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Sample records for characterise ectomycorrhizal fungal

  1. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity: seperating the wheat from the chaff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinaldi, A.C.; Comandini, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species exist, but estimates of global species richness of ECM fungi differ widely. Many genera have been proposed as being ECM, but ill a number of studies evidence for the hypothesized ECM habit is lacking. Progress in estimating ECM species richness is th

  2. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity: seperating the wheat from the chaff

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, A.C.; Comandini, O.; Kuyper, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species exist, but estimates of global species richness of ECM fungi differ widely. Many genera have been proposed as being ECM, but ill a number of studies evidence for the hypothesized ECM habit is lacking. Progress in estimating ECM species richness is therefore slow. Ill this paper we have retrieved studies providing evidence for the ECM habit of fungal species and For the identification of the mycobiont(s) ill specific ECM associations, using pub...

  3. Contributions of ectomycorrhizal fungal mats to forest soil respiration

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, C. L.; L. A. Kluber; Martin, J. P.; B. A. Caldwell; B. J. Bond

    2012-01-01

    Distinct aggregations of fungal hyphae and rhizomorphs, or "mats", formed by some genera of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi are common features of soils in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. We measured in situ respiration rates of Piloderma mats and neighboring non-mat soils in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in western Oregon to investigate whether there was higher respiration from mats, and to estimate mat contributions to total soil respiration. We found that are...

  4. Ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure of pinyon pines growing in two environmental extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, C.A.; Theimer, T.C.; Whitham, T.G.; Keim, P. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1998-07-01

    The authors used molecular techniques to examine the ectomycorrhizal fungal community associated with pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) growing in two soil types in a semiarid region of northern Arizona. Pinyon performance (e.g., growth, reproduction, water stress) has been shown to be markedly lower in cinder than in sandy-loam environments. Fungal community composition and richness were determined using RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis of ectomycorrhizal root tips collected from three sites within each soil type. Several patterns emerged from these analyses. First, communities in both cinder and sandy-loam soils were dominated by one or a few abundant ectomytcorrhizal types, a species abundance pattern common to many plant and animal communities. Second, unlike the pattern for many other organisms, ectomycorrhizal fungal type richness was not correlated with measures of ecosystem productivity such as soil nutrient and moisture levels; cinder and sandy-loam soils had similar numbers of ectomycorrhizal fungal types. Third, soil type and fungal community composition were linked, as cluster analysis demonstrated greater similarity of fungal communities from sites within soil types than between them. Fourth, a preliminary survey of 14--45 ectomycorrhizal root tips from each of 20 trees at one cinder site indicated that trees were dominated by one or a few ectomycorrhizal RFLP types. Fifth, the RFLP patterns of some fungal sporocarps matched those of ectomycorrhizal root tips, but many did not, indicating that many of the ectomycorrhizal fungi at these sites fruit infrequently, whereas other fungi with more abundant sporocarps may not form ectomycorrhiza.

  5. Characterisation of seven Inocybe ectomycorrhizal morphotypes from a semiarid woody steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seress, Diána; Dima, Bálint; Kovács, Gábor M

    2016-04-01

    Ectomycorrhizas (ECM) of Inocybe species (Inocybaceae, Basidiomycota) formed by three host plant species (Populus alba, Salix rosmarinifolia and Pinus nigra) in a semiarid woody steppe of Hungary were studied. To identify the fungal partners, we performed phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequences for the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear DNA (nrDNA ITS) together with sequences gained from public databases. Seven Inocybe ectomycorrhiza morphotypes were morpho-anatomically characterised. Five morphotypes were identified (I. phaeoleuca, I. psammophila, I. semifulva, I. splendens and I. subporospora), whereas two morphotypes represented unidentified Inocybe species. Differences were discernible among the morphotypes, and they showed general anatomical characteristics of Inocybe ECM, such as the slightly organised plectenchymatic mantle (types A, B and E and the gelatinous C). The ECM of I. subporospora and I. phaeoleuca were detected from the introduced Pinus nigra. These two fungi are probably native to the area but capable of forming a novel ectomycorrhizal association with the invasive host. PMID:26403243

  6. Contributions of ectomycorrhizal fungal mats to forest soil respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Phillips

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Distinct aggregations of fungal hyphae and rhizomorphs, or "mats" formed by some genera of ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungi are common features of soils in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. We measured in situ respiration rates of Piloderma mats and neighboring non-mat soils in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in Western Oregon to investigate whether there was an incremental increase in respiration from mat soils, and to estimate mat contributions to total soil respiration. We found that areas where Piloderma mats colonized the organic horizon often had higher soil surface flux than non-mats, with the incremental increase in respiration averaging 16 % across two growing seasons. Both soil physical factors and biochemistry were related to the higher surface flux of mat soils. When air-filled pore space was low (high soil moisture, soil CO2 production was concentrated into near-surface soil horizons where mats tend to colonize, resulting in greater apparent differences in respiration between mat and non-mat soils. Respiration rates were also correlated with the activity of chitin-degrading soil enzymes. This suggests that the elevated activity of fungal mats may be related to consumption or turnover of chitinous fungal cell-wall materials. We found Piloderma mats present across 57 % of the soil surface in the study area, and use this value to estimate a respiratory contribution from mats at the stand-scale of about 9 % of total soil respiration. The activity of EcM mats, which includes both EcM fungi and microbial associates, was estimated to constitute a substantial portion of total soil respiration in this old-growth Douglas-fir forest.

  7. Ectomycorrhizal fungal community associated with autochthonous white poplar from Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Katanić M; Grebenc T; Orlović S.; Matavuly M; Kovačević B.; Bajc M; Kraigher H

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the community of ectomycorrhizal fungi of an autochthonous white poplar (Populus alba L.) stand in the Kovilj-Petrovaradin marshes (Serbia), and examined its seasonal dynamics. Ectomycorrhizal types were identified by combining morphological and anatomical descriptions with molecular methods (sequencing of ITS region of ribosomal DNA). In two seasons, 20 ectomycorrhizal types were recorded, from which 11 types were identified to the species level, six were determined to the genus ...

  8. Ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelia turnover in a longleaf pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Joseph J; Mitchell, Robert J; Kuehn, Kevin A; Pecot, Stephen D

    2016-03-01

    Elucidation of the patterns and controls of carbon (C) flow and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests has been hindered by a poor understanding of ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelia (EFM) dynamics. In this study, EFM standing biomass (based on soil ergosterol concentrations), production (based on ergosterol accrual in ingrowth cores), and turnover rate (the quotient of annual production and average standing biomass estimates) were assessed in a 25-yr-old longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) plantation where C flow was manipulated by foliar scorching and N fertilization for 5 yr before study initiation. In the controls, EFM standing biomass was 30 ± 7 g m(-2) , production was 279 ± 63 g m(-2)  yr(-1) , and turnover rate was 10 ± 3 times yr(-1) . The scorched × fertilized treatment had significantly higher EFM standing biomass (38 ± 8 g m(-2) ), significantly lower production (205 ± 28 g m(-2)  yr(-1) ), and a trend of decreased turnover rate (6 ± 1 times yr(-1) ). The EFM turnover estimates, which are among the first reported for natural systems, indicate that EFM are a dynamic component of ecosystems, and that conventional assessments have probably underestimated the role of EFM in C flow and nutrient cycling. PMID:26537020

  9. Contributions of ectomycorrhizal fungal mats to forest soil respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Phillips

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Distinct aggregations of fungal hyphae and rhizomorphs, or "mats", formed by some genera of ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungi are common features of soils in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. We measured in situ respiration rates of Piloderma mats and neighboring non-mat soils in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in western Oregon to investigate whether there was higher respiration from mats, and to estimate mat contributions to total soil respiration. We found that areas where Piloderma mats colonized the organic horizon often had higher soil surface flux than non-mats, with the relative increase in respiration averaging 16% across two growing seasons. Both soil physical factors and biochemistry were related to the higher surface flux of mat soils. When soil moisture was high, soil CO2 production was concentrated into near-surface soil horizons where mats tend to colonize, resulting in greater apparent differences in respiration between mat and non-mat soils. Respiration rates were also correlated with the activity of chitin-degrading soil enzymes. This finding supports the notion that the abundance of fungal biomass in EcM mats is an important driver of C and N cycling. We found Piloderma mats present across 57% of the exposed soil, and use this value to estimate a respiratory contribution from mats at the stand-scale of about 9% of total soil respiration. The activity of EcM mats, which includes both EcM fungi and microbial associates, appeared to constitute a substantial portion of total soil respiration in this old-growth Douglas-fir forest.

  10. Diversity of an ectomycorrhizal fungal community studied by a root tip and total soil DNA approach

    OpenAIRE

    Landeweert, R.; Leeflang, P.; Smit, E; Kuyper, T. W.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular methods based on soil DNA extracts are increasingly being used to study the fungal diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal communities in soil. Contrary to EM root tip identification, the use of molecular methods enables identification of extramatrical mycelia in soil. To compare fungal diversity as determined by root tip identification and mycelial identification, six soil samples were analysed. Root tips were extracted from the six samples and after amplification, the basidiomyce...

  11. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity in orchards of cultivated pecan (Carya illinoinensis; Juglandaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Gregory; Brenneman, Timothy; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2011-10-01

    Carya illinoinensis (pecan) belongs to the Juglandaceae (walnut family) and is a major economic nut crop in the southern USA. Although evidence suggests that some species in the Juglandaceae are ectomycorrhizal, investigations on their ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts are quite limited. Here we assessed the ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity in cultivated orchards of C. illinoinensis. Five pecan orchards in southern Georgia, USA, were studied, three of which were known to fruit the native edible truffle species Tuber lyonii. We sequenced rDNA from single ectomycorrhizal root tips sampled from a total of 50 individual trees. Mycorrhizae were identified by ITS and LSU rDNA sequence-based methods. Forty-four distinct ectomycorrhizal taxa were detected. Sequestrate taxa including Tuber and Scleroderma were particularly abundant. The two most abundant sequence types belonged to T. lyonii (17%) and an undescribed Tuber species (~20%). Because of our interest in the ecology of T. lyonii, we also conducted greenhouse studies to determine whether this species would colonize and form ectomycorrhizae on roots of pecan, oak, or pine species endemic to the region. T. lyonii ectomycorrhizae were formed on pecan and oak seedlings, but not pine, when these were inoculated with spores. That oak and pecan seedling roots were receptive to truffle spores indicates that spore slurry inoculation could be a suitable method for commercial use and that, ecologically, T. lyonii may function as a pioneer ectomycorrhizal species for these hosts. PMID:21369784

  12. Ectomycorrhizal fungal community associated with autochthonous white poplar from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katanić M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the community of ectomycorrhizal fungi of an autochthonous white poplar (Populus alba L. stand in the Kovilj-Petrovaradin marshes (Serbia, and examined its seasonal dynamics. Ectomycorrhizal types were identified by combining morphological and anatomical descriptions with molecular methods (sequencing of ITS region of ribosomal DNA. In two seasons, 20 ectomycorrhizal types were recorded, from which 11 types were identified to the species level, six were determined to the genus level, two types were determined to the family level and one type remained unidentified. Number of ectomycorrhizal types, number of fine roots, percentage of vital mycorrhizal roots, diversity indexes and abundance of exploration types did not differ significantly between autumn and spring. During both seasons, the most abundant types were: Entoloma sp., Tuber maculatum, Cenococcum geophilum, Tuber rufum and Peziza sp. Due to the high variation of the ectomycorrhizal types-based Shannon-Weaver diversity index in poplar stands, and the fact that poplars form dual mycorrhizal association, this index is not recommended as a reliable index for bioindication in poplar.

  13. Ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages of Abies alba Mill. outside its native range in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudawska, Maria; Pietras, Marcin; Smutek, Iwona; Strzeliński, Paweł; Leski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Abies alba (Mill.) is an important forest tree species, native to the mountainous regions of Europe but has been also widely introduced in the lowlands outside its native range. Like most forest tree species, A. alba forms obligate mutualisms with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. This investigation sought to examine ECM fungal communities of A. alba when the species grows 400 km north of its native range in the region of Pomerania in Poland. We surveyed for ECM fungi by sampling live roots from four mature forest stands where the A. alba component ranged from 20 to 100%. Ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts were identified based on morphotyping and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Thirty-five ECM fungal taxa were distinguished on root tips of A. alba from all tested stands with 22 to 27 ECM fungal taxa in the individual stand. The diversity and similarity metrics revealed a lack of statistical differences in the structure of the ECM fungal community between stands varying in overstory tree composition. Cenococcum geophilum was the most common fungal species at all investigated A. alba stands, with an abundance of 50 to 70%. The ECM community was characterized by the lack of Abies-specific fungal symbionts and a rich and diverse suite of host-generalist mycobionts that seem to be sufficient for successful growth and development of A. alba outside of its native range. PMID:26071873

  14. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of oak savanna are distinct from forest communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, I A; Dentinger, B T M; Avis, P G; McLaughlin, D J; Reich, P B

    2009-01-01

    Oak savanna is one of the most endangered ecosystems of North America, with less than 0.02% of its original area remaining. Here we test whether oak savanna supports a unique community of ectomycorrhizal fungi, a higher diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi or a greater proportional abundance of ascomycete fungi compared with adjacent areas where the absence of fire has resulted in oak savanna conversion to oak forest. The overall fungal community was highly diverse and dominated by Cenococcum geophilum and other ascomycetes, Cortinarius, Russula, Lactarius and Thelephoraceae. Oak savanna mycorrhizal communities were distinct from oak forest communities both aboveground (sporocarp surveys) and belowground (RFLP identification of ectomycorrhizal root tips); however total diversity was not higher in oak savanna than oak forests and there was no evidence of a greater abundance of ascomycetes. Despite not having a higher local diversity than oak forests, the presence of a unique fungal community indicates that oak savanna plays an important role in maintaining regional ectomycorrhizal diversity. PMID:19623927

  15. Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities respond to liming in three southern Swedish coniferous forest stands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Clemmensen, Karina

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report on changes in the belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in southern Swedish coniferous forests as a consequence of liming with 3-7 ton limestone per hectare 16 years prior to the study. A total of 107 ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified from 969 independently...... sampled root tips by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. Forty, 59 and 51 species were identified in three pine and spruce forests. Within all sites only about 25% of the species overlapped between the limed and the reference areas. However, the most abundant species...... were often found in both limed and reference plots and 60-70% of the root tips at each site were colonised by species occurring in both limed and reference plots. Across all three sites, fungal species belonging to the genus Tylospora and the order Pezizales became significantly more frequent in limed...

  16. Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities at fagus stands in differently polluted forest research plots

    OpenAIRE

    Al Sayegh-Petkovšek, Samar

    2005-01-01

    Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities at fagus stands were analysed. Eectomycorrhiza types were identified in soil cores from differently polluted beech forest research plots in the 1998 - 2001 period by mycobioindication method. Forest research plots were situated in the vicinity of thermal power plants (polluted plots: Zavodnje - Prednji vrh and Zasavje - Dobovec) and in unpolluted areas (in the vicinity of Kočevska Reka: Preža and Moravške gredice). Eighty-eight different ectomyco...

  17. Attributing functions to ectomycorrhizal fungal identities in assemblages for nitrogen acquisition under stress

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, Rodica; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi have a key role in nitrogen (N) cycling, particularly in boreal and temperate ecosystems. However, the significance of ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity for this important ecosystem function is unknown. Here, EMF taxon-specific N uptake was analyzed via 15N isotope enrichment in complex root-associated assemblages and non-mycorrhizal root tips in controlled experiments. Specific 15N enrichment in ectomycorrhizas, which represents the N influx and export, as well as the ...

  18. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of pedunculate and sessile oak seedlings from bare-root forest nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leski, Tomasz; Pietras, Marcin; Rudawska, Maria

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we present the detailed molecular investigation of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community of Quercus petraea and Quercus robur seedlings grown in bare-root forest nurseries. In all tested oak samples, mycorrhizal colonization was nearly 100%. Morphological observation and molecular investigations (sequencing of fungal ITS rDNA) revealed a total of 23 mycorrhizal taxa. The most frequent and abundant fungal taxa were Hebeloma sacchariolens, Tuber sp., and Peziza sp.; from the detected fungal taxa, 20 were noted for Q. petraea and 23 for Q. robur. Depending on the nursery, the species richness of identified ECM fungal taxa for both oak species ranged from six to 11 taxa. The mean species richness for all nurseries was 5.36 and 5.82 taxa per Q. petraea and Q. robur sample, respectively. According to the analysis of similarity, ECM fungal communities were similar for Q. petraea and Q. robur (R = 0.019; p = 0.151). On the other hand, detected fungal communities were significantly different between nurseries (R = 0.927; p ectomycorrhizal diversity (in terms of richness, the Shannon diversity, evenness, and Simpson dominance indices) is significantly related to the soil parameters of each nursery. We conclude that individual nursery may be considered as separate ecological niches that strongly discriminate diversity of ECM fungi. PMID:19756776

  19. Assessment of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in the natural habitats of Tuber magnatum (Ascomycota, Pezizales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, M; Iotti, M; Oddis, M; Lalli, G; Pacioni, G; Leonardi, P; Maccherini, S; Perini, C; Salerni, E; Zambonelli, A

    2013-07-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities of four natural Tuber magnatum truffle grounds, located in different Italian regions (Abruzzo, Emilia-Romagna, Molise, and Tuscany), were studied. The main objective of this study was to characterize and compare the ECM fungal communities in the different regions and in productive (where T. magnatum ascomata were found) and nonproductive points. More than 8,000 (8,100) colonized root tips were counted in 73 soil cores, and 129 operational taxonomic units were identified using morphological and molecular methods. Although the composition of the ECM fungal communities studied varied, we were able to highlight some common characteristics. The most plentiful ECM fungal taxa belong to the Thelephoraceae and Sebacinaceae families followed by Inocybaceae and Russulaceae. Although several ectomycorrhizas belonging to Tuber genus were identified, no T. magnatum ectomycorrhizas were found. The putative ecological significance of some species is discussed. PMID:23299664

  20. Attributing functions to ectomycorrhizal fungal identities in assemblages for nitrogen acquisition under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Rodica; Polle, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi have a key role in nitrogen (N) cycling, particularly in boreal and temperate ecosystems. However, the significance of ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity for this important ecosystem function is unknown. Here, EMF taxon-specific N uptake was analyzed via (15)N isotope enrichment in complex root-associated assemblages and non-mycorrhizal root tips in controlled experiments. Specific (15)N enrichment in ectomycorrhizas, which represents the N influx and export, as well as the exchange of (15)N with the N pool of the root tip, was dependent on the fungal identity. Light or water deprivation revealed interspecific response diversity for N uptake. Partial taxon-specific N fluxes for ectomycorrhizas were assessed, and the benefits of EMF assemblages for plant N nutrition were estimated. We demonstrated that ectomycorrhizal assemblages provide advantages for inorganic N uptake compared with non-mycorrhizal roots under environmental constraints but not for unstressed plants. These benefits were realized via stress activation of distinct EMF taxa, which suggests significant functional diversity within EMF assemblages. We developed and validated a model that predicts net N flux into the plant based on taxon-specific (15)N enrichment in ectomycorrhizal root tips. These results open a new avenue to characterize the functional traits of EMF taxa in complex communities. PMID:24030593

  1. Soil moisture and chemistry influence diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associating with willow along an hydrologic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Sonya R; Savage, Jessica A; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine M; Peay, Kabir G

    2016-01-01

    Influences of soil environment and willow host species on ectomycorrhizal fungi communities was studied across an hydrologic gradient in temperate North America. Soil moisture, organic matter and pH strongly predicted changes in fungal community composition. In contrast, increased fungal richness strongly correlated with higher plant-available phosphorus. The 93 willow trees sampled for ectomycorrhizal fungi included seven willow species. Host identity did not influence fungal richness or community composition, nor was there strong evidence of willow host preference for fungal species. Network analysis suggests that these mutualist interaction networks are not significantly nested or modular. Across a strong environmental gradient, fungal abiotic niche determined the fungal species available to associate with host plants within a habitat. PMID:26622067

  2. Ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages of Abies alba Mill. outside its native range in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Rudawska, Maria; Pietras, Marcin; Smutek, Iwona; Strzeliński, Paweł; Leski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Abies alba (Mill.) is an important forest tree species, native to the mountainous regions of Europe but has been also widely introduced in the lowlands outside its native range. Like most forest tree species, A. alba forms obligate mutualisms with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. This investigation sought to examine ECM fungal communities of A. alba when the species grows 400 km north of its native range in the region of Pomerania in Poland. We surveyed for ECM fungi by sampling live roots from f...

  3. Missing checkerboards? An absence of competitive signal in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kennedy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies suggest that interspecific competition plays a key role in determining the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal communities. Despite this growing consensus, there has been limited study of ECM fungal community dynamics in abiotically stressful environments, which are often dominated by positive rather than antagonistic interactions. In this study, we examined the ECM fungal communities associated with the host genus Alnus, which live in soils high in both nitrate and acidity. The nature of ECM fungal species interactions (i.e., antagonistic, neutral, or positive was assessed using taxon co-occurrence and DNA sequence abundance correlational analyses. ECM fungal communities were sampled from root tips or mesh in-growth bags in three monodominant A. rubra plots at a site in Oregon, USA and identified using Illumina-based amplification of the ITS1 gene region. We found a total of 175 ECM fungal taxa; 16 of which were closely related to known Alnus-associated ECM fungi. Contrary to previous studies of ECM fungal communities, taxon co-occurrence analyses on both the total and Alnus-associated ECM datasets indicated that the ECM fungal communities in this system were not structured by interspecific competition. Instead, the co-occurrence patterns were consistent with either random assembly or significant positive interactions. Pair-wise correlational analyses were also more consistent with neutral or positive interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that interspecific competition does not appear to determine the structure of all ECM fungal communities and that abiotic conditions may be important in determining the specific type of interaction occurring among ECM fungi.

  4. Variation in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with Oreomunnea mexicana (Juglandaceae) in a Neotropical montane forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Adriana; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Ferrer, Astrid; Turner, Benjamin L; Dalling, James W

    2016-01-01

    Neotropical montane forests are often dominated by ectomycorrhizal (EM) tree species, yet the diversity of their EM fungal communities remains poorly explored. In lower montane forests in western Panama, the EM tree species Oreomunnea mexicana (Juglandaceae) forms locally dense populations in forest otherwise characterized by trees that form arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations. The objective of this study was to compare the composition of EM fungal communities associated with Oreomunnea adults, saplings, and seedlings across sites differing in soil fertility and the amount and seasonality of rainfall. Analysis of fungal nrITS DNA (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers) revealed 115 EM fungi taxa from 234 EM root tips collected from adults, saplings, and seedlings in four sites. EM fungal communities were equally species-rich and diverse across Oreomunnea developmental stages and sites, regardless of soil conditions or rainfall patterns. However, ordination analysis revealed high compositional turnover between low and high fertility/rainfall sites located ca. 6 km apart. The EM fungal community was dominated by Russula (ca. 36 taxa). Cortinarius, represented by 14 species and previously reported to extract nitrogen from organic sources under low nitrogen availability, was found only in low fertility/high rainfall sites. Phylogenetic diversity analyses of Russula revealed greater evolutionary distance among taxa found on sites with contrasting fertility and rainfall than was expected by chance, suggesting that environmental differences among sites may be important in structuring EM fungal communities. More research is needed to evaluate whether EM fungal taxa associated with Oreomunnea form mycorrhizal networks that might account for local dominance of this tree species in otherwise diverse forest communities. PMID:25940407

  5. High resolution characterization of ectomycorrhizal fungal-mineral interactions in axenic microcosm experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Saccone, Loredana; Gazzè, Salvatore A.; Duran, Adele L.; Leake, Jonathan R; Banwart, Steven A.; Ragnarsdóttir, Kristín Vala; Smits, Mark M; McMaster, Terence J.

    2012-01-01

    Microcosms with Pinus sylvestris seedlings in symbiosis with the fungus mycorrhizal Paxillus involutus were established, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterise plant photosynthate-driven fungal interactions with mineral surfaces. Comparison of images of the same area of the minerals before and after mycorrhizal fungal colonization showed extensive growth of hyphae on three different mineral surfaces - hornblende, biotite and chlorite. A layer of biological exudate, or biol...

  6. Ectomycorrhizal-dominated boreal and tropical forests have distinct fungal communities, but analogous spatial patterns across soil horizons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L McGuire

    Full Text Available Fungi regulate key nutrient cycling processes in many forest ecosystems, but their diversity and distribution within and across ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we examine the spatial distribution of fungi across a boreal and tropical ecosystem, focusing on ectomycorrhizal fungi. We analyzed fungal community composition across litter (organic horizons and underlying soil horizons (0-20 cm using 454 pyrosequencing and clone library sequencing. In both forests, we found significant clustering of fungal communities by site and soil horizons with analogous patterns detected by both sequencing technologies. Free-living saprotrophic fungi dominated the recently-shed leaf litter and ectomycorrhizal fungi dominated the underlying soil horizons. This vertical pattern of fungal segregation has also been found in temperate and European boreal forests, suggesting that these results apply broadly to ectomycorrhizal-dominated systems, including tropical rain forests. Since ectomycorrhizal and free-living saprotrophic fungi have different influences on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, information on the spatial distribution of these functional groups will improve our understanding of forest nutrient cycling.

  7. Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Protein Degradation Ability Predicted by Soil Organic Nitrogen Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rineau, Francois; Stas, Jelle; Nguyen, Nhu H; Kuyper, Thomas W; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V; Kennedy, Peter G

    2016-03-01

    In temperate and boreal forest ecosystems, nitrogen (N) limitation of tree metabolism is alleviated by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. As forest soils age, the primary source of N in soil switches from inorganic (NH4 (+) and NO3 (-)) to organic (mostly proteins). It has been hypothesized that ECM fungi adapt to the most common N source in their environment, which implies that fungi growing in older forests would have greater protein degradation abilities. Moreover, recent results for a model ECM fungal species suggest that organic N uptake requires a glucose supply. To test the generality of these hypotheses, we screened 55 strains of 13 Suillus species with different ecological preferences for their in vitro protein degradation abilities. Suillus species preferentially occurring in mature forests, where soil contains more organic matter, had significantly higher protease activity than those from young forests with low-organic-matter soils or species indifferent to forest age. Within species, the protease activities of ecotypes from soils with high or low soil organic N content did not differ significantly, suggesting resource partitioning between mineral and organic soil layers. The secreted protease mixtures were strongly dominated by aspartic peptidases. Glucose addition had variable effects on secreted protease activity; in some species, it triggered activity, but in others, activity was repressed at high concentrations. Collectively, our results indicate that protease activity, a key ectomycorrhizal functional trait, is positively related to environmental N source availability but is also influenced by additional factors, such as carbon availability. PMID:26682855

  8. Fine-scale diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelium in a Scots pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ian C; Genney, David R; Alexander, Ian J

    2014-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mycelium is a key component of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, yet we know little regarding the fine-scale diversity and distribution of mycelium in ECM fungal communities. We collected four 20 × 20 × 2-cm(3) (800-cm(3)) slices of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest soil and divided each into 100 2 × 2 × 2-cm(3) (8-cm(3)) cubes. The presence of mycelium of ECM fungi was determined using an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) database terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) approach. As expected, many more ECM fungi were detected as mycelium than as ectomycorrhizas in a cube or slice. More surprisingly, up to one-quarter of the 43 species previously detected as ectomycorrhizas over an area of 400 m(2) could be detected in a single 8-cm(3) cube, and up to three-quarters in a single 800-cm(3) slice. ECM mycelium frequency decreased markedly with depth and there were distinct 'hotspots' of mycelium in the moss/F1 layer. Our data demonstrate a high diversity of ECM mycelium in a small (8-cm(3) ) volume of substrate, and indicate that the spatial scale at which ECM species are distributed as mycelium may be very different from the spatial scale at which they are distributed as tips. PMID:24345261

  9. Regional scale gradients of climate and nitrogen deposition drive variation in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with native Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, S; Woodward, S; Alexander, I J; Taylor, A F S

    2013-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi commonly associate with the roots of forest trees where they enhance nutrient and water uptake, promote seedling establishment and have an important role in forest nutrient cycling. Predicting the response of ectomycorrhizal fungi to environmental change is an important step to maintaining forest productivity in the future. These predictions are currently limited by an incomplete understanding of the relative significance of environmental drivers in determining the community composition of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi at large spatial scales. To identify patterns of community composition in ECM fungi along regional scale gradients of climate and nitrogen deposition in Scotland, fungal communities were analysed from 15 seminatural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests. Fungal taxa were identified by sequencing of the ITS rDNA region using fungal-specific primers. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling was used to assess the significance of 16 climatic, pollutant and edaphic variables on community composition. Vector fitting showed that there was a strong influence of rainfall and soil moisture on community composition at the species level, and a smaller impact of temperature on the abundance of ectomycorrhizal exploration types. Nitrogen deposition was also found to be important in determining community composition, but only when the forest experiencing the highest deposition (9.8 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) was included in the analysis. This finding supports previously published critical load estimates for ectomycorrhizal fungi of 5-10 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) . This work demonstrates that both climate and nitrogen deposition can drive gradients of fungal community composition at a regional scale. PMID:23505218

  10. Diversity and spatial structure of belowground plant-fungal symbiosis in a mixed subtropical forest of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Toju

    Full Text Available Plant-mycorrhizal fungal interactions are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems. While ectomycorrhizal plants and their fungi generally dominate temperate forests, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is common in the tropics. In subtropical regions, however, ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants co-occur at comparable abundances in single forests, presumably generating complex community structures of root-associated fungi. To reveal root-associated fungal community structure in a mixed forest of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, we conducted a massively-parallel pyrosequencing analysis, targeting fungi in the roots of 36 plant species that co-occur in a subtropical forest. In total, 580 fungal operational taxonomic units were detected, of which 132 and 58 were probably ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal, respectively. As expected, the composition of fungal symbionts differed between fagaceous (ectomycorrhizal and non-fagaceous (possibly arbuscular mycorrhizal plants. However, non-fagaceous plants were associated with not only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi but also several clades of ectomycorrhizal (e.g., Russula and root-endophytic ascomycete fungi. Many of the ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi were detected from both fagaceous and non-fagaceous plants in the community. Interestingly, ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were concurrently detected from tiny root fragments of non-fagaceous plants. The plant-fungal associations in the forest were spatially structured, and non-fagaceous plant roots hosted ectomycorrhizal fungi more often in the proximity of ectomycorrhizal plant roots. Overall, this study suggests that belowground plant-fungal symbiosis in subtropical forests is complex in that it includes "non-typical" plant-fungal combinations (e.g., ectomycorrhizal fungi on possibly arbuscular mycorrhizal plants that do not fall within the conventional classification of mycorrhizal symbioses, and in

  11. Short-term impacts of energy wood harvesting on ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Norway spruce saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huusko, Karoliina; Tarvainen, Oili; Saravesi, Karita; Pennanen, Taina; Fritze, Hannu; Kubin, Eero; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-03-01

    The increased demand for harvesting energy wood raises questions about its effects on the functioning of the forest ecosystems, soil processes and biodiversity. Impacts of tree stump removal on ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities of Norway spruce saplings were studied with 454-pyrosequencing in a 3-year field experiment replicated in 3 geographical areas. This is possibly the most thorough investigation of EMF communities associated with saplings grown on sites subjected to energy wood harvesting. To separate impacts of tree stump and logging residue removal on EMF and plant variables, we used three harvesting treatments with increasing complexity from patch mounding alone (P) to patch mounding combined with logging residue removal (RP), and patch mounding combined with both logging residue and stump removal (SRP). Saplings grown in uncut forests (F) served as references for harvesting treatments. A majority of sequences (>92%) and operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 55%) were assigned as EMF. EMF OTU richness, fungal community composition or sapling growth did not differ between harvesting treatments (P, RP and SRP), while EMF OTU richness, diversity and evenness were highest and sapling growth lowest in the undisturbed reference forests (F). The short study period may partially explain the similarities in fungal and sapling variables in different harvesting treatments. In conclusion, our results indicate that neither stump removal nor logging residue removal have significant additional negative impacts on EMF communities or growth of Norway spruce saplings in the short-term compared with the impacts of more conventional harvesting methods, including clear cutting and patch mounding. PMID:25171334

  12. Diversity and Spatial Structure of Belowground Plant–Fungal Symbiosis in a Mixed Subtropical Forest of Ectomycorrhizal and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S

    2014-01-01

    Plant–mycorrhizal fungal interactions are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems. While ectomycorrhizal plants and their fungi generally dominate temperate forests, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is common in the tropics. In subtropical regions, however, ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants co-occur at comparable abundances in single forests, presumably generating complex community structures of root-associated fungi. To reveal root-associated fungal community structure in a mixed for...

  13. Long-term increase in snow depth leads to compositional changes in arctic ectomycorrhizal fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Luis N; Semenova, Tatiana A; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2016-09-01

    Many arctic ecological processes are regulated by soil temperature that is tightly interconnected with snow cover distribution and persistence. Recently, various climate-induced changes have been observed in arctic tundra ecosystems, e.g. shrub expansion, resulting in reduction in albedo and greater C fixation in aboveground vegetation as well as increased rates of soil C mobilization by microbes. Importantly, the net effects of these shifts are unknown, in part because our understanding of belowground processes is limited. Here, we focus on the effects of increased snow depth, and as a consequence, increased winter soil temperature on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in dry and moist tundra. We analyzed deep DNA sequence data from soil samples taken at a long-term snow fence experiment in Northern Alaska. Our results indicate that, in contrast with previously observed responses of plants to increased snow depth at the same experimental site, the ECM fungal community of the dry tundra was more affected by deeper snow than the moist tundra community. In the dry tundra, both community richness and composition were significantly altered while in the moist tundra, only community composition changed significantly while richness did not. We observed a decrease in richness of Tomentella, Inocybe and other taxa adapted to scavenge the soil for labile N forms. On the other hand, richness of Cortinarius, and species with the ability to scavenge the soil for recalcitrant N forms, did not change. We further link ECM fungal traits with C soil pools. If future warmer atmospheric conditions lead to greater winter snow fall, changes in the ECM fungal community will likely influence C emissions and C fixation through altering N plant availability, fungal biomass and soil-plant C-N dynamics, ultimately determining important future interactions between the tundra biosphere and atmosphere. PMID:27004610

  14. Ectomycorrhizal fungal spore bank recovery after a severe forest fire: some like it hot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sydney I; Levine, Carrie R; DiRocco, Angela M; Battles, John J; Bruns, Thomas D

    2016-05-01

    After severe wildfires, pine recovery depends on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal spores surviving and serving as partners for regenerating forest trees. We took advantage of a large, severe natural forest fire that burned our long-term study plots to test the response of ECM fungi to fire. We sampled the ECM spore bank using pine seedling bioassays and high-throughput sequencing before and after the California Rim Fire. We found that ECM spore bank fungi survived the fire and dominated the colonization of in situ and bioassay seedlings, but there were specific fire adapted fungi such as Rhizopogon olivaceotinctus that increased in abundance after the fire. The frequency of ECM fungal species colonizing pre-fire bioassay seedlings, post-fire bioassay seedlings and in situ seedlings were strongly positively correlated. However, fire reduced the ECM spore bank richness by eliminating some of the rare species, and the density of the spore bank was reduced as evidenced by a larger number of soil samples that yielded uncolonized seedlings. Our results show that although there is a reduction in ECM inoculum, the ECM spore bank community largely remains intact, even after a high-intensity fire. We used advanced techniques for data quality control with Illumina and found consistent results among varying methods. Furthermore, simple greenhouse bioassays can be used to determine which fungi will colonize after fires. Similar to plant seed banks, a specific suite of ruderal, spore bank fungi take advantage of open niche space after fires. PMID:26473720

  15. Girdling Affects Ectomycorrhizal Fungal (EMF) Diversity and Reveals Functional Differences in EMF Community Composition in a Beech Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, R.; Offermann, C.; Simon, J.; Naumann, P. S.; Gessler, A.; Holst, J; Dannenmann, M.; Mayer, H.; Kogel-Knabner, I.; Rennenberg, H.; Polle, A.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between plant carbon resources, soil carbon and nitrogen content, and ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity in a monospecific, old-growth beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest were investigated by manipulating carbon flux by girdling. We hypothesized that disruption of the carbon supply would not affect diversity and EMF species numbers if EM fungi can be supplied by plant internal carbohydrate resources or would result in selective disappearance of EMF taxa because of differences...

  16. Ectomycorrhizal-Dominated Boreal and Tropical Forests Have Distinct Fungal Communities, but Analogous Spatial Patterns across Soil Horizons

    OpenAIRE

    McGuire, Krista L.; Allison, Steven D.; Fierer, Noah; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi regulate key nutrient cycling processes in many forest ecosystems, but their diversity and distribution within and across ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we examine the spatial distribution of fungi across a boreal and tropical ecosystem, focusing on ectomycorrhizal fungi. We analyzed fungal community composition across litter (organic horizons) and underlying soil horizons (0–20 cm) using 454 pyrosequencing and clone library sequencing. In both forests, we found significant clu...

  17. Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities of Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) Seedlings in Disturbed Sites and Undisturbed Old Forest Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate differences in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities between disturbed sites and undisturbed old forest sites. ECM root tips of Pinus densiflora were collected from 4 sites disturbed by human activities and 3 undisturbed old forest sites adjacent to the disturbed sites. Results in this study showed that the number of ECM root tips, species diversity, and number of species were significantly higher in the disturbed sites than in the undisturbed sites, suggest...

  18. Effect of Soil Ameliorators on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities that Colonize Seedlings of Pinus densiflora in Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Chang-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on...

  19. A continental view of pine-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal spore banks: a quiescent functional guild with a strong biogeographic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sydney I; Peay, Kabir G; Talbot, Jennifer M; Smith, Dylan P; Chung, Judy A; Taylor, John W; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bruns, Thomas D

    2015-03-01

    Ecologists have long acknowledged the importance of seed banks; yet, despite the fact that many plants rely on mycorrhizal fungi for survival and growth, the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal spore banks remains poorly understood. The primary goal of this study was to assess the geographic structure in pine-associated ECM fungal spore banks across the North American continent. Soils were collected from 19 plots in forests across North America. Fresh soils were pyrosequenced for fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicons. Adjacent soil cores were dried and bioassayed with pine seedlings, and colonized roots were pyrosequenced to detect resistant propagules of ECM fungi. The results showed that ECM spore banks correlated strongly with biogeographic location, but not with the identity of congeneric plant hosts. Minimal community overlap was found between resident ECM fungi vs those in spore banks, and spore bank assemblages were relatively simple and dominated by Rhizopogon, Wilcoxina, Cenococcum, Thelephora, Tuber, Laccaria and Suillus. Similar to plant seed banks, ECM fungal spore banks are, in general, depauperate, and represent a small and rare subset of the mature forest soil fungal community. Yet, they may be extremely important in fungal colonization after large-scale disturbances such as clear cuts and forest fires. PMID:25557275

  20. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles)

    OpenAIRE

    Séne, S.; Avril, R.; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Geoffroy, A; Ndiaye, C; Diedhiou, A. G.; Sadio, O.; Courtecuisse, R.; Sylla, S.; Selosse, M.A.; Bâ, Amadou

    2015-01-01

    We studied belowground and aboveground diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal species colonizing Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape) mature trees and seedlings naturally regenerating in four littoral forests of the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles). We collected 546 sporocarps, 49 sclerotia, and morphotyped 26,722 root tips from mature trees and seedlings. Seven EM fungal species only were recovered among sporocarps (Cantharellus cinnabarinus, Amanita arenicola, Russula ...

  1. Potential link between plant and fungal distributions in a dipterocarp rainforest: community and phylogenetic structure of tropical ectomycorrhizal fungi across a plant and soil ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peay, Kabir G; Kennedy, Peter G; Davies, Stuart J; Tan, Sylvester; Bruns, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    *Relatively little is known about diversity or structure of tropical ectomycorrhizal communities or their roles in tropical ecosystem dynamics. In this study, we present one of the largest molecular studies to date of an ectomycorrhizal community in lowland dipterocarp rainforest. *We sampled roots from two 0.4 ha sites located across an ecotone within a 52 ha forest dynamics plot. Our plots contained > 500 tree species and > 40 species of ectomycorrhizal host plants. Fungi were identified by sequencing ribosomal RNA genes. *The community was dominated by the Russulales (30 species), Boletales (17), Agaricales (18), Thelephorales (13) and Cantharellales (12). Total species richness appeared comparable to molecular studies of temperate forests. Community structure changed across the ecotone, although it was not possible to separate the role of environmental factors vs host plant preferences. Phylogenetic analyses were consistent with a model of community assembly where habitat associations are influenced by evolutionary conservatism of functional traits within ectomycorrhizal lineages. *Because changes in the ectomycorrhizal fungal community parallel those of the tree community at this site, this study demonstrates the potential link between the distribution of tropical tree diversity and the distribution of tropical ectomycorrhizal diversity in relation to local-scale edaphic variation. PMID:19878464

  2. Temporal distance decay of similarity of ectomycorrhizal fungal community composition in a subtropical evergreen forest in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Kawaguchi, Eri; Osono, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Community compositions of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are known to show spatial distance decay of similarity, which arises from both deterministic niche-based processes and stochastic spatial-based processes (e.g. dispersal limitation). Recent studies have highlighted the importance of incorporating the spatial-based processes in the study of community ecology of ECM fungi. However, few studies have investigated the temporal distance decay of similarity of ECM fungal communities. More specifically, the role of stochastic temporal-based processes, which could drive the temporal distance decay of similarity independently of niche-based processes, in the temporal variation of the communities remains unclear. Here we investigated ECM fungi associated with roots ofCastanopsis sieboldiiat 3-month intervals over a 2-year period. We found that dissimilarity of the ECM fungal community composition was significantly correlated with temporal distance but not with environmental distance among sampling dates. Both climatic and temporal variables significantly explained the temporal variation of the community composition. These results suggest that temporal variations of ECM fungi can be affected not only by niche-based processes but also by temporal-based processes. Our findings imply that priority effects may play important roles in the temporal turnover of ECM fungal community at the site. PMID:26989126

  3. Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Protein Degradation Ability Predicted by Soil Organic Nitrogen Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Rineau, Francois; Stas, Jelle; Nguyen, Nhu H.; Kuyper, Thomas N.; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan; Kennedy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In temperate and boreal forest ecosystems, nitrogen (N) limitation of tree metabolism is alleviated by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. As forest soils age, the primary source of N in soil switches from inorganic (NH4 and NO3) to organic (mostly proteins). It has been hypothesized that ECM fungi adapt to the most common N source in their environment, which implies that fungi growing in older forests would have greater protein degradation abilities. Moreover, recent results for a model ECM fung...

  4. The Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Community in a Neotropical Forest Dominated by the Endemic Dipterocarp Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew E Smith; Henkel, Terry W; Uehling, Jessie K.; Alexander K Fremier; Clarke, H. David; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plants and fungi can be diverse and abundant in certain tropical ecosystems. For example, the primarily paleotropical ECM plant family Dipterocarpaceae is one of the most speciose and ecologically important tree families in Southeast Asia. Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea is one of two species of dipterocarp known from the Neotropics, and is also the only known member of the monotypic Dipterocarpaceae subfamily Pakaraimoideae. This Guiana Shield endemic is only known from the...

  5. Distribution and drivers of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities across the North American Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Timling, Ina; Dahlberg, Anders; Walker, D. A.; Gardes, M; Charcosset, J.Y.; Welker, J.; Taylor, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) form symbioses with a few plant species that comprise a large fraction of the arctic vegetation. Despite their importance, the identity, abundance and distribution of EMF in the Arctic, as well as the key drivers controlling their community composition are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the diversity and structure of EMF communities across a bioclimatic gradient spanning much of the North American Arctic. We collected roots from two principal arc...

  6. Interspecific temporal and spatial differences in the acquisition of litter-derived nitrogen by ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Rodica; Tejedor, Javier; Zeller, Bernd; Dannenmann, Michael; Polle, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of, and interspecific differences in, the acquisition of litter-derived nitrogen (N) by natural assemblages of ectomycorrhizal root tips are poorly understood. Small cylindrical mesh bags containing (15)N-labelled beech (Fagus sylvatica) leaf litter that permit hyphal but not root ingrowth were inserted vertically into the top soil layer of an old-growth beech forest. The lateral transfer of (15)N into the circumjacent soil, roots, microbes and ectomycorrhizas was measured during an 18-month exposure period. Ectomycorrhial fungi (EMF) showed large interspecific variation in the temporal pattern and extent of (15)N accumulation. Initially, when N was mainly available from the leachate, microbes were more efficient at N immobilization than the majority of EMF, but distinct fungal species also showed significant (15)N accumulation. During later phases, the enrichment of (15)N in Tomentella badia was higher than in microbes and other EMF species. Roots and soil accumulated (15)N with a large delay compared with microbes and EMF. Because approximately half of the studied fungal species had direct access to N from leaf litter and the remainder to N from leached compounds, we suggest that EMF diversity facilitates the N utilization of the host by capturing N originating from early-released solutes and late degradation products from a recalcitrant source. PMID:23594339

  7. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of native and non-native Pinus and Quercus species in a common garden of 35-year-old trees

    OpenAIRE

    Trocha, Lidia K.; Kałucka, Izabela; Stasińska, Małgorzata; NOWAK, WITOLD; Dabert, Mirosława; Leski, Tomasz; Rudawska, Maria; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Non-native tree species have been widely planted or have become naturalized in most forested landscapes. It is not clear if native trees species collectively differ in ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and communities from that of non-native tree species. Alternatively, EMF species community similarity may be more determined by host plant phylogeny than by whether the plant is native or non-native. We examined these unknowns by comparing two genera, native and non-native Quercus robur an...

  8. Lateral root stimulation in the early interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor: Is fungal auxin the trigger?

    OpenAIRE

    Felten, Judith; Legué, Valérie; Ditengou, Franck Anicet

    2010-01-01

    Lateral root (LR) stimulation during early signal exchange between plant roots and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi has recently been shown to be achieved by modulation of auxin gradients. We suggested that this modulation could occur through altered polar auxin transport (PAT) and through activation of auxin signalling pathways in the root. However, it remains unclear, which fungal molecules alter auxin pathways inside the plant partner. It has been suggested in previous studies that auxin releas...

  9. Summer temperature increase has distinct effects on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of moist tussock and dry tundra in Arctic Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Luis N; Semenova, Tatiana A; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2015-02-01

    Arctic regions are experiencing the greatest rates of climate warming on the planet and marked changes have already been observed in terrestrial arctic ecosystems. While most studies have focused on the effects of warming on arctic vegetation and nutrient cycling, little is known about how belowground communities, such as fungi root-associated, respond to warming. Here, we investigate how long-term summer warming affects ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities. We used Ion Torrent sequencing of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region to compare ECM fungal communities in plots with and without long-term experimental warming in both dry and moist tussock tundra. Cortinarius was the most OTU-rich genus in the moist tundra, while the most diverse genus in the dry tundra was Tomentella. On the diversity level, in the moist tundra we found significant differences in community composition, and a sharp decrease in the richness of ECM fungi due to warming. On the functional level, our results indicate that warming induces shifts in the extramatrical properties of the communities, where the species with medium-distance exploration type seem to be favored with potential implications for the mobilization of different nutrient pools in the soil. In the dry tundra, neither community richness nor community composition was significantly altered by warming, similar to what had been observed in ECM host plants. There was, however, a marginally significant increase in OTUs identified as ECM fungi with the medium-distance exploration type in the warmed plots. Linking our findings of decreasing richness with previous results of increasing ECM fungal biomass suggests that certain ECM species are favored by warming and may become more abundant, while many other species may go locally extinct due to direct or indirect effects of warming. Such compositional shifts in the community might affect nutrient cycling and soil organic C storage. PMID:25156129

  10. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séne, Seynabou; Avril, Raymond; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Geoffroy, Alexandre; Ndiaye, Cheikh; Diédhiou, Abdala Gamby; Sadio, Oumar; Courtecuisse, Régis; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Selosse, Marc-André; Bâ, Amadou

    2015-10-01

    We studied belowground and aboveground diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal species colonizing Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape) mature trees and seedlings naturally regenerating in four littoral forests of the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles). We collected 546 sporocarps, 49 sclerotia, and morphotyped 26,722 root tips from mature trees and seedlings. Seven EM fungal species only were recovered among sporocarps (Cantharellus cinnabarinus, Amanita arenicola, Russula cremeolilacina, Inocybe littoralis, Inocybe xerophytica, Melanogaster sp., and Scleroderma bermudense) and one EM fungal species from sclerotia (Cenococcum geophilum). After internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, the EM root tips fell into 15 EM fungal taxa including 14 basidiomycetes and 1 ascomycete identified. Sporocarp survey only weakly reflected belowground assessment of the EM fungal community, although 5 fruiting species were found on roots. Seagrape seedlings and mature trees had very similar communities of EM fungi, dominated by S. bermudense, R. cremeolilacina, and two Thelephoraceae: shared species represented 93 % of the taxonomic EM fungal diversity and 74 % of the sampled EM root tips. Furthermore, some significant differences were observed between the frequencies of EM fungal taxa on mature trees and seedlings. The EM fungal community composition also varied between the four investigated sites. We discuss the reasons for such a species-poor community and the possible role of common mycorrhizal networks linking seagrape seedlings and mature trees in regeneration of coastal forests. PMID:25711744

  11. Fertility-dependent effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities on white spruce seedling nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alistair J H; Potvin, Lynette R; Lilleskov, Erik A

    2015-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcMF) typically colonize nursery seedlings, but nutritional and growth effects of these communities are only partly understood. To examine these effects, Picea glauca seedlings collected from a tree nursery naturally colonized by three dominant EcMF were divided between fertilized and unfertilized treatments. After one growing season seedlings were harvested, ectomycorrhizas identified using DNA sequencing, and seedlings analyzed for leaf nutrient concentration and content, and biomass parameters. EcMF community structure-nutrient interactions were tested using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) combined with vector analysis of foliar nutrients and biomass. We identified three dominant species: Amphinema sp., Atheliaceae sp., and Thelephora terrestris. NMDS + envfit revealed significant community effects on seedling nutrition that differed with fertilization treatment. PERMANOVA and regression analyses uncovered significant species effects on host nutrient concentration, content, and stoichiometry. Amphinema sp. had a significant positive effect on phosphorus (P), calcium and zinc concentration, and P content; in contrast, T. terrestris had a negative effect on P concentration. In the unfertilized treatment, percent abundance of the Amphinema sp. negatively affected foliar nitrogen (N) concentration but not content, and reduced foliar N/P. In fertilized seedlings, Amphinema sp. was positively related to foliar concentrations of N, magnesium, and boron, and both concentration and content of manganese, and Atheliaceae sp. had a negative relationship with P content. Findings shed light on the community and species effects on seedling condition, revealing clear functional differences among dominants. The approach used should be scalable to explore function in more complex communities composed of unculturable EcMF. PMID:25904341

  12. Monitoring ectomycorrhizal fungi at large scales for science, forest management, fungal conservation and environmental policy

    OpenAIRE

    Suz, Laura M.; Barsoum, Nadia; Benham, Sue; Cheffings, Chris; Cox, Filipa; Hackett, Louise; Jones, Alan G.; Mueller, Gregory M.; Orme, David; Seidling, Walter; van der Linde, Sietse; Bidartondo, Martin I.

    2015-01-01

    Key message The ICP Forests network can be a platform for large-scale mycorrhizal studies. Mapping and monitoring of mycorrhizas have untapped potential to inform science, management, conservation and policy regarding distributions, diversity hotspots, dominance and rarity, and indicators of forest changes.ContextA dearth of information about fungi at large scales has severely constrained scientific, forest management, fungal conservation and environmental policy efforts worldwide. Nonetheles...

  13. Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Associates of Pinus contorta in Soils Associated with a Hot Spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    OpenAIRE

    Cullings, Ken; Makhija, Shilpa

    2001-01-01

    Molecular methods and comparisons of fruiting patterns (i.e., presence or absence of fungal fruiting bodies in different soil types) were used to determine ectomycorrhizal (EM) associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a thermal soil classified as ultra-acidic to extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4). EM were sampled by obtaining 36 soil cores from six paired plots (three cores each) of both thermal soils and forest soils directly adjacent to the thermal area. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) w...

  14. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities on seedlings and conspecific trees of Pinus mugo grown on the coastal dunes of the Curonian Spit in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aučina, Algis; Rudawska, Maria; Leski, Tomasz; Ryliškis, Darius; Pietras, Marcin; Riepšas, Edvardas

    2011-04-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities of mature trees and regenerating seedlings of a non-native tree species Pinus mugo grown in a harsh environment of the coastal region of the Curonian Spit National Park in Lithuania were assessed. We established three study sites (S1, S2, and S3) that were separated from each other by 15 km. The ECM species richness was rather low in particular for mature, 100-year-old trees: 12 ectomycorrhizal taxa were identified by molecular analysis from 11 distinguished morphotypes. All 12 taxa were present on seedlings and on mature trees, with between 8-11 and 9-11 taxa present on seedlings and mature trees, respectively. Cenococcum geophilum dominated all ECM communities, but the relative abundance of C. geophilum mycorrhizas was nearly two times higher on seedlings than on mature trees. Mycorrhizal associations formed by Wilcoxina sp., Lactarius rufus, and Russula paludosa were also abundant. Several fungal taxa were only occasionally detected, including Cortinarius sp., Cortinarius obtusus, Cortinarius croceus, and Meliniomyces sp. Shannon's diversity indices for the ECM assemblages of P. mugo ranged from 0.98 to 1.09 for seedling and from 1.05 to 1.31 for mature trees. According to analysis of similarity, the mycorrhizal communities were similar between the sites (R = 0.085; P = 0.06) and only slightly separated between seedlings and mature trees (R = 0.24; P < 0.0001). An incidental fruiting body survey that was conducted weakly reflected the below-ground assessment of the ECM fungal community and once again showed that ECM and fruiting body studies commonly supply different partial accounts of the true ECM fungal diversity. Our results show that P. mugo has moved into quite distinct habitats and is able to adapt a suite of ECM symbionts that sufficiently support growth and development of this tree and allow for natural seedling regeneration. PMID:20938693

  15. Whose truffle is this? Distribution patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity in Tuber melanosporum brûlés developed in multi-host Mediterranean plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschen, Elisa; Sauve, Mathieu; Taudiere, Adrien; Parlade, Javier; Selosse, Marc-André; Richard, Franck

    2015-08-01

    In the Mediterranean region, patches of vegetation recovering from disturbance and transiently dominated by shrubs produce one of the world's most prized fungi, the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum). In these successional plant communities, we have fragmentary knowledge of the distribution of T. melanosporum in space among ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host species and in time. Molecular identification of hosts (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) and fungi (Internal Transcribed Spacer sequencing) and quantification of T. melanosporum mycelium (quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction) were employed to evaluate the presence of T. melanosporum on four dominant ECM host species (Quercus ilex, Quercus  coccifera, Arbutus unedo, Cistus albidus) and the extent to which their respective ECM communities shared fungal diversity, over the course of development of truffle grounds, from recent unproductive brûlés to senescent ones where production has stopped. We found that truffle grounds host rich communities in which multi-host fungal species dominate in frequency. When considering both ECM tips and soil mycelia, we documented a dynamic and spatially heterogeneous pattern of T. melanosporum distribution in soils and a presence of ECM tips restricted to Q. ilex roots. This study advances our knowledge of the ecology of T. melanosporum, and provides insight into the extent of ECM fungal sharing among plant species that dominate Mediterranean landscapes. PMID:25522815

  16. Using isotopic patterns of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi to elucidate fungal sources of carbon and nitrogen in a Norway spruce stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Janet; Rinne-Garmston, Katja; Penttilä, Reijo; Hobbie, Erik; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2016-04-01

    To predict effects of global change on fungal community structure and the consequential effects on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, we first need to understand different fungal sources of C and N. We determined sources of C and N by measuring δ15N and δ13C of an extensive collection of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic sporocarps and their potential substrates from Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in southern Finland. The substrates included organic soil, roots in organic soil, mineral soil, roots in mineral soil, moss, needles, needles in litter, branches, twigs in litter, wood and decay wood from stages I-V. Notably, δ15N and δ13C analysis of wood in decay stages I-V was a novel measurement, as were our associations between wood decay fungi and the decay stage of trees. Decay stage of wood significantly correlated with the δ15N and δ13C of associated saprotrophic wood decay fungi species. Fungi were lower in δ15N by 0.3-0.7‰ when associated with decay wood in stages II and III compared to I and IV and higher in δ13C by 0.9-1.2‰ when associated with decay stage I compared to decay stages II-IV. The ectomycorrhizal fungi, Piloderma fallax, was significantly correlated with 15N enrichment of decay wood upon its introduction in decay stages III and IV that continued to the later decay stage V, with δ15N of decay stage V 1.5‰ higher than decay stage IV. These results indicate that wood decay fungi rely on C and N from various wood decay stages and influence C and N pools of wood as well. Litter decay fungi were lower in δ13C than wood decay fungi by 1.9‰ and higher in δ15N by 3‰ and isotopically tracked their C and N sources. Calocera viscosa, Gymnopus acervatus, and Leotia lubrica were highly 15N-enriched compared to other saprotrophic fungi and they had δ15N values similar to fungi with hydrophobic ectomycorrhizae indicating function more similar to ectomycorrhizal fungi or N sources similar to this functional group. Similar to other

  17. Ectomycorrhizal fungal associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a hot spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, K.; Makhija, S.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular methods and comparisons of fruiting patterns (i.e., presence or absence of fungal fruiting bodies in different soil types) were used to determine ectomycorrhizal (EM) associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a thermal soil classified as ultra-acidic to extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4). EM were sampled by obtaining 36 soil cores from six paired plots (three cores each) of both thermal soils and forest soils directly adjacent to the thermal area. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) were collected for molecular identification and to compare fruiting body (above-ground) diversity to below-ground diversity. Our results indicate (i) that there were significant decreases in both the level of EM infection (130 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in forest soil; 68 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in thermal soil) and EM fungal species richness (4.0 +/- 0.5 species/core in forest soil; 1.2 +/- 0.2 species/core in thermal soil) in soils associated with the thermal feature; (ii) that the EM mycota of thermal soils was comprised of a small set of dominant species and included very few rare species, while the EM mycota of forest soils contained a few dominant species and several rare EM fungal species; (iii) that Dermocybe phoenecius and a species of Inocybe, which was rare in forest soils, were the dominant EM fungal species in thermal soils; (iv) that other than the single Inocybe species, there was no overlap in the EM fungal communities of the forest and thermal soils; and (v) that the fungal species forming the majority of the above-ground fruiting structures in thermal soils (Pisolithus tinctorius, which is commonly used in remediation of acid soils) was not detected on a single EM root tip in either type of soil. Thus, P. tinctorius may have a different role in these thermal soils. Our results suggest that this species may not perform well in remediation of all acid soils and that factors such as pH, soil temperature, and soil chemistry may interact to influence EM fungal

  18. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of native and non-native Pinus and Quercus species in a common garden of 35-year-old trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocha, Lidia K; Kałucka, Izabela; Stasińska, Małgorzata; Nowak, Witold; Dabert, Mirosława; Leski, Tomasz; Rudawska, Maria; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2012-02-01

    Non-native tree species have been widely planted or have become naturalized in most forested landscapes. It is not clear if native trees species collectively differ in ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and communities from that of non-native tree species. Alternatively, EMF species community similarity may be more determined by host plant phylogeny than by whether the plant is native or non-native. We examined these unknowns by comparing two genera, native and non-native Quercus robur and Quercus rubra and native and non-native Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra in a 35-year-old common garden in Poland. Using molecular and morphological approaches, we identified EMF species from ectomycorrhizal root tips and sporocarps collected in the monoculture tree plots. A total of 69 EMF species were found, with 38 species collected only as sporocarps, 18 only as ectomycorrhizas, and 13 both as ectomycorrhizas and sporocarps. The EMF species observed were all native and commonly associated with a Holarctic range in distribution. We found that native Q. robur had ca. 120% higher total EMF species richness than the non-native Q. rubra, while native P. sylvestris had ca. 25% lower total EMF species richness than non-native P. nigra. Thus, across genera, there was no evidence that native species have higher EMF species diversity than exotic species. In addition, we found a higher similarity in EMF communities between the two Pinus species than between the two Quercus species. These results support the naturalization of non-native trees by means of mutualistic associations with cosmopolitan and novel fungi. PMID:21573837

  19. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with Populus simonii and Pinus tabuliformis in the hilly-gully region of the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dongfeng; Liu, Jianjun; Han, Qisheng; Wang, Xiaobing; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The Loess Plateau region of northwestern China has unique geological and dry/semi-dry climate characteristics. However, knowledge about ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities in the Loess Plateau is limited. In this study, we investigated EMF communities in Populus simonii and Pinus tabuliformis patches within the forest-steppe zone, in pine forests within the forest zone, and the transitional zone between them. We revealed high species richness (115 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) of indigenous EMF resources at the Loess Plateau, of which Tomentella (35 OTUs), Inocybe (16), Sebacina (16), and Geopora (7) were the most OTU-rich lineages. EMF richness within the forest-steppe zone and the transitional zone was limited, while the natural pine forest maintained diverse EMF communities in the forest zone. The changes of EMF community richness and composition along arid eco-zones were highlighted for the complex factors including precipitation, soil factors, host, DBH, and altitude. Indicator analysis revealed that some EMF showed clear host preference and some taxa, i.e., genera Geopora and Inocybe, were dominant in drought and alkaline-saline conditions attributed to their environmental preference. This study revealed that EMF communities were quite limited in the forest-steppe zone, while the forest region contained diverse EMF communities in the Loess Plateau. PMID:27063338

  20. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with Populus simonii and Pinus tabuliformis in the hilly-gully region of the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dongfeng; Liu, Jianjun; Han, Qisheng; Wang, Xiaobing; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The Loess Plateau region of northwestern China has unique geological and dry/semi-dry climate characteristics. However, knowledge about ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities in the Loess Plateau is limited. In this study, we investigated EMF communities in Populus simonii and Pinus tabuliformis patches within the forest-steppe zone, in pine forests within the forest zone, and the transitional zone between them. We revealed high species richness (115 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) of indigenous EMF resources at the Loess Plateau, of which Tomentella (35 OTUs), Inocybe (16), Sebacina (16), and Geopora (7) were the most OTU-rich lineages. EMF richness within the forest-steppe zone and the transitional zone was limited, while the natural pine forest maintained diverse EMF communities in the forest zone. The changes of EMF community richness and composition along arid eco-zones were highlighted for the complex factors including precipitation, soil factors, host, DBH, and altitude. Indicator analysis revealed that some EMF showed clear host preference and some taxa, i.e., genera Geopora and Inocybe, were dominant in drought and alkaline-saline conditions attributed to their environmental preference. This study revealed that EMF communities were quite limited in the forest-steppe zone, while the forest region contained diverse EMF communities in the Loess Plateau. PMID:27063338

  1. Multiscale assemblage of an ectomycorrhizal fungal community: the influence of host functional traits and soil properties in a 10-ha miombo forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, David; Raspé, Olivier; Meerts, Pierre; Degreef, Jérôme; Ilunga Muledi, Jonathan; Drouet, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are highly diversified and dominant in a number of forest ecosystems. Nevertheless, their scales of spatial distribution and the underlying ecological processes remain poorly understood. Although most EMF are considered to be generalists regarding host identity, a preference toward functional strategies of host trees has never been tested. Here, the EMF community was characterised by DNA sequencing in a 10-ha tropical dry season forest-referred to as miombo-an understudied ecosystem from a mycorrhizal perspective. We used 36 soil parameters and 21 host functional traits (FTs) as candidate explanatory variables in spatial constrained ordinations for explaining the EMF community assemblage. Results highlighted that the community variability was explained by host FTs related to the 'leaf economics spectrum' (adjusted R(2) = 11%; SLA, leaf area, foliar Mg content), and by soil parameters (adjusted R(2) = 17%), notably total forms of micronutrients or correlated available elements (Al, N, K, P). Both FTs and soil generated patterns in the community at scales ranging from 75 to 375 m. Our results indicate that soil is more important than previously thought for EMF in miombo woodlands, and show that FTs of host species can be better predictors of symbiont distribution than taxonomical identity. PMID:27402715

  2. Intraspecific competition between ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus microcarpus isolates impacts plant and fungal performance under elevated CO2 and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortal, S; Powell, J R; Plett, J M; Simonin, A; Anderson, I C

    2016-08-01

    Root systems are simultaneously colonized by multiple individuals of mycorrhizal fungi. Intraspecific competitive interactions between fungal isolates are likely to affect both fungal and plant performance and be influenced by abiotic factors. Here, we assessed the impact of intraspecific competition between three Pisolithus microcarpus isolates on the establishment of, and benefit derived from, symbioses with Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. We investigated the outcomes of competition under ambient and elevated temperature and CO2 concentration ([CO2]) in a factorial design. We observed a reduction in mycelium growth, mycorrhiza formation and seedling mass when two P. microcarpus isolates were co-inoculated on a single E. grandis seedling. Isolates invested more in mycelium than in mycorrhizas in the presence of a competitor. All isolates responded negatively to elevated [CO2] and positively to elevated temperature, which led to no changes on the outcomes of the interactions with changing conditions. However, the presence of a competitor hindered the positive response of P. microcarpus isolates to warming, which resulted in larger negative effects of competition under elevated temperature than under ambient conditions. Our study highlights the need to consider how competition affects individual fungal responses as well as plant performance when trying to predict the impacts of climate change. PMID:27222224

  3. Identification of genes differentially expressed in extraradical mycelium and ectomycorrhizal roots during Paxillus involutus-Betula pendula ectomycorrhizal symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    MOREL,M; Jacob, C; Kohler, A.; Johansson, Tomas; Martin, Francis; Chalot, Michel; Brun, Annick

    2005-01-01

    The development of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis leads to drastic changes in gene expression in both partners. However, little is known about the spatial regulation of symbiosis-regulated genes. Using cDNA array profiling, we compared the levels of expression of fungal genes corresponding to approximately 1,200 expressed sequenced tags in the ectomycorrhizal root tips (ECM) and the connected extraradical mycelium (EM) for the Paxillus involutus-Betula pendula ectomycorrhizal association grown on ...

  4. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities on seedlings and conspecific trees of Pinus mugo grown on the coastal dunes of the Curonian Spit in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Aučina, Algis; Rudawska, Maria; Leski, Tomasz; Ryliškis, Darius; Pietras, Marcin; Riepšas, Edvardas

    2010-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities of mature trees and regenerating seedlings of a non-native tree species Pinus mugo grown in a harsh environment of the coastal region of the Curonian Spit National Park in Lithuania were assessed. We established three study sites (S1, S2, and S3) that were separated from each other by 15 km. The ECM species richness was rather low in particular for mature, 100-year-old trees: 12 ectomycorrhizal taxa were identified by molecular analysis from 11 distinguished ...

  5. Ectomycorrhizal diversity enhances growth and nitrogen fixation of Acacia mangium seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Diagne, N.; Thioulouse, J.; Sanguin, H.; Prin, Y.; Krasova-Wade, T.; Sylla, S.; Galiana, A; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Neyra, Marc; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Lebrun, Michel; Duponnois, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Increasing interest has been given so far to the role of mycorrhizal symbiosis on plant diversity and ecosystem productivity. However much remains unknown about the effect of ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity on plant growth and rhizobial symbiosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of ectomycorrhizal diversity on root nodulation and plant nutrient uptake during plant growth. A gradient of ectomycorrhizal diversity was created (ranged from one to six fungal isolates) on...

  6. Disproportionate abundance between ectomycorrhizal root tips and their associated mycelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Extensive knowledge of various ectomycorrhizal fungal communities has been obtained over the past 10 years based on molecular identification of the fungi colonizing fine roots. In contrast, only limited information exists about the species composition of ectomycorrhizal hyphae in soil. This study...... at the times of insertion and retrieval of the mesh bags. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region. In total, 20, 31 and 24 ectomycorrhizal species were recorded from the two root-tip harvests and from the mesh bags, respectively. Boletoid species were...... significantly more frequent as mycelia than as root tips, while russuloid and Cortinarius species appeared to be less dominant as mycelia than as root tips. Tomentella species were equally frequent as root tips and as mycelia. These discrepancies between the root-tip and the mycelial view of the ectomycorrhizal...

  7. Compartmentalized and contrasted response of ectomycorrhizal and soil fungal communities of Scots pine forests along elevation gradients in France and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón, Ana; Santamaría-Pérez, Blanca; Rabasa, Sonia G.; Coince, Aurore; Marcais, Benoit; Buee, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are principal actors of forest soils implied in many ecosystem services and the mediation of tree's responses. Forecasting fungal responses to environmental changes is necessary for maintaining forest productivity, although our partial understanding of how abiotic and biotic factors affect fungal communities is restricting the predictions. We examined fungal communities of Pinus sylvestris along elevation gradients to check potential responses to climate change-associated factors. Fungi...

  8. Compartmentalized and contrasted response of ectomycorrhizal and soil fungal communities of Scots pine forests along elevation gradients in France and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Ana; Santamaría-Pérez, Blanca; Rabasa, Sonia G; Coince, Aurore; Marçais, Benoit; Buée, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Fungi are principal actors of forest soils implied in many ecosystem services and the mediation of tree's responses. Forecasting fungal responses to environmental changes is necessary for maintaining forest productivity, although our partial understanding of how abiotic and biotic factors affect fungal communities is restricting the predictions. We examined fungal communities of Pinus sylvestris along elevation gradients to check potential responses to climate change-associated factors. Fungi of roots and soils were analysed at a regional scale, by using a high-throughput sequencing approach. Overall soil fungal richness increased with pH, whereas it did not vary with climate. However, when representative sub-assemblages, i.e. Ascomycetes/Basidiomycetes, and families were analysed, they differentially answered to climatic and edaphic variables. This response was dependent on where they settled, i.e. soil versus roots, and/or on their lifestyle, i.e. mycorrhizal or not, suggesting different potential functional weights within the community. Our results revealed a highly compartmentalized and contrasted response of fungal communities in forest soils. The different response of fungal sub-assemblages indicated a range of possible selective direct and indirect (i.e. via host) impacts of climatic variations on these communities, of unknown functional consequences, that helps in understanding potential fungal responses under future global change scenarios. PMID:25953485

  9. Dramatic changes in ectomycorrhizal community composition, root tip abundance and mycelial production along a stand-scale nitrogen deposition gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Nilsson, Lars Ola; Hansen, Karin;

    2012-01-01

    availability indices. • Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and mycelial production decreased five and 10-fold, respectively, with increasing N deposition. In addition, the ectomycorrhizal fungal community changed and the species richness decreased. The changes were correlated with the measured indices of N......• Nitrogen (N) availability is known to influence ectomycorrhizal fungal components, such as fungal community composition, biomass of root tips and production of mycelia, but effects have never been demonstrated within the same forest. • We measured concurrently the abundance of ectomycorrhizal...... status, in particular N deposition and N leaching. • The relationship between the altered ectomycorrhizal community, root tip abundance and mycelial production is discussed in the context of the N parameters. We suggest that increased N deposition to forests will cause large changes in ectomycorrhizal...

  10. Asynchronous origins of ectomycorrhizal clades of Agaricales

    OpenAIRE

    Ryberg, Martin; Matheny, P. Brandon

    2011-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis is the most widespread biotrophic nutritional mode in mushroom-forming fungi. ECM fungi include, though are not limited to, about 5000 described species of Agaricales from numerous, independently evolved lineages. Two central hypotheses suggest different explanations for the origin of ECM fungal diversity: (i) dual origins, initially with the Pinaceae in the Jurassic and later with angiosperms during the Late Cretaceous, and (ii) a simultaneous and converge...

  11. Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Bin; DONG Yuan-Rong; HOU Wei-Guo; TONG Li-Hua; YUAN Sheng

    2007-01-01

    A survey was conducted for about 3 years to study the abundance and diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) in Jiangsu Province, China. The identification of the fungal species was based on the microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of their fruiting bodies. About 126 species of EMF were found in Jiangsu Province. These fungi were largely categorized into three orders (of 121 species), four families (of 96 species), and six genera (of about 86 species).

  12. Phosphorus source alters host plant response to ectomycorrhizal diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, James W; Dighton, John

    2005-11-01

    We examined the influence of phosphorus source and availability on host plant (Pinus rigida) response to ectomycorrhizal diversity under contrasting P conditions. An ectomycorrhizal richness gradient was established with equimolar P supplied as either inorganic phosphate or organic inositol hexaphosphate. We measured growth and N and P uptake of individual P. rigida seedlings inoculated with one, two, or four species of ectomycorrhizal fungi simultaneously and without mycorrhizas in axenic culture. Whereas colonization of P. rigida by individual species of ectomycorrhizal fungi decreased with increasing fungal richness, colonization of all species combined increased. Plant biomass and N content increased across the ectomycorrhizal richness gradient in the organic but not the inorganic P treatment. Plants grown under organic P conditions had higher N concentration than those grown under inorganic P conditions, but there was no effect of richness. Phosphorus content of plants grown in the organic P treatment increased with increasing ectomycorrhizal richness, but there was no response in the inorganic P treatment. Phosphorus concentration was higher in plants grown at the four-species richness level in the organic P treatment, but there was no effect of diversity under inorganic P conditions. Overall, few ectomycorrhizal composition effects were found on plant growth or nutrient status. Phosphatase activities of individual ectomycorrhizal fungi differed under organic P conditions, but there was no difference in total root system phosphatase expression between the inorganic or organic P treatments or across richness levels. Our results provide evidence that plant response to ectomycorrhizal diversity is dependent on the source and availability of P. PMID:15809869

  13. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species. PMID:24783775

  14. Secreted fungal sulfhydryl oxidases: sequence analysis and characterisation of a representative flavin-dependent enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faccio Greta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfhydryl oxidases are flavin-dependent enzymes that catalyse the formation of de novo disulfide bonds from free thiol groups, with the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Sulfhydryl oxidases have been investigated in the food industry to remove the burnt flavour of ultraheat-treated milk and are currently studied as potential crosslinking enzymes, aiming at strengthening wheat dough and improving the overall bread quality. Results In the present study, potential sulfhydryl oxidases were identified in the publicly available fungal genome sequences and their sequence characteristics were studied. A representative sulfhydryl oxidase from Aspergillus oryzae, AoSOX1, was expressed in the fungus Trichoderma reesei. AoSOX1 was produced in relatively good yields and was purified and biochemically characterised. The enzyme catalysed the oxidation of thiol-containing compounds like glutathione, D/L-cysteine, beta-mercaptoethanol and DTT. The enzyme had a melting temperature of 57°C, a pH optimum of 7.5 and its enzymatic activity was completely inhibited in the presence of 1 mM ZnSO4. Conclusions Eighteen potentially secreted sulfhydryl oxidases were detected in the publicly available fungal genomes analysed and a novel proline-tryptophan dipeptide in the characteristic motif CXXC, where X is any amino acid, was found. A representative protein, AoSOX1 from A. oryzae, was produced in T. reesei in an active form and had the characteristics of sulfhydryl oxidases. Further testing of the activity on thiol groups within larger peptides and on protein level will be needed to assess the application potential of this enzyme.

  15. Controls of Isotopic Patterns in Saprotrophic and Ectomycorrhizal Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) in ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi contain important information about ecological functioning, but the complexity of physiological and ecosystem processes contributing to fungal carbon and nitrogen dynamics has limited our abil...

  16. Characterisation of a New Fungal Immunomodulatory Protein from Tiger Milk mushroom, Lignosus rhinocerotis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparajah, V; Fatima, A; Chong, C H; Gambule, T Z; Chan, C J; Ng, S T; Tan, C S; Fung, S Y; Lee, S S; Tan, N H; Lim, R L H

    2016-01-01

    Lignosus rhinocerotis (Tiger milk mushroom) is an important folk medicine for indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia. We previously reported its de novo assembled 34.3 Mb genome encoding a repertoire of proteins including a putative bioactive fungal immunomodulatory protein. Here we report the cDNA of this new member (FIP-Lrh) with a homology range of 54-64% to FIPs from other mushroom species, the closest is with FIP-glu (LZ-8) (64%) from Ganoderma lucidum. The FIP-Lrh of 112 amino acids (12.59 kDa) has a relatively hydrophobic N-terminal. Its predicted 3-dimensional model has identical folding patterns to FIP-fve and contains a partially conserved and more positively charged carbohydrates binding pocket. Docking predictions of FIP-Lrh on 14 glycans commonly found on cellular surfaces showed the best binding energy of -3.98 kcal/mol to N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Overexpression of a 14.9 kDa soluble 6xHisFIP-Lrh was achieved in pET-28a(+)/BL21 and the purified recombinant protein was sequence verified by LC-MS/MS (QTOF) analysis. The ability to haemagglutinate both mouse and human blood at concentration ≥0.34 μM, further demonstrated its lectin nature. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of 6xHisFIP-Lrh on MCF-7, HeLa and A549 cancer cell lines was detected at IC50 of 0.34 μM, 0.58 μM and 0.60 μM, respectively. PMID:27460640

  17. Characterisation of a New Fungal Immunomodulatory Protein from Tiger Milk mushroom, Lignosus rhinocerotis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparajah, V.; Fatima, A.; Chong, C. H.; Gambule, T. Z.; Chan, C. J.; Ng, S. T.; Tan, C. S.; Fung, S. Y.; Lee, S. S.; Tan, N. H.; Lim, R. L. H.

    2016-01-01

    Lignosus rhinocerotis (Tiger milk mushroom) is an important folk medicine for indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia. We previously reported its de novo assembled 34.3 Mb genome encoding a repertoire of proteins including a putative bioactive fungal immunomodulatory protein. Here we report the cDNA of this new member (FIP-Lrh) with a homology range of 54–64% to FIPs from other mushroom species, the closest is with FIP-glu (LZ-8) (64%) from Ganoderma lucidum. The FIP-Lrh of 112 amino acids (12.59 kDa) has a relatively hydrophobic N-terminal. Its predicted 3-dimensional model has identical folding patterns to FIP-fve and contains a partially conserved and more positively charged carbohydrates binding pocket. Docking predictions of FIP-Lrh on 14 glycans commonly found on cellular surfaces showed the best binding energy of −3.98 kcal/mol to N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Overexpression of a 14.9 kDa soluble 6xHisFIP-Lrh was achieved in pET-28a(+)/BL21 and the purified recombinant protein was sequence verified by LC-MS/MS (QTOF) analysis. The ability to haemagglutinate both mouse and human blood at concentration ≥0.34 μM, further demonstrated its lectin nature. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of 6xHisFIP-Lrh on MCF-7, HeLa and A549 cancer cell lines was detected at IC50 of 0.34 μM, 0.58 μM and 0.60 μM, respectively. PMID:27460640

  18. Ectomycorrhizal fungi increase soil carbon storage: molecular signatures of mycorrhizal competition driving soil C storage at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, C.; Barry, B. K.; Hawkes, C.

    2015-12-01

    Soil carbon storage and decay is regulated by the activity of free-living decomposer microbes, which can be limited by nitrogen availability. Many plants associate with symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi on their roots, which produce nitrogen-degrading enzymes and may be able to compete with free-living decomposers for soil organic nitrogen. By doing so, ectomycorrhizal fungi may able to induce nitrogen limitation and reduce activity of free-living microbial decomposition by mining soil organic nitrogen. The implication is that ectomycorrhizal-dominated systems should have increased soil carbon storage relative to non-ectomycorrhizal systems, which has been confirmed at a global scale. To investigate these effects, we analyzed 364 globally distributed observations of soil fungal communities using 454 sequencing of the ITS region, along with soil C and N concentrations, climate and chemical data. We assigned operational taxonomic units using the QIIME pipeline and UNITE fungal database and assigned fungal reads as ectomycorrhizal or non-mycorrhizal based on current taxonomic knowledge. We tested for associations between ectomycorrhizal abundance, climate, and soil carbon and nitrogen. Sites with greater soil carbon had quantitatively more ectomycorrhizal fungi within the soil microbial community based on fungal sequence abundance, after accounting for soil nitrogen availability. This is consistent with our hypothesis that ectomycorrhizal fungi induce nitrogen-limitation of free-living decomposers and thereby increase soil carbon storage. The strength of the mycorrhizal effect increased non-linearly with ectomycorrhizal abundance: the greater the abundance, the greater the effect size. Mean annual temperature, potential evapotranspiration, soil moisture and soil pH were also significant predictors in the final AIC selected model. This analysis suggests that molecular data on soil microbial communities can be used to make quantitative biogeochemical predictions. The

  19. An overview of Cistus ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandini, O; Contu, M; Rinaldi, A C

    2006-09-01

    The genus Cistus comprises a group of about 20 shrub species found in wide areas throughout the whole Mediterranean region to the Caucasus. Being one of the main constituents of the Mediterranean-type maquis, this plant genus is peculiar in that it has developed a range of specific adaptations to resist summer drought and frequent disturbance events, such as fire and grazing. In addition, it can form both ectomycorrhizas and arbuscular mycorrhizas. In this paper, we review the information available on the ectomycorrhizal fungi of Cistus across its entire geographic range, as gathered and critically sifted from both published literature sources and personal observations. Although the resulting data matrix was based primarily on accounts of sporocarp inventories in the field, existing knowledge on the features of Cistus natural and synthesized ectomycorrhizas was also included and discussed. In total, more than 200 fungal species belonging to 40 genera have been reported so far to be associated with Cistus. An analysis of the pattern of ectomycorrhizal diversity and host specificity revealed that members of the Cortinariaceae and Russulaceae make the most of both Cistus-aspecific and Cistus-specific mycobionts. Further studies are needed to expand our preliminary knowledge of the mycorrhizal ecology and biology of Cistus and its fungal associates, focusing on topics such as mycobiont diversity, host specificity, fungal succession, mycorrhizal influence on stress tolerance, and impact of disturbances, while comparing the findings with those from other ecosystems. PMID:16896800

  20. Characterization of small GTPase Cdc42 from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus bovinus and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif, Mubashir

    2004-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal formation between the host tree, Pinus sylvestris and fungal symbiont, Suillus bovinus was investigated at the molecular level by isolating genes regulating the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in the fungal partner S. bovinus. An Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT) system was developed for the ectomycorrhizal fungi in order to assign specific functions to the cloned molecules. The developed ATMT system was also used to transform a plant pathogenic f...

  1. Effects of air pollution and forest regeneration methods on the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Kårén, Ola

    1997-01-01

    This thesis describes the ectomycorrhizal community and how it is affected by nitrogen fertilization and forest regeneration methods. Fertilizer treatments included ammonium sulphate (NS), lime +P+K+Ca+Mg+S (N-free) and ammonium nitrate, applied in spruce (Picea abies) stands in south Sweden and a pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand in north Sweden. None of the fertilizers decreased the proportion of short-roots colonized by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Estimations of fungal biomass of sho...

  2. Studies on the ectomycorrhizal community in a declining Quercus suber L. stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Enrico; Franceschini, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    This survey was carried out in a Quercus suber L. stand with many trees affected by the disease "oak decline". Its aim was to obtain information about both the belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal community in a declining Q. suber stand as a whole, and the ectomycorrhizal fungal community of individual tree (EFT) detected in healthy and diseased plants. To this end, we first categorized the trees into four different decline classes (one for healthy plants and three for diseased plants) and then, by using morphological and molecular tools, we identified the ectomycorrhizas isolated from samples collected near the trees with different declining classes. The ectomycorrhizal community as a whole was seen to be composed of numerous ectomycorrhizal fungal species, only some of which appeared to be dominant (Cenococcum geophilum, Lactarius chrysorrheus, and some species of Tomentella genus), while most occurred sporadically. Results show that all root tips observed are mycorrhized and that decline class does not influence the number of ectomycorrhizal root tips found in the EFTs, thus oak decline does not impact the investment in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. However, some statistical differences can be observed in the values of evenness and taxonomic distinctness in the EFT associated with trees with different states of health. Finally, both the analysis of similarity test and the ordination technique highlight a compositional difference between the EFT associated with trees in different health conditions, but also suggest that other factors may play a role in causing these differences. PMID:23503869

  3. Influence of soil parameters on ectomycorrhizal diversity in montado ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Barrento, Maria João Hortas

    2012-01-01

    This study characterized the composition and the diversity of macrofungal communities associated with four plots of montado situated in Grândola Hills, Southern Portugal, and evaluated the influence of soil parameters on ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and abundance. Phosphorus, potassium, total nitrogen, organic matter concentrations and soil pH were the parameters determined. Differences in soil chemical features were found between studied plots. A total of 132 species of macrofungi were f...

  4. Rock-eating fungi: Ectomycorrhizal fungi are picky eaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Nicholas; Smits, Mark; Berner, Christoffer; Kram, Pavel; Wallander, Hakan

    2014-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, which form mutualistic symbiosis with the roots of most temperate and boreal forest trees, play a key role in the provision of nitrogen and phosphorus to their plant symbionts; they have also been shown to provide potassium and magnesium. Ectomycorhizal hyphae colonize and take up mineral nutrients (including P, K, and Mg) from primary mineral surfaces in the soil. It is poorly understood whether mineral colonization and uptake of nutrients from minerals can increase in accordance with host plant demand for these nutrients, and this question has been difficult to address in field settings. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities are diverse and niche separation according to nutrient uptake and transport to the host is commonly considered one of the major factors maintaining diversity and shaping ectomycorrhizal community composition.We investigated ectomycorrhizal growth, community composition, and mineral colonization in a series of connected Norway spruce forests in the Czech republic. These forests have similar aspect, climate and stand history, but are underlain by different parent materials and are, as a result, limited by different nutrients. The productivity of forests overlying a high amount of serpentinite rock are co-limited by K and P, those growing on primarily granitic rock are limited by Mg, while those on amphibolite are N limited. We assessed the fungal community in both soil and in-growth mesh bags measuring biomarkers, using in-growth assays and performing community analysis with 454 sequencing of the ITS region. In-growth mesh bags were filled with quartz sand and incubated for two growing seasons in the soil. These mesh bags select for ectomycorrhizal hyphae and were either pure quartz sand or amended with ground apatite (Ca and P source), hornblende (Mg source) or biotite (K source). Ectomycorrhizal growth and community composition were most strongly affected by parent material. The phosphorus-limited site had the lowest tree

  5. Novel findings on the role of signal exchange in arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Kothe, Erika

    2015-05-01

    The availability of genome sequences from both arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi and their hosts has, together with elegant biochemical and molecular biological analyses, provided new information on signal exchange between the partners in mycorrhizal associations. The progress in understanding cellular processes has been more rapid in arbuscular than ectomycorrhizal symbiosis due to its similarities of early processes with Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. In ectomycorrhiza, the role of auxin and ethylene produced by both fungus and host plant is becoming understood at the molecular level, although the actual ligands and receptors leading to ectomycorrhizal symbiosis have not yet been discovered. For both systems, the functions of small effector proteins secreted from the respective fungus and taken up into the plant cell may be pivotal in understanding the attenuation of host defense. We review the subject by comparing cross-talk between fungal and plant partners during formation and establishment of arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal symbioses. PMID:25260351

  6. Litter-forager termite mounds enhance the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Acacia holosericea A. Cunn. Ex G. Don and Scleroderma dictyosporum isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Duponnois, Robin; Assigbetse, Komi; Ramanankierana, H.; Kisa, Marija; Thioulouse, J.; Lepage, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The hypothesis of the present study was that the termite mounds of Macrotermes subhyalinus (MS) (a litter-forager termite) were inhabited by a specific microflora that could enhance with the ectomycorrhizal fungal development. We tested the effect of this feeding group mound material on (i) the ectomycorrhization symbiosis between Acacia holosericea (an Australian Acacia introduced in the sahelian areas) and two ectomycorrhizal fungal isolates of Scleroderma dictyosporum (IR408 and IR412) in ...

  7. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis of tropical African trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bâ, Amadou M; Duponnois, Robin; Moyersoen, Bernard; Diédhiou, Abdala G

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, ecology and function of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi and ectomycorrhizas (ECMs) on tropical African tree species are reviewed here. While ECMs are the most frequent mycorrhizal type in temperate and boreal forests, they concern an economically and ecologically important minority of plants in African tropical forests. In these African tropical forests, ECMs are found mainly on caesalpionioid legumes, Sarcolaenaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Asterpeiaceae, Phyllantaceae, Sapotaceae, Papilionoideae, Gnetaceae and Proteaceae, and distributed in open, gallery and rainforests of the Guineo-Congolian basin, Zambezian Miombo woodlands of East and South-Central Africa and Sudanian savannah woodlands of the sub-sahara. Overall, EM status was confirmed in 93 (26%) among 354 tree species belonging to EM genera. In addition, 195 fungal taxa were identified using morphological descriptions and sequencing of the ML5/ML6 fragment of sporocarps and ECMs from West Africa. Analyses of the belowground EM fungal communities mostly based on fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences of ECMs from Continental Africa, Madagascar and the Seychelles also revealed more than 350 putative species of EM fungi belonging mainly to 18 phylogenetic lineages. As in temperate forests, the /russula-lactarius and /tomentella-thelephora lineages dominated EM fungal flora in tropical Africa. A low level of host preference and dominance of multi-host fungal taxa on different African adult tree species and their seedlings were revealed, suggesting a potential for the formation of common ectomycorrhizal networks. Moreover, the EM inoculum potential in terms of types and density of propagules (spores, sclerotia, EM root fragments and fragments of mycelia strands) in the soil allowed opportunistic root colonisation as well as long-term survival in the soil during the dry season. These are important characteristics when choosing an EM fungus for field application. In this respect, Thelephoroid fungal sp

  8. Molecular genetic characterisation of the Asc locus of tomato conferring resistance to the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biezen, E.A. van der; Overduin, B.; Kneppers, T.J.A.; Mesbah, L.A.; Nijkamp, H.J.J.; Hille, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Alternaria stem canker disease of tomato is caused by the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici and its host-selective AAL-toxins. Resistance to the pathogen and insensitivity to the toxins are conferred by the Asc locus on chromosome 3L. Sensitivity to AAL-toxins is a relative

  9. The effect of fertilization on the below-ground diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Shannon H A; Berch, Shannon M; Berbee, Mary L

    2009-04-01

    Fertilization typically reduces ectomycorrhizal diversity shortly after its application but less is known about its longer-term influence on fungal species. Long-term effects are important in forests where fertilizer is rarely applied. We compared fungal species composition in western hemlock control plots with plots last fertilized 7 years ago with nitrogen (N) or nitrogen plus phosphorus (N + P). The N + P fertilization had a significant lingering effect, increasing the tree size and foliar P content of the western hemlocks. From ectomycorrhizal roots of 24-year-old trees from northern Vancouver Island, Canada, we identified fungi from 12 samples per treatment, by amplifying, cloning, and sequencing fungal ribosomal DNA fragments, placing sequences with 97% or more identity in the same operational taxonomic unit (OTU). Diversity was high across treatments; we detected 77 fungal OTUs, 52 from ectomycorrhizal genera, among 922 clone sequences. The five most frequent OTUs were similar in abundance across treatments. Only 19 OTUs matched any of the 197 previously reported ectomycorrhizal species of western hemlock. Species composition but not diversity in nitrogen plus phosphorus plots differed significantly from control or nitrogen plots. Two Cortinarius OTUs were indicator species for nitrogen plus phosphorus plots and presence of Cortinarius cinnamomeus was correlated with control or nitrogen plots. After 7 years, fertilization history had made no detectable difference in ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity, but long-lasting changes in environment resulting from fertilization had a lingering effect on fungal ectomycorrhizal species composition. PMID:19139932

  10. Bio-Mobilization of Potassium from Clay Minerals: II. By Ectomycorrhizal Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, including Cenococcum geophilurn SIV (Cg SIV), and Pisolithus tinctorius 2144(Pt 2144), 441 (Pt 441) and XC1 (Pt XC1), were cultured in Pachlewski liquid medium with H2KPO4, KClsaturated vermiculite and mica as K sources, respectively, to investigate the mechanism of K absorption and mobilization by the fungi. Fungal growth rate, K absorption and mobilization varied significantly among the fungal species. Faster growth and greater K accumulation in Pt XC1 than Pt 2 144, Pt 441 and Cg siv were observed. Ectomycorrhizal fungi depressed HCl-soluble K in minerals after successive extractions by water and NH4OAc. Ratio of the total amount of K, including water-, NH4OAc- and HCl-soluble K, lost from substrates to the K accumulated in fungal colonies was less than 60%. These reveal that the ectomycorrhizal fungi could utilize K in interlayer and structural pools, which are usually unavailable for plants in short period. Large differences in the depletion of K in interlayer and structural pools by fungi were observed at fungal harvest. Taking into account the nutrient absorption by ectomycorrhizal fungi in symbionts and the direct contact between hyphae and soils, the fungi species colonized on the root surfaces seemed to be related to the effectiveness of mycorrhizas to utilize K in soils. Ectomycorrhizal fungi differed in the efflux of protons and oxalate. Pt XC1 was observed to have greatest ability to effuse protons and oxalate among the fungi adopted in the experiment. Furthermore, the higher the concentrations of protons and oxalate in the liquid culture solutions, the larger the depletion of K in interlayer and structural pools in minerals by fungi. Protons could replace interlayer K and chelation of oxalate with Fe and A1 in crystal lattice could cause weathering of clay minerals. So, protons and oxalate produced by ectomycorrhizal fungi might play an important role in K mobilization in these two pools.

  11. A mycorrhiza helper bacterium enhances ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal symbiosis of Australian Acacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponnois, R; Plenchette, C

    2003-04-01

    The aims of this study were to test the effects of a mycorrhiza helper bacterium (MHB), Pseudomonas monteilii strain HR13 on the mycorrhization of (1) an Australian Acacia, A. holosericea, by several ectomycorrhizal fungi or one endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices, and (2) several Australian Acacia species by Pisolithus alba strain IR100 under glasshouse conditions. Bacterial inoculant HR13 significantly promoted ectomycorrhizal colonization for all the Acacia species, from 45.8% ( A. mangium) to 70.3% ( A. auriculiformis). A stimulating effect of HR13 on the ectomycorrhizal establishment was recorded with all the fungal isolates (strains of Pisolithus and Scleroderma). The same effect of bacteria on the frequency of endomycorrhizal colonization of A. holosericea seedlings by G. intraradices with vesicles and hyphae frequencies was recorded. The stimulation of saprophytic fungal growth by MHB is usually the main mechanism that could explain this bacterial effect on mycorrhizal establishment. MHB could stimulate the production of phenolic compounds such as hypaphorine and increase the aggressiveness of the fungal symbiont. However, no significant effect of MHB on fungal growth was recorded with Scleroderma isolates under axenic conditions but positive bacterial effects were observed with Pisolithus strains. From a practical viewpoint, it appears that MHB could stimulate the mycorrhizal colonization of Australian Acacia species with ectomycorrhizal or endomycorrhizal fungi, and could also facilitate controlled mycorrhization in nursery practices where Acacia species are grown for forestation purposes. PMID:12682830

  12. The effects of fire severity on ectomycorrhizal colonization and morphometric features in Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Vásquez-Gassibe; Juan-Andrés Oria-de-Rueda; Luis Santos-del-Blanco; Pablo Martín-Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study: Mycorrhizal fungi in Mediterranean forests play a key role in the complex process of recovery after wildfires. A broader understanding of an important pyrophytic species as Pinus pinaster and its fungal symbionts is thus necessary for forest restoration purposes. This study aims to assess the effects of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on maritime pine seedlings and how fire severity affects fungal colonization ability.Area of study: Central Spain, in a Mediterranean region typical...

  13. Succession dynamics of ectomycorrhizal fungi in inoculated Quercus rubra seedlings – a field study

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Albina R.; Ramos, Miguel A.; Sousa, Nadine R.; Oliveira, Rui S.; Castro, Paula M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Selected ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi may have a beneficial effect on the establishment of nursery grown seedlings and may influence their survival on the first years. By increasing seedling capacity to capture nutrients, ECM fungi often contribute to a successful plant establishment. We investigated the performance of pre-inoculated Quercus rubra seedlings on a reforestation site and monitored ECM fungal persistence and succession dynamics between selected ECM fungi and native fungal communi...

  14. Chewing up the Wood-Wide Web: Selective Grazing on Ectomycorrhizal Fungi by Collembola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Kanters

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mycelia of some symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi form extensive networks—the so called “wood-wide web”—that have key roles in biogeochemical cycling. By interacting with myriad soil organisms such as collembola, the fungi directly affect the functioning of above- and below-ground multitrophic interactions in ecosystems. Here we tested whether the grazing activities of collembola affected the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi in single or mixed species axenic cultures, and their impact on ectomycorrhizal diversity in litterbags in the field. We also used 14CO2 pulse-labelling to test the effects of collembola on respiratory losses of recent plant assimilate from external mycelium of ectomycorrhizal fungi in symbiosis with Scots pine or birch. We found that the effects of collembola varied across species, and caused a significant reduction in the amount of 14CO2 released from external mycorrhizal mycelium from three of the eight species combinations but increased it in one. Selective grazing also significantly affected the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Our findings demonstrate the importance of collembola in regulating ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and activity and below-ground pathways of carbon flow.

  15. Beyond ectomycorrhizal bipartite networks: projected networks demonstrate contrasted patterns between early- and late-successional plants in Corsica

    OpenAIRE

    Taudiere, Adrien; Munoz, François; Lesne, Annick; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Bellanger, Jean-Michel; Selosse, Marc-André; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Richard, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis connects mutualistic plants and fungal species into bipartite networks. While links between one focal ECM plant and its fungal symbionts have been widely documented, systemic views of ECM networks are lacking, in particular, concerning the ability of fungal species to mediate indirect ecological interactions between ECM plant species (projected-ECM networks). We assembled a large dataset of plant–fungi associations at the species level and at the scale of C...

  16. Species richness and abundance of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete sporocarps on a moisture gradient in the Tsuga heterophylla zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Thomas E.; Ammirati, Joseph F.; Schreiner, Edward G.

    1999-01-01

    Sporocarps of epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungi and vegetation data were collected from eight Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. - Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco stands along a wet to dry gradient in Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A. One hundred and fifty species of ectomycorrhizal fungi were collected from a total sample area of 2.08 ha. Over 2 years, fungal species richness ranged from 19 to 67 taxa per stand. Sporocarp standing crop ranged from 0 to 3.8 kg/ha, averaging 0.58 kg/ha, 0.06 kg/ha in spring and 0.97 kg/ha in fall. Sporocarp standing crop and fungal species richness were correlated with precipitation. These results demonstrated that ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarp abundance and species richness can be partly explained in terms of an environmental gradient.

  17. Diversity of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Associated with Eucalyptus in Africa and Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ducousso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the Australian genus Eucalyptus in short rotation plantations in Africa and Madagascar has developed over the last century to such an extent that it is becoming the most frequently planted genus in Africa. In order to find ecologically well-adapted eucalypts, foresters have tested different species of various origins and the number of tested Eucalyptus species now exceeds 150 in Africa. Due to the ability of eucalypts to naturally form ectomycorrhizae, even in the absence of any controlled introduction of compatible ectomycorrhizal fungal partners, their introduction in new ecosystems has direct consequences for ectomycorrhizal fungus communities. A bibliographical compilation, together with original field observations on putative ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with eucalypts in Africa and in Madagascar, has been drawn up in two lists: one for Africa and one for Madagascar where surprisingly high fungal diversity was observed. The level of diversity, the putative origin of the fungi, and their potential impact on native ectomycorrhizal fungi are discussed. The development of eucalypts plantations will inexorably lead to the increase of exotic fungal species being potentially invasive in the considered region.

  18. Ectomycorrhizal activity as affected by soil liming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Solbritt

    1996-05-01

    Acidification of the forest soils in southern Sweden due to atmospheric deposition has become evident during recent decades. To counteract further acidification, liming of forests in the most affected areas has been proposed. Most forest trees in the temperate and boreal forest ecosystems live in symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal fungi, and their uptake of mineral nutrients from the soil is greatly influenced by the symbiosis. In this thesis effects of liming on ectomycorrhiza have been studied in relation to effects on root colonization, fungal growth and nitrogen uptake. In field experiments the effects of liming on ectomycorrhizal colonization of root tips were variable, possibly due to different soil types and climatic variations. However, a changed mycorrhizal community structure could be detected. Laboratory studies also showed that the substrate may influence the outcome of lime applications; the nutrient status of the substrate had a marked effect on how mycelial growth was affected by liming. Under the experimental conditions used in the studies presented in this thesis, liming reduced the uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus by both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. The amount of extractable nitrogen and phosphorus in the peat was also reduced by liming. The latter could be due to either microbial or chemical immobilization. The lime induced decrease in nitrogen uptake was stronger in non-mycorrhizal plants than in mycorrhizal plants. Thus, the mycorrhizal plants had a higher ability to deal with the negative effects of liming on nitrogen availability. This was not the case for phosphorus. The lime induced decrease in phosphorus uptake was stronger for mycorrhizal plants, and in the highest lime treatment there was no significant difference between the mycorrhizal and the non-mycorrhizal spruce plants. 76 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  19. Ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity and community structure with natural and cultivated truffle hosts: applying lessons learned to future truffle culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Ana María; Águeda, Beatriz; Sánchez, Sergio; Parladé, Javier

    2014-04-01

    Since the first truffle plantations were established in France, Italy and other parts in the world, many studies have been carried out to improve their productivity and sustainability. Success of plantations is clearly related to the mycorrhizal status of the host trees over the years, from inoculated seedlings to truffle-producing trees. The experience gained in monitoring the ectomycorrhizal fungus status in cultivated truffle grounds has allowed us to develop an extensive catalogue of the ectomycorrhizal fungi present in truffle plantations. Herein, we summarize fungal community data from 85 references that represent different truffle studies in natural habitats and plantations. Approximately 25% of the ectomycorrhizae reported in the 85 references are common to most of the studies. In general, more fungal species are detected in productive plantations than in the non-productive ones. Truffle plantations display a diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal community, in which species of the genus Tuber are well represented. Tuber rufum and some members of Boletales are typically restricted to productive truffle plots. On the other hand, Hebeloma, Laccaria and Russula species are mostly associated with unproductive plots. Ectomycorrhizae belonging to Thelephoraceae are frequently found in mature truffle orchards but do not seem to affect sporocarp production. Several biotic and abiotic factors affect the ectomycorrhizal fungus communities associated with truffle orchards. Among them are plantation age, host species and its growth, the surrounding environment (particularly the presence of other ectomycorrhizal hosts), and plantation management. Understanding the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities inhabiting different plantations may give us clues about the dynamics of the targeted truffles and the possibility of identifying mycorrhizal fungal species that are good indicators of successful truffle plantations. PMID:24424507

  20. Ectomycorrhizal communities associated with silver fir seedlings (Abies alba Mill.) differ largely in mature silver fir stands and in Scots pine forecrops

    OpenAIRE

    Ważny, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    & Context The requirement for rebuilding forecrop stands besides replacement of meadow vegetation with forest plants and formation of soil humus is the presence of a compatible ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community. & Aims This study aims to assess ectomycorrhizal fungi di-versity associated with silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) seedlings regenerating in silver fir stands and Scots pine forecrops. & Methods One-year-old seedlings were sampled in six study sites: three mature fir forests and thr...

  1. Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Affects Ectomycorrhizal Species Abundance and Increases Sporocarp Production under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Godbold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities during the last century have increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Forest net primary productivity increases in response to elevated CO2, altering the quantity and quality of carbon supplied to the rhizosphere. Ectomycorrhizal fungi form obligate symbiotic associations with the fine roots of trees that mediate improved scavenging for nutrients in exchange for a carbohydrate supply. Understanding how the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi is altered by climate change is important to further our understanding of ecosystem function. Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica were grown in an elevated CO2 atmosphere delivered using free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE under field conditions in the U.K., and Picea abies was grown under elevated CO2 in glass domes in the Czech Republic. We used morphotyping and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the fungal ribosomal operon to study ectomycorrhizal community structure. Under FACE, un-colonised roots tips increased in abundance for Fagus sylvatica, and during 2006, sporocarp biomass of Peziza badia significantly increased. In domes, ectomycorrhizal community composition shifted from short-distance and smooth medium-distance to contact exploration types. Supply and competition for carbon belowground can influence ectomycorrhizal community structure with the potential to alter ecosystem function.

  2. Characterisation of the bacterial and fungal communities associated with different lesion sizes of dark spot syndrome occurring in the coral Stephanocoenia intersepta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sweet

    Full Text Available The number and prevalence of coral diseases/syndromes are increasing worldwide. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS afflicts numerous coral species and is widespread throughout the Caribbean, yet there are no known causal agents. In this study we aimed to characterise the microbial communities (bacteria and fungi associated with DSS lesions affecting the coral Stephanocoenia intersepta using nonculture molecular techniques. Bacterial diversity of healthy tissues (H, those in advance of the lesion interface (apparently healthy AH, and three sizes of disease lesions (small, medium, and large varied significantly (ANOSIM R  = 0.052 p<0.001, apart from the medium and large lesions, which were similar in their community profile. Four bacteria fitted into the pattern expected from potential pathogens; namely absent from H, increasing in abundance within AH, and dominant in the lesions themselves. These included ribotypes related to Corynebacterium (KC190237, Acinetobacter (KC190251, Parvularculaceae (KC19027, and Oscillatoria (KC190271. Furthermore, two Vibrio species, a genus including many proposed coral pathogens, dominated the disease lesion and were absent from H and AH tissues, making them candidates as potential pathogens for DSS. In contrast, other members of bacteria from the same genus, such as V. harveyii were present throughout all sample types, supporting previous studies where potential coral pathogens exist in healthy tissues. Fungal diversity varied significantly as well, however the main difference between diseased and healthy tissues was the dominance of one ribotype, closely related to the plant pathogen, Rhytisma acerinum, a known causal agent of tar spot on tree leaves. As the corals' symbiotic algae have been shown to turn to a darker pigmented state in DSS (giving rise to the syndromes name, the two most likely pathogens are R. acerinum and the bacterium Oscillatoria, which has been identified as the causal agent of the colouration in

  3. EcM fungal community structure, but not diversity, altered in a Pb-contaminated shooting range in a boreal coniferous forest site in Southern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Nan; Jumpponen, Ari; Niskanen, Tuula; Liimatainen, Kare; Jones, Kenneth L; Koivula, Teija; Romantschuk, Martin; Strömmer, Rauni

    2011-04-01

    Boreal forests contain diverse fungal communities that form essential ectomycorrhizal symbioses with trees. To determine the effects of lead (Pb) contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with the dominant pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), we surveyed sporocarps for 3 years, analyzed morphotyped ectomycorrhizal root tips by direct sequencing, and 454-sequenced fungal communities that grew into in-growth bags during a 2-year incubation at a shooting range where sectors vary in the Pb load. We recorded a total of 32 ectomycorrhizal fungi that formed conspicuous sporocarps, 27 ectomycorrhizal fungal phylotypes from 294 root tips, and 116 ectomycorrhizal fungal operation taxonomic unit (OTUs) from a total of 8194 internal transcribed spacer-2 454 sequences. Our ordination analyses by nonparametric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated that the Pb enrichment induced a shift in the ectomycorrhizal community composition. This was visible as indicative trends in the sporocarp and root tip data sets, but was explicitly clear in the communities observed in the in-growth bags. The compositional shift in the ectomycorrhizal community was mainly attributable to an increase in the frequencies of OTUs assigned to genus Thelephora and to a decrease in the OTUs assigned to Pseudotomentella, Suillus, and Tylospora in Pb-contaminated areas when compared with the control. While the compositional shifts are clear, their functional consequences for the dominant trees or soil ecosystem function remain undetermined. PMID:21223331

  4. Contrasting diversity and host association of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes versus root-associated ascomycetes in a dipterocarp rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotoshi Sato

    Full Text Available Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL region and fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region were sequenced using tag-encoded, massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to identify host plant and root-associated fungal taxa in root samples. In total, 1245 ascomycetous and 127 putative ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous taxa were detected from 442 root samples. The putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota were likely to be associated with closely related dipterocarp taxa to greater or lesser extents, whereas host association patterns of the root-associated Ascomycota were much less distinct. The community structure of the putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota was possibly more influenced by host genetic distances than was that of the root-associated Ascomycota. This study also indicated that in dipterocarp rainforests, root-associated Ascomycota were characterized by high biodiversity and indistinct host association patterns, whereas ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota showed less biodiversity and a strong host phylogenetic preference for dipterocarp trees. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that root-associated Ascomycota, which might be mainly represented by root-endophytic fungi, have biodiversity hotspots in the tropics, whereas biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota increases with host genetic diversity.

  5. Contrasting diversity and host association of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes versus root-associated ascomycetes in a dipterocarp rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Toju, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota) in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) region and fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region were sequenced using tag-encoded, massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to identify host plant and root-associated fungal taxa in root samples. In total, 1245 ascomycetous and 127 putative ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous taxa were detected from 442 root samples. The putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota were likely to be associated with closely related dipterocarp taxa to greater or lesser extents, whereas host association patterns of the root-associated Ascomycota were much less distinct. The community structure of the putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota was possibly more influenced by host genetic distances than was that of the root-associated Ascomycota. This study also indicated that in dipterocarp rainforests, root-associated Ascomycota were characterized by high biodiversity and indistinct host association patterns, whereas ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota showed less biodiversity and a strong host phylogenetic preference for dipterocarp trees. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that root-associated Ascomycota, which might be mainly represented by root-endophytic fungi, have biodiversity hotspots in the tropics, whereas biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota increases with host genetic diversity. PMID:25884708

  6. Phylogenetic, genomic organization and expression analysis of hydrophobin genes in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Plett, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophobins are morphogenetic, small secreted hydrophobic fungal proteins produced in response to changing development and environmental conditions. These proteins are important in the interaction between certain fungi and their hosts. In mutualistic ectomycorrhizal fungi several hydrophobins form a subclass of mycorrhizal-induced small secreted proteins that are likely to be critical in the formation of the symbiotic interface with host root cells. In this study, two genomes of the ectomyco...

  7. Effects of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi on Growth of Seedlings of Pinus densiflora

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Mi-Yeong; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the different effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal (ECMF) species on the growth of seedlings of Pinus densiflora, and the effects of ECMF diversity on plant productivity. A total of five species of ECMF were isolated from root tips of pine seedlings collected from Mt. Songni and used as inocula. Pots containing pine seedlings were inoculated with either a single ECMF species or a mixture of five ECMF species. All of the seedlings formed ECM on their roots ...

  8. Mapping fungi from below ground: online genetic resources and ectomycorrhizal geographic distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Bidartondo MI; Tse-Laurence MA

    2011-01-01

    We used DNA sequences of 20 ectomycorrhizal fungal species obtained from roots in Britain and Germany to find location data within Europe for these fungi in the public DNA databases. These data were used to plot species presence on maps, environmental layers were laid over these maps, and information from those sites was extrapolated using geographic information systems. Through randomization tests the significant factors for each species from available data were tested. Similar methodology w...

  9. Identification of some ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes by PCR amplification of their gpd (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuzinger, N; Podeu, R; Gruber, F; Göbl, F; Kubicek, C P

    1996-01-01

    Degenerated oligonucleotide primers designed to flank an approximately 1.2-kb fragment of the gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes were used to amplify the corresponding gpd fragments from several species of the ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa Boletus, Amanita, and Lactarius. Those from B. edulis, A. muscaria, and L. deterrimus were cloned and sequenced. The respective nucleotide sequences of these gene fragments showed a moderate degree...

  10. Growth and Nutrition of Eucalypt Rooted Cuttings Promoted by Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Commercial Nurseries

    OpenAIRE

    Andrezza Mara Martins Gandini; Paulo Henrique Grazziotti; Márcio José Rossi; Danielle Cristina Fonseca Santos Grazziotti; Elizzandra Marta Martins Gandini; Enilson de Barros Silva; Carla Ragonezi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) may improve the adaptation of eucalypts saplings to field conditions and allow more efficient fertilizer use. The effectiveness of EMF inoculum application in promoting fungal colonization, plant growth, nutrient uptake, and the quality of rooted cuttings was evaluated forEucalyptus urophylla under commercial nursery conditions. For inoculated treatments, fertilization of the sapling substrate was reduced by 50 %. The experiment was carried out in a comple...

  11. The aquaporin gene family of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor: lessons for symbiotic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Sandra; von Bülow, Julia; Beitz, Eric; Nehls, Uwe

    2011-06-01

    Soil humidity and bulk water transport are essential for nutrient mobilization. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, bridging soil and fine roots of woody plants, are capable of modulating both by being integrated into water movement driven by plant transpiration and the nocturnal hydraulic lift. Aquaporins are integral membrane proteins that function as gradient-driven water and/or solute channels. Seven aquaporins were identified in the genome of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor and their role in fungal transfer processes was analyzed. Heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed relevant water permeabilities for three aquaporins. In fungal mycelia, expression of the corresponding genes was high compared with other members of the gene family, indicating the significance of the respective proteins for plasma membrane water permeability. As growth temperature and ectomycorrhiza formation modified gene expression profiles of these water-conducting aquaporins, specific roles in those aspects of fungal physiology are suggested. Two aquaporins, which were highly expressed in ectomycorrhizas, conferred plasma membrane ammonia permeability in yeast. This indicates that these proteins are an integral part of ectomycorrhizal fungus-based plant nitrogen nutrition in symbiosis. PMID:21352231

  12. Fungal arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and irritation (inflammation) of a joint by a fungal infection. It is also called mycotic arthritis. Causes Fungal ... symptoms of fungal arthritis. Prevention Thorough treatment of fungal infections elsewhere in the body may help prevent fungal ...

  13. The ectomycorrhizal community in natural Tuber borchii grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iotti, Mirco; Lancellotti, Enrico; Hall, Ian; Zambonelli, Alessandra

    2010-05-01

    Although Tuber borchii is a commercially valuable truffle, its habitat has been virtually ignored. Here, we examine the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in natural T. borchii grounds. Ectomycorrhizas under T. borchii ascomata and up to 1 m away were collected and morphologically assigned to pine or oak host plants. They were then morphotyped and molecular typed using internal transcribed spacer regions. Seventy ectomycorrhizal taxa were identified, many of which were rare. Tuber borchii dominated, forming 20% of ectomycorrhizas, with Thelephoraceae, Inocybaceae and Sebacinaceae being the other main species. Species composition was markedly affected by the host plant, although community structure and composition was also influenced by the location from which the soil cores were collected. Tuber dryophilum, an edible truffle, but without commercial value, shared the habitat with T. borchii. Its mycorrhizas were never found together with those of T. borchii. Tuber borchii was present on both oaks and pines, but was more abundant in soil cores where the roots of both hosts were present. It is suggested that the presence of young oaks contributed to the maintenance of T. borchii colonization on pines. PMID:20199569

  14. Ectomycorrhizal fungi enhance nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition of Nothofagus dombeyi under drought conditions by regulating assimilative enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Olivares, Erick; Saavedra, Isabel; Alberdi, Miren; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Drought stress conditions (DC) reduce plant growth and nutrition, restraining the sustainable reestablishment of Nothofagus dombeyi in temperate south Chilean forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhizal symbioses have been documented to enhance plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake under drought, but the regulation of involved assimilative enzymes remains unclear. We studied 1-year-old N. dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. plants in association with the ectomycorrhizal fungi Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch. and Descolea antartica Sing. In greenhouse experiments, shoot and root dry weights, mycorrhizal colonization, foliar N and P concentrations, and root enzyme activities [glutamate synthase (glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT), EC 1.4.1.13-14), glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.2-4), nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1), and acid phosphomonoesterase (PME, EC 3.1.3.1-2)] were determined as a function of soil-water content. Inoculation of N. dombeyi with P. tinctorius and D. antartica significantly stimulated plant growth and increased plant foliar N and P concentrations, especially under DC. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation increased the activity of all studied enzymes relative to non-mycorrhizal plants under drought. We speculate that GDH is a key enzyme involved in the enhancement of ectomycorrhizal carbon (C) availability by fuelling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle under conditions of drought-induced carbon deficit. All studied assimilative enzymes of the ectomycorrhizal associations, involved in C, N, and P transfers, are closely interlinked and interdependent. The up-regulation of assimilative enzyme activities by ectomycorrhizal fungal root colonizers acts as a functional mechanism to increase seedling endurance to drought. We insist upon incorporating ectomycorrhizal inoculation in existing Chilean afforestation programs. PMID:19470091

  15. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people.Infection can cause discomfo...

  16. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation of willows on cut-over bored peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loree, M.; Lumme, I.; Niemi, M.; Toermaelae, T.

    1988-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculation was explored as a means to improve productivity of experimental short-rotation plantations of the willows Salix viminalis L. and Salix dasyclados Wimm. for biomass production on surface-mined peatlands in northern Finland. Both willow species formed ectomycorrhizas with Amanita spp., Cortinarius purpurascens, Entoloma nidorosum and other Entoloma spp., Hebeloma crustuliniforme, H. pusillum, Laccaria bicolor, and Paxillus involutus in greenhouse experiments. Field trials on a mined peatland site revealed (after one growing season) statistically significant growth stimultion due to inoculation, but these results were sometimes attributable to non-symbiotic effects of inoculation. Inoculation with some Entoloma isolates resulted in additional field growth stimulation due to symbiotic effects both willow species: plants inoculated with Entoloma were sometimes twice as large as control plants. however, such effects were observed only in plots receiving normal phosphate fertilization 40-80 kg as opposed to low 10-40 kg application and were not consistent from season to season.

  17. The spatial distribution of acid phosphatase activity in ectomycorrhizal tissues depends on soil fertility and morphotype, and relates to host plant phosphorus uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Díaz, Leila Milena; Villanueva, Claudia Añazco; Heyser, Wolfgang; Boeckx, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Acid phosphatase (ACP) enzymes are involved in the mobilization of soil phosphorus (P) and polyphosphate accumulated in the fungal tissues of ectomycorrhizal roots, thereby influencing the amounts of P that are stored in the fungus and transferred to the host plant. This study evaluated the effects of ectomycorrhizal morphotype and soil fertility on ACP activity in the extraradical mycelium (ACP(myc)), the mantle (ACP(mantle)) and the Hartig net region (ACP(Hartig)) of ectomycorrhizal Nothofagus obliqua seedlings. ACP activity was quantified in vivo using enzyme-labelled fluorescence-97 (ELF-97) substrate, confocal laser microscopy and digital image processing routines. There was a significant effect of ectomycorrhizal morphotype on ACP(myc), ACP(mantle) and ACP(Hartig), while soil fertility had a significant effect on ACP(myc) and ACP(Hartig). The relative contribution of the mantle and the Hartig net region to the ACP activity on the ectomycorrhizal root was significantly affected by ectomycorrhizal morphotype and soil fertility. A positive correlation between ACP(Hartig) and the shoot P concentration was found, providing evidence that ACP activity at the fungus:root interface is involved in P transfer from the fungus to the host. It is concluded that the spatial distribution of ACP in ectomycorrhizas varies as a function of soil fertility and colonizing fungus. PMID:21902696

  18. Growth and Nutrition of Eucalypt Rooted Cuttings Promoted by Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Commercial Nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Mara Martins Gandini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF may improve the adaptation of eucalypts saplings to field conditions and allow more efficient fertilizer use. The effectiveness of EMF inoculum application in promoting fungal colonization, plant growth, nutrient uptake, and the quality of rooted cuttings was evaluated forEucalyptus urophylla under commercial nursery conditions. For inoculated treatments, fertilization of the sapling substrate was reduced by 50 %. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement, wherein the factors were inoculum application rates of 0 (control, 5, 10, and 15 gel beads of calcium alginate containing the vegetative mycelium of Amanita muscaria, Elaphomyces antracinus, Pisolithus microcarpus, andScleroderma areolatum, plus a non-inoculated treatment without fertilization reduction in the substrate (commercial. Ectomycorrhizal fungi increased plant growth and fungal colonization as well as N and K uptake evenly. The best plant growth and fungal colonization were observed for the highest application rate. The greatest growth and fungal colonization and contents of P, N, and K were observed at the 10-bead rate. Plant inoculation with Amanita muscaria, Elaphomyces anthracinus, and Scleroderma areolatum increased P concentrations and contents in a differential manner. The Dickson Quality Index was not affected by the type of fungi or by inoculum application rates. Eucalypt rooted cuttings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi and under half the amount of commercial fertilization had P, N, and K concentrations and contents greater than or equal to those of commercial plants and have high enough quality to be transplanted after 90 days.

  19. Distinct turnover in fungal communities along an alpine ridge-snowbed gradient

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The ridge-snowbed gradient is of high importance in alpine areas in structuring the vegetation cover. However, to what degree belowground fungal communities are affected by the gradient is much poorer understood. In this study, the fungal diversity and community composition associated with roots of the ectomycorrhizal plant Bistorta vivipara were studied along the ridge–snowbed gradient. Fifty root samples were collected in ten plots in an alpine area in central Norway and the fungal communit...

  20. Is the release of acid phosphatases by ectomycorrhizal fungi a matter of environmental conditions or species in situ?

    OpenAIRE

    Plassard, Claude; Ali, Muhhammad A.; Duchemin, Myriam; Legname-Vonarx, Elvira; Louche, Julien; Cloutier-Hurteau, Benoît

    2011-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are able to release significant amounts of phosphatases (Pases) in their environment. These enzymes, by releasing the phosphate group of organic P, may play an important role in the recycling of P in forest soil. However, whether this enzyme release depends on the fungal diversity and / or the nutrient availability is not known. We addressed this question in the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) forest, the first planted area in France on sandy podzol very poor in ...

  1. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacteria on pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Dahm

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ecomycorrhizal fungi (Hebelon crustuliniforme(Bull.: Fr. Quél. 5392 and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers. Coker et Couch 5335 and bacteria (Bacillus polymyxa and Azospirillum brasilense. associated with mycorrhizas on the growth of pine seedligs was investigated. In addition the influence of bacteria on fungal biomass production and the relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungi and fungi pathogenic to root of pine seedlings were determined. In general, the shoot/root ratio was higher in plants inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme and bacteria than in the control seedlings (grown only under sterile conditions. In non-sterile substrate the root/shoot ratio of the mycorrhizal seedlings was lower as compared to the control. Similar phenomenon was noted in plants inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinetorius. The bacteria used as well as the time of introduction of these organisms into the cultures of mycorrhiza fungi affected the production of fungal biomass. Hebeloma crustuliniforme and Pisolithus tinctorius inhibited the growth of Rizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum fungi pathogenic to pine seedlings.

  2. Diversity of ectomycorrhizal Thelephoraceae in Tuber melanosporum-cultivated orchards of Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Ana María; Águeda, Beatriz; Sáez, Raimundo; Sánchez, Sergio; Parladé, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Truffles are edible hypogeous ascomycetes highly appreciated worldwide, especially the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.). In recent decades, the cultivation of the black truffle has expanded across the Mediterranean climate regions in and outside its native range. Members of the Thelephoraceae (Thelephorales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) are commonly found in truffle plantations, but their co-occurrence with Tuber species and other members of the fungal community has been scarcely reported. Thelephoraceae is one of the most represented families of the ectomycorrhizal fungal community in boreal and Mediterranean forests. To reveal the diversity of these fungi in T. melanosporum-cultivated plantations, ten orchards located in the Navarra region (Northern Spain) were surveyed for 2 years. Morphological and molecular approaches were used to detect and identify the Thelephoraceae ectomycorrhizas present in those plantations. Ten different mycorrhizal types were detected and described. Four of them were morphologically identified as Tomentella galzinii, Quercirhiza cumulosa, Q. squamosa, and T39 Thelephoraceae type. Molecular analyses revealed 4-6 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), depending on the nucleotide database used, but similarities remained under 95 % and no clear species assignments could be done. The results confirm the diversity and abundance of this fungal family in the ectomycorrhizal community of black truffle plantations, generally established in Mediterranean areas. The occurrence and relative abundance of Thelephoraceae ectomycorrhizas is discussed in relation to their possible influence on truffle production. PMID:26458929

  3. Mycorrhizal formation of nine ectomycorrhizal fungi on poplar cuttings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei MA; Xiaoqin WU; Ling ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    In order to discover which ectomycorrhizal-(ECM) fungi have better growth-promoting effects on poplars, cuttings from four poplar species were inoculated with nine species of ECM fungi by three methods. We investigated the status of mycorrhizal formation and the effects of these fungi on the growth of the poplars. The results show that Xrocomus chrysentero (Xc), Boletus edu-lis (Be), Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) and Laccaria amethystea (La) formed clear ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with the poplar seedlings. Among these four ECM fungi, Xc had the greatest ability to develop mycorrhizae with all four poplar species. Be shows a greater ability to form mycor-rhizae with Populus deltoides Bartr cv. 'Lux' (Poplar I-69). Pt and La had relatively weaker abilities of colonization. The other five ECM fungal species, i.e., Scleroderma luteus (S1), Leeeinum scabrum (Ls), Boletus speeiosus (Bs), Calvatia eraniiformis (Cc) and Rhizopogen luteous (RI) could not easily form mycorrhizae with poplar seed-lings grown in sterilized substrates, but could do so in non-sterilized soil. With the method of drilling and inject-ing liquid inoculum, a simple operation, the mycorrhizal infection rates were higher than with the other two meth-ods, applying solid inoculum as fertilizer at the bottom of the pots and dipping roots in the inoculum slurry. P. simonii Carr. formed mycorrhizae with most of the nine ECM fungi. P. × euramericana (Dode) Guinier cv. 'San Martino' (Poplar 1-72) and P. deltoids Harvard × P. del-toids Lux (Poplar NL-351) had the highest compatibility with Pt. Poplar I-69 shows the highest compatibility with Xc. The study indicates that the optimal ECM fungi for poplars I-69, I-72 and NL-351 were Be, Xc and Pt, respectively. The optimal fungi for P. simonii Carr. were Xc and Be. These ECM fungi promoted the growth of the poplar seedlings significantly.

  4. Using next generation transcriptome sequencing to predict an ectomycorrhizal metablome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, P. E.; Sreedasyam, A.; Trivedi, G; Podila, G. K.; Cseke, L. J.; Collart, F. R. (Biosciences Division); (On Assignment, Scientific Staffing); (Univ. of Alabama at Huntsville)

    2011-05-13

    Mycorrhizae, symbiotic interactions between soil fungi and tree roots, are ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems. The fungi contribute phosphorous, nitrogen and mobilized nutrients from organic matter in the soil and in return the fungus receives photosynthetically-derived carbohydrates. This union of plant and fungal metabolisms is the mycorrhizal metabolome. Understanding this symbiotic relationship at a molecular level provides important contributions to the understanding of forest ecosystems and global carbon cycling. We generated next generation short-read transcriptomic sequencing data from fully-formed ectomycorrhizae between Laccaria bicolor and aspen (Populus tremuloides) roots. The transcriptomic data was used to identify statistically significantly expressed gene models using a bootstrap-style approach, and these expressed genes were mapped to specific metabolic pathways. Integration of expressed genes that code for metabolic enzymes and the set of expressed membrane transporters generates a predictive model of the ectomycorrhizal metabolome. The generated model of mycorrhizal metabolome predicts that the specific compounds glycine, glutamate, and allantoin are synthesized by L. bicolor and that these compounds or their metabolites may be used for the benefit of aspen in exchange for the photosynthetically-derived sugars fructose and glucose. The analysis illustrates an approach to generate testable biological hypotheses to investigate the complex molecular interactions that drive ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. These models are consistent with experimental environmental data and provide insight into the molecular exchange processes for organisms in this complex ecosystem. The method used here for predicting metabolomic models of mycorrhizal systems from deep RNA sequencing data can be generalized and is broadly applicable to transcriptomic data derived from complex systems.

  5. Using next generation transcriptome sequencing to predict an ectomycorrhizal metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cseke Leland J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycorrhizae, symbiotic interactions between soil fungi and tree roots, are ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems. The fungi contribute phosphorous, nitrogen and mobilized nutrients from organic matter in the soil and in return the fungus receives photosynthetically-derived carbohydrates. This union of plant and fungal metabolisms is the mycorrhizal metabolome. Understanding this symbiotic relationship at a molecular level provides important contributions to the understanding of forest ecosystems and global carbon cycling. Results We generated next generation short-read transcriptomic sequencing data from fully-formed ectomycorrhizae between Laccaria bicolor and aspen (Populus tremuloides roots. The transcriptomic data was used to identify statistically significantly expressed gene models using a bootstrap-style approach, and these expressed genes were mapped to specific metabolic pathways. Integration of expressed genes that code for metabolic enzymes and the set of expressed membrane transporters generates a predictive model of the ectomycorrhizal metabolome. The generated model of mycorrhizal metabolome predicts that the specific compounds glycine, glutamate, and allantoin are synthesized by L. bicolor and that these compounds or their metabolites may be used for the benefit of aspen in exchange for the photosynthetically-derived sugars fructose and glucose. Conclusions The analysis illustrates an approach to generate testable biological hypotheses to investigate the complex molecular interactions that drive ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. These models are consistent with experimental environmental data and provide insight into the molecular exchange processes for organisms in this complex ecosystem. The method used here for predicting metabolomic models of mycorrhizal systems from deep RNA sequencing data can be generalized and is broadly applicable to transcriptomic data derived from complex systems.

  6. Mycorrhizal Fungal Community of Poplars Growing on Pyrite Tailings Contaminated Site near the River Timok

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    Marina Katanić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Mycorrhizal fungi are of high importance for functioning of forest ecosystems and they could be used as indicators of environmental stress. The aim of this research was to analyze ectomycorrhizal community structure and to determine root colonization rate with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi of poplars growing on pyrite tailings contaminated site near the river Timok (Eastern Serbia. Materials and Methods: Identification of ectomycorrhizal types was performed by combining morphological and anatomical characterization of ectomycorrhizae with molecular identification approach, based on sequencing of the nuclear ITS rRNA region. Also, colonization of poplar roots with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septated endophytic fungi were analysed with intersection method. Results and Conclusions: Physico-chemical analyses of soil from studied site showed unfavourable water properties of soil, relatively low pH and high content of heavy metals (copper and zinc. In investigated samples only four different ectomycorrhizal fungi were found. To the species level were identified Thelephora terrestris and Tomentella ellisi, while two types remained unidentified. Type Thelephora terrestris made up 89% of all ectomycorrhizal roots on studied site. Consequently total values of Species richness index and Shannon-Weaver diversity index were 0.80 and 0.43, respectively. No structures of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were recorded. Unfavourable environmental conditions prevailing on investigated site caused decrease of ectomycorrhizal types diversity. Our findings point out that mycorrhyzal fungal community could be used as an appropriate indicator of environmental changes.

  7. Ectomycorrhizal fungi slow soil carbon cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Colin; Hawkes, Christine V

    2016-08-01

    Respiration of soil organic carbon is one of the largest fluxes of CO2 on earth. Understanding the processes that regulate soil respiration is critical for predicting future climate. Recent work has suggested that soil carbon respiration may be reduced by competition for nitrogen between symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi that associate with plant roots and free-living microbial decomposers, which is consistent with increased soil carbon storage in ectomycorrhizal ecosystems globally. However, experimental tests of the mycorrhizal competition hypothesis are lacking. Here we show that ectomycorrhizal roots and hyphae decrease soil carbon respiration rates by up to 67% under field conditions in two separate field exclusion experiments, and this likely occurs via competition for soil nitrogen, an effect larger than 2 °C soil warming. These findings support mycorrhizal competition for nitrogen as an independent driver of soil carbon balance and demonstrate the need to understand microbial community interactions to predict ecosystem feedbacks to global climate. PMID:27335203

  8. Ectomycorrhizal communities above and below ground and truffle productivity in a Tuber aestivum orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Salerni; Maria D'Aguanno; Pamela Leonardi; Claudia Perini

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities (EM) above (EMFb) and below (EMMt) ground associated with Quercus cerris L., Q. pubescens Willd., and Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold was analyzed.Area of study: A 20 year-old orchard that produces Tuber aestivum truffles, located a few kilometers from Chiusi della Verna (latitude 43° 41’ 53’’; longitude 11° 56’ 9’’) in Tuscany (central Italy) was observed.Material and Methods: This investigation combined analyses of EMFb, EMMt, T. aest...

  9. Three-way interactions among ectomycorrhizal mutualists, scale insects, and resistant and susceptible pinyon pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, C.A.; Cobb, N.S.; Whitham, T.G. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Herbivores and mycorrhizal fungi are important associates of most plants, but little is known about how these organisms interact. In a 9-yr experiment, we examined how the pinyon needle scale (Matsucoccus acalyptus) affects and is affected by the ectomycorrhizal mutualists found on the roots of scale-resistant and -susceptible pinyon pines (Pinus edulis). Three major results emerged. First, removal experiments demonstrated that scales negatively affected ectomycorrhiza. Second, although ectomycorrhiza could either positively or negatively influence scale performance by improving plant vigor or increasing plant investment in antiherbivore defenses, we found no ectomycorrhizal effect on scale mortality when we experimentally enhanced levels of ectomycorrhiza. This represented the first test of whether ectomycorrhiza promote plant resistance and contrasted with studies showing that arbuscular mycorrhiza negatively affected herbivores. Third, pinyon resistance to scales mediated the asymmetrical interaction between fungal mutualists and scale herbivores. High scale densities suppressed ectomycorrhizal colonization, but only on trees susceptible to scales. Similarities between mycorrhiza-herbivore interactions and competitive interactions among herbivores suggest broader generalities in the way aboveground herbivores interact with belowground plant associates. However, because mycorrhiza are mutualists, mycorrhiza-herbivore interactions do not fit within traditional competition paradigms. The widespread occurrence and importance of both herbivores and mycorrhiza argue for incorporating their interactions into ecological theory. 53 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Three-way interactions among ectomycorrhizal mutualists, scale insects, and resistant and susceptible pinyon pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, C A; Cobb, N S; Whitham, T G

    1997-05-01

    Herbivores and mycorrhizal fungi are important associates of most plants, but little is known about how these organisms interact. In a 9-yr experiment, we examined how the pinyon needle scale (Matsucoccus acalyptus) affects and is affected by the ectomycorrhizal mutualists found on the roots of scale-resistant and -susceptible pinyon pines (Pinus edulis). Three major results emerged. First, removal experiments demonstrated that scales negatively affected ectomycorrhiza. Second, although ectomycorrhiza could either positively or negatively influence scale performance by improving plant vigor or increasing plant investment in antiherbivore defenses, we found no ectomycorrhizal effect on scale mortality when we experimentally enhanced levels of ectomycorrhiza. This represented the first test of whether ectomycorrhiza promote plant resistance and contrasted with studies showing that arbuscular mycorrhiza negatively affected herbivores. Third, pinyon resistance to scales mediated the asymmetrical interaction between fungal mutualists and scale herbivores. High scale densities suppressed ectomycorrhizal colonization, but only on trees susceptible to scales. Similarities between mycorrhiza-herbivore interactions and competitive interactions among herbivores suggest broader generalities in the way aboveground herbivores interact with belowground plant associates. However, because mycorrhiza are mutualists, mycorrhiza-herbivore interactions do not fit within traditional competition paradigms. The widespread occurrence and importance of both herbivores and mycorrhiza argue for incorporating their interactions into ecological theory. PMID:18811251

  11. Growth of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Pisolithus Microcarpus in different nutritional conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José Rossi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important plant species employed in reforestation programs depend on ectomycorrhizal fungi for their establishment and growth. The exploitation of this symbiosis to improve forest productivity requires fungal inoculants in a large scale level. To develop such a technology it is necessary to define the optimal composition of the culture medium for each fungus. With these objectives in mind, the effect of the composition of the culture medium on biomass production of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus microcarpus (isolate UFSC-Pt116 was studied. The original composition of two culture media, already employed for cultivation of ectomycorrhizal fungi, was submitted to several variations with the C/N ratio as the main variable. A variation of the Pridham-Gottlieb medium was the most efficient for the production of biomass. Therefore, it was submitted to a factorial assay where glucose, peptone and yeast extract components were the factors analyzed. Results showed that the glucose concentration may be increased up to 40 % in order to promote higher biomass production. Peptone had a positive effect on this variable, whereas yeast extract promoted a deleterious effect. These results indicate that it is advisable to eliminate yeast extract from the medium and replace it with peptone prior to use.

  12. Genetic host-tree effects on the ectomycorrhizal community and root characteristics of Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmala, S M; Rajala, T; Haapanen, M; Taylor, A F S; Pennanen, T

    2013-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was used to study the effects of host genotype on short root formation and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community structure in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Rooted cuttings representing 55 clones were inoculated with a mix of vegetative hyphae of five ECM fungal species (Laccaria sp., Amphinema byssoides, Piloderma sp., Cadophora finlandia, Paxillus involutus). After one growing season, the ECM fungal community structure was determined by amplifying the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA directly from ECM root tips. Restriction profiles of obtained amplicons were then compared to those of the inoculated strains. Spruce clones differed in their ECM fungal community composition; we found a statistically significant clone-specific effect on ECM fungal diversity and dominating fungal species. Nevertheless, the broad sense heritabilities of the levels of Laccaria sp., Piloderma sp. and A. byssoides colonisations as well as the ECM fungal community structure were low (H(2) = 0.04-0.11), owing to the high within-clone variation. As nitrogen concentration of needles correlated negatively with ECM fungal richness, our results imply that in the experimental conditions nutrient acquisition of young trees may benefit from colonisation with only one or two ECM fungal species. The heritability of short root density was moderate (H(2) = 0.41) and highest among all the measured shoot and root growth characteristics of Norway spruce cuttings. We suggest that the genetic component determining root growth and short root formation is significant for the performance of young trees in natural environments as these traits drive the formation of the below-ground symbiotic interactions. PMID:22644394

  13. Lack of host specificity leads to independent assortment of dipterocarps and ectomycorrhizal fungi across a soil fertility gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peay, Kabir G; Russo, Sabrina E; McGuire, Krista L; Lim, Zhenyu; Chan, Ju Ping; Tan, Sylvester; Davies, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    Plants interact with a diversity of microorganisms, and there is often concordance in their community structures. Because most community-level studies are observational, it is unclear if such concordance arises because of host specificity, in which microorganisms or plants limit each other's occurrence. Using a reciprocal transplant experiment, we tested the hypothesis that host specificity between trees and ectomycorrhizal fungi determines patterns of tree and fungal soil specialisation. Seedlings of 13 dipterocarp species with contrasting soil specialisations were seeded into plots crossing soil type and canopy openness. Ectomycorrhizal colonists were identified by DNA sequencing. After 2.5 years, we found no evidence of host specificity. Rather, soil environment was the primary determinant of ectomycorrhizal diversity and composition on seedlings. Despite their close symbiosis, our results show that ectomycorrhizal fungi and tree communities in this Bornean rain forest assemble independently of host-specific interactions, raising questions about how mutualism shapes the realised niche. PMID:26032408

  14. Forest Age and Plant Species Composition Determine the Soil Fungal Community Composition in a Chinese Subtropical Forest.

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    Yu Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Fungal diversity and community composition are mainly related to soil and vegetation factors. However, the relative contribution of the different drivers remains largely unexplored, especially in subtropical forest ecosystems. We studied the fungal diversity and community composition of soils sampled from 12 comparative study plots representing three forest age classes (Young: 10-40 yrs; Medium: 40-80 yrs; Old: ≥80 yrs in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve in South-eastern China. Soil fungal communities were assessed employing ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Members of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota dominated the fungal community, with 22 putative ectomycorrhizal fungal families, where Russulaceae and Thelephoraceae were the most abundant taxa. Analysis of similarity showed that the fungal community composition significantly differed among the three forest age classes. Forest age class, elevation of the study plots, and soil organic carbon (SOC were the most important factors shaping the fungal community composition. We found a significant correlation between plant and fungal communities at different taxonomic and functional group levels, including a strong relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungal and non-ectomycorrhizal plant communities. Our results suggest that in subtropical forests, plant species community composition is the main driver of the soil fungal diversity and community composition.

  15. Ectomycorrhizal identification in environmental samples of tree roots by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy

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    Rodica ePena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Roots of forest trees are associated with various ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal species that are involved in nutrient exchange between host plant and the soil compartment. The identification of ECM fungi in small environmental samples is difficult. The present study tested the feasibility of attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy followed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA to discriminate in situ collected ECM fungal species. Root tips colonized by distinct ECM fungal species, i.e., Amanita rubescens, Cenococcum geophilum, Lactarius subdulcis, Russula ochroleuca, and Xerocomus pruinatus were collected in mono-specific beech (Fagus sylvatica and mixed deciduous forests in different geographic areas to investigate the environmental variability of the ECM FTIR signatures.A clear HCA discrimination was obtained for ECM fungal species independent of individual provenance. Environmental variability neither limited the discrimination between fungal species nor provided sufficient resolution to discern species sub-clusters for different sites. However, the de-convoluted FTIR spectra contained site-related spectral information for fungi with wide nutrient ranges, but not for Lactarius subdulcis, a fungus residing only in the litter layer. Specific markers for distinct ECM were identified in spectral regions associated with carbohydrates (i.e. mannans, lipids, and secondary protein structures. The present results support that FTIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis is a reliable and fast method to identify ECM fungal species in minute environmental samples. Moreover, our data suggest that the FTIR spectral signatures contain information on physiological and functional traits of ECM fungi.

  16. Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Richard S; Jones, David L

    2010-06-01

    As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the growing season (spring and summer). We have used a culture-dependent method to isolate fungal endophytes and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction methods to determine arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation. All of the roots sampled contained culturable fungal root endophytes; additionally, we have provided molecular evidence that they also host arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Colonisation showed seasonal differences: Roots in the spring were colonised by Articulospora tetracladia, two isolates of uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungi, an unidentified species of fungal endophyte and Trichoderma viride, which was present in every plant sampled. In contrast, roots in the summer were colonised by Alatospora acuminata, an uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungus, Penicillium pinophilum and an uncultured fungal clone. Although the functional roles of fungal endophytes of D. rotundifolia are unknown, colonisation may (a) confer abiotic stress tolerance, (b) facilitate the acquisition of scarce nutrients particularly at the beginning of the growing season or (c) play a role in nutrient signalling between root and shoot. PMID:20012108

  17. Mapping fungi from below ground: online genetic resources and ectomycorrhizal geographic distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidartondo MI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We used DNA sequences of 20 ectomycorrhizal fungal species obtained from roots in Britain and Germany to find location data within Europe for these fungi in the public DNA databases. These data were used to plot species presence on maps, environmental layers were laid over these maps, and information from those sites was extrapolated using geographic information systems. Through randomization tests the significant factors for each species from available data were tested. Similar methodology was used for fungal samples identified using morphology from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility to compare data quality and quantity. This analysis exposed the need for uniform methodology and greater distribution of sampling in order to create viable species distribution models for ectomycorrhizas.

  18. Dehydrogenase genes in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma vaccinum: A role for Ald1 in mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Catarina; Jung, Elke-Martina; Voit, Annekatrin; Kothe, Erika; Krause, Katrin

    2016-02-01

    Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis is important for forest ecosystem functioning with tree-fungal cooperation increasing performance and countering stress conditions. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are key enzymes for detoxification and thus may play a role in stress response of the symbiotic association. With this focus, eight dehydrogenases, Ald1 through Ald7 and TyrA, of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tricholoma vaccinum were characterized and phylogenetically investigated. Functional analysis was performed through differential expression analysis by feeding different, environmentally important substances. A strong effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was identified, linking mycorrhiza formation and auxin signaling between the symbiosis partners. We investigated ald1 overexpressing strains for performance in mycorrhiza with the host tree spruce (Picea abies) and observed an increased width of the apoplast, accommodating the Hartig' net hyphae of the T. vaccinum over-expressing transformants. The results support a role for Ald1 in ectomycorrhiza formation and underline functional differentiation within fungal aldehyde dehydrogenases in the family 1 of ALDHs. PMID:26344933

  19. No globally consistent effect of ectomycorrhizal status on foliar traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koele, Nina; Dickie, Ian A; Oleksyn, Jacek; Richardson, Sarah J; Reich, Peter B

    2012-11-01

    The concept that ectomycorrhizal plants have a particular foliar trait suite characterized by low foliar nutrients and high leaf mass per unit area (LMA) is widely accepted, but whether this trait suite can be generalized to all ectomycorrhizal clades is unclear. We identified 19 evolutionary clades of ectomycorrhizal plants and used a global leaf traits dataset comprising 11,466 samples across c. 3000 species to test whether there were consistent shifts in leaf nutrients or LMA with the evolution of ectomycorrhiza. There were no consistent effects of ectomycorrhizal status on foliar nutrients or LMA in the 17 ectomycorrhizal/non-ectomycorrhizal pairs for which we had sufficient data, with some ectomycorrhizal groups having higher and other groups lower nutrient status than non-ectomycorrhizal contrasts. Controlling for the woodiness of host species did not alter the results. Our findings suggest that the concepts of ectomycorrhizal plant trait suites should be re-examined to ensure that they are broadly reflective of mycorrhizal status across all evolutionary clades, rather than reflecting the traits of a few commonly studied groups, such as the Pinaceae and Fagales. PMID:22966750

  20. Fine-scale distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi colonizing Tsuga diversifolia seedlings growing on rocks in a subalpine Abies veitchii forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naohiro; Son, Joung A; Matsushita, Norihisa; Iwamoto, Kojiro; Hogetsu, Taizo

    2014-05-01

    Numerous species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi coexist under the forest floor. To explore the mechanisms of coexistence, we investigated the fine-scale distribution of ECM fungal species colonizing root tips in the root system of Tsuga diversifolia seedlings in a subalpine forest. ECM root tips of three seedlings growing on the flat top surface of rocks were sampled after recording their positions in the root system. After the root tips were grouped by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of ITS rDNA, the fungal species representing each T-RFLP group were identified using DNA sequencing. Based on the fungal species identification, the distribution of root tips colonized by each ECM fungus was mapped. Significant clustering of root tips was estimated for each fungal species by comparing actual and randomly simulated distributions. In total, the three seedlings were colonized by 40 ECM fungal species. The composition of colonizing fungal species was quite different among the seedlings. Twelve of the 15 major ECM fungal species clustered significantly within a few centimeters. Some clusters overlapped or intermingled, while others were unique. Areas with high fungal species diversity were also identified in the root system. In this report, the mechanisms underlying generation of these ECM root tip clusters in the root system are discussed. PMID:24212400

  1. Two species of the Asian endemic genus Keteleeria form ectomycorrhizas with diverse fungal symbionts in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zai-Wei; Smith, Matthew E; Zhang, Qing-Ying; Yang, Zhu L

    2012-07-01

    The ectomycorrhizal status of Keteleeria species is reported for the first time based on morphological and molecular analyses of root tips from southwestern China. Based on internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences, we detected 26 ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species on roots of Keteleeria evelyniana and Keteleeria davidiana collected from natural sites and a botanical garden in Kunming, China. These ECM symbionts represent six fungal lineages, including /russula-lactarius, /inocybe, /sebacina, /tomentella-thelephora, /wilcoxina, and /cenococcum. Our results provide the first evidence of ECM formation by Keteleeria and also supply ecologically important information for conservation and restoration efforts to recover populations of Keteleeria. PMID:21997220

  2. Transposable element dynamics among asymbiotic and ectomycorrhizal Amanita fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jaqueline; Skrede, Inger; Wolfe, Benjamin E; LaButti, Kurt; Ohm, Robin A; Grigoriev, Igor V; Pringle, Anne

    2014-07-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous inhabitants of eukaryotic genomes and their proliferation and dispersal shape genome architectures and diversity. Nevertheless, TE dynamics are often explored for one species at a time and are rarely considered in ecological contexts. Recent work with plant pathogens suggests a link between symbiosis and TE abundance. The genomes of pathogenic fungi appear to house an increased abundance of TEs, and TEs are frequently associated with the genes involved in symbiosis. To investigate whether this pattern is general, and relevant to mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses, we sequenced the genomes of related asymbiotic (AS) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Amanita fungi. Using methods developed to interrogate both assembled and unassembled sequences, we characterized and quantified TEs across three AS and three ECM species, including the AS outgroup Volvariella volvacea. The ECM genomes are characterized by abundant numbers of TEs, an especially prominent feature of unassembled sequencing libraries. Increased TE activity in ECM species is also supported by phylogenetic analysis of the three most abundant TE superfamilies; phylogenies revealed many radiations within contemporary ECM species. However, the AS species Amanita thiersii also houses extensive amplifications of elements, highlighting the influence of additional evolutionary parameters on TE abundance. Our analyses provide further evidence for a link between symbiotic associations among plants and fungi, and increased TE activity, while highlighting the importance individual species' natural histories may have in shaping genome architecture. PMID:24923322

  3. Fungal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Fungal Meningitis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... the brain or spinal cord. Investigation of Fungal Meningitis, 2012 In September 2012, the Centers for Disease ...

  4. Serpentine Soils Do Not Limit Mycorrhizal Fungal Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Sara; Ree, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Physiologically stressful environments tend to host depauperate and specialized biological communities. Serpentine soils exemplify this phenomenon by imposing well-known constraints on plants; however, their effect on other organisms is still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a combination of field and molecular approaches to test the hypothesis that serpentine fungal communities are species-poor and specialized. We conducted surveys of ectomycorrhizal funga...

  5. Serpentine soils do not limit mycorrhizal fungal diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Branco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physiologically stressful environments tend to host depauperate and specialized biological communities. Serpentine soils exemplify this phenomenon by imposing well-known constraints on plants; however, their effect on other organisms is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a combination of field and molecular approaches to test the hypothesis that serpentine fungal communities are species-poor and specialized. We conducted surveys of ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity from adjacent serpentine and non-serpentine sites, described fungal communities using nrDNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS fragment and sequence analyses, and compared their phylogenetic community structure. Although we detected low fungal overlap across the two habitats, we found serpentine soils to support rich fungal communities that include representatives from all major fungal lineages. We failed to detect the phylogenetic signature of endemic clades that would result from specialization and adaptive radiation within this habitat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that serpentine soils do not constitute an extreme environment for ectomycorrhizal fungi, and raise important questions about the role of symbioses in edaphic tolerance and the maintenance of biodiversity.

  6. Convergence in mycorrhizal fungal communities due to drought, plant competition, parasitism, and susceptibility to herbivory: consequences for fungi and host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Catherine A; Mueller, Rebecca C; Haskins, Kristin E; Rubow, Tine K; Whitham, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Plants and mycorrhizal fungi influence each other's abundance, diversity, and distribution. How other biotic interactions affect the mycorrhizal symbiosis is less well understood. Likewise, we know little about the effects of climate change on the fungal component of the symbiosis or its function. We synthesized our long-term studies on the influence of plant parasites, insect herbivores, competing trees, and drought on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with a foundation tree species of the southwestern United States, pinyon pine (Pinus edulis), and described how these changes feed back to affect host plant performance. We found that drought and all three of the biotic interactions studied resulted in similar shifts in ectomycorrhizal fungal community composition, demonstrating a convergence of the community towards dominance by a few closely related fungal taxa. Ectomycorrhizal fungi responded similarly to each of these stressors resulting in a predictable trajectory of community disassembly, consistent with ecological theory. Although we predicted that the fungal communities associated with trees stressed by drought, herbivory, competition, and parasitism would be poor mutualists, we found the opposite pattern in field studies. Our results suggest that climate change and the increased importance of herbivores, competitors, and parasites that can be associated with it, may ultimately lead to reductions in ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity, but that the remaining fungal community may be beneficial to host trees under the current climate and the warmer, drier climate predicted for the future. PMID:25009537

  7. Convergence in mycorrhizal fungal communities due to drought, plant competition, parasitism and susceptibility to herbivory: Consequences for fungi and host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Gehring

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants and mycorrhizal fungi influence each other’s abundance, diversity and distribution. How other biotic interactions affect the mycorrhizal symbiosis is less well understood. Likewise, we know little about the effects of climate change on the fungal component of the symbiosis or its function. We synthesized our long-term studies on the influence of mistletoe parasites, insect herbivores, competing trees, and drought on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with a foundation tree species of the southwestern United States, pinyon pine (Pinus edulis, and described how these changes feed back to affect host plant performance. We found that drought and all three of the biotic interactions studied resulted in similar shifts in ectomycorrhizal fungal community composition, demonstrating a convergence of the community towards dominance by a few closely related fungal taxa. Ectomycorrhizal fungi responded similarly to each of these stressors resulting in a predictable trajectory of community disassembly, consistent with ecological theory. Although we predicted that the fungal communities associated with trees stressed by drought, herbivory, competition, and parasitism would be poor mutualists, we found the opposite pattern in field studies. Our results suggest that climate change and the increased importance of herbivores, competitors and parasites that can be associated with it, may ultimately lead to reductions in ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity, but that the remaining fungal community may be beneficial to host trees under the current climate and the warmer, drier climate predicted for the future.

  8. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis of tropical African trees

    OpenAIRE

    Bâ, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Moyersoen, B.; Diédhiou, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, ecology and function of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi and ectomycorrhizas (ECMs) on tropical African tree species are reviewed here. While ECMs are the most frequent mycorrhizal type in temperate and boreal forests, they concern an economically and ecologically important minority of plants in African tropical forests. In these African tropical forests, ECMs are found mainly on caesalpionioid legumes, Sarcolaenaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Asterpeiaceae, Phyllantaceae, Sapotaceae, Papil...

  9. Interactions between ectomycorrhizal associations and bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Marupakula, Srisailam

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forest podzol soils have vertically stratified horizons with different physico-chemical characteristics and high microbial diversity. Ectomycorrhizal fungi play key roles in accessing nutrients from both organic and mineral substrates. The role of associated bacteria in these processes is still poorly understood. The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to improve understanding of the distribution, diversity and community structure of fungi and bacteria on roots and in soil ...

  10. The role of phosphorus, magnesium and potassium availability in soil fungal exploration of mineral nutrient sources in Norway spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Nicholas P; Berner, Christoffer; Smits, Mark M; Krám, Pavel; Wallander, Håkan

    2016-07-01

    We investigated fungal growth and community composition in buried meshbags, amended with apatite, biotite or hornblende, in Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests of varying nutrient status. Norway spruce needles and soil collected from forests overlying serpentinite had low levels of potassium and phosphorus, those from granite had low levels of magnesium, whereas those from amphibolite had comparably high levels of these nutrients. We assayed the fungal colonization of meshbags by measuring ergosterol content and fungal community with 454 sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. In addition, we measured fine root density. Fungal biomass was increased by apatite amendment across all plots and particularly on the K- and P-deficient serpentinite plots, whereas hornblende and biotite had no effect on fungal biomass on any plots. Fungal community (total fungal and ectomycorrhizal) composition was affected strongly by sampling location and soil depth, whereas mineral amendments had no effect on community composition. Fine root biomass was significantly correlated with fungal biomass. Ectomycorrhizal communities may respond to increased host-tree phosphorus demand by increased colonization of phosphorus-containing minerals, but this does not appear to translate to a shift in ectomycorrhizal community composition. This growth response to nutrient demand does not appear to exist for potassium or magnesium limitation. PMID:26996085

  11. An ectomycorrhizal nitrogen economy facilitates monodominance in a neotropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Adriana; Mangan, Scott A; Turner, Benjamin L; Dalling, James W

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests are renowned for their high diversity, yet in many sites a single tree species accounts for the majority of the individuals in a stand. An explanation for these monodominant forests remains elusive, but may be linked to mycorrhizal symbioses. We tested three hypotheses by which ectomycorrhizas might facilitate the dominance of the tree, Oreomunnea mexicana, in montane tropical forest in Panama. We tested whether access to ectomycorrhizal networks improved growth and survival of seedlings, evaluated whether ectomycorrhizal fungi promote seedling growth via positive plant-soil feedback, and measured whether Oreomunnea reduced inorganic nitrogen availability. We found no evidence that Oreomunnea benefits from ectomycorrhizal networks or plant-soil feedback. However, we found three-fold higher soil nitrate and ammonium concentrations outside than inside Oreomunnea-dominated forest and a correlation between soil nitrate and Oreomunnea abundance in plots. Ectomycorrhizal effects on nitrogen cycling might therefore provide an explanation for the monodominance of ectomycorrhizal tree species worldwide. PMID:26833573

  12. Spatial segregation and aggregation of ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi in the seedlings of two Quercus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Diverse clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi are potentially involved in competitive or facilitative interactions within host-plant roots. We investigated the potential consequences of these ecological interactions on the assembly process of root-associated fungi by examining the co-occurrence of pairs of fungi in host-plant individuals. Based on massively-parallel pyrosequencing, we analyzed the root-associated fungal community composition for each of the 249 Quercus serrata and 188 Quercus glauca seedlings sampled in a warm-temperate secondary forest in Japan. Pairs of fungi that co-occurred more or less often than expected by chance were identified based on randomization tests. The pyrosequencing analysis revealed that not only ectomycorrhizal fungi but also endophytic fungi were common in the root-associated fungal community. Intriguingly, specific pairs of these ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi showed spatially aggregated patterns, suggesting the existence of facilitative interactions between fungi in different functional groups. Due to the large number of fungal pairs examined, many of the observed aggregated/segregated patterns with very low P values (e.g., < 0.005 turned non-significant after the application of a multiple comparison method. However, our overall results imply that the community structures of ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi could influence each other through interspecific competitive/facilitative interactions in root. To test the potential of host-plants' control of fungus-fungus ecological interactions in roots, we further examined whether the aggregated/segregated patterns could vary depending on the identity of host plant species. Potentially due to the physiological properties shared between the congeneric host plant species, the sign of hosts' control was not detected in the present study. The pyrosequencing-based randomization analyses shown in this study provide a platform of the high

  13. Interactions between soil acidification, plant growth and nutrient uptake in ectomycorrhizal associations of forest trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finlay, R.D. [Univ. of Lund, Microbial Ecology, Dept. of Ecology, Lund (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Interactions between soil acidification and ectomycorrhizal associations of forest trees are reviewed, placing special emphasis, on recent Swedish research. Mycorrhizal fungi represent an important component of the biodiversity of forest ecosystems and are themselves subject to the influence of acidification. In addition, these symbiotic fungi also possess the capacity to mediate the extent to which their host plants are influenced by soil acidification. The ways in which different mycorrhizal fungi respond to acidification are still very poorly understood. Ectomycorrhizal fungi growing in symbiotic association with different hosts may respond in very different ways from that of a pure fungal culture and the overriding problems of identifying and quantifying them in soil have so far restricted progress in understanding changes occurring in the field. Controlled laboratory experiments have improved our knowledge of interactions involving identified species. Acidification can influence ectomycorrhizas either directly through altered soil pH, or indirectly through changes in soil nutrient availability, metal solubility, or carbon flow. Each of these factors can operate directly on the individual symbionts or exert its effects indirectly on one symbiont by directly influencing the other symbiont. The ability of ectomycorrhizal fungi to mediate the effects of acidification on forest trees is of special significance when discussing changes in mycorrhizal community structure and the possible effects of a given level of soil acidification. This mediation is achieved in a number of ways including modification of the soil chemical environment, altering patterns of plant nutrient uptake and increasing tolerance to, or detoxifying, the increased levels of heavy metals or aluminium often associated with soil acidification. Methodological problems associated with demonstration of different mechanisms are also discussed. (Abstract Truncated)

  14. Integrated long-term responses of an arctic-alpine willow and associated ectomycorrhizal fungi to an altered environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    subarctic Sweden. The aim was to assess responses of the integrated plant-fungal system to long-term field experiments simulating expected environmental changes. Warming more than doubled aboveground S. herbacea x S. polaris biomass and shoot growth, whereas shading and nutrient addition had less influence......We evaluated ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization and morphotype community composition together with growth response and biomass distribution in the arctic-alpine, prostrate willow Salix herbacea L. x Salix polaris Wahlenb. after 11 seasons of shading, warming, and fertilization at a fellfield in...

  15. Direct amplification of DNA from fresh and preserved ectomycorrhizal root tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Elizabeth; Taylor, D Lee

    2010-02-01

    Methods are described by which DNA can be amplified directly from ectomycorrhizal root tip homogenates of a variety of plant species (Picea mariana (black spruce), Betula papyrifera (paper birch), Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) and Alnus sp.(alder)), including root tips that have been preserved in RNA Later (Ambion, Austin, TX). In most cases for extracts and homogenates diluted 10-fold prior to PCR, and in all cases for 100-fold dilutions, direct amplification of DNA from fresh root tip homogenates yielded as many or more ng of PCR amplicon (fungal ITS region) than amplification of DNA extracted from the same tips using a commercial kit or a manual ethanol precipitation-based method. For alder root tip extracts diluted 10-fold, the commercial kit method yielded more ng of PCR amplicon than 10-fold diluted, although direct use of homogenates still resulted in amplification in all tips tested. We also demonstrate consistent amplification of DNA from homogenates of birch, spruce and aspen ectomycorrhizal root tips preserved for 4months in RNA Later. PMID:19963016

  16. Beyond ectomycorrhizal bipartite networks: projected networks demonstrate contrasted patterns between early- and late-successional plants in Corsica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eTaudiere

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ectomycorrhizal (ECM symbiosis connects mutualistic plants and fungal species into bipartite networks. While links between one focal ECM plant and its fungal symbionts have been widely documented, systemic views of ECM networks are lacking, in particular, concerning the ability of fungal species to mediate indirect ecological interactions between ECM plant species (projected-ECM networks. We assembled a large dataset of plant-fungi associations at the species level and at the scale of Corsica using molecular data and unambiguously host-assigned records to: (i examine the correlation between the number of fungal symbionts of a plant species and the average specialization of these fungal species, (ii explore the structure of the plant-plant projected network and (iii compare plant association patterns in regard to their position along the ecological succession. Our analysis reveals no trade-off between specialization of plants and specialization of their partners and a saturation of the plant projected network. Moreover, there is a significantly lower-than-expected sharing of partners between early- and late-successional plant species, with fewer fungal partners for early-successional ones and similar average specialization of symbionts of early- and late-successional plants. Our work paves the way for ecological readings of Mediterranean landscapes that include the astonishing diversity of below-ground interactions.

  17. Beyond ectomycorrhizal bipartite networks: projected networks demonstrate contrasted patterns between early- and late-successional plants in Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taudiere, Adrien; Munoz, François; Lesne, Annick; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Bellanger, Jean-Michel; Selosse, Marc-André; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Richard, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis connects mutualistic plants and fungal species into bipartite networks. While links between one focal ECM plant and its fungal symbionts have been widely documented, systemic views of ECM networks are lacking, in particular, concerning the ability of fungal species to mediate indirect ecological interactions between ECM plant species (projected-ECM networks). We assembled a large dataset of plant-fungi associations at the species level and at the scale of Corsica using molecular data and unambiguously host-assigned records to: (i) examine the correlation between the number of fungal symbionts of a plant species and the average specialization of these fungal species, (ii) explore the structure of the plant-plant projected network and (iii) compare plant association patterns in regard to their position along the ecological succession. Our analysis reveals no trade-off between specialization of plants and specialization of their partners and a saturation of the plant projected network. Moreover, there is a significantly lower-than-expected sharing of partners between early- and late-successional plant species, with fewer fungal partners for early-successional ones and similar average specialization of symbionts of early- and late-successional plants. Our work paves the way for ecological readings of Mediterranean landscapes that include the astonishing diversity of below-ground interactions. PMID:26539201

  18. UNITE: a database providing web-based methods for the molecular identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köljalg, U.; Larsson, K.H.; Abarenkov, K.;

    2005-01-01

    Identification of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi is often achieved through comparisons of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences with accessioned sequences deposited in public databases. A major problem encountered is that annotation of the sequences in these databases is not always...... complete or trustworthy. In order to overcome this deficiency, we report on UNITE, an open-access database. •  UNITE comprises well annotated fungal ITS sequences from well defined herbarium specimens that include full herbarium reference identification data, collector/source and ecological data. At...... sequence after alignment either to pre-existing generic alignments, or to matches retrieved from a blast search on the UNITE data. It should be noted that the current version of UNITE is dedicated to the reliable identification of ECM fungi. •  The UNITE database is accessible through the URL http://unite.zbi.ee...

  19. Mean reproductive traits of fungal assemblages are correlated with resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bässler, Claus; Halbwachs, Hans; Karasch, Peter; Holzer, Heinrich; Gminder, Andreas; Krieglsteiner, Lothar; Gonzalez, Ramiro Silveyra; Müller, Jörg; Brandl, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Organisms have evolved a fascinating variety of strategies and organs for successful reproduction. Fruit bodies are the reproductive organ of fungi and vary considerably in size and shape among species. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the differences in fruit body size among species is still limited. Fruit bodies of saprotrophic fungi are smaller than those of mutualistic ectomycorrhizal fungi. If differences in fruit body size are determined by carbon acquisition, then mean reproductive traits of saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal fungi assemblages should vary differently along gradients of resource availability as carbon acquisition seems more unpredictable and costly for saprotrophs than for ectomycorrhizal fungi. Here, we used 48 local inventories of fungal fruit bodies (plot size: 0.02 ha each) sampled along a gradient of resource availability (growing stock) across 3 years in the Bavarian Forest National Park in Germany to investigate regional and local factors that might influence the distribution of species with different reproductive traits, particularly fruit body size. As predicted, mean fruit body size of local assemblages of saprotrophic fungi was smaller than expected from the distribution of traits of the regional species pool across central and northern Europe, whereas that of ectomycorrhizal fungi did not differ from random expectation. Furthermore and also as expected, mean fruit body size of assemblages of saprotrophic fungi was significantly smaller than for assemblages of ectomycorrhizal species. However, mean fruit body sizes of not only saprotrophic species but also ectomycorrhizal species increased with resource availability, and the mean number of fruit bodies of both assemblages decreased. Our results indicate that the differences in carbon acquisition between saprotrophs and ectomycorrhizal species lead to differences in basic reproductive strategies, with implications for the breadth of their distribution. However, the

  20. Nitrogen acquisition, transport and metabolism in intact ectomycorrhizal associations studied by 15N stable isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this thesis is on the external mycelium and its role in nitrogen uptake, assimilation and translocation. Tree seedlings in association with ectomycorrhizal fungi were grown in observation chambers. The fungal mycelium were fed with 15-N ammonium or 15-N nitrate or a combination of both. The effects of Collembola on the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis were also studied. The results demonstrates an important role of the external mycelium of Paxillus involutus not only in the uptake but also in the assimilation of ammonium into a variety of different amino acids, primarily glutamine but also glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and alanine, immediately after uptake. The results indicate that ammonium is assimilated by GS and GOGAT or GDH in the mycelium at the uptake site. When nitrate was added to the mycelium as the sole nitrogen source nitrate was reduced in the mycelium and the product assimilated into amino acids. When ammonium nitrate was supplied to the fungal mycelium nitrate was taken up the fungus and transferred to the plant, however, apparently no assimilation of nitrate occurred in the external mycelium. Ammonium or an assimilation product, such as glutamine, probably represses nitrate reductase (NR) but not nitrate uptake and transfer in P. involutus. P. involutus nitrogen uptake and transfer to the associated mycorrhizal pine was up to 76% higher when low numbers of the Collembola Onychiurus armatus were present compared to when they were completely absent. This was probably an indirect effect as P. involutus hyphal growth rate and extramatrical biomass increased at a low Collembola density. At high Collembola densities P. involutus hyphal growth rate was retarded. (74 refs.)

  1. Structure and phylogenetic diversity of post-fire ectomycorrhizal communities of maritime pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, A; Santamaría, B P; Ocaña, L; Verdú, M

    2014-02-01

    Environmental disturbances define the diversity and assemblage of species, affecting the functioning of ecosystems. Fire is a major disturbance of Mediterranean pine forests. Pines are highly dependent on the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal symbiosis, which is critical for tree recruitment under primary succession. To determine the effects of time since fire on the structure and recovery of EM fungal communities, we surveyed the young Pinus pinaster regenerate in three sites differing in the elapsed time after the last fire event. Pine roots were collected, and EM fungi characterized by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) regions of the nuclear ribosomal (nr)-DNA. The effects of the elapsed time after fire on the EM community structure (richness, presence/absence of fungi, phylogenetic diversity) and on soil properties were analysed.Fungal richness decreased with the elapsed time since the fire; although, the phylogenetic diversity of the EM community increased. Soil properties were different depending on the elapsed time after fire and particularly, the organic matter, carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio, nitrogen and iron significantly correlated with the assemblage of fungal species. Ascomycetes, particularly Tuberaceae and Pezizales, were significantly over-represented on saplings in the burned site. On seedlings, a significant over-representation of Rhizopogonaceae and Atheliaceae was observed in the most recently burned site, while other fungi (i.e. Cortinariaceae) were significantly under-represented. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that fire can act as a selective agent by printing a phylogenetic signal on the EM fungal communities associated with naturally regenerated pines, pointing out to some groups as potential fire-adapted fungi. PMID:23955264

  2. Ectomycorrhizal fungi - Molecular tools to study species and functional diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Landeweert, R.

    2003-01-01

    The extramatrical mycelium of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi represents a significant component of the ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbiosis, as the mycelium is primarily involved in the uptake of water and nutrients from the soil. The extramatrical mycelium may also actively mobilize nutrients from organic and mineral sources through excretion of enzymes and organic acids respectively. An observation of tunnel-like structures in weatherable mineral grains gave rise to the hypothesis that these were for...

  3. Bioconcentration of zinc and cadmium in ectomycorrhizal fungi and associated aspen trees as affected by level of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of Zn and Cd were measured in fruitbodies of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and leaves of co-occurring accumulator aspen. Samples were taken on three metal-polluted sites and one control site. Fungal bioconcentration factors (BCF = fruitbody concentration: soil concentration) were calculated on the basis of total metal concentrations in surface soil horizons (BCFtot) and NH4NO3-extractable metal concentrations in mineral soil (BCFlab). When plotted on log-log scale, values of BCF decreased linearly with increasing soil metal concentrations. BCFlab for both Zn and Cd described the data more closely than BCFtot. Fungal genera differed in ZnBCF but not in CdBCF. The information on differences between fungi with respect to their predominant occurrence in different soil horizons did not improve relations of BCF with soil metal concentrations. Aspen trees accumulated Zn and Cd to similar concentrations as the ECM fungi. Apparently, the fungi did not act as an effective barrier against aspen metal uptake by retaining the metals. - Populus tremula and associated ectomycorrhizal fungi accumulate zinc and cadmium to similar concentrations

  4. The ectomycorrhizal morphotype Pinirhiza sclerotia is formed by Acephala macrosclerotiorum sp. nov., a close relative of Phialocephala fortinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzenberger, Babette; Bubner, Ben; Wöllecke, Jens; Sieber, Thomas N; Bauer, Robert; Fladung, Matthias; Hüttl, Reinhard F

    2009-09-01

    Relatively few ectomycorrhizal fungal species are known to form sclerotia. Usually, sclerotia are initiated at the extraradical mycelium. In this study, we present anatomical and ultrastructural evidence for the formation of sclerotia directly in the hyphal mantle of the mycorrhizal morphotype Pinirhiza sclerotia. A dark-pigmented fungal strain was isolated from Pinirhiza sclerotia and identified by molecular tools as Acephala macrosclerotiorum sp. nov., a close relative of Phialocephala fortinii s.l. As dark septate fungi are known to be mostly endophytic, resyntheses with Pinus sylvestris and A. macrosclerotiorum as well as Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides and A. macrosclerotiorum or P. fortinii s.l. were performed under axenic conditions. No mycorrhizas were found when hybrid aspen was inoculated with A. macrosclerotiorum or P. fortinii. However, A. macrosclerotiorum formed true ectomycorrhizas in vitro with P. sylvestris. Anatomical and ultrastructural features of this ectomycorrhiza are presented. The natural and synthesized ectomycorrhizal morphotypes were identical and characterized by a thin hyphal mantle that bore sclerotia in a later ontogenetic stage. The Hartig net was well-developed and grew up to the endodermis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence at the anatomical and ultrastructural level that a close relative of P. fortinii s.l. forms true ectomycorrhizas with a coniferous host. PMID:19415343

  5. Shift in ectomycorrhizal community composition in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling roots as a response to nickel deposition and removal of lichen cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkola, A M; Ahonen-Jonnarth, U; Roitto, M; Strömmer, R; Hyvärinen, M

    2002-01-01

    Scots pine seedlings were exposed to wet-deposited nickel (Ni) and removal of lichen cover in a dry heath Scots pine forest. Ni deposition affected the colonization of roots by indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi in contrasting ways in intact and skimmed quadrats. Highest frequencies of tubercle morphotypes of ectomycorrhiza were found in quadrats exposed to 100 mg m(-2) year(-1) Ni in lichen covered treatment, while in skimmed quadrats these peaked after the treatment with 10 mg Ni m(-2) year(-1). Removal of the lichen layer increased the value of diversity index (H') of ectomycorrhizal fungal community, probably due to the increase in the evenness of the morphotype distribution. Lichen removal seemed also to improve the condition of the short roots, as the frequencies of poor and senescent short roots were decreased by the removal. PMID:12442803

  6. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Calcofluor white stain): in general, if fungal elements are seen, then a fungus is the likely the cause of symptoms. These tests, however, do not identify the fungus. Culture: care must be taken when interpreting culture results. ...

  7. Fungal allergens.

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immuno...

  8. Differences in soil fungal communities between European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. dominated forests are related to soil and understory vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Wubet

    Full Text Available Fungi are important members of soil microbial communities with a crucial role in biogeochemical processes. Although soil fungi are known to be highly diverse, little is known about factors influencing variations in their diversity and community structure among forests dominated by the same tree species but spread over different regions and under different managements. We analyzed the soil fungal diversity and community composition of managed and unmanaged European beech dominated forests located in three German regions, the Schwäbische Alb in Southwestern, the Hainich-Dün in Central and the Schorfheide Chorin in the Northeastern Germany, using internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Multiple sequence quality filtering followed by sequence data normalization revealed 1655 fungal operational taxonomic units. Further analysis based on 722 abundant fungal OTUs revealed the phylum Basidiomycota to be dominant (54% and its community to comprise 71.4% of ectomycorrhizal taxa. Fungal community structure differed significantly (p≤0.001 among the three regions and was characterized by non-random fungal OTUs co-occurrence. Soil parameters, herbaceous understory vegetation, and litter cover affected fungal community structure. However, within each study region we found no difference in fungal community structure between management types. Our results also showed region specific significant correlation patterns between the dominant ectomycorrhizal fungal genera. This suggests that soil fungal communities are region-specific but nevertheless composed of functionally diverse and complementary taxa.

  9. High richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi and low host specificity in a coastal sand dune ecosystem revealed by network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Bolduc, Alice; Laliberté, Etienne; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are ubiquitous in temperate and boreal forests, comprising over 20,000 species forming root symbiotic associations with Pinaceae and woody angiosperms. As much as 100 different EM fungal species can coexist and interact with the same tree species, forming complex multispecies networks in soils. The degree of host specificity and structural properties of these interaction networks (e.g., nestedness and modularity) may influence plant and fungal community assembly and species coexistence, yet their structure has been little studied in northern coniferous forests, where trees depend on EM fungi for nutrient acquisition. We used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the composition and diversity of bulk soil and root-associated fungal communities in four co-occurring Pinaceae in a relic foredune plain located at Îles de la Madeleine, Québec, Canada. We found high EM fungal richness across the four hosts, with a total of 200 EM operational taxonomic units (OTUs), mainly belonging to the Agaricomycetes. Network analysis revealed an antinested pattern in both bulk soil and roots EM fungal communities. However, there was no detectable modularity (i.e., subgroups of interacting species) in the interaction networks, indicating a low level of specificity in these EM associations. In addition, there were no differences in EM fungal OTU richness or community structure among the four tree species. Limited shared resources and competitive exclusion typically restrict the number of taxa coexisting within the same niche. As such, our finding of high EM fungal richness and low host specificity highlights the need for further studies to determine the mechanisms enabling such a large number of EM fungal species to coexist locally on the same hosts. PMID:26811798

  10. The Major Factors Affecting Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Diversity in the Forest Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Di-Di Chai; Su-Juan Guo; Xiao-Bing Sun; Tian-Tian Qin

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are important for plants growth which can enhance their resistance to drought, diseases, infertility and so on in the forest ecosystem, so researches on Ectomycorrhizal fungi are of necessity and great significance. As the basis for Ectomycorrhizal fungi research, the Ectomycorrhizal fungi diversity is attributed to many factors which can be divided to two parts in this review: biotic factors and abiotic factors. Biotic factors include chronosequences, bacteria living wi...

  11. Ectomycorrhizal communities in a productive Tuber aestivum Vittad. orchard: composition, host influence and species replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Benucci, Gian Maria Niccolò; Raggi, Lorenzo; Albertini, Emidio; Grebenc, Tine; Bencivenga, Mattia; Falcinelli, Mario; Di Massimo, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    Truffles (Tuber spp.) and other ectomycorrhizal species form species-rich assemblages in the wild as well as in cultivated ecosystems. We aimed to investigate the ectomycorrhizal communities of hazels and hornbeams that are growing in a 24-year-old Tuber aestivum orchard. We demonstrated that the ectomycorrhizal communities included numerous species and were phylogenetically diverse. Twenty-nine ectomycorrhizal taxa were identified. Tuber aestivum ectomycorrhizae were abundant (9.3%), only th...

  12. Fungal nail infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Infection - fungal - nails; Tinea unguium ... the hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the ...

  13. Mastering ectomycorrhizal symbiosis: the impact of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Mycorrhiza formation is the consequence of a mutualistic interaction between certain soil fungi and plant roots that helps to overcome nutritional limitations faced by the respective partners. In symbiosis, fungi contribute to tree nutrition by means of mineral weathering and mobilization of nutrients from organic matter, and obtain plant-derived carbohydrates as a response. Support with easily degradable carbohydrates seems to be the driving force for fungi to undergo this type of interaction. As a consequence, the fungal hexose uptake capacity is strongly increased in Hartig net hyphae of the model fungi Amanita muscaria and Laccaria bicolor. Next to fast carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, storage carbohydrates are of special interest. In functional A. muscaria ectomycorrhizas, expression and activity of proteins involved in trehalose biosynthesis is mainly localized in hyphae of the Hartig net, indicating an important function of trehalose in generation of a strong carbon sink by fungal hyphae. In symbiosis, fungal partners receive up to approximately 19 times more carbohydrates from their hosts than normal leakage of the root system would cause, resulting in a strong carbohydrate demand of infected roots and, as a consequence, a more efficient plant photosynthesis. To avoid fungal parasitism, the plant seems to have developed mechanisms to control carbohydrate drain towards the fungal partner and link it to the fungus-derived mineral nutrition. In this contribution, current knowledge on fungal strategies to obtain carbohydrates from its host and plant strategies to enable, but also to control and restrict (under certain conditions), carbon transfer are summarized. PMID:18272925

  14. Impact of metal pollution on fungal diversity and community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op De Beeck, Michiel; Lievens, Bart; Busschaert, Pieter; Rineau, Francois; Smits, Mark; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V

    2015-06-01

    The impact of metal pollution on plant communities has been studied extensively in the past, but little is known about the effects of metal pollution on fungal communities that occur in metal-polluted soils. Metal-tolerant ecotypes of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus are frequently found in pioneer pine forests in the Campine region in Belgium on metal-polluted soils. We hypothesized that metal pollution would play an important role in shaping below-ground fungal communities that occur in these soils and that Suillus luteus would be a dominant player. To test these hypotheses, the fungal communities in a young pine plantation in soil polluted with zinc, and cadmium were studied using 454 amplicon pyrosequencing. Results show that zinc, cadmium and soil organic matter content were strongly correlated with the fungal community composition, but no effects on fungal diversity were observed. As hypothesized, S. luteus was found to be a dominant member of the studied fungal communities. However, other dominant fungal species, such as Sistotrema sp., Wilcoxina mikolae and Cadophora finlandica were found as well. Their presence in metal-polluted sites is discussed. PMID:24947496

  15. Species turnover (β-diversity) in ectomycorrhizal fungi linked to NH4+ uptake capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranabetter, J M; Hawkins, B J; Jones, M D; Robbins, S; Dyer, T; Li, T

    2015-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal communities may be shaped by both deterministic and stochastic processes, potentially influencing ecosystem development and function. We evaluated community assembly processes for EcM fungi of Pseudotsuga menziesii among 12 sites up to 400 km apart in southwest British Columbia (Canada) by investigating species turnover (β-diversity) in relation to soil nitrogen (N) availability and physical distance. We then examined functional traits for an N-related niche by quantifying net fluxes of NH4+, NO3- and protons on excised root tips from three contrasting sites using a microelectrode ion flux measurement system. EcM fungal communities were well aligned with soil N availability and pH, with no effect of site proximity (distance-decay curve) on species assemblages. Species turnover was significant (β(1/2) = 1.48) along soil N gradients, with many more Tomentella species on high N than low N soils, in contrast to Cortinarius species. Ammonium uptake was greatest in the spring on the medium and rich sites and averaged over 190 nmol/m(2)/s for Tomentella species. The lowest uptake rates of NH4+ were by nonmycorrhizal roots of axenically grown seedlings (10 nmol/m(2)/s), followed by Cortinarius species (60 nmol/m(2)/s). EcM roots from all sites displayed only marginal uptake of nitrate (8.3 nmol/m(2)/s). These results suggest NH4+ uptake capacity is an important functional trait influencing the assembly of EcM fungal communities. The diversity of EcM fungal species across the region arguably provides critical belowground adaptations to organic and inorganic N supply that are integral to temperate rainforest ecology. PMID:26507980

  16. Fungal keratitis

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    Sonal S Tuli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonal S TuliUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA  Clinical question: What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis?Results: Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast. Voriconazole is rapidly becoming the drug of choice for all fungal keratitis because of its wide spectrum of coverage and increased penetration into the cornea.Implementation: Repeated debridement of the ulcer is recommended for the penetration of topical medications. While small, peripheral ulcers may be treated in the community, larger or central ulcers, especially if associated with signs suggestive of anterior chamber penetration should be referred to a tertiary center. Prolonged therapy for approximately four weeks is usually necessary.Keywords: fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, antifungal medications, debridement

  17. Convergence in mycorrhizal fungal communities due to drought, plant competition, parasitism, and susceptibility to herbivory: consequences for fungi and host plants

    OpenAIRE

    CatherineA.Gehring; RebeccaC.Mueller; KristinE.Haskins

    2014-01-01

    Plants and mycorrhizal fungi influence each other’s abundance, diversity and distribution. How other biotic interactions affect the mycorrhizal symbiosis is less well understood. Likewise, we know little about the effects of climate change on the fungal component of the symbiosis or its function. We synthesized our long-term studies on the influence of mistletoe parasites, insect herbivores, competing trees, and drought on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with a foundation ...

  18. Genetic control of susceptibility to fungal symbionts of juvenile Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karsten) in relation to long-term growth performance

    OpenAIRE

    Velmala, Sannakajsa

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to reveal the degree to which host-tree factors influence the interaction between Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and the endophytic (EN) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) found in their needles and roots, respectively. We also explored how susceptibility to fungal infection and the composition and functionality of associated fungal communities relates to seedling growth performance. In multiple glasshouse experiments, we challenged Norway spruce...

  19. Comparison of ectomycorrhizal communities in natural and cultivated Tuber melanosporum truffle grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Tempesta, Sabrina; Pasqualetti, Marcella; Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    Truffles are hypogeous ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi belonging to the genus Tuber. Although outplanting of truffle-inoculated host plants has enabled the realization of productive orchards, truffle cultivation is not yet standardized. Therefore, monitoring the distribution of fungal species in different truffle fields may help us to elucidate the factors that shape microbial communities and influence the propagation and fruiting of Tuber spp. In this study, we compared the fungal biodiversity in cultivated and natural Tuber melanosporum truffle fields located in Central Italy. To this end, ectomycorrhizas (ECM) and soil samples were molecularly analyzed, and an inventory of the fungi associated with Quercus pubescens plants colonized by T. melanosporum, Tuber aestivum or Tuber brumale was compiled. T. melanosporum and T. aestivum were dominant on the cultivated plants, and the number of EM species was markedly lower in the cultivated sites than in the natural sites. However, in the same site, EM biodiversity was higher in T. brumale-colonized plants than in T. melanosporum-colonized plants. These results suggest that different Tuber spp. may have different competitive effects on the other mycobionts. Additionally, in keeping with our previous findings, we found that the number of T. melanosporum genotypes recovered from the soil samples was higher than that of the underlying ECM. PMID:22469019

  20. Competitive avoidance not edaphic specialization drives vertical niche partitioning among sister species of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujic, Alija B; Durall, Daniel M; Spatafora, Joseph W; Kennedy, Peter G

    2016-02-01

    Soil depth partitioning is thought to promote the diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal communities, but little is known about whether it is controlled by abiotic or biotic factors. In three bioassay experiments, we tested the role of vertical soil heterogeneity in determining the distributions and competitive outcomes of the EM sister species Rhizopogon vinicolor and Rhizopogon vesiculosus. We planted Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings into soils that were either a homogenized mix of upper and lower depths or vertically stratified combinations mimicking natural field conditions. We found that both species colonized the upper or lower soil depths in the absence of competition, suggesting that their distributions were not limited by abiotic edaphic factors. In competition within homogeneous soils, R. vesiculosus completely excluded colonization by R. vinicolor, but R. vinicolor was able to persist when soils were stratified. The amount of colonization by R. vinicolor in the stratified soils was also significantly correlated with the number of multilocus genotypes present. Taken together, our findings suggest that the differential vertical distributions of R. vinicolor and R. vesiculosus in natural settings are probably attributable to competition rather than edaphic specialization, but that soil heterogeneity may play a key role in promoting EM fungal diversity. PMID:26391726

  1. Ectomycorrhizal communities above and below ground and truffle productivity in a Tuber aestivum orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Salerni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities (EM above (EMFb and below (EMMt ground associated with Quercus cerris L., Q. pubescens Willd., and Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold was analyzed.Area of study: A 20 year-old orchard that produces Tuber aestivum truffles, located a few kilometers from Chiusi della Verna (latitude 43° 41’ 53’’; longitude 11° 56’ 9’’ in Tuscany (central Italy was observed.Material and Methods: This investigation combined analyses of EMFb, EMMt, T. aestivum productivity, different host trees, and statistical data on community ecology.Main results: The EM communities showed high species richness and differed slightly in relation to both the host tree and their location above or below ground, providing frequent findings of Tricholoma and Tomentella, respectively. Positive correlations were found between the number of truffles and host trees, and between the weight and number of truffles and EMFb.Research highlights: Mycorrhizal fungi and truffle production are not in competition.Key words: Fungal communities; fruiting bodies; morphotypes; Tuber aestivum; competition; Italy.

  2. Mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces AcH 505 induces differential gene expression in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Silvia D; Schellhammer, Michael; Ecke, Margret; Hampp, Rüdiger; Tarkka, Mika T

    2005-10-01

    The interaction between the mycorrhiza helper bacteria Streptomyces nov. sp. 505 (AcH 505) and Streptomyces annulatus 1003 (AcH 1003) with fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and spruce (Picea abies) was investigated. The effects of both bacteria on the mycelial growth of different ectomycorrhizal fungi, on ectomycorrhiza formation, and on fungal gene expression in dual culture with AcH 505 were determined. The fungus specificities of the streptomycetes were similar. Both bacterial species showed the strongest effect on the growth of mycelia at 9 wk of dual culture. The effect of AcH 505 on gene expression of A. muscaria was examined using the suppressive subtractive hybridization approach. The responsive fungal genes included those involved in signalling pathways, metabolism, cell structure, and the cell growth response. These results suggest that AcH 505 and AcH 1003 enhance mycorrhiza formation mainly as a result of promotion of fungal growth, leading to changes in fungal gene expression. Differential A. muscaria transcript accumulation in dual culture may result from a direct response to bacterial substances. PMID:16159334

  3. Growth stimulation of ectomycorrhizal fungi by root exudates of Brassicaceae plants: role of degraded compounds of indole glucosinolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ren Sen; Mallik, Azim U; Setliff, Ed

    2003-06-01

    Brassicaceae plants are nonmycorrhizal. They were found to inhibit VA mycorrhizal infection in their host plants. We tested if they can influence growth of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. When roots and leaves of Brassicaceae plants and ECM fungi were cultured together in the same petri dishes, the root exudates of turnip (Brassica rapa), swede (B. napobrassica), cabbage (B. oleracea, var. capitata), broccoli (B. oleracea, var. italica Plenck), kohlrobi (B. caulorapa Pasq.), mustard (B. juncea), radish (Raphanus sativus), and choy (B. napus) significantly stimulated hyphal growth of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. Root exudates of turnip and cabbage stimulated hyphal growth of Pisolithus tinctorius and two isolates of P. involutus. Colony area of P. involutus was increased by 452 and 414%, respectively, in the presence of turnip and cabbage germinants. Root exudates of turnip increased the biomass of P. involutus and P. tinctorius by 256 and 122% and cabbage by 220 and 82%, respectively. The stimulatory effect was not affected by autoclaving the root exudates. Root exudates had chemical reactions with glutathione and lysine, which resulted in a reduction of the growth stimulation of ECM fungi. Myrosinase enhanced further the stimulatory effects of turnip on the ECM colony diameter growth by 23%. Autoclaved roots and leaves of turnip did not stimulate fungal growth, but mechanically ground roots and leaves of turnip stimulated growth of P. involutus by 147 and 135%, respectively. After desulfuration with aryl sulphatuse, the glucosinolates (GLSs) in turnip roots and leaves were identified by HPLC. The major ones were indole GLSs. Prominent compounds identified were 1-methoxy-3-indolymethyl GLS and4-methoxy-3-indolymethyl GLS. The finding provides an opportunity to field test the use of Brassicaceae plants in enhancing ectomycorrhizal formation in conifers by interplanting conifers with Brassicaceae plants in forest tree nursery and agroforestry systems

  4. Sporocarps of Pisolithus albus as an ecological niche for fluorescent pseudomonads involved in Acacia mangium Wild - Pisolithus albus ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponnois, Robin; Lesueur, Didier

    2004-09-01

    Fresh sporocarps and root and soil samples were collected under a monospecific forest plantation of Acacia mangium in Dagana in Northern Senegal and checked for the presence of fluorescent pseudomonads. No bacteria were detected except from sporocarps collected with adhering soil and hyphal strands. Pisolithus sporocarps were dried at 30 degrees C for 2 weeks, ground, passed through a 2-mm sieve and mixed together. This dry sporocarp powder (DSP) was used to inoculate and form mycorrhizas on A. mangium seedlings in a glasshouse experiment. After 3 months culture, plant growth was increased in the DSP treatment but no ectomycorrhizas were present on the A. mangium root systems; however fluorescent pseudomonads were recorded in the cultural soil. The stimulatory effects on the plant growth were maintained for 6 months. However, fluorescent pseudomonads were no longer detected and 35% of the short roots were ectomycorrhizal. Some of the fluorescent pseudomonad isolates detected after 3 months stimulated the radial fungal growth in axenic conditions. These observations suggest that these bacteria are closely associated with the Pisolithus fructifications and could interact with the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis establishment. PMID:15644922

  5. High root concentration and uneven ectomycorrhizal diversity near Sarcodes sanguinea (Ericaceae): a cheater that stimulates its victims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidartondo, M I; Kretzer, A M; Pine, E M; Bruns, T D

    2000-12-01

    Sarcodes sanguinea is a nonphotosynthetic mycoheterotrophic plant that obtains all of its fixed carbon from neighboring trees through a shared ectomycorrhizal fungus. We studied the spatial structuring of this tripartite symbiosis in a forest where Sarcodes is abundant, and its only fungal and photosynthetic plant associates are Rhizopogon ellenae and Abies magnifica, respectively. We found disproportionately high concentrations of Abies roots adjacent to Sarcodes roots compared to the surrounding soil. Rhizopogon ellenae colonizes the vast majority of those Abies roots (86-98%), and its abundance tends to decrease with increasing distance from Sarcodes plants. At 500 cm from Sarcodes plants we did not detect R. ellenae, and the ectomycorrhizal community instead was dominated by members of the Russulaceae and Thelephoraceae, which are commonly dominant in other California pinaceous forests. The highly clumped distribution of Abies-R. ellenae ectomycorrhizas indicates that Sarcodes plants either establish within pre-existing clumps, or they stimulate clump formation. Several lines of evidence favor the latter interpretation, suggesting an unexpected mutualistic aspect to the symbiosis. However, the mechanism involved remains unknown. PMID:11118414

  6. Survey of ectomycorrhizal, litter-degrading, and wood-degrading Basidiomycetes for dye decolorization and ligninolytic enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casieri, Leonardo; Anastasi, Antonella; Prigione, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2010-11-01

    Basidiomycetes are essential in forest ecology, being deeply involved in wood and litter decomposition, humification, and mineralization of soil organic matter. The fungal oxidoreductases involved in these processes are today the focus of much attention with a view to their applications. The ecological role and potential biotechnological applications of 300 isolates of Basidiomycetes were assessed, taking into account the degradation of model dyes in different culture conditions and the production of oxidoreductase enzymes. The tested isolates belong to different ecophysiological groups (wood-degrading, litter-degrading, ectomycorrhizal, and coprophilous fungi) and represent a broad systematic and functional biodiversity among Basidiomycetes occurring in deciduous and evergreen forests of northwest Italy (Piedmont Region). The high number of species tested and the use of different culture conditions allowed the investigation of the degradation activity of several novel species, neglected to date. Oxidative enzyme activities varied widely among all ecophysiological groups and laccases were the most commonly detected enzymes. A large number of isolates (86%), belonging to all ecophysiological groups, were found to be active against at least one model dye; the wood-degrading fungi represented the most efficient group. Noteworthily, also some isolates of litter-degrading and ectomycorrhizal fungi achieved good decolorization yield. The 25 best isolates were then tested against nine industrial dyes commonly employed in textile industries. Three isolates of Bjerkandera adusta efficiently decolorized the dyes on all media and can be considered important candidates for application in textile wastewater treatment. PMID:20585855

  7. Two differentially regulated phosphate transporters from the symbiotic fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum and phosphorus acquisition by ectomycorrhizal Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatry, Marie-Violaine; El Kassis, Elie; Lambilliotte, Raphaël; Corratgé, Claire; van Aarle, Ingrid; Amenc, Laurie K; Alary, Rémi; Zimmermann, Sabine; Sentenac, Hervé; Plassard, Claude

    2009-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis markedly improves plant phosphate uptake, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this benefit are still poorly understood. We identified two ESTs in a cDNA library prepared from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum with significant similarities to phosphate transporters from the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme and from non-mycorrhizal fungi. The full-length cDNAs corresponding to these two ESTs complemented a yeast phosphate transport mutant (Deltapho84). Measurements of (33)P-phosphate influx into yeast expressing either cDNA demonstrated that the encoded proteins, named HcPT1 and HcPT2, were able to mediate Pi:H(+) symport with different affinities for Pi (K(m) values of 55 and 4 mum, respectively). Real-time RT-PCR showed that Pi starvation increased the levels of HcPT1 transcripts in H. cylindrosporum hyphae grown in pure culture. Transcript levels of HcPT2 were less dependent on Pi availability. The two transporters were expressed in H. cylindrosporum associated with its natural host plant, Pinus pinaster, grown under low or high P conditions. The presence of ectomycorrhizae increased net Pi uptake rates into intact Pinus pinaster roots at low or high soil P levels. The expression patterns of HcPT1 and HcPT2 indicate that the two fungal phosphate transporters may be involved in uptake of phosphate from the soil solution under the two soil P availability conditions used. PMID:19054369

  8. Biochemical and ecophysiological responses to manganese stress by ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and in association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Gabriela C; Bertolazi, Amanda A; Cogo, Antônio J D; Eutrópio, Frederico Jacob; Melo, Juliana; de Souza, Sávio Bastos; A Krohling, Cesar; Campostrini, Eliemar; da Silva, Ary Gomes; Façanha, Arnoldo R; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Cruz, Cristina; Ramos, Alessandro C

    2016-07-01

    At relatively low concentrations, the element manganese (Mn) is essential for plant metabolism, especially for photosynthesis and as an enzyme antioxidant cofactor. However, industrial and agricultural activities have greatly increased Mn concentrations, and thereby contamination, in soils. We tested whether and how growth of Pisolithus tinctorius is influenced by Mn and glucose and compare the activities of oxidative stress enzymes as biochemical markers of Mn stress. We also compared nutrient accumulation, ecophysiology, and biochemical responses in Eucalyptus grandis which had been colonized by the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus tinctorius with those which had not, when both were exposed to increasing Mn concentrations. In vitro experiments comprised six concentrations of Mn in three concentrations of glucose. In vivo experiments used plants colonized by Pisolithus tinctorius, or not colonized, grown with three concentrations of Mn (0, 200, and 1000 μM). We found that fungal growth and glucose concentration were correlated, but these were not influenced by Mn levels in the medium. The anti-oxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase were both activated when the fungus was exposed to Mn. Also, mycorrhizal plants grew more and faster than non-mycorrhizal plants, whatever Mn exposure. Photosynthesis rate, intrinsic water use efficiency, and carboxylation efficiency were all inversely correlated with Mn concentration. Thus, we originally show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus provides protection for its host plants against varying and potentially toxic concentrations of Mn. PMID:26861483

  9. Gut passage of epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungi by two opportunistic mycophagous rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citlalli CASTILLO-GUEVARA, Josette SIERRA, Gema GALINDO-FLORES,Mariana CUAUTLE, Carlos LARA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycophagists can influence fungal diversity within their home ranges by ensuring the continued and effective dispersal of spores from one site to another. However, the passage of spores through the digestive tract of vertebrates can affect the activity and viability of the spores ingested. This phenomenon has been rarely documented in opportunistic mycophagists consuming epigeous fungi. Using laboratory experiments, we investigated the activity and viability of spores of two epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungal species (Laccaria trichodermophora and Suillus tomentosus after passage through the digestive tract of two opportunistic mycophagous small rodents, the volcano mouse Peromyscus alstoni and the deer mouse P. maniculatus. We found that passage through the gut of either species of rodent had a significant effect on spore activity and viability for both fungal species. The proportion of active spores (0.37–0.40 of L. trichodermophora in the feces of both species of rodents was less than that recorded for the control (0.82. However, the proportion of active spores (0.64–0.73 of S. tomentosus in the feces of each species of rodent was higher than in the control (0.40. On the other hand, the viability of spores was lower (0.26–0.30 in L. trichodermophora and 0.60–0.69 in S. tomentosus for both fungi when consumed by either rodent relative to the controls (0.90 in L. trichodermophora and 0.82 in S. tomentosus. These findings suggest that these rodent species may be effective dispersers of both epigeous fungi [Current Zoology 57 (3: 293–299, 2011].

  10. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krznaric, Erik [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Verbruggen, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Physiologie et de Genetique Moleculaire des Plantes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, CP242, Bd du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Wevers, Jan H.L. [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Carleer, Robert [Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Vangronsveld, Jaco [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Colpaert, Jan V., E-mail: jan.colpaert@uhasselt.b [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2009-05-15

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils. - The evolutionary adaptation for higher Cd tolerance in Suillus luteus, an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is of major importance for the amelioration of Cd toxicity in pine trees exposed to high Cd concentrations.

  11. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils. - The evolutionary adaptation for higher Cd tolerance in Suillus luteus, an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is of major importance for the amelioration of Cd toxicity in pine trees exposed to high Cd concentrations.

  12. Fluorescent in situ RT-PCR to visualise the expression of a phosphate transporter gene from an ectomycorrhizal fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aarle, Ingrid M; Viennois, Gaëlle; Amenc, Laurie K; Tatry, Marie-Violaine; Luu, Doan T; Plassard, Claude

    2007-09-01

    Expression of a mycorrhizal fungal-specific phosphate (P) transporter gene (HcPT1) was studied in mycelium of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum, by in situ reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using amplification of complementary DNA sequences. The expression of HcPT1 was visualised under two different P treatments. Mycelium was transferred to liquid medium with or without P and incubated for 5 days. Under P starvation, mycelium growth and vitality was reduced and the expression of HcPT1 up regulated. Enzyme-labelled fluorescent substrate was used to detect gene expression in situ with epi-fluorescence microscopy and to visualise it at the level of the individual hyphae both in starved and non-starved hyphae. Up-regulation of HcPT1 was observed as a more intense fluorescent signal and from the larger proportion of hyphae that showed expression. PMID:17520293

  13. Impact of ectomycorrhizal colonization and rust infection on the secondary metabolism of poplar (Populus trichocarpa x deltoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfabel, Cornelia; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Baum, Christel; Struck, Christine; Frey, Pascal; Weih, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Fungal colonization can significantly affect the secondary metabolism of the host plants. We tested the impact of a common below-ground symbiosis, i.e., ectomycorrhiza formation, on poplar leaf chemical components that are involved in the defence against a common disease, i.e., rust fungi, in N-deficient soil. A rust-susceptible poplar clone (Populus trichocarpa × deltoides 'Beaupré') was (a) non-associated with ectomycorrhizal fungus (EM) Hebeloma mesophaeum (Pers.) Quélet MÜN and non-infected with rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina Kleb. (isolate 98AG31), (b) associated with EM, (c) inoculated with rust fungus and (d) associated with EM and inoculated with rust fungus. Poplar leaves were analysed by photometric and mass spectrometric techniques (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS)). Both rust infection and mycorrhiza formation led to increased proportions of condensed tannins in relation to total phenolics (13% in the control, 18-19% in the fungal treatments). In contrast, salicylic acid concentration (6.8 µg g(-1) in the control) was higher only in the rust treatments (17.9 and 25.4 µg g(-1) with rust infection). The Py-FIMS analysis revealed that the rust-infected treatments were significantly separated from the non-rust-infected treatments on the basis of six flavonoids and one lipid. The relative abundance of these components, which have known functions in plant defence, was decreased after rust infection of non-mycorrhizal plants, but not in mycorrhizal plants. The results indicate that the ectomycorrhizal formation compensated the rust infection by a decrease in the flavonoid syntheses. The study provides new evidence for an interactive response of mycorrhizal colonization and infection with rust fungi in the metabolism of poplar. PMID:23065191

  14. Host plant richness explains diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi: Response to the comment of Tedersoo et al. (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng; Shi, Nan-Nan; Liu, Yue-Xing; Zheng, Yong; Ding, Qiong; Mi, Xiang-Cheng; Ma, Ke-Ping; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Guo, Liang-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Exploring the relationships between the biodiversity of groups of interacting organisms yields insight into ecosystem stability and function (Hooper et al. ; Wardle ). We demonstrated positive relationships between host plant richness and ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal diversity both in a field study in subtropical China (Gutianshan) and in a meta-analysis of temperate and tropical studies (Gao et al. ). However, based on re-evaluation of our data sets, Tedersoo et al. () argue that the observed positive correlation between EM fungal richness and EM plant richness at Gutianshan and also in our metastudies was based mainly from (i) a sampling design with inconsistent species pool and (ii) poor data compilation for the meta-analysis. Accordingly, we checked our data sets and repeated the analysis performed by Tedersoo et al. (). In contrast to Tedersoo et al. (), our re-analysis still confirms a positive effect of plant richness on EM fungal diversity in Gutianshan, temperate and tropical ecosystems, respectively. PMID:24428237

  15. Leaf and root-associated fungal assemblages do not follow similar elevational diversity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Coince

    Full Text Available The diversity of fungi along environmental gradients has been little explored in contrast to plants and animals. Consequently, environmental factors influencing the composition of fungal assemblages are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the diversity and composition of leaf and root-associated fungal assemblages vary with elevation and to investigate potential explanatory variables. High-throughput sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 region was used to explore fungal assemblages along three elevation gradients, located in French mountainous regions. Beech forest was selected as a study system to minimise the host effect. The variation in species richness and specific composition was investigated for ascomycetes and basidiomycetes assemblages with a particular focus on root-associated ectomycorrhizal fungi. The richness of fungal communities associated with leaves or roots did not significantly relate to any of the tested environmental drivers, i.e. elevation, mean temperature, precipitation or edaphic variables such as soil pH or the ratio carbon∶nitrogen. Nevertheless, the ascomycete species richness peaked at mid-temperature, illustrating a mid-domain effect model. We found that leaf and root-associated fungal assemblages did not follow similar patterns of composition with elevation. While the composition of the leaf-associated fungal assemblage correlated primarily with the mean annual temperature, the composition of root-associated fungal assemblage was explained equally by soil pH and by temperature. The ectomycorrhizal composition was also related to these variables. Our results therefore suggest that above and below-ground fungal assemblages are not controlled by the same main environmental variables. This may be due to the larger amplitude of climatic variables in the tree foliage compared to the soil environment.

  16. Leaf and root-associated fungal assemblages do not follow similar elevational diversity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coince, Aurore; Cordier, Tristan; Lengellé, Juliette; Defossez, Emmanuel; Vacher, Corinne; Robin, Cécile; Buée, Marc; Marçais, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of fungi along environmental gradients has been little explored in contrast to plants and animals. Consequently, environmental factors influencing the composition of fungal assemblages are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the diversity and composition of leaf and root-associated fungal assemblages vary with elevation and to investigate potential explanatory variables. High-throughput sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 region was used to explore fungal assemblages along three elevation gradients, located in French mountainous regions. Beech forest was selected as a study system to minimise the host effect. The variation in species richness and specific composition was investigated for ascomycetes and basidiomycetes assemblages with a particular focus on root-associated ectomycorrhizal fungi. The richness of fungal communities associated with leaves or roots did not significantly relate to any of the tested environmental drivers, i.e. elevation, mean temperature, precipitation or edaphic variables such as soil pH or the ratio carbon∶nitrogen. Nevertheless, the ascomycete species richness peaked at mid-temperature, illustrating a mid-domain effect model. We found that leaf and root-associated fungal assemblages did not follow similar patterns of composition with elevation. While the composition of the leaf-associated fungal assemblage correlated primarily with the mean annual temperature, the composition of root-associated fungal assemblage was explained equally by soil pH and by temperature. The ectomycorrhizal composition was also related to these variables. Our results therefore suggest that above and below-ground fungal assemblages are not controlled by the same main environmental variables. This may be due to the larger amplitude of climatic variables in the tree foliage compared to the soil environment. PMID:24971637

  17. Potassium nutrition of ectomycorrhizal Pinus pinaster: overexpression of the Hebeloma cylindrosporum HcTrk1 transporter affects the translocation of both K(+) and phosphorus in the host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kevin; Delteil, Amandine; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Becquer, Adeline; Plassard, Claude; Sentenac, Hervé; Zimmermann, Sabine

    2014-02-01

    Mycorrhizal associations are known to improve the hydro-mineral nutrition of their host plants. However, the importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis for plant potassium nutrition has so far been poorly studied. We therefore investigated the impact of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum on the potassium nutrition of Pinus pinaster and examined the involvement of the fungal potassium transporter HcTrk1. HcTrk1 transcripts and proteins were localized in ectomycorrhizas using in situ hybridization and EGFP translational fusion constructs. Importantly, an overexpression strategy was performed on a H. cylindrosporum endogenous gene in order to dissect the role of this transporter. The potassium nutrition of mycorrhizal pine plants was significantly improved under potassium-limiting conditions. Fungal strains overexpressing HcTrk1 reduced the translocation of potassium and phosphorus from the roots to the shoots of inoculated plants in mycorrhizal experiments. Furthermore, expression of HcTrk1 and the phosphate transporter HcPT1.1 were reciprocally linked to the external inorganic phosphate and potassium availability. The development of these approaches provides a deeper insight into the role of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on host plant K(+) nutrition and in particular, the K(+) transporter HcTrk1. The work augments our knowledge of the link between potassium and phosphorus nutrition via the mycorrhizal pathway. PMID:24279702

  18. Trace metal effects on ectomycorrhizal growth, diversity, and colonization of host seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Belling Abler, Rebecca Alicia

    2004-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are essential to seedling establishment in disturbed sites. This dissertation examines the effects of trace metals and soil disturbance on ectomycorrhizal fungi in the laboratory and the field. The first experiment assessed Cu and Zn impact on growth of three ectomycorrhizal species in pure culture. Suillus granulatus and Pisolithus tinctorius were more tolerant to Cu than Paxillus involutus, however, none of the species grew at 250 ppm Cu. Suillus granulatus had th...

  19. Hyperdiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F; Miller, Orson K; Horton, Jonathan L

    2005-03-01

    Diversity of ectotrophic mycobionts on outplanted seedlings of two oak species (Quercus rubra and Quercus prinus) was estimated at two sites in mature mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains by sequencing nuclear 5.8S rRNA genes and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS). The seedlings captured a high diversity of mycorrhizal ITS-types and late-stage fungi were well represented. Total richness was 75 types, with 42 types having a frequency of only one. The first and second order jackknife estimates were 116 and 143 types, respectively. Among Basidiomycetes, tomentelloid/thelephoroid, russuloid, and cortinarioid groups were the richest. The ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum was ubiquitously present. Dominant fungi included a putative Tuber sp. (Ascomycetes), and Basidiomycetes including a putative Craterellus sp., and Laccaria cf. laccata. Diversity was lower at a drier high elevation oak forest site compared to a low elevation mesic cove--hardwood forest site. Fungal specificity for red oak vs. white oak seedlings was unresolved. The high degree of rarity in this system imposes limitations on the power of community analyses at finer scales. The high mycobiont diversity highlights the potential for seedlings to acquire carbon from mycelial networks and confirms the utility of using outplanted seedlings to estimate ectomycorrhizal diversity. PMID:15723674

  20. Molecular signals required for the establishment and maintenance of ectomycorrhizal symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kevin; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Cope, Kevin R; Ané, Jean-Michel

    2015-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbioses are among the most widespread associations between roots of woody plants and soil fungi in forest ecosystems. These associations contribute significantly to the sustainability and sustainagility of these ecosystems through nutrient cycling and carbon sequestration. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms controlling the mutual recognition between both partners are still poorly understood. Elegant work has demonstrated that effector proteins from ECM and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi regulate host defenses by manipulating plant hormonal pathways. In parallel, genetic and evolutionary studies in legumes showed that a 'common symbiosis pathway' is required for the establishment of the ancient AM symbiosis and has been recruited for the rhizobia-legume association. Given that genes of this pathway are present in many angiosperm trees that develop ectomycorrhizas, we propose their potential involvement in some but not all ECM associations. The maintenance of a successful long-term relationship seems strongly regulated by resource allocation between symbiotic partners, suggesting that nutrients themselves may serve as signals. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the early and late signal exchanges between woody plants and ECM fungi, and we suggest future directions for decoding the molecular basis of the underground dance between trees and their favorite fungal partners. PMID:25982949

  1. High diversity and widespread occurrence of mitotic spore mats in ectomycorrhizal Pezizales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R A; Smith, M E; Bonito, G M; Pfister, D H; Ge, Z-W; Guevara, G G; Williams, G; Stafford, K; Kumar, L; Lee, T; Hobart, C; Trappe, J; Vilgalys, R; McLaughlin, D J

    2013-03-01

    Fungal mitospores may function as dispersal units and/ or spermatia and thus play a role in distribution and/or mating of species that produce them. Mitospore production in ectomycorrhizal (EcM) Pezizales is rarely reported, but here we document mitospore production by a high diversity of EcM Pezizales on three continents, in both hemispheres. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial large subunit (LSU) nuclear rDNA from 292 spore mats (visible mitospore clumps) collected in Argentina, Chile, China, Mexico and the USA between 2009 and 2012. We collated spore mat ITS sequences with 105 fruit body and 47 EcM root sequences to generate operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Phylogenetic inferences were made through analyses of both molecular data sets. A total of 48 OTUs from spore mats represented six independent EcM Pezizales lineages and included truffles and cup fungi. Three clades of seven OTUs have no known meiospore stage. Mitospores failed to germinate on sterile media, or form ectomycorrhizas on Quercus, Pinus and Populus seedlings, consistent with a hypothesized role of spermatia. The broad geographic range, high frequency and phylogenetic diversity of spore mats produced by EcM Pezizales suggests that a mitospore stage is important for many species in this group in terms of mating, reproduction and/or dispersal. PMID:23205556

  2. Utilization of rocks and ectomycorrhizal fungi to promote growth of eucalypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Alves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of rocks as fertilizers is limited by their low solubility. However, solubilization may be achieved by some micro-organisms, such as ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMf. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of seven isolates of ECMf to solubilize two rocks, alkaline breccia and granite, and to liberate potassium and phosphorus for Eucalyptus dunnii seedlings under greenhouse conditions. Fungal inoculants were produced in a peat-vermiculite-liquid medium mixture and added to the planting substrate at 10 %. Rocks were ground up and added at 0.500 mg and 16.0 mg per plant, as a source of phosphorus and potassium, respectively. Other nutrients were added and E. dunnii seeds were sown. Control plants, non-inoculated, were fertilized with the same amount of phosphorus and potassium using soluble forms. After 90 days, the plant height, shoot dry weight, root length, phosphorus and potassium contents, and mycorrhizal colonization were evaluated. Alkaline breccia was more efficient than granite as a source of phosphorus and potassium for the plants, and may be an alternative to conventional fertilizers. Isolates UFSC-Pt22 (Pisolithus sp. and UFSC-Pt186 (Pisolithus microcarpus were the most efficient in promoting plant growth, mainly when combined with alkaline breccia to replace potassium and phosphorus fertilizers, respectively.

  3. Impact of wildfire return interval on the ectomycorrhizal resistant propagules communities of a Mediterranean open forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscardo, Erika; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Martín, María P; De Angelis, Paolo; Pereira, João Santos; Freitas, Helena

    2010-08-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, in particular their spores and other resistant propagules, play an important role in secondary succession processes that facilitate regeneration after disturbance events. In this study, the effects of high and low wildfire frequencies (respectively short and long fire return intervals) on the resistant propagules communities (RPCs) of a Mediterranean open pine forest were compared. Soil samples were collected in four mountain sites with different fire return intervals and used to test ectomycorrhiza development in two hosts, Pinus pinaster and Quercus suber. RPCs were characterized by direct sequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions from individual ECM root tips. Eighteen ECM species were detected in the bioassay. The most frequently found fungi were Cenococcum geophilum, Inocybe jacobi, Thelephora terrestris, Tomentella ellisii on both hosts and Rhizopogon luteolus and R. roseolus on maritime pine. A short fire return interval reduced the species richness of the ECM community found on Q. suber, promoted species like R. roseolus and reduced the abundance of other species (e.g. R. luteolus). The abundance of I. jacobi was positively affected by long fire return interval, but decreased significantly with recurrent fires. These results indicate that changes in fire frequency can alter the structure, composition and diversity of ECM communities, which could compromise the resilience of the ecosystem in highly disturbed areas. PMID:20943174

  4. Growth and photosynthetic responses of ectomycorrhizal pine seedlings exposed to elevated Cu in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yahua; Nara, Kazuhide; Wen, Zhugui; Shi, Liang; Xia, Yan; Shen, Zhenguo; Lian, Chunlan

    2015-10-01

    It is still controversial whether ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mycelia filter out toxic metals in nutrient absorption of host trees. In this study, pine (Pinus densiflora) seedlings colonized by Cu-sensitive and Cu-tolerant ECM species were exposed to a wide spectrum of soil Cu concentrations to investigate functions of ECM fungi under Cu stress. The photosynthetic rates of intact needles were monitored in situ periodically. The biomass and elements of plants were also measured after harvest. The ameliorating effect of ECM infection on host plants exposed to toxic stress was metal concentration specific. Under lower-level Cu stress, ECM fungi increased seedling performance, while ECM seedlings accumulated more Cu than nonmycorrhizal (NM) seedlings. Under higher-level Cu stress, photosynthesis decreased well before visible symptoms of Cu toxicity appeared. The reduced photosynthesis and biomass in ECM seedlings compared to NM seedlings under higher Cu conditions were also accompanied by lower phosphorus in needles. There was no marked difference between the two fungal species. Our results indicate that the two ECM fungi studied in our system may not have an ability to selectively eliminate Cu in nutrient absorption and may not act as effective barriers that decrease toxic metal uptake into host plants. PMID:25720735

  5. Surface-bound phosphatase activity in living hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Nothofagus obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Godoy, Roberto; Heyser, Wolfgang; Härtel, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    We determined the location and the activity of surface-bound phosphomonoesterase (SBP) of five ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi of Nothofagus oblique. EM fungal mycelium of Paxillus involutus, Austropaxillus boletinoides, Descolea antartica, Cenococcum geophilum and Pisolithus tinctorius was grown in media with varying concentrations of dissolved phosphorus. SBP activity was detected at different pH values (3-7) under each growth regimen. SBP activity was assessed using a colorimetric method based on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) to p-nitrophenol phosphate (pNP) + P. A new technique involving confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to locate and quantify SBP activity on the hyphal surface. EM fungi showed two fundamentally different patterns of SBP activity in relation to varying environmental conditions (P-concentrations and pH). In the cases of D. antartica, A. boletinoides and C. geophilum, changes in SBP activity were induced primarily by changes in the number of SBP-active centers on the hyphae. In the cases of P. tinctorius and P. involutus, the number of SBP-active centers per μm hyphal length changed much less than the intensity of the SBP-active centers on the hyphae. Our findings not only contribute to the discussion about the role of SBP-active centers in EM fungi but also introduce LSM as a valuable method for studying EM fungi. PMID:21148871

  6. Fungi in roots of nursery grown Pinus sylvestris: ectomycorrhizal colonisation, genetic diversity and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkis, Audrius; Vasaitis, Rimvydas

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate patterns of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonisation and community structure on nursery grown seedlings of Pinus sylvestris, spatial distribution of ECMs in the nursery plot and genetic diversity of commonly isolated ECM basidiomycete Hebeloma cavipes. One hundred seedlings were sampled in 225 m(2) area using a systematic grid design. For each seedling, 20 individual root tips were randomly collected, morphotyped, and surface sterilised for fungal isolation in pure culture. Results showed that ECM community was comprised of nine distinct morphotypes among which Thelephora terrestris (39.7%), Hebeloma sp. (17.8%) and Suillus luteus (6.1%) were the most abundant. Spatial distribution of ECMs in the nursery plot was determined by their relative abundance: even in common ECMs and random in rare ones. Fungal isolation yielded 606 pure cultures, representing 71 distinct taxa. The most commonly isolated fungi were the ascomycetes Neonectria macrodidyma (20.3%), Phialocephala fortinii (13.5%), Neonectria radicicola (6.3%) and the ECM basidiomycete H. cavipes (4.5%). Intraspecific genetic diversity within 27 H. cavipes isolates was studied using two methods: restriction digestion of the amplified intergenic spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA and genealogical concordance of five genetic markers. Five and eight genotypes were revealed by each respective method, but both of those were largely consistent, in particular, in determining the largest genotype (A) composed of 18 isolates. Mapping positions for each H. cavipes isolate and genotype in the field showed that isolates of the A genotype covered a large part of the nursery plot. This suggests that H. cavipes is largely disseminated by vegetative means of local genotypes and that nursery cultivation practices are likely to contribute to the dissemination of this species in the forest nursery soils. PMID:20437259

  7. Characterisation of recombinant pyranose oxidase from the cultivated mycorrhizal basidiomycete Lyophyllum shimeji (hon-shimeji

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    Yamabhai Montarop

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flavin-dependent enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (P2Ox has gained increased attention during the last years because of a number of attractive applications for this enzyme. P2Ox is a unique biocatalyst with high potential for biotransformations of carbohydrates and in synthetic carbohydrate chemistry. Recently, it was shown that P2Ox is useful as bioelement in biofuel cells, replacing glucose oxidase (GOx, which traditionally is used in these applications. P2Ox offers several advantages over GOx for this application, e.g., its much broader substrate specificity. Because of this renewed interest in P2Ox, knowledge on novel pyranose oxidases isolated from organisms other than white-rot fungi, which represent the traditional source of this enzyme, is of importance, as these novel enzymes might differ in their biochemical and physical properties. Results We isolated and over-expressed the p2ox gene encoding P2Ox from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Lyophyllum shimeji. The p2ox cDNA was inserted into the bacterial expression vector pET21a(+ and successfully expressed in E. coli Rosetta 2. We obtained active, flavinylated recombinant P2Ox in yields of approximately 130 mg per L of medium. The enzyme was purified by a two-step procedure based on anion exchange chromatography and preparative native PAGE, yielding an apparently homogenous enzyme preparation with a specific activity of 1.92 U/mg (using glucose and air oxygen as the substrates. Recombinant P2Ox from L. shimeji was characterized in some detail with respect to its physical and catalytic properties, and compared to the well-characterised enzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes multicolor. Conclusion L. shimeji P2Ox shows properties that are comparable to those of P2Ox from white-rot fungal origin, and is in general characterised by lower Km and kcat values both for electron donor (sugar as well as electron acceptor (ferrocenium ion, 1,4-benzoquinone, 2

  8. Impact of alien pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities-evidence from two continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazol, Antonio; Zobel, Martin; Cantero, Juan José; Davison, John; Esler, Karen J; Jairus, Teele; Öpik, Maarja; Vasar, Martti; Moora, Mari

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of alien plants can influence biodiversity and ecosystems. However, its consequences for soil microbial communities remain poorly understood. We addressed the impact of alien ectomycorrhizal (EcM) pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities in two regions with contrasting biogeographic histories: in South Africa, where no native EcM plant species are present; and in Argentina, where EcM trees occur naturally. The effect of alien pines on AM fungal communities differed between these regions. In South Africa, plantations of alien EcM pines exhibited lower AM fungal richness and significantly altered community composition, compared with native fynbos. In Argentina, the richness and composition of local AM fungal communities were similar in plantations of alien EcM pines and native forest. However, the presence of alien pines resulted in slight changes to the phylogenetic structure of root AM fungal communities in both regions. In pine clearcut areas in South Africa, the richness and composition of AM fungal communities were intermediate between the native fynbos and the alien pine plantation, which is consistent with natural regeneration of former AM fungal communities following pine removal. We conclude that the response of local AM fungal communities to alien EcM pines differs between biogeographic regions with different histories of species coexistence. PMID:27056916

  9. Gold content of ectomycorrhizal and saprobic macrofungi - an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovika, J [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Charles University, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Randa [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Jelinek, E [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Charles University, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2006-05-15

    Species of macrofungi growing in the wild were collected from non-auriferous and unpolluted areas, and analyzed for gold. In addition, preliminary results of samples originated from an auriferous area are presented. Gold was determined using long-term instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In total, 108 samples, including 49 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi and 30 species of terrestrial saprobes, were examined. The highest concentrations (expressed in dry weight) were found in ectomycorrhizal species Russula nigricans (235 ng g{sup -1}) and Suillus variegatus (1070 ng g{sup -1}). Among the saprobic macrofungi, an extraordinary high value 2250 ng g{sup -1} was found in Lepiota cf. clypeolaria. Gold content of saprobic macrofungi originated from the auriferous area was obviously higher than that of macrofungi from non-auriferous areas. The highest contents were found in Agaricus silvaticus (4230 ng g{sup -1}) and in two samples of Lycoperdon perlatum (6955 and 7739 ng g{sup -1})

  10. Phylogenetic placement of the ectomycorrhizal genus Cenococcum in Gloniaceae (Dothideomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatafora, Joseph W; Owensby, C Alisha; Douhan, Greg W; Boehm, Eric W A; Schoch, Conrad L

    2012-01-01

    Cenococcum is a genus of ectomycorrhizal Ascomycota that has a broad host range and geographic distribution. It is not known to produce either meiotic or mitotic spores and is known to exist only in the form of hyphae, sclerotia and host-colonized ectomycorrhizal root tips. Due to its lack of sexual and asexual spores and reproductive structures, it has proven difficult to incorporate into traditional classification within Ascomycota. Molecular phylogenetic studies of ribosomal RNA placed Cenococcum in Dothideomycetes, but the definitive identification of closely related taxa remained elusive. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of five nuclear loci (SSU, LSU, TEF1, RPB1, RPB2) of Dothideomycetes that placed Cenococcum as a close relative of the genus Glonium of Gloniaceae (Pleosporomycetidae incertae sedis) with strong statistical support. Glonium is a genus of saprobic Dothideomycetes that produces darkly pigmented, carbonaceous, hysteriate apothecia and is not known to be biotrophic. Evolution of ectomycorhizae, Cenococcum and Dothideomycetes is discussed. PMID:22453119

  11. Assessment of ectomycorrhizal biodiversity in Tuber macrosporum productive sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Gian Maria Niccolò; Raggi, Lorenzo; Albertini, Emidio; Csorbai, Andrea Gógán; Donnini, Domizia

    2014-05-01

    Tuber macrosporum Vittad. is a truffle with superb organoleptic properties, whose cultivation is still in its infancy. For the first time we have aimed to provide information on ectomycorrhizal communities in natural and cultivated T. macrosporum sites. Ectomycorrhizal morphotypes were identified using ITS nrDNA sequencing and sorted into molecular operational taxonomic unit (MOTU). We detected 16 MOTUs in the T. macrosporum cultivated plantation. Ascomycota were the most abundant (86.4%) with Helvellaceae, Pyronemataceae and Pezizaceae the most common. Twenty-two MOTUs were collected in the natural T. macrosporum site. Basidiomycota morphotypes were plentiful (70.6%) and Thelephoraceae dominated. Each site had different taxa belowground with only T. macrosporum in common, being more abundant in the natural (18.2%) than in the cultivated (14.4%) site. Species richness, Simpson and Shannon diversity indices, taxonomic diversity, distinctness and variation of taxonomic distinctness were lower in the cultivated than in the natural site. PMID:24232503

  12. Exploratory workshop on diversity and function in ectomycorrhizal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Garbaye, Jean

    2011-01-01

    This proceedings contains eight articles dealing with community ecology and functional biodiversity targeting the central compartment of any forest ecosystem: the community of the symbiotic fungi which inhabit the roots. It covers the role of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities in the interaction between industrial soil pollution and tree stands and mobilization of nutrients from soil organic matter through the activity of extracellular enzymes, and discusses the general concepts of functional ...

  13. Environmental drivers of ectomycorrhizal communities in Europe's temperate oak forests

    OpenAIRE

    Suz, Laura M.; Barsoum, Nadia; Benham, Sue; Dietrich, Hans Peter; Fetzer, Karl Dieter; Fischer, Richard; Garcia, Paloma; Gehrman, Joachim; Kristöfel, Ferdinand; Manninger, Miklos; Neagu, Stefan; Nicolas, Manuel; Oldenburger, Jan; Raspe, Stephan; SANCHEZ, GERARDO

    2014-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are major ecological players in temperate forests, but they are rarely used in measures of forest condition because large-scale, high-resolution, standardized and replicated belowground data are scarce. We carried out an analysis of ectomycorrhizas at 22 intensively monitored long-term oak plots, across nine European countries, covering complex natural and anthropogenic environmental gradients. We found that at large scales, mycorrhizal richness and evenness declined wit...

  14. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang Vincent L; Tiimonen Heidi; Mäkelä Riina; Vuosku Jaana; Saranpää Pekka; Laakso Tapio; Edesi Jaanika; Niemi Karoliina; Sutela Suvi; Koskimäki Janne; Suorsa Marja; Julkunen-Tiitto Riitta; Häggman Hely

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch li...

  15. Effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi on bacterial wilt of Eucalyptus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum, is a very serious disease of Eucalyptus in southern China, mainly in Guangdong, Hainan and Guangxi provinces. It causes the death of seedlings and young trees and the mortality may exceed 90 percent in some sites. Susceptible species include E. grandis, E. urophylla, hybrids between the two and E. citriodora. In nursery and field trials with E. urophylla and field trial with E. grandis x E. urophylla inoculation of ectomycorrhizal fungi was found to red...

  16. Isolation, Identification and Screening of Ectomycorrhizal fungi for reforestation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinus pinaster occupies almost 30% of Portuguese forest area and fire is one of its major threat. Pinus pinaster is resistant to low fire intensities, however, the frequency and intensity of the current fire regime cuases a disturbing reduction of its area of distribution. Ectomycorrhizal fungi can form symbiotic associations with P. pinaster improving among other factors, plant growth and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, which can be a useful tool for an efficient reforestation of burned areas. (Author)

  17. Effects of Bifenox, DCPA, and Napropamide on Ectomycorrhizal Development of Conifer Seedlings in Central and Northern Rocky Mountain Nurseries

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1985-01-01

    Postseeding and postgermination treatments with three weed control herbicides (Bifenox, DCPA, Napropamide) at two rates of application caused little reduction of ectomycorrhizal development on 1- and 2-year-old conifer seedlings in Central or Northern Rocky Mountain nurseries. In many cases, herbicide treatment increased ectomycorrhizal development, particularly with DCPA. In general, herbicide treatment effects on ectomycorrhizal development were species and nursery specific.

  18. Beech carbon productivity as driver of ectomycorrhizal abundance and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druebert, Christine; Lang, Christa; Valtanen, Kerttu; Polle, Andrea

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that carbon productivity of beech (Fagus sylvatica) controls ectomycorrhizal colonization, diversity and community structures. Carbon productivity was limited by long-term shading or by girdling. The trees were grown in compost soil to avoid nutrient deficiencies. Despite severe limitation in photosynthesis and biomass production by shading, the concentrations of carbohydrates in roots were unaffected by the light level. Shade-acclimated plants were only 10% and sun-acclimated plants were 74% colonized by ectomycorrhiza. EM diversity was higher on roots with high than at roots with low mycorrhizal colonization. Evenness was unaffected by any treatment. Low mycorrhizal colonization had no negative effects on plant mineral nutrition. In girdled plants mycorrhizal colonization and diversity were retained although (14)C-leaf feeding showed almost complete disruption of carbon transport from leaves to roots. Carbohydrate storage pools in roots decreased upon girdling. Our results show that plant carbon productivity was the reason for and not the result of high ectomycorrhizal diversity. We suggest that ectomycorrhiza can be supplied by two carbon routes: recent photosynthate and stored carbohydrates. Storage pools may be important for ectomycorrhizal survival when photoassimilates were unavailable, probably feeding preferentially less carbon demanding EM species as shifts in community composition were found. PMID:19344334

  19. Soil propagule banks of ectomycorrhizal fungi along forest development stages after mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Nara, Kazuhide; Zong, Kun; Lian, Chunlan

    2015-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) propagules play an important role in seedling establishment following disturbance. However, little is known about how the EMF propagule community changes with forest development. In this study, EMF propagules were examined using seedling bioassays in rhizosphere soils collected from a recently closed Pb-Zn tailing (Taolin Pb-Zn tailing (TLT)), a Cu tailing (Dexing Cu No. 2 tailing (DXT)) that had undergone 21 years of restoration, and a mature Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest (DXC) outside the Cu mining areas. The corresponding EMF communities colonizing Masson pine at each site were also investigated for comparison. After 8 months of running bioassays, ectomycorrhizal colonization was poor for seedlings grown in TLT (9.0 % ± 14.9 %) and DXT soils (22.4 % ± 17.7 %), while DXC seedlings were well colonized (47.5 % ± 24.9 %). Internal transcribed spacer sequencing revealed that EMF species richness increased with forest development in both the propagule bank (TLT, 6; DXT, 7; DXC, 12) and in the field (TLT, 8; DXT, 14; DXC, 26), though richness was lower in propagule banks. Several lineages, such as Cenococcum, Rhizopogon, Inocybe, Suillus, and Atheliaceae, were frequently encountered in propagule communities, but species assemblages were different among the three sites. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that several soil parameters, i.e., N, EC, Cu, Pb, Zn, etc., were responsible for the distribution of EMF in the field and bioassay seedlings. The highest overlap in EMF species composition between the propagule bank and the field community was observed at the recently closed tailing (Morisita-Horn similarity = 0.71 for TLT), whereas the lowest overlap occurred at the mature forest (0.26 for DXC). These results indicate that EMF propagules in soil are less frequent and diverse in early primary succession and become more frequent and diverse along forest development, due mainly to the accumulation of

  20. Decomposition of soil organic matter by ectomycorrhizal fungi studied by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, César; Tunlid, Anders; Persson, Per

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests accumulate a fifth of the global soil organic matter (SOM) pool and play an important role in the carbon cycling. Most trees in these boreal forests live in symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) that sheath the plant root tips. In the symbiotic relationship, EMF provide nutrients from the soil to plants such as nitrogen and phosphorous, and trees give carbon in return to the fungi. When foraging for these nutrients, EMF use different strategies to explore the soil matrix. Long-distance exploration types grow far into the soil surroundings of the roots, while short-medium distance exploration ones grow close to the root tips. Despite these morphological differences among EMF, there is still little evidence of their functional role in the SOM decomposition. In this study, two ectomycorrhizal fungi Paxillus involutus and Laccaria bicolor, which belong to long and medium-distance smooth exploration types respectively, were grown in axenic cultures on SOM extracted from forest litter. To trigger the fungal decomposing activity, the extracts were supplemented with glucose. Chemical analysis and infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze the organic matter and chemometric tools such as principal component analysis (PCA), two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) analysis were applied to further understand the chemical changes in the SOM. The first principal component of PCA explained 77% of the total variability and separated the treatments based on two infrared spectral regions: polysaccharides (970-1,150 cm-1) and carbonyl region (1,620-1,800 cm-1). Moreover, the 2D correlation analysis showed that the polysaccharides region in both treatments was negatively correlated with the carbonyl region, suggesting the production of oxidized compounds such as ketones during the uptake of glucose. The 2D correlation analysis also revealed that the diminution of intensity in the

  1. Influences of excessive Cu on photosynthesis and growth in ectomycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yi; TAO Shu

    2004-01-01

    Growth and photosynthesis responses were measured for Scots pine(Pinus sylvestris L. cv.) inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi(Suillus bovinus) under 6.5 and 25 mg/L Cu treatments to evaluate ectomycorrhizal seedlings' tolerance to heavy metal stress. Results showed that excessive Cu can significantly impair the growth and photosynthesis of pine seedlings, but such impairment is much smaller to the ectomycorrhizal seedlings. Under 25 mg/L Cu treatment, the dry weight of ectomycorrhizal seedlings is 25% lower than the control in contrary to 53% of the non-mycorrhizal seedlings, and the fresh weight of ectomycorrhizal roots was significantly higher than those of non-mycorrhizal roots, about 25% and 42% higher at 6.5 and 25 mg/L Cu treatments respectively. Furthermore, ectomycorrhizal fungi induced remarkable difference in the growth rate and pigment content of seedlings under excessive Cu stress. At 25 mg/L Cu, the contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b were 30% higher in ectomycorrhizal plants than those in non-mycorrhizal plants. O2 evolution and electron transport of PSI and PSII were restrained by elevated Cu stress. However, no significant improvement was observed in reducing the physiological restraining in ectomycorrhizal seedlings over the non-mycorrhizal ones.

  2. The Major Factors Affecting Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Diversity in the Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di-Di Chai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi are important for plants growth which can enhance their resistance to drought, diseases, infertility and so on in the forest ecosystem, so researches on Ectomycorrhizal fungi are of necessity and great significance. As the basis for Ectomycorrhizal fungi research, the Ectomycorrhizal fungi diversity is attributed to many factors which can be divided to two parts in this review: biotic factors and abiotic factors. Biotic factors include chronosequences, bacteria living with ECM, habitat area, host genotype and abiotic factors include forest fire, toxic metal contamination, nitrogen content, survey method and microenvironment. The effects by these factors are deeply analyzed and discussed based on the plenty of literatures, our previous work and current research. The review not only introduces the current research result, but also arouses new ideas on Ectomycorrhizal fungi diversity research.

  3. The ectomycorrhizal community of conifer stands on peat soils 12 years after fertilization with wood ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavina, Darta; Pennanen, Taina; Gaitnieks, Talis; Velmala, Sannakajsa; Lazdins, Andis; Lazdina, Dagnija; Menkis, Audrius

    2016-02-01

    We studied long-term effects of fertilization with wood ash on biomass, vitality and mycorrhizal colonization of fine roots in three conifer forest stands growing in Vacciniosa turf. mel. (V), Myrtillosa turf. mel. (M) and Myrtillosa turf. mel./Caricoso-phragmitosa (MC) forest types on peat soils. Fertilization trials amounting 5 kg/m(2) of wood ash were established 12 years prior to this study. A total of 63 soil samples with roots were collected and analysed. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi in roots were identified by morphotyping and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. In all forest types, fine root biomass was higher in fertilized plots than in control plots. In M forest type, proportion of living fine roots was greater in fertilized plots than in control plots, while in V and MC, the result was opposite. Fifty ECM species were identified, of which eight were common to both fertilized and control plots. Species richness and Shannon diversity index were generally higher in fertilized plots than in control plots. The most common species in fertilized plots were Amphinema byssoides (17.8%) and Tuber cf. anniae (12.2%), while in control plots, it was Tylospora asterophora (18.5%) and Lactarius tabidus (20.3%). Our results showed that forest fertilization with wood ash has long-lasting effect on diversity and composition of ECM fungal communities. PMID:26208815

  4. Profiling functions of ectomycorrhizal diversity and root structuring in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies) with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmala, Sannakajsa M; Rajala, Tiina; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Taylor, Andy F S; Pennanen, Taina

    2014-01-01

    We studied the role of taxonomical and functional ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal diversity in root formation and nutrient uptake by Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes. Seedlings were grown with an increasing ECM fungal diversity gradient from one to four species and sampled before aboveground growth differences between the two phenotypes were apparent. ECM fungal colonization patterns were determined and functional diversity was assayed via measurements of potential enzyme activities of eight exoenzymes probably involved in nutrient mobilization. Phenotypes did not vary in their receptiveness to different ECM fungal species. However, seedlings of slow-growing phenotypes had higher fine-root density and thus more condensed root systems than fast-growing seedlings, but the potential enzyme activities of ectomycorrhizas did not differ qualitatively or quantitatively. ECM species richness increased host nutrient acquisition potential by diversifying the exoenzyme palette. Needle nitrogen content correlated positively with high chitinase activity of ectomycorrhizas. Rather than fast- and slow-growing phenotypes exhibiting differing receptiveness to ECM fungi, our results suggest that distinctions in fine-root structuring and in the belowground growth strategy already apparent at early stages of seedling development may explain later growth differences between fast- and slow-growing families. PMID:24117652

  5. A Foray into Fungal Ecology: Understanding Fungi and Their Functions Across Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, N.; Dunkirk, N. C.; Peay, K.

    2015-12-01

    Despite their incredible diversity and importance to terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are not included in a standard high school science curriculum. This past summer, however, my work for the Stanford EARTH High School Internship program introduced me to fungal ecology through experiments involving culturing, genomics and root dissections. The two fungal experiments I worked on had very different foci, both searching for answers to broad ecological questions of fungal function and physiology. The first, a symbiosis experiment, sought to determine if the partners of the nutrient exchange between pine trees and their fungal symbionts could choose one another. The second experiment, a dung fungal succession project, compared the genetic sequencing results of fungal extractions from dung versus fungal cultures from dung. My part in the symbiosis experiment involved dissection, weighing and encapsulation of root tissue samples characterized based on the root thickness and presence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The dung fungi succession project required that I not only learn how to culture various genera of dung fungi but also learn how to extract DNA and RNA for sequencing from the fungal tissue. Although I primarily worked with dung fungi cultures and thereby learned about their unique physiologies, I also learned about the different types of genetic sequencing since the project compared sequences of cultured fungi versus Next Generation sequencing of all fungi present within a dung pellet. Through working on distinct fungal projects that reassess how information about fungi is known within the field of fungal ecology, I learned not only about the two experiments I worked on but also many past related experiments and inquiries through reading scientific papers. Thanks to my foray into fungal research, I now know not only the broader significance of fungi in ecological research but also how to design and conduct ecological experiments.

  6. Correspondence of ectomycorrhizal diversity and colonisation of willows (Salix spp.) grown in short rotation coppice on arable sites and adjacent natural stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Toljander, Ylva K; Baum, Christel; Fransson, Petra M A; Taylor, Andy F S; Weih, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are mycorrhizal tree species sometimes cultivated as short rotation coppice (SRC) on arable sites for energy purposes; they are also among the earliest plants colonising primary successional sites in natural stands. The objective of this study was to analyse the degree of colonisation and diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities on willows grown as SRC in arable soils and their adjacent natural or naturalized stands. Arable sites usually lack ectomycorrhizal host plants before the establishment of SRC, and adjacent natural or naturalized willow stands were hypothesized to be a leading source of ectomycorrhizal inoculum for the SRC. Three test sites including SRC stands (Salix viminalis, Salix dasyclados, and Salix schwerinii) and adjacent natural or naturalized (Salix caprea, Salix fragilis, and Salix × mollissima) stands in central Sweden were investigated on EM colonisation and morphotypes, and the fungal partners of 36 of the total 49 EM fungi morphotypes were identified using molecular tools. The frequency of mycorrhizas in the natural/naturalized stands was higher (two sites) or lower (one site) than in the corresponding cultivated stands. Correspondence analysis revealed that some EM taxa (e.g. Agaricales) were mostly associated with cultivated willows, while others (e.g. Thelephorales) were mostly found in natural/naturalized stands. In conclusion, we found strong effects of sites and willow genotype on EM fungi formation, but poor correspondence between the EM fungi abundance and diversity in SRC and their adjacent natural/naturalized stands. The underlying mechanism might be selective promotion of some EM fungi species by more effective spore dispersal. PMID:22415721

  7. Arctic root-associated fungal community composition reflects environmental filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaalid, Rakel; Davey, Marie L; Kauserud, Håvard; Carlsen, Tor; Halvorsen, Rune; Høiland, Klaus; Eidesen, Pernille B

    2014-02-01

    There is growing evidence that root-associated fungi have important roles in Arctic ecosystems. Here, we assess the diversity of fungal communities associated with roots of the ectomycorrhizal perennial herb Bistorta vivipara on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and investigate whether spatial separation and bioclimatic variation are important structuring factors of fungal community composition. We sampled 160 plants of B. vivipara from 32 localities across Svalbard. DNA was extracted from entire root systems, and 454 pyrosequencing of ITS1 amplicons was used to profile the fungal communities. The fungal communities were predominantly composed of Basidiomycota (55% of reads) and Ascomycota (35%), with the orders Thelephorales (24%), Agaricales (13.8%), Pezizales (12.6%) and Sebacinales (11.3%) accounting for most of the reads. Plants from the same site or region had more similar fungal communities to one another than plants from other sites or regions, and sites clustered together along a weak latitudinal gradient. Furthermore, a decrease in per-plant OTU richness with increasing latitude was observed. However, no statistically significant spatial autocorrelation between sites was detected, suggesting that environmental filtering, not dispersal limitation, causes the observed patterns. Our analyses suggest that while latitudinal patterns in community composition and richness might reflect bioclimatic influences at global spatial scales, at the smaller spatial scale of the Svalbard archipelago, these changes more likely reflect varied bedrock composition and associated edaphic factors. The need for further studies focusing on identifying those specific bioclimatic and edaphic factors structuring root-associated fungal community composition at both global and local scales is emphasized. PMID:24320873

  8. In vitro EVALUATION OF EUCALYPTUS ECTOMYCORRHIZAE ON SUBSTRATE WITH PHOSPHORUS DOSES FOR FUNGAL PRE-SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiomar Soares Costa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The benefit promoted by ectomycorrhizal depends on the interaction between symbionts and phosphorus (P contents. Phosphorus effect on ectomycorrhizal formation and the effectiveness of these in promoting plant growth for fungal pre-selection were assessed under in vitro conditions. For P effect evaluation, Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings inoculated with four Pisolithus sp. isolates and others non-inoculated were grown on substrate containing 0.87, 1.16 and 1.72 mg P per plant. For evaluation of effectiveness and fungal pre-selection, other 30 isolates of Pisolithus sp., Pisolithus microcarpus ITA06 isolate, Amanita muscaria AM16 isolate, Scleroderma areolatum SC129 isolate were studied. D26 isolate promoted the highest plant heights for the three P doses, D51 at the lower dose and D72 at the intermediate dose. P doses did not influenced shoot fresh weight and fungal colonization. In the pre-selection of fungi, 14 isolates of Pisolithus sp., P. microcarpus ITA06 isolate and S. areolatum SC129isolate increased plant height and fresh weight. D82 isolate of Pisolithus sp. had effect singly on plant height while D17 and D58 on fresh weight. Of these, only D15, D17, D58 and ITA06 had typical ectomycorrhizae. The cultivation in vitro has shown adequate for pre-selection of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Colonization and benefits depend on species and isolate. D15, D17 and D58 of Pisolithus sp. and P. microcarpus isolate ITA06 are the most promising for nursery studies.

  9. Effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization and drought on reactive oxygen species metabolism of Nothofagus dombeyi roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Fernandez, Carlos; Gacitúa, Yessy; Olivares, Erick; Saavedra, Isabel; Alberdi, Miren; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Infection with ectomycorrhizal fungi can increase the ability of plants to resist drought stress through morphophysiological and biochemical mechanisms. However, the metabolism of antioxidative enzyme activities in the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis remains poorly understood. This study investigated biomass production, reactive oxygen metabolism (hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde concentration) and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) in pure cultures of the ectomycorrhizal fungi Descolea antartica Sing. and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch, and non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal roots of Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) roots under well-watered conditions and drought conditions (DC). The studied ectomycorrhizal fungi regulated their antioxidative enzyme metabolism differentially in response to drought, resulting in cellular damage in D. antartica but not in P. tinctorius. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation and water treatment had a significant effect on all parameters studied, including relative water content of the plant. As such, N. dombeyi plants in symbiosis experienced a lower oxidative stress effect than non-mycorrhizal plants under DC. Additionally, ectomycorrhizal N. dombeyi roots showed a greater antioxidant enzyme activity relative to non-mycorrhizal roots, an effect which was further expressed under DC. The association between the non-specific P. tinctorius and N. dombeyi had a more effective reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism than the specific D. antartica-N. dombeyi symbiosis. We conclude that the combination of effective ROS prevention and ROS detoxification by ectomycorrhizal plants resulted in reduced cellular damage and increased plant growth relative to non-mycorrhizal plants under drought. PMID:19483186

  10. Site properties have a stronger influence than fire severity on ectomycorrhizal fungi and associated N-cycling bacteria in regenerating post-beetle-killed lodgepole pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Nabla M; Robertson, Susan J; Green, D Scott; Scholefield, Scott R; Arocena, Joselito M; Tackaberry, Linda E; Massicotte, Hugues B; Egger, Keith N

    2015-09-01

    Following a pine beetle epidemic in British Columbia, Canada, we investigated the effect of fire severity on rhizosphere soil chemistry and ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) and associated denitrifying and nitrogen (N)-fixing bacteria in the root systems of regenerating lodgepole pine seedlings at two site types (wet and dry) and three fire severities (low, moderate, and high). The site type was found to have a much larger impact on all measurements than fire severity. Wet and dry sites differed significantly for almost all soil properties measured, with higher values identified from wet types, except for pH and percent sand that were greater on dry sites. Fire severity caused few changes in soil chemical status. Generally, bacterial communities differed little, whereas ECM morphotype analysis revealed ectomycorrhizal diversity was lower on dry sites, with a corresponding division in community structure between wet and dry sites. Molecular profiling of the fungal ITS region confirmed these results, with a clear difference in community structure seen between wet and dry sites. The ability of ECM fungi to colonize seedlings growing in both wet and dry soils may positively contribute to subsequent regeneration. We conclude that despite consecutive landscape disturbances (mountain pine beetle infestation followed by wildfire), the "signature" of moisture on chemistry and ECM community structure remained pronounced. PMID:25540132

  11. The auxin-inducible GH3 homologue Pp-GH3.16 is downregulated in Pinus pinaster root systems on ectomycorrhizal symbiosis establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S M; Hitchin, S; Melayah, D; Pandey, A K; Raffier, C; Henderson, J; Marmeisse, R; Gay, G

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to determine whether auxin-regulated plant genes play a role in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis establishment, we screened a Pinus pinaster root cDNA library for auxin-upregulated genes. This allowed the identification of a cDNA, Pp-GH3.16, which encodes a polypeptide sharing extensive homologies with GH3 proteins of different plants. Pp-GH3.16 was specifically upregulated by auxins and was not affected by cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid or ethylene, or by heat shock, water stress or anoxia. Pp-GH3.16 mRNAs were quantified in pine roots inoculated with two ectomycorrhizal fungi, Hebeloma cylindrosporum and Rhizopogon roseolus. Surprisingly, Pp-GH3.16 was downregulated following inoculation with both fungal species. The downregulation was most rapid on establishment of symbiosis with an indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-overproducing mutant of H. cylindrosporum, which overproduced mycorrhizas characterized by a hypertrophic Hartig net. This indicates that, despite being auxin-inducible, Pp-GH3.16 can be downregulated on establishment of symbiosis with a fungus that releases auxin. By contrast, Pp-GH3.16 was not downregulated in pine root systems inoculated with a nonmycorrhizal mutant of H. cylindrosporum, suggesting that the downregulation we observed in mycorrhizal root systems was a component of the molecular cross-talk between symbiotic partners at the origin of differentiation of symbiotic structures. PMID:16608463

  12. Associations between ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacterial needle endophytes in Pinus radiata: implications for biotic selection of microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Arlene Rúa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata, and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors — biotic or abiotic — in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest

  13. Associations between Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Bacterial Needle Endophytes in Pinus radiata: Implications for Biotic Selection of Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rúa, Megan A; Wilson, Emily C; Steele, Sarah; Munters, Arielle R; Hoeksema, Jason D; Frank, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors - biotic or abiotic - in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest that both biotic species

  14. Forest litter as the mulch improving growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity of bare-root Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aučina A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report the influence of pine, oak and spruce forest litter on the growth and ectomycorrhizal (ECM formation of Scots pine seedlings after the first growing season in a bare-root forest nursery. The mixture of collected forest litters and humus were used to obtain a 20-cm mulching layer on the prepared seedbeds. The concentrations of all nutrients and the C/N ratio of growth media were significantly higher in forest litter treatments than in negative control represented by mineral soil without litter. Addition of each forest litter type significantly enhanced pine seedling height and root-collar diameter compared to negative control. A significant positive influence on dry mass of stem, needles, roots and total dry mass of the seedling has been found only for pine litter. Based on molecular identification, seven ECM fungal taxa (Wilcoxina mikolae, Suillus luteus, Cenococcum geophilum, Meliniomyces bicolor, Laccaria laccata, unidentified Atheliaceae, unidentified Ascomycetes were distinguished in the observed mycorrhizal communities. Each forest litter type significantly increased the total number of mycorrhizal tips and ECM fungal diversity compared to the control soil. However, results showed a lack of significant differences in species composition and relative abundance of ECM fungi between different litter types. Such result suggests that forest litter has not been a key source of inoculum for tested fungal species, as root systems of all pine seedlings from different litter types were dominated by a few nursery- adapted ECM fungi, probably originating from natural air-borne inoculum. Our data rather indicate that forest litter considerably improves environmental conditions for development of ECM fungi previously present in the nursery soil. Therefore, any of the forest litter types used in our studies may be able to promote planting stock quality on a small scale in the nursery phase.

  15. The mid-domain effect in ectomycorrhizal fungi: range overlap along an elevation gradient on Mount Fuji, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yumiko; Nakano, Takashi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2014-08-01

    Mid-domain effect (MDE) models predict that the random placement of species' ranges within a bounded geographical area leads to increased range overlap and species richness in the center of the bounded area. These models are frequently applied to study species-richness patterns of macroorganisms, but the MDE in relation to microorganisms is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the characteristics of the MDE in richness patterns of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, an ecologically important group of soil symbionts. We conducted intensive soil sampling to investigate overlap among species ranges and the applicability of the MDE to EM fungi in four temperate forest stands along an elevation gradient on Mount Fuji, Japan. Molecular analyses using direct sequencing revealed 302 EM fungal species. Of 73 EM fungal species found in multiple stands, 72 inhabited a continuous range along the elevation gradient. The maximum overlap in species range and the highest species richness occurred at elevations in the middle of the gradient. The observed richness pattern also fit within the 95% confidence interval of the mid-domain null model, supporting the role of the MDE in EM fungal richness. Deviation in observed richness from the mean of the mid-domain null estimation was negatively correlated with some environmental factors, including precipitation and soil C/N, indicating that unexplained richness patterns could be driven by these environmental factors. Our results clearly support the existence of microbial species' ranges along environmental gradients and the potential applicability of the MDE to better understand microbial diversity patterns. PMID:24621523

  16. Associations between Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Bacterial Needle Endophytes in Pinus radiata: Implications for Biotic Selection of Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rúa, Megan A.; Wilson, Emily C.; Steele, Sarah; Munters, Arielle R.; Hoeksema, Jason D.; Frank, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors — biotic or abiotic — in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest that both biotic

  17. Comparison of root-associated communities of native and non-native ectomycorrhizal hosts in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothamer, K; Brown, S P; Mattox, J D; Jumpponen, A

    2014-05-01

    Non-native tree species are often used as ornamentals in urban landscapes. However, their root-associated fungal communities remain yet to be examined in detail. Here, we compared richness, diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizosphere fungi in general and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi in particular between a non-native Pinus nigra and a native Quercus macrocarpa across a growing season in urban parks using 454-pyrosequencing. Our data show that, while the ectomycorrhizosphere community richness and diversity did not differ between the two host, the EcM communities associated with the native host were often more species rich and included more exclusive members than those of the non-native hosts. In contrast, the ectomycorrhizosphere communities of the two hosts were compositionally clearly distinct in nonmetric multidimensional ordination analyses, whereas the EcM communities were only marginally so. Taken together, our data suggest EcM communities with broad host compatibilities and with a limited numbers of taxa with preference to the non-native host. Furthermore, many common fungi in the non-native Pinus were not EcM taxa, suggesting that the fungal communities of the non-native host may be enriched in non-mycorrhizal fungi at the cost of the EcM taxa. Finally, while our colonization estimates did not suggest a shortage in EcM inoculum for either host in urban parks, the differences in the fungi associated with the two hosts emphasize the importance of using native hosts in urban environments as a tool to conserve endemic fungal diversity and richness in man-made systems. PMID:24221903

  18. Edible species of the fungal genus hebeloma and two neotropical pines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico has one of the largest diversities of pines and ectomycorrhizal fungi known world-wide. Therefore, describingnative ectomycorrizal species from the country associated with pines is important because of their biotechnological potential in the forestry and food sectors. Worldwide, Hebeloma has generally been considered a genus of poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, interestingly, in central Mexico there is a complex of under-studied Hebeloma species which are used as food in large quantities and have a great economic and social importance. Three edible species of Hebeloma widely marketed in the country were identified: Hebeloma alpinum, H. mesophaeum and H. leucosarx with scanning electron microscopy on the basis of different ornamentation patterns in the spores of these species. Synthesis was carried out by inoculating two Neotropical pines with sporomes of the three described Hebeloma species. To achieve this, inoculated pines were kept in greenhouse conditions during one year. A characteristic morphotype for each fungal species was observed and it is described here. The first known description of the morphotype of Hebeloma alpinum with pines is presented. This seminal work gives a tool to identify the morphotypes produced by the main edible ectomycorrhizal species of Hebeloma marketed in Mexico, with biotechnological potential to inoculate pines used in reforestation programmes in Neotropical areas. (author)

  19. Ectomycorrhizal community structure and function in relation to forest residue harvesting and wood ash applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with tree roots and assist in nutrient-uptake and -cycling in forest ecosystems, thereby constituting a most significant part of the microbial community. The aims of the studies described in this thesis were to evaluate the potential of DNA-based molecular methods in below-ground ectomycorrhizal community studies and to investigate changes in ectomycorrhizal communities on spruce roots in sites with different N deposition, and in sites subjected to harvesting of forest residues or application of wood ash. The ability of selected ectomycorrhizal fungi to mobilise nutrients from wood ash and to colonise root systems in the presence and absence of ash was also studied. In total 39 ectomycorrhizal species were detected in the experimental forests located in southern Sweden. At each site five to six species colonised around 60% of the root tips. The dominant species, common to the sites, were Tylospora fibrillosa, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum. Differences between two sites with differing levels of N deposition suggested that community structure may be influenced by N deposition, although site history, location and degree of isolation may also influence species composition. Repeated harvesting of forest residues reduced numbers of mycorrhizal roots in the humus layer to approximately 50% of that in control plots but no shift in the ectomycorrhizal community could be detected. At another site, application of granulated wood ash induced a shift in ectomycorrhizal community structure and three ectomycorrhizal fungi ('ash fungi') were found to colonise ash granules. Two 'ash fungi' showed a superior ability to solubilise stabilised wood ash in laboratory experiments compared to other ectomycorrhizal isolates from the same site. In laboratory microcosms containing intact mycorrhizal mycelia, colonisation of wood ash patches by one 'ash fungus' was good whereas colonisation by Piloderma croceum was poor. In a

  20. Investigation of the degradation of 13C-labeled fungal biomass in soil - fate of carbon in a soil bioreactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, Michael; Fester, Thomas; Miltner, Anja; Kaestner, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Nutrient balances and degradation processes in boreal forests are mainly influenced by interactions of plant roots and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Plants benefit from nitrogen compounds provided by their symbiotic interaction partner. In return ectomycorrhiza are provided by large amounts of carbon from the plants which is used for the synthesis of hyphal networks in soil and for metabolic activity for nutrient uptake. Therefore, ectomycorrhizal fungi play a major role in ecosystems of boreal forests and are consequently an important sink for carbon by building large amount of mycelia. Recently, it has been shown that microbial biomass residues contribute significantly to soil organic matter formation. This suggests that also residues of ectomycorrhizal fungi may be an important source for soil organic matter formation in forest soils where these fungi are abundant. However, the fate of ectomycorrhizal biomass residues in soils is unknown. We therefore investigated the fate of ectomycorrhizal biomass in soil in a soil bioreactor system to quantify the contribution of this material to soil organic matter formation. As a model organism, we selected Laccaria bicolor, which was labelled by growing the fungus on 13C glucose. The stable isotope-labeled biomass was then homogenized and incubated in a podzol from a typical forest site in Central Germany. The fate of the labeled biomass was traced by analyzing the amount of 13C mineralized and the amount remaining in the soil. The fungal biomass carbon was mineralized rather rapidly during the first 50 days. Then the mineralization rate slowed down, but mineralization continued until the end of the experiment, when approximately 40% of the 13C was mineralized and 60% remained in soil. In addition, we analyzed biomolecules such as fatty acids to trace the incorporation of the L. bicolor-derived biomass carbon into other microorganisms and to identify potential primary consumers of fungal biomass. By these analyses, we found a

  1. Ectomycorrhizal communities of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine in the south-central Oregon pumice zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria O; Smith, Jane E; Luoma, Daniel L; Jones, Melanie D

    2016-05-01

    Forest ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest of the USA are changing as a result of climate change. Specifically, rise of global temperatures, decline of winter precipitation, earlier loss of snowpack, and increased summer drought are altering the range of Pinus contorta. Simultaneously, flux in environmental conditions within the historic P. contorta range may facilitate the encroachment of P. ponderosa into P. contorta territory. Furthermore, successful pine species migration may be constrained by the distribution or co-migration of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). Knowledge of the linkages among soil fungal diversity, community structure, and environmental factors is critical to understanding the organization and stability of pine ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to establish a foundational knowledge of the EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in the Deschutes National Forest, OR, USA, and to examine soil characteristics associated with community composition. We examined EMF root tips of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in soil cores and conducted soil chemistry analysis for P. ponderosa cores. Results indicate that Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon salebrosus, and Inocybe flocculosa were dominant in both P. contorta and P. ponderosa soil cores. Rhizopogon spp. were ubiquitous in P. ponderosa cores. There was no significant difference in the species composition of EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta. Ordination analysis of P. ponderosa soils suggested that soil pH, plant-available phosphorus (Bray), total phosphorus (P), carbon (C), mineralizable nitrogen (N), ammonium (NH4), and nitrate (NO3) are driving EMF community composition in P. ponderosa stands. We found a significant linear relationship between EMF species richness and mineralizable N. In conclusion, P. ponderosa and P. contorta, within the Deschutes National Forest, share the same dominant EMF species, which implies that P. ponderosa may be able to successfully establish

  2. Systematics of the ectomycorrhizal genus Lactarius in the Rocky Mountain alpine zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, Edward G; Cripps, Cathy L; Osmundson, Todd W

    2016-03-01

    Lactarius (Russulales) is an important component of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in cold-dominated contiguous arctic and disjunct alpine habitats where it associates primarily with Betula, Dryas and Salix However, little is known of this genus in the central and southern Rocky Mountain alpine zone (3000-3900 m) of North America. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS barcode) and the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2) partial sequences in conjunction with detailed morphological examination confirm at least six species occurring above treeline. Most have intercontinental distributions in North America and Eurasia according to molecular comparison with type material and collections from Europe, Fennoscandia, Svalbard and Alaska. Rocky Mountain collections of L. lanceolatus (subgenus Russularia), along with the type from Alaska are paraphyletic with respect to L. aurantiacus and North American taxa L. luculentus and L. luculentus v. laetus Rocky Mountain collections of L. nanus, L. glyciosmus, L. repraesentaneus and L. salicis-reticulatae (subgenus Piperites) all form clades with European material from type localities and other arctic-alpine habitats. The arctic-alpine L. pseudouvidus/L. brunneoviolaceus group appears to be a complex containing additional taxa. North American material originally described as part of this group is well-separated phylogenetically and is described here as L. pallidomarginatus sp. nov. Lactarius lanceolatus, L. nanus and L. salicis-reticulatae appear largely restricted to arctic-alpine habitats with Salix Lactarius glyciosmus and L. repraesentaneus occur in arctic-alpine, subalpine and boreal habitats with Betula and also Picea and possibly Salix for the latter. Species distributions are hypothesized to be shaped by host ranges, glaciation and long distance dispersal. PMID:26740539

  3. Soil DNA pyrosequencing and fruitbody surveys reveal contrasting diversity for various fungal ecological guilds in chestnut orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Paula; Reis, Francisca; Pereira, Eric; Tavares, Rui M; Santos, Pedro M; Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Fungal diversity in Mediterranean forest soils is poorly documented, particularly when considering saprobic and pathogenic organisms. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods applied to soil fungi provide the opportunity to unveil the most inconspicuous functional guilds (e.g. saprobes) and life forms (e.g. Corticiaceae) of this tremendous diversity. We used fruitbody surveys over 2 years and soil 454 metabarcoding in Castanea sativa orchards to evaluate respectively the reproductive (fruitbodies) and vegetative (mycelia) parts of fungal communities in three 100-year-old stands. Analysis of 839 fruitbodies and 210 291 ITS1 reads revealed high fungal diversity, mainly shown by belowground analysis, with high (dominant) abundance of mycorrhizal fruitbodies and reads. Both methods displayed contrasted composition and structure of fungal communities, with Basidio- and Ascomycetes dominating above- and belowground, respectively. For the two dominant fungal guilds (i.e. ectomycorrhizal and saprobic), diversity above- and belowground overlapped weakly. This study is the first assessment of the complementarity of fruitbody surveys and NGS for analysing fungal diversity in Mediterranean ecosystems and shows that belowground methods still need to be completed by fruiting diversity to provide a comprehensive overview of the different fungal guilds. The results shed light on chestnut soil biodiversity and question the spatial distribution and synergies among fungal guilds. PMID:26391727

  4. Environmental drivers of ectomycorrhizal communities in Europe's temperate oak forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suz, Laura M; Barsoum, Nadia; Benham, Sue; Dietrich, Hans-Peter; Fetzer, Karl Dieter; Fischer, Richard; García, Paloma; Gehrman, Joachim; Kristöfel, Ferdinand; Manninger, Miklós; Neagu, Stefan; Nicolas, Manuel; Oldenburger, Jan; Raspe, Stephan; Sánchez, Gerardo; Schröck, Hans Werner; Schubert, Alfred; Verheyen, Kris; Verstraeten, Arne; Bidartondo, Martin I

    2014-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are major ecological players in temperate forests, but they are rarely used in measures of forest condition because large-scale, high-resolution, standardized and replicated belowground data are scarce. We carried out an analysis of ectomycorrhizas at 22 intensively monitored long-term oak plots, across nine European countries, covering complex natural and anthropogenic environmental gradients. We found that at large scales, mycorrhizal richness and evenness declined with decreasing soil pH and root density, and with increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Shifts in mycorrhizas with different functional traits were detected; mycorrhizas with structures specialized for long-distance transport related differently to most environmental variables than those without. The dominant oak-specialist Lactarius quietus, with limited soil exploration abilities, responds positively to increasing nitrogen inputs and decreasing pH. In contrast, Tricholoma, Cortinarius and Piloderma species, with medium-distance soil exploration abilities, show a consistently negative response. We also determined nitrogen critical loads for moderate (9.5-13.5 kg N/ha/year) and drastic (17 kg N/ha/year) changes in belowground mycorrhizal root communities in temperate oak forests. Overall, we generated the first baseline data for ectomycorrhizal fungi in the oak forests sampled, identified nitrogen pollution as one of their major drivers at large scales and revealed fungi that individually and/or in combination with others can be used as belowground indicators of environmental characteristics. PMID:25277863

  5. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Vincent L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch lines expressing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides L. caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (PtCOMT under the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV promoter showed a reduction in the relative expression of a putative silver birch COMT (BpCOMT gene and, consequently, a decrease in the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl composition ratio. Alterations were also detected in concentrations of certain phenolic compounds. All PtCOMT silver birch lines produced normal ectomycorrhizas with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus (Batsch: Fr., and the formation of symbiosis enhanced the growth of the transgenic plants. Conclusion The down-regulation of BpCOMT in the 35S-PtCOMT lines caused a reduction in the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin, but no significant effect was seen in the composition or quantity of phenolic compounds that would have been caused by the expression of PtCOMT under the 35S or UbB1 promoter. Moreover, the detected alterations in the composition of lignin and secondary phenolic compounds had no effect on the interaction between silver birch and P. involutus.

  6. Substantial compositional turnover of fungal communities in an alpine ridge-to-snowbed gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fang; Vik, Unni; Brysting, Anne K; Carlsen, Tor; Halvorsen, Rune; Kauserud, Håvard

    2013-10-01

    The main gradient in vascular plant, bryophyte and lichen species composition in alpine areas, structured by the topographic gradient from wind-exposed ridges to snowbeds, has been extensively studied. Tolerance to environmental stress, resulting from wind abrasion and desiccation towards windswept ridges or reduced growing season due to prolonged snow cover towards snowbeds, is an important ecological mechanism in this gradient. The extent to which belowground fungal communities are structured by the same topographic gradient and the eventual mechanisms involved are less well known. In this study, we analysed variation in fungal diversity and community composition associated with roots of the ectomycorrhizal plant Bistorta vivipara along the ridge-to-snowbed gradient. We collected root samples from fifty B. vivipara plants in ten plots in an alpine area in central Norway. The fungal communities were analysed using 454 pyrosequencing analyses of tag-encoded ITS1 amplicons. A distinct gradient in the fungal community composition was found that coincided with variation from ridge to snowbeds. This gradient was paralleled by change in soil content of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. A large proportion (66%) of the detected 801 nonsingleton operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were ascomycetes, while basidiomycetes dominated quantitatively (i.e. with respect to number of reads). Numerous fungal OTUs, many with taxonomic affinity to Sebacinales, Cortinarius and Meliniomyces, showed distinct affinities either to ridge or to snowbed plots, indicating habitat specialization. The compositional turnover of fungal communities along the gradient was not paralleled by a gradient in species richness. PMID:23962113

  7. The alpha-tubulin gene AmTuba1: a marker for rapid mycelial growth in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkka, Mika T; Schrey, Silvia; Nehls, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    The apical extension of hyphae is of central importance for extensive spread of fungal mycelium in forest soils and for effective ectomycorrhiza development. Since the tubulin cytoskeleton is known to be important for fungal tip growth, we have investigated the expression of an alpha-tubulin gene from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Amanita muscaria (AmTuba1). The phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences revealed the existence of two subgroups of alpha-tubulins in homobasidiomycetes, clearly distinguishable by defined amino acids. AmTuba1 belongs to subgroup1. The AmTuba1 transcript level is related to mycelial growth rate. Growth induction of carbohydrate starved (non-growing) hyphae resulted in an enhanced AmTuba1 expression as soon as hyphal growth started, reaching a maximum at highest mycelial growth rate. Bacterium-induced hyphal elongation also leads to increased AmTuba1 transcript levels. In mature A. muscaria/P. abies ectomycorrhizas, where fungal hyphae are highly branched, and slowly growing, AmTuba1 expression were even lower than in carbohydrate-starved mycelium, indicating a further down-regulation of gene expression in symbiosis. In conclusion, our analyses show that the AmTuba1 gene can be used as a marker for active apical extension in fly agaric, and that alpha-tubulin proteins are promising tools for the classification of fungi. PMID:16447071

  8. Two mycoheterotrophic orchids from Thailand tropical dipterocarpacean forests associate with a broad diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Vessabutr Suyanee; Richard Franck; Stier Anna; Watthana Santi; Roy Mélanie; Selosse Marc-André

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Mycoheterotrophic plants are considered to associate very specifically with fungi. Mycoheterotrophic orchids are mostly associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi in temperate regions, or with saprobes or parasites in tropical regions. Although most mycoheterotrophic orchids occur in the tropics, few studies have been devoted to them, and the main conclusions about their specificity have hitherto been drawn from their association with ectomycorrhizal fungi in temperate regions....

  9. Studies on ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete in pine forest on the Lithuania-Poland transboundary region

    OpenAIRE

    Danutė Stankovičienė; Jonas Kaspravičius

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi and sporocarps abundance were investigated in 2003-2005 at nine permanent study plots in a 50-year-old pine forest. Diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi consisted of 53 taxa and the majority of them belonged to the genera Cortinarius, Russula, Amanita and Tricholoma. The most frequent species, whose fruit bodies were found in each study plot, were C. cibarius, L. necator L. rufus, P. involutus, R. aeruginea, T. saponaceum and the most abundant species whic...

  10. Chewing up the Wood-Wide Web: Selective Grazing on Ectomycorrhizal Fungi by Collembola

    OpenAIRE

    Clarisse Kanters; Anderson, Ian C.; David Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The mycelia of some symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi form extensive networks—the so called “wood-wide web”—that have key roles in biogeochemical cycling. By interacting with myriad soil organisms such as collembola, the fungi directly affect the functioning of above- and below-ground multitrophic interactions in ecosystems. Here we tested whether the grazing activities of collembola affected the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi in single or mixed species axenic cultures, and their impact on e...

  11. Transcriptional analysis of Pinus sylvestris roots challenged with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Sederoff Ron; van Zyl Len; Osborne Jason; Li Guosheng; Adomas Aleksandra; Heller Gregory; Finlay Roger D; Stenlid Jan; Asiegbu Frederick O

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Symbiotic ectomycorrhizal associations of fungi with forest trees play important and economically significant roles in the nutrition, growth and health of boreal forest trees, as well as in nutrient cycling. The ecology and physiology of ectomycorrhizal associations with Pinus sp are very well documented but very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind these mutualistic interactions with gymnosperms as compared to angiosperms. Results Using a micro-array appr...

  12. Developments in Fungal Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Guarro, Josep; Gené, Josepa; Stchigel, Alberto M.

    1999-01-01

    Fungal infections, especially those caused by opportunistic species, have become substantially more common in recent decades. Numerous species cause human infections, and several new human pathogens are discovered yearly. This situation has created an increasing interest in fungal taxonomy and has led to the development of new methods and approaches to fungal biosystematics which have promoted important practical advances in identification procedures. However, the significance of some data pr...

  13. Experimental soil warming at the treeline shifts fungal communities species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, Emily; Lindahl, Björn; Dawes, Melissa; Peter, Martina; Rixen, Christian; Hagedorn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi play a major role in decomposition processes, plant nutrient uptake and nutrient cycling. In high elevation ecosystems in Alpine and Arctic regions, the fungal community may be particularly sensitive to climate warming due to the removal of temperature limitation in the plant and soil system, faster nutrient cycling and changes in plant carbon allocation to maintain roots systems and sustain the rhizosphere. In our study, we estimated the effects of 9 years CO2 enrichment and three years of experimental soil warming on the community structure of fungal microorganisms in an alpine treeline ecosystem. In the Swiss Alps, we worked on a total of 40 plots, with c. 40-year-old Larix decidua and Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata trees (20 plots for each tree species). Half of the plots with each tree species were randomly assigned to an elevated CO2 treatment (ambient concentration +200 ppm), whereas the remaining plots received no supplementary CO2. Five individual plots for each combination of CO2 concentration and tree species were heated by an average of 4°C during the growing season with heating cables at the soil surface. At the treeline, the fungal diversity analyzed by high-throughput 454-sequencing of genetic markers, was generally low as compared to low altitude systems and mycorrhizal species made a particularly small contribution to the total fungal DNA. Soil warming led to a shift in the structure and composition of the fungal microbial community, with an increase of litter degraders and ectomycorrhizal fungi. We further observed changes in the productivity of specific fungal fruiting bodies (i.e. more Lactarius rufus sporocarps and less Hygrophorus lucorum sporocarps) during the course of the experiment, that were consistent with the 454-sequencing data. The warming effect was more pronounced in the Larix plots. These shifts were accompanied by an increased soil CO2 efflux (+40%), evidence of increased N availability and a

  14. Massively parallel 454-sequencing of fungal communities in Quercus spp. ectomycorrhizas indicates seasonal dynamics in urban and rural sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpponen, Ari; Jones, Kenneth L; David Mattox, J; Yaege, Chulee

    2010-03-01

    We analysed two sites within and outside an urban development in a rural background to estimate the fungal richness, diversity and community composition in Quercus spp. ectomycorrhizas using massively parallel 454-sequencing in combination with DNA-tagging. Our analyses indicated that shallow sequencing ( approximately 150 sequences) of a large number of samples (192 in total) provided data that allowed identification of seasonal trends within the fungal communities: putative root-associated antagonists and saprobes that were abundant early in the growing season were replaced by common ectomycorrhizal fungi in the course of the growing season. Ordination analyses identified a number of factors that were correlated with the observed communities including host species as well as soil organic matter, nutrient and heavy metal enrichment. Overall, our application of the high throughput 454 sequencing provided an expedient means for characterization of fungal communities. PMID:20331769

  15. Mycorrhizal fungal communities respond to experimental elevation of soil pH and P availability in temperate hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Kluber, Laurel A; Petersen, Sheryl M; Coyle, Kaitlin P; Hewins, Charlotte R; DeForest, Jared L; Smemo, Kurt A; Burke, David J

    2016-03-01

    Many forests are affected by chronic acid deposition, which can lower soil pH and limit the availability of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), but the response of mycorrhizal fungi to changes in soil pH and P availability and how this affects tree acquisition of nutrients is not well understood. Here, we describe an ecosystem-level manipulation in 72 plots, which increased pH and/or P availability across six forests in Ohio, USA. Two years after treatment initiation, mycorrhizal fungi on roots were examined with molecular techniques, including 454-pyrosequencing. Elevating pH significantly increased arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and total fungal biomass, and affected community structure of AM and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi, suggesting that raising soil pH altered both mycorrhizal fungal communities and fungal growth. AM fungal taxa were generally negatively correlated with recalcitrant P pools and soil enzyme activity, whereas EcM fungal taxa displayed variable responses, suggesting that these groups respond differently to P availability. Additionally, the production of extracellular phosphatase enzymes in soil decreased under elevated pH, suggesting a shift in functional activity of soil microbes with pH alteration. Thus, our findings suggest that elevating pH increased soil P availability, which may partly underlie the mycorrhizal fungal responses we observed. PMID:26850158

  16. Membranomyces species are common ectomycorrhizal symbionts in Northern Hemisphere forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehling, Jessie K; Henkel, Terry W; Vilgalys, Rytas; Smith, Matthew E

    2012-10-01

    Membranomyces (Clavulinaceae, Cantharellales) Jülich consists of two described species of resupinate (crust-like) basidiomycetes. Previous studies indicated that Membranomyces falls within the Clavulinaceae, but the phylogenetic position of the genus has not been fully resolved. Membranomyces species were thought to be saprotrophic until 2003 when Tedersoo et al. detected Membranomyces delectabilis on ectomycorrhizal roots of Populus and Picea. Membranomyces was previously known only from collections made in eastern Canada and Europe. We recently sequenced the ITS rDNA barcode region from Scandinavian herbarium specimens identified as M. delectabilis and Membranomyces spurius. Phylogenetic analyses of these sporocarp sequences and similar environmental sequences indicated that Membranomyces is more diverse than previously thought and forms ectomycorrhizas with hosts from a diverse range of plant families in many north temperate ecosystems. PMID:22847636

  17. The co-occurrence of ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal, and dark septate fungi in seedlings of four members of the Pinaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagg, Cameron; Pautler, Michael; Massicotte, Hugues B; Peterson, R Larry

    2008-02-01

    Although roots of species in the Pinaceae are usually colonized by ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, there are increasing reports of the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi in these species. The objective of this study was to determine the colonization patterns in seedlings of three Pinus (pine) species (Pinus banksiana, Pinus strobus, Pinus contorta) and Picea glauca x Picea engelmannii (hybrid spruce) grown in soil collected from a disturbed forest site. Seedlings of all three pine species and hybrid spruce became colonized by EM, AM, and DSE fungi. The dominant EM morphotype belonged to the E-strain category; limited colonization by a Tuber sp. was found on roots of Pinus strobus and an unknown morphotype (cf. Suillus-Rhizopogon group) with thick, cottony white mycelium was present on short roots of all species. The three fungal categories tended to occupy different niches in a single root system. No correlation was found between the percent root colonized by EM and percent colonization by either AM or DSE, although there was a positive correlation between percent root length colonized by AM and DSE. Hyphae and vesicles were the only AM intracellular structures found in roots of all species; arbuscules were not observed in any roots. PMID:18157555

  18. The ectomycorrhizal status of a tropical black bolete, Phlebopus portentosus, assessed using mycorrhizal synthesis and isotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumla, Jaturong; Hobbie, Erik A; Suwannarach, Nakarin; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2016-05-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is one of the most popular wild edible mushrooms in Thailand and can produce sporocarps in the culture without a host plant. However, it is still unclear whether Phlebopus portentosus is a saprotrophic, parasitic, or ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus. In this study, Phlebopus portentosus sporocarps were collected from northern Thailand and identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. We combined mycorrhizal synthesis and stable isotopic analysis to investigate the trophic status of this fungus. In a greenhouse experiment, ECM-like structures were observed in Pinus kesiya at 1 year after inoculation with fungal mycelium, and the association of Phlebopus portentosus and other plant species showed superficial growth over the root surface. Fungus-colonized root tips were described morphologically and colonization confirmed by molecular methods. In stable isotope measurements, the δ(13)C and δ(15)N of natural samples of Phlebopus portentosus differed from saprotrophic fungi. Based on the isotopic patterns of Phlebopus portentosus and its ability to form ECM-like structures in greenhouse experiments, we conclude that Phlebopus portentosus could be an ECM fungus. PMID:26671421

  19. Greenhouse seedlings of Alnus showed low host intrageneric specificity and a strong preference for some Tomentella ectomycorrhizal associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhra, Eduardo; Pastor, Nicolás; Becerra, Alejandra; Sarrionandia Areitio, Estibaliz; Geml, József

    2015-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal associates of Alnus are relatively few in comparison with those associated with other tree hosts. The composition of ECM assemblages associated with Alnus seems to change very little across the Northern Hemisphere. However, Alnus-associated ECM assemblages from the Western United States, Mexico, and Argentina tend to differ from those in eastern North America and Europe, presumably due to their different biogeographic histories. Alnus glutinosa is a northern European species subjected to diverse environmental conditions. To address intrageneric host preference within two distantly related Alnus species (Alnus acuminata and A. glutinosa), we tested the ECM colonization on seedlings of both species inoculated with natural soil from A. acuminata forests. Two tomentelloid ECM fungi from A. acuminata natural soils were determined from the anatomotyping and molecular analysis. Both species colonized A. glutinosa seedlings and presented similar relative abundances. Additional soil sequence data from A. acuminata sites suggest that a variety of tomentelloid taxa occur, including several unidentified Tomentella lineages. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences from various locations do not reflect associations of taxa based on their biogeographic origin, and clades are in general constituted by sequences from diverse regions, including South America, Mexico, USA, and Europe. Results illustrate the probable role of specific tomentelloid fungi in the early colonization of seedlings in A. acuminata forests as well as their importance in the structure of the ECM propagule community at the sites. PMID:25370884

  20. Fungal Community Shifts in Structure and Function across a Boreal Forest Fire Chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Santalahti, Minna; Pumpanen, Jukka; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Raffaello, Tommaso; Jumpponen, Ari; Asiegbu, Fred O; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2015-11-01

    Forest fires are a common natural disturbance in forested ecosystems and have a large impact on the microbial communities in forest soils. The response of soil fungal communities to forest fire is poorly documented. Here, we investigated fungal community structure and function across a 152-year boreal forest fire chronosequence using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region and a functional gene array (GeoChip). Our results demonstrate that the boreal forest soil fungal community was most diverse soon after a fire disturbance and declined over time. The differences in the fungal communities were explained by changes in the abundance of basidiomycetes and ascomycetes. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi contributed to the increase in basidiomycete abundance over time, with the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) representing the genera Cortinarius and Piloderma dominating in abundance. Hierarchical cluster analysis by using gene signal intensity revealed that the sites with different fire histories formed separate clusters, suggesting differences in the potential to maintain essential biogeochemical soil processes. The site with the greatest biological diversity had also the most diverse genes. The genes involved in organic matter degradation in the mature forest, in which ECM fungi were the most abundant, were as common in the youngest site, in which saprotrophic fungi had a relatively higher abundance. This study provides insight into the impact of fire disturbance on soil fungal community dynamics. PMID:26341215

  1. Fungal functioning in a pine forest: evidence from a ¹⁵N-labeled global change experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, Erik A; van Diepen, Linda T A; Lilleskov, Erik A; Ouimette, Andrew P; Finzi, Adrien C; Hofmockel, Kirsten S

    2014-03-01

    • We used natural and tracer nitrogen (N) isotopes in a Pinus taeda free air CO₂ enrichment (FACE) experiment to investigate functioning of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi in N cycling. • Fungal sporocarps were sampled in 2004 (natural abundance and (15) N tracer) and 2010 (tracer) and δ(15)N patterns were compared against litter and soil pools. • Ectomycorrhizal fungi with hydrophobic ectomycorrhizas (e.g. Cortinarius and Tricholoma) acquired N from the Oea horizon or deeper. Taxa with hydrophilic ectomycorrhizas acquired N from the Oi horizon (Russula and Lactarius) or deeper (Laccaria, Inocybe, and Amanita). (15)N enrichment patterns for Cortinarius and Amanita in 2010 did not correspond to any measured bulk pool, suggesting that a persistent pool of active organic N supplied these two taxa. Saprotrophic fungi could be separated into those colonizing pine cones (Baeospora), wood, litter (Oi), and soil (Ramariopsis), with δ(15)N of taxa reflecting substrate differences. (15)N enrichment between sources and sporocarps varied across taxa and contributed to δ(15)N patterns. • Natural abundance and (15)N tracers proved useful for tracking N from different depths into fungal taxa, generally corresponded to literature estimates of fungal activity within soil profiles, and provided new insights into interpreting natural abundance δ(15)N patterns. PMID:24304469

  2. Dead fungal mycelium in forest soil represents a decomposition hotspot and a habitat for a specific microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabcová, Vendula; Nováková, Monika; Davidová, Anna; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-06-01

    Turnover of fungal biomass in forest litter and soil represents an important process in the environment. To date, knowledge of mycelial decomposition has been derived primarily from short-term studies, and the guild of mycelium decomposers has been poorly defined. Here, we followed the fate of the fruiting bodies of an ectomycorrhizal fungus in litter and soil of a temperate forest over 21 wk. The community of associated microbes and enzymatic processes in this specific substrate were described. The decomposition of fungal fruiting bodies exhibited biphasic kinetics. The rapid initial phase, which included the disappearance of DNA, was followed by a slower turnover of the recalcitrant fraction. Compared with the surrounding litter and soil, the mycelium represented a hotspot of activity of several biopolymer-degrading enzymes and high bacterial biomass. Specific communities of bacteria and fungi were associated with decomposing mycelium. These communities differed between the initial and late phases of decomposition. The bacterial community associated with decomposing mycelia typically contained the genera Pedobacter, Pseudomonas, Variovorax, Chitinophaga, Ewingella and Stenotrophomonas, whereas the fungi were mostly nonbasidiomycetous r-strategists of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mortierella, Cladosporium and several others. Decomposing ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelium exhibits high rates of decomposition and represents a specific habitat supporting a specific microbial community. PMID:26832073

  3. Impedimetric method for physiologically characterisation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Petersen, Karina

    1998-01-01

    Fungi are playing an important role in the food and pharmaceutical industry today, both as starter cultures, fermentation organisms, and as contaminants. Characterisation of fungal growth is normally time consuming as it includes measurements and study on a wide range of media at different...... temperatures, pH, water activity and atmosphere composition. Nevertheless is it important information in ecophysiological studies, where the growth potential by fungi are related to composition and storage of food. It is therefore of great interest to device a rapid method for characterisation of fungi.......The objective was to determine the growth phases of various fungi using an impedimetric method and compare this with traditional methods using agar plates, in order to determine if this rapid method can replace the traditional method.The method is based on impedimetric assessment of growth on the Bactometer 128...

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Burkholderia terrae Strain BS001, Which Interacts with Fungal Surface Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazir, Rashid; Hansen, Martin A.; Sorensen, Soren;

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia terrae BS001 is a soil bacterium which was originally isolated from the mycosphere of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria proxima. It exhibits a range of fungus-interacting traits which reveal its propensity to actively interact at fungal interfaces. Here, we present the approximately...... 11.5-Mb (G+C content, 61.52 draft genome sequence of B. terrae BS001 with the aim of providing insight into the genomic basis of its ecological success in fungus-affected soil settings....

  5. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  6. Distribution pattern and maintenance of ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Gao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhiza (ECM are symbionts formed between soil fungi and plant root systems, in which the fungus exchanges soil-derived nutrients for carbohydrates obtained from the host plant. As an important component of terrestrial ecosystems, ECM fungi can play an essential role in biodiversity maintenance and plant community succession. Understanding the distribution pattern and maintenance of ECM fungal diversity is therefore critical to the study of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. An analysis of results of recent research indicates that ECM fungal diversity increases with increasing latitude, i.e. from tropical to subtropical and temperate regions. The role of dispersal in ECM fungal distribution is dependent on spatial scale. Thus, it has been found to be weak across global and local scales, but strong at regional and small scales. At the local scale, its influence has also been shown to be host-dominant dependent; thus, it is important in host non-dominant ecosystems, but not in host dominant ecosystems. Selection by plant, animal, microbe and abiotic factors can also affect the distribution pattern of ECM fungi, according to studies of temperate ecosystems. In contrast, studies of tropical ecosystems indicate that selection on ECM fungal distribution can be either strong or weak. ECM fungal diversity is also influenced by plant diversity and productivity. The plant diversity hypothesis at host genus-level fits well with ECM fungal diversity in temperate, subtropical and tropical forest ecosystems; in contrast, the productivity diversity hypothesis is only supported by some studies in temperate forest ecosystems. We propose that future studies should focus on the distribution pattern, maintenance mechanism and ecosystem function of ECM fungal diversity at a global scale, taking account ofscenarios of global climate change.

  7. Ectomycorrhizal community structure and function in relation to forest residue harvesting and wood ash applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Shahid

    2000-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with tree roots and assist in nutrient-uptake and -cycling in forest ecosystems, thereby constituting a most significant part of the microbial community. The aims of the studies described in this thesis were to evaluate the potential of DNA-based molecular methods in below-ground ectomycorrhizal community studies and to investigate changes in ectomycorrhizal communities on spruce roots in sites with different N deposition, and in sites subjected to harvesting of forest residues or application of wood ash. The ability of selected ectomycorrhizal fungi to mobilise nutrients from wood ash and to colonise root systems in the presence and absence of ash was also studied. In total 39 ectomycorrhizal species were detected in the experimental forests located in southern Sweden. At each site five to six species colonised around 60% of the root tips. The dominant species, common to the sites, were Tylospora fibrillosa, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum. Differences between two sites with differing levels of N deposition suggested that community structure may be influenced by N deposition, although site history, location and degree of isolation may also influence species composition. Repeated harvesting of forest residues reduced numbers of mycorrhizal roots in the humus layer to approximately 50% of that in control plots but no shift in the ectomycorrhizal community could be detected. At another site, application of granulated wood ash induced a shift in ectomycorrhizal community structure and three ectomycorrhizal fungi ('ash fungi') were found to colonise ash granules. Two 'ash fungi' showed a superior ability to solubilise stabilised wood ash in laboratory experiments compared to other ectomycorrhizal isolates from the same site. In laboratory microcosms containing intact mycorrhizal mycelia, colonisation of wood ash patches by one 'ash fungus' was good whereas colonisation by

  8. Two mycoheterotrophic orchids from Thailand tropical dipterocarpacean forests associate with a broad diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vessabutr Suyanee

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoheterotrophic plants are considered to associate very specifically with fungi. Mycoheterotrophic orchids are mostly associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi in temperate regions, or with saprobes or parasites in tropical regions. Although most mycoheterotrophic orchids occur in the tropics, few studies have been devoted to them, and the main conclusions about their specificity have hitherto been drawn from their association with ectomycorrhizal fungi in temperate regions. Results We investigated three Asiatic Neottieae species from ectomycorrhizal forests in Thailand. We found that all were associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Thelephoraceae, Russulaceae and Sebacinales. Based on 13C enrichment of their biomass, they probably received their organic carbon from these fungi, as do mycoheterotrophic Neottieae from temperate regions. Moreover, 13C enrichment suggested that some nearby green orchids received part of their carbon from fungi too. Nevertheless, two of the three orchids presented a unique feature for mycoheterotrophic plants: they were not specifically associated with a narrow clade of fungi. Some orchid individuals were even associated with up to nine different fungi. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that some green and mycoheterotrophic orchids in tropical regions can receive carbon from ectomycorrhizal fungi, and thus from trees. Our results reveal the absence of specificity in two mycoheterotrophic orchid-fungus associations in tropical regions, in contrast to most previous studies of mycoheterotrophic plants, which have been mainly focused on temperate orchids.

  9. Visualizing carbon and nitrogen transfer in the tripartite symbiosis of Fagus sylvatica, ectomycorrhizal fungi and soil microorganisms using NanoSIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhofer, Werner; Dietrich, Marlies; Schintlmeister, Arno; Gabriel, Raphael; Gorka, Stefan; Wiesenbauer, Julia; Martin, Victoria; Schweiger, Peter; Reipert, Siegfried; Weidinger, Marieluise; Richter, Andreas; Woebken, Dagmar; Kaiser, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Translocation of recently photoassimilated plant carbon (C) into soil via root exudates or mycorrhizal fungi is key to understand global carbon cycling. Plants support symbiotic fungi and soil microorganisms with recent photosynthates to get access to essential elements, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus. While a 'reciprocal reward strategy' (plants trade C in exchange for nutrients from the fungus) has been shown for certain types of mycorrhizal associations, only little is known about the mechanisms of C and N exchange between mycorrhizal fungal hyphae and soil bacteria. Our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by the fact that C and N transfer between plants, mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria takes place at the micrometer scale, which makes it difficult to explore at the macro scale. In this project we intended to analyse carbon and nitrogen flows between roots of beech trees (Fagus sylvatica), their associated ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacterial community. In order to visualize this nutrient flow at a single cell level, we used a stable isotope double labelling (13C and 15N) approach. Young mycorrhizal beech trees were transferred from a forest to split-root boxes, consisting of two compartments separated by a membrane (35 μm mesh size) which was penetrable for hyphae but not for plant roots. After trees and mycorrhizal fungi were allowed to grow for one year in these boxes, 15N-labelled nitrogen solution was added only to the root-free compartment to allow labelled nitrogen supply only through the fungal network. 13C- labelled carbon was applied by exposing the plants to a 13CO2 gas atmosphere for 8 hours. Spatial distribution of the isotopic label was visualised at the microscale in cross sections of mycorrhizal root-tips (the plant/mycorrhizal fungi interface) and within and on the surface of external mycorrhizal hyphae (the fungi/soil bacteria interface) using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Corresponding

  10. Diversity and persistence of ectomycorrhizal fungi and their effect on nursery-inoculated Pinus pinaster in a post-fire plantation in Northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Albina R; Sousa, Nadine R; Ramos, Miguel A; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

    2014-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) play an important role in forest ecosystems, often mitigating stress factors and increasing seedling performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a nursery inoculation on Pinus pinaster growth and on the fungal communities established when reforesting burned areas. Inoculated P. pinaster saplings showed 1.5-fold higher stem height than the non-inoculated controls after a 5 year growth period, suggesting that fungal inoculation could potentiate tree growth in the field. Ordination analysis revealed the presence of different ECMF communities on both plots. Among the nursery-inoculated fungi, Laccaria sp., Rhizopogon sp., Suillus bovinus and Pisolithus sp. were detected on inoculated Pinus saplings on both sampling periods, indicating that they persisted after field establishment. Other fungi were also detected in the inoculated plants. Phialocephala sp. was found on the first assessment, while Terfezia sp. was detected on both sampling periods. Laccaria sp. and Rhizopogon sp. were identified in the control saplings, belonging however to different species than those found in the inoculated plot. Inocybe sp., Thelephora sp. and Paxillus involutus were present on both sampling periods in the non-inoculated plots. The results suggest that ECMF inoculation at nursery stage can benefit plant growth after transplantation to a post-fire site and that the inoculated fungi can persist in the field. This approach has great potential as a biotechnological tool to aid in the reforestation of burned areas. PMID:25004993

  11. Host and habitat filtering in seedling root-associated fungal communities: taxonomic and functional diversity are altered in 'novel' soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Brian J; Gorzelak, Monika A; Green, D Scott; Egger, Keith N; Massicotte, Hugues B

    2015-10-01

    Climatic and land use changes have significant consequences for the distribution of tree species, both through natural dispersal processes and following management prescriptions. Responses to these changes will be expressed most strongly in seedlings near current species range boundaries. In northern temperate forest ecosystems, where changes are already being observed, ectomycorrhizal fungi contribute significantly to successful tree establishment. We hypothesised that communities of fungal symbionts might therefore play a role in facilitating, or limiting, host seedling range expansion. To test this hypothesis, ectomycorrhizal communities of interior Douglas-fir and interior lodgepole pine seedlings were analysed in a common greenhouse environment following growth in five soils collected along an ecosystem gradient. Currently, Douglas-fir's natural distribution encompasses three of the five soils, whereas lodgepole pine's extends much further north. Host filtering was evident amongst the 29 fungal species encountered: 7 were shared, 9 exclusive to Douglas-fir and 13 exclusive to lodgepole pine. Seedlings of both host species formed symbioses with each soil fungal community, thus Douglas-fir did so even where those soils came from outside its current distribution. However, these latter communities displayed significant taxonomic and functional differences to those found within the host distribution, indicative of habitat filtering. In contrast, lodgepole pine fungal communities displayed high functional similarity across the soil gradient. Taxonomic and/or functional shifts in Douglas-fir fungal communities may prove ecologically significant during the predicted northward migration of this species; especially in combination with changes in climate and management operations, such as seed transfer across geographical regions for forestry purposes. PMID:25694036

  12. The impact of selective-logging and forest clearance for oil palm on fungal communities in Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Tripathi, Binu M; Lee, Junghoon; Edwards, David P; Adams, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging, and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil fungi, which play vital roles in the soil ecosystem functioning and services, is a major conservation frontier. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the ITS1 region of extracted soil DNA, we compared communities of soil fungi between unlogged, once-logged, and twice-logged rainforest, and areas cleared for oil palm, in Sabah, Malaysia. Overall fungal community composition differed significantly between forest and oil palm plantation. The OTU richness and Chao 1 were higher in forest, compared to oil palm plantation. As a proportion of total reads, Basidiomycota were more abundant in forest soil, compared to oil palm plantation soil. The turnover of fungal OTUs across space, true β-diversity, was also higher in forest than oil palm plantation. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal abundance was significantly different between land uses, with highest relative abundance (out of total fungal reads) observed in unlogged forest soil, lower abundance in logged forest, and lowest in oil palm. In their entirety, these results indicate a pervasive effect of conversion to oil palm on fungal community structure. Such wholesale changes in fungal communities might impact the long-term sustainability of oil palm agriculture. Logging also has more subtle long term effects, on relative abundance of EcM fungi, which might affect tree recruitment and nutrient cycling. However, in general the logged forest retains most of the diversity and community composition of unlogged forest. PMID:25405609

  13. Fungal Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  14. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  15. Radiocaesium in the fungal compartment of forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungi in forest ecosystems are major contributors to accumulation and cycling of radionuclides, especially radiocaesium. However, relatively little is known about uptake and retention of 137Cs by fungal mycelia. This thesis comprises quantitative estimates of manually prepared mycelia of mainly ectomycorrhizal fungi and their possible role in the retention, turnover and accumulation of radiocaesium in contaminated forest ecosystems. The studies were conducted in two forests during 1996-1998 and 2000-2003. One was in Ovruch district, Zhytomyr region of Ukraine (51 deg 30 min N, 28 deg 95 min E), and the other at two Swedish forest sites: the first situated about 35 km northwest of Uppsala (60 deg 05 min N, 17 deg 25 min E) and the second at Hille in the vicinity of Gaevle (60 deg 85 min N, 17 deg 15 min E). The 137Cs activity concentration was measured in prepared mycelia and corresponding soil layers. Various extraction procedures were used to study the retention and binding of 137Cs in Of/Oh and Ah/B horizons of forest soil. 137Cs was also extracted from the fruit bodies and mycelia of fungi. The fungal mycelium biomass was estimated and the percentage of the total inventory of 137Cs bound in mycelia in the Ukrainian and Swedish forests was calculated. The estimated fungal biomass in Ukrainian forests varied from 0.07 to 70.4 mg/g soil, in Swedish forests between 3.6 and 19. 4 mg/g soil. Between 0.5 to 50 % of the total 137Cs activity in the 0-10 cm soil profile was retained in the fungal mycelia. The 137Cs activity concentration in mycelia was thus higher than that found in soil, and 137Cs activity concentrations in the fruit bodies was higher than that in the mycelium. The survey study revealed that a major part, around 50 % of the plant-available 137Cs in forest soil, was retained in the fungal mycelium. The most probable sources of 137Cs for fungal mycelia and fruit bodies of fungi were found to be water soluble substances, humic matter, hemicellulose and

  16. Limited transfer of nitrogen between wood decomposing and ectomycorrhizal mycelia when studied in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallander, Håkan; Lindahl, Björn D.; Nilsson, Lars Ola

    2006-01-01

    Transfer of 15N between interacting mycelia of a wood-decomposing fungus (Hypholoma fasciculare) and an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Tomentellopsis submollis) was studied in a mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest. The amount of 15N transferred from the wood decomposer to the ectomycorrhizal fungus was...... from an introduced root from a mature tree. The containers were harvested after 41 weeks when physical contact between the two foraging mycelia was established. At harvest, 15N content was analyzed in the peat (total N and 15NH4+) and in the mycorrhizal roots. A limited amount of 15N was transferred to...... the ectomycorrhizal fungus and this transfer could be explained by 15NH4+ released from the wooddecomposing fungus without involving any antagonistic interactions between the two mycelia. Using our approach, it was possible to study nutritional interactions between basidiomycete mycelia under field...

  17. Studies on ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete in pine forest on the Lithuania-Poland transboundary region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danutė Stankovičienė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi and sporocarps abundance were investigated in 2003-2005 at nine permanent study plots in a 50-year-old pine forest. Diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi consisted of 53 taxa and the majority of them belonged to the genera Cortinarius, Russula, Amanita and Tricholoma. The most frequent species, whose fruit bodies were found in each study plot, were C. cibarius, L. necator L. rufus, P. involutus, R. aeruginea, T. saponaceum and the most abundant species which made the main part of total sporocarp yield were C. cibarius and P. involutus. The lowest species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi was in study plots with the densest cover of grasses. Maximum of species over the fruiting period was characteristic for October and for September. It was noticed that some species virtually never occurred together at the same plot (eg. C. cibarius and H. aurantiaca, meanwhile others occurred together quite frequently (eg. H.aurantiaca and X. badius.

  18. Influence of host species on ectomycorrhizal communities associated with two co-occurring oaks (Quercus spp.) in a tropical cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Melissa H; Pérez-Pérez, Miguel A; Smith, Matthew E; Bledsoe, Caroline S

    2009-08-01

    Interactions between host tree species and ectomycorrhizal fungi are important in structuring ectomycorrhizal communities, but there are only a few studies on host influence of congeneric trees. We investigated ectomycorrhizal community assemblages on roots of deciduous Quercus crassifolia and evergreen Quercus laurina in a tropical montane cloud forest, one of the most endangered tropical forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified by sequencing internal transcribed spacer and partial 28S rRNA gene. We sampled 80 soil cores and documented high ectomycorrhizal diversity with a total of 154 taxa. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that oak host was significant in explaining some of the variation in ectomycorrhizal communities, despite the fact that the two Quercus species belong to the same red oak lineage (section Lobatae). A Tuber species, found in 23% of the soil cores, was the most frequent taxon. Similar to oak-dominated ectomycorrhizal communities in temperate forests, Thelephoraceae, Russulaceae and Sebacinales were diverse and dominant. PMID:19508503

  19. Fungal spore fragmentation as a function of airflow rates and fungal generation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaani, Hussein; Hargreaves, Megan; Ristovski, Zoran; Morawska, Lidia

    The aim of this study was to characterise and quantify the fungal fragment propagules derived and released from several fungal species ( Penicillium, Aspergillus niger and Cladosporium cladosporioides) using different generation methods and different air velocities over the colonies. Real time fungal spore fragmentation was investigated using an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVASP) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The study showed that there were significant differences ( p controlled conditions can be predicted on the basis of the number of spores, for Penicillium and A. niger, but not for C. cladosporioides. The fluorescence percentage of fragment samples was found to be significantly different to that of non-fragment samples ( p < 0.0001) and the fragment sample fluorescence was always less than that of the non-fragment samples. Size distribution and concentration of fungal fragment particles were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively, by both UVAPS and SMPS, and it was found that the UVAPS was more sensitive than the SMPS for measuring small sample concentrations, whilethe results obtained from the UVAPS and SMAS were not identical for the same samples.

  20. Characterisation of Functional Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonardo, P.M.; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bruzzone, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Characterisation of surfaces is of fundamental importance to control the manufacturing process and the functional performance of the part. Many applications concern contact and tribology problems, which include friction, wear and lubrication. This paper presents the techniques and instruments for...... characterisation of surfaces, discussing their operating principles and metrological properties. A review of the conventional 2D and new 3D roughness parameters is given, considering both the current standards and new proposals for texture quantification, with a particular attention to the methods orientated...... towards a functional characterisation of surfaces....

  1. Seasonal dynamics of fungal communities in a temperate oak forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voříšková, Jana; Brabcová, Vendula; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are the agents primarily responsible for the transformation of plant-derived carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known of their responses to the seasonal changes in resource availability in deciduous forests, including photosynthate allocation below ground and seasonal inputs of fresh litter. Vertical stratification of and seasonal changes in fungal abundance, activity and community composition were investigated in the litter, organic and upper mineral soils of a temperate Quercus petraea forest using ergosterol and extracellular enzyme assays and amplicon 454-pyrosequencing of the rDNA-ITS region. Fungal activity, biomass and diversity decreased substantially with soil depth. The highest enzyme activities were detected in winter, especially in litter, where these activities were followed by a peak in fungal biomass during spring. The litter community exhibited more profound seasonal changes than did the community in the deeper horizons. In the litter, saprotrophic genera reached their seasonal maxima in autumn, but summer typically saw the highest abundance of ectomycorrhizal taxa. Although the composition of the litter community changes over the course of the year, the mineral soil shows changes in biomass. The fungal community is affected by season. Litter decomposition and phytosynthate allocation represent important factors contributing to the observed variations. PMID:24010995

  2. Moth outbreaks alter root-associated fungal communities in subarctic mountain birch forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, Karita; Aikio, Sami; Wäli, Piippa R; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Kaukonen, Maarit; Huusko, Karoliina; Suokas, Marko; Brown, Shawn P; Jumpponen, Ari; Tuomi, Juha; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-05-01

    Climate change has important implications on the abundance and range of insect pests in forest ecosystems. We studied responses of root-associated fungal communities to defoliation of mountain birch hosts by a massive geometrid moth outbreak through 454 pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the ITS2 rDNA region. We compared fungal diversity and community composition at three levels of moth defoliation (intact control, full defoliation in one season, full defoliation in two or more seasons), replicated in three localities. Defoliation caused dramatic shifts in functional and taxonomic community composition of root-associated fungi. Differentially defoliated mountain birch roots harbored distinct fungal communities, which correlated with increasing soil nutrients and decreasing amount of host trees with green foliar mass. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) abundance and richness declined by 70-80 % with increasing defoliation intensity, while saprotrophic and endophytic fungi seemed to benefit from defoliation. Moth herbivory also reduced dominance of Basidiomycota in the roots due to loss of basidiomycete EMF and increases in functionally unknown Ascomycota. Our results demonstrate the top-down control of belowground fungal communities by aboveground herbivory and suggest a marked reduction in the carbon flow from plants to soil fungi following defoliation. These results are among the first to provide evidence on cascading effects of natural herbivory on tree root-associated fungi at an ecosystem scale. PMID:25687127

  3. 90SR uptake by Pinus ponderosa and Pinus radiata seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is a radionuclide characteristic of fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear weapons testing. Prior studies have shown that Pinus ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings can remove appreciable quantities of 90Sr from soil and store it in plant tissue. In this study, we inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Inoculated and noninoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove 90Sr from an organic growth medium. Ectomycorrhizal P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings are able to remove 3-5 times more 90Sr from contaminated soil than seedlings without ectomycorrhizae. (Author)

  4. Implication of evolution and diversity in arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscot, François

    2015-01-01

    Being highly sensitive to ecological variations, symbiotic associations should inherently have a limited occurrence in nature. To circumvent this sensitivity and reach their universal distribution, symbioses used three strategies during their evolution, which all generated high biodiversity levels: (i) specialization to a specific environment, (ii) protection of one partner via its internalization into the other, (iii) frequent partner exchange. Mycorrhizal associations follow the 3rd strategy, but also present traits of internalization. As most ancient type, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) formed by a monophyletic fungal group with reduced species richness did constantly support the mineral nutrition of terrestrial plants and enabled their ecological radiation and actual biodiversity level. In contrast ectomycorrhiza (EM) evolved later and independently within different taxa of fungi able to degrade complex organic plant residues, and the diversity levels of EM fungal and tree partners are balanced. Despite their different origins and diversity levels, AM and EM fungi display similar patterns of diversity dynamics in ecosystems. At each time or succession interval, a few dominant and many rare fungi are recruited by plants roots from a wide reservoir of propagules. However, the dominant fungal partners are frequently replaced in relation to changes in the vegetation or ecological conditions. While the initial establishment of AM and EM fungal communities corresponds to a neutral recruitment, their further succession is rather driven by niche differentiation dynamics. PMID:25239593

  5. The contribution of DNA metabarcoding to fungal conservation: diversity assessment, habitat partitioning and mapping red-listed fungi in protected coastal Salix repens communities in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geml, József; Gravendeel, Barbara; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Neilen, Manon; Lammers, Youri; Raes, Niels; Semenova, Tatiana A; de Knijff, Peter; Noordeloos, Machiel E

    2014-01-01

    Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens) represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought. PMID:24937200

  6. The contribution of DNA metabarcoding to fungal conservation: diversity assessment, habitat partitioning and mapping red-listed fungi in protected coastal Salix repens communities in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Geml

    Full Text Available Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought.

  7. Disruption of root carbon transport into forest humus stimulates fungal opportunists at the expense of mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Björn D; de Boer, Wietse; Finlay, Roger D

    2010-07-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi dominate the humus layers of boreal forests. They depend on carbohydrates that are translocated through roots, via fungal mycelium to microsites in the soil, wherein they forage for nutrients. Mycorrhizal fungi are therefore sensitive to disruptive disturbances that may restrict their carbon supply. By disrupting root connections, we induced a sudden decline in mycorrhizal mycelial abundance and studied the consequent effects on growth and activity of free living, saprotrophic fungi and bacteria in pine forest humus, using molecular community analyses in combination with enzyme activity measurements. Ectomycorrhizal fungi had decreased in abundance 14 days after root severing, but the abundance of certain free-living ascomycetes was three times higher within 5 days of the disturbance compared with undisturbed controls. Root disruption also increased laccase production by an order of magnitude and cellulase production by a factor of 5. In contrast, bacterial populations seemed little affected. The results indicate that access to an external carbon source enables mycorrhizal fungi to monopolise the humus, but disturbances may induce rapid growth of opportunistic saprotrophic fungi that presumably use the dying mycorrhizal mycelium. Studies of such functional shifts in fungal communities, induced by disturbance, may shed light on mechanisms behind nutrient retention and release in boreal forests. The results also highlight the fundamental problems associated with methods that study microbial processes in soil samples that have been isolated from living roots. PMID:20220789

  8. Ectomycorrhizal fungi in Mexican Alnus forests support the host co-migration hypothesis and continental-scale patterns in phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter G; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Higgins, Logan M; Angeles-Arguiz, Rodolfo

    2011-08-01

    To examine the geographic patterns in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal assemblages and determine how they may relate to host plant biogeography, we studied ECM assemblages associated with two Alnus species (Alnus acuminata and Alnus jorullensis) in montane Mexico and compared them with Alnus-associated ECM assemblages located elsewhere in the Americas. ECM root samples were collected from four sites in Mexico (two per host species), identified with ITS and LSU rRNA gene sequences, and assessed using both taxon- (richness, diversity, evenness indices) and sequence divergence-based (UniFrac clustering and significance) analyses. Only 23 ECM taxa were encountered. Clavulina, an ECM lineage never before reported with Alnus, contained the dominant taxon overall. ECM assemblage structure varied between hosts, but UniFrac significance tests indicated that both associated with similar ECM lineage diversity. There was a strikingly high sequence similarity among a diverse array of the ECM taxa in Mexico and those in Alnus forests in Argentina, the United States, and Europe. The Mexican and United States assemblages had greater overlap than those present in Argentina, supporting the host-ECM fungi co-migration hypothesis from a common north temperate origin. Our results indicate that Alnus-associated ECM assemblages have clear patterns in richness and composition across a wide range of geographic locations. Additional data from boreal western North America as well as the eastern United States and Canada will be particularly informative in further understanding the co-biogeographic patterns of Alnus and ECM fungi in the Americas. PMID:21331794

  9. Effects of litter addition on ectomycorrhizal associates of a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stand in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Kenneth W.; New, Michael H.; Makhija, Shilpa; Parker, V. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Increasing soil nutrients through litter manipulation, pollution, or fertilization can adversely affect ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities by inhibiting fungal growth. In this study, we used molecular genetic methods to determine the effects of litter addition on the EM community of a Pinus contorta stand in Yellowstone National Park that regenerated after a stand-replacing fire. Two controls were used; in unmodified control plots nothing was added to the soil, and in perlite plots perlite, a chemically neutral substance, was added to maintain soil moisture and temperature at levels similar to those under litter. We found that (i) species richness did not change significantly following perlite addition (2.6 +/- 0.3 species/core in control plots, compared with 2.3 +/- 0.3 species/core in perlite plots) but decreased significantly (P litter addition (1.8 +/- 0.3 species/core); (ii) EM infection was not affected by the addition of perlite but increased significantly (P litter addition, and the increase occurred only in the upper soil layer, directly adjacent to the added litter; and (iii) Suillus granulatus, Wilcoxina mikolae, and agaricoid DD were the dominant organisms in controls, but the levels of W. mikolae and agaricoid DD decreased significantly in response to both perlite and litter addition. The relative levels of S. granulatus and a fourth fungus, Cortinariaceae species 2, increased significantly (P litter addition. Thus, litter addition resulted in some negative effects that may be attributable to moisture-temperature relationships rather than to the increased nutrients associated with litter. Some species respond positively to litter addition, indicating that there are differences in their physiologies. Hence, changes in the EM community induced by litter accumulation also may affect ecosystem function.

  10. Unravelling soil fungal communities from different Mediterranean land-use backgrounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Orgiazzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fungi strongly influence ecosystem structure and functioning, playing a key role in many ecological services as decomposers, plant mutualists and pathogens. The Mediterranean area is a biodiversity hotspot that is increasingly threatened by intense land use. Therefore, to achieve a balance between conservation and human development, a better understanding of the impact of land use on the underlying fungal communities is needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used parallel pyrosequencing of the nuclear ribosomal its regions to characterize the fungal communities in five soils subjected to different anthropogenic impact in a typical mediterranean landscape: a natural cork-oak forest, a pasture, a managed meadow, and two vineyards. Marked differences in the distribution of taxon assemblages among the different sites and communities were found. Data analyses consistently indicated a sharp distinction of the fungal community of the cork oak forest soil from those described in the other soils. Each soil showed features of the fungal assemblages retrieved which can be easily related to the above-ground settings: ectomycorrhizal phylotypes were numerous in natural sites covered by trees, but were nearly completely missing from the anthropogenic and grass-covered sites; similarly, coprophilous fungi were common in grazed sites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data suggest that investigation on the below-ground fungal community may provide useful elements on the above-ground features such as vegetation coverage and agronomic procedures, allowing to assess the cost of anthropogenic land use to hidden diversity in soil. Datasets provided in this study may contribute to future searches for fungal bio-indicators as biodiversity markers of a specific site or a land-use degree.

  11. Ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose soil organic matter using oxidative mechanisms adapted from saprotrophic ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Firoz; Nicolás, César; Bentzer, Johan; Ellström, Magnus; Smits, Mark; Rineau, Francois; Canbäck, Björn; Floudas, Dimitrios; Carleer, Robert; Lackner, Gerald; Braesel, Jana; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Henrissat, Bernard; Ahrén, Dag; Johansson, Tomas; Hibbett, David S; Martin, Francis; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders

    2016-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are thought to have a key role in mobilizing organic nitrogen that is trapped in soil organic matter (SOM). However, the extent to which ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose SOM and the mechanism by which they do so remain unclear, considering that they have lost many genes encoding lignocellulose-degrading enzymes that are present in their saprotrophic ancestors. Spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling were used to examine the mechanisms by which five species of ectomycorrhizal fungi, representing at least four origins of symbiosis, decompose SOM extracted from forest soils. In the presence of glucose and when acquiring nitrogen, all species converted the organic matter in the SOM extract using oxidative mechanisms. The transcriptome expressed during oxidative decomposition has diverged over evolutionary time. Each species expressed a different set of transcripts encoding proteins associated with oxidation of lignocellulose by saprotrophic fungi. The decomposition 'toolbox' has diverged through differences in the regulation of orthologous genes, the formation of new genes by gene duplications, and the recruitment of genes from diverse but functionally similar enzyme families. The capacity to oxidize SOM appears to be common among ectomycorrhizal fungi. We propose that the ancestral decay mechanisms used primarily to obtain carbon have been adapted in symbiosis to scavenge nutrients instead. PMID:26527297

  12. Decomposition by ectomycorrhizal fungi alters soil carbon storage in a simulation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, J. A. M.; Jiang, J.; Post, W. M.; Classen, Aimee Taylor

    2015-01-01

    Carbon cycle models often lack explicit belowground organism activity, yet belowground organisms regulate carbon storage and release in soil. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are important players in the carbon cycle because they are a conduit into soil for carbon assimilated by the plant. It is hypothesize...

  13. Adhesion of ectomycorrhizal bacteria to plant cells: an in vitro evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Citterio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have investigated, by combining microbial and microscopical techniques, the adhesion ability of bacteria present in Tuber borchii ectomycorrhizosphere. Our data demonstrate that a common pool of bacteria — Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Moraxella — occurs in all ectomycorrhizal homogenates and that most of these bacteria are able to attach in vitro to plant cells.

  14. ECTOMYCORRHIZAL DIVERSITY IN A LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L.) GENETICS PLANTATION: INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) Has co-evolved a high dependency on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations most likely because its natural range includes soils of varying moisture that are P- and/or N-deficient. Because of its wide geographic distrubition, we would expect its roots t...

  15. Population evidence of cryptic species and geographical structure in the cosmopolitan ectomycorrhizal fungus, Tricholoma scalpturatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carriconde, Fabian; Gardes, Monique; Jargeat, Patricia;

    2008-01-01

    Tricholoma scalpturatum is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that forms symbioses with roots of diverse trees and shrubs. It is commonly encountered in a wide range of habitats, across temperate ecosystems. A previous study has revealed a high genetic diversity at a local scale, and ruderal abilities. To...

  16. Adhesion of ectomycorrhizal bacteria to plant cells: an in vitro evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Citterio, B.; Patrone, V; B Baldelli; Malatesta, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we have investigated, by combining microbial and microscopical techniques, the adhesion ability of bacteria present in Tuber borchii ectomycorrhizosphere. Our data demonstrate that a common pool of bacteria — Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Moraxella — occurs in all ectomycorrhizal homogenates and that most of these bacteria are able to attach in vitro to plant cells.

  17. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As an ... fungal infections. What you need to know about fungal infections Fungal infections can range from mild to life- ...

  18. Revisiting the 'Gadgil effect': do interguild fungal interactions control carbon cycling in forest soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Christopher W; Kennedy, Peter G

    2016-03-01

    1382 I. 1382 II. 1383 III. 1383 IV. 1384 V. 1386 VI. 1387 VII. 1389 VIII. 1391 1391 References 1391 SUMMARY: In forest ecosystems, ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi play a central role in the breakdown of soil organic matter (SOM). Competition between these two fungal guilds has long been hypothesized to lead to suppression of decomposition rates, a phenomenon known as the 'Gadgil effect'. In this review, we examine the documentation, generality, and potential mechanisms involved in the 'Gadgil effect'. We find that the influence of ectomycorrhizal fungi on litter and SOM decomposition is much more variable than previously recognized. To explain the inconsistency in size and direction of the 'Gadgil effect', we argue that a better understanding of underlying mechanisms is required. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each of the primary mechanisms proposed to date and how using different experimental methods (trenching, girdling, microcosms), as well as considering different temporal and spatial scales, could influence the conclusions drawn about this phenomenon. Finally, we suggest that combining new research tools such as high-throughput sequencing with experiments utilizing natural environmental gradients will significantly deepen our understanding of the 'Gadgil effect' and its consequences on forest soil carbon and nutrient cycling. PMID:26365785

  19. Metagenomic analysis of soil fungal communities on Ulleungdo and Dokdo Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoon-Jong; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Ulleungdo and Dokdo are volcanic islands that experience a characteristic marine climate, influenced by warm currents. The richness and diversity of the plant species, particularly vascular plants, are higher on Ulleungdo than on Dokdo. In contrast to the native plant life, little is known about the diversity of soil fungi living in the rhizosphere of these two islands. In this study, we utilized the barcoded pyrosequencing method to analyze rhizosphere soil fungi on Ulleungdo and Dokdo. In total, 768 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were analyzed from the Ulleungdo samples, while 640 OTUs and 382 OTUs were analyzed from the Dongdo and Seodo (islets of Dokdo) samples, respectively. Species richness was considerably higher in the Ulleungdo samples than in the Dongdo and Seodo samples, while there was little difference in species diversity between the samples. The taxonomic composition analyses demonstrated that members of the phylum Basidiomycota dominated the Ulleungdo samples, whereas members of the phylum Ascomycota were predominant in the Dokdo samples. Ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to the phylum Basidiomycota, in particular, were more abundant in the Ulleungdo samples. This finding suggests that the difference in the abundance of the ectomycorrhizal fungi in the rhizospheres of Ulleungdo and Dokdo may have been affected by species richness and diversity of the vascular plants. Our study is the first detailed report of the composition of soil fungal communities on the Ulleungdo and Dokdo islands. In addition, our findings provide a basis for understanding the ecological interactions between plants and fungi. PMID:26227909

  20. Divergence Times and Phylogenetic Patterns of Sebacinales, a Highly Diverse and Widespread Fungal Lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigisfredo Garnica

    Full Text Available Patterns of geographic distribution and composition of fungal communities are still poorly understood. Widespread occurrence in terrestrial ecosystems and the unique richness of interactions of Sebacinales with plants make them a target group to study evolutionary events in the light of nutritional lifestyle. We inferred diversity patterns, phylogenetic structures and divergence times of Sebacinales with respect to their nutritional lifestyles by integrating data from fossil-calibrated phylogenetic analyses. Relaxed molecular clock analyses indicated that Sebacinales originated late Permian within Basidiomycota, and their split into Sebacinaceae and Serendipitaceae nom. prov. likely occurred during the late Jurassic and the early Cretaceous, coinciding with major diversifications of land plants. In Sebacinaceae, diversification of species with ectomycorrhizal lifestyle presumably started during the Paleocene. Lineage radiations of the core group of ericoid and cavendishioid mycorrhizal Sebacinales started probably in the Eocene, coinciding with diversification events of their hosts. The diversification of Sebacinales with jungermannioid interactions started during the Oligocene, and occurred much later than the diversification of their hosts. Sebacinales communities associated either with ectomycorrhizal plants, achlorophyllous orchids, ericoid and cavendishioid Ericaceae or liverworts were phylogenetically clustered and globally distributed. Major Sebacinales lineage diversifications started after the continents had drifted apart. We also briefly discuss dispersal patterns of extant Sebacinales.

  1. Divergence Times and Phylogenetic Patterns of Sebacinales, a Highly Diverse and Widespread Fungal Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Schön, Max E; Oberwinkler, Franz; Setaro, Sabrina D

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of geographic distribution and composition of fungal communities are still poorly understood. Widespread occurrence in terrestrial ecosystems and the unique richness of interactions of Sebacinales with plants make them a target group to study evolutionary events in the light of nutritional lifestyle. We inferred diversity patterns, phylogenetic structures and divergence times of Sebacinales with respect to their nutritional lifestyles by integrating data from fossil-calibrated phylogenetic analyses. Relaxed molecular clock analyses indicated that Sebacinales originated late Permian within Basidiomycota, and their split into Sebacinaceae and Serendipitaceae nom. prov. likely occurred during the late Jurassic and the early Cretaceous, coinciding with major diversifications of land plants. In Sebacinaceae, diversification of species with ectomycorrhizal lifestyle presumably started during the Paleocene. Lineage radiations of the core group of ericoid and cavendishioid mycorrhizal Sebacinales started probably in the Eocene, coinciding with diversification events of their hosts. The diversification of Sebacinales with jungermannioid interactions started during the Oligocene, and occurred much later than the diversification of their hosts. Sebacinales communities associated either with ectomycorrhizal plants, achlorophyllous orchids, ericoid and cavendishioid Ericaceae or liverworts were phylogenetically clustered and globally distributed. Major Sebacinales lineage diversifications started after the continents had drifted apart. We also briefly discuss dispersal patterns of extant Sebacinales. PMID:26938104

  2. Distribution pattern and maintenance of ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Gao; Liangdong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) are symbionts formed between soil fungi and plant root systems, in which the fungus exchanges soil-derived nutrients for carbohydrates obtained from the host plant. As an important component of terrestrial ecosystems, ECM fungi can play an essential role in biodiversity maintenance and plant community succession. Understanding the distribution pattern and maintenance of ECM fungal diversity is therefore critical to the study of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. An a...

  3. PREVALENCE OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajlaxmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS is a disease of young immune competent adults. Nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, nasal allergy and proptosis were the most common presentations. Initial diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis requires high index of suspicion in patients presenting with chronic rhino sinusitis, such cases should be properly evaluated. Differentiation from invasive forms of fungal sinus disease is crucial

  4. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  5. Bilateral endogenous fungal endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Michal, Wilczynski; Olena, Wilczynska; Wojciech, Omulecki

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare and severe intraocular infection which can be vision-threatening. We describe a case of bilateral fungal endogenous endophthalmitis in a 64-year-old male which was successfully treated with systemic administration of fluconazole followed by pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreous injection of amphotericin B.

  6. Pulmonary fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeannina A; Kauffman, Carol A

    2012-08-01

    This review details some of the advances that have been made in the recent decade in the diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of pulmonary fungal infections. These advances have occurred because of increasing knowledge regarding the fungal genome, better understanding of the structures of the fungal cell wall and cell membrane and the use of molecular epidemiological techniques. The clinical implications of these advances are more rapid diagnosis and more effective and less toxic antifungal agents. For example, the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, as well as histoplasmosis and blastomycosis, has improved with the use of easily performed antigen detection systems in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment of angioinvasive moulds has improved with the introduction of the new azoles, voriconazole and posaconazole that have broad antifungal activity. Amphotericin B is less frequently used, and when used is often given as lipid formulation to decrease toxicity. The newest agents, the echinocandins, are especially safe as they interfere with the metabolism of the fungal cell wall, a structure not shared with humans cells. Epidemiological advances include the description of the emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in North America and the increase in pulmonary mucormycosis and pneumonia due to Fusarium and Scedosporium species in transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. The emergence of azole resistance among Aspergillus species is especially worrisome and is likely related to increased azole use for treatment of patients, but also to agricultural use of azoles as fungicides in certain countries. PMID:22335254

  7. Colorimetric Scanner Characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Y. Hardeberg

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, methods for the colorimetric characterisation of colour scanners are proposed and evaluated. These methods apply equally to other colour image input devices such as digital cameras. The goal of our characterisation is to establish the relationship between the device-dependent colour space of the scanner and the device-independent CIELAB colour space. The scanner characterisation is based on polynomial regression techniques. Several regression schemes have been tested. The retained method consists in applying a non-linear correction to the scanner RGB values followed by a 3rd order 3D polynomial regression function directly to CIELAB space. This method gives very good results in terms of residual colour differences. This is partly due to the fact that the RMS error that is minimised in the regression corresponds to ΔE*ab which is well correlated to visual colour differences.

  8. The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic mechanisms for lignin degradation reconstructed using 31 fungal genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Riley, Robert; Barry, Kerrie; Blanchette, Robert A; Henrissat, Bernard; Martinez, Angel T.; Otillar, Robert; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Yadav, Jagit S.; Aerts, Andrea; Benoit, Isabelle; Boyd, Alex; Carlson, Alexis; Copeland, Alex; Coutinho, Pedro M.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Ferreira, Patricia; Findley, Keisha; Foster, Brian; Gaskell, Jill; Glotzer, Dylan; Gorecki, Pawel; Heitman, Joseph; Hesse, Cedar; Hori, Chiaki; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Jurgens, Joel A.; Kallen, Nathan; Kersten, Phil; Kohler, Annegret; Kues, Ursula; Kumar, T. K. Arun; Kuo, Alan; LaButti, Kurt; Larrondo, Luis F.; Lindquist, Erika; Ling, Albee; Lombard, Vincent; Lucas, Susan; Lundell, Taina; Martin, Rachael; McLaughlin, David J.; Morgenstern, Ingo; Morin, Emanuelle; Murat, Claude; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Nolan, Matt; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Rokas, Antonis; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco J.; Sabat, Grzegorz; Salamov, Asaf; Samejima, Masahiro; Schmutz, Jeremy; Slot, Jason C.; John, Franz; Stenlid, Jan; Sun, Hui; Sun, Sheng; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Tsang, Adrian; Wiebenga, Ad; Young, Darcy; Pisabarro, Antonio; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hibbett, David S.

    2012-03-12

    Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non?lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study) suggest that lignin-degrading peroxidases expanded in the lineage leading to the ancestor of the Agaricomycetes, which is reconstructed as a white rot species, and then contracted in parallel lineages leading to brown rot and mycorrhizal species. Molecular clock analyses suggest that the origin of lignin degradation might have coincided with the sharp decrease in the rate of organic carbon burial around the end of the Carboniferous period.

  9. Community Structure and Ecosystem Functioning of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Across an N Deposition Gradient in Temperate North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R. W.; Casper, B. B.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past century, human activities have resulted in a substantial increase in atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition throughout eastern North America, effectively doubling the amount of inorganic nitrogen entering terrestrial ecosystems. Increased atmospheric N deposition has the potential to alter terrestrial plant and microbial communities by increasing available NO3- and NH4+ in forest soil. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, a central member of the soil microbial community, live in association with most tree species of temperate and boreal ecosystems and are important contributors to many ecosystem functions. Previous work in boreal systems suggests that the availability of organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) resources are important contributing factors structuring belowground communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi. We do not yet understand the importance or the implications of changes in the ectomycorrhizal community as measured by effects on forest ecosystems or ecosystem functions such as N cycling or carbon storage. We examined ectomycorrhizal community structure morphologically over a natural atmospheric N deposition gradient across the northeastern United States. We also measured peroxidase, phenol oxidase, and general proteolytic activity, three ecosystem functions in which ectomycorrhizal fungi are involved. Using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), we found significant differences in ectomycorrhizal communities across the gradient with the first three axes describing 48% of the observed variation. Most community differences are driven by the relative abundance of 17 morphotypes across the gradient. Peroxidase and phenol oxidase activity were both significantly lower (p = 0.0323 and 0.0342 respectively) in areas of high atmospheric N deposition. Our data support the hypothesis that with increased atmospheric N deposition ectomycorrhizal communities shift from those using more organic forms of N to those using more inorganic forms of N. Such changes in the

  10. Response of ectomycorrhizal community structure to gap opening in natural and managed temperate beech-dominated forests

    OpenAIRE

    Grebenc, Tine; Christensen, Morten; Vilhar, Urša; Čater, Matjaž; Martín, María P.; Simončič, Primož; Kraigher, Hojka

    2009-01-01

    Data on the impact of forest management practices on ectomycorrhizal community structure remains fragmentary and mainly originates from studies in northern coniferous forests. This study focuses on a comparison of ectomycorrhizal communities between canopy gaps and closed canopy areas within natural and managed beech-dominated forests at four locations in Europe. We used high resolution rDNA techniques to identify ectomycorrhiza-forming fungi and attempted to extract potential stand-, gap-, s...

  11. Contrasting Diversity and Host Association of Ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycetes versus Root-Associated Ascomycetes in a Dipterocarp Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Toju, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota) in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large...

  12. 137Cs in the fungal compartment of Swedish forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 137Cs activities in soil profiles and in the mycelia of four ectomycorrhizal fungi were studied in a Swedish forest in an attempt to understand the mechanisms governing the transfer and retention of 137Cs in forest soil. The biomass of four species of fungi was determined and estimated to be 16 g m-2 in a peat soil and 47-189 g m-2 in non-peat soil to the depth of 10 cm. The vertical distribution was rather homogeneous for two species (Tylospora spp. and Piloderma fallax) and very superficial for Hydnellum peckii. Most of the 137Cs activity in mycelium of non-peat soils was found in the upper 5 cm. Transfer factors were quite high even for those species producing resupinate sporocarps. In the peat soil only approximately 0.3% of the total 137Cs inventory in soil was found in the fungal mycelium. The corresponding values for non-peat soil were 1.3, 1.8 and 1.9%

  13. Fungal photobiology: a synopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Corrochano, Luis M.

    2011-01-01

    Fungi respond and adapt to many environmental signals including light. The photobiology of fungi has been extensively investigated, but in recent years the identification of the first fungal photoreceptor, WC-1 in the ascomycete Neurospora crassa, and the discovery that similar photoreceptors are required for photoreception in other ascomycete, basidiomycete and zygomycete fungi has allowed the molecular characterization of light reception and the early steps of signal transduction in a numbe...

  14. Human Skin Fungal Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Findley, Keisha; OH, JULIA; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A.; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; ,; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A

    2013-01-01

    Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the etiology of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases including athlete’s foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms, while providing a home for diverse commensal microbiota 1 . Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders 2,3,4 . However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; micro...

  15. Radiocaesium in fruitbodies and mycorrhizae in ectomycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruitbodies of Suillus variegatus and Lactarius rufus and, at a maximum distance of 50 cm, the corresponding mycorrhizae, were collected on a rocky area in a coniferous forest. The tuberculate mycorrhizae collected close to S. variegatus fruitbodies were identified by the RFLP pattern to be S. variegatus mycorrhizae. In contrast the smooth brown mycorrhizae collected close to fruitbodies of L. rufus were found to be of various species - L. rufus, but also Russula sp. The 137Cs activity concentrations in fruitbodies and the fungal part of the tuburculate mycorrhizae of S. variegatus were about the same. A local enrichment of 137Cs within fruitbodies was studied by collecting fruitbodies growing in clusters. Between 13 and 64% of the mean ground 137Cs deposition of the cluster area (400 or 625 cm2) was found in the fruitbodies. This indicates that there might be an important fungal redistribution of 137Cs in the forest floor during the production of fruitbodies. The distribution of 137Cs within the fruitbodies was heterogenous. For example in Cortinarious armillatus, the 137Cs level in the cap was 2.7 times higher compared to in the stripe. (Author)

  16. Interaction with mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces sp. AcH 505 modifies organisation of actin cytoskeleton in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria (fly agaric).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Silvia D; Salo, Vanamo; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Hampp, Rüdiger; Nehls, Uwe; Tarkka, Mika T

    2007-08-01

    The actin cytoskeleton (AC) of fungal hyphae is a major determinant of hyphal shape and morphogenesis, implicated in controlling tip structure and secretory vesicle delivery. Hyphal growth of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria and symbiosis formation with spruce are promoted by the mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces sp. AcH 505 (AcH 505). To investigate structural requirements of growth promotion, the effect of AcH 505 on A. muscaria hyphal morphology, AC and actin gene expression were studied. Hyphal diameter and mycelial density decreased during dual culture (DC), and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the dense and polarised actin cap in hyphal tips of axenic A. muscaria changes to a loosened and dispersed structure in DC. Supplementation of growth medium with cell-free bacterial supernatant confirmed that reduction in hyphal diameter and AC changes occurred at the same stage of growth. Transcript levels of both actin genes isolated from A. muscaria remained unaltered, indicating that AC changes are regulated by reorganisation of the existing actin pool. In conclusion, the AC reorganisation appears to result in altered hyphal morphology and faster apical extension. The thus improved spreading of hyphae and increased probability to encounter plant roots highlights a mechanism behind the mycorrhiza helper effect. PMID:17632722

  17. Waste package characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes originating from the hot labs of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN contain a wide variety of radiotoxic substances. The accurate characterisation of the short- and long-term radiotoxic components is extremely difficult but required in view of geological disposal. This paper describes the methodology which was developed and adopted to characterise the high- and medium-level waste packages at the SCK-CEN hot laboratories. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the fuel inventory evacuated in a particular waste package; a calculation of the relative fission product contribution on the fuel fabrication and irradiation footing; a comparison of the calculated, as expected, dose rate and the real measured dose rate of the waste package. To cope with the daily practice an appropriate fuel inventory estimation route, a user friendly computer programme for fission product and corresponding dose rate calculation, and a simple dose rate measurement method have been developed and implemented

  18. [Resource and ecological distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi under pine forests of Huangshan Mountain district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Lixia; Liu, Birong

    2005-03-01

    Pinus massoniana and Pinus taiwanensis are the most common and important tree species in the Huangshan Mountain district, and ectomycorrhizae plays an important role in their forestation. Our investigations in 1998-2003 showed that under the pine forests of this district, there were 43 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 10 families and 17 genera, of which, 43 were under Pinus massoniana forest, and 12 under Pinus taiwanensis forest. Only a few species were found under young Pinus massoniana forest, with the dominant of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coken and Rhizopogon spp., but under mature Pinus massoniana forest, there were plentiful species, with the dominant of Russulaceae, Amanitaceae, Boletaceae and Canthurellaceae. The relationships between woody species and ectomycorrhizal fungi, and between fungi distribution and temperature, moisture and soil condition were discussed in this paper, which would benefit to the further studies on the effects of different ectomyrrhizal fungi to Pinus massoniana and Pinus taiwanensis forests. PMID:15943356

  19. Surface and Interface Characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilometry...... representing some average property of the surface under examination. Measurement methods, as well as their application and limitations, are briefly reviewed, including standardisation and traceability issues....

  20. Soil Radiological Characterisation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the general methodology and best practice approaches which combine proven existing techniques for sampling and characterisation to assess the contamination of soils prior to remediation. It is based on feedback of projects conducted by main French nuclear stakeholders involved in the field of remediation and dismantling (EDF, CEA, AREVA and IRSN). The application of this methodology will enable the project managers to obtain the elements necessary for the drawing up of files associated with remediation operations, as required by the regulatory authorities. It is applicable to each of the steps necessary for the piloting of remediation work-sites, depending on the objectives targeted (release into the public domain, re-use, etc.). The main part describes the applied statistical methodology with the exploratory analysis and variogram data, identification of singular points and their location. The results obtained permit assessment of a mapping to identify the contaminated surface and subsurface areas. It stakes the way for radiological site characterisation since the initial investigations from historical and functional analysis to check that the remediation objectives have been met. It follows an example application from the feedback of the remediation of a contaminated site on the Fontenay aux Roses facility. It is supplemented by a glossary of main terms used in the field from different publications or international standards. This technical report is a support of the ISO Standard ISO ISO/TC 85/SC 5 N 18557 'Sampling and characterisation principles for soils, buildings and infrastructures contaminated by radionuclides for remediation purposes'. (authors)

  1. Systems Biology of Fungal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    FabianHorn; ThorstenHeinekamp; JohannesPollmächer; AxelABrakhage

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections. A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal i...

  2. Drought resistance of Pinus sylvestris seedlings conferred by plastic root architecture rather than ectomycorrhizal colonisation

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Barbara; Kipfer, Tabea; Richter, Sarah; Egli, Simon; Wohlgemuth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract ContextIncreased summer drought is considered as a threat to the regeneration of Pinus sylvestris in the Central Alps. To a certain degree, seedlings are able to mitigate negative effects of drought by altering root/shoot ratios. But, seedlings may also enhance access to water and nutrients by cooperation with ectomycorrhizal fungi. AimsWe tested the importance of both mechanisms for drought resistance of P. sylvestris seedlings during early establishment and assessed whether differe...

  3. Ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with two species of Kobresia in an alpine meadow in the eastern Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Qian; Yang, Zhu L.

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) on Kobresia filicina and Kobresia capillifolia in an alpine meadow in China’s southwestern mountains, one of the word’s hotspots of biodiversity, was estimated based on internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence analysis of root tips. Seventy EMF operational taxonomical units (OTUs) were found in the two plant species. Dauciform roots with EMF were detected in species of Kobresia for the first time. OTU richness of EMF was high in Tomentella/Theloph...

  4. Habitat and diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in forests of South Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Onguene, N.A.; Kuyper, T. W.

    2012-01-01

    Information is lacking on habitat and diversity of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi of African humid forests. For three years, mushroom excursions were carried out in four sites with contrasted soil and altitude characteristics of South Cameroon, during wet seasons. Collected fungi were described in fresh state and dried exsiccates examined for microscopic description before morpho-anatomical identification. ECM fungi abundantly fruited exclusively in mixed caesalp, monodominant Gilbertiodendron a...

  5. Potential of ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius to tolerate and to degrade trifluoroacetate into fluoroform

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Albina R.; Ramos, Miguel A.; Cravo, Sara; Afonso, Carlos; Castro, Paula M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Trifluoroacetate (TFA) is a persistent fluorinated organic compound originated from the degradation of fluorinated compounds, such as HCFC and isoflurane, or as a side product from the thermolysis of fluoropolymers, like Teflon. TFA can reach soil through precipitation, where it persists in water and soil, and may contribute to forest decline. In this study, we assessed the capacity of P. tinctorius, an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECMF), to tolerate and/or degrade TFA. In vitro studies in glucose...

  6. Heavy metal tolerance by ectomycorrhizal fungi and metal amelioration by Pisolichus tinctorius

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, PCF

    1995-01-01

    Five ectomycorrhizal fungi, Pisolithus tinctorius, Thelephora terrestris, Cenococcum geophilum, Hymenogaster sp. and Scleroderma sp., which were demonstrated previously to be capable of forming ectomycorrhizas with some pine, eucalypt and fagaceous tree species were grown in vitro in liquid cultures for 3 weeks at six different concentrations of nine heavy metals, aluminium, iron, copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury. Measurements of mean mycelial dry weight yields indica...

  7. Ectomycorrhizal fungus (Paxillus involutus) and hydrogels affect performance of Populus euphratica exposed to drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Zhi-Bin; Li, Ke; Jiang, Xiangning; Polle, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi and hydrogels (water-absorbing polymers) can improve water availability for trees. The combination of both factors for plant performance under water limitation has not yet been studied. • To investigate the influence of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus, hydrogel and the combination of both factors, a drought-sensitive poplar, Populus euphratica, was examined in this study. • After 16 weeks of inoculation, no ectomycorrhizas were found. Nevertheles...

  8. The role of ectomycorrhizal fungi on fertilized an unfertilized nursery grown white spruce

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alistair

    2013-01-01

    Nursery grown seedlings are an essential part of the forestry industry. These seedlings are grown under high nutrient conditions caused by fertilization. Though grown in a controlled environment, symbionts such as ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcMF) are often found in these conditions. To examine the effects of EcMF in these conditions, colonized Picea glauca seedlings were collected from Toumey Nursery in Watersmeet, MI. After collection, the EcMF present were morphotyped, and seedlings with differ...

  9. Impact of wildfire frequency on the ectomycorrhizal resitant propagules communities of a Mediterranean open forest

    OpenAIRE

    Buscardo, Erika; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Martín, María Paz; De Angelis, Paolo; Pereira, João Santos; Freitas, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, in particular their spores and other resistant propagules, play an important role in secondary succession processes that facilitate regeneration after disturbance events. In this study, the effects of high and low wildfire frequencies (respectively short and long fire return intervals) on the resistant propagules communities (RPCs) of a Mediterranean open pine forest were compared. Soil samples were collected in four mountain sites with different fire return inter...

  10. Ectomycorrhizal colonization and growth of the hybrid larch F₁ under elevated CO₂ and O₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaona; Qu, Laiye; Mao, Qiaozhi; Watanabe, Makoto; Hoshika, Yasutomo; Koyama, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Korin; Tamai, Yutaka; Koike, Takayoshi

    2015-02-01

    We studied the colonization of ectomycorrhizal fungi and species abundance of a hybrid larch (F1) under elevated CO₂ and O₃. Two-year-old seedlings were planted in an Open-Top-Chamber system with treatments: Control (O3 diversity. No effects of combined fumigation were observed in any parameters except the P concentration in needles. The tolerance of F1 to O₃ might potentially be related to a shift in ECM community structure. PMID:25521414

  11. New North American truffles (Tuber spp.) and their ectomycorrhizal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Gonzalo; Bonito, Gregory; Trappe, James M; Cázares, Efren; Williams, Gwendolyn; Healy, Rosanne A; Schadt, Christopher; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2013-01-01

    Recent surveys of belowground fungal biodiversity in México and USA have revealed many undescribed truffle species, including many in the genus Tuber. Here we describe seven new species: Tuber beyerlei, T. castilloi, T. guevarai, T. lauryi, T. mexiusanum, T. miquihuanense and T. walkeri. Phylogenetic analyses place these species within the Maculatum group, an understudied clade of small truffles with little apparent economic value. These species are among the more taxonomically challenge-ing in the genus. We collected Tuber castilloi, T. mexiusanum and T. guevarai as fruit bodies and ectomycorrhizae on Quercus spp. in forests of eastern México. Tuber mexiusanum has a particularly broad geographic range, being collected in eastern USA under Populus deltoides and in Minnesota and Iowa in mixed hardwood forests. T. walkeri is described from the upper midwestern USA, and T. lauryi and T. beyerlei occur in the western USA. PMID:22962353

  12. Relationship between plant hormone level excreted by ectomycorrhizal fungi and growth of poplar NL-895

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei MA; Xiaoqin WU; Ling ZHENG

    2009-01-01

    To explore the effects of plant hormones levels excreted by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi on the growth of poplars, Populus x euramericana cv. NL-895 seedlings were inoculated with nine species of ECM fungi. We investigated the status of ectomycorrhizal formation and the effects of these fungi on poplar growth, and using the HPLC method, we measured the contents of four kinds of plant hormones, indole acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in both the culture filtrate and the mycelium of these fungi. The results showed that the effects of nine ECM fungi on the growth of poplar NL-895 varied. The inoculated seedlings, whether or not obvious mycorrhizas were developed, grew better than those non-inoculated ones. All nine ectomycorrhizal fungi excreted the four plant hormones, but at different levels. The hormone contents in culture filtrate were higher than that in mycelium, which showed a definite relationship with poplar growth. Significantly, correlation analysis suggested the height and stem diameter of the poplar were positively correlated with zeatin contents in the mycelium, and were negatively correlated with the levels of ABA or IAA in the mycelium.

  13. Epipactis helleborine shows strong mycorrhizal preference towards ectomycorrhizal fungi with contrasting geographic distributions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Yukawa, Tomohisa

    2008-09-01

    Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz, one of the most widespread orchid species, occurs in a broad range of habitats. This orchid is fully myco-heterotrophic in the germination stage and partially myco-heterotrophic in the adult stage, suggesting that a mycorrhizal partner is one of the key factors that determines whether E. helleborine successfully colonizes a specific environment. We focused on the coastal habitat of Japanese E. helleborine and surveyed the mycorrhizal fungi from geographically different coastal populations that grow in Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) forests of coastal sand dunes. Mycorrhizal fungi and plant haplotypes were then compared with those from inland populations. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of large subunit rRNA sequences of fungi from its roots revealed that E. helleborine is mainly associated with several ectomycorrhizal taxa of the Pezizales, such as Wilcoxina, Tuber, and Hydnotrya. All individuals from coastal dunes were exclusively associated with a pezizalean fungus, Wilcoxina, which is ectomycorrhizal with pine trees growing on coastal dunes. Wilcoxina was not detected in inland forests. Coastal populations were indistinguishable from inland populations based on plant trnL intron haplotypes. Our results indicate that mycorrhizal association with geographically restricted pezizalean ectomycorrhizal fungi is a key control upon this orchid species' distribution across widely different forest habitats. PMID:18661158

  14. Piracy in the high trees: ectomycorrhizal fungi from an aerial 'canopy soil' microhabitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlovich, David A; Draffin, Suzy J; Daly, Robert A; Stephenson, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    The mantle of dead organic material ("canopy soil") associated with the mats of vascular and nonvascular epiphytes found on the branches of trees in the temperate rainforests along the southwestern coast of the South Island of New Zealand were examined for evidence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. DNA sequencing and cluster analysis were used to identify the taxa of fungi present in 74 root tips collected from the canopy soil microhabitat of three old growth Nothofagus menziesii trees in the South West New Zealand World Heritage Area. A diverse assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi was found to infect an extensive network of adventitious canopy roots of Nothofagus menziesii in this forest, including 14 phylotypes from nine genera of putative ectomycorrhizal fungi. Seven of the genera identified previously were known to form ectomycorrhizas with terrestrial roots of Nothofagus: Cortinarius, Russula, Cenococcum, Thelephora/Tomentella, Lactarius and Laccaria; two, Clavulina and Leotia, previously have not been reported forming ectomycorrhizas with Nothofagus. Canopy ectomycorrhizas provide an unexpected means for increased host nutrition that may have functional significance in some forest ecosystems. Presumably, canopy ectomycorrhizas on host adventitious roots circumvent the tree-ground-soil nutrient cycle by accessing a wider range of nutrients directly in the canopy than would be possible for non-mycorrhizal or arbuscular mycorrhizal canopy roots. In this system, both host and epiphytes would seem to be in competition for the same pool of nutrients in canopy soil. PMID:22778170

  15. Ectomycorrhizal root development in wet Alder carr forests in response to desiccation and eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, J; Bastiaans, T; van de Coevering, M A; Roelofs, J G M

    2002-06-01

    Effects of desiccation and eutrophication on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root development in wet Alder carr forests in The Netherlands were studied. In northwestern Europe, wet Alder carr forests are found mostly in peatlands and along streams, forming an important component of wetland ecosystems. The dominant tree species in wet Alder carr forests is Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. (Black alder), which associates with ectomycorrhizal fungi. During recent decades, wet Alder carr forests in Europe have declined because of desiccation and eutrophication, particularly in The Netherlands. In the present study, the number of root tips of A. glutinosa trees was highest in an undisturbed wet Alder carr forest in a peatland area. Eutrophication in the peatland area significantly inhibited ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root development of A. glutinosa. In the eutrophied forest, ECM root tips were observed only close to A. glutinosa trees growing on hummocks. The concentrations of nitrate and potassium in soil water of the eutrophied forest were significantly higher than in the undisturbed forest, while magnesium and iron concentrations and the pH were significantly lower. The number of ECM root tips of A. glutinosa in a desiccated forest along a stream was generally lower than in an undisturbed wet Alder carr forest on waterlogged soil in the same area. The sulphate concentration in soil water in the desiccated forest was significantly higher than in the forest on waterlogged soil. ECM root development of A. glutinosa may have been negatively affected by the chemical composition of the soil water. PMID:12072985

  16. Scale-dependent variation in nitrogen cycling and soil fungal communities along gradients of forest composition and age in regenerating tropical dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Bonnie G; Adams, Rachel; Branco, Sara; Powers, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    Rates of ecosystem nitrogen (N) cycling may be mediated by the presence of ectomycorrhizal fungi, which compete directly with free-living microbes for N. In the regenerating tropical dry forests of Central America, the distribution of ectomycorrhizal trees is affected by succession and soil parent material, both of which may exert independent influence over soil N fluxes. In order to quantify these interacting controls, we used a scale-explicit sampling strategy to examine soil N cycling at scales ranging from the microsite to ecosystem level. We measured fungal community composition, total and inorganic N pools, gross proteolytic rate, net N mineralization and microbial extracellular enzyme activity at multiple locations within 18 permanent plots that span dramatic gradients of soil N concentration, stand age and forest composition. The ratio of inorganic to organic N cycling was correlated with variation in fungal community structure, consistent with a strong influence of ectomycorrhiza on ecosystem-scale N cycling. However, on average, > 61% of the variation in soil biogeochemistry occurred within plots, and the effects of forest composition were mediated by this local-scale heterogeneity in total soil N concentrations. These cross-scale interactions demonstrate the importance of a spatially explicit approach towards an understanding of controls on element cycling. PMID:26390155

  17. The impact of selective-logging and forest clearance for oil palm on fungal communities in Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorsaf Kerfahi

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging, and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil fungi, which play vital roles in the soil ecosystem functioning and services, is a major conservation frontier. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the ITS1 region of extracted soil DNA, we compared communities of soil fungi between unlogged, once-logged, and twice-logged rainforest, and areas cleared for oil palm, in Sabah, Malaysia. Overall fungal community composition differed significantly between forest and oil palm plantation. The OTU richness and Chao 1 were higher in forest, compared to oil palm plantation. As a proportion of total reads, Basidiomycota were more abundant in forest soil, compared to oil palm plantation soil. The turnover of fungal OTUs across space, true β-diversity, was also higher in forest than oil palm plantation. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungal abundance was significantly different between land uses, with highest relative abundance (out of total fungal reads observed in unlogged forest soil, lower abundance in logged forest, and lowest in oil palm. In their entirety, these results indicate a pervasive effect of conversion to oil palm on fungal community structure. Such wholesale changes in fungal communities might impact the long-term sustainability of oil palm agriculture. Logging also has more subtle long term effects, on relative abundance of EcM fungi, which might affect tree recruitment and nutrient cycling. However, in general the logged forest retains most of the diversity and community composition of unlogged forest.

  18. Characterisation of polymers, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Crompton, Roy

    2008-01-01

    This essential guide to Polymer Characterisation is a complete compendium of methodologies that have evolved for the determination of the chemical composition of polymers. This 478-page book gives an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the state-of-the-art theories and availability of instrumentation needed to effect chemical and physical analysis of polymers. This is supported by approximately 1200 references. Volume 1 covers the methodology used for the determination of metals, non-metals and organic functional groups in polymers, and for the determination of the ratio in which different m

  19. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Med 1998;24:206-16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics ... 25:201-25. Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF. Fungal infections in the ICU. Infect Dis ... D. Nosocomial aspergillosis and building construction. Med Mycol 2009;47 ...

  20. Nitrogen Alters Fungal Communities in Boreal Forest Soil: Implications for Carbon Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, S. D.; Treseder, K. K.

    2005-12-01

    One potential effect of climate change in high latitude ecosystems is to increase soil nutrient availability. In particular, greater nitrogen availability could impact decomposer communities and lead to altered rates of soil carbon cycling. Since fungi are the primary decomposers in many high-latitude ecosystems, we used molecular techniques and field surveys to test whether fungal communities and abundances differed in response to nitrogen fertilization in a boreal forest ecosystem. We predicted that fungi that degrade recalcitrant carbon would decline under nitrogen fertilization, while fungi that degrade labile carbon would increase, leading to no net change in rates of soil carbon mineralization. The molecular data showed that basidiomycete fungi dominate the active fungal community in both fertilized and unfertilized soils. However, we found that fertilization reduced peak mushroom biomass by 79%, although most of the responsive fungi were ectomycorrhizal and therefore their capacity to degrade soil carbon is uncertain. Fertilization increased the activity of the cellulose-degrading enzyme beta-glucosidase by 78%, while protease activity declined by 39% and polyphenol oxidase, a lignin-degrading enzyme, did not respond. Rates of soil respiration did not change in response to fertilization. These results suggest that increased nitrogen availability does alter the composition of the fungal community, and its potential to degrade different carbon compounds. However, these differences do not affect the total flux of CO2 from the soil, even though the contribution to CO2 respiration from different carbon pools may vary with fertilization. We conclude that in the short term, increased nitrogen availability due to climate warming or nitrogen deposition is more likely to alter the turnover of individual carbon pools rather than total carbon fluxes from the soil. Future work should determine if changes in fungal community structure and associated differences in

  1. Contenido de nutrientes e inoculación con hongos ectomicorrízicos comestibles en dos pinos neotropicales Nutrient contents and inoculation with edible ectomycorrhizal fungi on two neotropical pines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA CARRASCO-HERNÁNDEZ

    2011-03-01

    stimulate their growth. Due to the ecological and physiological importance of the ectomycorrhizal fungi, this work evaluated the effect in terms of growth, dry weight, percentage of colonization and nutrient content as a result of the inoculation with six edible ectomycorrhizal fungi within the genera Laccaria and Hebeloma on Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham. and P.pseudostrobus Lindl. under greenhouse conditions. 397 days after sowing, it was observed a beneficial effect in terms of growth and dry weight of aerial and radical parts, as well as a higher contents of N, P and K of both pines as a result of the inoculation. The percentage of mycorrhization in plants inoculated with the fungi species ranged from 57 % to 90 %. When combined inoculation of ectomycorrhizal species was carried out, dominance of one of the inoculated species, in terms of root colonization, was observed. In these treatments with simultaneous inoculation, the beneficial effects reported in the hosts were comparable with those observed in plants inoculated exclusively with the dominant fungal species. According to the results, the inoculation of P. patula and P. pseudostrobus with fungal species of the genera Laccaria and Hebeloma is recommended in the establishment of forest plantations.

  2. Fungal keratitis: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keratomycosis is a vision-threatening fungal corneal infection. The dramatic increase in the number of cases over the past three decades is attributable not only to better diagnostic recognition, improved laboratory techniques and greater awareness by the ophthalmic society as a whole, but is also due to a true increase in the incidence of keratitis related to the indiscriminate use of topical broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, as well as surgical trauma. Corneal trauma has remained the main predisposing factor over the years, though in recent years HIV-positive cases and AIDS are taking lead in certain areas. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Candida species remains the commonest 'organisms' isolated worldwide. Although the approach to this form of keratitis is similar to other types of microbial keratitis, it remains the most difficult in terms of diagnosis and management. Early recognition, prevention, prompt treatment and timely keratoplasty are crucial for a better outcome. (author)

  3. The fungal consortium of Andromeda polifolia in bog habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Filippova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Andromeda polifolia (bog rosemary is a common plant species in northern circumboreal peatlands. While not a major peat-forming species in most peatlands, it is characterised by a substantial woody below-ground biomass component that contributes directly to the accumulation of organic matter below the moss surface, as well as sclerophyllous leaf litter that contributes to the accumulation of organic matter above the moss surface. Rather little is known about the fungal communities associated with this plant species. Hence, we investigated the fungal consortium of A. polifolia in three distinct vegetation communities of ombrotrophic bogs near Khanty-Mansiysk, West Siberia, Russia, in 2012 and 2013. These vegetation communities were forested bog (Tr = treed, Sphagnum-dominated lawn (Ln, and Eriophorum-Sphagnum-dominated hummock (Er. (2 In total, 37 fungal taxa, belonging to five classes and 16 families, were identified and described morphologically. Seven fungal species were previously known from Andromeda as host. Others are reported for the first time, thus considerably expanding the fungal consortium of this dwarf shrub. Most taxa were saprobic on fallen leaves of A. polifolia found amongst Sphagnum in the bog. Two taxa were parasitic on living plant tissues and one taxon was saprobic on dead twigs. Three taxa, recorded only on A. polifolia leaves and on no other plant species or materials, may be host-specific to this dwarf shrub. (3 A quantitative analysis of the frequency of occurrence of all taxa showed that one taxon (Coccomyces duplicarioides was very abundant, 64 % of the taxa occurred frequently, and 32 % of the taxa occurred infrequently. The mean Shannon diversity index of the community was 2.4. (4 There were no statistical differences in the fungal community composition of A. polifolia in the three vegetation communities investigated in this study. Redundancy analysis suggested that some fungal taxa were positively, and others

  4. Investigation of fungal deterioration of synthetic paint binders using vibrational spectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappitelli, Francesca; Vicini, Silvia; Piaggio, Paolo; Abbruscato, Pamela; Princi, Elisabetta; Casadevall, Arturo; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Zanardini, Elisabetta

    2005-01-14

    The deterioration of synthetic polymers caused by biological process is usually evaluated by visual inspection and measuring physical effects. In contrast to this approach, we have applied vibrational spectroscopies to study the biodegradation of the synthetic resins. 29 synthetic resins used as paint binding media, including acrylic, alkyd and poly(vinyl acetate) polymers, were examined for potential susceptibility to fungal degradation using the standard method ASTM G21-96(2002). In addition, the degraded resins were analysed by Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR and FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy. Almost all the acrylic resins studied proved to be resistant to microbial attack, while all alkyd resins and some poly(vinyl acetates) turned out to be biodegradable. Within a few days of inoculation Aspergillus niger was the most copious fungus on the biodegraded resins. A comparison of the IR and Raman spectra of control and biodegraded resins did not show any differences, but photoacoustic spectroscopy revealed additional bands for the fungal-degraded resins, consistent with the presence of fungal-derived substances. The additional bands in the photoacoustic spectra were due to the presence of Aspergillus niger and melanin, a fungal pigment. Since IR photoacoustic spectroscopy can be also a suitable technique for the chemical characterisation of binding media, the same spectroscopic analysis can be employed to both characterise the material and obtain evidence for fungal colonization. Microbial growth on Sobral 1241ML (alkyd resin) after 28 d (growth rating 4) compared with the non-inoculated resin. PMID:15635715

  5. Tasting soil fungal diversity with earth tongues: phylogenetic test of SATe alignments for environmental ITS data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang

    Full Text Available An abundance of novel fungal lineages have been indicated by DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region from environmental samples such as soil and wood. Although phylogenetic analysis of these novel lineages is a key component of unveiling the structure and diversity of complex communities, such analyses are rare for environmental ITS data due to the difficulties of aligning this locus across significantly divergent taxa. One potential approach to this issue is simultaneous alignment and tree estimation. We targeted divergent ITS sequences of the earth tongue fungi (Geoglossomycetes, a basal class in the Ascomycota, to assess the performance of SATé, recent software that combines progressive alignment and tree building. We found that SATé performed well in generating high-quality alignments and in accurately estimating the phylogeny of earth tongue fungi. Drawing from a data set of 300 sequences of earth tongues and progressively more distant fungal lineages, 30 insufficiently identified ITS sequences from the public sequence databases were assigned to the Geoglossomycetes. The association between earth tongues and plants has been hypothesized for a long time, but hard evidence is yet to be collected. The ITS phylogeny showed that four ectomycorrhizal isolates shared a clade with Geoglossum but not with Trichoglossum earth tongues, pointing to the significant potential inherent to ecological data mining of environmental samples. Environmental sampling holds the key to many focal questions in mycology, and simultaneous alignment and tree estimation, as performed by SATé, can be a highly efficient companion in that pursuit.

  6. Fungal quorum sensing molecules: Role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsuk, Thanwa; Pumeesat, Potjaman; Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2016-05-01

    When microorganisms live together in high numbers, they need to communicate with each other. To achieve cell-cell communication, microorganisms secrete molecules called quorum-sensing molecules (QSMs) that control their biological activities and behaviors. Fungi secrete QSMs such as farnesol, tyrosol, phenylethanol, and tryptophol. The role of QSMs in fungi has been widely studied in both yeasts and filamentous fungi, for example in Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, Aspergillus niger, A. nidulans, and Fusarium graminearum. QSMs impact fungal morphogenesis (yeast-to-hypha formation) and also play a role in the germination of macroconidia. QSMs cause fungal cells to initiate programmed cell death, or apoptosis, and play a role in fungal pathogenicity. Several types of QSMs are produced during stages of biofilm development to control cell population or morphology in biofilm communities. This review article emphasizes the role of fungal QSMs, especially in fungal morphogenesis, biofilm formation, and pathogenicity. Information about QSMs may lead to improved measures for controlling fungal infection. PMID:26972663

  7. Transcriptional analysis of Pinus sylvestris roots challenged with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sederoff Ron

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symbiotic ectomycorrhizal associations of fungi with forest trees play important and economically significant roles in the nutrition, growth and health of boreal forest trees, as well as in nutrient cycling. The ecology and physiology of ectomycorrhizal associations with Pinus sp are very well documented but very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind these mutualistic interactions with gymnosperms as compared to angiosperms. Results Using a micro-array approach, the relative abundance of 2109 EST transcripts during interaction of Pinus sylvestris roots with the ectomycorrhizal fungus was profiled. The results reveal significant differential expression of a total of 236 ESTs, 96 transcripts differentially abundant after 1 day of physical contact with the fungus, 134 transcripts after 5 days and only 6 after 15 days at early stages of mantle formation on emerging lateral roots. A subset of cell wall modification and stress related genes was further assessed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR at late stages of mycorrhizal development coinciding with Hartig net formation. The results reveal down regulation of gene transcripts involved in general defence mechanism (e.g. antimicrobial peptide as well as those involved in cell wall modification (e.g. glycine rich protein, xyloglucan endo transglycosylase. Conclusion This study constitutes the first attempt to characterize the transcriptome of the plant partner in the Pinus sylvestris – Laccaria bicolor model system. We identified 236 ESTs which are potentially important for molecular regulation of a functional symbiotic association in conifer host. The results highlight similarities with other studies based on angiosperm model systems, nevertheless some differences were found in the timing and spatial scale of gene regulation during ectomycorrhiza development in gymnosperms. The present study has identified a number of potentially important molecular events

  8. Quantification of Calcium Isotope Fractionation in Ectomycorrhizal Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, C. J.; Bryce, J. G.; Hobbie, E. A.; Colpaert, J. V.; Bullen, T. D.

    2005-12-01

    Calcium plays a significant role in many forest ecosystem processes and is required for plant growth. Within plants, calcium is a critical component of cell walls and membranes, signaling processes, and charge balances (1). Current efforts to quantify Ca cycling in ecosystems rely on large-scale ecosystem manipulations (e.g., 2) or mass balances (e.g., 3) and indirect chemical proxies, Ca/Sr or Sr isotopic systems (e.g., 4). The measurement of Ca isotopes may provide more direct information about the calcium sources and fluxes within and between the geological (mineral and soil) and biological (fungi and plants) components of terrestrial ecosystems. To examine calcium isotopic variability systematically, we measured the fractionation between roots and needles in cultured Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) seedlings. Our samples include roots and needles from trees grown at low or high nutrient supply rates (3% or 5% per day). Because mycorrhizal fungi are intimately involved in plant nutrient supply, we also tested whether mycorrhizal colonization by Suillus bovinus affected calcium isotopic fractionation. Initial results demonstrate that at a low nutrient supply rate there is a small but measurable fractionation (averaging 0.58 ‰) between the roots and needles of individual trees; the needles are enriched in 40Ca compared to the roots. The root-needle fractionation is unaffected by mycorrhizal colonization. Ongoing analyses will address both the consistency of the root-needle fractionation and the impacts of nutrient supply rate on fractionation. Preliminary results suggest that higher nutrient supply rates lead to decreased root-needle fractionation. Analyses underway will also address whether different fungal species ( Thelephora terrestris) affect the documented root-needle fractionation. Isotope signatures of calcium source materials will complete our sample suite and will be used to assess fractionation during uptake. Ultimately, the results of this study will

  9. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  10. Secretome discovery reveals lignocellulose degradation capacity of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Doris; Rineau, Francois; Olsen, Peter B.;

    2011-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the role ectomycorrhizal fungi play in biomass conversion, we studied the transcriptome of P. involutus grown on glass beads in extract of soil organic matter. The mycelium was used for a cDNA library screened by Transposon-Assisted Signal Trapping (TAST*) for gene...... brown rot fungi systems. In addition, GH61 apparently acts as accessory protein both in enzymatic and in radical-based cellulolysis. * Becker et al., J. Microbial Methods, 2004, 57(1), 123-33....

  11. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet, M. J.; Singleton, I.

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing varia...

  12. Micropropagation of recalcitrant pine (Pinus pinea L) an overview of the effects of ectomycorrhizal inoculation

    OpenAIRE

    Ragonezi, Carla; Caldeira, Ana Teresa; Martins, María do Rosário; Teixeira, Dora; Silva Dias, Luís; Miralto, Maria Otília; Ganhão, Elsa; Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Zavattieri, Amely

    2012-01-01

    Oral presentation Micropropagation of recalcitrant pine (Pinus pinea L.). An overview of the effects of ectomycorrhizal inoculation Carla Ragonezi1; Ana Teresa Caldeira2 3; Maria do Rosário Martins2,5; Otília Miralto5,6; Luís Silva Dias6; Elsa Ganhão6, Krystyna Klimaszewska4, Amely Zavattieri5,6 1 Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Laboratory, University of Évora, Ap. 94, 7002-554 Évora, Portugal 2 Department of Chemistry, University of Évora, Ap. 94, 7002-554 Évora, Portugal 3...

  13. Fungal Biotransformation of Tetracycline Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhuo; Salim, Angela A; Khalil, Zeinab; Bernhardt, Paul V; Capon, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    The commercial antibiotics tetracycline (3), minocycline (4), chlortetracycline (5), oxytetracycline (6), and doxycycline (7) were biotransformed by a marine-derived fungus Paecilomyces sp. to yield seco-cyclines A-H (9-14, 18 and 19) and hemi-cyclines A-E (20-24). Structures were assigned by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and in the case of 10 X-ray crystallography. Parallel mechanisms account for substrate-product specificity, where 3-5 yield seco-cyclines and 6 and 7 yield hemi-cyclines. The susceptibility of 3-7 to fungal biotransformation is indicative of an unexpected potential for tetracycline "degradation" (i.e., antibiotic resistance) in fungal genomes. Significantly, the fungal-derived tetracycline-like viridicatumtoxins are resistant to fungal biotransformation, providing chemical insights that could inform the development of new tetracycline antibiotics resistant to enzymatic degradation. PMID:27419475

  14. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site. Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in cancer patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are a natural part of the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  15. Phylogenetic Distribution of Fungal Sterols

    OpenAIRE

    Weete, John D.; Abril, Maritza; Blackwell, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Background Ergosterol has been considered the “fungal sterol” for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. Methodology/Principal Findings The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Δ5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. The...

  16. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  17. Inoculation of Pinus halepensis Mill. with selected ectomycorrhizal fungi improves seedling establishment 2 years after planting in a degraded gypsum soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Ana; de Felipe, M R; Fernández-Pascual, M

    2007-12-01

    Vegetative inoculum of Amanita ovoidea (Bull.) Link and three isolates of Suillus collinitus (Fr.) Kuntze, as well as spore inoculum of Rhizopogon roseolus (Corda) Th. M. Fr. and S. collinitus, were evaluated for the production of Pinus halepensis Mill. in nursery and for the establishment of seedlings in a degraded gypsum soil. In nursery, most of the fungi significantly improved the height of seedlings and modified the accumulation of nutrients in needles. The percentage of ectomycorrhizas (ESR) per seedling ranged from 25 to 78%, depending on the fungi. One and 2 years after planting in the field, the survival of seedlings was significantly improved by inoculation with two isolates of S. collinitus and with spores of the same fungus. Inoculation with A. ovoidea had no significant effect on seedling survival, whilst R. roseolus caused a significant mortality of seedlings. Seedling height was significantly improved by inoculation with all fungi except R. roseolus and isolate CCMA-1 of S. collinitus. One year after planting, mycorrhization of control seedlings was negligible, and percentages of ESR were under 38% for the rest of treatments. In spring of the second year, seedlings in all treatments, including the control, became highly mycorrhizal (60-77% of ESR). Low ectomycorrhizal diversity (five morphotypes described) and seasonal variation on morphotype composition were detected 2 years after plantation. From a perspective of soil restoration management under limiting environmental conditions, nursery inoculation with selected fungi can be a key advantage for tree seedlings to surmount the initial transplant stress, assuring their establishment in the field. Our results emphasise the importance of selecting compatible fungal-host species combinations for nursery inoculation and sources of inoculum adapted to the environmental conditions of the transplantation site. PMID:17874144

  18. Ectomycorrhizal Community Structure and Soil Characteristics of Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta) and Adjacent Stands of Old Growth Mixed Conifer in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Robert B.; Parker, V. Thomas; Cullings, Kenneth W.; Sun, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Forest development patterns following disturbance are known to influence the physical and chemical attributes of soils at different points in time. Changes in soil resources are thought to have a corresponding effect on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community structure. We used molecular methods to compare below-ground ECM species richness, composition, and abundance between adjacent stands of homogenous lodgepole pine and old growth mixed conifer in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). In each stand-type we collected soil cores to both identify mycorrhizae and assess soil chemistry. Although no statistical difference was observed in the mean number of ECM root tips per core between stand types, the total number of species identified (85 versus 35) and the mean number of species per core (8.8 +/- 0.6 versus 2.5 +/- 0.3) were significantly higher in lodgepole pine. Differences between the actual and estimated species richness levels indicated that these forest types support a high number of ECM species and that undersampling was severe. Species compositions were widely disparate between stands where only four species were shared out of a total of 116. Soil analysis also revealed that mixed conifer was significantly lower in pH, but higher in organic matter, potassium, phosphorus, and ammonium when compared to lodgepole pine stands. Species richness per core was correlated with these chemical data, however, analysis of covariance indicated that stand type was the only statistically significant factor in the observed difference in species richness. Our data suggest that ECM fungal richness increases as homogenous lodgepole pine stands grow and mature, but declines after Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir colonize. Despite difficulties linking species composition with soil chemistry, there are a variety of physical and chemical factors that could be influencing ECM community structure. Future field experiments are necessary to test some of the mechanisms potentially operating

  19. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  20. Phosphorus nutrition of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal tree seedlings from a lowland tropical rain forest in Korup National Park, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Moyersoen, B.; Alexander, I. J.; Fitter, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between mycorrhizal colonisation and phosphorus acquired by seedlings of the arbuscular mycorrhizal tree Oubanguia alata Bak f. (Scytopetalaceae) and the ectomycorrhizal tree Tetraberlinia moreliana Aubr. (Caesalpiniodeae) was evaluated at low and high inorganic phosphorus availability. AM colonisation was positively correlated with phosphorus uptake by O. alata at low, but not at high phosphorus availability. Seedlings growth was positively related to arbuscular mycorrhizal ...

  1. Ectomycorrhizal fungi and their enzymes in soils: is there enough evidence for their role as facultative soil saprotrophs?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 4 (2009), s. 657-660. ISSN 0029-8549 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0751; GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Ectomycorrhizal fungi * lignin * Cellulose Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.129, year: 2009

  2. Effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi on the uptake of Ca, Mg and Al by Pinus sylvestris under aluminium toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schöll, van L.; Keltjens, W.G.; Hoffland, E.; Breemen, van N.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium toxicity has been considered an important factor in forest decline. In earlier pot experiments, ectomycorrhizal tree seedlings were reported to have higher growth rates than non-mycorrhizal seedlings under aluminium toxicity. In this paper, we test that if this is caused by exclusion of Al

  3. Fungal-Fungal Interactions in Leaf-Cutting Ant Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunshine A. Van Bael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many organisms participate in symbiotic relationships with other organisms, yet studies of symbioses typically have focused on the reciprocal costs and benefits within a particular host-symbiont pair. Recent studies indicate that many ecological interactions involve alliances of symbionts acting together as mutualistic consortia against other consortia. Such interacting consortia are likely to be widespread in nature, even if the interactions often occur in a cryptic fashion. Little theory and empirical data exist concerning how these complex interactions shape ecological outcomes in nature. Here, we review recent work on fungal-fungal interactions between two consortia: (i leaf-cutting ants and their symbiotic fungi (the latter grown as a food crop by the former and (ii tropical plants and their foliar endophytes (the cryptic symbiotic fungi within leaves of the former. Plant characteristics (e.g., secondary compounds or leaf physical properties of leaves are involved in leaf-cutting ant preferences, and a synthesis of published information suggests that these plant traits could be modified by fungal presence. We discuss potential mechanisms for how fungal-fungal interactions proceed in the leaf-cutting ant agriculture and suggest themes for future research.

  4. Metabolism of [15N]alanine in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalot, M., Finlay, R. D., Ek, H., and Söderström, B. 1995. Metabolism of [15N]alanine in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. Experimental Mycology 19, 297-304. Alanine metabolism in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus was investigated using [15N]alanine. Short-term exposure of mycelial discs to [15N]alanine showed that the greatest flow of 15N was to glutamate and to aspartate. Levels of enrichment were as high as 15-20% for glutamate and 13-18% for aspartate, whereas that of alanine reached 30%. Label was also detected in the amino-N of glutamine and in serine and glycine, although at lower levels. Preincubation of mycelia with aminooxyacetate, an inhibitor of transamination reactions. resulted in complete inhibition of the flow of the label to glutamate, aspartate, and amino-N of glutamine, whereas [15N]alanine rapidly accumulated. This evidence indicates the direct involvement of alanine aminotransferase for translocation of 15N from alanine to glutamate. Alanine may be a convenient reservoir of both nitrogen and carbon. (author)

  5. A fungal conserved gene from the basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum is essential for efficient ectomycorrhiza formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, Jeanne; Marmeisse, Roland; Combier, Jean-Philippe; Gay, Gilles

    2014-10-01

    We used Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis to identify genes in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum that are essential for efficient mycorrhiza formation. One of the mutants presented a dramatically reduced ability to form ectomycorrhizas when grown in the presence of Pinus pinaster. It failed to form mycorrhizas in the presence of glucose at 0.5 g liter(-1), a condition favorable for mycorrhiza formation by the wild-type strain. However, it formed few mycorrhizas when glucose was replaced by fructose or when glucose concentration was increased to 1 g liter(-1). Scanning electron microscopy examination of these mycorrhizas revealed that this mutant was unable to differentiate true fungal sheath and Hartig net. Molecular analyses showed that the single-copy disrupting T-DNA was integrated 6,884 bp downstream from the start codon, of an open reading frame potentially encoding a 3,096-amino-acid-long protein. This gene, which we named HcMycE1, has orthologs in numerous fungi as well as different other eukaryotic microorganisms. RNAi inactivation of HcMycE1 in the wild-type strain also led to a mycorrhizal defect, demonstrating that the nonmycorrhizal phenotype of the mutant was due to mutagenic T-DNA integration in HcMycE1. In the wild-type strain colonizing P. pinaster roots, HcMycE1 was transiently upregulated before symbiotic structure differentiation. Together with the inability of the mutant to differentiate these structures, this suggests that HcMycE1 plays a crucial role upstream of the fungal sheath and Hartig net differentiation. This study provides the first characterization of a fungal mutant altered in mycorrhizal ability. PMID:24918768

  6. Characterisation of areal surface texture

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the areal framework that is being adopted by the international community, concentrating on characterisation methods, and presenting case studies highlighting use of areal methods in applications from automobile manufacturing to archaeology.

  7. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  8. Fungal sensing of host environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sánchez, D; Schaller, M

    2016-09-01

    To survive inside a host, fungi have to adapt to a changing and often hostile environment and therefore need the ability to recognize what is going on around them. To adapt to different host niches, they need to sense external conditions such as temperature, pH and to recognize specific host factors. The ability to respond to physiological changes inside the host, independent of being in a commensal, pathogenic or even symbiotic context, implicates mechanisms for sensing of specific host factors. Because the cell wall is constantly in contact with the surrounding, fungi express receptors on the surface of their cell wall, such as pheromone receptors, which have important roles, besides mediating chemotropism for mating. We are not restricting the discussion to the human host because the receptors and mechanisms used by different fungal species to sense their environment are often similar even for plant pathogens. Furthermore, the natural habitat of opportunistic pathogenic fungi with the potential to cause infection in a human host is in soil and on plants. While the hosts' mechanisms of sensing fungal pathogens have been addressed in the literature, the focus of this review is to fill the gap, giving an overview on fungal sensing of a host-(ile) environment. Expanding our knowledge on host-fungal interactions is extremely important to prevent and treat diseases of pathogenic fungi, which are important issues in human health and agriculture but also to understand the delicate balance of fungal symbionts in our ecosystem. PMID:27155351

  9. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  10. Influence of resting and pine sawdust application on chemical changes in post-agricultural soil and the ectomycorrhizal community of growing Scots pine saplings

    OpenAIRE

    Małecka Monika; Hilszczańska Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Changes in chemical compounds and in ectomycorrhizal structure were determined for Scots pine growing on post agricultural soil lying fallow for 3, 6 and 15 years, after amendment with pine sawdust. Soil without any amendments was used as the control treatment. Comparing the ectomycorrhizal structure 15 years after the application of pine sawdust revealed no significant differences in abundance or species richness between soil with and without organic enrichment. The results showed that the e...

  11. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious that the...... application of the existing methods of genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis to other fungi has enormous potential, especially for the production of food and food ingredients. The developments in the past year demonstrate that we have only just started to exploit this potential....

  12. Systemic Fungal Disease in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zamani

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic fungal disease is related to administration of antibiotics, chemical therapy in malignancy, steroids therapy, etc in recent years. Methods: In a retrospective study from 1994 to 2004, we observed 26 patients. Findings: Most etiologic agents were Candida, Aspergillus, Mucormycosis and Cryptococcus. Predisposing factors in 80% of the patients were malignancy or chronic granulomatosis disease. Mortality occurred in 38% of patients. Conclusions: we recommend thinking to systemic fungal infections in high risk patients in order to diagnose and treat them properly.

  13. Reducing the infectivity and richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous Quercus ilex forest through soil preparations for truffle plantation establishment: A bioassay study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Molina-Grau, Sara; Reyna, Santiago

    2015-11-01

    In the early years of a black truffle plantation, the field proliferation of the nursery-inoculated fungi can be hampered by native ectomycorrhizal fungi colonising the seedling roots. Reducing the soil ectomycorrhizal infectivity in the planting hole before introducing the inoculated seedling could be an effective strategy to reduce this problem. Three bioassays were conducted to evaluate the impact of several soil preparations on the ectomycorrhizal infectivity and richness of a Quercus ilex soil in a truffle-producing region. Microwaves, quicklime, and acetic acid significantly decreased the percent root colonisation and morphotype richness of the native ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, they also decreased seedling survival or growth. Peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite did not show a significant negative effect on the soil ectomycorrhizal community. The results support the potential of soil preparation for reducing the ectomycorrhizal infectivity of forest soils, thus being a promising strategy to reduce the early colonisation by native fungi in truffle plantations. However, the indications of damage to the seedling development must be addressed. PMID:26466886

  14. Rich and cold: diversity, distribution and drivers of fungal communities in patterned-ground ecosystems of the North American Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timling, I; Walker, D A; Nusbaum, C; Lennon, N J; Taylor, D L

    2014-07-01

    Fungi are abundant and functionally important in the Arctic, yet comprehensive studies of their diversity in relation to geography and environment are not available. We sampled soils in paired plots along the North American Arctic Transect (NAAT), which spans all five bioclimatic subzones of the Arctic. Each pair of plots contrasted relatively bare, cryoturbated patterned-ground features (PGFs) and adjacent vegetated between patterned-ground features (bPGFs). Fungal communities were analysed via sequencing of 7834 ITS-LSU clones. We recorded 1834 OTUs - nearly half the fungal richness previously reported for the entire Arctic. These OTUs spanned eight phyla, 24 classes, 75 orders and 120 families, but were dominated by Ascomycota, with one-fifth belonging to lichens. Species richness did not decline with increasing latitude, although there was a decline in mycorrhizal taxa that was offset by an increase in lichen taxa. The dominant OTUs were widespread even beyond the Arctic, demonstrating no dispersal limitation. Yet fungal communities were distinct in each subzone and were correlated with soil pH, climate and vegetation. Communities in subzone E were distinct from the other subzones, but similar to those of the boreal forest. Fungal communities on disturbed PGFs differed significantly from those of paired stable areas in bPGFs. Indicator species for PGFs included lichens and saprotrophic fungi, while bPGFs were characterized by ectomycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi. Our results suggest that the Arctic does not host a unique mycoflora, while Arctic fungi are highly sensitive to climate and vegetation, with potential to migrate rapidly as global change unfolds. PMID:24689939

  15. Burden of fungal disease in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Dorgan, Eileen; Denning, David W; McMullan, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to estimate the burden of fungal disease on the island of Ireland, as part of a coordinated project estimating the global burden. Published epidemiology data describing fungal infection in Ireland were identified. Population and underlying disease data were collected for 2010 and a structured set of assumptions were applied to estimate burden of fungal disease based on immunosuppression, chronic disease, and other demographic information indicating predisposition to fungal i...

  16. (Post-)genomics approaches in fungal research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar-Pontes, María Victoria; de Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, M.; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, hundreds of fungal genomes have been sequenced and many more are in progress. This wealth of genomic information has provided new directions to study fungal biodiversity. However, to further dissect and understand the complicated biological mechanisms involved in fungal life styles, functio

  17. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  18. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  19. Radiological characterisation - Know your objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When developing a programme for mapping the radiological characteristics of a facility to be decommissioned it is important to take into account the objectives of the programme. Will the results be used to plan for radiological control and selection of appropriate decontamination and dismantling techniques? Will the radiological inventory be used for dimensioning of future waste repositories? These are two examples of the applications for such studies, which could require that a radiological characterisation programme be adapted to provide the data appropriate to the intended use. The level of detail and scope needed for a radiological characterisation will also vary depending on how the data will be used. An application to free-release a facility requires a comprehensive survey and well documented analysis in order to ensure that no radioactive contamination above prescribed levels is present. A bounding calculation to determine the maximum anticipated volumes and activity of radioactive waste requires a different approach. During the past few years, older decommissioning studies for the Swedish nuclear power plants have been updated (or are in the process of being updated). The decommissioning study's main purpose is to estimate the cost for decommissioning. The cost estimation is based on material and activity inventories, which in turn is based on previous and, in some cases, updated radiological characterisations of the facilities. The radiological inventory is an important part of the study as it affects the cost of decommissioning but also the uncertainties and accuracy of the cost estimation. The presentation will discuss the challenges in specifying a radiological characterisation programme with multiple objectives, together with insights on how data delivered can be applied to yield results suitable for the intended purpose, without introducing excessive conservatism. The intent of the presentation is to define issues that can be of use in various aspects

  20. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. J., E-mail: m.sweet@derby.ac.uk [University of Derby, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences (United Kingdom); Singleton, I. [Newcastle University, School of Biology (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  1. Carbon availability triggers the decomposition of plant litter and assimilation of nitrogen by an ectomycorrhizal fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rineau, F; Shah, F; Smits, M M; Persson, P; Johansson, T; Carleer, R; Troein, C; Tunlid, A

    2013-01-01

    The majority of nitrogen in forest soils is found in organic matter–protein complexes. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are thought to have a key role in decomposing and mobilizing nitrogen from such complexes. However, little is known about the mechanisms governing these processes, how they are regulated by the carbon in the host plant and the availability of more easily available forms of nitrogen sources. Here we used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine how the presence or absence of glucose and/or ammonium regulates decomposition of litter material and nitrogen mobilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. We found that the assimilation of nitrogen and the decomposition of the litter material are triggered by the addition of glucose. Glucose addition also resulted in upregulation of the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in oxidative degradation of polysaccharides and polyphenols, peptidases, nitrogen transporters and enzymes in pathways of the nitrogen and carbon metabolism. In contrast, the addition of ammonium to organic matter had relatively minor effects on the expression of transcripts and the decomposition of litter material, occurring only when glucose was present. On the basis of spectroscopic analyses, three major types of chemical modifications of the litter material were observed, each correlated with the expression of specific sets of genes encoding extracellular enzymes. Our data suggest that the expression of the decomposition and nitrogen assimilation processes of EMF can be tightly regulated by the host carbon supply and that the availability of inorganic nitrogen as such has limited effects on saprotrophic activities. PMID:23788332

  2. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi forming symbiosis with Pinus pinaster seedlings exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals and its accumulation in the upper layers of forest soils affects plants, microorganisms and their interactions. Adequate strategies for the reforestation of metal contaminated sites are of vital importance. The aim of this work was to evaluate the response of Pinus pinaster seedlings to Cd exposure and to assess the effect of inoculation with two selected ectomycorrhizal fungi, Suillus bovinus and Rhizopogon roseolus on that response. Seedlings were exposed to soil contaminated at 15 and 30 mg Cd kg−1. Shoot biomass of P. pinaster decreased ca. 36% when exposed to 15 mg Cd kg−1. Overall, colonization by S. bovinus significantly enhanced shoot development up to 30% in contaminated soil while colonization by R. roseolus produced no significant effect at both Cd concentrations tested and significantly increased the level of Cd in the shoots at both Cd concentrations. Metal accumulation in the shoots and roots of non-inoculated and S. bovinus-inoculated seedlings increased at the higher Cd levels whereas R. roseolus-inoculated seedlings were not sensitive to Cd variation in the soil. The results from our research show that inoculation with ECM fungi has a significant impact on metal uptake and development of P. pinaster seedlings; the differential response induced by the two tested species highlights the importance of selecting the appropriate strains for nursery inoculation, and, as such, this biological tool ought to be considered in reforestation processes of heavy metal contaminated areas by woody species. - Highlights: ► Ectomycorrhizal fungi can aid the reforestation of heavy metal contaminated areas. ► Cd inhibited the growth of non-inoculated 6 months-old Pinus pinaster seedlings. ► Inoculation with Suillus bovinus enhanced P. pinaster growth in Cd contaminated soil. ► Mycorrhizal symbiosis influenced the accumulation of Cd in P. pinaster seedlings.

  3. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi forming symbiosis with Pinus pinaster seedlings exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Nadine R.; Ramos, Miguel A.; Marques, Ana P.G.C.; Castro, Paula M.L., E-mail: plcastro@esb.ucp.pt

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals and its accumulation in the upper layers of forest soils affects plants, microorganisms and their interactions. Adequate strategies for the reforestation of metal contaminated sites are of vital importance. The aim of this work was to evaluate the response of Pinus pinaster seedlings to Cd exposure and to assess the effect of inoculation with two selected ectomycorrhizal fungi, Suillus bovinus and Rhizopogon roseolus on that response. Seedlings were exposed to soil contaminated at 15 and 30 mg Cd kg{sup -1}. Shoot biomass of P. pinaster decreased ca. 36% when exposed to 15 mg Cd kg{sup -1}. Overall, colonization by S. bovinus significantly enhanced shoot development up to 30% in contaminated soil while colonization by R. roseolus produced no significant effect at both Cd concentrations tested and significantly increased the level of Cd in the shoots at both Cd concentrations. Metal accumulation in the shoots and roots of non-inoculated and S. bovinus-inoculated seedlings increased at the higher Cd levels whereas R. roseolus-inoculated seedlings were not sensitive to Cd variation in the soil. The results from our research show that inoculation with ECM fungi has a significant impact on metal uptake and development of P. pinaster seedlings; the differential response induced by the two tested species highlights the importance of selecting the appropriate strains for nursery inoculation, and, as such, this biological tool ought to be considered in reforestation processes of heavy metal contaminated areas by woody species. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectomycorrhizal fungi can aid the reforestation of heavy metal contaminated areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd inhibited the growth of non-inoculated 6 months-old Pinus pinaster seedlings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inoculation with Suillus bovinus enhanced P. pinaster growth in Cd contaminated soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mycorrhizal symbiosis

  4. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP

  5. Database characterisation of HEP applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, Mariusz; Grancher, Eric; Topurov, Anton

    2012-12-01

    Oracle-based database applications underpin many key aspects of operations for both the LHC accelerator and the LHC experiments. In addition to the overall performance, the predictability of the response is a key requirement to ensure smooth operations and delivering predictability requires understanding the applications from the ground up. Fortunately, database management systems provide several tools to check, measure, analyse and gather useful information. We present our experiences characterising the performance of several typical HEP database applications performance characterisations that were used to deliver improved predictability and scalability as well as for optimising the hardware platform choice as we migrated to new hardware and Oracle 11g.

  6. Database characterisation of HEP applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oracle-based database applications underpin many key aspects of operations for both the LHC accelerator and the LHC experiments. In addition to the overall performance, the predictability of the response is a key requirement to ensure smooth operations and delivering predictability requires understanding the applications from the ground up. Fortunately, database management systems provide several tools to check, measure, analyse and gather useful information. We present our experiences characterising the performance of several typical HEP database applications performance characterisations that were used to deliver improved predictability and scalability as well as for optimising the hardware platform choice as we migrated to new hardware and Oracle 11g.

  7. The characterisation of precipitated magnetites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods are described for the preparation of magnetite by precipitation from aqueous solutions of iron(II) and iron(III) salts. The magnetites have been characterised by transmission electron microscopy, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. Transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy has also been used to characterise precipitated magnetites and a comparison of the spectra has been made with those obtained from nickel ferrite and hydrated ferric oxides. The hydrothermal stability of magnetite at 573 K has also been investigated. This work is relevant to corrosion processes that can occur in the water coolant circuits of nuclear reactors. (author)

  8. Characterisation of bacteria from Pinus sylvestris-Suillus luteus mycorrhizas and their effects on root-fungus interactions and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bending, Gary D; Poole, Elizabeth J; Whipps, John M; Read, David J

    2002-03-01

    Bacteria from Pinus sylvestris-Suillus luteus mycorrhizas were isolated, characterised, and their effects on P. sylvestris-S. luteus interactions and plant growth investigated in vitro. The isolates formed five distinct phenotypic and physiological groups. Two of the groups, accounting for 34 of the 55 isolates, consisted of Bacillus spp., with three subgroups represented. The other groups contained Burkholderia spp., Serratia spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Representatives from each bacterial group were used in microcosm experiments to investigate bacterial effects on P. sylvestris-S. luteus interactions. Most Bacillus isolates stimulated growth of S. luteus along the P. sylvestris root, while isolates of Pseudomonas and Serratia inhibited root colonisation by the fungus. Burkholderia and Serratia isolates inhibited ectomycorrhiza formation by 97 and 41% respectively, while a single Bacillus isolate doubled the formation of first order ectomycorrhizal roots. There were no clear relationships between effects of the bacteria on root colonisation by the fungus after 4 weeks, and chitinase production or subsequent ectomycorrhiza formation. However, isolates that inhibited ectomycorrhiza formation appeared to associate preferentially with ectomycorrhizal roots. Several isolates enhanced plant growth substantially, although these effects were unrelated to either root colonisation by the fungus or ectomycorrhiza formation. PMID:19709201

  9. Soil compaction and organic matter affect conifer seedling nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and diversity. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaranthus, M.P.; Page-Dumroese, D.; Harvey, A.; Cazares, E.; Bednar, L.F.

    1996-05-01

    Three levels of organic matter removal (bole only; bole and crowns; and bole, crowns, and forest floor) and three levels of mechanical soil compaction (no compaction, moderate compaction, and severe soil compaction) were studied as they influence Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) seedlings following outplanting. Moderate and severe soil compaction significantly reduced nonmycorrhizal root tip abundance on both Douglas-fir and western white pine seedlings (p less than or equal to 0.05). Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in severely compacted areas with bole and crowns and bole, crowns, and forest floor removed. Ectomycorrhizal diversity also was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in all severely compacted areas.

  10. Fungal Infections and New Biologic Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Chiller, Tom M

    2016-05-01

    The development of biologic therapies targeting proinflammatory mediators has led to significant advances in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). Blocking undesired inflammatory effects also has the potential to disrupt the body's immune response and increase the risk for infections, including fungal infections. This review summarizes the published data on the frequency and risk for fungal infections among patients treated with biologics, with a focus on the newer therapies approved for use with IMIDs in the last 10 years. The use of biologics is associated with a small but important risk of fungal infections. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, histoplasmosis, and candidiasis are some of the most common fungal infections associated with biologics. Providers should be vigilant for fungal infection among patients taking biologics, be aware that biologic agents may alter the typical presentation of fungal infections, and take timely steps to diagnose and treat fungal infection to reduce resultant morbidity and mortality. PMID:27032792

  11. Interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental factors in an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, and the potential for selection mosaics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeksema Jason D; Piculell Bridget J; Thompson John N

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geographic selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions by testing whether the interaction between bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) and one of its common ectomycorrhizal fungi (Rhizopogon occidentalis Zeller and Dodge) varies in outcome, when different combination...

  12. Do ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal temperate tree species systematically differ in root order-related fine root morphology and biomass?

    OpenAIRE

    Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    While most temperate broad-leaved tree species form ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses, a few species have arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). It is not known whether EM and AM tree species differ systematically with respect to fine root morphology, fine root system size and root functioning. In a species-rich temperate mixed forest, we studied the fine root morphology and biomass of three EM and three AM tree species from the genera Acer, Carpinus, Fagus, Fraxinus, and Tilia searching for principal dif...

  13. First report of the ectomycorrhizal status of boletes on the Northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico determined using isotopic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselquist, Niles J.; Douhan, Greg W.; Allen, Michael F

    2011-01-01

    Despite their prominent role for tree growth, few studies have examined the occurrence of ectomycorrhizal fungi in lowland, seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF). Although fruiting bodies of boletes have been observed in a dry tropical forest on the Northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, their occurrence is rare and their mycorrhizal status is uncertain. To determine the trophic status (mycorrhizal vs. saprotrophic) of these boletes, fruiting bodies were collected and isotopically compared to k...

  14. Distribution patterns of soil entomopathogenic and birch symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi across native woodland and degraded habitats in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Edda Sigurdís Oddsdóttir 1971; Charlotte Nielsen; Robin Sen; Susanne Harding; Jørgen Eilenberg; Guðmundur Halldórsson 1952

    2010-01-01

    In Iceland, extensive afforestation programmes have been initiated, often involving the outplanting of nursery seedling stock on eroded land. In some areas high seedling mortality, to a large extent due to root damage caused by Otiorhynchus spp. larvae, has been reported. Even though recent studies have shown that inoculation with entomopathogenic and ectomycorrhizal fungi may reduce the effects of Otiorhynchus spp. on seedling mortality, information on the occurrence and distribution of thes...

  15. The production and turnover of extramatrical mycelium of ectomycorrhizal fungi in forest soils: role in carbon cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Ekblad, A.; Wallander, H.; Godbold, D. L.; C. CRUZ; Johnson, D.; Baldrian, P. (Petr); Bjork, R. G.; Epron, Daniel; Kieliszewska-Rokicka, B.; Kjoller, R.; Kraigher, H.; Matzner, E.; Neumann, J.; Plassard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the importance of extramatrical mycelium (EMM) of mycorrhizal fungi in carbon (C) cycling in ecosystems. However, our understanding has until recently been mainly based on laboratory experiments, and knowledge of such basic parameters as variations in mycelial production, standing biomass and turnover as well as the regulatory mechanisms behind such variations in forest soils is limited. Presently, the production of EMM by ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi has been estim...

  16. The Potential of Dark Septate Endophytes to Form Root Symbioses with Ectomycorrhizal and Ericoid Mycorrhizal Middle European Forest Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Lukešová, Tereza; Kohout, Petr; Větrovský, Tomáš; Vohník, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The unresolved ecophysiological significance of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE) may be in part due to existence of morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species in the most common Phialocephala fortinii s. l.—Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). We inoculated three middle European forest plants (European blueberry, Norway spruce and silver birch) with 16 strains of eight PAC cryptic species and other DSE and ectomycorrhizal/ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and focused on intraradical structur...

  17. Dual colonization of Eucalyptus urophylla ST Blake by arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi affects levels of insect herbivore attack.

    OpenAIRE

    Gange, Alan; Gane, D.R.J.; Y. L. Chen; Gong, M.Q.

    2005-01-01

    1 Eucalypts are an important part of plantation forestry in Asia but, in south China, productivity is very low. This is due to infertile soils and lack of indigenous symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi. The genus Eucalyptus is unusual because it forms both arbuscular (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations. 2 Eucalyptus urophylla saplings were grown with and without AM (Glomus caledonium) and ECM (Laccaria laccata) fungi in a factorial design. Two experiments were performed: one to simulat...

  18. The mid-domain effect in ectomycorrhizal fungi: range overlap along an elevation gradient on Mount Fuji, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    MIYAMOTO, Yumiko; Nakano, Takashi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    Mid-domain effect (MDE) models predict that the random placement of species' ranges within a bounded geographical area leads to increased range overlap and species richness in the center of the bounded area. These models are frequently applied to study species-richness patterns of macroorganisms, but the MDE in relation to microorganisms is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the characteristics of the MDE in richness patterns of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, an ecologically important...

  19. Characterising agrammatism in Standard Indonesian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anjarningsih, Harwintha Yuhria; Haryadi-Soebadi, Ratna D.; Gofir, Abdul; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2012-01-01

    Background: The spontaneous speech of speakers of Standard Indonesian (SI) with agrammatic Broca's aphasia has not yet been characterised, although there are features of SI that are relevant for the discussion of agrammatic speech. Aims: The purpose of this study was to find the characteristic featu

  20. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.; Lucca, D.A.; Goch, G.; Brown, C. A.; Raja, J.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...

  1. Characterisation of subsonic axisymmetric nozzles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 11 (2008), s. 1253-1262. ISSN 0263-8762 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nozzle * characterisation * nozzle properties * nozzle invariants Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2008

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in the Tuber melanosporum brûlé.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Antonietta; Lumini, Erica; Napoli, Chiara; Bianciotto, Valeria; Bonfante, Paola

    2015-06-01

    The development of the fruiting body (truffle) of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum is associated with the production of an area (commonly referred to with the French word brûlé) around its symbiotic plant that has scanty vegetation. As truffles produce metabolites that can mediate fungal-plant interactions, the authors wondered whether the brûlé could affect the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that colonize the patchy herbaceous plants inside the brûlé. A morphological evaluation of the roots of plants collected in 2009 from a T. melanosporum/Quercus pubescens brûlé in France has shown that the herbaceous plants are colonized by AMF to a great extent. An analysis of the 18S rRNA sequences obtained from roots and soil inside the brûlé has shown that the AMF community structure seemed to be affected in the soil inside the brûlé, where less richness was observed compared to outside the brûlé. PMID:25986549

  3. Fungal genome resources at NCBI

    OpenAIRE

    Robbertse, B.; Tatusova, T.

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/...

  4. Directed Evolution of Fungal Laccases

    OpenAIRE

    Maté, Diana; García-Ruiz, Eva; Camarero, Susana; Alcalde, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Fungal laccases are generalists biocatalysts with potential applications that range from bioremediation to novel green processes. Fuelled by molecular oxygen, these enzymes can act on dozens of molecules of different chemical nature, and with the help of redox mediators, their spectrum of oxidizable substrates is further pushed towards xenobiotic compounds (pesticides, industrial dyes, PAHs), biopolymers (lignin, starch, cellulose) and other complex molecules. In recent years, extraordinary e...

  5. Characterizing root-associated fungal communities and soils of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands that naturally produce Oregon white truffles (Tuber oregonense and Tuber gibbosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Gian Maria Niccolò; Lefevre, Charles; Bonito, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    Many truffle species in the genus Tuber are endemic to North America. Some of these have commercial value such as Tuber oregonense and Tuber gibbosum, commonly known as Oregon white truffles. Most of what is known about the ecology of these truffles comes from observational data. These truffle species form ectomycorrhizas with Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and sometimes fruit abundantly in early successional forest regrowth. The goal of this study was to characterize fungal communities and soils associated with truffle-producing Douglas-fir sites. We extracted DNA from roots of five trees at four different truffle-producing Douglas-fir sites (n = 20). We amplified the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) and sequenced amplicons with 454 pyrosequencing. After quality filtering, we assembled 15,713 sequences into 150 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Pezizomycetes (Tuber and Pyronemataceae) were the most abundant taxa detected followed by Helotiales. Agaricomycetes represented most by Thelephoraceae, Russulaceae, and Inocybaceae were also abundant. A total of five Tuber species were detected. T. oregonense was the most abundant OTU, followed by T. gibbosum and Wilcoxina mikolae. Fungal root endophytes were also detected and well represented by Chalara and Phialocephala spp. Fungal community structure and soil chemistry differed between sites. This study represents the first characterization of the fungal communities in Douglas-fir stands producing Oregon white truffles. We found that Tuber species can be dominant ectomycorrhizal symbionts of Douglas-fir. Truffle fungi are also important in forest health, food webs, and as a non-timber forest resource that can contribute to rural economies. PMID:26743427

  6. Fungal genome resources at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, B; Tatusova, T

    2011-09-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools. PMID:22737589

  7. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  8. Allergen Immunotherapy in an HIV+ Patient with Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Myles, Ian A.; Satyen Gada

    2015-01-01

    Patients with HIV/AIDS can present with multiple types of fungal rhinosinusitis, fungal balls, granulomatous invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, acute or chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, or allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). Given the variable spectrum of immune status and susceptibility to severe infection from opportunistic pathogens it is extremely important that clinicians distinguish aggressive fungal invasive fungal disease from the much milder forms such as AFRS. Here we descr...

  9. Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Weete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergosterol has been considered the "fungal sterol" for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Delta(5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Delta(5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade, and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol, and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles target reactions in

  10. Effects of nitrogen with and without acidified sulphur on an ectomycorrhizal community in a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr) forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carfrae, J A; Skene, K R; Sheppard, L J; Ingleby, K; Crossley, A

    2006-05-01

    This preliminary study investigated the effects of enhanced nitrogen (NH4NO3 at 48 kg ha(-1) y(-1)), sulphur (Na2SO4 at 50 kg ha(-1) y(-1)), acidified nitrogen and sulphur (H2SO4 + NH4NO3) at pre-stated doses (pH 2.5), and acidified nitrogen and sulphur deposition at double these doses on the ectomycorrhizal community associated with a 13-year-old Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) forest. Sulphur deposition had little impact on below ground ectomycorrhizal diversity, but stimulated sporocarp production. Nitrogen inputs increased below ground colonisation compared to acidified nitrogen and sulphur, largely due to an increase in Tylospora fibrillosa colonisation. Sporocarp production and ectomycorrhizal root colonisation by Lactarius rufus were reduced in the nitrogen treated plots. These observations suggest that nitrogen deposition to a young plantation may suppress ectomycorrhizal fungi producing large sporocarps. It is proposed that enhanced nitrogen deposition increases ectomycorrhizal nitrogen assimilation, consuming more carbon and leaving less for extrametrical mycelium and sporocarp development. PMID:16246472

  11. Effects of nitrogen with and without acidified sulphur on an ectomycorrhizal community in a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr) forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carfrae, J.A. [Division of Environmental and Applied Biology, School of Life Sciences, Biological Science Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom) and Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jeac@ceh.ac.uk; Skene, K.R. [Division of Environmental and Applied Biology, School of Life Sciences, Biological Science Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Sheppard, L.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Ingleby, K. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Crossley, A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    This preliminary study investigated the effects of enhanced nitrogen (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} at 48 kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}), sulphur (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 50 kg ha{sup -1}y{sup -1}), acidified nitrogen and sulphur (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) at pre-stated doses (pH 2.5), and acidified nitrogen and sulphur deposition at double these doses on the ectomycorrhizal community associated with a 13-year-old Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) forest. Sulphur deposition had little impact on below ground ectomycorrhizal diversity, but stimulated sporocarp production. Nitrogen inputs increased below ground colonisation compared to acidified nitrogen and sulphur, largely due to an increase in Tylospora fibrillosa colonisation. Sporocarp production and ectomycorrhizal root colonisation by Lactarius rufus were reduced in the nitrogen treated plots. These observations suggest that nitrogen deposition to a young plantation may suppress ectomycorrhizal fungi producing large sporocarps. It is proposed that enhanced nitrogen deposition increases ectomycorrhizal nitrogen assimilation, consuming more carbon and leaving less for extrametrical mycelium and sporocarp development. - N deposition effects on T. fibrillosa versus L. rufus colonisation of a Sitka spruce plantation.

  12. Effects of nitrogen with and without acidified sulphur on an ectomycorrhizal community in a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr) forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary study investigated the effects of enhanced nitrogen (NH4NO3 at 48 kg ha-1 y-1), sulphur (Na2SO4 at 50 kg ha-1y-1), acidified nitrogen and sulphur (H2SO4 + NH4NO3) at pre-stated doses (pH 2.5), and acidified nitrogen and sulphur deposition at double these doses on the ectomycorrhizal community associated with a 13-year-old Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) forest. Sulphur deposition had little impact on below ground ectomycorrhizal diversity, but stimulated sporocarp production. Nitrogen inputs increased below ground colonisation compared to acidified nitrogen and sulphur, largely due to an increase in Tylospora fibrillosa colonisation. Sporocarp production and ectomycorrhizal root colonisation by Lactarius rufus were reduced in the nitrogen treated plots. These observations suggest that nitrogen deposition to a young plantation may suppress ectomycorrhizal fungi producing large sporocarps. It is proposed that enhanced nitrogen deposition increases ectomycorrhizal nitrogen assimilation, consuming more carbon and leaving less for extrametrical mycelium and sporocarp development. - N deposition effects on T. fibrillosa versus L. rufus colonisation of a Sitka spruce plantation

  13. Thermomechanical characterisation of cellular rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, H.; Scheffer, T.; Diebels, S.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses an experimental possibility to characterise a cellular rubber in terms of the influence of multiaxiality, rate dependency under environmental temperature and its behaviour under hydrostatic pressure. In this context, a mixed open and closed cell rubber based on an ethylene propylene diene monomer is investigated exemplarily. The present article intends to give a general idea of the characterisation method and the considerable effects of this special type of material. The main focus lies on the experimental procedure and the used testing devices in combination with the analysis methods such as true three-dimensional digital image correlation. The structural compressibility is taken into account by an approach for a material model using the Theory of Porous Media with additional temperature dependence.

  14. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.; Lucca, D.A.; Goch, G.; Brown, C. A.; Raja, J.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...... characterisation methods, such as fractals, wavelets, change trees and others, including for each method a short review, the parameters that the new methods calculate, and applications of the methods to solve surface problems. The paper contains a discussion on the relevance of the different parameters and...... quantification methods in terms of functional correlations, and it addresses the need for reducing the large number of existing parameters. The review considers the present situation and gives suggestions for future activities....

  15. Distribution of ectomycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi in soil along a vegetational change from Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) to black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Takeshi; Kataoka, Ryota; Tamai, Shigenobu; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    The nitrogen-fixing tree black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) seems to affect ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization and disease severity of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) seedlings. We examined the effect of black locust on the distribution of ECM and pathogenic fungi in soil. DNA was extracted from soil at depths of 0-5 and 5-10 cm, collected from the border between a Japanese black pine- and a black locust-dominated forest, and the distribution of these fungi was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The effect of soil nutrition and pH on fungal distribution was also examined. Tomentella sp. 1 and Tomentella sp. 2 were not detected from some subplots in the Japanese black pine-dominated forest. Ectomycorrhizas formed by Tomentella spp. were dominant in black locust-dominated subplots and very little in the Japanese black pine-dominated forest. Therefore, the distribution may be influenced by the distribution of inoculum potential, although we could not detect significant relationships between the distribution of Tomentella spp. on pine seedlings and in soils. The other ECM fungi were detected in soils in subplots where the ECM fungi was not detected on pine seedlings, and there was no significant correlation between the distribution of the ECM fungi on pine seedlings and in soils. Therefore, inoculum potential seemed to not always influence the ECM community on roots. The distribution of Lactarius quieticolor and Tomentella sp. 2 in soil at a depth of 0-5 cm positively correlated with soil phosphate (soil P) and that of Tomentella sp. 2 also positively correlated with soil nitrogen (soil N). These results suggest the possibility that the distribution of inoculum potential of the ECM fungi was affected by soil N and soil P. Although the mortality of the pine seedlings was higher in the black locust-dominated area than in the Japanese black pine-dominated area, a pathogenic fungus of pine seedlings, Cylindrocladium pacificum, was

  16. The Humber Regional Environmental Characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tappin, D. R.; Pearce, B.; Fitch, S.; Dove, D.; Gearey, B.; Hill, J M; Chambers, C.; R. Bates; Pinnion, J.; Diaz Doce, D.; Green, M; Gallyot, J.; Georgiou, L.; Brutto, D.; Marzialetti, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Humber Regional Environmental Characterisation (REC) is a multidisciplinary marine study of the geology, biology and archaeology of an area of 11 000 km2 off the east coast of England. It was funded by the Marine Aggregate Levy Sustainability Fund (MALSF). 2. Within the REC area, there are 12 active aggregate licences with applications submitted for 10 more. Within the region there is also gas production, wind energy development, and intensive shellfish harvesting....

  17. Characterising rag-forming solids

    OpenAIRE

    Kupai, MM; Yang, F.; Harbottle, D; Moran, K.; Masliyah, J; Xu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In oil sands froth treatment, an undesirable intermediate layer, often accumulates during the separation of water-oil emulsions. The layer referred to as rag layer is a complex mixture of water, oil, solids and interfacially active components. The presence of a rag layer has a detrimental impact on the separation of water and fine solids from diluted bitumen. The current study focuses on characterisation of solids from a rag layer forming stream of a naphthenic froth treatment plant in an att...

  18. Characterisation of gold from Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Naden, Jon; Henney, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This is a study of the variation in chemistry and inclusion mineralogy of bedrock and placer gold from Fiji. It forms part of a large project, undertaking gold characterisation from a wide range of geological environments in Ecuador, Zimbabwe, Malaysia and Fiji. The work was carried out under the Overseas Development AdministratiodBritish Geological Survey Technology Development and Research programme (Project R5549) as part of the British Government’s provision of technical...

  19. Characterisation of Electric Bicycles Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Jan; Lataire, Philippe; Maggetto, Gaston; Meeusen, Roman; Kempenaers, Farid

    2002-01-01

    The proposed paper reports on characterisation work performed in the scope of the E-tour project. This project has already been presented at EVS-18. At the ‘Vrije Universiteit Brussel’ different EPACs (Electric Power Assisted Cycles) are put at the public’s disposal for testing. To quantify the performances of these electrical bicycles we want to link the subjective experienced driving comfort to some measurable objective parameters. For this purpose we converted a treadmill in...

  20. Growth, nutrient uptake and ectomycorrhizal function in Pinus sylvestris plants exposed to aluminium and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-07-01

    The potential role of aluminium (Al) toxicity to trees has been of particular concern to forest owners and scientists since the early 1980's when Ulrich hypothesised that both Al and heavy metals were involved in forest dieback because of their increased concentrations in soil due to acidification. Since then, numerous studies have examined the effects of metals upon nutrient uptake by plants. However, most of these investigations have been carried out in the absence of mycorrhizal fungi, which, in most ecosystems, are crucial components in nutrient uptake by plants. The present work focused on the effects of elevated concentrations of Al and heavy metals on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the potential role of ectomycorrhiza in modifying these effects. Ectomycorrhizal colonisation enhanced the growth and nutrient uptake by seedlings. To some extent, colonisation also alleviated reduced nutrient uptake which was a feature of seedlings growing in the presence of the metals. This effect was particularly noticeable with respect to P uptake. In general, mycorrhizal seedlings grew better and had an improved P, K, Mg and S status compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Significant differences were also found in nutrient uptake among seedlings colonised by different fungi. One fungus, Hebeloma cf. longicaudum, was more sensitive to the Al treatment than the pine seedlings. The use of the base cation / Al ratio as an indicator of the potential detrimental effects to trees to acidification and Al is discussed. The production of oxalic acid was found to increase when mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal seedlings were exposed to Al or Cu. Colonisation by Suillus variegatus or Rhizopogon roseolus, in particular, resulted in a marked increase. These results demonstrate that there is a capacity, especially by certain ectomycorrhizal fungi, for increased production of the metal-chelating oxalic acid when root systems are exposed to increased levels of metals. In a field

  1. Growth, nutrient uptake and ectomycorrhizal function in Pinus sylvestris plants exposed to aluminium and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential role of aluminium (Al) toxicity to trees has been of particular concern to forest owners and scientists since the early 1980's when Ulrich hypothesised that both Al and heavy metals were involved in forest dieback because of their increased concentrations in soil due to acidification. Since then, numerous studies have examined the effects of metals upon nutrient uptake by plants. However, most of these investigations have been carried out in the absence of mycorrhizal fungi, which, in most ecosystems, are crucial components in nutrient uptake by plants. The present work focused on the effects of elevated concentrations of Al and heavy metals on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the potential role of ectomycorrhiza in modifying these effects. Ectomycorrhizal colonisation enhanced the growth and nutrient uptake by seedlings. To some extent, colonisation also alleviated reduced nutrient uptake which was a feature of seedlings growing in the presence of the metals. This effect was particularly noticeable with respect to P uptake. In general, mycorrhizal seedlings grew better and had an improved P, K, Mg and S status compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Significant differences were also found in nutrient uptake among seedlings colonised by different fungi. One fungus, Hebeloma cf. longicaudum, was more sensitive to the Al treatment than the pine seedlings. The use of the base cation / Al ratio as an indicator of the potential detrimental effects to trees to acidification and Al is discussed. The production of oxalic acid was found to increase when mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal seedlings were exposed to Al or Cu. Colonisation by Suillus variegatus or Rhizopogon roseolus, in particular, resulted in a marked increase. These results demonstrate that there is a capacity, especially by certain ectomycorrhizal fungi, for increased production of the metal-chelating oxalic acid when root systems are exposed to increased levels of metals. In a field

  2. Standardization in optical coating characterisation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Ristau

    2005-01-01

    In the rapid development course of laser technology and modern optics, optical metrology continuously gains importance for the quality management in the industrial production environment and also for research in optical coatings. Besides absorption and scatter losses, the spectral characteristics and laser induced damage thresholds are considered as common quality factors for coated optical components and often define the optimization targets for new products and applications. Also, these quality parameters are the basis for the comparison of commercial optics and can be found in the product catalogues of most manufacturers of optical components. As a consequence, standardization of characterisation procedures for these fundamental properties evolved to a crucial point for the optics industry. During the last decade, adapted standard measurement techniques have been elaborated and discussed by representatives from many industrial companies and research institutes within working groups of the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO). In this contribution, the current state of standardized characterisation techniques for optical coatings is summarised. Selected standards for the measurement of absorption (ISO 11551), scattering (ISO 13696) and laser induced damage thresholds (ISO 11254, Parts 1 and 2) will be described and discussed in view of their applicability and reproducibility. The report will be concluded by an outlook on the current projects and future tasks of standardization in optics characterisation.

  3. Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal ...

  4. Burden of fungal disease in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Eileen; Denning, David W; McMullan, Ronan

    2015-04-01

    Our objective was to estimate the burden of fungal disease on the island of Ireland, as part of a coordinated project estimating the global burden. Published epidemiology data describing fungal infection in Ireland were identified. Population and underlying disease data were collected for 2010 and a structured set of assumptions were applied to estimate burden of fungal disease based on immunosuppression, chronic disease, and other demographic information indicating predisposition to fungal infection. From Ireland's population of 6.4 million, we estimate 117, 000 patients develop significant fungal disease each year. By far the most common fungal disease is recurrent Candida vaginitis, with an estimated 95, 000 episodes annually (3000 per 100 000 women). Other fungal diseases which may be less well recognized are severe asthma with fungal sensitization and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, with estimated episodes per year of 11, 700 and 9000, respectively (182 and 140 per 100, 000 population, respectively). The model also estimates 450 episodes of invasive aspergillosis, 200 of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 600 of oesophageal candidiasis and 450 of candidaemia per year (7, 3, 9 and 6 episodes per 100, 000 population, respectively). This is, we believe, the first attempt to estimate the burden of fungal disease in our population and provides a basis for estimating its impact on human health and resource use. PMID:25596121

  5. Regulation of the fungal secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCotter, Sean W; Horianopoulos, Linda C; Kronstad, James W

    2016-08-01

    The ability of countless representatives of the Kingdom Fungi to adapt to and proliferate in diverse environments is facilitated by regulation of their secretomes to respond to changes in environmental conditions and to mediate interactions with other organisms. Secretome changes often fulfill common functions of nutrient acquisition, facilitation of host/symbiont interactions, cell wall modification, and optimization of the enzyme suite to adapt to new environmental resources. In this review, we expand on our recent work on signaling and the secretome in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to consider a range of selected examples of regulation of fungal secretomes. These examples include the impact of carbon source and aspects of the response to plant and animal hosts. Additionally, the influence of key protein kinases (e.g., Pka1, Snf1) and transcription factors (e.g., Rim101/PacC) is highlighted to illustrate some underlying regulatory factors influencing the secretome. Although there is a wealth of information about fungal secretomes from both experimentation and genome sequence mining, there are also major gaps in our knowledge about the complete composition of fungal secretomes and mechanisms of dynamic change. For example, a more comprehensive understanding of the composition and regulation of the secretome will require consideration of the emerging roles of unconventional secretion and extracellular vesicles in delivering proteins outside the cell. Overall, changes in the secretome are well documented in diverse fungi and the underlying mechanisms are currently under investigation; however, there remain unknown steps in the regulation of secretory pathways and gaps in understanding the regulation of unconventional secretion, which warrant further research. PMID:26879194

  6. Influence of resting and pine sawdust application on chemical changes in post-agricultural soil and the ectomycorrhizal community of growing Scots pine saplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecka Monika

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in chemical compounds and in ectomycorrhizal structure were determined for Scots pine growing on post agricultural soil lying fallow for 3, 6 and 15 years, after amendment with pine sawdust. Soil without any amendments was used as the control treatment. Comparing the ectomycorrhizal structure 15 years after the application of pine sawdust revealed no significant differences in abundance or species richness between soil with and without organic enrichment. The results showed that the ectomycorrhizal status depends on soil conditions (soil pH, nitrogen content, which remain unaffected by saw dust application. In all treatments, the most frequently occurring ectomycorrhizae genera were Dermocybe, Hebeloma, Suillus, Tomentella and Tricholoma. Two species (Paxillus involutus, Amanita muscaria were specific to the control plots that lay fallow for 15 years.

  7. Fungal NRPS-dependent siderophores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Knudsen, Michael; T. Hansen, Frederik;

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential, yet often limiting element for the growth of many organisms. In response to iron limitation, fungi have developed siderophores that provide a high-affinity iron uptake system and safe intracellular storage and transport mechanisms to gain a competitive advantage. Here, we...... discuss the function of siderophores in relation to fungal iron uptake mechanisms and their importance for coexistence with host organisms. The chemical nature of the major groups of siderophores and their regulation is described along with the function and architecture of the large multi-domain enzymes...

  8. Genetic diversity of naturally established ectomycorrhizal fungi on Norway spruce seedlings under nursery conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocha, L K; Rudawska, M; Leski, T; Dabert, M

    2006-10-01

    We have assessed ectomycorrhizal fungi colonizing Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) seedlings in nine forest nurseries using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing analyses of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) amplicons. Restriction analysis of the amplified DNA fragments with HinfI, MboI, and TaqI enzymes allowed the definition of 17 RFLP genotypes; five of them could be unambiguously assigned to Thelephora terrestris, Hebeloma longicaudum, H. crustuliniforme, Tricharina ochroleuca, and Cenococcum geophilum species by comparison with the sporocarp RFLP-pattern database. The remaining genotypes have been sequenced and compared with sequences deposited in the GenBank database. The phylogenetic analysis of resulting sequences and their identified matches indicated that isolated genotypes have formed seven clades. The ascomycetes were predominant: we have determined eight species--Wilcoxina mikolae, Phialophora finlandia, Tuber sp., Cenococcum geophilum, Tricharina ochroleuca, Pulvinula constellatio, and two unidentified ascomycetes--whereas the basidiomycetes were less common (four species denoted: Amphinema byssoides, Hebeloma crustuliniforme, H. longicaudum, and Thelephora terrestris). Wilcoxina mikolae and Phialophora finlandia were the most frequent fungi. Analysis of variance revealed that ascomycetes abundance was higher in nurseries that used organic fertilizer. PMID:16826321

  9. Seletion of arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi for efficient symbiosis with Acacia mangium willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Robles Angelini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium forms two kinds of mycorrhizal symbiosis, a arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs type and another with ectomycorrhizal fungi (fECTOs. The present study aimed to select different AMFs species and fECTOs isolates for effective symbiosis with A. mangium, which provide seedlings well colonized, nodulated and developed. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at Embrapa Agrobiology, one for AMF species selection and another for fECTOs, using a randomized block design with five replicates. Treatments were species AMFs (Acaulospora laevis, Acaulospora morrowiae, Entrophospora colombiana, Entrophospora contigua, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus clarum, Scutellospora calospora, Scutellospora heterogama, Scutellospora gilmorei and Scutellospora pellucida or fECTOs isolated (UFSC Pt116; UFSC Pt24; UFSC Pt193; O 64–ITA6; UFSC Pt187 and O 40–ORS 7870. The AMFs species that promoted greater vegetative growth, mycorrhizal colonization and more effective symbioses were S. calospora, S. heterogama, S. gilmorei e A. morrowiae. The fECTOs not demonstrated effectiveness in promoting growth, but the isolate O64-ITA6 (Pisolithus tinctorius provided greater colonization. Seedlings of A. mangium have high responsiveness to inoculation with AMFs and depends on high root colonization, between 40 and 80%, to obtain relevant benefits from symbiose over nodule formation and growth.

  10. Genomic profiling of carbohydrate metabolism in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccaroli, P; Buffalini, M; Saltarelli, R; Barbieri, E; Polidori, E; Ottonello, S; Kohler, A; Tisserant, E; Martin, F; Stocchi, V

    2011-02-01

    • Primary carbohydrate metabolism plays a special role related to carbon/nitrogen exchange, as well as metabolic support of fruiting body development, in ectomycorrhizal macrofungi. In this study, we used information retrieved from the recently sequenced Tuber melanosporum genome, together with transcriptome analysis data and targeted validation experiments, to construct the first genome-wide catalogue of the proteins supporting carbohydrate metabolism in a plant-symbiotic ascomycete. • More than 100 genes coding for enzymes of the glycolysis, pentose phosphate, tricarboxylic acid, glyoxylate and methylcitrate pathways, glycogen, trehalose and mannitol metabolism and cell wall precursor were annotated. Transcriptional regulation of these pathways in different stages of the T. melanosporum lifecycle was investigated using whole-genome oligoarray expression data together with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected genes. • The most significant results were the identification of methylcitrate cycle genes and of an acid invertase, the first enzyme of this kind to be described in a plant-symbiotic filamentous fungus. • A subset of transcripts coding for trehalose, glyoxylate and methylcitrate enzymes was up-regulated in fruiting bodies, whereas genes involved in mannitol and glycogen metabolism were preferentially expressed in mycelia and ectomycorrhizas, respectively. These data indicate a high degree of lifecycle stage specialization for particular branches of carbohydrate metabolism in T. melanosporum. PMID:21039570

  11. Molecular systematics of the Amazonian genus Aldina, a phylogenetically enigmatic ectomycorrhizal lineage of papilionoid legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Gustavo; de Lima, Haroldo Cavalcante; Prenner, Gerhard; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci; Zartman, Charles E; Cardoso, Domingos

    2016-04-01

    Aldina (Leguminosae) is among the very few ecologically successful ectomycorrhizal lineages in a family largely marked by the evolution of nodulating symbiosis. The genus comprises 20 species predominantly distributed in Amazonia and has been traditionally classified in the tribe Swartzieae because of its radial flowers with an entire calyx and numerous free stamens. The taxonomy of Aldina is complicated due to its poor representation in herbaria and the lack of a robust phylogenetic hypothesis of relationship. Recent phylogenetic analyses of matK and trnL sequences confirmed the placement of Aldina in the 50-kb inversion clade, although the genus remained phylogenetically isolated or unresolved in the context of the evolutionary history of the main early-branching papilionoid lineages. We performed maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of combined chloroplast datasets (matK, rbcL, and trnL) and explored the effect of incomplete taxa or missing data in order to shed light on the enigmatic phylogenetic position of Aldina. Unexpectedly, a sister relationship of Aldina with the Andira clade (Andira and Hymenolobium) is revealed. We suggest that a new tribal phylogenetic classification of the papilionoid legumes should place Aldina along with Andira and Hymenolobium. These results highlight yet another example of the independent evolution of radial floral symmetry within the early-branching Papilionoideae, a large collection of florally heterogeneous lineages dominated by papilionate or bilaterally symmetric flower morphology. PMID:26748266

  12. Identification of genes differentially expressed in ectomycorrhizal roots during the Pinus pinaster-Laccaria bicolor interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Monterroso, Aranzazu; Canales, Javier; de la Torre, Fernando; Ávila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2013-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal associations are of major ecological importance in temperate and boreal forests. The development of a functional ectomycorrhiza requires many genetic and biochemical changes. In this study, suppressive subtraction hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes in the roots of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) inoculated with Laccaria bicolor, a mycorrhizal fungus. A total number of 200 unigenes were identified as being differentially regulated in maritime pine roots during the development of mycorrhiza. These unigenes were classified into 10 categories according to the function of their homologues in the GenBank database. Approximately, 40 % of the differentially expressed transcripts were genes that coded for unknown proteins in the databases or that had no homology to known genes. A group of these differentially expressed genes was selected to validate the results using quantitative real-time PCR. The transcript levels of the representative genes were compared between the non-inoculated and inoculated plants at 1, 5, 15 and 30 days after inoculation. The observed expression patterns indicate (1) changes in the composition of the wall cell, (2) tight regulation of defence genes during the development of mycorrhiza and (3) changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Ammonium excess or deficiency dramatically affected the stability of ectomycorrhiza and altered gene expression in maritime pine roots. PMID:23543110

  13. Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different plant species can be compatible with the same species of mycorrhizal fungi and be connected to one another by a common mycelium. Transfer of carbon nitrogen and phosphorus through interconnecting mycelia has been measured frequently in laboratory experiments, but it is not known whether transfer is bidirectional, whether there is a net gain by one plant over its connected partner, or whether transfer affects plant performance in the field. Laboratory studies using isotope tracers show that the magnitude of one-way transfer can be influenced by shading of 'receiver' plants fertilization of 'donor' plants with phosphorus, or use of nitrogen-fixing donor plants and non-nitrogen-fixing receiver plants indicating that movement may be governed by source–sink relationships. Here we use reciprocal isotope labelling in the field to demonstrate bidirectional carbon transfer between the ectomycorrhizal tree species Betula papyrifera and Pseudotsuga menziesii, resulting in net carbon gain by P. menziesii. Thuja plicata seedlings lacking ectomycorrhizae absorb small amounts of isotope, suggesting that carbon transfer between B. papyrifera and P. menziesii is primarily through the direct hyphal pathway. Net gain by P. menziesii seedlings represents on average 6% of carbon isotope uptake through photosynthesis. The magnitude of net transfer is influenced by shading of P. menziesii, indicating that source–sink relationships regulate such carbon transfer under field conditions

  14. Into and out of the tropics: global diversification patterns in a hyperdiverse clade of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Brian P; Ryberg, Martin; Hampe, Felix; Sánchez-García, Marisol; Matheny, P Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, symbiotic mutualists of many dominant tree and shrub species, exhibit a biogeographic pattern counter to the established latitudinal diversity gradient of most macroflora and fauna. However, an evolutionary basis for this pattern has not been explicitly tested in a diverse lineage. In this study, we reconstructed a mega-phylogeny of a cosmopolitan and hyperdiverse genus of ECM fungi, Russula, sampling from annotated collections and utilizing publically available sequences deposited in GenBank. Metadata from molecular operational taxonomic unit cluster sets were examined to infer the distribution and plant association of the genus. This allowed us to test for differences in patterns of diversification between tropical and extratropical taxa, as well as how their associations with different plant lineages may be a driver of diversification. Results show that Russula is most species-rich at temperate latitudes and ancestral state reconstruction shows that the genus initially diversified in temperate areas. Migration into and out of the tropics characterizes the early evolution of the genus, and these transitions have been frequent since this time. We propose the 'generalized diversification rate' hypothesis to explain the reversed latitudinal diversity gradient pattern in Russula as we detect a higher net diversification rate in extratropical lineages. Patterns of diversification with plant associates support host switching and host expansion as driving diversification, with a higher diversification rate in lineages associated with Pinaceae and frequent transitions to association with angiosperms. PMID:26642189

  15. High speciation rate at temperate latitudes explains unusual diversity gradients in a clade of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ramírez, Santiago; Etienne, Rampal S; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the patterns of biodiversity through time and space is a challenging task. However, phylogeny-based macroevolutionary models allow us to account and measure many of the processes responsible for diversity buildup, namely speciation and extinction. The general latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) is a well-recognized pattern describing a decline in species richness from the equator polewards. Recent macroecological studies in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi have shown that their LDG is shifted, peaking at temperate rather than tropical latitudes. Here we investigate this phenomenon from a macroevolutionary perspective, focusing on a well-sampled group of edible EM mushrooms from the genus Amanita-the Caesar's mushrooms, which follow similar diversity patterns. Our approach consisted in applying a suite of models including (1) nontrait-dependent time-varying diversification (Bayesian analysis of macroevolutionary mixtures [BAMM]), (2) continuous trait-dependent diversification (quantitative-state speciation and extinction [QuaSSE]), and (3) diversity-dependent diversification. In short, results give strong support for high speciation rates at temperate latitudes (BAMM and QuaSSE). We also find some evidence for different diversity-dependence thresholds in "temperate" and "tropical" subclades, and little differences in diversity due to extinction. We conclude that our analyses on the Caesar's mushrooms give further evidence of a temperate-peaking LDG in EM fungi, highlighting the importance and the implications of macroevolutionary processes in explaining diversity gradients in microorganisms. PMID:26179951

  16. Molecular Characterisation of Endophytic Fungi from Roots of Wild Banana (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Jamil, Muhamad Izham Muhamad; Anuar, Intan Sakinah Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp. and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of other fungi. The most common fungal isolates were species of the genus Fusarium, which were identified as F. proliferatum, Fusarium sp., F. solani species complex, and F. oxysporum. Other isolated endophytic fungi included Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma atroviride, Calonectria gracilis, Rhizoctonia solani, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Stromatoneurospora phoenix (Xylariceae). Several of the fungal genera, such as Fusarium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, and Xylariceae, are among the common fungal endophytes reported in plants. This study showed that the roots of wild banana harbour a diverse group of endophytic fungi. PMID:27019688

  17. Soil transfers from valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) stands increase ectomycorrhizal diversity and alter root and shoot growth on valley oak seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, J T; Bledsoe, C S

    1998-02-01

    Soils from valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) riparian areas of the Cosumnes River Nature Conservancy Preserve near Sacramento, California were added to growth medium of valley oak seedlings grown in a greenhouse or in agricultural fields at Cosumnes which probably once supported valley oak trees and are now replanted with native riparian vegetation or allowed to revegetate naturally. Agricultural field soil from the Cosumnes River Preserve was presumed to be low or lacking in ectomycorrhizal inoculum. The study was designed to (1) determine whether valley oak stand soil transfer could cause mycorrhizal infection on valley oak seedlings in an agricultural field and in a greenhouse, (2) describe ectomycorrhizal morphological types formed on valley oak seedlings, and (3) determine whether seedling growth is enhanced more by transfer of natural valley oak stand soil than agricultural field soil. In the field study, transfer of forest soil increased average ectomycorrhizal diversity (2.4 types) more than transfer of agricultural field soil (1.2 types). Valley oak seedlings were responsive to ectomycorrhizal infection in the field study. With increase in mycorrhizal infection there was an increase in shoot growth at the expense of root growth. In the greenhouse study, both percent mycorrhizal infection and mycorrhizal diversity were increased more by transfer of oak forest and woodland soils than agricultural field soil. Eight morphotypes occurred on seedlings in forest and woodland soils but only three morphotypes in agricultural soil. This result strongly suggests that the agricultural field also harbors ectomycorrhizal propagules but forest and woodland soils support a more abundant and diverse ectomycorrhizal flora. PMID:24578047

  18. Naming names: the etymology of fungal entomopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter introduces the reader to the etymology of the generic names given to 26 fungal entomopathogens. Possessing some knowledge on how a name originates sometimes provides us with information on a fungal characteristic that might help us identify the organism, e.g., Conidiobolus, Cordyceps, P...

  19. Clinical consideration of fungal paranasal sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal paranasal sinusitis is included in the differential diagnosis of unilateral paranasal lesion. Recently the incidence of fungal paranasal sinusitis has been increasing. We reviewed 24 patients (9 males and 15 females) with fungal paranasal sinusitis treated at Muroran City Hospital between January 2001 and May 2006, and clinical presentation and CT findings with those of 56 patients (36 males and 20 females) with chronic unilateral sinusitis. Fungal sinusitis patients ranged in age from 45 to 87, and the average age was 65.9 years old. In contrast, the age of chronic sinusitis patients ranged from 24 to 83, and the average age was 54.4 years old. The chief complaint of both fungal sinusitis and chronic sinusitis included rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction and post nasal discharge. CT exam was performed in all patients. In 23 cases of paranasal fungal sinusitis and 54 cases of chronic sinusitis the findings involved the maxillary sinus. The most common observation (69.6%) was bone density within the affected sinus in fungal sinusitis. However, only 2 cases of chronic sinusitis (3.9%) showed calcification. All cases of fungal sinusitis were diagnosed by pathological examinations. Most cases were proved to be aspergillus, while only one case was mucor. We treated all cases surgically, 18 cases underwent Caldwell-Luc's procedure and 5 cases underwent endoscopic sinus surgery under local anesthesia. (author)

  20. Root-associated fungal community response to drought-associated changes in vegetation community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Sarah L; Warnock, Daniel D; Litvak, Marcy E; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Sinsabaugh, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Recent droughts in southwestern USA have led to large-scale mortality of piñon (Pinus edulis) in piñon-juniper woodlands. Piñon mortality alters soil moisture, nutrient and carbon availability, which could affect the root-associated fungal (RAF) communities and therefore the fitness of the remaining plants. We collected fine root samples at a piñon-juniper woodland and a juniper savannah site in central New Mexico. Roots were collected from piñon and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) trees whose nearest neighbors were live piñon, live juniper or dead piñon. RAF communities were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing of the universal fungal ITS region. The most common taxa were Hypocreales and Chaetothyriales. More than 10% of ITS sequences could not be assigned taxonomy at the phylum level. Two of the unclassified OTUs significantly differed between savanna and woodland, had few like sequences in GenBank and formed new fungal clades with other unclassified RAF from arid plants, highlighting how little study has been done on the RAF of arid ecosystems. Plant host or neighbor did not affect RAF community composition. However, there was a significant difference between RAF communities from woodland vs. savanna, indicating that abiotic factors such as temperature and aridity might be more important in structuring these RAF communities than biotic factors such as plant host or neighbor identity. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) were present in juniper as well as piñon in the woodland site, in contrast with previous research, but did not occur in juniper savanna, suggesting a potential shared EM network with juniper. RAF richness was lower in hosts that were neighbors of the opposite host. This may indicate competitive exclusion between fungi from different hosts. Characterizing these communities and their responses to environment and plant neighborhood is a step toward understanding the effects of drought on a biome that spans 19,000,000 ha of southwestern USA. PMID:26297776

  1. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyun Jeon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.

  2. Large-scale fungal diversity assessment in the Andean Yungas forests reveals strong community turnover among forest types along an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geml, József; Pastor, Nicolás; Fernandez, Lisandro; Pacheco, Silvia; Semenova, Tatiana A; Becerra, Alejandra G; Wicaksono, Christian Y; Nouhra, Eduardo R

    2014-05-01

    The Yungas, a system of tropical and subtropical montane forests on the eastern slopes of the Andes, are extremely diverse and severely threatened by anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Previous mycological works focused on macrofungi (e.g. agarics, polypores) and mycorrhizae in Alnus acuminata forests, while fungal diversity in other parts of the Yungas has remained mostly unexplored. We carried out Ion Torrent sequencing of ITS2 rDNA from soil samples taken at 24 sites along the entire latitudinal extent of the Yungas in Argentina. The sampled sites represent the three altitudinal forest types: the piedmont (400-700 m a.s.l.), montane (700-1500 m a.s.l.) and montane cloud (1500-3000 m a.s.l.) forests. The deep sequence data presented here (i.e. 4 108 126 quality-filtered sequences) indicate that fungal community composition correlates most strongly with elevation, with many fungi showing preference for a certain altitudinal forest type. For example, ectomycorrhizal and root endophytic fungi were most diverse in the montane cloud forests, particularly at sites dominated by Alnus acuminata, while the diversity values of various saprobic groups were highest at lower elevations. Despite the strong altitudinal community turnover, fungal diversity was comparable across the different zonal forest types. Besides elevation, soil pH, N, P, and organic matter contents correlated with fungal community structure as well, although most of these variables were co-correlated with elevation. Our data provide an unprecedented insight into the high diversity and spatial distribution of fungi in the Yungas forests. PMID:24762095

  3. Scots pine and its ectomycorrhizal symbionts under chronic low-level urban pollution—responses and restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Tarvainen, O. (Oili)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Boreal urban forests are becoming more and more fragmented and, at the same time, are exposed to low-level but long-term nitrogen and sulphur deposition. Natural mid-boreal forests are dominated by few tree and shrub species, while herbs and grasses are rare. Soils in mid-boreal forests are rich in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, forming a symbiotic relationship with forest trees, which is important for the nutrient cycle especially in nutrient-poor ecosystems. Aims of this thes...

  4. Forest litter as the mulch improving growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity of bare-root Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Aučina A; Rudawska M; Leski T; Skridaila A; Pašakinskiene I; Riepšas E

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the influence of pine, oak and spruce forest litter on the growth and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) formation of Scots pine seedlings after the first growing season in a bare-root forest nursery. The mixture of collected forest litters and humus were used to obtain a 20-cm mulching layer on the prepared seedbeds. The concentrations of all nutrients and the C/N ratio of growth media were significantly higher in forest litter treatments than in negative control represented by m...

  5. Ectomycorrhizal association of three Lactarius species with Carpinus and Quercus trees in a Mexican montane cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamus, Valentina; Montoya, Leticia; Aguilar, Carlos J; Bandala, Victor M; Ramos, David

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are being monitored in the Santuario del Bosque de Niebla in the central region of Veracruz (eastern Mexico). Based on the comparison of DNA sequences (ITS rDNA) of spatiotemporally co-occurring basidiomes and EM root tips, we discovered the EM symbiosis of Lactarius indigo, L. areolatus and L. strigosipes with Carpinus caroliniana, Quercus xalapensis and Quercus spp. The host of the EM tips was identified by comparison of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL). Descriptions coupled with photographs of ectomycorrhizas and basidiomes are presented. PMID:22675052

  6. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  7. Hydrodynamics, Fungal Physiology, and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Carreón, L; Galindo, E; Rocha-Valadéz, J A; Holguín-Salas, A; Corkidi, G

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous cultures, such as fungi and actinomycetes, contribute substantially to the pharmaceutical industry and to enzyme production, with an annual market of about 6 billion dollars. In mechanically stirred reactors, most frequently used in fermentation industry, microbial growth and metabolite productivity depend on complex interactions between hydrodynamics, oxygen transfer, and mycelial morphology. The dissipation of energy through mechanically stirring devices, either flasks or tanks, impacts both microbial growth through shearing forces on the cells and the transfer of mass and energy, improving the contact between phases (i.e., air bubbles and microorganisms) but also causing damage to the cells at high energy dissipation rates. Mechanical-induced signaling in the cells triggers the molecular responses to shear stress; however, the complete mechanism is not known. Volumetric power input and, more importantly, the energy dissipation/circulation function are the main parameters determining mycelial size, a phenomenon that can be explained by the interaction of mycelial aggregates and Kolmogorov eddies. The use of microparticles in fungal cultures is also a strategy to increase process productivity and reproducibility by controlling fungal morphology. In order to rigorously study the effects of hydrodynamics on the physiology of fungal microorganisms, it is necessary to rule out the possible associated effects of dissolved oxygen, something which has been reported scarcely. At the other hand, the processes of phase dispersion (including the suspended solid that is the filamentous biomass) are crucial in order to get an integral knowledge about biological and physicochemical interactions within the bioreactor. Digital image analysis is a powerful tool for getting relevant information in order to establish the mechanisms of mass transfer as well as to evaluate the viability of the mycelia. This review focuses on (a) the main characteristics of the two most

  8. Estimation of fungal biomass in forest litter and soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr; Větrovský, Tomáš; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Dobiášová, Petra; Petránková, Mirka; Šnajdr, Jaroslav; Eichlerová, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-11. ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0751; GA MŠk LD12050 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Basidiomycota * Ectomycorrhizal fungi * Ergosterol Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.992, year: 2013

  9. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival. PMID:23711036

  10. Site characterisation methods and data interpretation. The Drigg site characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further site characterisation work is being undertaken to underpin the impact assessment of BNFL's Drigg low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. This site has been in operation for about forty years and is located approximately seven kilometres south of the Sellafield reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The site accepts the majority of LLW produced in the U.K. which may be generated by hospitals and general industry as well as the nuclear industry itself. Historically, waste was tumble tipped into trenches which were then covered with an interim cap incorporating a plastic membrane. Waste is now placed in a concrete vault within steel Isofreight containers. This practice will continue through to the end of operations which is anticipated to be in the middle of the next century. Subsequently, a final closure cap will be emplaced over the disposal area. The five year Drigg Site Characterisation programme was, therefore, set up in order to improve and build upon our current understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site. The first one and a half years are devoted entirely to data acquisition with the greatest activity surrounding the drilling and geophysical aspects of the programme. Four years will be devoted to collecting a high quality time series data set of water levels, stream flows and meteorological variables and to produce a comprehensive interpretation of the hydrogeology of the site. The programme to date has been very successful and the acquired information has enabled us to start refining our geological model of the site which will then be used to underpin our eventual conceptual hydrogeological model. 3 refs

  11. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research. PMID:25721271

  12. Fungal infection in organ transplant patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪微; 温海; 廖万清

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To review the characteristics and evolution of the fungal spectrum, and the risk factors causing fungal infection, and to make progress in diagnosing fungal infection after organ transplantation.Data sources An English-language literature search (MEDLINE 1990-2000) and bibliographic review of textbooks and review articles.Study selection Twenty-three articles were selected from the literature that specifically addressed the stated purpose.Results Fungal infections in organ transplant patients were generally divided into two types: ① disseminated primary or reactivation infection with one of the geographically restricted systemic mycoses; ② opportunistic infection by fungal species that rarely cause invasive infection in normal hosts. The risk factors of fungal infection after a transplant can be evaluated and predicted according to the organ recipient ’s conditions before, during and after the transplant. Progress in early diagnostic methods during the past 10 years has mainly revolved around two aspects, culture and non-culture. Conclusions It is important to undertake a systemic evaluation on the condition of the organ recipient before, during and after a transplant; should any risk factor for fungal infection be suspected, diagnosis should be made as early as possible by employing mycological techniques including culture and non-culture methods.

  13. A novel class of fungal lipoxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshof, Ruud; Jylhä, Sirpa; Haarmann, Thomas; Jørgensen, Ann Louise Worsøe; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; de Graaff, Leo H

    2014-02-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are well-studied enzymes in plants and mammals. However, fungal LOXs are less studied. In this study, we have compared fungal LOX protein sequences to all known characterized LOXs. For this, a script was written using Shell commands to extract sequences from the NCBI database and to align the sequences obtained using Multiple Sequence Comparison by Log-Expectation. We constructed a phylogenetic tree with the use of Quicktree to visualize the relation of fungal LOXs towards other LOXs. These sequences were analyzed with respect to the signal sequence, C-terminal amino acid, the stereochemistry of the formed oxylipin, and the metal ion cofactor usage. This study shows fungal LOXs are divided into two groups, the Ile- and the Val-groups. The Ile-group has a conserved WRYAK sequence that appears to be characteristic for fungal LOXs and has as a C-terminal amino acid Ile. The Val-group has a highly conserved WL-L/F-AK sequence that is also found in LOXs of plant and animal origin. We found that fungal LOXs with this conserved sequence have a Val at the C-terminus in contrast to other LOXs of fungal origin. Also, these LOXs have signal sequences implying these LOXs will be expressed extracellularly. Our results show that in this group, in addition to the Gaeumannomyces graminis and the Magnaporthe salvinii LOXs, the Aspergillus fumigatus LOX uses manganese as a cofactor. PMID:24276623

  14. Molecular analysis of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete communities in a Pinus sylvestris L. stand reveals long-term increased diversity after removal of litter and humus layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Eric; Veenman, Christiaan; Baar, Jacqueline

    2003-07-01

    Abstract The number of fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal species in pine forests in The Netherlands has decreased dramatically in recent decades. This decrease has been attributed to an increase in nitrogen deposition and the accumulation of litter and humus. The effects of sod cutting and the removal of litter and humus, to restore ectomycorrhizal diversity in a Scots pine forest in Dwingeloo, The Netherlands, were investigated previously from 1990 to 1993. Removal of the litter and humus resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of species and fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, until now all data were obtained by counting fruiting bodies and the effects on mycelial development below ground were not assessed. To investigate hyphal development, DNA was extracted from bulk soil and polymerase chain reaction products were obtained by amplification using basidiomycete-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers. The differences in diversity between the control plots and the treated plots were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. To assess the species composition and differences, ITS regions of the amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced. Sequences were compared with sequences from GenBank and from fruiting bodies collected from the same plots. Data indicated increased below-ground ectomycorrhizal diversity in the plots that had been subjected to removal of the litter and humus layers. PMID:19719606

  15. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  16. Fungal infections in neutropenic cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasive fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with prolonged neutropenia following chemotherapy. Recent trends indicate a change toward infections by Aspergillus species, non-albicans species of Candida, and previously uncommon fungal pathogens. These have decreased susceptibility to current antifungal agents. In the last decade there has been much effort to find solutions for these changing trends. This article reviews current approaches to prevention and treatment of opportunistic fungal infections in postchemotherapy neutropenic patients and discussion future antifungal approaches and supportive methods. (author)

  17. Fungal-to-bacterial dominance of soil detrital food-webs: Consequences for biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes; Frey, Serita

    2015-04-01

    Resolving fungal and bacterial groups within the microbial decomposer community is thought to capture disparate microbial life strategies, associating bacteria with an r-selected strategy for carbon (C) and nutrient use, and fungi with a K-selected strategy. Additionally, food-web models have established a widely held belief that the bacterial decomposer pathway in soil supports high turnover rates of easily available substrates, while the slower fungal pathway supports the decomposition of more complex organic material, thus characterising the biogeochemistry of the ecosystem. Three field-experiments to generate gradients of SOC-quality were assessed. (1) the Detritus Input, Removal, and Trenching - DIRT - experiment in a temperate forest in mixed hardwood stands at Harvard Forest LTER, US. There, experimentally adjusted litter input and root input had affected the SOC quality during 23 years. (2) field-application of 14-C labelled glucose to grassland soils, sampled over the course of 13 months to generate an age-gradient of SOM (1 day - 13 months). (3) The Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted, UK, where 150-years continuous N-fertilisation (0, 50, 100, 150 kg N ha-1 y-1) has affected the quality of SOM in grassland soils. A combination of carbon stable and radio isotope studies, fungal and bacterial growth and biomass measurements, and C and N mineralisation (15N pool dilution) assays were used to investigate how SOC-quality influenced fungal and bacterial food-web pathways and the implications this had for C and nutrient turnover. There was no support that decomposer food-webs dominated by bacteria support high turnover rates of easily available substrates, while slower fungal-dominated decomposition pathways support the decomposition of more complex organic material. Rather, an association between high quality SOC and fungi emerges from the results. This suggests that we need to revise our basic understanding for soil microbial communities and the processes

  18. Morphological and molecular identification of the ectomycorrhizal association of Lactarius fumosibrunneus and Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana trees in eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay-Serrano, Edith; Bandala, Victor Manuel; Montoya, Leticia

    2012-11-01

    A population of Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana (covering ca. 4.7 ha) is established in a montane cloud forest refuge at Acatlan Volcano in eastern Mexico (Veracruz State), and it represents one of only ten populations of this species known to occur in the country (each stand covers ca. 2-35 ha in extension) and one of the southernmost in the continent. Sporocarps of several ectomycorrhizal macrofungi have been observed in the area, and among them, individuals of the genus Lactarius are common in the forest. However, the morphological and molecular characterization of ectomycorrhizae is still in development. Currently, two species of Lactarius have been previously documented in the area. Through the phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region from basidiomes and ectomycorrhizae, we identified the Lactarius fumosibrunneus ectomycorrhiza. The host, F. grandifolia var. mexicana, was determined comparing the amplified ITS sequence from ectomycorrhizal root tips in the GenBank database with Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. The mycorrhizal system of L. fumosibrunneus is monopodial-pyramidal, characterized by its shiny, white to silver and pruinose surface, secreting a white latex when damaged, composed of three plectenchymatous mantle layers, with diverticulated terminal elements at the outer mantle. It lacks emanating hyphae, rhizomorphs, and sclerotia. A detailed morphological and anatomical description, illustrations, and photographs of the ectomycorrhiza are presented. The comparison of L. fumosibrunneus and other Lactarius belonging to subgenus Plinthogalus is presented. PMID:22402818

  19. Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Simard, Suzanne W; Carroll, Allan; Mohn, William W; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2015-01-01

    Extensive regions of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, IDF) forests in North America are being damaged by drought and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis). This damage is resulting from warmer and drier summers associated with climate change. To test whether defoliated IDF can directly transfer resources to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae) regenerating nearby, thus aiding in forest recovery, we examined photosynthetic carbon transfer and defense enzyme response. We grew pairs of ectomycorrhizal IDF 'donor' and ponderosa pine 'receiver' seedlings in pots and isolated transfer pathways by comparing 35 μm, 0.5 μm and no mesh treatments; we then stressed IDF donors either through manual defoliation or infestation by the budworm. We found that manual defoliation of IDF donors led to transfer of photosynthetic carbon to neighboring receivers through mycorrhizal networks, but not through soil or root pathways. Both manual and insect defoliation of donors led to increased activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase in the ponderosa pine receivers, via a mechanism primarily dependent on the mycorrhizal network. These findings indicate that IDF can transfer resources and stress signals to interspecific neighbors, suggesting ectomycorrhizal networks can serve as agents of interspecific communication facilitating recovery and succession of forests after disturbance. PMID:25683155

  20. Toxic effects of cadmium and zinc on ectomycorrhizal colonization of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from soil inoculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley-Whitaker, J.; Cairney, J.W.G.; Meharg, A.A.

    2000-03-01

    Scots pine seedlings colonized by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi from natural soil inoculum were exposed to a range of Cd or Zn concentrations to investigate the effects of metals on ECM fungi-Scots pine associations in a realistic soil environment. Experiments focused on the relationship between the sensitivity of ECM fungi and their host plants, the influence of metals on ECM community dynamics on Scots pine roots, and the effects of metal exposure on ECM colonization from soil-borne propagules. Ectomycorrhizal colonization was inhibited by Cd and Zn, with a decrease in the proportion of ECM-colonized root tips. Shoot and root biomass, total root length, and total root-tip density, however, were unaffected by Cd or Zn. A decrease in the diversity of ECM morphotypes also occurred, which could have a negative effect on tree vigor. Overall, colonization by ECM fungi was more sensitive than seedling growth to Cd and Zn, and this could have serious implications for successful tree establishment on metal-contaminated soils.

  1. Spatial Patterns of Ectomycorrhizal Assemblages in a Monospecific Forest in Relation to Host Tree Genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Christa; Finkeldey, Reiner; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizas (EcM) are important for soil exploration and thereby may shape belowground interactions of roots. We investigated the composition and spatial structures of EcM assemblages in relation to host genotype in an old-growth, monospecific beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest. We hypothesized that neighboring roots of different beech individuals are colonized by similar EcM assemblages if host genotype had no influence on the fungal colonization and that the similarity would decrease with i...

  2. Gene knockdown by ihpRNA-triggering in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete fungus Laccaria bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Kemppainen, Minna J.; Pardo, Alejandro G.

    2010-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) is a mutualistic association between fungi and the roots of the vast majority of trees. These include numerous ecologically and economically relevant species and the participating fungal symbionts are predominantly filamentous basidiomycetes. In natural ecosystems the plant nutrient uptake from soil takes place via the extraradical mycelia of these ECM mycosimbionts as a trade for plant photosyntates. The symbiotic phase in the life cycle of ECM basidiomycetes is the dika...

  3. Expanding Fungal Diets Through Synthetic Algal-Fungal Mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alaisha; Galazka, Jonathan (Editor)

    2015-01-01

    Fungi can synthesize numerous molecules with important properties, and could be valuable production platforms for space exploration and colonization. However, as heterotrophs, fungi require reduced carbon. This limits their efficiency in locations such as Mars, where reduced carbon is scarce. We propose a system to induce mutualistic symbiosis between the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the filamentous fungi Neurospora crassa. This arrangement would mimic natural algal-fungal relationships found in lichens, but have added advantages including increased growth rate and genetic tractability. N. crassa would metabolize citrate (C6H5O7 (sup -3)) and release carbon dioxide (CO2) that C. reinhardtii would assimilate into organic sugars during photosynthesis. C. reinhardtii would metabolize nitrate (NO3-) and release ammonia (NH3) as a nitrogen source for N. crassa. A N. crassa mutant incapable of reducing nitrate will be used to force this interaction. This system eliminates the need to directly supply its participants with carbon dioxide and ammonia. Furthermore, the release of oxygen by C. reinhardtii via photosynthesis would enable N. crassa to respire. We hope to eventually create a system closer to lichen, in which the algae transfers not only nitrogen but reduced carbon, as organic sugars, to the fungus for growth and production of valuable compounds.

  4. PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2009-11-30

    In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

  5. Analysis of fungal ball rhinosinusitis by culturing fungal clumps under endoscopic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junyi; Li, Yunchuan; Lu, Xinxin; Wang, Xiangdong; Zang, Hongrui; Wang, Tong; Zhou, Bing; Zhang, Luo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the clinical microbiology of fungal ball (FB) rhinosinusitis by culturing fungal clumps collected under endoscopic surgery. Methods: From April to November of 2012, fungal clumps were sampled by endoscopic surgery from patients diagnosed with FB using clinical and histopathological methods. The specimens were subjected to smear microscopy, and cultured for bacteria and fungi analysis. Results: Out of the 81 specimens from 80 patients, 69 (69/8...

  6. Biotite weathering and nutrient uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungus, Suillus tomentosus, in liquid-culture experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh-Brunstad, Zsuzsanna; Kent Keller, C.; Thomas Dickinson, J.; Stevens, Forrest; Li, C. Y.; Bormann, Bernard T.

    2008-06-01

    Ectomycorrhiza-forming fungi (EMF) alter the nutrient-acquisition capabilities of vascular plants, and may play an important role in mineral weathering and the partitioning of products of weathering in soils under nutrient-limited conditions. In this study, we isolated the weathering function of Suillus tomentosus in liquid-cultures with biotite micas incubated at room temperature. We hypothesized that the fungus would accelerate weathering by hyphal attachment to biotite surfaces and transmission of nutrient cations via direct exchange into the fungal biomass. We combined a mass-balance approach with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to estimate weathering rates and study dissolution features on biotite surfaces. Weathering of biotite flakes was about 2-3 orders of magnitude faster in shaken liquid-cultures with fungus compared to shaken controls without fungus, but with added inorganic acids. Adding fungus in nonshaken cultures caused a higher dissolution rate than in inorganic pH controls without fungus, but it was not significantly faster than organic pH controls without fungus. The K +, Mg 2+ and Fe 2+ from biotite were preferentially partitioned into fungal biomass in the shaken cultures, while in the nonshaken cultures, K + and Mg 2+ was lost from biomass and Fe 2+ bioaccumulated much less. Fungal hyphae attached to biotite surfaces, but no significant surface changes were detected by SEM. When cultures were shaken, the AFM images of basal planes appeared to be rougher and had abundant dissolution channels, but such channel development was minor in nonshaken conditions. Even under shaken conditions the channels only accounted for only 1/100 of the total dissolution rate of 2.7 × 10 -10 mol of biotite m -2 s -1. The results suggest that fungal weathering predominantly occurred not by attachment and direct transfer of nutrients via hyphae, but because of the acidification of the bulk liquid by organic acids, fungal

  7. Zoosporic fungal parasites of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, C.

    laboratory media. In such instances, a detailed and careful examination of the disease symptoms and the endobiotic fungal parasites is to be recorded. Maintaining dual culture of the healthy and infected host also helps to fulfill these postulates partially....

  8. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J;

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...... sorghum plants. In each field, leaf samples were collected from five well-developed (performing) and five less-developed (non-performing) plants at 3-5 leaf stage, while at plant maturity leaf, stem and root samples were collected from the same plants and fungal endophytes were isolated. A total of 39...... and the fungal community in sorghum, and the first report attempts to document endophytic fungal presence in Burkina Faso....

  9. Fungal infections and cavernous sinus thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Munjal, Manish; Khurana, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    Rhino — Cerebral Mucormycosis, in uncontrolled diabetics, is a common entity Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis, secondary to fungal involvement is rarely encountered Two cases with fulminant spread are reported highlighting the symptoms, signs, and therapeutic modality

  10. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  11. The Evolution of Fungal Metabolic Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Slot, Jason C.; Rokas, Antonis

    2014-01-01

    Fungi contain a remarkable range of metabolic pathways, sometimes encoded by gene clusters, enabling them to digest most organic matter and synthesize an array of potent small molecules. Although metabolism is fundamental to the fungal lifestyle, we still know little about how major evolutionary processes, such as gene duplication (GD) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), have interacted with clustered and non-clustered fungal metabolic pathways to give rise to this metabolic versatility. We e...

  12. Microbial Pathogens in the Fungal Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Heitman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The fungal kingdom is vast, spanning ~1.5 to as many as 5 million species diverse as unicellular yeasts, filamentous fungi, mushrooms, lichens, and both plant and animal pathogens. The fungi are closely aligned with animals in one of the six to eight supergroups of eukaryotes, the opisthokonts. The animal and fungal kingdoms last shared a common ancestor ~1 billion years ago, more recently than other groups of eukaryotes. As a consequence of their close evolutionary history and shared cellula...

  13. Combination Treatment of Invasive Fungal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Pranab K Mukherjee; Sheehan, Daniel J.; Hitchcock, Christopher A.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2005-01-01

    The persistence of high morbidity and mortality from systemic fungal infections despite the availability of novel antifungals points to the need for effective treatment strategies. Treatment of invasive fungal infections is often hampered by drug toxicity, tolerability, and specificity issues, and added complications often arise due to the lack of diagnostic tests and to treatment complexities. Combination therapy has been suggested as a possible approach to improve treatment outcome. In this...

  14. FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS1

    OpenAIRE

    Wajszczuk, Charles P.; Dummer, J. Stephen; Ho, Monto; Van Thiel, David H.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Shaw, Byers

    1985-01-01

    Sixty-two adults who underwent orthotopic liver transplantations between February 1981 and June 1983 were followed for a mean of 170 days after the operation. Twenty-six patients developed 30 episodes of significant fungal infection. Candida species and Torulopsis glabrata were responsible for 22 episodes and Aspergillus species for 6. Most fungal infections occurred in the first month after transplantation. In the first 8 weeks after transplantation, death occurred in 69% (18/26) of patients...

  15. Treatment of fungal infections: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Giannattasio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections represent a serious problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs worldwide. Preterm infants are a vulnerable population for major events and adverse sequelae from fungal sepsis. The primary fungus of concern in neonates is C. albicans, whose colonization is associated with devastating complication and high rate of mortality. Among the risk factors responsible for development of invasive fungal infections, previous mucosal and skin colonization are of primary importance. Fungal colonization in neonates may be secondary to either maternal transmission or nosocomial acquisition in the nursery. Antifungal prophylaxis is currently applied in different NICUs and in various patients groups with successful results. Prophylactic drugs can include oral nystatin and oral or intravenous fluconazole. To date, antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole is the recommended approach for neonates lower than 1,000 g and/or 27 weeks’ gestation or less, manly in NICUs with relatively high frequency of invasive candidiasis. First-line treatment of invasive fungal infections includes amphotericin B deoxycholate, lipid preparations of amphotericin B, fluconazole, or micafungin. However, data on pharmacokinetic, schedule treatment and appropriate dosage of antifungal agents in neonates, mainly in premature, are still limited. Future strategies to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality derived from invasive fungal infections include new echinocandins not yet approved for neonatal use (caspofungin or anidulafungin and other adjuvant treatments as intravenous immunoglobulin, lactoferrin or probiotics. Since current therapies for systemic fungal diseases are not universally successful and morbidity remains high, future efforts will be also focused on better prevention of fungal diseases and understanding of appropriate dosing schedule of the available antifungal agents. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy

  16. Fungal Rhino Sinusitisin in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Nazeri1; Seyed Jamal Hashemi; Mohammad Ardehali; Sasan Rezaei; SeyedMojtaba Seyedmousavi; Mahdi Zareei; Emaddodin Hosseinjani

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fungal rhino sinusitis (FRS) is an important infection of para nasal sinuses, which encompasses two main categories; invasive and noninvasive forms according to histopathological findings. Aspergillus spp are the most common species isolated from noninvasive form, while Mucorales are more frequently isolates from acute infections. METHODS: Four hundred fifty patients suspected to fungal rhino sinusitis were investigated in a cross-sectional prospective study from June 2009 to Sep ...

  17. Fungal and aflatoxin contamination of marketed spices

    OpenAIRE

    Hammami, Walid; Fiori, Stefano; Al Thani, Roda; Kali, Najet Ali; Balmas, Virgilio; Migheli, Quirico; Jaoua, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Fourteen spice samples were collected from local markets in Doha, Qatar, during 2012, and were surveyed for the presence of potentially harmful mycoflora and for contamination with aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among the tested spice samples, chili powder showed the highest presence of fungal propagules, while ginger, curry and garlic samples did not present any fungal contamination. A total of 120 isolates, mostly belonging to Aspergillus and...

  18. Spontaneous course of an untreated fungal spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 29 known cases in the world, we report another case of fungal spondylitis being not yet treated. Within four months with increasing clinical complaints and without neurological defects the disease led to a complete involvement of two vertebras and their partial resorption. An early radiologic hint in fungal spondylitis is possible, a sure diagnosis, however, depends on puncture. Pathogenetic aspects and the importance of a new method to identify candida infection in blood-sample are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Striking a Balance: Fungal Commensalism versus Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Iliev, Iliyan D.; Underhill, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The environment is suffused with nearly countless types of fungi, and our immune systems must be tuned to cope with constant exposure to them. In addition, it is becoming increasingly clear that many surfaces of our bodies are colonized with complex populations of fungi (the mycobiome) in the same way that they are colonized with complex populations of bacteria. The immune system must tolerate colonization with commensal fungi but defend against fungal invasion. Truly life-threatening fungal ...

  20. Experimental study on cryotherapy for fungal corneal ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yingxin; Yang, Weijia; Gao, Minghong; Belin, Michael Wellington; Yu, Hai; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Fungal corneal ulcer is one of the major causes of visual impairment worldwide. Treatment of fungal corneal ulcer mainly depends on anti-fungal agents. In the current study, we developed an integrated combination therapy of cryotherapy and anti-fungal agents to facilitate effective treatment of fungal corneal ulcer. Methods Rabbit models of cornea infection were established using a combined method of intrastromal injection and keratoplasty. After treatment with cryotherapy and anti...

  1. Atopic cough and fungal allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We have shown that some patients presenting with chronic bronchodilator-resistant non-productive cough have a global atopic tendency and cough hypersensitivity without nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness, abbreviated as atopic cough (AC). The cough can be treated successfully with histamine H1 antagonists and/or glucocorticoids. Eosinophilic tracheobronchitis and cough hypersensitivity are pathological and physiological characteristics of AC. Fungus-associated chronic cough (FACC) is defined as chronic cough associated with basidiomycetous (BM) fungi found in induced sputum, and recognition of FACC has provided the possibility of using antifungal drugs as new treatment strategies. Bjerkandera adusta is a wood decay BM fungus, which has attracted attention because of its potential role in enhancing the severity of cough symptoms in FACC patients by sensitization to this fungus. Before making a diagnosis of “idiopathic cough” in cases of chronic refractory cough, remaining intractable cough-related laryngeal sensations, such as “a sensation of mucus in the throat (SMIT),” which is correlated with fungal colonization, should be evaluated and treated appropriately in each patient. The new findings, i.e., the detection of environmental mushroom spores that should not be present in the human airways in addition to the good clinical response of patients to antifungal drugs, may lead to the development of novel strategies for treatment of chronic cough. PMID:25383202

  2. Structure and biological functions of fungal cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto-Bergter Eliana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, cerebrosides are glycosphingolipids composed of a hydrophobic ceramide linked to one sugar unit. In fungal cells, CMHs are very conserved molecules consisting of a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine in amidic linkage to 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic or 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acids, and a carbohydrate portion consisting of one residue of glucose or galactose. 9-Methyl 4,8-sphingadienine-containing ceramides are usually glycosylated to form fungal cerebrosides, but the recent description of a ceramide dihexoside (CDH presenting phytosphingosine in Magnaporthe grisea suggests the existence of alternative pathways of ceramide glycosylation in fungal cells. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. In Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, A. fumigatus, and Schizophyllum commune, CMHs are apparently involved in morphological transitions and fungal growth. The elucidation of structural and functional aspects of fungal cerebrosides may therefore contribute to the design of new antifungal agents inhibiting growth and differentiation of pathogenic species.

  3. Fungal allelochemicals in insect pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holighaus, Gerrit; Rohlfs, Marko

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between insects and fungi are widespread, and important mediators of these interactions are fungal chemicals that can therefore be considered as allelochemicals. Numerous studies suggest that fungal chemicals can affect insects in many different ways. Here, we apply the terminology established by insect-plant ecologists for categorizing the effect of fungal allelochemicals on insects and for evaluating the application potential of these chemicals in insect pest management. Our literature survey shows that fungal volatile and non-volatile chemicals have an enormous potential to influence insect behavior and fitness. Many of them still remain to be discovered, but some recent examples of repellents and toxins could open up new ways for developing safe insect control strategies. However, we also identified shortcomings in our understanding of the chemical ecology of insect-fungus interactions and the way they have been investigated. In particular, the mode-of-action of fungal allelochemicals has often not been appropriately designated or examined, and the way in which induction by insects affects fungal chemical diversity is poorly understood. This review should raise awareness that in-depth ecological studies of insect-fungus interactions can reveal novel allelochemicals of particular benefit for the development of innovative insect pest management strategies. PMID:27147531

  4. IAEA Perspectives on Radiological Characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements for characterization of radiological and other hazards in nuclear facilities are reflected in the IAEA Safety Standards. WS-R-5, Safety Requirements for Decommissioning of Facilities using Radioactive Material, includes a requirement that 'During the preparation of the final decommissioning plan, the extent and type of radioactive material (irradiated and contaminated structures and components) at the facility shall be determined by means of a detailed characterization survey and on the basis of records collected during the operational period'. The subsidiary Safety Guide WS-G-2.1, Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors, further elaborates that 'A survey of radiological and non-radiological hazards provides an important input for the safety assessment and for implementing a safe approach during the work'. Although the characterisation requirements addressed in the Safety Standards relate primarily to the detailed survey activities undertaken following the shutdown of the facility, it is evident that radiological characterization is of relevance to all major phases of the lifetime of a nuclear facility, including: - the siting phase - baseline surveys are undertaken to determine background radiation levels; - the construction phase - construction materials are retained to support future calculations of radioactivity distributions; - the operational phase - surveys are done regularly, with additional surveys being required following incidents involving plant contamination; - the transition phase - detailed radiological surveys are required to support the development of the final decommissioning plan; and - the closure phase - a final survey of the site and any remaining structures will be needed to support an application for release of the site from regulatory control. In the case of facilities that are already shut down, the main purpose of radiological characterisation is to provide a reliable database of information on the

  5. Characterisation: Challenges and Opportunities - A UK Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterisation plays a very important role in the nuclear industry supporting: the development and implementation of decommissioning strategies/plans (and the optimisation of associated costs through reduction in technical risks); regulatory compliance demonstration; waste prevention/minimisation; evaluation and optimisation of worker radiation doses; and maintaining public confidence. Recognising these important drivers, the UK regulators are working with the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to undertake a review of characterisation practice in the UK nuclear (decommissioning) industry. The objective of the characterisation review is to understand the current characterisation challenges and to determine strategic and tactical opportunities (including sharing of standards and guidance, capabilities, learning from experience, good practice, research and development, training, quality assurance) to optimise characterisation practice. The work is being undertaken through review of nuclear operator's characterisation practice, with input from the NDA, the UK regulators, nuclear operators and representatives from the supply chain, and through consideration of good practice case studies. To support this, a catalogue of relevant national/international guidance documents is also be compiled. Finally a workshop with representatives from all parties has taken place to consider the findings and establish a common understanding of challenges and opportunities and to start to consider how they can be addressed. The review is establishing a collective (UK regulator's, NDA; nuclear operator's and supply chain) understanding of opportunities to improve characterisation practice in the UK. The characterisation review process is described and early results are presented and discussed. Subsequent work in 2016 will be required to prioritise the opportunities and to build a consensus to facilitate development and implementation of an improvement plan. The aim

  6. Hypopyon in patients with fungal keratitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ling-juan; SONG Xiu-sheng; ZHAO Jing; SUN Shi-ying; XIE Li-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypopyon is common in eyes with fungal keratitis.The evaluation of the clinical features,culture results and the risk factors for hypopyon and of the possible correlation between hypopyon and the treatment outcome could be helpful for making treatment decisions.Methods The medical records of 1066 inpatients (1069 eyes) with fungal keratitis seen at the Shandong Eye Institute from January 2000 to December 2009 were reviewed retrospectively for demographic features,risk factors,clinical characteristics,laboratory findings and treatment outcomes.The incidence of hypopyon,the fungal culture positivity for hypopyon,risk factors for hypopyon and the effect of hypopyon on the treatment and prognosis were determined.Results We identified 1069 eyes with fungal keratitis.Of the 850 fungal culture-positive eyes,the Fusarium species was the most frequent (73.6%),followed by Altemaria (10.0%) and Aspergillus (9.0%).Upon admission,562 (52.6%)eyes with hypopyon were identified.The hypopyon of 66 eyes was evaluated via fungal culturing,and 31 eyes (47.0%)were positive.A total of 194 eyes had ocular hypertension,and 172 (88.7%) of these eyes had hypopyon (P <0.001).Risk factors for incident hypopyon included long duration of symptoms (P <0.001),large lesion size (P <0.001) and infection caused by the Fusarium and Aspergillus species (P <0.001).The positivity of fungal culture for hypopyon was associated with duration of symptoms and lesion size.Surgical intervention was more common in cases with hypopyon (P <0.001).Hypopyon was a risk factor for the recurrence of fungal keratitis after corneal transplantation (P=0.002).Conclusions Hypopyon is common in patients with severe fungal keratitis and can cause ocular hypertension.About half of the hypopyon cases were positive based on fungal culture.Long duration of symptoms,large lesion size and infection with the Fusarium and Aspergillus species were risk factors for hypopyon.The presence of hypopyon

  7. Estimates of carbon allocation to ectomycorrhizal fungi in a temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumber-Davila, S. J.; Ouimette, A.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) limitation restricts net primary productivity both globally and within the northeastern United States; therefore limiting the amount of carbon stored. Despite the importance of N to carbon (C) storage, we still lack an understanding of how trees compete for N belowground. In the Northeasters UN, trees associate with two main groups of fungal symbionts which supply the plant nitrogen, either ectomcorrhizal (ECM) or arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Since ECM creates an extensive hyphal network and has strong enzymatic capabilities, they are generally favored in forests with low N availabilities; however they have a higher C demand. Here we attempt to provide a more thorough understanding of whole-plant carbon allocation in temperate forests, by quantifying wood, foliar, and root NPP, as well as belowground C allocation to ECM fungi. The study was conducted across plots with a range of N availability and tree species composition within Bartlett Experimental Forest (BEF), NH, a current NEON site. Ingrowth core-methods utilized in the study indicate there is high soil fungal biomass in N-poor sites than at N-rich sites with the N-poor sites averaging at 600 grams of fungal carbon per meter squared compared to the N-rich sites having less than 200 grams. Soil, foliar, and root N isotopes (δ15N) show evidence of enhanced N isotope fractionation and C allocation to mycorrhizal fungi in the N-poor sites. Results from this study are being used to incorporate C allocation to mycorrhizal fungi into a process-based forest ecosystem.

  8. Promoter-dependent expression of the fungal transporter HcPT1.1 under Pi shortage and its spatial localization in ectomycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kevin; Haider, Muhammad Zulqurnain; Delteil, Amandine; Corratgé-Faillie, Claire; Conéjero, Geneviève; Tatry, Marie-Violaine; Becquer, Adeline; Amenc, Laurie; Sentenac, Hervé; Plassard, Claude; Zimmermann, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Mycorrhizal exchange of nutrients between fungi and host plants involves a specialization and polarization of the fungal plasma membrane adapted for the uptake from the soil and for secretion of nutrient ions towards root cells. In addition to the current progress in identification of membrane transport systems of both symbiotic partners, data concerning the transcriptional and translational regulation of these proteins are needed to elucidate their role for symbiotic functions. To answer whether the formerly described Pi-dependent expression of the phosphate transporter HcPT1.1 from Hebeloma cylindrosporum is the result of its promoter activity, we introduced promoter-EGFP fusion constructs in the fungus by Agrotransformation. Indeed, HcPT1.1 expression in pure fungal cultures quantified and visualized by EGFP under control of the HcPT1.1 promoter was dependent on external Pi concentrations, low Pi stimulating the expression. Furthermore, to study expression and localization of the phosphate transporter HcPT1.1 in symbiotic conditions, presence of transcripts and proteins was analyzed by the in situ hybridization technique as well as by immunostaining of proteins. In ectomycorrhiza, expression of the phosphate transporter was clearly enhanced by Pi-shortage indicating its role in Pi nutrition in the symbiotic association. Transcripts were detected in external hyphae and in the hyphal mantle, proteins in addition also within the Hartig net. Exploiting the transformable fungus H. cylindrosporum, Pi-dependent expression of the fungal transporter HcPT1.1 as result from its promoter activity as well as transcript and protein localization in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis are shown. PMID:23850603

  9. Divergent and Convergent Evolution of Fungal Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yanfang; Xiao, Guohua; Zheng, Peng; Cen, Kai; Zhan, Shuai; Wang, Chengshu

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens of plants and animals have multifarious effects; they cause devastating damages to agricultures, lead to life-threatening diseases in humans, or induce beneficial effects by reducing insect pest populations. Many virulence factors have been determined in different fungal pathogens; however, the molecular determinants contributing to fungal host selection and adaptation are largely unknown. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of seven ascomycete insect pathogens and performed the genome-wide analyses of 33 species of filamentous ascomycete pathogenic fungi that infect insects (12 species), plants (12), and humans (9). Our results revealed that the genomes of plant pathogens encode more proteins and protein families than the insect and human pathogens. Unexpectedly, more common orthologous protein groups are shared between the insect and plant pathogens than between the two animal group pathogens. We also found that the pathogenicity of host-adapted fungi evolved multiple times, and that both divergent and convergent evolutions occurred during pathogen-host cospeciation thus resulting in protein families with similar features in each fungal group. However, the role of phylogenetic relatedness on the evolution of protein families and therefore pathotype formation could not be ruled out due to the effect of common ancestry. The evolutionary correlation analyses led to the identification of different protein families that correlated with alternate pathotypes. Particularly, the effector-like proteins identified in plant and animal pathogens were strongly linked to fungal host adaptation, suggesting the existence of similar gene-for-gene relationships in fungus-animal interactions that has not been established before. These results well advance our understanding of the evolution of fungal pathogenicity and the factors that contribute to fungal pathotype formation. PMID:27071652

  10. Molecular weight characterisation of synthetic polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Holding, Steve R

    1995-01-01

    The report comprises a state-of-the-art overview of the subject of molecular weight characterisation, supported by an extensive, indexed bibliography. The bibliography contains over 400 references and abstracts, compiled from the Polymer Library.

  11. Characterisation and engineering properties of Tiller clay

    OpenAIRE

    Gylland, A.; Long, Michael; Emdal, A.; et al.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed characterisation of the quick clay underlying the NTNU research site at Tiller, Trondheim is presented. The objective of the work is to provide guidance on quick clay parameters to engineers and researchers working with similar clays in Scandinavia and North America especially on landslide hazard assessment. The material is lightly overconsolidated and is characterised by its high degree of structure and very high sensitivity (quick clay). Clay and water contents are both about 40%...

  12. Mycorrhizal Fungal Community of Poplars Growing on Pyrite Tailings Contaminated Site near the River Timok

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Katanić; Saša Orlović; Tine Grebenc; Branislav Kovačević; Marko Kebert; Milan Matavulj; Hojka Kraigher

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Mycorrhizal fungi are of high importance for functioning of forest ecosystems and they could be used as indicators of environmental stress. The aim of this research was to analyze ectomycorrhizal community structure and to determine root colonization rate with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi of poplars growing on pyrite tailings contaminated site near the river Timok (Eastern Serbia). Materials and Methods: Identification of ectomycorrhi...

  13. Complement and fungal pathogens: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter; Würzner, Reinhard; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2008-11-01

    Fungal infections are a serious complication in immunocompromised patients such as human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, patients with organ transplantations or with haematological neoplasia. The lethality of opportunistic fungal infection is high despite a growing arsenal of antimycotic drugs, implying the urgent need for supportive immunological therapies to strengthen the current inefficient antimicrobial defences of the immunocompromised host. Therefore, increasing effort has been directed to investigating the interplay between fungi and the host immunity and thus to find starting points for additional therapeutic approaches. In this article, we review the actual state of the art concerning the role of complement in the pathogenesis of fungal infections. Important aspects include the activation of the complement system by the fungal pathogen, the efficiency of the complement-associated antimicrobial functions and the arsenal of immune evasion strategies applied by the fungi. The twin functions of complement as an interactive player of the innate immunity and at the same time as a modulator of the adaptive immunity make this defence weapon a particularly interesting therapeutic candidate to mobilise a more effective immune response and to strengthen in one fell swoop a broad spectrum of different immune reactions. However, we also mention the 'Yin-Yang' nature of the complement system in fungal infections, as growing evidence assigns to complement a contributory part in the pathogenesis of fungus-induced allergic manifestations. PMID:18705662

  14. Proteomics of survival structures of fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, Dmitry; Šebela, Marek

    2016-09-25

    Fungal pathogens are causal agents of numerous human, animal, and plant diseases. They employ various infection modes to overcome host defense systems. Infection mechanisms of different fungi have been subjected to many comprehensive studies. These investigations have been facilitated by the development of various '-omics' techniques, and proteomics has one of the leading roles in this regard. Fungal conidia and sclerotia could be considered the most important structures for pathogenesis as their germination is one of the first steps towards a host infection. They represent interesting objects for proteomic studies because of the presence of unique proteins with unexplored biotechnological potential required for pathogen viability, development and the subsequent host infection. Proteomic peculiarities of survival structures of different fungi, including those of biotechnological significance (e.g., Asperillus fumigatus, A. nidulans, Metarhizium anisopliae), in a dormant state, as well as changes in the protein production during early stages of fungal development are the subjects of the present review. We focused on biological aspects of proteomic studies of fungal survival structures rather than on an evaluation of proteomic approaches. For that reason, proteins that have been identified in this context are discussed from the point of view of their involvement in different biological processes and possible functions assigned to them. This is the first review paper summarizing recent advances in proteomics of fungal survival structures. PMID:26777984

  15. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-10-27

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the JGI Fungal Genomic Program. One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts and pathogens) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation and sugar fermentation) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Science Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 400 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics will lead to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such ‘parts’ suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  16. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  17. Fungal Involvement in Patients with Paranasal Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kordbacheh

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal involvement of the paranasal sinuses is frequently observed in the immunocompromised host and it can become lifethreatening if it is not diagnosed. Definitive diagnosis is made by tissue biopsy and culture. In this study biopsy materials of maxillary, ethmoidal and frontal sinuses of 60 patients with clinical manifestation of sinusitis and no response to medical therapy were assessed by mycological and pathological methods for the presence of fungi. Invasive fungal sinusitis was diagnosed in 3 patients and etiologic agents were Candida albicans, Rhizopus sp. and Aspergillus fumigatus. Predisposing factors in these patients were leukemia, diabetes mellitus and previous sinus and polyp surgery, respectively. Allergic fungal sinusitis also was seen in one patient and Alternaria sp. isolated from the biopsy material. Only the patient with allergic form of disease survived but all the patients with invasive form of fungal infection were expired. This clearly underscores the need of early recognition of fungal sinusitis in at risk population in order to start urgent treatment. In this study Nocardia asteroids also was isolated from the biopsy sample in a patient with sinunasal adenocarcinoma.

  18. Impact of sucrose transporters on fungal carbon nutrition in ectomycorrhiza

    OpenAIRE

    Tegler, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal symbiosis enables forest ecosystems to cover about 30 % of the Earth s terrestrial surface. In this symbiosis the fungus gets easily degradable plant derived carbohydrates in exchange for nutrients. Sucrose transporters (SUTs) were long time favored to mediate sucrose efflux at the functional interface. In this work selected SUTs of Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides were analyzed using gene expression analyses and heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Manip...

  19. Biosorption of radionuclides by fungal biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four kinds of bioreactor were evaluated for thorium removal by fungal biomass. An air-lift bioreactor removed approximately 90-95% of the thorium supplied over extended time periods and exhibited a well-defined breakthrough point after biosorbent saturation. The air-lift bioreactor promoted efficient circulation and effective contact between the thorium solution and the mycelial pellets. Of several fungal species tested, Rhizopus arrhizus and Aspergillus niger were the most effective biosorbents. The efficiency of thorium biosorption by A. niger was markedly reduced in the presence of other inorganic solutes while thorium biosorption by R. arrhizus was relatively unaffected. Air-lift bioreactors containing R. arrhizus biomass could effectively remove thorium from acidic solution over a wide range of initial thorium concentrations. The biotechnological application and significance of these results are discussed in the wider context of fungal biosorption of radionuclides. (author)

  20. Production and applications of fungal exopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Magrini Pigatto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides which are secreted in the culture medium and allow for different industrial applications. There are few scientific reports on the production, characterization and applications of fungal exopolysaccharides (EPS . Most research in the field has been concentrated on bacterial EPS, since bacteria are easier to grow. The objectives of the present work were to review the literature on fungal EPS, reporting fermentation parameters for growing fungi, and the effect of carbon source, organic and inorganic nitrogen, aeration, agitation, microelements, addition of antifoam, and factors of growth on EPS production. The methods for recovering fungal EPS as well as their characterization, some rheological properties of the culture medium, and EPS applications were also described.