTL (p < 0.05 at 0 cM from the centromere with an additive effect of 2.122 ± 0.735 kg. The region to which the QTL were assigned is described in the literature as responsible for some growth traits, milk yield, milk composition, fat deposition and has also been related to reproductive traits such as daughter pregnancy rate and ovulation rate. The effects of the QTL described on other traits were not investigated.

  20. QTL mapping of sake brewing characteristics of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katou, Taku; Namise, Masahiro; Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2009-04-01

    A haploid sake yeast strain derived from the commercial diploid sake yeast strain Kyokai no. 7 showed better characteristics for sake brewing compared to the haploid laboratory yeast strain X2180-1B, including higher production of ethanol and aromatic components. A hybrid of these two strains showed intermediate characteristics in most cases. After sporulation of the hybrid strain, we obtained 100 haploid segregants of the hybrid. Small-scale sake brewing tests of these segregants showed a smooth continuous distribution of the sake brewing characteristics, suggesting that these traits are determined by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). To examine these sake brewing characteristics at the genomic level, we performed QTL analysis of sake brewing characteristics using 142 DNA markers that showed heterogeneity between the two parental strains. As a result, we identified 25 significant QTLs involved in the specification of sake brewing characteristics such as ethanol fermentation and the production of aromatic components.

  1. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2011-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. We have compiled a database of > 100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 nonnative) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database, named Fish Traits, contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology; (2) body size, reproductive ecology, and life history; (3) habitat preferences; and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status was also compiled. The database enhances many opportunities for conducting research on fish species traits and constitutes the first step toward establishing a central repository for a continually expanding set of traits of North American fishes.

  2. Improvement in genetic evaluation of female fertility in dairy cattle using multiple-trait models including milk production traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, C; Madsen, P; Lund, M S;

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the improvement in genetic evaluation of fertility traits by using production traits as secondary traits (MILK = 305-d milk yield, FAT = 305-d fat yield, and PROT = 305-d protein yield). Data including 471,742 records from first lactations of Denmark Holstein cows, covering...... (DATAC1, which only contained the first crop daughters) for proven bulls. In addition, the superiority of the models was evaluated by expected reliability of EBV, calculated from the prediction error variance of EBV. Based on these criteria, the models combining milk production traits showed better model...... stability and predictive ability than single-trait models for all the fertility traits, except for nonreturn rate within 56 d after first service. The stability and predictive ability for the model including MILK or PROT were similar to the model including all 3 milk production traits and better than...

  3. Analysis of characteristics and physiological indices related to photoinhibition of photosynthesis in indica-japonica hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIBenhua; ZHUSuqin; JIAODemao

    1998-01-01

    To elucidate traits related to photoinhibition of photosynthesis and their characteristics of physiological genetics, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), photorespiratory rate (Pr), RuBPCase/Oase and PS I electron transport activities, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of PS I ,

  4. Does resting electroencephalograph asymmetry reflect a trait? an application of latent state-trait theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Dirk; Naumann, Ewald; Thayer, Julian F; Bartussek, Dieter

    2002-04-01

    Recent research on brain asymmetry and emotion treated measures of resting electroencephalograph (EEG) asymmetry as genuine trait variables, but inconsistency in reported findings and modest retest correlations of baseline asymmetry are not consistent with this practice. The present study examined the alternative hypothesis that resting EEG asymmetry represents a superimposition of a traitlike activation asymmetry with substantial state-dependent fluctuations. Resting EEG was collected from 59 participants on 4 occasions of measurement, and data were analyzed in terms of latent state-trait theory. For most scalp regions, about 60% of the variance of the asymmetry measure was due to individual differences on a temporally stable latent trait, and 40% of the variance was due to occasion-specific fluctuations, but measurement errors were negligible. Further analyses indicated that these fluctuations might be efficiently reduced by aggregation across several occasions.

  5. Trait means and desirabilities as artifactual and real sources of differential stability of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dustin; Wortman, Jessica

    2012-06-01

    Using data from 3 personality trait inventories and 7 samples, we show that trait items that have means near the scale midpoint and that vary more in their perceived desirability (e.g., items related to dominance, creativity, traditionalism, and organization) tend to be more stable over time, whereas items with means near the scale maximum or minimum and that vary less in their perceived desirability (e.g., items related to agreeableness, intellect, and reliability) tend to be less stable. Our findings indicate that items with means near the scale maximum or minimum have lower stabilities primarily due to having lower measurement dependability (i.e., short-term stabilities unlikely to reflect true change). However, items varying more in their desirability are more stable even after accounting for measurement dependability, consistent with the view that trait stability is facilitated in part by individuals actively working to develop in the direction they find desirable.

  6. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs mapping for growth traits in the mouse: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medrano Juan F

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The attainment of a specific mature body size is one of the most fundamental differences among species of mammals. Moreover, body size seems to be the central factor underlying differences in traits such as growth rate, energy metabolism and body composition. An important proportion of this variability is of genetic origin. The goal of the genetic analysis of animal growth is to understand its "genetic architecture", that is the number and position of loci affecting the trait, the magnitude of their effects, allele frequencies and types of gene action. In this review, the different strategies developed to identify and characterize genes involved in the regulation of growth in the mouse are described, with emphasis on the methods developed to map loci contributing to the regulation of quantitative traits (QTLs.

  7. Ubiquitous polygenicity of human complex traits: genome-wide analysis of 49 traits in Koreans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    Full Text Available Recent studies in population of European ancestry have shown that 30% ~ 50% of heritability for human complex traits such as height and body mass index, and common diseases such as schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis, can be captured by common SNPs and that genetic variation attributed to chromosomes are in proportion to their length. Using genome-wide estimation and partitioning approaches, we analysed 49 human quantitative traits, many of which are relevant to human diseases, in 7,170 unrelated Korean individuals genotyped on 326,262 SNPs. For 43 of the 49 traits, we estimated a nominally significant (P<0.05 proportion of variance explained by all SNPs on the Affymetrix 5.0 genotyping array ([Formula: see text]. On average across 47 of the 49 traits for which the estimate of h(G(2 is non-zero, common SNPs explain approximately one-third (range of 7.8% to 76.8% of narrow sense heritability. The estimate of h(G(2 is highly correlated with the proportion of SNPs with association P<0.031 (r(2 = 0.92. Longer genomic segments tend to explain more phenotypic variation, with a correlation of 0.78 between the estimate of variance explained by individual chromosomes and their physical length, and 1% of the genome explains approximately 1% of the genetic variance. Despite the fact that there are a few SNPs with large effects for some traits, these results suggest that polygenicity is ubiquitous for most human complex traits and that a substantial proportion of the "missing heritability" is captured by common SNPs.

  8. Crossbreeding parameters for fertility traits in a rotational crossbreeding between Landrace and Piétrain pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕; 傅衍; 牛冬; 阮晖

    2002-01-01

    The reproduction characteristics of 343 sows in six different breeding groups were analyzed to estimate the crossbreeding parameters. The results indicated that the ovulation rate and the weights of uterus and ovary are mainly determined by the additive genetic effects while the nonadditive genetic effects play an important role in embryonal traits and litter performance. The heterosis effects in the first litter are larger than those in the second litter because of heterosis x environment interaction. The results also showed the existence of a highly significant maternal heterosis effect on the fertility traits of sows.

  9. Magic trait electric organ discharge (EOD): Dual function of electric signals promotes speciation in African weakly electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Philine Gd; Plath, Martin; Engelmann, Jacob; Kirschbaum, Frank; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2009-07-01

    A unique evolutionary specialization of African weakly electric fish (Mormyridae) is their ability to produce and perceive electric signals. Mormyrids use their electric organs discharge (EOD) for electrolocation and electrocommunication. Here we discuss the adaptive significance of the EOD in foraging (electric prey detection) in light of recent results demonstrating that mormyrid fish mate assortatively according to EOD waveform characteristics (electric mate choice). Therefore the EOD as a single trait pleiotropically combines natural divergent selection and reproductive isolation. Consequently we postulate the EOD as a "magic trait" promoting the diversification of African weakly electric fish.

  10. Accuracy of marker-assisted selection with auxiliary traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Narain

    2003-09-01

    Genetic information on molecular markers is increasingly being used in plant and animal improvement programmes particularly as indirect means to improve a metric trait by selection either on an individual basis or on the basis of an index incorporating such information. This paper examines the utility of an index of selection that not only combines phenotypic and molecular information on the trait under improvement but also combines similar information on one or more auxiliary traits. The accuracy of such a selection procedure has been theoretically studied for sufficiently large populations so that the effects of detected quantitative trait loci can be perfectly estimated. The theory is illustrated numerically by considering one auxiliary trait. It is shown that the use of an auxiliary trait improves the selection accuracy; and, hence, the relative efficiency of index selection compared to individual selection which is based on the same intensity of selection. This is particularly so for higher magnitudes of residual genetic correlation and environmental correlation having opposite signs, lower values of the proportion of genetic variation in the main trait associated with the markers, negligible proportion of genetic variation in the auxiliary trait associated with the markers, and lower values of the heritability of the main trait but higher values of the heritability of the auxiliary trait.

  11. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species’ ecological niches distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eFort

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e. ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits and whole plant traits in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species’ ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance.

  12. Chronic Trauma Effects on Personality Traits in Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh Wills, Jennifer; Schuldberg, David

    2016-04-01

    The impact of cumulative occupational exposure to traumatic events (TEs), posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and work environment stress on personality traits over time was examined in 38 police officers from an urban agency. California Psychological Inventory (CPI) personality trait scores from prehire evaluations were compared with follow-up CPI scores to test whether exposure to traumatic events was correlated with changes in traits from baseline to 5-10 years later. Measures of occupational TEs, PTS symptoms, and police work environment stress were administered. Mean trait scores declined on all CPI traits analyzed in the study. Trait change was evaluated using the Reliable Change Index; change in participants' scores unlikely to occur by chance ranged from 11% to 63% in the traits examined. All participants reported substantial TE exposure. PTS symptoms were correlated with steeper decline in 4 of 5 traits, with effect sizes ranging from r =  -.47 to r = -.67. Scores on measures of job-related TEs were negatively correlated with only one CPI trait (empathy) at T2 (r = -.31), and were unrelated to slope of trait change. Work environment stress was significantly related to gender, with female officers reporting higher levels of operational (r = .45) and organizational (r = .54) stress.

  13. Plasticity regulators modulate specific root traits in discrete nitrogen environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam L Gifford

    Full Text Available Plant development is remarkably plastic but how precisely can the plant customize its form to specific environments? When the plant adjusts its development to different environments, related traits can change in a coordinated fashion, such that two traits co-vary across many genotypes. Alternatively, traits can vary independently, such that a change in one trait has little predictive value for the change in a second trait. To characterize such "tunability" in developmental plasticity, we carried out a detailed phenotypic characterization of complex root traits among 96 accessions of the model Arabidopsis thaliana in two nitrogen environments. The results revealed a surprising level of independence in the control of traits to environment - a highly tunable form of plasticity. We mapped genetic architecture of plasticity using genome-wide association studies and further used gene expression analysis to narrow down gene candidates in mapped regions. Mutants in genes implicated by association and expression analysis showed precise defects in the predicted traits in the predicted environment, corroborating the independent control of plasticity traits. The overall results suggest that there is a pool of genetic variability in plants that controls traits in specific environments, with opportunity to tune crop plants to a given environment.

  14. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eComas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length (SRL, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less ‘leaky’ and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g. functional differences between fine and coarse roots needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria and rice (Oryza show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait

  15. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Louise H; Becker, Steven R; Cruz, Von Mark V; Byrne, Patrick F; Dierig, David A

    2013-11-05

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less "leaky" and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding.

  16. Population-level traits that affect, and do not affect, invasion success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, N J

    2010-03-01

    What allows some species to successfully colonize a novel environment while others fail? Numerous studies in invasion biology have sought to answer this question, but those studies have tended to focus on traits of species or individuals (e.g. body size, seed size, seed number), and these traits have largely been found to be weak predictors of invasion success. However, characteristics of colonizing populations (e.g. genetic diversity, density, age structure) might also be important for successful establishment, as the authors of a study published in this issue of Molecular Ecology show (Crawford & Whitney 2010). By experimentally manipulating the density and genetic diversity of colonizing populations of Arabidopsis thaliana, the authors found that genetic diversity, but not population density, increased colonization success. Importantly, the effects of genetic diversity on colonization success were both additive and non-additive, suggesting that traits associated with particular genotypes and complimentarity among genotypes contribute to colonization success. This research highlights the importance of considering within-species variation and characteristics of entire populations in predicting colonization success.

  17. The relations between personality traits and psychopathy as measured by ratings and self-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujačić Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relations between psychopathy - as assessed by ratings (PCL-R and by self-report (SRP3 - on one side, and The Five-Factor personality Model - expanded to include the traits Amorality and Disintegration - on the other. Both methods examined four traits of psychopathy: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial characteristics. Data were collected on a sample of 112 male convicts. The results show the absence of congruence between the two methods - self-report and rating - in case of interpersonal and affective psychopathic dispositions. This incongruence is also reflected in their relations with personality traits. The self-report measures and the ratings of Lifestyle and Antisocial tendencies are related to amorality, aggressiveness, schizotypy, Neuroticism and impulsivity. However, the ratings of affective and interpersonal style are related to the integrated, organized, and emotionally stable aspects of personality. The results are interpreted in the light of differences between the methods of assessment and in the light of the essential characteristics of the psychopathic phenomena.

  18. [Major domestication traits in Asian rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

    2012-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding.

  19. Integrative Genomic Analysis of Complex traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehsani, Ali Reza

    In the last decade rapid development in biotechnologies has made it possible to extract extensive information about practically all levels of biological organization. An ever-increasing number of studies are reporting miltilayered datasets on the entire DNA sequence, transceroption, protein...... expression, and metabolite abundance of more and more populations in a multitude of invironments. However, a solid model for including all of this complex information in one analysis, to disentangle genetic variation and the underlying genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases, has not yet been...

  20. Trait-Based Ecosystem Modeling: Integrating Community Assembly and Optimality Concepts into Dgvms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiter, S.; Langan, L.; Higgins, S. I.

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are a central component of Earth system models, and our ability to understand and simulate past, present and future changes in the Earth system is linked to the quality of DGVMs. A major limitation of most DGVMs is that they represent vegetation by a fixed number of static functional types that do not allow plants and plant communities to dynamically adjust to the biotic and abiotic conditions. Here, we present the aDGVM2, a novel individual- and trait-based dynamic vegetation model. The aDGVM2 simulates growth, reproduction and mortality of single plants as a function of the plant-specific combination of trait values. Concepts from genetic optimization are used to simulate trait inheritance, crossover and mutation. These processes ensure that well-performing plants can pass their traits to the next generation and that vegetation can adjust to potentially changing environmental conditions. Thereby, the model iteratively assembles plant communities that are adapted to the environment. The aDGVM2 simulates responses of plant traits along climate, soil and disturbance gradients and associated responses in community structure, diversity and biome types. More specifically, we show that rooting strategies emerging in model simulations are related to soil characteristics and rainfall regimes and that community assembly processes can buffer impacts of disturbances on vegetation. The aDGVM2 model approach integrates aspects of community assembly theory, Earth system modeling and optimality theory and it has a high potential to improve our understanding of ecosystem responses to environmental changes.

  1. Learner Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Drachsler, H., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012). Learner Characteristics. In N. M. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning, Volume 4 (pp. 1743-1745). New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_347

  2. Genome Wide Single Locus Single Trait, Multi-Locus and Multi-Trait Association Mapping for Some Important Agronomic Traits in Common Wheat (T. aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Vandana; Gahlaut, Vijay; Meher, Prabina Kumar; Mir, Reyazul Rouf; Jaiswal, Jai Prakash; Rao, Atmakuri Ramakrishna; Balyan, Harindra Singh; Gupta, Pushpendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Genome wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for 14 agronomic traits in wheat following widely used single locus single trait (SLST) approach, and two recent approaches viz. multi locus mixed model (MLMM), and multi-trait mixed model (MTMM). Association panel consisted of 230 diverse Indian bread wheat cultivars (released during 1910-2006 for commercial cultivation in different agro-climatic regions in India). Three years phenotypic data for 14 traits and genotyping data for 250 SSR markers (distributed across all the 21 wheat chromosomes) was utilized for GWAS. Using SLST, as many as 213 MTAs (p ≤ 0.05, 129 SSRs) were identified for 14 traits, however, only 10 MTAs (~9%; 10 out of 123 MTAs) qualified FDR criteria; these MTAs did not show any linkage drag. Interestingly, these genomic regions were coincident with the genomic regions that were already known to harbor QTLs for same or related agronomic traits. Using MLMM and MTMM, many more QTLs and markers were identified; 22 MTAs (19 QTLs, 21 markers) using MLMM, and 58 MTAs (29 QTLs, 40 markers) using MTMM were identified. In addition, 63 epistatic QTLs were also identified for 13 of the 14 traits, flag leaf length (FLL) being the only exception. Clearly, the power of association mapping improved due to MLMM and MTMM analyses. The epistatic interactions detected during the present study also provided better insight into genetic architecture of the 14 traits that were examined during the present study. Following eight wheat genotypes carried desirable alleles of QTLs for one or more traits, WH542, NI345, NI170, Sharbati Sonora, A90, HW1085, HYB11, and DWR39 (Pragati). These genotypes and the markers associated with important QTLs for major traits can be used in wheat improvement programs either using marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) or pseudo-backcrossing method.

  3. Genome Wide Single Locus Single Trait, Multi-Locus and Multi-Trait Association Mapping for Some Important Agronomic Traits in Common Wheat (T. aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Jaiswal

    Full Text Available Genome wide association study (GWAS was conducted for 14 agronomic traits in wheat following widely used single locus single trait (SLST approach, and two recent approaches viz. multi locus mixed model (MLMM, and multi-trait mixed model (MTMM. Association panel consisted of 230 diverse Indian bread wheat cultivars (released during 1910-2006 for commercial cultivation in different agro-climatic regions in India. Three years phenotypic data for 14 traits and genotyping data for 250 SSR markers (distributed across all the 21 wheat chromosomes was utilized for GWAS. Using SLST, as many as 213 MTAs (p ≤ 0.05, 129 SSRs were identified for 14 traits, however, only 10 MTAs (~9%; 10 out of 123 MTAs qualified FDR criteria; these MTAs did not show any linkage drag. Interestingly, these genomic regions were coincident with the genomic regions that were already known to harbor QTLs for same or related agronomic traits. Using MLMM and MTMM, many more QTLs and markers were identified; 22 MTAs (19 QTLs, 21 markers using MLMM, and 58 MTAs (29 QTLs, 40 markers using MTMM were identified. In addition, 63 epistatic QTLs were also identified for 13 of the 14 traits, flag leaf length (FLL being the only exception. Clearly, the power of association mapping improved due to MLMM and MTMM analyses. The epistatic interactions detected during the present study also provided better insight into genetic architecture of the 14 traits that were examined during the present study. Following eight wheat genotypes carried desirable alleles of QTLs for one or more traits, WH542, NI345, NI170, Sharbati Sonora, A90, HW1085, HYB11, and DWR39 (Pragati. These genotypes and the markers associated with important QTLs for major traits can be used in wheat improvement programs either using marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS or pseudo-backcrossing method.

  4. Quantitative trait loci for energy balance traits in an advanced intercross line derived from mice divergently selected for heat loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry J. Leamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in human populations, currently a serious health concern, is considered to be the consequence of an energy imbalance in which more energy in calories is consumed than is expended. We used interval mapping techniques to investigate the genetic basis of a number of energy balance traits in an F11 advanced intercross population of mice created from an original intercross of lines selected for increased and decreased heat loss. We uncovered a total of 137 quantitative trait loci (QTLs for these traits at 41 unique sites on 18 of the 20 chromosomes in the mouse genome, with X-linked QTLs being most prevalent. Two QTLs were found for the selection target of heat loss, one on distal chromosome 1 and another on proximal chromosome 2. The number of QTLs affecting the various traits generally was consistent with previous estimates of heritabilities in the same population, with the most found for two bone mineral traits and the least for feed intake and several body composition traits. QTLs were generally additive in their effects, and some, especially those affecting the body weight traits, were sex-specific. Pleiotropy was extensive within trait groups (body weights, adiposity and organ weight traits, bone traits and especially between body composition traits adjusted and not adjusted for body weight at sacrifice. Nine QTLs were found for one or more of the adiposity traits, five of which appeared to be unique. The confidence intervals among all QTLs averaged 13.3 Mb, much smaller than usually observed in an F2 cross, and in some cases this allowed us to make reasonable inferences about candidate genes underlying these QTLs. This study combined QTL mapping with genetic parameter analysis in a large segregating population, and has advanced our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits related to obesity.

  5. Neighborhood income and the expression of callous-unemotional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Anna Justine; Ryan, Rebecca M; Marsh, Abigail A

    2015-09-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, including an uncaring nature and reduced empathy, represent a strongly heritable pattern of socio-emotional responding linked with elevated risk for severe, persistent delinquent behavior. Although evidence suggests that CU traits vary continuously across the population, research linking CU traits and delinquency is often conducted with incarcerated or clinical samples, obscuring potential heterogeneity in this relationship across the full range of high-CU individuals. Using a nationally representative sample, this study examines the role of neighborhood income in moderating the association between CU traits and delinquency in terms of both level and type of offending. Findings corroborate the link between CU traits and delinquency and suggest that the link between high-CU traits and violent delinquency may be unique to youth living in low-income neighborhoods.

  6. Are animal personality traits linked to life-history productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Peter A; Stamps, Judy A

    2008-07-01

    Animal personality traits such as boldness, activity and aggressiveness have been described for many animal species. However, why some individuals are consistently bolder or more active than others, for example, is currently obscure. Given that life-history tradeoffs are common and known to promote inter-individual differences in behavior, we suggest that consistent individual differences in animal personality traits can be favored when those traits contribute to consistent individual differences in productivity (growth and/or fecundity). A survey of empirical studies indicates that boldness, activity and/or aggressiveness are positively related to food intake rates, productivity and other life-history traits in a wide range of taxa. Our conceptual framework sets the stage for a closer look at relationships between personality traits and life-history traits in animals.

  7. Plant Thermoregulation: Energetics, Trait-Environment Interactions, and Carbon Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaletz, Sean T; Weiser, Michael D; Zhou, Jizhong; Kaspari, Michael; Helliker, Brent R; Enquist, Brian J

    2015-12-01

    Building a more predictive trait-based ecology requires mechanistic theory based on first principles. We present a general theoretical approach to link traits and climate. We use plant leaves to show how energy budgets (i) provide a foundation for understanding thermoregulation, (ii) explain mechanisms driving trait variation across environmental gradients, and (iii) guide selection on functional traits via carbon economics. Although plants are often considered to be poikilotherms, the data suggest that they are instead limited homeotherms. Leaf functional traits that promote limited homeothermy are adaptive because homeothermy maximizes instantaneous and lifetime carbon gain. This theory provides a process-based foundation for trait-climate analyses and shows that future studies should consider plant (not only air) temperatures.

  8. Profile of hemoglobin D trait in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuphan K. Dolai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb D Punjab is one of the most commonly observed abnormal hemoglobinopathy worldwide. There was no systematic large published study to investigate the characteristic of Hb D Punjab trait in India. This study was conducted in school and college students, newly married couples and pregnant women after proper counseling in the rural areas of West Bengal state in eastern India. Complete blood count was done by Sysmax Automated Hematology Analyzer KX 21 (Sysmex Corp., Kobe, Japan and thalassemia testing was done using high-performance liquid chromatography (Variant TM - Bio-Rad Lab., Hercules, CA, USA. A total of 46,139 individuals were screened for hemoglobinopathies. Hb D trait was found in 0.35%. Hypochromia rather than microcytosis is consistent finding in Hb D trait. Anisocytosis is absent in Hb D trait. In almost all (99.37% cases, Hb D is within 40% of total hemoglobin. This data is likely to be helpful for screening of hemoglobinopathy in resource poor setting.  血红蛋白(Hb D Punjab是全球最普遍的异常血红蛋白病之一。在印度,之前并没有研究D型特征血红蛋白病的大型出版物。本研究在印度东部的西孟加拉邦的农村地区进行,研究对象是接受过相关咨询后的在校生,大学生,新婚夫妇和孕妇。完整的血细胞计数由日本神户市Sysmex公司的KX21自动化血液分析仪完成,血液测试由美国加州赫拉克勒斯Variant-Bio-Rad实验室通过高效液相色谱法完成。总计46139人被筛查,D型特征血红蛋白病的发现率为0.35%。血红蛋白过少而非小红细胞症,是D型特征血红蛋白病的主要症状。红细胞大小不均没有在D型特征血红蛋白病中被检测出。在所有的情况中(99.37%),D型特征血红蛋白占所有血红蛋白总数的40%。这些数据有利于在资源匮乏地区对血红蛋白病的筛查。

  9. Trait conscientiousness and the personality meta-trait stability are associated with regional white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Cox, Simon R; Booth, Tom; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Royle, Natalie A; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J

    2016-08-01

    Establishing the neural bases of individual differences in personality has been an enduring topic of interest. However, while a growing literature has sought to characterize grey matter correlates of personality traits, little attention to date has been focused on regional white matter correlates of personality, especially for the personality traits agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. To rectify this gap in knowledge we used a large sample (n > 550) of older adults who provided data on both personality (International Personality Item Pool) and white matter tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor MRI. Results indicated that conscientiousness was associated with greater FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (β = 0.17, P conscientiousness, and neuroticism/emotional stability. We observed an association between left uncinate fasciculus FA and stability (β = 0.27, P conscientiousness. In sum, these results provide novel evidence for links between regional white matter microstructure and key traits of human personality, specifically conscientiousness and the meta-trait, stability. Future research is recommended to replicate and address the causal directions of these associations.

  10. Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Live Measurement Traits in Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-hu; XIONG Yuan-zhu; ZUO Bo; LEI Ming-gang; LI Feng-e; LI Jia-lian

    2007-01-01

    Live measurement growth traits are very important economic traits in pig production and breeding. In this research,quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected for 11 live estimated growth and carcass traits, including birth weight (BWT),average daily gain over testing periods (ADG3), live backfat thickness at last 3-4th lumbar (LBFT3), live loin eye area (LLEA), and so on, in 214 pig resource family population, including 180 F2 individual, by 39 microsatellite marker loci on SSC4, SSC6, SSC7, SSC8, and SSC13. The results indicated that 4 chromosome significant level QTL and one suggestive QTL were detected for ADG3 (at position of 50 cM on SSC8), LBFT3 (at position of 147 cM on SSC4), LLEA (one highly significant at position of 48 cM on SSC7; another significant at position of 125 cM on SSC8) and BWT (suggestive significant at position of 0 cM, at marker sw489 on SSC4). The phenotypic variance of these QTL accounted for 0.95% to 16.91%. Most of them were mentioned in previous reports; except the QTL of LLEA at position of sw1953 on SSC8 which maybe a new QTL.

  11. Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for production, resistance and tolerance traits in Salix. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennberg-Waestljung, Ann Christin; Bertholdsson, Nils-Ove; Glynn, Carolyn; Weih, Martin; Aahman, Inger [SLU, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics

    2004-05-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth traits, water use efficiency and tolerance/resistance against metals and herbivores have been identified. A hybrid F2 population originating from a cross between a Salix dasyclados-clone (SW901290) and a S. viminalis-clone ('Jorunn') was used for the different studies in this project. The growth response was analyzed in a greenhouse experiment with two water treatments, normal and drought. In addition, three field experiments with contrasting soils and climates were established. QTL specific for each treatment or field environment but also QTL stable over the treatments or field environments were detected. Each QTL explained from 8 to 29 % of the phenotypic variation depending on trait, treatment or field environment. Clusters of QTL for different traits were mapped indicating a common genetic base or tightly-linked QTL. Stable QTL identified for dryweight can be useful tools for early selection in Salix. In a separate greenhouse experiment, with a subset of ten genotypes from the F2 population, we show that genotype is more important than irrigation treatment for production of phenolic substances as well as for resistance to herbivory by P vulgatissima.

  12. Is trait-emotional intelligence simply or more than just a trait?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, K; Wabeke, R

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the usefulness of trait-Emotional Intelligence (EI) among a sample of 1186 top managers who filled out questionnaires for Emotional Intelligence and the Big Five and were evaluated by a consultant on their competencies. Three higher-order factors were found to underlie the

  13. Self-consciousness and trait anxiety as predictors of choking in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Marchant, D; Morris, T; Gibbs, P

    2004-06-01

    The present study was designed to examine dispositional self-consciousness and trait anxiety as predictors of choking in sport. Sixty-six basketball players completed the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Sport Anxiety Scale prior to completing 20 free throws in low-pressure and high-pressure conditions. A manipulation check showed that participants experienced significantly higher levels of state anxiety in the high-pressure condition. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses supported the hypothesis that self-conscious athletes were more susceptible to choking under pressure. The best predictors of choking were private self-consciousness and somatic trait anxiety that together accounted for 35% of the explained variance. We discuss a number of possible explanations regarding the discrepancy between the present results and previous studies mainly relating to task characteristics, skill level of participants and manipulations of pressure.

  14. Formal analysis of temporal dynamics in anxiety states and traits for virtual patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Azizi Ab; Ahmad, Faudziah; Yusof, Nooraini; Ahmad, Farzana Kabir; Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a temporal dynamic model of anxiety states and traits for an individual. Anxiety is a natural part of life, and most of us experience it from time to time. But for some people, anxiety can be extreme. Based on several personal characteristics, traits, and a representation of events (i.e. psychological and physiological stressors), the formal model can represent whether a human that experience certain scenarios will fall into an anxiety states condition. A number of well-known relations between events and the course of anxiety are summarized from the literature and it is shown that the model exhibits those patterns. In addition, the formal model has been mathematically analyzed to find out which stable situations exist. Finally, it is pointed out how this model can be used in therapy, supported by a software agent.

  15. Genotype-dependent participation of coat color gene loci in the behavioral traits of laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Aya

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate if loci responsible for coat color phenotypes contribute to behavioral characteristics, we specified novel gene loci associated with social exploratory behavior and examined the effects of the frequency of each allele at distinct loci on behavioral expression. We used the F2 generation, which arose from the mating of F1 mice obtained by interbreeding DBA/2 and ICR mice. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the agouti and albino loci affect behavioral traits. A genotype-based analysis revealed that novel exploratory activity was suppressed in a manner dependent on the frequency of the dominant wild-type allele at the agouti, but not albino, locus. The allele-dependent suppression was restricted to colored mice and was not seen in albino mice. The present results suggest that the agouti locus contributes to a particular behavioral trait in the presence of a wild-type allele at the albino locus, which encodes a structural gene for tyrosinase.

  16. [Do envious people show better performance?: Focusing on the function of benign envy as personality trait].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Masato; Fujii, Tsutomu

    2016-06-01

    This study focused on the differences between two, subtypes of envy known as "benign envy" and "malicious envy" as personality traits, and examined the effects of these traits on academic achievement. Two hundred fifty-one university students participated in the study. Both benign envy and malicious envy were found to be independent as also found in a previous study by Lange & Crusius (2015), and a high criterion-related validity was revealed by an association with characteristic variables such as dispositional envy and self-esteem. The students with higher levels of benign envy were found to set goals higher, and as a result achieved higher levels of academic performance. In contrast, no such effect was found for malicious envy. The importance of focusing more attention on the positive aspects of the emotion of envy is discussed.

  17. Preferences for Breeding Goal Traits for Danish Red and Jersey Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagboom, Margot; Kargo, Morten; Edwards, David;

    The aim of this study was to characterize preferences of farmers with Red Danish Cattle (RDC) or Jersey herds. A breed-specific survey was established to characterize preferences of farmers for improvements in ten traits, by means of pairwise rankings using the online software 1000Minds. These pa......The aim of this study was to characterize preferences of farmers with Red Danish Cattle (RDC) or Jersey herds. A breed-specific survey was established to characterize preferences of farmers for improvements in ten traits, by means of pairwise rankings using the online software 1000Minds...... characteristics can be linked to the different farmer clusters. The results from this study give a strong basis for setting up customized indexes or breeding goals for the different farmer clusters, which might increase the uptake of genetic merit....

  18. Military training and personality trait development: does the military make the man, or does the man make the military?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Joshua J; Thoemmes, Felix; Jonkmann, Kathrin; Lüdtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Military experience is an important turning point in a person's life and, consequently, is associated with important life outcomes. Using a large longitudinal sample of German males, we examined whether personality traits played a role during this period. Results indicated that personality traits prospectively predicted the decision to enter the military. People lower in agreeableness, neuroticism, and openness to experience during high school were more likely to enter the military after graduation. In addition, military training was associated with changes in personality. Compared with a control group, military recruits had lower levels of agreeableness after training. These levels persisted 5 years after training, even after participants entered college or the labor market. This study is one of the first to identify life experiences associated with changes in personality traits. Moreover, our results suggest that military experiences may have a long-lasting influence on individual-level characteristics.

  19. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-03-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic traits. Seven studies were identified and subsequent meta-analysis indicated that those with AN appear to have significant difficulties of a manner characteristic of ASD, relative to controls. Whilst this analysis supports previous indications of higher prevalence of ASD in AN, the aetiology of these traits remains unclear. Studies using more robust clinical measures of ASD within AN are needed to confirm what self-report measures appear to show.

  20. Associations between empathy and big five personality traits among Chinese undergraduate medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Shi, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Background Empathy promotes positive physician-patient communication and is associated with improved patient satisfaction, treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. It has been suggested that personality traits should be taken into consideration in programs designed to enhance empathy in medical education due to the association found between personality and empathy among medical students. However, the associations between empathy and big five personality traits in medical education are still underrepresented in the existing literature and relevant studies have not been conducted among medical students in China, where tensions in the physician-patient relationship have been reported as outstanding problems in the context of China’s current medical reform. Thus, the main objective of this study was to examine the associations between empathy and big five personality traits among Chinese medical students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical university in Northeast China in June 2016. Self-reported questionnaires including the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and Big Five Inventory (BFI) and demographic characteristics were distributed. A total of 530 clinical medical students became our final subjects. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of big five personality traits on empathy. Results Results of this study showed that big five personality traits accounted for 19.4%, 18.1%, 30.2% of the variance in three dimensions of empathy, namely, perspective taking, empathic concern and personal distress, respectively. Specifically, agreeableness had a strong positive association with empathic concern (β = 0.477, PNeuroticism was strongly associated with personal distress (β = 0.526, P<0.01) and modestly associated with perspective taking (β = 0.149, P<0.01). Openness to experience had modest associations with perspective taking (β = 0.150, P<0.01) and personal distress (β = -0.160, P<0.01). Conscientiousness

  1. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater

  2. Trait emotional intelligence influences on academic achievement and school behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroveli, Stella; Sánchez-Ruiz, María José

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) refers to individuals' emotion-related self-perceptions (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The children's trait EI sampling domain provides comprehensive coverage of their affective personality. Preliminary evidence shows that the construct has important implications for children's psychological and behavioural adjustment. AIMS. This study investigates the associations between trait EI and school outcomes, such as performance in reading, writing, and maths, peer-rated behaviour and social competence, and self-reported bullying behaviours in a sample of primary school children. It also examines whether trait EI scores differentiate between children with and without special educational needs (SEN). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 565 children (274 boys and 286 girls) between the ages of 7 and 12 (M((age)) = 9.12 years, SD= 1.27 years) attending three English state primary schools. METHOD. Pupils completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF), the Guess Who peer assessment, the Peer-Victimization Scale, and the Bullying Behaviour Scale. Additional data on achievement and SEN were collected from the school archives. RESULTS. As predicted by trait EI theory, associations between trait EI and academic achievement were modest and limited to Year 3 children. Higher trait EI scores were related to more nominations from peers for prosocial behaviours and fewer nominations for antisocial behaviour as well as lower scores on self-reported bulling behaviours. Furthermore, SEN students scored lower on trait EI compared to students without SEN. CONCLUSIONS. Trait EI holds important and multifaceted implications for the socialization of primary schoolchildren.

  3. Performance traits of dairy cows stabled in tie stalls

    OpenAIRE

    Marková, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the evaluation of fertility and production traits stabled in tie stalls. 50 pure-bred Holstein cows were monitored and those traits were evaluated: interval of insemination, service period, calving interval, milk yield and content of milk protein and fat. All monitored cows finished standard lactation period (305 days) in year 2012. The evaluation was performed in relation to lactation order. Nearly all of fertility traits were evaluated as bad. The average interval...

  4. Trait emotional intelligence: Evidence from italian adolescents and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) represents an attribute of contemporary attractiveness for the scientific psychology community. Of particular interest for the present thesis are the conundrum related to the representation of this construct conceptualized as a trait (i.e., trait EI), which are in turn reflected in the current lack of agreement upon its constituent elements, posing significant challenges to research and clinical progress. Trait EI is defined as an umbrella personality-alike const...

  5. Convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity of DSM-5 traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edi.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) contains a system for diagnosing personality disorder based in part on assessing 25 maladaptive traits. Initial research suggests that this aspect of the system improves the validity and clinical utility of the Section II Model. The Computer Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder (CAT-PD; Simms et al., 2011) contains many similar traits as the DSM-5, as well as several additional traits seemingly not covered in the DSM-5. In this study we evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity between the DSM-5 traits, as assessed by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012), and CAT-PD in an undergraduate sample, and test whether traits included in the CAT-PD but not the DSM-5 provide incremental validity in association with clinically relevant criterion variables. Results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the PID-5 and CAT-PD scales in their assessment of 23 out of 25 DSM-5 traits. DSM-5 traits were consistently associated with 11 criterion variables, despite our having intentionally selected clinically relevant criterion constructs not directly assessed by DSM-5 traits. However, the additional CAT-PD traits provided incremental information above and beyond the DSM-5 traits for all criterion variables examined. These findings support the validity of pathological trait models in general and the DSM-5 and CAT-PD models in particular, while also suggesting that the CAT-PD may include additional traits for consideration in future iterations of the DSM-5 system. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: II. Process efficiency in event pyramiding and trait fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ting; Sun, Xiaochun; Mumm, Rita H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple trait integration (MTI) is a multi-step process of converting an elite variety/hybrid for value-added traits (e.g. transgenic events) through backcross breeding. From a breeding standpoint, MTI involves four steps: single event introgression, event pyramiding, trait fixation, and version testing. This study explores the feasibility of marker-aided backcross conversion of a target maize hybrid for 15 transgenic events in the light of the overall goal of MTI of recovering equivalent performance in the finished hybrid conversion along with reliable expression of the value-added traits. Using the results to optimize single event introgression (Peng et al. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: I. Minimizing linkage drag in single event introgression. Mol Breed, 2013) which produced single event conversions of recurrent parents (RPs) with ≤8 cM of residual non-recurrent parent (NRP) germplasm with ~1 cM of NRP germplasm in the 20 cM regions flanking the event, this study focused on optimizing process efficiency in the second and third steps in MTI: event pyramiding and trait fixation. Using computer simulation and probability theory, we aimed to (1) fit an optimal breeding strategy for pyramiding of eight events into the female RP and seven in the male RP, and (2) identify optimal breeding strategies for trait fixation to create a 'finished' conversion of each RP homozygous for all events. In addition, next-generation seed needs were taken into account for a practical approach to process efficiency. Building on work by Ishii and Yonezawa (Optimization of the marker-based procedures for pyramiding genes from multiple donor lines: I. Schedule of crossing between the donor lines. Crop Sci 47:537-546, 2007a), a symmetric crossing schedule for event pyramiding was devised for stacking eight (seven) events in a given RP. Options for trait fixation breeding strategies considered selfing and doubled haploid approaches to achieve homozygosity

  7. Modeling the genealogy of a cultural trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Elliot; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    The mathematical study of genealogies has yielded important insights in population biology, such as the ability to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of a sample of genetic sequences or of a group of individuals. Here we introduce a model of cultural genealogies that is a step toward answering similar questions for cultural traits. In our model individuals can inherit from a variable, potentially large number of ancestors, rather than from a fixed, small number of ancestors (one or two) as is typical of genetic evolution. We first show that, given a sample of individuals, a cultural common ancestor does not necessarily exist. We then introduce a related concept: the most recent unique ancestor (MRUA), i.e., the most recent single individual who is the earliest cultural ancestor of the sample. We show that, under neutral evolution, the time to the MRUA can be staggeringly larger than the time to MRCA in a single ancestor model, except when the average number of learning opportunities per individuals is small. Our results point out that the properties of cultural genealogies may be very different from those of genetic genealogies, with potential implications for reconstructing the histories of cultural traits.

  8. Beyond missing heritability: prediction of complex traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Makowsky

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite rapid advances in genomic technology, our ability to account for phenotypic variation using genetic information remains limited for many traits. This has unfortunately resulted in limited application of genetic data towards preventive and personalized medicine, one of the primary impetuses of genome-wide association studies. Recently, a large proportion of the "missing heritability" for human height was statistically explained by modeling thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms concurrently. However, it is currently unclear how gains in explained genetic variance will translate to the prediction of yet-to-be observed phenotypes. Using data from the Framingham Heart Study, we explore the genomic prediction of human height in training and validation samples while varying the statistical approach used, the number of SNPs included in the model, the validation scheme, and the number of subjects used to train the model. In our training datasets, we are able to explain a large proportion of the variation in height (h(2 up to 0.83, R(2 up to 0.96. However, the proportion of variance accounted for in validation samples is much smaller (ranging from 0.15 to 0.36 depending on the degree of familial information used in the training dataset. While such R(2 values vastly exceed what has been previously reported using a reduced number of pre-selected markers (<0.10, given the heritability of the trait (∼ 0.80, substantial room for improvement remains.

  9. [Traits of personality in hypochondriacal subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vanna, M; Cauzer, M; Spreafichi, A

    1995-06-01

    Among the several mental originated clinical syndromes, hypochondria is not still well understood and listed. Indeed, hypochondria is often a complicating element in other psychopathological pictures; a slight form of hypochondria can appear in phobic-obsessing neurosis, and a worse one at the beginning of psychosis. The Authors, trying to explain the complex questions about diagnosis and prognosis of hypochondria, look for common personality traits in these patients. The research instrument was the Adjective Check List (ACL), a psychological test highly standardized and diffused, composed of 300 adjectives, or adjectival sentences, used to describe a person's attributes. The ACL was given to 65 subjects divided into two groups. The first group was made of 15 subjects, 10 women and 5 men, ambulatory treated at the Psychiatric Clinic in Trieste for the following diagnosis: psychosis (4 persons), depressing syndrome (3 persons), hypochondria (6 persons), obsessive neurosis (1 persons), anxiety syndrome (1 person). The second group was made of 50 subjects, 28 women and 22 men, diagnosed as hypochondriac by their medical officers. The results point out that some personality traits rising above the others are suggesting for an apathetical patient, not ready to accept himself, easily overcome by everyday life problems. These subjects are introverted, intolerant to frustrations, and inclined to take refuge in their own imaginary world, not able to self-governing. In the considered group the Authors find a moderate tendency to change, and it could be interpreted like a good prognostic element for a psychotherapeutic treatment.

  10. Joint association analysis of bivariate quantitative and qualitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengdie; Diao, Guoqing

    2011-11-29

    Univariate genome-wide association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits has been investigated extensively in the literature. In the presence of correlated phenotypes, it is more intuitive to analyze all phenotypes simultaneously. We describe an efficient likelihood-based approach for the joint association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in unrelated individuals. We assume a probit model for the qualitative trait, under which an unobserved latent variable and a prespecified threshold determine the value of the qualitative trait. To jointly model the quantitative and qualitative traits, we assume that the quantitative trait and the latent variable follow a bivariate normal distribution. The latent variable is allowed to be correlated with the quantitative phenotype. Simultaneous modeling of the quantitative and qualitative traits allows us to make more precise inference on the pleiotropic genetic effects. We derive likelihood ratio tests for the testing of genetic effects. An application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data is provided. The new method yields reasonable power and meaningful results for the joint association analysis of the quantitative trait Q1 and the qualitative trait disease status at SNPs with not too small MAF.

  11. Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Boettcher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”, such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased awareness of the costs of production and animal well-being, has spurred interest in breeding for improvement in functional traits. Unfortunately, factors such as low heritability and lack of data make the selection for functionality more difficult than for production. Research has been able to overcome some of these limitations, at least to some extent, through the development and application of advanced statistical analyses and through indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Possibilities exist in the future for additional refinement of selection procedures for improvement of functional traits. Computing capacities are continually increasing and more complex but statistically appropriate analysis methods are being developed. Furthermore, genome scans have identified chromosomal regions that have putative associations with functional traits. The bovine genome has been recently sequenced, so the possibility to identify the genes affecting functional traits exists, at least in theory. With low heritabilities and difficulties in measurement, functional traits are the ideal candidates for the application of marker-assisted selection.

  12. Effects of changing precipitation and warming on functional traits of zonal Stipa plants from Inner Mongolian grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xiliang

    2016-06-01

    The mechanisms driving changes in dominant plant species are the key for understanding how grassland ecosystems respond to climate change. In this study, we examined plant functional traits (morphological characteristics: plant height, leaf area, and leaf number; biomasses: aboveground, belowground, and total; and growth indices: root-to-shoot ratio, specific leaf area, and leaf mass ratio) of four zonal Stipa species ( S. baicalensis, S. bungeana, S. grandis, and S. breviflora) from Inner Mongolian grassland in response to warming (control, +1.5, +2.0, +4.0, and +6.0?), changing precipitation (-30%, -15%, control, +15%, and +30%), and their combined effects via climate control chambers. The results showed that warming and changing precipitation had significant interactive effects, different from the accumulation of single-factor effects, on functional traits of Stipa species. The correlation and sensitivity of different plant functional traits to temperature and precipitation differed. Among the four species, the accumulation and variability of functional traits had greater partial correlation with precipitation than temperature, except for leaf number, leaf area, and specific leaf area, in S. breviflora, S. bungeana, and S. grandis. For S. baicalensis, the accumulation and variability of plant height, aboveground biomass, and root-to-shoot ratio only had significant partial correlation with precipitation. However, the variability of morphological characteristics, biomasses, and some growth indices, was more sensitive to temperature than precipitation in S. bungeana, S. grandis, and S. breviflora—except for aboveground biomass and plant height. These results reveal that precipitation is the key factor determining the growth and changes in plant functional traits in Stipa species, and that temperature mainly influences the quantitative fluctuations of the changes in functional traits.

  13. Are autistic traits measured equivalently in individuals with and without an autism spectrum disorder? An invariance analysis of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aja L; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate; O'Donnell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is common to administer measures of autistic traits to those without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with, for example, the aim of understanding autistic personality characteristics in non-autistic individuals. Little research has examined the extent to which measures of autistic traits actually measure the same traits in the same way across those with and without an ASD. We addressed this question using a multi-group confirmatory factor invariance analysis of the Autism Quotient Short Form (AQ-S: Hoekstra et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 41(5):589-596, 2011) across those with (n = 148) and without (n = 168) ASD. Metric variance (equality of factor loadings), but not scalar invariance (equality of thresholds), held suggesting that the AQ-S measures the same latent traits in both groups, but with a bias in the manner in which trait levels are estimated. We, therefore, argue that the AQ-S can be used to investigate possible causes and consequences of autistic traits in both groups separately, but caution is due when combining or comparing levels of autistic traits across the two groups.

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with carcass traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, A M; Shivers, C; Riley, D G; Elzo, M A; Garcia, M D

    2016-06-21

    Brahman cattle are important in tropical regions due to their ability to tolerate excessive heat and parasites. However, Brahman cattle exhibit lower carcass quality characteristics when compared to Bos taurus breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes for carcass quality and composition traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers. Steers were evaluated through the American Brahman Breeders Association carcass evaluation project in Gonzales, Texas. Carcass traits measured included hot carcass weight, ribeye area, marbling score, yield grade, quality grade, dressing percent, and Warner-Bratzler shear force score. Six previously described candidate genes were chosen for SNP analysis based on their previous association with growth and carcass traits. Candidate genes utilized in the current study included calpastatin (CAST), calpain (CAPN3), thyroglobulin (TG), growth hormone, insulin growth factor 1, and adiponectin. Six unique SNPs from three candidate genes (TG, CAST, and CAPN3) were significantly associated (P carcass quality traits (marbling score and quality grade). A genotypic effect was observed for all significant SNPs, with differing levels of performance observed for animals inheriting different genotypes. Although multiple SNPs in the current study were significantly (P carcass traits, they should be validated in larger populations prior to implementation in selection strategies.

  15. A model for predicting academic procrastination based on personality traits and achievement goals among school of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rastegar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Identifying affecting factors on academic procrastination is considered as a common psychological trauma in academic environments. Thus, this study aimed to provide a model predicts academic procrastination on the basis of personality traits and achievement goals. Methods: This cross sectional analytic study consisted of 258 students of faculty of nursing, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences who were chosen via randomized stratified ratio sampling and answered to a self-report questionnaire consisted of achievement goals, personality traits, and academic procrastination. Results: Analyzing the data showed that a neurosis personality trait had an indirect and positive effect on students’ academic procrastination. Also, the personality traits such as extraversion, consciousness, agreeableness and openness to experience had an indirect and negative effect on students’ academic procrastination. Conclusion: According to the findings, planners of nursing courses should provide a fresh scientific environment to create a bed for formation of positive personality traits in students so that they can provide a context for adopting an appropriate goal-setting pattern, and in turn, reducing academic procrastination. As well, with the implementation of personality measures and deeper understanding of the inner characteristics of learners’ personality, they can be kept safe from exposure to psychological traumas such as academic procrastination.

  16. The Coral Trait Database, a curated database of trait information for coral species from the global oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madin, Joshua S.; Anderson, Kristen D.; Andreasen, Magnus Heide; Bridge, Tom C.L.; Cairns, Stephen D.; Connolly, Sean R.; Darling, Emily S.; Diaz, Marcela; Falster, Daniel S.; Franklin, Erik C.; Gates, Ruth D.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Huang, Danwei; Keith, Sally A.; Kosnik, Matthew A.; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Lough, Janice M.; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Luiz, Osmar; Martinelli, Julieta; Mizerek, Toni; Pandolfi, John M.; Pochon, Xavier; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Putnam, Hollie M.; Roberts, T. Edward; Stat, Michael; Wallace, Carden C.; Widman, Elizabeth; Baird, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Trait-based approaches advance ecological and evolutionary research because traits provide a strong link to an organism’s function and fitness. Trait-based research might lead to a deeper understanding of the functions of, and services provided by, ecosystems, thereby improving management, which is vital in the current era of rapid environmental change. Coral reef scientists have long collected trait data for corals; however, these are difficult to access and often under-utilized in addressing large-scale questions. We present the Coral Trait Database initiative that aims to bring together physiological, morphological, ecological, phylogenetic and biogeographic trait information into a single repository. The database houses species- and individual-level data from published field and experimental studies alongside contextual data that provide important framing for analyses. In this data descriptor, we release data for 56 traits for 1547 species, and present a collaborative platform on which other trait data are being actively federated. Our overall goal is for the Coral Trait Database to become an open-source, community-led data clearinghouse that accelerates coral reef research. PMID:27023900

  17. Trait aggression and trait impulsivity are not related to frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sophie; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Holst, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that the serotonergic (5-HT) transmitter system is involved in the regulation of impulsive aggression and there is from post-mortem, in vivo imaging and genetic studies evidence that the 5-HT2A receptor may be involved. We investigated 94 healthy individuals (60 men, mean...... age 47.0±18.7, range 23-86) to determine if trait aggression and trait impulsivity were related to frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding (5-HT2AR) as measured with [(18)F]-altanserin PET imaging. Trait aggression and trait impulsivity were assessed with the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ...

  18. Genetic and QTL analyses of yield and a set of physiological traits in pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimi, N.A.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Dieleman, J.A.; Nicolaï, M.; Wubs, M.; Heuvelink, E.; Magan, J.; Voorrips, R.E.; Jansen, J.; Rodrigues, P.C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Vercauteren, A.; Vuylsteke, M.; Song, Y.; Glasbey, C.; Barocsi, A.; Lefebvre, V.; Palloix, A.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2013-01-01

    An interesting strategy for improvement of a complex trait dissects the complex trait in a number of physiological component traits, with the latter having hopefully a simple genetic basis. The complex trait is then improved via improvement of its component traits. As first part of such a strategy t

  19. Integrative Systems Biology: Elucidating Complex Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pers, Tune Hannes

    product itself. My doctoral studies have been focused on the development of integrative approaches to identify systemic risk-modifying and disease-causing patterns. ey have been rooted in the hypothesis that data integration of complementary data sets may yield additional etiologic insights compared...... traits and disease. e esis is structured as follows. Chapter  presents a few introductory remarks to integrative systems biology, and Chapter  gives a brief description of human genetic variation and GWA analysis. Chapters - present the main topics in the esis (integrative methodologies...... to analyses conducted within a single type of data. e first line of research presented here outlines two integrative methodologies designed to identify etiological pathways and susceptibility genes. In Paper I, my coworkers and I present an integrative approach that interrogates protein complexes...

  20. Marker-assisted selection for quantitative traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although thousands of scientific articles have been published on the subject of marker-assisted selection (MAS andquantitative trait loci (QTL, the application of MAS for QTL in plant breeding has been restricted. Among the main causes for thislimited use are the low accuracy of QTL mapping and the high costs of genotyping thousands of plants with tens or hundreds ofmolecular markers in routine breeding programs. Recently, new large-scale genotyping technologies have resulted in a costreduction. Nevertheless, the MAS for QTL has so far been limited to selection programs using several generations per year, wherephenotypic selection cannot be performed in all generations, mainly in recurrent selection programs. Methods of MAS for QTL inbreeding programs using self-pollination have been developed.

  1. Autonomy and authenticity of enhanced personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Jan Christoph; Merkel, Reinhard

    2009-07-01

    There is concern that the use of neuroenhancements to alter character traits undermines consumer's authenticity. But the meaning, scope and value of authenticity remain vague. However, the majority of contemporary autonomy accounts ground individual autonomy on a notion of authenticity. So if neuroenhancements diminish an agent's authenticity, they may undermine his autonomy. This paper clarifies the relation between autonomy, authenticity and possible threats by neuroenhancements. We present six neuroenhancement scenarios and analyse how autonomy accounts evaluate them. Some cases are considered differently by criminal courts; we demonstrate where academic autonomy theories and legal reasoning diverge and ascertain whether courts should reconsider their concept of autonomy. We argue that authenticity is not an appropriate condition for autonomy and that new enhancement technologies pose no unique threats to personal autonomy.

  2. Genetic Control of Meat Quality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John L.

    Meat was originally produced from non-specialized animals that were used for a variety of purposes, in addition to being a source of food. However, selective breeding has resulted in “improved” breeds of cattle that are now used to produce either milk or beef, and specialized chicken lines that produce eggs or meat. These improved breeds are very productive under appropriate management systems. The selection methods used to create these specialized breeds were based on easily measured phenotypic variations, such as growth rate or physical size. Improvement in the desired trait was achieved by breeding directly from animals displaying the desired phenotype. However, more recently sophisticated genetic models have been developed using statistical approaches that consider phenotypic information collected, not only from individual animals but also from their parents, sibs, and progeny.

  3. The Relationship between Internet Addiction and Personality Traits of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R. Tamannaifar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet addiction is a kind of dependence that some personality characteristics leave an important effect on using internet. On this basis, research is designed to assess the relationship between personality characteristics and internet addiction.Materials and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study in 12,480 of second and third high school students in Kashan was conducted. 400 students were selected by random cluster sampling. To measure internet addiction we used twenty questions to test internet addiction and to measure personality characteristics of students we used sixty questions questionnaire of Neo To analyze data we used Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis.Results: There is significant relationship between internet addiction with neuroticism and extroversion, but there was not any significant relationship between being conscientious with internet addiction. Conclusion: Internet addiction relates to some personality traits of students, including neuroticism and extroversion

  4. Traits and skills for managerial leadership : a virtue theory approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lampou, Konstantin

    2002-01-01

    This is a contemporary study of traits and skills for managerial leadership which applies a virtue theory approach from moral philosophy. A classification of virtues for leadership is proposed. Traits and skills as virtues are divided in four categories: general intellectual, specific intellectual, general moral and specific moral. The model is substantiated by an example of a detailed catalogue of virtues for managerial leadership.

  5. Foundation species influence trait-based community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöb, Christian; Butterfield, Bradley J; Pugnaire, Francisco I

    2012-11-01

    Here, we incorporate facilitation into trait-based community assembly theory by testing two mutually compatible facilitative mechanisms: changes in the environmental filter, causing either an increase in the range of trait values (i.e. a range expansion effect) and/or a shift in trait distributions (i.e. a range shift effect); and changes in trait spacing, suggesting an effect on niche differentiation. We analyzed the distribution of three functional traits - leaf dry matter content, specific leaf area and lateral spread - of plant communities dominated by a cushion-forming foundation species at four sites differing in elevation and aspect. We found support for environmental filtering and niche differentiation mechanisms by cushions, with filtering effects (in particular range shifts) increasing with environmental severity at higher elevation. The effect size of cushions on trait distribution was similar to that of environmental gradients caused by elevation and aspect. The consideration of intraspecific trait variability improved the detection of cushion effects on trait distributions. Our results highlight the importance of facilitation in the modification of taxonomic and functional diversity of ecological communities, and indicate that facilitation can occur through combined effects on environmental filtering and niche differentiation, with strong environmental context dependence of each mechanism.

  6. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  7. A Simplified Estimation of Latent State--Trait Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Dirk; Meyerhoff, David

    2008-01-01

    The latent state-trait (LST) theory is an extension of the classical test theory that allows one to decompose a test score into a true trait, a true state residual, and an error component. For practical applications, the variances of these latent variables may be estimated with standard methods of structural equation modeling (SEM). These…

  8. Neural basis of interpersonal traits in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Marc; Stanley, Christine M; Wilson, Stephen M; Gyurak, Anett; Beckman, Victoria; Growdon, Matthew; Jang, Jung; Weiner, Michael W; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2009-11-01

    Several functional and structural imaging studies have investigated the neural basis of personality in healthy adults, but human lesions studies are scarce. Personality changes are a common symptom in patients with neurodegenerative diseases like frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and semantic dementia (SD), allowing a unique window into the neural basis of personality. In this study, we used the Interpersonal Adjective Scales to investigate the structural basis of eight interpersonal traits (dominance, arrogance, coldness, introversion, submissiveness, ingenuousness, warmth, and extraversion) in 257 subjects: 214 patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as FTD, SD, progressive nonfluent aphasia, Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, corticobasal degeneration, and progressive supranuclear palsy and 43 healthy elderly people. Measures of interpersonal traits were correlated with regional atrophy pattern using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of structural MR images. Interpersonal traits mapped onto distinct brain regions depending on the degree to which they involved agency and affiliation. Interpersonal traits high in agency related to left dorsolateral prefrontal and left lateral frontopolar regions, whereas interpersonal traits high in affiliation related to right ventromedial prefrontal and right anteromedial temporal regions. Consistent with the existing literature on neural networks underlying social cognition, these results indicate that brain regions related to externally focused, executive control-related processes underlie agentic interpersonal traits such as dominance, whereas brain regions related to internally focused, emotion- and reward-related processes underlie affiliative interpersonal traits such as warmth. In addition, these findings indicate that interpersonal traits are subserved by complex neural networks rather than discrete anatomic areas.

  9. A new statistical method for mapping QTLs underlying endosperm traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhiqiu; XU Chenwu

    2005-01-01

    Genetic expression for an endosperm trait in seeds of cereal crops may be controlled simultaneously by the triploid endosperm genotypes and the diploid maternal genotypes. However, current statistical methods for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying endosperm traits have not been effective in dealing with the putative maternal genetic effects. Combining the quantitative genetic model for diploid maternal traits with triploid endosperm traits, here we propose a new statistical method for mapping QTLs controlling endosperm traits with maternal genetic effects. This method applies the data set of both DNA molecular marker genotypes of each plant in segregation population and the quantitative observations of single endosperms in each plant to map QTL. The maximum likelihood method implemented via the expectation-maximization algorithm was used to the estimate parameters of a putative QTL. Since this method involves the maternal effect that may contribute to endosperm traits, it might be more congruent with the genetics of endosperm traits and more helpful to increasing the precision of QTL mapping. The simulation results show the proposed method provides accurate estimates of the QTL effects and locations with high statistical power.

  10. PEMETAAN QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI UNTUK SIFAT BERSKALA KATEGORIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farit Mochamad Afendi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Genes or regions on chromosome underlying a quantitative trait are called quantitative trait loci (QTL. Characterizing genes controlling quantitative trait on their position in chromosome and their effect on trait is through a process called QTL mapping. In estimating the QTL position and its effect, QTL mapping utilizes the association between QTL and DNA makers. However, many important traits are obtained in categorical scale, such as resistance from certain disease. From a theoritical point of view, QTL mapping method assuming continuous trait could not be applied to categorical trait. This research was facusing on the assessment of the performance of maximum likehood (ML and regression (REG approach employed in QTL mapping for binary trait by means of simulation study. The simulation study to evaluate the performance of ML and REG approach was conducted by taking into accounte several factors that may affecting the performance of both approaches. The factors are (1 maker density, (2 QTL effect, (3 sample size, and (4 shape of phenotypic distribution. Form simulation study, it was obtained that the two approaches showing comparable performance. Hence, QTL analysis could be performed using these two approaches due to their similar performance

  11. Event-time analysis of reproductive traits in dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Lende, van der T.; Baaijen, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Data on the reproductive traits of dairy heifers were analyzed using event-time techniques. Traits analyzed were age at first calving (n = 4631), days to first breeding, and days open (n = 1992) during the first lactation. A proportional hazard model was used that included fixed effects of herd-year

  12. Do gender and personality traits (BFI-10) influence trust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    is to investigate if gender and personality traits influence rating of these two statement. And if so, if it is possible to account for these factors and create a robust trust indicator from these two statements after all. Big Five Inventory-10 is used to measure personality traits. Findings are that agreeableness...

  13. THE PSYCHOLEXICAL APPROACH TO THE STRUCTURE OF INTERPERSONAL TRAITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B.

    1995-01-01

    In this study the structure of interpersonal behaviour is investigated following the principles of the so-called psycholexical approach. The interpersonal trait descriptors are selected from a comprehensive set of 1203 trait descriptive adjectives, constructed by Brokken (1978). Self-ratings and pee

  14. Relationship between Personality Traits and Performance among School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Siadat Sayyed; Azizollah, Arbabisarjou; Zaman, Azhdari; Zahra, Amiri; Mohtaram, Abooeimehrizi

    2011-01-01

    This research seeks to explore the relationship between personality traits and performance among school principals. The main objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between principals' personality traits such as introversion, extroversion neuroticism and emotional stability between several performance dimensions. A descriptive…

  15. On the fate of sexual traits under asexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Schwander, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Environmental shifts and life-history changes may result in formerly adaptive traits becoming non-functional or maladaptive. In the absence of pleiotropy and other constraints, such traits may decay as a consequence of neutral mutation accumulation or selective processes, highlighting the importance

  16. Sexual selection and magic traits in speciation with gene flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria R.SERVEDIO; Michael KOPP

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which sexual selection is involved in speciation with gene flow remains an open question and the subject of much research.Here,we propose that some insight can be gained from considering the concept of magic traits (i.e.,traits involved in both reproductive isolation and ecological divergence).Both magic traits and other,“non-magic”,traits can contribute to speciation via a number of specific mechanisms.We argue that many of these mechanisms are likely to differ widely in the extent to which they involve sexual selection.Furthermore,in some cases where sexual selection is present,it may be prone to inhibit rather than drive speciation.Finally,there are a priori reasons to believe that certain categories of traits are much more effective than others in driving speciation.The combination of these points suggests a classification of traits that may shed light on the broader role of sexual selection in speciation with gene flow.In particular,we suggest that sexual selection can act as a driver of speciation in some scenarios,but may play a negligible role in potentially common categories of magic traits,and may be likely to inhibit speeiation in common categories of non-magic traits.

  17. QTLs analysis of rice peduncle vascular bundle and panicle traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@The vascular bundle in plants plays an important role in transportation of photosynthetic products, mineral nutrients, water, and so on. Significant positive correlations were found between grain yield, panicle traits and the No. Of peduncle vascular bundles. So, it is very important to study the inheritance of peduncle vascular bundle, which is a quantitative trait.

  18. Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…

  19. Traits and emotions : A review of their structure and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B; Kokkonen, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on traits and emotions focusing on both structure and management, or 'having' and 'doing'. The cognitive perspective of this paper implies that traits and emotions are viewed as provisions to frame people and their behaviours in situations in meaningful ways. The focus

  20. Phenotypic selection on leaf ecophysiological traits in Helianthus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, L.A.; Ludwig, F.; Rosenthal, D.R.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Dudley, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Habitats that differ in soil resource availability are expected to differ for selection on resource-related plant traits. Here, we examined spatial and temporal variation in phenotypic selection on leaf ecophysiological traits for 10 Helianthus populations, including two species of hybrid origin, He

  1. Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritabi...

  2. Maccoby's Head/Heart Traits: Marketing versus Accounting Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunny, C. M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Nineteen head/heart traits derived from Maccoby's business ethics work were rated on importance to future careers by 148 marketing and 178 accounting students. Both groups rated head traits as most important. Marketing majors are not as "games" oriented as social stereotypes would indicate. The apparent imbalance between head and heart traits…

  3. The Relations of Motivational Traits with Workplace Deviance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorff, James M.; Mehta, Kajal

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed and tested new theoretical relations between approach and avoidance motivational traits and deviant work behaviors. Approach motivation was divided into 3 traits: personal mastery (i.e., desire to achieve), competitive excellence (i.e., desire to perform better than others), and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity…

  4. Bridging traits, story, and self: Prospects and problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, H.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In his target article, McAdams brings together three domains in the field of psychology in which challenging developments have been observed over the past decades: trait psychology, narrative psychology, and culture. Trait psychology has been rejuvenated by crossnational and cross-cultural research

  5. Deficient safety learning characterizes high trait anxious individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Gazendam; J.H. Kamphuis; M. Kindt

    2012-01-01

    Trait anxiety is a well-established risk factor for developing anxiety disorders, but evidence for abnormal associative fear learning in high trait anxious (HTA) individuals is inconclusive. In part, this may due to limitations in the scope and measures used to assess fear learning. The current stud

  6. An Examination of Personality Traits of Motorsports Management Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joyce A.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Harder, Joseph T.; Peters, Randell

    2013-01-01

    For the motorsports industry, there is a strong desire to recruit individuals that have realistic expectations of the profession as well as exhibit the personality traits needed to be successful in the industry over time. The study sought to examine and compare personality traits of motorsports management students to those of practitioners…

  7. Palm Functional Traits: which traits matter and how do we measure them?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Balslev, Henrik; Barfod, Anders S.

    role of palms in tropical forest ecosystems. We review data availability for palms for four traits that are commonly used in functional plant ecology: specific leaf area (SLA), wood density, seed size, and maximum height. We suggest that palm functional ecology is impeded by some of the standard...... allow capturing leaf economics across large parts of the palm family with reasonable amounts of time and money....... functional traits being difficult to measure (e.g. SLA) or interpret (e.g. wood density). We show that an SLA measure can be easily obtained from dried specimens, and discuss the problems and opportunities of this approach compared to whole-leaf SLA measurements. Measuring SLA from herbarium samples may...

  8. Spontaneous trait inference and construal level theory: Psychological distance increases nonconscious trait thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Soyon; Uleman, James S; Trope, Yaacov

    2009-09-01

    Can psychological distance affect how much perceivers form spontaneous trait inferences (STI) from others' behaviors? On the basis of construal level theory (CLT) which posits that distant (vs. near) entities are represented more in terms of their abstract, global, and decontextualized features, we predicted that perceived distance would increase the tendency for perceivers to draw spontaneous trait inferences from behavioral information about actors. In two experiments, participants learned about people who were perceived as being distant or proximal to the self, and STI formation was subsequently assessed. We found that perceivers were more likely to form STIs about distant vs. near actors from the same behavioral information. These findings generalized across two distance dimensions: space and time. In addition, we found that priming individuals to adopt a high-level (vs. low-level) construal mindset also resulted in increased STI (Experiment 3). In sum, psychological distance facilitates STI formation, and this occurs via high-level construal of actors and their behaviors.

  9. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Leaf Morphological Traits and Chlorophyll Content in Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Liang SONG; Wang-Zhen GUO; Zhi-Guo HAN; Tian-Zhen ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Genetic mapping provides a powerful tool for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis at the molecular level. A simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic map containing 590 markers and a BC1 population from two cultivated tetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars, namely TM-1 and Hai 7124 (G.barbadense L.), were used to map and analyze QTL using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method.Thirty one QTLs, 10 for lobe length, 13 for lobe width, six for lobe angle, and two for leaf chlorophyll content,were detected on 15 chromosomes or linkage groups at logarithm of odds (LOD) ≥ 2.0, of which 15 were found for leaf morphology at LOD ≥.3.0. The genetic effects of the QTL were estimated. These results are fundamental for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of these traits in tetraploid cotton breeding.

  10. Predicting plants -modeling traits as a function of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Oskar

    2016-04-01

    A central problem in understanding and modeling vegetation dynamics is how to represent the variation in plant properties and function across different environments. Addressing this problem there is a strong trend towards trait-based approaches, where vegetation properties are functions of the distributions of functional traits rather than of species. Recently there has been enormous progress in in quantifying trait variability and its drivers and effects (Van Bodegom et al. 2012; Adier et al. 2014; Kunstler et al. 2015) based on wide ranging datasets on a small number of easily measured traits, such as specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and maximum plant height. However, plant function depends on many other traits and while the commonly measured trait data are valuable, they are not sufficient for driving predictive and mechanistic models of vegetation dynamics -especially under novel climate or management conditions. For this purpose we need a model to predict functional traits, also those not easily measured, and how they depend on the plants' environment. Here I present such a mechanistic model based on fitness concepts and focused on traits related to water and light limitation of trees, including: wood density, drought response, allocation to defense, and leaf traits. The model is able to predict observed patterns of variability in these traits in relation to growth and mortality, and their responses to a gradient of water limitation. The results demonstrate that it is possible to mechanistically predict plant traits as a function of the environment based on an eco-physiological model of plant fitness. References Adier, P.B., Salguero-Gómez, R., Compagnoni, A., Hsu, J.S., Ray-Mukherjee, J., Mbeau-Ache, C. et al. (2014). Functional traits explain variation in plant lifehistory strategies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 111, 740-745. Kunstler, G., Falster, D., Coomes, D.A., Hui, F., Kooyman, R.M., Laughlin, D.C. et al. (2015). Plant functional traits

  11. Detection of quantitative trait loci for carcass composition traits in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Christine

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of carcass composition data from a three-generation experimental cross between Meishan (MS and Large White (LW pig breeds is presented. A total of 488 F2 males issued from six F1 boars and 23 F1 sows, the progeny of six LW boars and six MS sows, were slaughtered at approximately 80 kg live weight and were submitted to a standardised cutting of the carcass. Fifteen traits, i.e. dressing percentage, loin, ham, shoulder, belly, backfat, leaf fat, feet and head weights, two backfat thickness and one muscle depth measurements, ham + loin and back + leaf fat percentages and estimated carcass lean content were analysed. Animals were typed for a total of 137 markers covering the entire porcine genome. Analyses were performed using a line-cross (LC regression method where founder lines were assumed to be fixed for different QTL alleles and a half/full sib (HFS maximum likelihood method where allele substitution effects were estimated within each half-/full-sib family. Additional analyses were performed to search for multiple linked QTL and imprinting effects. Significant gene effects were evidenced for both leanness and fatness traits in the telomeric regions of SSC 1q and SSC 2p, on SSC 4, SSC 7 and SSC X. Additional significant QTL were identified for ham weight on SSC 5, for head weight on SSC 1 and SSC 7, for feet weight on SSC 7 and for dressing percentage on SSC X. LW alleles were associated with a higher lean content and a lower fat content of the carcass, except for the fatness trait on SSC 7. Suggestive evidence of linked QTL on SSC 7 and of imprinting effects on SSC 6, SSC 7, SSC 9 and SSC 17 were also obtained.

  12. Milking Efficiency – A Milkability Trait for Automatically Milked Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Lassen, Jan; Chagunda, M G G

    Data from an experimental herd with automatic milkings from 486 first lactation cows were used to study alternative measures of milkability. One trait was milking efficiency, (kg milk per minute used in robot) the other “residual milking box time” using a linear regression to adjust daily time...... efficiency which showed only intermediate correlation. Both traits had weak correlations to somatic cell counts. It is concluded that either trait will be effective in selecting for cows giving more milk per minute occupying the milking robot, without increasing risk of mastitis...... for daily fat and protein corrected yield. Both traits were moderate to highly heritable and closely correlated (ra = 0.85). The two traits differed by milking efficiency being correlated to yield (ra = 0.48). Residual box time was closely correlated to milking time (ra = 0.93) compared to milking...

  13. [Personality traits, psychological adjustment, and burnout syndrome in nursing staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencomo, Juan; Paz, Cristina; Liebster, Elena

    2004-06-01

    The nursing staff is prone to develop Burnout because of the work environment and the stressful situations that develop among patients and their families. Burnout syndrome it's a persistent negative mental state, work related and present in non pathologic populations. Burnout has been associated to personality traits but the findings are too heterogeneous and do not allow plausible generalizations. To identify the relation between Burnout, Personality Traits and Psychological Adjustment, questionnaires were applied to 117 subjects, all members of the nursing staff from a University Hospital in Maracaibo, Venezuela. Traits in Burnout subjects were: sensibility to criticism, lack of confidence, poor social capacity and low Psychological Adjustment. The non-Burnout subjects presented traits of optimism, reality in the way they viewed events, proper social abilities and high Psychological Adjustment. Burnout Syndrome is not a personality type and the traits associated with this syndrome seems to be associated with Psychological Adjustment.

  14. Personality Trait Development and Social Investment in Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nathan W; Roberts, Brent W; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    A longitudinal study of employed individuals was used to test the relationship between social investment at work-the act of cognitively and emotionally committing to one's job-and longitudinal and cross-sectional personality trait development. Participants provided ratings of personality traits and social investment at work at two time-points, separated by approximately three years. Data were analyzed using latent change models. Cross-sectional results showed that extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and emotional stability were related to social investment at work. Additionally, a positive association was found between longitudinal change in social investment in work and change in personality traits-especially conscientiousness. Finally, the correlated changes in social investment and personality traits were invariant across age groups, suggesting that personality traits remain malleable across the lifespan.

  15. Fundamental species traits explain provisioning services of tropical American palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Faurby, Søren; Macía, Manuel J

    2017-01-01

    Human well-being around the globe rests on the provisioning services delivered by 15% of the Earth’s 350,000 plant species. Species’ traits influence the way in which plants are utilised1, yet it is not well understood which traits underpin different human needs2. Here, we focus on palms, one...... of the most economically important plant groups globally3, and show that provisioning services related to basic needs, such as food and medicine, show a strong link with different combinations of traits. We integrate data from 2,201 interviews on plant utilisation from three biodiversity hotspots in South...... we show that our findings hold even when accounting for phylogenetic clustering of traits and utility due to phylogenetic relatedness5. Beyond expanding our understanding of how local stakeholders perceive and explore biodiversity in mega-diverse forests, our trait- and phylogeny-based approach helps...

  16. DSM-5 personality traits and DSM-IV personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Thomas, Katherine M; Markon, Kristian E; Wright, Aidan G C; Krueger, Robert F

    2012-05-01

    Two issues pertinent to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model, which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the 6 proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits, and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders.

  17. Functional traits in agriculture: agrobiodiversity and ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen A; Karp, Daniel S; DeClerck, Fabrice; Kremen, Claire; Naeem, Shahid; Palm, Cheryl A

    2015-09-01

    Functional trait research has led to greater understanding of the impacts of biodiversity in ecosystems. Yet, functional trait approaches have not been widely applied to agroecosystems and understanding of the importance of agrobiodiversity remains limited to a few ecosystem processes and services. To improve this understanding, we argue here for a functional trait approach to agroecology that adopts recent advances in trait research for multitrophic and spatially heterogeneous ecosystems. We suggest that trait values should be measured across environmental conditions and agricultural management regimes to predict how ecosystem services vary with farm practices and environment. This knowledge should be used to develop management strategies that can be easily implemented by farmers to manage agriculture to provide multiple ecosystem services.

  18. Plant functional traits predict green roof ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Tran, Stephanie; Gebert, Luke

    2015-02-17

    Plants make important contributions to the services provided by engineered ecosystems such as green roofs. Ecologists use plant species traits as generic predictors of geographical distribution, interactions with other species, and ecosystem functioning, but this approach has been little used to optimize engineered ecosystems. Four plant species traits (height, individual leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf dry matter content) were evaluated as predictors of ecosystem properties and services in a modular green roof system planted with 21 species. Six indicators of ecosystem services, incorporating thermal, hydrological, water quality, and carbon sequestration functions, were predicted by the four plant traits directly or indirectly via their effects on aggregate ecosystem properties, including canopy density and albedo. Species average height and specific leaf area were the most useful traits, predicting several services via effects on canopy density or growth rate. This study demonstrates that easily measured plant traits can be used to select species to optimize green roof performance across multiple key services.

  19. Chronotype, sport participation, and positive personality-trait-like individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Sylvain; Guillén, Félix; Dosseville, Fabrice; Allen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Chronotype and sport participation have been found to relate to positive personality-trait-like individual differences (PTLID). To date, research has focused exclusively on the morningness-eveningness dimension of chronotype, and little is known about the relationship between chronotype and various characteristics of sport participation (e.g. training time). This investigation had three primary objectives: (1) to extend the current evidence base by exploring how sport participation and PTLID relate to chronotype amplitude, (2) to explore how chronotype (morningness-eveningness and amplitude) relates to various characteristics of sport training and competition, and (3) to explore the independent and interrelated contribution of sport participation and chronotype to PTLID. The sample included 976 non-athletes (493 women and 483 men) and 974 athletes (478 women and 496 men). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires targeting sport participation characteristics, six positive PTLID (hope, optimism, perseverance, resilience, self-efficacy and trait emotional intelligence) and chronotype dimensions. Results showed that morningness-eveningness was negatively related to positive PTLID but was unrelated to sport participation. Greater diurnal fluctuations (amplitude dimension) were associated with lower positive PTLID values, lower sport participation, and shorter training durations. Positive PTLID were also associated with better sleep quality and a shorter sleep duration. Chronotype (morningness-eveningness and amplitude) and sport participation had independent associations with PTLID. These findings suggest that changes in sport participation and activity times might be a useful approach to developing positive PTLID.

  20. Transformational Leadership Characteristics Necessary for Today's Leaders in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basham, Lloyd Moman

    2012-01-01

    This study is concerned with the traits and characteristics of presidents of institutions of higher education who are considered transformational leaders. The study adds current data to the published and perceived characterization of leaders in higher education and their approaches to changing the learning environment at their institutions. This…

  1. Rating Students' Problem Behaviour: The Role of Teachers' Individual Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kargiotidis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of teachers' personal characteristics and mental health status on their frequency ratings of student problem behaviour. A sample of 121 primary school teachers were asked to rate the frequency of a student's behavioural problems, and to self-report their personality traits, psychopathology symptoms and burnout.…

  2. Self-Consciousness and Personality Characteristics among Prison Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Serna, Marcelo; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the personality characteristics of male prison inmates. Results indicate some personality traits and two clinical syndromes are useful in differentiating prison inmates with high and low scores on measures of private self-consciousness. Suggests persons with high self-consciousness are more suspicious, obsessive-compulsive, and likely to…

  3. Genotypic expression at different ages: II. Wool traits of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okut, H; Bromley, C M; Van Vleck, L D; Snowder, G D

    1999-09-01

    Genetic parameters for wool traits for Columbia, Polypay, Rambouillet, and Targhee breeds of sheep were estimated with single- and multiple-trait analyses using REML with animal models. Traits considered were fleece grade, fleece weight, and staple length. Total number of observations ranged from 11,673 to 34,746 for fleece grade and fleece weight and from 3,500 to 11,641 for staple length for the four breeds. For single-trait analyses, data were divided by age of ewe: young ages (age of 1 yr), middle ages (ages of 2 and 3 yr), and older ages (age greater than 3 yr). Heritability estimates averaged over breeds for fleece grade decreased from .42 at a young age to .37 for older ages. For fleece weight, heritability estimates averaged .52, .57, and .55 within the successively older groups. Heritability estimates for staple length averaged .54 for young and middle age classes. Few older ewes had staple length measurements. After single-trait analyses, new data sets were created for three-trait analyses with traits defined by three age classes when animals were measured. Heritability estimates with three-trait analyses, except for a few cases, were somewhat greater than those from single-trait analyses. For fleece grade, the genetic correlations averaged over breeds were .72 for young with middle, .42 for young with older, and .86 for middle with older age classes. For fleece weight, the average genetic correlations were .81, .83, and .98. For staple length, the average genetic correlation for young with middle age classes was .82. Estimates of genetic correlations across ages varied considerably among breeds. The average estimates of correlations suggest that fleece grade may need to be defined by age, especially for the Columbia and Rambouillet breeds. For fleece weight and staple length, however, the average correlations suggest no need to define those traits by age.

  4. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Marie J; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.

  5. Analysing leadership traits in establishing effective leadership at Eskom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lekganyane

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Leadership is one of the crucial modern topics in the field of management. A leadership trait is one of the three components to be considered in establishing leadership success. The other two components not assessed in this research are ideal leadership behaviour and situational factors. Managers must act as leaders as they have a critical role to play to ensure effective change. This paper explores the leadership traits relevant to middle managers acting as leaders at Eskom. Design/Methodology/Approach: A theoretical analysis of literature in the field of leadership is conducted with a further focus on leadership traits. Quantitative research is done within Eskom by means of an e-mail survey to a random sample of employees on middle management level. Areas of possible improvement and leadership traits excellence are identified. Recommendations are made regarding leadership traits. Findings: The broad leadership trait categories tested include: intelligence; flexibility; sensitivity to others; stability; dominance; high energy; integrity (honesty and ethics; and finally locus of control. The most dominant traits based on the perception of the respondents are that they possess integrity, intelligence, high energy and the ability to act as leaders. Leadership traits that require great attention and are not as dominant are sensitivity to others, flexibility and to some extent stability. Implications: Managers must have the leadership ability and trait to influence employees in order to communicate, direct, negotiate and motivate with success. Teamwork and a relationship of trust are required in the modern and changing organisation in order to be successful in achieving organisational goals. Originality / Value: South Africa as well as Southern Africa could face an energy crisis in the near future. As Eskom is currently facing growing demand for services and is experiencing limitations to provide this continuous increase in demand, managers

  6. Large Scale Relationship between Aquatic Insect Traits and Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2015-01-01

    Climate is the predominant environmental driver of freshwater assemblage pattern on large spatial scales, and traits of freshwater organisms have shown considerable potential to identify impacts of climate change. Although several studies suggest traits that may indicate vulnerability to climate change, the empirical relationship between freshwater assemblage trait composition and climate has been rarely examined on large scales. We compared the responses of the assumed climate-associated traits from six grouping features to 35 bioclimatic indices (~18 km resolution) for five insect orders (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera), evaluated their potential for changing distribution pattern under future climate change and identified the most influential bioclimatic indices. The data comprised 782 species and 395 genera sampled in 4,752 stream sites during 2006 and 2007 in Germany (~357,000 km² spatial extent). We quantified the variability and spatial autocorrelation in the traits and orders that are associated with the combined and individual bioclimatic indices. Traits of temperature preference grouping feature that are the products of several other underlying climate-associated traits, and the insect order Ephemeroptera exhibited the strongest response to the bioclimatic indices as well as the highest potential for changing distribution pattern. Regarding individual traits, insects in general and ephemeropterans preferring very cold temperature showed the highest response, and the insects preferring cold and trichopterans preferring moderate temperature showed the highest potential for changing distribution. We showed that the seasonal radiation and moisture are the most influential bioclimatic aspects, and thus changes in these aspects may affect the most responsive traits and orders and drive a change in their spatial distribution pattern. Our findings support the development of trait-based metrics to predict and detect climate

  7. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie J Haskell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.

  8. Specificity, contexts, and reference groups matter when assessing autistic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Dern, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Many of the personality and behavioral traits (e.g., social imperviousness, directness in conversation, lack of imagination, affinity for solitude, difficulty displaying emotions) that are known to be sensitive to context (with whom?) and reference group (according to whom?) also appear in questionnaire-based assessments of autistic traits. Therefore, two experiments investigated the effects of specifying contexts and reference groups when assessing autistic traits in autistic and non-autistic participants. Experiment 1 (124 autistic and 124 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that context matters when assessing autistic traits (F(1,244) = 267.5, p < .001, η2p = .523). When the context of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire was specified as the participants’ out-group (e.g., “I like being around non-autistic people” or “I like being around autistic people”), both autistic and non-autistic participants self-reported having more autistic traits; when the context was specified as the participants’ in-group, participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Experiment 2 (82 autistic and 82 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that reference group matters when assessing autistic traits (F(2,160) = 94.38, p < .001, η2p = .541). When the reference group on the Social Responsiveness Scale was specified as the participants’ out-group (e.g., “According to non-autistic people, I have unusual eye contact”), autistic participants reported having more autistic traits; when the reference group was their in-group, autistic participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Non-autistic participants appeared insensitive to reference group on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Exploratory analyses suggested that when neither the context nor the reference group is specified (for assessing autistic traits on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient), both autistic and non-autistic participants use the majority (“non-autistic people”) as the implied context and

  9. Personality and affective forecasting: trait introverts underpredict the hedonic benefits of acting extraverted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenski, John M; Whelan, Deanna C; Nealis, Logan J; Besner, Christina M; Santoro, Maya S; Wynn, Jessica E

    2013-06-01

    People report enjoying momentary extraverted behavior, and this does not seem to depend on trait levels of introversion-extraversion. Assuming that introverts desire enjoyment, this finding raises the question, why do introverts not act extraverted more often? This research explored a novel explanation, that trait introverts make an affective forecasting error, underpredicting the hedonic benefits of extraverted behavior. Study 1 (n = 97) found that trait introverts forecast less activated positive and pleasant affect and more negative and self-conscious affect (compared to extraverts) when asked to imagine acting extraverted, but not introverted, across a variety of hypothetical situations. Studies 2-5 (combined n = 495) found similar results using a between-subjects approach and laboratory situations. We replicated findings that people enjoy acting extraverted and that this does not depend on disposition. Accordingly, the personality differences in affective forecasts represent errors. In these studies, introverts tended to be less accurate, particularly by overestimating the negative affect and self-consciousness associated with their extraverted behavior. This may explain why introverts do not act extraverted more often (i.e., they overestimate hedonic costs that do not actually materialize) and have implications for understanding, and potentially trying to change, introverts' characteristically lower levels of happiness.

  10. Juvenile immune status affects the expression of a sexually selected trait in field crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot, A; Scheuber, H; Kurtz, J; Brinkhof, M W G

    2005-07-01

    Parasite-mediated sexual selection theory presumes that variation in sexual traits reliably reflects variation in parasite resistance among available mates. One mechanism that may warrant signal honesty involves costs of immune system activation in the case of a parasitic infection. We investigated this hypothesis in male field crickets Gryllus campestris, whose attractiveness to females depends on characteristics of the sound-producing harp that are essentially fixed following adult eclosion. During the nymphal stage, males subjected to one of two feeding regimes were challenged with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to investigate condition-dependent effects on harp development as compared to other adult traits. Nymphal nutritional status positively affected adult body size, condition, and harp size. However, nymphal immune status affected harp size only, with LPS-males having smaller harps than control-injected males. In addition, the harps of LPS-males showed a lesser degree of melanization, indicating an enhanced substrate use by the melanin-producing enzyme cascade of the immune system. Thus, past immune status is specifically mirrored in sexual traits, suggesting a key role for deployment costs of immunity in parasite-mediated sexual selection.

  11. A Neural Trait Approach to Exploring Individual Differences in Social Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle eNash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research demonstrates that social preferences are characterized by significant individual differences. An important question, often overlooked, is from where do these individual differences originate? And what are the processes that underlie such differences? In this paper, we outline the neural trait approach to uncovering sources of individual differences in social preferences, particularly as evidenced in economic games. We focus on two primary methods—resting-state electroencephalography and structural magnetic resonance imaging—used by researchers to quantify task-independent, brain-based characteristics that are stable over time. We review research that has employed these methods to investigate social preferences with an emphasis on a key psychological process in social decision-making; namely, self-control. We then highlight future opportunities for the neural trait approach in cutting-edge decision-making research. Finally, we explore the debate about self-control in social decision-making and the potential role neural trait research could play in this issue.

  12. [An analysis of the relationship between aggressiveness and personality traits of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Sachiko; Shimai, Satoshi; Otake, Keiko

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to understand the concept of aggressiveness of children through an analysis of the relationship between aggressiveness and personality traits. A total of 1,206 elementary school children were enrolled in the study. In order to investigate the correlation, a path analysis was performed using multiple regression analyses in which 4 variables of aggressiveness (irritability, hostility, physical aggression and verbal aggression) were employed as dependent variables and 5 variables of personality traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotionality, openness and extroversion) were used as independent variables. The results of the analysis indicated that significantly positivepath was observed from extroversion to all four variables of aggressiveness. Extroversion indicated especially strong influence on irritability and physical aggression. A significantly negativepath was observed from agreeableness to irritability and hostility. From conscientiousness, a negative path was observed towards physical aggression and a positive path towards verbal aggression. A significantly negative path was observed from emotionality only towards verbal aggression. It was assumed that each of the four inferior characteristics of aggressiveness of children had a complex nature to be influenced by multiple personality traits.

  13. Genetic strategies for dissecting complex traits in biomass willows (Salix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Steven J; Karp, Angela

    2014-11-01

    Willows are highly diverse catkin-bearing trees and shrubs of the genus Salix. They occur in many growth forms, from tall trees to creeping alpines, and successfully occupy a wide variety of ecological niches. Shrubby willows (sub-genus Vetrix) have many characteristics that render them suited to cultivation in much faster growth cycles than conventional forestry. They respond well to coppicing, can be propagated vegetatively as cuttings and achieve rapid growth with low fertilizer inputs. As a result, willows grown as short rotation coppice are now among the leading commercially grown biomass crops in temperate regions. However, although willows have a long history of cultivation for traditional uses, their industrial use is relatively recent and, compared with major arable crops, they are largely undomesticated. Breeding programmes initiated to improve willow as a biomass crop achieved a doubling of yields within a period of coppicing response (shoot number and shoot vigour), as well as resistance to pests, diseases and environmental stress, with little or no knowledge of the genetic basis of these traits. Genetics and genomics, combined with extensive phenotyping, have substantially improved our understanding of the basis of biomass traits in willow for more targeted breeding via marker-assisted selection. Here, we present the strategy we have adopted in which a genetic-based approach was used to dissect complex traits into more defined components for molecular breeding and gene discovery.

  14. Invited review: Mid-infrared spectroscopy as phenotyping tool for milk traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, M; Toffanin, V; Cassandro, M; Penasa, M

    2014-03-01

    Interest in methods that routinely and accurately measure and predict animal characteristics is growing in importance, both for quality characterization of livestock products and for genetic purposes. Mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) is a rapid and cost-effective tool for recording phenotypes at the population level. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is based on crossing matter by electromagnetic radiation and on the subsequent measure of energy absorption, and it is commonly used to determine traditional milk quality traits in official milk laboratories. The aim of this review was to focus on the use of MIRS to predict new milk phenotypes of economic relevance such as fatty acid and protein composition, coagulation properties, acidity, mineral composition, ketone bodies, body energy status, and methane emissions. Analysis of the literature demonstrated the feasibility of MIRS to predict these traits, with different accuracies and with margins of improvement of prediction equations. In general, the reviewed papers underlined the influence of data variability, reference method, and unit of measurement on the development of robust models. A crucial point in favor of the application of MIRS is to stimulate the exchange of data among countries to develop equations that take into account the biological variability of the studied traits under different conditions. Due to the large variability of reference methods used for MIRS calibration, it is essential to standardize the methods used within and across countries.

  15. Phenotypic Variability and Diversity Analysis of Bean Traits of Some Cocoa Hybrids in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Oyedokun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to understand the economic potential and superiority among cocoa hybrids. Therefore, the present study aims at detecting variability among cocoa hybrids for bean index in Nigeria. Dried bean of fourteen genotypes of cocoa were evaluated for their bean values. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to understand the variability among the fourteen genotypes and Principal Component Analysis (PCA was employed to identify distinguishing traits and the grouping of the genotypes based on similarities. The fourteen cocoa genotypes were significantly (p≤0.05 different from each other with respect to weight of one bean, bean length, width, thickness, 100 bean weight, bean length to width, length to thickness and width to thickness ratio. All the studied morphometric characters exhibited high (>70% broad sense heritability. G8, the hybrid between T53/5 and N38 was the most superior genotype for bean weight and some other bean characteristics. The mass of seventy-four dried cocoa bean of G8 approximated 100 g. The first three Principal Component axes explained 91% of the total variation and the PCA grouped the fourteen genotypes into four distinct clusters. Genotypes could be selected for specific traits and improvement of traits seemed to be genetically reliable.

  16. Genetic influences on type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome related quantitative traits in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett, Jeremy B; Diego, Vincent P; Kotea, Navaratnam; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Chitson, Pierrot; Dyer, Thomas D; Zimmet, Paul; Blangero, John

    2009-02-01

    Epidemiological studies report a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the island nation of Mauritius. The Mauritius Family Study was initiated to examine heritable factors that contribute to these high rates of prevalence and consists of 400 individuals in 24 large extended multigenerational pedigrees. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements relating to the metabolic syndrome were undertaken in addition to family and lifestyle based information for each individual. Variance components methods were used to determine the heritability of the type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome related quantitative traits. The cohort was made up of 218 females (55%) and 182 males with 22% diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and a further 30% having impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose. Notably BMI was not significantly increased in those with type 2 diabetes (P= .12), however a significant increase in waist circumference was observed in these groups (P= .02). The heritable proportion of trait variance was substantial and greater than values previously published for hip circumference, LDL and total cholesterol, diastolic and systolic blood pressure and serum creatinine. Height, weight and BMI heritabilities were all in the upper range of those previously reported. The phenotypic characteristics of the Mauritius family cohort are similar to those previously reported in the Mauritian population with a high observed prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes. A high heritability for key type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome related phenotypes (range 0.23 to 0.68), suggest the cohort will have utility in identifying genes that influence these quantitative traits.

  17. Changes in community-level riparian plant traits over inundation gradients, Colorado River, Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy-Sulentic, Miles; Kolb, Thomas; Merritt, David; Palmquist, Emily C.; Ralston, Barbara; Sarr, Daniel; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2017-01-01

    Comparisons of community-level functional traits across environmental gradients have potential for identifying links among plant characteristics, adaptations to stress and disturbance, and community assembly. We investigated community-level variation in specific leaf area (SLA), plant mature height, seed mass, stem specific gravity (SSG), relative cover of C4 species, and total plant cover over hydrologic zones and gradients in years 2013 and 2014 in the riparian plant community along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. Vegetation cover was lowest in the frequently inundated active channel zone, indicating constraints on plant establishment and production by flood disturbance and anaerobic stress. Changes in trait values over hydrologic zones and inundation gradients indicate that frequently inundated plots exhibit a community-level ruderal strategy with adaptation to submergence (high SLA and low SSG, height, seed mass, C4 relative cover), whereas less frequently inundated plots exhibit adaptation to drought and infrequent flood disturbance (low SLA and high SSG, height, seed mass, C4 relative cover). Variation in traits not associated with inundation suggests niche differentiation and multiple modes of community assembly. The results enhance understanding of future responses of riparian communities of the Grand Canyon to anticipated drying and changes in hydrologic regime.

  18. Prenatal maternal stress associated with ADHD and autistic traits in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica eRonald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that offspring of mothers who experience high levels of stress during pregnancy are more likely to have problems in neurobehavioural development. There is preliminary evidence that prenatal maternal stress (PNMS is a risk factor for both autism and ADHD, however most studies do not control for confounding factors and no study has investigated PNMS as a risk factor for behaviors characteristic of these disorders in early childhood. A population cohort of 2900 pregnant women were recruited before their 18th week of pregnancy and investigated prospectively. Maternal experience of stressful life events was assessed during pregnancy. When offspring were age 2-years, mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Multiple regression showed that maternal stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted ADHD behaviours in offspring, after controlling for autistic traits and other confounding variables, in both males (p= .03 and females (p= .01. Similarly, stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted autistic traits in the offspring after controlling for ADHD behaviours and confounding variables, in males only (p= .04. In conclusion, this study suggests that PNMS, in the form of typical stressful live events such as divorce or a residential move, show a small but significant association with both autistic traits and ADHD behaviours independently, in offspring at age 2 years, after controlling for multiple antenatal, obstetric, postnatal and sociodemographic covariates. This finding supports future research using epigenetic, cross-fostering, and gene-environment interaction designs to identify the causal processes underlying this association.

  19. Harvest selection on Atlantic cod behavioral traits: implications for spatial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Esben Moland; Heupel, Michelle R; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Moland, Even

    2012-07-01

    Harvesting wild populations may contrast or reinforce natural agents of selection and potentially cause evolutionary changes in life-history traits such as growth and maturation. Harvest selection may also act on behavioral traits, although this field of research has so far received less attention. We used acoustic tags and a network of receivers to monitor the behavior and fate of individual Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, N = 60) in their natural habitat on the Norwegian Skagerrak coast. Fish with a strong diel vertical migration, alternating between shallow- and deep-water habitats, had a higher risk of being captured in the fishery (traps, gillnet, hand line) as compared to fish that stayed in deeper water. There was also a significant negative correlation between fish size (30-66 cm) and the magnitude of diel vertical migration. Natural selection on behavior was less clear, but tended to favor fish with a large activity space. On a monthly time scale we found significant repeatabilities for cod behavior, meaning that individual characteristics tended to persist and therefore may be termed personality traits. We argue that an evolutionary approach to fisheries management should consider fish behavior. This would be of particular relevance for spatial management actions such as marine reserve design.

  20. Non-Homicidal and Homicidal Sexual Offenders: Prevalence of Maladaptive Personality Traits and Paraphilic Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Beauregard, Eric

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to examine the psychopathological profile of non-homicidal sexual offenders (NHSOs) and homicidal sexual offenders (HSOs). Using an incarcerated sample of 96 NHSOs and 74 HSOs in a federal penitentiary in Canada, these offenders are compared in terms of their offending process, maladaptive personality traits, and paraphilic behaviors. A number of cross-tabular and sequential logistic regression analyses are performed. Relative to their counterpart, findings indicate that a higher percentage of HSOs select a victim of choice, report deviant sexual fantasies, mutilate their victim, and admit to their offense upon apprehension, whereas a higher percentage of NHSOs select victims with distinctive characteristics. In addition, a higher percentage of HSOs manifest paranoid, schizotypal, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and impulsive personality traits, and overall odd and eccentric personality traits compared with NHSOs. Similarly, a higher percentage of HSOs engage in exhibitionism, fetishism, frotteurism, homosexual pedophilia, sexual masochism, and partialism compared with NHSO. These findings are discussed with their implications for offender profiling.

  1. Turning points and lessons learned: stressful life events and personality trait development across middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Costa, Paul T; Wethington, Elaine; Eaton, William

    2010-09-01

    The present research examined stressful life events and personality development across middle adulthood. Participants (N = 533) related the most stressful event they had experienced within the last 10 years, indicated whether they considered the event to be a turning point and/or lesson learned, and twice completed a comprehensive measure of traits defined by the five-factor model of personality; the stressful event occurred between these two assessments. Descriptions were coded to classify events into broad content domains based on the nature of the event. Prospectively, individuals high in Neuroticism perceived the event as a turning point; extraverts learned a lesson from it. Longitudinally, perceiving the event as a negative turning point was associated with increases in Neuroticism, whereas learning a lesson from the event was associated with increases in Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Characteristics of the events themselves were primarily unrelated to trait change. Across middle adulthood, personality trait change may be more strongly related to how individuals understand the stressful events in their lives rather than simply the occurrence of such events.

  2. Personality Traits Are Associated with Research Misbehavior in Dutch Scientists: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijdink, Joeri K.; Bouter, Lex M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; Smulders, Yvo M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research misconduct. We hypothesized that narcissistic, Machiavellianistic and psychopathic traits as well as self-esteem are associated with research misbehavior. Methods Included in this cross-sectional study design were 535 Dutch biomedical scientists (response rate 65%) from all hierarchical layers of 4 university medical centers in the Netherlands. We used validated personality questionnaires such as the Dark Triad (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Publication Pressure Questionnaire (PPQ), and also demographic and job-specific characteristics to investigate the association of personality traits with a composite research misbehavior severity score. Findings Machiavellianism was positively associated (beta 1.28, CI 1.06–1.53) with self-reported research misbehavior, while narcissism, psychopathy and self-esteem were not. Exploratory analysis revealed that narcissism and research misconduct were more severe among persons in higher academic ranks (i.e., professors) (pself-esteem scores and publication pressure were lower (pNarcissism and research misbehaviour were more prevalent among biomedical scientists in higher academic positions. These results suggest that personality has an impact on research behavior and should be taken into account in fostering responsible conduct of research. PMID:27684371

  3. Identification of quantitative trait loci for wool traits in Iranian Baluchi sheep. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dashab, G R; Aslaminejad, A; Nassiri, M R;

    2012-01-01

    Regions on 3 ovine chromosomes (OAR1, 5 and 25) were selected to study quantitative trait loci (QTL) segregating for wool traits in Baluchi sheep, an indigenous sheep breed in Iran. Progenies (503) from 13 half-sib families were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The average number of proge...

  4. Identification of quantitative trait transcripts for growth traits in the large scales of liver and muscle samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xinwei; Yang, Hui; Yang, Bin; Chen, Congying; Huang, Lusheng

    2015-07-01

    Growth-related traits are economically important traits to the pig industry. Identification of causative gene and mutation responsible for growth-related QTL will facilitate the improvement of pig growth through marker-assisted selection. In this study, we applied whole genome gene expression and quantitative trait transcript (QTT) analyses in 497 liver and 586 longissimus dorsi muscle samples to identify candidate genes and dissect the genetic basis of pig growth in a white Duroc × Erhualian F2 resource population. A total of 20,108 transcripts in liver and 23,728 transcripts in muscle with expression values were used for association analysis between gene expression level and phenotypic value. At the significance threshold of P growth-related traits in liver and muscle, respectively. We also found that some QTTs were correlated to more than one trait. The QTTs identified here showed high tissue specificity. We did not identify any QTTs that were associated with one trait in both liver and muscle. Through an integrative genomic approach, we identified SDR16C5 as the important candidate gene in pig growth trait. These findings contribute to further identification of the causative genes for porcine growth traits and facilitate improvement of pig breeding.

  5. National character does not reflect mean personality trait levels in 49 cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terracciano, A; Abdel-Khalek, A M; Adám, N

    2005-01-01

    Most people hold beliefs about personality characteristics typical of members of their own and others' cultures. These perceptions of national character may be generalizations from personal experience, stereotypes with a "kernel of truth," or inaccurate stereotypes. We obtained national character...... ratings of 3989 people from 49 cultures and compared them with the average personality scores of culture members assessed by observer ratings and self-reports. National character ratings were reliable but did not converge with assessed traits. Perceptions of national character thus appear to be unfounded...

  6. Multiple-trait estimates of genetic parameters for metabolic disease traits, fertility disorders, and their predictors in Canadian Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Koeck, A; Kistemaker, G J; Miglior, F

    2016-03-01

    Producer-recorded health data for metabolic disease traits and fertility disorders on 35,575 Canadian Holstein cows were jointly analyzed with selected indicator traits. Metabolic diseases included clinical ketosis (KET) and displaced abomasum (DA); fertility disorders were metritis (MET) and retained placenta (RP); and disease indicators were fat-to-protein ratio, milk β-hydroxybutyrate, and body condition score (BCS) in the first lactation. Traits in first and later (up to fifth) lactations were treated as correlated in the multiple-trait (13 traits in total) animal linear model. Bayesian methods with Gibbs sampling were implemented for the analysis. Estimates of heritability for disease incidence were low, up to 0.06 for DA in first lactation. Among disease traits, the environmental herd-year variance constituted 4% of the total variance for KET and less for other traits. First- and later-lactation disease traits were genetically correlated (from 0.66 to 0.72) across all traits, indicating different genetic backgrounds for first and later lactations. Genetic correlations between KET and DA were relatively strong and positive (up to 0.79) in both first- and later-lactation cows. Genetic correlations between fertility disorders were slightly lower. Metritis was strongly genetically correlated with both metabolic disease traits in the first lactation only. All other genetic correlations between metabolic and fertility diseases were statistically nonsignificant. First-lactation KET and MET were strongly positively correlated with later-lactation performance for these traits due to the environmental herd-year effect. Indicator traits were moderately genetically correlated (from 0.30 to 0.63 in absolute values) with both metabolic disease traits in the first lactation. Smaller and mostly nonsignificant genetic correlations were among indicators and metabolic diseases in later lactations. The only significant genetic correlations between indicators and fertility

  7. Quantitative trait loci identification and meta-analysis for rice panicle-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yahui; Huang, Ming; Tao, Xingxing; Guo, Tao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Xiao, Wuming

    2016-10-01

    Rice yield is a complex trait controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In the past three decades, thousands of QTLs for rice yield traits have been detected, but only a very small percentage has been cloned to date, as identifying the QTL genes requires a substantial investment of time and money. Meta-analysis provides a simple, reliable, and economical method for integrating information from multiple QTL studies across various environmental and genetic backgrounds, detecting consistent QTLs powerfully and estimating their genetic positions precisely. In this study, we aimed to locate consistent QTL regions associated with rice panicle traits by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. We first conducted a QTL analysis of 5 rice panicle traits using 172 plants in 2011 and 138 plants in 2012 from an F2 population derived from a cross between Nipponbare and H71D rice cultivators. A total of 54 QTLs were detected, and these were combined with 1085 QTLs collected from 82 previous studies to perform a meta-analysis using BioMercator v4.2. The integration of 82 maps resulted in a consensus map with 6970 markers and a total map length of 1823.1 centimorgan (cM), on which 837 QTLs were projected. These QTLs were then integrated into 87 meta-quantitative trait loci (MQTLs) by meta-analysis, and the 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of them were smaller than the mean value of the original QTLs. Also, 30 MQTLs covered 47 of the 54 QTLs detected from the cross between Nipponbare and H71D in this study. Among them, the two major and stable QTLs, spp10.1 and sd10.1, were found to be included in MQTL10.4. The three other major QTLs, pl3.1, sb2.1, and sb10.1, were included in MQTL3.3, MQTL2.2, and MQTL10.3, respectively. A total of 21 of the 87 MQTLs' phenotypic variation were >20 %. In total, 24 candidate genes were found in 15 MQTLs that spanned physical intervals <0.2 Mb, including genes that have been cloned previously, e.g., EP3, LP, MIP1, HTD1, DSH1, and Os

  8. Effects of salt stress on photosynthetic characteristics and some physiological traits of rice varieties at different nitrogen levels%不同供氮水平下盐胁迫对水稻光合特性和某些生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓龙; 徐晨; 徐克章; 崔菁菁; 张治安; 凌凤楼; 安久海; 武志海

    2015-01-01

    Objective]To understand the response to salt stress on rice varieties cultured at different nitro-gen levels.[Method]Two north japonica rice varieties were cultured at five nitrogen levels of nutrient so-lution until booting stage , the changes of biomass , photosynthetic characteristics and some physiological characteristics of two rice varieties were measured in three salt concentrations .[Result and conclusion]The biomass of rice varieties which were cultured at different nitrogen levels of nutrient solution decreased under salt stress;there were significant decrease in net photosynthetic rate ( Pn) , stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate ( Tr) and apparent mesophyll conductance ( AMC) of rice leaves under salt stress.The Pn reduction was due to non-stomatal restriction factors in low-nitrogen-level nutrient solu-tion, however, the stomatal and non-stomatal limitation factors resulted in the Pn reduction in high-nitro-gen-level nutrient solution .Under salt stress , the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD , POD and CAT, the contents of proline and soluble sugar of leaves in 1/2N-level nutrient solution were significantly higher than those at other nitrogen-levels, the membrane permeability and the content of MDA in 1/2N-level were lower than those at other nitrogen-levels.The results show that rice varieties cultured in 1/2N-level nutrient solution can improve the capacity of osmotic regulation , enhancing the salt-tolerance ability of rice varieties at booting stage .The capacity of salt-tolerance of Jiudao 13 is higher than that of Jijing 88 .%目的为了解不同供氮水平培养的水稻植株对盐胁迫的响应.方法以2个北方常规粳稻品种为材料,在5个供氮水平下培养至孕穗期,以3个盐浓度进行胁迫处理,研究了处理后的水稻植株生物量、光合特性及一些生理特性的变化.结果和结论不同供氮水平培养的水稻植株在盐胁迫后生物量均呈

  9. Comparative Landscape Genetics of Three Closely Related Sympatric Hesperid Butterflies with Diverging Ecological Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Jan O.; Balkenhol, Niko; Filz, Katharina J.; Habel, Jan C.; Rödder, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    To understand how landscape characteristics affect gene flow in species with diverging ecological traits, it is important to analyze taxonomically related sympatric species in the same landscape using identical methods. Here, we present such a comparative landscape genetic study involving three closely related Hesperid butterflies of the genus Thymelicus that represent a gradient of diverging ecological traits. We analyzed landscape effects on their gene flow by deriving inter-population connectivity estimates based on different species distribution models (SDMs), which were calculated from multiple landscape parameters. We then used SDM output maps to calculate circuit-theoretic connectivity estimates and statistically compared these estimates to actual genetic differentiation in each species. We based our inferences on two different analytical methods and two metrics of genetic differentiation. Results indicate that land use patterns influence population connectivity in the least mobile specialist T. acteon. In contrast, populations of the highly mobile generalist T. lineola were panmictic, lacking any landscape related effect on genetic differentiation. In the species with ecological traits in between those of the congeners, T. sylvestris, climate has a strong impact on inter-population connectivity. However, the relative importance of different landscape factors for connectivity varies when using different metrics of genetic differentiation in this species. Our results show that closely related species representing a gradient of ecological traits also show genetic structures and landscape genetic relationships that gradually change from a geographical macro- to micro-scale. Thus, the type and magnitude of landscape effects on gene flow can differ strongly even among closely related species inhabiting the same landscape, and depend on their relative degree of specialization. In addition, the use of different genetic differentiation metrics makes it possible to

  10. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at paranoid schizophrenia.

  11. Plant functional traits and soil carbon sequestration in contrasting biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Bardgett, Richard D

    2008-05-01

    Plant functional traits control a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes, including soil carbon storage which is a key component of the global carbon cycle. Plant traits regulate net soil carbon storage by controlling carbon assimilation, its transfer and storage in belowground biomass, and its release from soil through respiration, fire and leaching. However, our mechanistic understanding of these processes is incomplete. Here, we present a mechanistic framework, based on the plant traits that drive soil carbon inputs and outputs, for understanding how alteration of vegetation composition will affect soil carbon sequestration under global changes. First, we show direct and indirect plant trait effects on soil carbon input and output through autotrophs and heterotrophs, and through modification of abiotic conditions, which need to be considered to determine the local carbon sequestration potential. Second, we explore how the composition of key plant traits and soil biota related to carbon input, release and storage prevail in different biomes across the globe, and address the biome-specific mechanisms by which plant trait composition may impact on soil carbon sequestration. We propose that a trait-based approach will help to develop strategies to preserve and promote carbon sequestration.

  12. Morphological and Geographical Traits of the British Odonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Powney

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trait data are fundamental for many aspects of ecological research, particularly for modeling species response to environmental change. We synthesised information from the literature (mainly field guides and direct measurements from museum specimens, providing a comprehensive dataset of 26 attributes, covering the 43 resident species of Odonata in Britain. Traits included in this database range from morphological traits (e.g. body length to attributes based on the distribution of the species (e.g. climatic restriction. We measured 11 morphometric traits from five adult males and five adult females per species. Using digital callipers, these measurements were taken from dry museum specimens, all of which were wild caught individuals. Repeated measures were also taken to estimate measurement error. The trait data are stored in an online repository (https://github.com/BiologicalRecordsCentre/Odonata_traits, alongside R code designed to give an overview of the morphometric data, and to combine the morphometric data to the single value per trait per species data.

  13. Neural signature of the Food Craving Questionnaire (FCQ)-Trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Martin; Steigleder, Leon; Grön, Georg

    2016-12-01

    The Trait and State versions of the Food Craving Questionnaire (FCQ) have been used in numerous behavioral and physiological eating studies. However, the neurobiological signature of the FCQ has not been reported yet. In the present study, 20 healthy male participants performed a food/non-food discrimination task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We investigated where in the brain greater activation upon high-caloric minus low-caloric food cues correlated with participants' scores on the German version of the FCQ-Trait, with the FCQ-State total scores included as a covariate, and vice versa. It was also tested whether individual subscales would map onto distinguishable neural correlates. Significant positive correlations with total scores on the FCQ-Trait were evident in several bilateral loci of the striatum, and in the right middle/lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Correlations with scores on the FCQ-Trait subscales Reinforcement and Hunger were found for subsets of voxels within the ventral striatum, whereas the FCQ-Trait subscales Intentions/Lack of control and Thoughts/Guilt mapped onto right OFC. There were no significant correlations between calorie-sensitive brain activation and scores on the FCQ-State when including the total scores on the FCQ-Trait as a covariate. Present findings show that the trait version of the FCQ associates with neural correlates known to be involved in coding motivational salience, detecting and estimating reward value, and representing information of expected outcomes.

  14. Predicting species' maximum dispersal distances from simple plant traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamme, Riin; Götzenberger, Lars; Zobel, Martin; Bullock, James M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Kaasik, Ants; Pärtel, Meelis

    2014-02-01

    Many studies have shown plant species' dispersal distances to be strongly related to life-history traits, but how well different traits can predict dispersal distances is not yet known. We used cross-validation techniques and a global data set (576 plant species) to measure the predictive power of simple plant traits to estimate species' maximum dispersal distances. Including dispersal syndrome (wind, animal, ant, ballistic, and no special syndrome), growth form (tree, shrub, herb), seed mass, seed release height, and terminal velocity in different combinations as explanatory variables we constructed models to explain variation in measured maximum dispersal distances and evaluated their power to predict maximum dispersal distances. Predictions are more accurate, but also limited to a particular set of species, if data on more specific traits, such as terminal velocity, are available. The best model (R2 = 0.60) included dispersal syndrome, growth form, and terminal velocity as fixed effects. Reasonable predictions of maximum dispersal distance (R2 = 0.53) are also possible when using only the simplest and most commonly measured traits; dispersal syndrome and growth form together with species taxonomy data. We provide a function (dispeRsal) to be run in the software package R. This enables researchers to estimate maximum dispersal distances with confidence intervals for plant species using measured traits as predictors. Easily obtainable trait data, such as dispersal syndrome (inferred from seed morphology) and growth form, enable predictions to be made for a large number of species.

  15. Brain structure links trait creativity to openness to experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfu; Li, Xueting; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiangzhen; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Jingguang; Cheng, Hongsheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Jia

    2015-02-01

    Creativity is crucial to the progression of human civilization and has led to important scientific discoveries. Especially, individuals are more likely to have scientific discoveries if they possess certain personality traits of creativity (trait creativity), including imagination, curiosity, challenge and risk-taking. This study used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in trait creativity, as measured by the Williams creativity aptitude test, in a large sample (n = 246). We found that creative individuals had higher gray matter volume in the right posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), which might be related to semantic processing during novelty seeking (e.g. novel association, conceptual integration and metaphor understanding). More importantly, although basic personality factors such as openness to experience, extroversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness (as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory) all contributed to trait creativity, only openness to experience mediated the association between the right pMTG volume and trait creativity. Taken together, our results suggest that the basic personality trait of openness might play an important role in shaping an individual's trait creativity.

  16. The role of trait emotional intelligence in predicting networking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Torres-Coronas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this paper is to obtain evidence of the relation between entrepreneur proactive networking behavior and trait emotional intelligence to support transition towards entrepreneurial careers. Design/methodology/approach – The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short form (TEIQue-SF, developed by Cooper and Petrides (2010, was used to test hypotheses on the factors that define a proactive use of a professional network and their relationship with the individual level of trait emotional intelligence and its four components (well-being, self-control, emotionality and sociability. A questionnaire was sent to local entrepreneurs to verify whether trait emotional intelligence act as a predictor of proactive networking behavior. Theoretical foundation – We will be using Petrides and Furnham’s (2001 trait EI definition and EI will be studied within a personality framework (Petrides, 2001, Petrides & Furnham, 2001, 2006, 2014. Findings – Final findings partially confirms research hypothesis, with some components of EI (well-being and self-control factors showing a significant positive correlation with proactive networking behavior. This indicates that entrepreneurs’ ability to regulate emotions influences their networking behavior helping them to succeed in their business relationships. Practical implications – The present study provides a clear direction for further research by focusing on how trait emotional intelligence affects social networking behavior amongst entrepreneurs, thus demonstrating the utility of using trait EI to evaluate high potential entrepreneurs.

  17. Predicting personality traits related to consumer behavior using SNS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jongbum; Lee, Kangbok; Lee, Soowon; Kim, Yongbum; Choi, Jayoung

    2016-07-01

    Modeling a user profile is one of the important factors for devising a personalized recommendation. The traditional approach for modeling a user profile in computer science is to collect and generalize the user's buying behavior or preference history, generated from the user's interactions with recommender systems. According to consumer behavior research, however, internal factors such as personality traits influence a consumer's buying behavior. Existing studies have tried to adapt the Big 5 personality traits to personalized recommendations. However, although studies have shown that these traits can be useful to some extent for personalized recommendation, the causal relationship between the Big 5 personality traits and the buying behaviors of actual consumers has not been validated. In this paper, we propose a novel method for predicting the four personality traits-Extroversion, Public Self-consciousness, Desire for Uniqueness, and Self-esteem-that correlate with buying behaviors. The proposed method automatically constructs a user-personality-traits prediction model for each user by analyzing the user behavior on a social networking service. The experimental results from an analysis of the collected Facebook data show that the proposed method can predict user-personality traits with greater precision than methods that use the variables proposed in previous studies.

  18. Childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah; Song, Rira

    2017-03-01

    This study examined associations among childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood, and whether and how the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms are mediated by the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness). The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey using a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used. Random effects models showed that physical and emotional abuse in childhood significantly increased depressive symptoms in adulthood, even after controlling for personality traits and socio-demographic factors. The coefficients of childhood abuse slightly decreased when personality traits were controlled, suggesting that personality traits mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms. Among the personality traits, extraversion and emotional stability were negatively associated with depressive symptoms whereas agreeableness was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The results of the Sobel test showed that only emotional stability significantly mediated the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms. Those who were exposed to childhood abuse had lower levels of emotional stability, which, in turn, led to depressive symptoms in adulthood. The findings suggest that childhood abuse may have a long lasting effect on mental health over the life course by influencing the formation of personality traits through developmental periods.

  19. Breeding common bean populations for traits using selection index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristina Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A common bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL. cultivar must combine desirable genotypes for several traits in order to be accepted by producers and consumers. This study aimed to evaluate selection efficiency when segregating bean populations for traits, by means of a selection index, in order to obtain superior progenies for traits considered. A total of 16 populations from the F4 and F5generations were evaluated in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The traits evaluated were plant architecture, plant disease, grain type and yield. Using standard scores (Z, the sum of the four traits (∑Z was obtained and, based on this information, the best populations were identified. The evaluation of selection effectiveness was performed on 31 progenies from each population. The 496 progenies plus eight controls were evaluated in the F5:6and F5:7 generations for the same traits in July and November 2012, respectively. The selection, using the index based on the sum of standardized variables (∑Z, was efficient for identifying populations with superior progenies for all the traits considered.

  20. Bimodal Signaling of a Sexually Selected Trait: Gular Pouch Drumming in the Magnificent Frigatebird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, V.; Balsby, T. J. S.; Dabelsteen, Torben;

    2004-01-01

    courtship display, Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird, secondary sexual trait, visual and acoustic signaling......courtship display, Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird, secondary sexual trait, visual and acoustic signaling...