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Sample records for characterise ectomycorrhizal fungal

  1. Development and validation of an oligonucleotide microarray to characterise ectomycorrhizal fungal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reich Marlis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In forest ecosystems, communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM are influenced by several biotic and abiotic factors. To understand their underlying dynamics, ECM communities have been surveyed with ribosomal DNA-based sequencing methods. However, most identification methods are both time-consuming and limited by the number of samples that can be treated in a realistic time frame. As a result of ongoing implementation, the array technique has gained throughput capacity in terms of the number of samples and the capacity for parallel identification of several species. Thus far, although phylochips (microarrays that are used to detect species have been mostly developed to trace bacterial communities or groups of specific fungi, no phylochip has been developed to carry oligonucleotides for several ectomycorrhizal species that belong to different genera. Results We have constructed a custom ribosomal DNA phylochip to identify ECM fungi. Specific oligonucleotide probes were targeted to the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions from 95 fungal species belonging to 21 ECM fungal genera. The phylochip was first validated using PCR amplicons of reference species. Ninety-nine percent of the tested oligonucleotides generated positive hybridisation signals with their corresponding amplicons. Cross-hybridisation was mainly restricted at the genus level, particularly for Cortinarius and Lactarius species. The phylochip was subsequently tested with environmental samples that were composed of ECM fungal DNA from spruce and beech plantation fungal communities. The results were in concordance with the ITS sequencing of morphotypes and the ITS clone library sequencing results that were obtained using the same PCR products. Conclusion For the first time, we developed a custom phylochip that is specific for several ectomycorrhizal fungi. To overcome cross-hybridisation problems, specific filter and evaluation strategies that used spot

  2. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity: seperating the wheat from the chaff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinaldi, A.C.; Comandini, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species exist, but estimates of global species richness of ECM fungi differ widely. Many genera have been proposed as being ECM, but ill a number of studies evidence for the hypothesized ECM habit is lacking. Progress in estimating ECM species richness is th

  3. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity: seperating the wheat from the chaff

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, A.C.; Comandini, O.; Kuyper, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species exist, but estimates of global species richness of ECM fungi differ widely. Many genera have been proposed as being ECM, but ill a number of studies evidence for the hypothesized ECM habit is lacking. Progress in estimating ECM species richness is therefore slow. Ill this paper we have retrieved studies providing evidence for the ECM habit of fungal species and For the identification of the mycobiont(s) ill specific ECM associations, using pub...

  4. Contributions of ectomycorrhizal fungal mats to forest soil respiration

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, C. L.; L. A. Kluber; Martin, J. P.; B. A. Caldwell; B. J. Bond

    2012-01-01

    Distinct aggregations of fungal hyphae and rhizomorphs, or "mats", formed by some genera of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi are common features of soils in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. We measured in situ respiration rates of Piloderma mats and neighboring non-mat soils in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in western Oregon to investigate whether there was higher respiration from mats, and to estimate mat contributions to total soil respiration. We found that are...

  5. Contributions of ectomycorrhizal fungal mats to forest soil respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Phillips

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Distinct aggregations of fungal hyphae and rhizomorphs, or "mats" formed by some genera of ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungi are common features of soils in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. We measured in situ respiration rates of Piloderma mats and neighboring non-mat soils in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in Western Oregon to investigate whether there was an incremental increase in respiration from mat soils, and to estimate mat contributions to total soil respiration. We found that areas where Piloderma mats colonized the organic horizon often had higher soil surface flux than non-mats, with the incremental increase in respiration averaging 16 % across two growing seasons. Both soil physical factors and biochemistry were related to the higher surface flux of mat soils. When air-filled pore space was low (high soil moisture, soil CO2 production was concentrated into near-surface soil horizons where mats tend to colonize, resulting in greater apparent differences in respiration between mat and non-mat soils. Respiration rates were also correlated with the activity of chitin-degrading soil enzymes. This suggests that the elevated activity of fungal mats may be related to consumption or turnover of chitinous fungal cell-wall materials. We found Piloderma mats present across 57 % of the soil surface in the study area, and use this value to estimate a respiratory contribution from mats at the stand-scale of about 9 % of total soil respiration. The activity of EcM mats, which includes both EcM fungi and microbial associates, was estimated to constitute a substantial portion of total soil respiration in this old-growth Douglas-fir forest.

  6. Ectomycorrhizal fungal community associated with autochthonous white poplar from Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Katanić M; Grebenc T; Orlović S.; Matavuly M; Kovačević B.; Bajc M; Kraigher H

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the community of ectomycorrhizal fungi of an autochthonous white poplar (Populus alba L.) stand in the Kovilj-Petrovaradin marshes (Serbia), and examined its seasonal dynamics. Ectomycorrhizal types were identified by combining morphological and anatomical descriptions with molecular methods (sequencing of ITS region of ribosomal DNA). In two seasons, 20 ectomycorrhizal types were recorded, from which 11 types were identified to the species level, six were determined to the genus ...

  7. Ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelia turnover in a longleaf pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Joseph J; Mitchell, Robert J; Kuehn, Kevin A; Pecot, Stephen D

    2016-03-01

    Elucidation of the patterns and controls of carbon (C) flow and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests has been hindered by a poor understanding of ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelia (EFM) dynamics. In this study, EFM standing biomass (based on soil ergosterol concentrations), production (based on ergosterol accrual in ingrowth cores), and turnover rate (the quotient of annual production and average standing biomass estimates) were assessed in a 25-yr-old longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) plantation where C flow was manipulated by foliar scorching and N fertilization for 5 yr before study initiation. In the controls, EFM standing biomass was 30 ± 7 g m(-2) , production was 279 ± 63 g m(-2)  yr(-1) , and turnover rate was 10 ± 3 times yr(-1) . The scorched × fertilized treatment had significantly higher EFM standing biomass (38 ± 8 g m(-2) ), significantly lower production (205 ± 28 g m(-2)  yr(-1) ), and a trend of decreased turnover rate (6 ± 1 times yr(-1) ). The EFM turnover estimates, which are among the first reported for natural systems, indicate that EFM are a dynamic component of ecosystems, and that conventional assessments have probably underestimated the role of EFM in C flow and nutrient cycling. PMID:26537020

  8. Contributions of ectomycorrhizal fungal mats to forest soil respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Phillips

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Distinct aggregations of fungal hyphae and rhizomorphs, or "mats", formed by some genera of ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungi are common features of soils in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. We measured in situ respiration rates of Piloderma mats and neighboring non-mat soils in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in western Oregon to investigate whether there was higher respiration from mats, and to estimate mat contributions to total soil respiration. We found that areas where Piloderma mats colonized the organic horizon often had higher soil surface flux than non-mats, with the relative increase in respiration averaging 16% across two growing seasons. Both soil physical factors and biochemistry were related to the higher surface flux of mat soils. When soil moisture was high, soil CO2 production was concentrated into near-surface soil horizons where mats tend to colonize, resulting in greater apparent differences in respiration between mat and non-mat soils. Respiration rates were also correlated with the activity of chitin-degrading soil enzymes. This finding supports the notion that the abundance of fungal biomass in EcM mats is an important driver of C and N cycling. We found Piloderma mats present across 57% of the exposed soil, and use this value to estimate a respiratory contribution from mats at the stand-scale of about 9% of total soil respiration. The activity of EcM mats, which includes both EcM fungi and microbial associates, appeared to constitute a substantial portion of total soil respiration in this old-growth Douglas-fir forest.

  9. Diversity of an ectomycorrhizal fungal community studied by a root tip and total soil DNA approach

    OpenAIRE

    Landeweert, R.; Leeflang, P.; Smit, E; Kuyper, T. W.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular methods based on soil DNA extracts are increasingly being used to study the fungal diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal communities in soil. Contrary to EM root tip identification, the use of molecular methods enables identification of extramatrical mycelia in soil. To compare fungal diversity as determined by root tip identification and mycelial identification, six soil samples were analysed. Root tips were extracted from the six samples and after amplification, the basidiomyce...

  10. Ectomycorrhizal fungal community associated with autochthonous white poplar from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katanić M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the community of ectomycorrhizal fungi of an autochthonous white poplar (Populus alba L. stand in the Kovilj-Petrovaradin marshes (Serbia, and examined its seasonal dynamics. Ectomycorrhizal types were identified by combining morphological and anatomical descriptions with molecular methods (sequencing of ITS region of ribosomal DNA. In two seasons, 20 ectomycorrhizal types were recorded, from which 11 types were identified to the species level, six were determined to the genus level, two types were determined to the family level and one type remained unidentified. Number of ectomycorrhizal types, number of fine roots, percentage of vital mycorrhizal roots, diversity indexes and abundance of exploration types did not differ significantly between autumn and spring. During both seasons, the most abundant types were: Entoloma sp., Tuber maculatum, Cenococcum geophilum, Tuber rufum and Peziza sp. Due to the high variation of the ectomycorrhizal types-based Shannon-Weaver diversity index in poplar stands, and the fact that poplars form dual mycorrhizal association, this index is not recommended as a reliable index for bioindication in poplar.

  11. Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities respond to liming in three southern Swedish coniferous forest stands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Clemmensen, Karina

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report on changes in the belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in southern Swedish coniferous forests as a consequence of liming with 3-7 ton limestone per hectare 16 years prior to the study. A total of 107 ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified from 969 independently sa...... community composition. We discuss the observed community changes in relation to ectomycorrhizal functionality and biodiversity in limed forests.......In this study we report on changes in the belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in southern Swedish coniferous forests as a consequence of liming with 3-7 ton limestone per hectare 16 years prior to the study. A total of 107 ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified from 969 independently...... sampled root tips by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. Forty, 59 and 51 species were identified in three pine and spruce forests. Within all sites only about 25% of the species overlapped between the limed and the reference areas. However, the most abundant species...

  12. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of oak savanna are distinct from forest communities.

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    Dickie, I A; Dentinger, B T M; Avis, P G; McLaughlin, D J; Reich, P B

    2009-01-01

    Oak savanna is one of the most endangered ecosystems of North America, with less than 0.02% of its original area remaining. Here we test whether oak savanna supports a unique community of ectomycorrhizal fungi, a higher diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi or a greater proportional abundance of ascomycete fungi compared with adjacent areas where the absence of fire has resulted in oak savanna conversion to oak forest. The overall fungal community was highly diverse and dominated by Cenococcum geophilum and other ascomycetes, Cortinarius, Russula, Lactarius and Thelephoraceae. Oak savanna mycorrhizal communities were distinct from oak forest communities both aboveground (sporocarp surveys) and belowground (RFLP identification of ectomycorrhizal root tips); however total diversity was not higher in oak savanna than oak forests and there was no evidence of a greater abundance of ascomycetes. Despite not having a higher local diversity than oak forests, the presence of a unique fungal community indicates that oak savanna plays an important role in maintaining regional ectomycorrhizal diversity. PMID:19623927

  13. Ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages of Abies alba Mill. outside its native range in Poland.

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    Rudawska, Maria; Pietras, Marcin; Smutek, Iwona; Strzeliński, Paweł; Leski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Abies alba (Mill.) is an important forest tree species, native to the mountainous regions of Europe but has been also widely introduced in the lowlands outside its native range. Like most forest tree species, A. alba forms obligate mutualisms with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. This investigation sought to examine ECM fungal communities of A. alba when the species grows 400 km north of its native range in the region of Pomerania in Poland. We surveyed for ECM fungi by sampling live roots from four mature forest stands where the A. alba component ranged from 20 to 100%. Ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts were identified based on morphotyping and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Thirty-five ECM fungal taxa were distinguished on root tips of A. alba from all tested stands with 22 to 27 ECM fungal taxa in the individual stand. The diversity and similarity metrics revealed a lack of statistical differences in the structure of the ECM fungal community between stands varying in overstory tree composition. Cenococcum geophilum was the most common fungal species at all investigated A. alba stands, with an abundance of 50 to 70%. The ECM community was characterized by the lack of Abies-specific fungal symbionts and a rich and diverse suite of host-generalist mycobionts that seem to be sufficient for successful growth and development of A. alba outside of its native range. PMID:26071873

  14. Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities at fagus stands in differently polluted forest research plots

    OpenAIRE

    Al Sayegh-Petkovšek, Samar

    2005-01-01

    Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities at fagus stands were analysed. Eectomycorrhiza types were identified in soil cores from differently polluted beech forest research plots in the 1998 - 2001 period by mycobioindication method. Forest research plots were situated in the vicinity of thermal power plants (polluted plots: Zavodnje - Prednji vrh and Zasavje - Dobovec) and in unpolluted areas (in the vicinity of Kočevska Reka: Preža and Moravške gredice). Eighty-eight different ectomyco...

  15. Attributing functions to ectomycorrhizal fungal identities in assemblages for nitrogen acquisition under stress

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, Rodica; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi have a key role in nitrogen (N) cycling, particularly in boreal and temperate ecosystems. However, the significance of ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity for this important ecosystem function is unknown. Here, EMF taxon-specific N uptake was analyzed via 15N isotope enrichment in complex root-associated assemblages and non-mycorrhizal root tips in controlled experiments. Specific 15N enrichment in ectomycorrhizas, which represents the N influx and export, as well as the ...

  16. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of pedunculate and sessile oak seedlings from bare-root forest nurseries.

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    Leski, Tomasz; Pietras, Marcin; Rudawska, Maria

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we present the detailed molecular investigation of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community of Quercus petraea and Quercus robur seedlings grown in bare-root forest nurseries. In all tested oak samples, mycorrhizal colonization was nearly 100%. Morphological observation and molecular investigations (sequencing of fungal ITS rDNA) revealed a total of 23 mycorrhizal taxa. The most frequent and abundant fungal taxa were Hebeloma sacchariolens, Tuber sp., and Peziza sp.; from the detected fungal taxa, 20 were noted for Q. petraea and 23 for Q. robur. Depending on the nursery, the species richness of identified ECM fungal taxa for both oak species ranged from six to 11 taxa. The mean species richness for all nurseries was 5.36 and 5.82 taxa per Q. petraea and Q. robur sample, respectively. According to the analysis of similarity, ECM fungal communities were similar for Q. petraea and Q. robur (R = 0.019; p = 0.151). On the other hand, detected fungal communities were significantly different between nurseries (R = 0.927; p ectomycorrhizal diversity (in terms of richness, the Shannon diversity, evenness, and Simpson dominance indices) is significantly related to the soil parameters of each nursery. We conclude that individual nursery may be considered as separate ecological niches that strongly discriminate diversity of ECM fungi. PMID:19756776

  17. Increased ectomycorrhizal fungal abundance after long-term fertilization and warming of two arctic tundra ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven Evert;

    2006-01-01

    the response in EM fungal abundance to long-term warming and fertilization in two arctic ecosystems with contrasting responses of the EM shrub Betula nana. •  Ergosterol was used as a biomarker for living fungal biomass in roots and organic soil and ingrowth bags were used to estimate EM mycelial production......•  Shrub abundance is expected to increase with enhanced temperature and nutrient availability in the Arctic, and associated changes in abundance of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi could be a key link between plant responses and longer-term changes in soil organic matter storage. This study quantifies....... We measured 15N and 13C natural abundance to identify the EM-saprotrophic divide in fungal sporocarps and to validate the EM origin of mycelia in the ingrowth bags. •  Fungal biomass in soil and EM mycelial production increased with fertilization at both tundra sites, and with warming at one site...

  18. Attributing functions to ectomycorrhizal fungal identities in assemblages for nitrogen acquisition under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Rodica; Polle, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi have a key role in nitrogen (N) cycling, particularly in boreal and temperate ecosystems. However, the significance of ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity for this important ecosystem function is unknown. Here, EMF taxon-specific N uptake was analyzed via (15)N isotope enrichment in complex root-associated assemblages and non-mycorrhizal root tips in controlled experiments. Specific (15)N enrichment in ectomycorrhizas, which represents the N influx and export, as well as the exchange of (15)N with the N pool of the root tip, was dependent on the fungal identity. Light or water deprivation revealed interspecific response diversity for N uptake. Partial taxon-specific N fluxes for ectomycorrhizas were assessed, and the benefits of EMF assemblages for plant N nutrition were estimated. We demonstrated that ectomycorrhizal assemblages provide advantages for inorganic N uptake compared with non-mycorrhizal roots under environmental constraints but not for unstressed plants. These benefits were realized via stress activation of distinct EMF taxa, which suggests significant functional diversity within EMF assemblages. We developed and validated a model that predicts net N flux into the plant based on taxon-specific (15)N enrichment in ectomycorrhizal root tips. These results open a new avenue to characterize the functional traits of EMF taxa in complex communities. PMID:24030593

  19. Soil moisture and chemistry influence diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associating with willow along an hydrologic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Sonya R; Savage, Jessica A; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine M; Peay, Kabir G

    2016-01-01

    Influences of soil environment and willow host species on ectomycorrhizal fungi communities was studied across an hydrologic gradient in temperate North America. Soil moisture, organic matter and pH strongly predicted changes in fungal community composition. In contrast, increased fungal richness strongly correlated with higher plant-available phosphorus. The 93 willow trees sampled for ectomycorrhizal fungi included seven willow species. Host identity did not influence fungal richness or community composition, nor was there strong evidence of willow host preference for fungal species. Network analysis suggests that these mutualist interaction networks are not significantly nested or modular. Across a strong environmental gradient, fungal abiotic niche determined the fungal species available to associate with host plants within a habitat. PMID:26622067

  20. Ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages of Abies alba Mill. outside its native range in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Rudawska, Maria; Pietras, Marcin; Smutek, Iwona; Strzeliński, Paweł; Leski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Abies alba (Mill.) is an important forest tree species, native to the mountainous regions of Europe but has been also widely introduced in the lowlands outside its native range. Like most forest tree species, A. alba forms obligate mutualisms with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. This investigation sought to examine ECM fungal communities of A. alba when the species grows 400 km north of its native range in the region of Pomerania in Poland. We surveyed for ECM fungi by sampling live roots from f...

  1. Missing checkerboards? An absence of competitive signal in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities

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    Peter Kennedy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies suggest that interspecific competition plays a key role in determining the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal communities. Despite this growing consensus, there has been limited study of ECM fungal community dynamics in abiotically stressful environments, which are often dominated by positive rather than antagonistic interactions. In this study, we examined the ECM fungal communities associated with the host genus Alnus, which live in soils high in both nitrate and acidity. The nature of ECM fungal species interactions (i.e., antagonistic, neutral, or positive was assessed using taxon co-occurrence and DNA sequence abundance correlational analyses. ECM fungal communities were sampled from root tips or mesh in-growth bags in three monodominant A. rubra plots at a site in Oregon, USA and identified using Illumina-based amplification of the ITS1 gene region. We found a total of 175 ECM fungal taxa; 16 of which were closely related to known Alnus-associated ECM fungi. Contrary to previous studies of ECM fungal communities, taxon co-occurrence analyses on both the total and Alnus-associated ECM datasets indicated that the ECM fungal communities in this system were not structured by interspecific competition. Instead, the co-occurrence patterns were consistent with either random assembly or significant positive interactions. Pair-wise correlational analyses were also more consistent with neutral or positive interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that interspecific competition does not appear to determine the structure of all ECM fungal communities and that abiotic conditions may be important in determining the specific type of interaction occurring among ECM fungi.

  2. Strong effect of climate on ectomycorrhizal fungal composition: evidence from range overlap between two mountains.

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    Miyamoto, Yumiko; Sakai, Atsushi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2015-08-01

    Separating the effects of environmental factors and spatial distance on microbial composition is difficult when these factors covary. We examined the composition of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi along elevation gradients on geographically distant mountains to clarify the effect of climate at the regional scale. Soil cores were collected from various forest types along an elevation gradient in southwestern Japan. Fungal species were identified by the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA using direct sequencing. The occurrence of fungal species in this study was compared with a previous study conducted on a mountain separated by ∼550 km. In total, we recorded 454 EM fungi from 330 of 350 soil cores. Forty-seven fungal species (∼20% of the total excluding singletons) were shared between two mountains, mostly between similar forest types on both mountains. Variation partitioning in redundancy analysis revealed that climate explained the largest variance in EM fungal composition. The similarity of forest tree composition, which is usually determined by climatic conditions, was positively correlated with the similarity of the EM fungal composition. However, the lack of large host effects implied that communities of forest trees and EM fungi may be determined independently by climate. Our data provide important insights that host plants and mutualistic fungi may respond to climate change idiosyncratically, potentially altering carbon and nutrient cycles in relation to the plant-fungus associations.

  3. Variation in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with Oreomunnea mexicana (Juglandaceae) in a Neotropical montane forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Adriana; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Ferrer, Astrid; Turner, Benjamin L; Dalling, James W

    2016-01-01

    Neotropical montane forests are often dominated by ectomycorrhizal (EM) tree species, yet the diversity of their EM fungal communities remains poorly explored. In lower montane forests in western Panama, the EM tree species Oreomunnea mexicana (Juglandaceae) forms locally dense populations in forest otherwise characterized by trees that form arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations. The objective of this study was to compare the composition of EM fungal communities associated with Oreomunnea adults, saplings, and seedlings across sites differing in soil fertility and the amount and seasonality of rainfall. Analysis of fungal nrITS DNA (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers) revealed 115 EM fungi taxa from 234 EM root tips collected from adults, saplings, and seedlings in four sites. EM fungal communities were equally species-rich and diverse across Oreomunnea developmental stages and sites, regardless of soil conditions or rainfall patterns. However, ordination analysis revealed high compositional turnover between low and high fertility/rainfall sites located ca. 6 km apart. The EM fungal community was dominated by Russula (ca. 36 taxa). Cortinarius, represented by 14 species and previously reported to extract nitrogen from organic sources under low nitrogen availability, was found only in low fertility/high rainfall sites. Phylogenetic diversity analyses of Russula revealed greater evolutionary distance among taxa found on sites with contrasting fertility and rainfall than was expected by chance, suggesting that environmental differences among sites may be important in structuring EM fungal communities. More research is needed to evaluate whether EM fungal taxa associated with Oreomunnea form mycorrhizal networks that might account for local dominance of this tree species in otherwise diverse forest communities. PMID:25940407

  4. Ectomycorrhizal-dominated boreal and tropical forests have distinct fungal communities, but analogous spatial patterns across soil horizons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L McGuire

    Full Text Available Fungi regulate key nutrient cycling processes in many forest ecosystems, but their diversity and distribution within and across ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we examine the spatial distribution of fungi across a boreal and tropical ecosystem, focusing on ectomycorrhizal fungi. We analyzed fungal community composition across litter (organic horizons and underlying soil horizons (0-20 cm using 454 pyrosequencing and clone library sequencing. In both forests, we found significant clustering of fungal communities by site and soil horizons with analogous patterns detected by both sequencing technologies. Free-living saprotrophic fungi dominated the recently-shed leaf litter and ectomycorrhizal fungi dominated the underlying soil horizons. This vertical pattern of fungal segregation has also been found in temperate and European boreal forests, suggesting that these results apply broadly to ectomycorrhizal-dominated systems, including tropical rain forests. Since ectomycorrhizal and free-living saprotrophic fungi have different influences on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, information on the spatial distribution of these functional groups will improve our understanding of forest nutrient cycling.

  5. Fine-scale diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelium in a Scots pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ian C; Genney, David R; Alexander, Ian J

    2014-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mycelium is a key component of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, yet we know little regarding the fine-scale diversity and distribution of mycelium in ECM fungal communities. We collected four 20 × 20 × 2-cm(3) (800-cm(3)) slices of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest soil and divided each into 100 2 × 2 × 2-cm(3) (8-cm(3)) cubes. The presence of mycelium of ECM fungi was determined using an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) database terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) approach. As expected, many more ECM fungi were detected as mycelium than as ectomycorrhizas in a cube or slice. More surprisingly, up to one-quarter of the 43 species previously detected as ectomycorrhizas over an area of 400 m(2) could be detected in a single 8-cm(3) cube, and up to three-quarters in a single 800-cm(3) slice. ECM mycelium frequency decreased markedly with depth and there were distinct 'hotspots' of mycelium in the moss/F1 layer. Our data demonstrate a high diversity of ECM mycelium in a small (8-cm(3) ) volume of substrate, and indicate that the spatial scale at which ECM species are distributed as mycelium may be very different from the spatial scale at which they are distributed as tips. PMID:24345261

  6. Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Protein Degradation Ability Predicted by Soil Organic Nitrogen Availability.

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    Rineau, Francois; Stas, Jelle; Nguyen, Nhu H; Kuyper, Thomas W; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V; Kennedy, Peter G

    2016-03-01

    In temperate and boreal forest ecosystems, nitrogen (N) limitation of tree metabolism is alleviated by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. As forest soils age, the primary source of N in soil switches from inorganic (NH4 (+) and NO3 (-)) to organic (mostly proteins). It has been hypothesized that ECM fungi adapt to the most common N source in their environment, which implies that fungi growing in older forests would have greater protein degradation abilities. Moreover, recent results for a model ECM fungal species suggest that organic N uptake requires a glucose supply. To test the generality of these hypotheses, we screened 55 strains of 13 Suillus species with different ecological preferences for their in vitro protein degradation abilities. Suillus species preferentially occurring in mature forests, where soil contains more organic matter, had significantly higher protease activity than those from young forests with low-organic-matter soils or species indifferent to forest age. Within species, the protease activities of ecotypes from soils with high or low soil organic N content did not differ significantly, suggesting resource partitioning between mineral and organic soil layers. The secreted protease mixtures were strongly dominated by aspartic peptidases. Glucose addition had variable effects on secreted protease activity; in some species, it triggered activity, but in others, activity was repressed at high concentrations. Collectively, our results indicate that protease activity, a key ectomycorrhizal functional trait, is positively related to environmental N source availability but is also influenced by additional factors, such as carbon availability. PMID:26682855

  7. Regional scale gradients of climate and nitrogen deposition drive variation in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with native Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, S; Woodward, S; Alexander, I J; Taylor, A F S

    2013-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi commonly associate with the roots of forest trees where they enhance nutrient and water uptake, promote seedling establishment and have an important role in forest nutrient cycling. Predicting the response of ectomycorrhizal fungi to environmental change is an important step to maintaining forest productivity in the future. These predictions are currently limited by an incomplete understanding of the relative significance of environmental drivers in determining the community composition of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi at large spatial scales. To identify patterns of community composition in ECM fungi along regional scale gradients of climate and nitrogen deposition in Scotland, fungal communities were analysed from 15 seminatural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests. Fungal taxa were identified by sequencing of the ITS rDNA region using fungal-specific primers. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling was used to assess the significance of 16 climatic, pollutant and edaphic variables on community composition. Vector fitting showed that there was a strong influence of rainfall and soil moisture on community composition at the species level, and a smaller impact of temperature on the abundance of ectomycorrhizal exploration types. Nitrogen deposition was also found to be important in determining community composition, but only when the forest experiencing the highest deposition (9.8 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) was included in the analysis. This finding supports previously published critical load estimates for ectomycorrhizal fungi of 5-10 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) . This work demonstrates that both climate and nitrogen deposition can drive gradients of fungal community composition at a regional scale. PMID:23505218

  8. Diversity and spatial structure of belowground plant-fungal symbiosis in a mixed subtropical forest of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Toju

    Full Text Available Plant-mycorrhizal fungal interactions are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems. While ectomycorrhizal plants and their fungi generally dominate temperate forests, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is common in the tropics. In subtropical regions, however, ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants co-occur at comparable abundances in single forests, presumably generating complex community structures of root-associated fungi. To reveal root-associated fungal community structure in a mixed forest of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, we conducted a massively-parallel pyrosequencing analysis, targeting fungi in the roots of 36 plant species that co-occur in a subtropical forest. In total, 580 fungal operational taxonomic units were detected, of which 132 and 58 were probably ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal, respectively. As expected, the composition of fungal symbionts differed between fagaceous (ectomycorrhizal and non-fagaceous (possibly arbuscular mycorrhizal plants. However, non-fagaceous plants were associated with not only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi but also several clades of ectomycorrhizal (e.g., Russula and root-endophytic ascomycete fungi. Many of the ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi were detected from both fagaceous and non-fagaceous plants in the community. Interestingly, ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were concurrently detected from tiny root fragments of non-fagaceous plants. The plant-fungal associations in the forest were spatially structured, and non-fagaceous plant roots hosted ectomycorrhizal fungi more often in the proximity of ectomycorrhizal plant roots. Overall, this study suggests that belowground plant-fungal symbiosis in subtropical forests is complex in that it includes "non-typical" plant-fungal combinations (e.g., ectomycorrhizal fungi on possibly arbuscular mycorrhizal plants that do not fall within the conventional classification of mycorrhizal symbioses, and in

  9. Diversity and spatial structure of belowground plant-fungal symbiosis in a mixed subtropical forest of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S

    2014-01-01

    Plant-mycorrhizal fungal interactions are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems. While ectomycorrhizal plants and their fungi generally dominate temperate forests, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is common in the tropics. In subtropical regions, however, ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants co-occur at comparable abundances in single forests, presumably generating complex community structures of root-associated fungi. To reveal root-associated fungal community structure in a mixed forest of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, we conducted a massively-parallel pyrosequencing analysis, targeting fungi in the roots of 36 plant species that co-occur in a subtropical forest. In total, 580 fungal operational taxonomic units were detected, of which 132 and 58 were probably ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal, respectively. As expected, the composition of fungal symbionts differed between fagaceous (ectomycorrhizal) and non-fagaceous (possibly arbuscular mycorrhizal) plants. However, non-fagaceous plants were associated with not only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi but also several clades of ectomycorrhizal (e.g., Russula) and root-endophytic ascomycete fungi. Many of the ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi were detected from both fagaceous and non-fagaceous plants in the community. Interestingly, ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were concurrently detected from tiny root fragments of non-fagaceous plants. The plant-fungal associations in the forest were spatially structured, and non-fagaceous plant roots hosted ectomycorrhizal fungi more often in the proximity of ectomycorrhizal plant roots. Overall, this study suggests that belowground plant-fungal symbiosis in subtropical forests is complex in that it includes "non-typical" plant-fungal combinations (e.g., ectomycorrhizal fungi on possibly arbuscular mycorrhizal plants) that do not fall within the conventional classification of mycorrhizal symbioses, and in that

  10. Diversity and Spatial Structure of Belowground Plant–Fungal Symbiosis in a Mixed Subtropical Forest of Ectomycorrhizal and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S

    2014-01-01

    Plant–mycorrhizal fungal interactions are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems. While ectomycorrhizal plants and their fungi generally dominate temperate forests, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is common in the tropics. In subtropical regions, however, ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants co-occur at comparable abundances in single forests, presumably generating complex community structures of root-associated fungi. To reveal root-associated fungal community structure in a mixed for...

  11. Short-term impacts of energy wood harvesting on ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Norway spruce saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huusko, Karoliina; Tarvainen, Oili; Saravesi, Karita; Pennanen, Taina; Fritze, Hannu; Kubin, Eero; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-03-01

    The increased demand for harvesting energy wood raises questions about its effects on the functioning of the forest ecosystems, soil processes and biodiversity. Impacts of tree stump removal on ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities of Norway spruce saplings were studied with 454-pyrosequencing in a 3-year field experiment replicated in 3 geographical areas. This is possibly the most thorough investigation of EMF communities associated with saplings grown on sites subjected to energy wood harvesting. To separate impacts of tree stump and logging residue removal on EMF and plant variables, we used three harvesting treatments with increasing complexity from patch mounding alone (P) to patch mounding combined with logging residue removal (RP), and patch mounding combined with both logging residue and stump removal (SRP). Saplings grown in uncut forests (F) served as references for harvesting treatments. A majority of sequences (>92%) and operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 55%) were assigned as EMF. EMF OTU richness, fungal community composition or sapling growth did not differ between harvesting treatments (P, RP and SRP), while EMF OTU richness, diversity and evenness were highest and sapling growth lowest in the undisturbed reference forests (F). The short study period may partially explain the similarities in fungal and sapling variables in different harvesting treatments. In conclusion, our results indicate that neither stump removal nor logging residue removal have significant additional negative impacts on EMF communities or growth of Norway spruce saplings in the short-term compared with the impacts of more conventional harvesting methods, including clear cutting and patch mounding. PMID:25171334

  12. Long-term increase in snow depth leads to compositional changes in arctic ectomycorrhizal fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Luis N; Semenova, Tatiana A; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2016-09-01

    Many arctic ecological processes are regulated by soil temperature that is tightly interconnected with snow cover distribution and persistence. Recently, various climate-induced changes have been observed in arctic tundra ecosystems, e.g. shrub expansion, resulting in reduction in albedo and greater C fixation in aboveground vegetation as well as increased rates of soil C mobilization by microbes. Importantly, the net effects of these shifts are unknown, in part because our understanding of belowground processes is limited. Here, we focus on the effects of increased snow depth, and as a consequence, increased winter soil temperature on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in dry and moist tundra. We analyzed deep DNA sequence data from soil samples taken at a long-term snow fence experiment in Northern Alaska. Our results indicate that, in contrast with previously observed responses of plants to increased snow depth at the same experimental site, the ECM fungal community of the dry tundra was more affected by deeper snow than the moist tundra community. In the dry tundra, both community richness and composition were significantly altered while in the moist tundra, only community composition changed significantly while richness did not. We observed a decrease in richness of Tomentella, Inocybe and other taxa adapted to scavenge the soil for labile N forms. On the other hand, richness of Cortinarius, and species with the ability to scavenge the soil for recalcitrant N forms, did not change. We further link ECM fungal traits with C soil pools. If future warmer atmospheric conditions lead to greater winter snow fall, changes in the ECM fungal community will likely influence C emissions and C fixation through altering N plant availability, fungal biomass and soil-plant C-N dynamics, ultimately determining important future interactions between the tundra biosphere and atmosphere. PMID:27004610

  13. Ectomycorrhizal fungal spore bank recovery after a severe forest fire: some like it hot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sydney I; Levine, Carrie R; DiRocco, Angela M; Battles, John J; Bruns, Thomas D

    2016-05-01

    After severe wildfires, pine recovery depends on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal spores surviving and serving as partners for regenerating forest trees. We took advantage of a large, severe natural forest fire that burned our long-term study plots to test the response of ECM fungi to fire. We sampled the ECM spore bank using pine seedling bioassays and high-throughput sequencing before and after the California Rim Fire. We found that ECM spore bank fungi survived the fire and dominated the colonization of in situ and bioassay seedlings, but there were specific fire adapted fungi such as Rhizopogon olivaceotinctus that increased in abundance after the fire. The frequency of ECM fungal species colonizing pre-fire bioassay seedlings, post-fire bioassay seedlings and in situ seedlings were strongly positively correlated. However, fire reduced the ECM spore bank richness by eliminating some of the rare species, and the density of the spore bank was reduced as evidenced by a larger number of soil samples that yielded uncolonized seedlings. Our results show that although there is a reduction in ECM inoculum, the ECM spore bank community largely remains intact, even after a high-intensity fire. We used advanced techniques for data quality control with Illumina and found consistent results among varying methods. Furthermore, simple greenhouse bioassays can be used to determine which fungi will colonize after fires. Similar to plant seed banks, a specific suite of ruderal, spore bank fungi take advantage of open niche space after fires. PMID:26473720

  14. Girdling Affects Ectomycorrhizal Fungal (EMF) Diversity and Reveals Functional Differences in EMF Community Composition in a Beech Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, R.; Offermann, C.; Simon, J.; Naumann, P. S.; Gessler, A.; Holst, J; Dannenmann, M.; Mayer, H.; Kogel-Knabner, I.; Rennenberg, H.; Polle, A.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between plant carbon resources, soil carbon and nitrogen content, and ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity in a monospecific, old-growth beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest were investigated by manipulating carbon flux by girdling. We hypothesized that disruption of the carbon supply would not affect diversity and EMF species numbers if EM fungi can be supplied by plant internal carbohydrate resources or would result in selective disappearance of EMF taxa because of differences...

  15. Ectomycorrhizal-Dominated Boreal and Tropical Forests Have Distinct Fungal Communities, but Analogous Spatial Patterns across Soil Horizons

    OpenAIRE

    McGuire, Krista L.; Allison, Steven D.; Fierer, Noah; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi regulate key nutrient cycling processes in many forest ecosystems, but their diversity and distribution within and across ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we examine the spatial distribution of fungi across a boreal and tropical ecosystem, focusing on ectomycorrhizal fungi. We analyzed fungal community composition across litter (organic horizons) and underlying soil horizons (0–20 cm) using 454 pyrosequencing and clone library sequencing. In both forests, we found significant clu...

  16. Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities of Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) Seedlings in Disturbed Sites and Undisturbed Old Forest Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate differences in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities between disturbed sites and undisturbed old forest sites. ECM root tips of Pinus densiflora were collected from 4 sites disturbed by human activities and 3 undisturbed old forest sites adjacent to the disturbed sites. Results in this study showed that the number of ECM root tips, species diversity, and number of species were significantly higher in the disturbed sites than in the undisturbed sites, suggest...

  17. Effect of Soil Ameliorators on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities that Colonize Seedlings of Pinus densiflora in Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Chang-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on...

  18. UTILIZATION OF T-RFLP (TERMINAL RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM) TO CHARACTERIZE MIXED ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL COMMUNITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of ectomycorrhizal community structure have used a variety of analytical regimens including sole or partial reliance on gross morphological characterization of colonized root tips. Depending on the rigor of the classification protocol, this technique can incorrectly assig...

  19. A continental view of pine-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal spore banks: a quiescent functional guild with a strong biogeographic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sydney I; Peay, Kabir G; Talbot, Jennifer M; Smith, Dylan P; Chung, Judy A; Taylor, John W; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bruns, Thomas D

    2015-03-01

    Ecologists have long acknowledged the importance of seed banks; yet, despite the fact that many plants rely on mycorrhizal fungi for survival and growth, the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal spore banks remains poorly understood. The primary goal of this study was to assess the geographic structure in pine-associated ECM fungal spore banks across the North American continent. Soils were collected from 19 plots in forests across North America. Fresh soils were pyrosequenced for fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicons. Adjacent soil cores were dried and bioassayed with pine seedlings, and colonized roots were pyrosequenced to detect resistant propagules of ECM fungi. The results showed that ECM spore banks correlated strongly with biogeographic location, but not with the identity of congeneric plant hosts. Minimal community overlap was found between resident ECM fungi vs those in spore banks, and spore bank assemblages were relatively simple and dominated by Rhizopogon, Wilcoxina, Cenococcum, Thelephora, Tuber, Laccaria and Suillus. Similar to plant seed banks, ECM fungal spore banks are, in general, depauperate, and represent a small and rare subset of the mature forest soil fungal community. Yet, they may be extremely important in fungal colonization after large-scale disturbances such as clear cuts and forest fires. PMID:25557275

  20. Potential link between plant and fungal distributions in a dipterocarp rainforest: community and phylogenetic structure of tropical ectomycorrhizal fungi across a plant and soil ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peay, Kabir G; Kennedy, Peter G; Davies, Stuart J; Tan, Sylvester; Bruns, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    *Relatively little is known about diversity or structure of tropical ectomycorrhizal communities or their roles in tropical ecosystem dynamics. In this study, we present one of the largest molecular studies to date of an ectomycorrhizal community in lowland dipterocarp rainforest. *We sampled roots from two 0.4 ha sites located across an ecotone within a 52 ha forest dynamics plot. Our plots contained > 500 tree species and > 40 species of ectomycorrhizal host plants. Fungi were identified by sequencing ribosomal RNA genes. *The community was dominated by the Russulales (30 species), Boletales (17), Agaricales (18), Thelephorales (13) and Cantharellales (12). Total species richness appeared comparable to molecular studies of temperate forests. Community structure changed across the ecotone, although it was not possible to separate the role of environmental factors vs host plant preferences. Phylogenetic analyses were consistent with a model of community assembly where habitat associations are influenced by evolutionary conservatism of functional traits within ectomycorrhizal lineages. *Because changes in the ectomycorrhizal fungal community parallel those of the tree community at this site, this study demonstrates the potential link between the distribution of tropical tree diversity and the distribution of tropical ectomycorrhizal diversity in relation to local-scale edaphic variation.

  1. Potential link between plant and fungal distributions in a dipterocarp rainforest: community and phylogenetic structure of tropical ectomycorrhizal fungi across a plant and soil ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peay, Kabir G; Kennedy, Peter G; Davies, Stuart J; Tan, Sylvester; Bruns, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    *Relatively little is known about diversity or structure of tropical ectomycorrhizal communities or their roles in tropical ecosystem dynamics. In this study, we present one of the largest molecular studies to date of an ectomycorrhizal community in lowland dipterocarp rainforest. *We sampled roots from two 0.4 ha sites located across an ecotone within a 52 ha forest dynamics plot. Our plots contained > 500 tree species and > 40 species of ectomycorrhizal host plants. Fungi were identified by sequencing ribosomal RNA genes. *The community was dominated by the Russulales (30 species), Boletales (17), Agaricales (18), Thelephorales (13) and Cantharellales (12). Total species richness appeared comparable to molecular studies of temperate forests. Community structure changed across the ecotone, although it was not possible to separate the role of environmental factors vs host plant preferences. Phylogenetic analyses were consistent with a model of community assembly where habitat associations are influenced by evolutionary conservatism of functional traits within ectomycorrhizal lineages. *Because changes in the ectomycorrhizal fungal community parallel those of the tree community at this site, this study demonstrates the potential link between the distribution of tropical tree diversity and the distribution of tropical ectomycorrhizal diversity in relation to local-scale edaphic variation. PMID:19878464

  2. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles)

    OpenAIRE

    Séne, S.; Avril, R.; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Geoffroy, A; Ndiaye, C; Diedhiou, A. G.; Sadio, O.; Courtecuisse, R.; Sylla, S.; Selosse, M.A.; Bâ, Amadou

    2015-01-01

    We studied belowground and aboveground diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal species colonizing Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape) mature trees and seedlings naturally regenerating in four littoral forests of the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles). We collected 546 sporocarps, 49 sclerotia, and morphotyped 26,722 root tips from mature trees and seedlings. Seven EM fungal species only were recovered among sporocarps (Cantharellus cinnabarinus, Amanita arenicola, Russula ...

  3. The Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Community in a Neotropical Forest Dominated by the Endemic Dipterocarp Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew E Smith; Henkel, Terry W; Uehling, Jessie K.; Alexander K Fremier; Clarke, H. David; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plants and fungi can be diverse and abundant in certain tropical ecosystems. For example, the primarily paleotropical ECM plant family Dipterocarpaceae is one of the most speciose and ecologically important tree families in Southeast Asia. Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea is one of two species of dipterocarp known from the Neotropics, and is also the only known member of the monotypic Dipterocarpaceae subfamily Pakaraimoideae. This Guiana Shield endemic is only known from the...

  4. Distribution and drivers of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities across the North American Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Timling, Ina; Dahlberg, Anders; Walker, D. A.; Gardes, M; Charcosset, J.Y.; Welker, J.; Taylor, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) form symbioses with a few plant species that comprise a large fraction of the arctic vegetation. Despite their importance, the identity, abundance and distribution of EMF in the Arctic, as well as the key drivers controlling their community composition are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the diversity and structure of EMF communities across a bioclimatic gradient spanning much of the North American Arctic. We collected roots from two principal arc...

  5. Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Protein Degradation Ability Predicted by Soil Organic Nitrogen Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Rineau, Francois; Stas, Jelle; Nguyen, Nhu H.; Kuyper, Thomas N.; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan; Kennedy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In temperate and boreal forest ecosystems, nitrogen (N) limitation of tree metabolism is alleviated by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. As forest soils age, the primary source of N in soil switches from inorganic (NH4 and NO3) to organic (mostly proteins). It has been hypothesized that ECM fungi adapt to the most common N source in their environment, which implies that fungi growing in older forests would have greater protein degradation abilities. Moreover, recent results for a model ECM fung...

  6. Land use practices and ectomycorrhizal fungal communities from oak woodlands dominated by Quercus suber L. considering drought scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azul, Anabela Marisa; Sousa, João Paulo; Agerer, Reinhard; Martín, María P; Freitas, Helena

    2010-02-01

    Oak woodlands in the Mediterranean basin have been traditionally converted into agro-silvo-pastoral systems and exemplified sustainable land use in Europe. In Portugal, in line with the trend of other European countries, profound changes in management options during the twentieth century have led to landscape simplification. Landscapes are dynamic and the knowledge of future management planning combining biological conservation and soil productivity is needed, especially under the actual scenarios of drought and increasing evidence of heavy oak mortality. We examined the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community associated with cork oak in managed oak woodlands (called montado) under different land use practices, during summer. ECM fungal richness and abundance were assessed in 15 stands established in nine montados located in the Alentejo region (southern Portugal), using morphotyping and ITS rDNA analysis. Parameters related to the montados landscape characteristics, land use history over the last 25 years, climatic and edaphic conditions were taken into account. Fifty-five ECM fungal taxa corresponding to the most abundant fungal symbionts were distinguished on cork oak roots. Cenococcum geophilum and the families Russulaceae and Thelephoraceae explained 56% of the whole ECM fungal community; other groups were represented among the community: Cortinariaceae, Boletaceae, Amanita, Genea, Pisolithus, Scleroderma, and Tuber. There were pronounced differences in ECM fungal community structure among the 15 montados stands: C. geophilum was the only species common to all stands, tomentelloid and russuloid species were detected in 87-93% of the stands, Cortinariaceae was detected in 60% of the stands, and the other groups were more unequally distributed. Ordination analysis revealed that ECM fungal richness was positively correlated with the silvo-pastoral exploitation regime and low mortality of cork oak, while ECM fungal abundance was positively correlated with extensive

  7. Structure and species composition of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities colonizing seedlings and adult trees of Pinus montezumae in Mexican neotropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, Frédérique; Ortega-Larrocea, María del Pilar; Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    Mexico is a center of diversity for pines, but few studies have examined the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities associated with pines in this country. We investigated the ECM communities associated with Pinus montezumae seedlings and mature trees in neotropical forests of central Mexico and compared their structure and species composition. Root tips were sampled on both planted seedlings and naturally occurring adult trees. A total of 42 ECM operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was found on P. montezumae. Diversity and similarity indices showed that community structure was similar for both plant growth stages, but phylogenetic diversity and Chao-estimated richness were higher for seedlings. Species composition differed between communities. The dominant OTUs belonged to the families Atheliaceae, Cortinariaceae, and Sebacinaceae, although different taxa appeared to colonize seedlings and adults. Only 12 OTUs were shared between seedlings and adults, which suggests that ECM fungi which colonize seedlings are still not fully incorporated into mycelial networks and that ECM taxa colonizing young individuals of P. montezumae are likely to come from fungal propagules. Intra-generic diversity could be an insurance mechanism to maintain forest productivity under stressed conditions. This is the first report describing the abundance of Atheliaceae in tree roots in neotropical ecosystems.

  8. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of native and non-native Pinus and Quercus species in a common garden of 35-year-old trees

    OpenAIRE

    Trocha, Lidia K.; Kałucka, Izabela; Stasińska, Małgorzata; NOWAK, WITOLD; Dabert, Mirosława; Leski, Tomasz; Rudawska, Maria; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Non-native tree species have been widely planted or have become naturalized in most forested landscapes. It is not clear if native trees species collectively differ in ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and communities from that of non-native tree species. Alternatively, EMF species community similarity may be more determined by host plant phylogeny than by whether the plant is native or non-native. We examined these unknowns by comparing two genera, native and non-native Quercus robur an...

  9. Summer temperature increase has distinct effects on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of moist tussock and dry tundra in Arctic Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Luis N; Semenova, Tatiana A; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2015-02-01

    Arctic regions are experiencing the greatest rates of climate warming on the planet and marked changes have already been observed in terrestrial arctic ecosystems. While most studies have focused on the effects of warming on arctic vegetation and nutrient cycling, little is known about how belowground communities, such as fungi root-associated, respond to warming. Here, we investigate how long-term summer warming affects ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities. We used Ion Torrent sequencing of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region to compare ECM fungal communities in plots with and without long-term experimental warming in both dry and moist tussock tundra. Cortinarius was the most OTU-rich genus in the moist tundra, while the most diverse genus in the dry tundra was Tomentella. On the diversity level, in the moist tundra we found significant differences in community composition, and a sharp decrease in the richness of ECM fungi due to warming. On the functional level, our results indicate that warming induces shifts in the extramatrical properties of the communities, where the species with medium-distance exploration type seem to be favored with potential implications for the mobilization of different nutrient pools in the soil. In the dry tundra, neither community richness nor community composition was significantly altered by warming, similar to what had been observed in ECM host plants. There was, however, a marginally significant increase in OTUs identified as ECM fungi with the medium-distance exploration type in the warmed plots. Linking our findings of decreasing richness with previous results of increasing ECM fungal biomass suggests that certain ECM species are favored by warming and may become more abundant, while many other species may go locally extinct due to direct or indirect effects of warming. Such compositional shifts in the community might affect nutrient cycling and soil organic C storage. PMID:25156129

  10. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séne, Seynabou; Avril, Raymond; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Geoffroy, Alexandre; Ndiaye, Cheikh; Diédhiou, Abdala Gamby; Sadio, Oumar; Courtecuisse, Régis; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Selosse, Marc-André; Bâ, Amadou

    2015-10-01

    We studied belowground and aboveground diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal species colonizing Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape) mature trees and seedlings naturally regenerating in four littoral forests of the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles). We collected 546 sporocarps, 49 sclerotia, and morphotyped 26,722 root tips from mature trees and seedlings. Seven EM fungal species only were recovered among sporocarps (Cantharellus cinnabarinus, Amanita arenicola, Russula cremeolilacina, Inocybe littoralis, Inocybe xerophytica, Melanogaster sp., and Scleroderma bermudense) and one EM fungal species from sclerotia (Cenococcum geophilum). After internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, the EM root tips fell into 15 EM fungal taxa including 14 basidiomycetes and 1 ascomycete identified. Sporocarp survey only weakly reflected belowground assessment of the EM fungal community, although 5 fruiting species were found on roots. Seagrape seedlings and mature trees had very similar communities of EM fungi, dominated by S. bermudense, R. cremeolilacina, and two Thelephoraceae: shared species represented 93 % of the taxonomic EM fungal diversity and 74 % of the sampled EM root tips. Furthermore, some significant differences were observed between the frequencies of EM fungal taxa on mature trees and seedlings. The EM fungal community composition also varied between the four investigated sites. We discuss the reasons for such a species-poor community and the possible role of common mycorrhizal networks linking seagrape seedlings and mature trees in regeneration of coastal forests. PMID:25711744

  11. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séne, Seynabou; Avril, Raymond; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Geoffroy, Alexandre; Ndiaye, Cheikh; Diédhiou, Abdala Gamby; Sadio, Oumar; Courtecuisse, Régis; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Selosse, Marc-André; Bâ, Amadou

    2015-10-01

    We studied belowground and aboveground diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal species colonizing Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape) mature trees and seedlings naturally regenerating in four littoral forests of the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles). We collected 546 sporocarps, 49 sclerotia, and morphotyped 26,722 root tips from mature trees and seedlings. Seven EM fungal species only were recovered among sporocarps (Cantharellus cinnabarinus, Amanita arenicola, Russula cremeolilacina, Inocybe littoralis, Inocybe xerophytica, Melanogaster sp., and Scleroderma bermudense) and one EM fungal species from sclerotia (Cenococcum geophilum). After internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, the EM root tips fell into 15 EM fungal taxa including 14 basidiomycetes and 1 ascomycete identified. Sporocarp survey only weakly reflected belowground assessment of the EM fungal community, although 5 fruiting species were found on roots. Seagrape seedlings and mature trees had very similar communities of EM fungi, dominated by S. bermudense, R. cremeolilacina, and two Thelephoraceae: shared species represented 93 % of the taxonomic EM fungal diversity and 74 % of the sampled EM root tips. Furthermore, some significant differences were observed between the frequencies of EM fungal taxa on mature trees and seedlings. The EM fungal community composition also varied between the four investigated sites. We discuss the reasons for such a species-poor community and the possible role of common mycorrhizal networks linking seagrape seedlings and mature trees in regeneration of coastal forests.

  12. Monitoring ectomycorrhizal fungi at large scales for science, forest management, fungal conservation and environmental policy

    OpenAIRE

    Suz, Laura M.; Barsoum, Nadia; Benham, Sue; Cheffings, Chris; Cox, Filipa; Hackett, Louise; Jones, Alan G.; Mueller, Gregory M.; Orme, David; Seidling, Walter; van der Linde, Sietse; Bidartondo, Martin I.

    2015-01-01

    Key message The ICP Forests network can be a platform for large-scale mycorrhizal studies. Mapping and monitoring of mycorrhizas have untapped potential to inform science, management, conservation and policy regarding distributions, diversity hotspots, dominance and rarity, and indicators of forest changes.ContextA dearth of information about fungi at large scales has severely constrained scientific, forest management, fungal conservation and environmental policy efforts worldwide. Nonetheles...

  13. Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Associates of Pinus contorta in Soils Associated with a Hot Spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    OpenAIRE

    Cullings, Ken; Makhija, Shilpa

    2001-01-01

    Molecular methods and comparisons of fruiting patterns (i.e., presence or absence of fungal fruiting bodies in different soil types) were used to determine ectomycorrhizal (EM) associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a thermal soil classified as ultra-acidic to extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4). EM were sampled by obtaining 36 soil cores from six paired plots (three cores each) of both thermal soils and forest soils directly adjacent to the thermal area. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) w...

  14. Using isotopic patterns of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi to elucidate fungal sources of carbon and nitrogen in a Norway spruce stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Janet; Rinne-Garmston, Katja; Penttilä, Reijo; Hobbie, Erik; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2016-04-01

    To predict effects of global change on fungal community structure and the consequential effects on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, we first need to understand different fungal sources of C and N. We determined sources of C and N by measuring δ15N and δ13C of an extensive collection of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic sporocarps and their potential substrates from Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in southern Finland. The substrates included organic soil, roots in organic soil, mineral soil, roots in mineral soil, moss, needles, needles in litter, branches, twigs in litter, wood and decay wood from stages I-V. Notably, δ15N and δ13C analysis of wood in decay stages I-V was a novel measurement, as were our associations between wood decay fungi and the decay stage of trees. Decay stage of wood significantly correlated with the δ15N and δ13C of associated saprotrophic wood decay fungi species. Fungi were lower in δ15N by 0.3-0.7‰ when associated with decay wood in stages II and III compared to I and IV and higher in δ13C by 0.9-1.2‰ when associated with decay stage I compared to decay stages II-IV. The ectomycorrhizal fungi, Piloderma fallax, was significantly correlated with 15N enrichment of decay wood upon its introduction in decay stages III and IV that continued to the later decay stage V, with δ15N of decay stage V 1.5‰ higher than decay stage IV. These results indicate that wood decay fungi rely on C and N from various wood decay stages and influence C and N pools of wood as well. Litter decay fungi were lower in δ13C than wood decay fungi by 1.9‰ and higher in δ15N by 3‰ and isotopically tracked their C and N sources. Calocera viscosa, Gymnopus acervatus, and Leotia lubrica were highly 15N-enriched compared to other saprotrophic fungi and they had δ15N values similar to fungi with hydrophobic ectomycorrhizae indicating function more similar to ectomycorrhizal fungi or N sources similar to this functional group. Similar to other

  15. Whose truffle is this? Distribution patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity in Tuber melanosporum brûlés developed in multi-host Mediterranean plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschen, Elisa; Sauve, Mathieu; Taudiere, Adrien; Parlade, Javier; Selosse, Marc-André; Richard, Franck

    2015-08-01

    In the Mediterranean region, patches of vegetation recovering from disturbance and transiently dominated by shrubs produce one of the world's most prized fungi, the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum). In these successional plant communities, we have fragmentary knowledge of the distribution of T. melanosporum in space among ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host species and in time. Molecular identification of hosts (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) and fungi (Internal Transcribed Spacer sequencing) and quantification of T. melanosporum mycelium (quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction) were employed to evaluate the presence of T. melanosporum on four dominant ECM host species (Quercus ilex, Quercus  coccifera, Arbutus unedo, Cistus albidus) and the extent to which their respective ECM communities shared fungal diversity, over the course of development of truffle grounds, from recent unproductive brûlés to senescent ones where production has stopped. We found that truffle grounds host rich communities in which multi-host fungal species dominate in frequency. When considering both ECM tips and soil mycelia, we documented a dynamic and spatially heterogeneous pattern of T. melanosporum distribution in soils and a presence of ECM tips restricted to Q. ilex roots. This study advances our knowledge of the ecology of T. melanosporum, and provides insight into the extent of ECM fungal sharing among plant species that dominate Mediterranean landscapes. PMID:25522815

  16. Ectomycorrhizal fungal associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a hot spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, K.; Makhija, S.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular methods and comparisons of fruiting patterns (i.e., presence or absence of fungal fruiting bodies in different soil types) were used to determine ectomycorrhizal (EM) associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a thermal soil classified as ultra-acidic to extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4). EM were sampled by obtaining 36 soil cores from six paired plots (three cores each) of both thermal soils and forest soils directly adjacent to the thermal area. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) were collected for molecular identification and to compare fruiting body (above-ground) diversity to below-ground diversity. Our results indicate (i) that there were significant decreases in both the level of EM infection (130 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in forest soil; 68 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in thermal soil) and EM fungal species richness (4.0 +/- 0.5 species/core in forest soil; 1.2 +/- 0.2 species/core in thermal soil) in soils associated with the thermal feature; (ii) that the EM mycota of thermal soils was comprised of a small set of dominant species and included very few rare species, while the EM mycota of forest soils contained a few dominant species and several rare EM fungal species; (iii) that Dermocybe phoenecius and a species of Inocybe, which was rare in forest soils, were the dominant EM fungal species in thermal soils; (iv) that other than the single Inocybe species, there was no overlap in the EM fungal communities of the forest and thermal soils; and (v) that the fungal species forming the majority of the above-ground fruiting structures in thermal soils (Pisolithus tinctorius, which is commonly used in remediation of acid soils) was not detected on a single EM root tip in either type of soil. Thus, P. tinctorius may have a different role in these thermal soils. Our results suggest that this species may not perform well in remediation of all acid soils and that factors such as pH, soil temperature, and soil chemistry may interact to influence EM fungal

  17. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with Populus simonii and Pinus tabuliformis in the hilly-gully region of the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dongfeng; Liu, Jianjun; Han, Qisheng; Wang, Xiaobing; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The Loess Plateau region of northwestern China has unique geological and dry/semi-dry climate characteristics. However, knowledge about ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities in the Loess Plateau is limited. In this study, we investigated EMF communities in Populus simonii and Pinus tabuliformis patches within the forest-steppe zone, in pine forests within the forest zone, and the transitional zone between them. We revealed high species richness (115 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) of indigenous EMF resources at the Loess Plateau, of which Tomentella (35 OTUs), Inocybe (16), Sebacina (16), and Geopora (7) were the most OTU-rich lineages. EMF richness within the forest-steppe zone and the transitional zone was limited, while the natural pine forest maintained diverse EMF communities in the forest zone. The changes of EMF community richness and composition along arid eco-zones were highlighted for the complex factors including precipitation, soil factors, host, DBH, and altitude. Indicator analysis revealed that some EMF showed clear host preference and some taxa, i.e., genera Geopora and Inocybe, were dominant in drought and alkaline-saline conditions attributed to their environmental preference. This study revealed that EMF communities were quite limited in the forest-steppe zone, while the forest region contained diverse EMF communities in the Loess Plateau. PMID:27063338

  18. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with Populus simonii and Pinus tabuliformis in the hilly-gully region of the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dongfeng; Liu, Jianjun; Han, Qisheng; Wang, Xiaobing; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The Loess Plateau region of northwestern China has unique geological and dry/semi-dry climate characteristics. However, knowledge about ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities in the Loess Plateau is limited. In this study, we investigated EMF communities in Populus simonii and Pinus tabuliformis patches within the forest-steppe zone, in pine forests within the forest zone, and the transitional zone between them. We revealed high species richness (115 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) of indigenous EMF resources at the Loess Plateau, of which Tomentella (35 OTUs), Inocybe (16), Sebacina (16), and Geopora (7) were the most OTU-rich lineages. EMF richness within the forest-steppe zone and the transitional zone was limited, while the natural pine forest maintained diverse EMF communities in the forest zone. The changes of EMF community richness and composition along arid eco-zones were highlighted for the complex factors including precipitation, soil factors, host, DBH, and altitude. Indicator analysis revealed that some EMF showed clear host preference and some taxa, i.e., genera Geopora and Inocybe, were dominant in drought and alkaline-saline conditions attributed to their environmental preference. This study revealed that EMF communities were quite limited in the forest-steppe zone, while the forest region contained diverse EMF communities in the Loess Plateau. PMID:27063338

  19. Multiscale assemblage of an ectomycorrhizal fungal community: the influence of host functional traits and soil properties in a 10-ha miombo forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, David; Raspé, Olivier; Meerts, Pierre; Degreef, Jérôme; Ilunga Muledi, Jonathan; Drouet, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are highly diversified and dominant in a number of forest ecosystems. Nevertheless, their scales of spatial distribution and the underlying ecological processes remain poorly understood. Although most EMF are considered to be generalists regarding host identity, a preference toward functional strategies of host trees has never been tested. Here, the EMF community was characterised by DNA sequencing in a 10-ha tropical dry season forest-referred to as miombo-an understudied ecosystem from a mycorrhizal perspective. We used 36 soil parameters and 21 host functional traits (FTs) as candidate explanatory variables in spatial constrained ordinations for explaining the EMF community assemblage. Results highlighted that the community variability was explained by host FTs related to the 'leaf economics spectrum' (adjusted R(2) = 11%; SLA, leaf area, foliar Mg content), and by soil parameters (adjusted R(2) = 17%), notably total forms of micronutrients or correlated available elements (Al, N, K, P). Both FTs and soil generated patterns in the community at scales ranging from 75 to 375 m. Our results indicate that soil is more important than previously thought for EMF in miombo woodlands, and show that FTs of host species can be better predictors of symbiont distribution than taxonomical identity. PMID:27402715

  20. Intraspecific competition between ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus microcarpus isolates impacts plant and fungal performance under elevated CO2 and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortal, S; Powell, J R; Plett, J M; Simonin, A; Anderson, I C

    2016-08-01

    Root systems are simultaneously colonized by multiple individuals of mycorrhizal fungi. Intraspecific competitive interactions between fungal isolates are likely to affect both fungal and plant performance and be influenced by abiotic factors. Here, we assessed the impact of intraspecific competition between three Pisolithus microcarpus isolates on the establishment of, and benefit derived from, symbioses with Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. We investigated the outcomes of competition under ambient and elevated temperature and CO2 concentration ([CO2]) in a factorial design. We observed a reduction in mycelium growth, mycorrhiza formation and seedling mass when two P. microcarpus isolates were co-inoculated on a single E. grandis seedling. Isolates invested more in mycelium than in mycorrhizas in the presence of a competitor. All isolates responded negatively to elevated [CO2] and positively to elevated temperature, which led to no changes on the outcomes of the interactions with changing conditions. However, the presence of a competitor hindered the positive response of P. microcarpus isolates to warming, which resulted in larger negative effects of competition under elevated temperature than under ambient conditions. Our study highlights the need to consider how competition affects individual fungal responses as well as plant performance when trying to predict the impacts of climate change. PMID:27222224

  1. Characterisation of a Trichoderma hamatum monooxygenase gene involved in antagonistic activity against fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Margaret A; Ridgway, Hayley J; Stringer, Alison M; Hay, Amanda J; Stewart, Alison

    2008-04-01

    A monooxygenase gene was isolated from a biocontrol strain of Trichoderma hamatum and its role in biocontrol was investigated. The gene had homologues in other fungal genomes, but was not closely related to any fully characterised gene. The T. hamatum monooxygenase gene was expressed specifically in response to the plant pathogens Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotinia minor and Sclerotium cepivorum, but not in response to Botrytis cinerea or T. hamatum. Expression of the gene did not occur until contact had been made between the two fungal species. Homologues in T. atroviride and T. virens showed similar expression patterns. Expression of the gene in response to S. sclerotiorum was influenced by pH, with a peak of expression at pH 4, and was subject to nitrogen catabolite repression. Disruption of the monooxygenase gene did not affect the growth or morphology of T. hamatum, but caused a decrease in its ability to inhibit the growth and sclerotial production of S. sclerotiorum. The monooxygenase gene had a role in the antagonistic activity of Trichoderma species against specific fungal plant pathogens and is therefore a potentially important factor in biocontrol by Trichoderma species. PMID:18231791

  2. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities on seedlings and conspecific trees of Pinus mugo grown on the coastal dunes of the Curonian Spit in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Aučina, Algis; Rudawska, Maria; Leski, Tomasz; Ryliškis, Darius; Pietras, Marcin; Riepšas, Edvardas

    2010-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities of mature trees and regenerating seedlings of a non-native tree species Pinus mugo grown in a harsh environment of the coastal region of the Curonian Spit National Park in Lithuania were assessed. We established three study sites (S1, S2, and S3) that were separated from each other by 15 km. The ECM species richness was rather low in particular for mature, 100-year-old trees: 12 ectomycorrhizal taxa were identified by molecular analysis from 11 distinguished ...

  3. Ectomycorrhizal diversity enhances growth and nitrogen fixation of Acacia mangium seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Diagne, N.; Thioulouse, J.; Sanguin, H.; Prin, Y.; Krasova-Wade, T.; Sylla, S.; Galiana, A; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Neyra, Marc; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Lebrun, Michel; Duponnois, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Increasing interest has been given so far to the role of mycorrhizal symbiosis on plant diversity and ecosystem productivity. However much remains unknown about the effect of ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity on plant growth and rhizobial symbiosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of ectomycorrhizal diversity on root nodulation and plant nutrient uptake during plant growth. A gradient of ectomycorrhizal diversity was created (ranged from one to six fungal isolates) on...

  4. Disproportionate abundance between ectomycorrhizal root tips and their associated mycelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Extensive knowledge of various ectomycorrhizal fungal communities has been obtained over the past 10 years based on molecular identification of the fungi colonizing fine roots. In contrast, only limited information exists about the species composition of ectomycorrhizal hyphae in soil. This study...... at the times of insertion and retrieval of the mesh bags. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region. In total, 20, 31 and 24 ectomycorrhizal species were recorded from the two root-tip harvests and from the mesh bags, respectively. Boletoid species were...... significantly more frequent as mycelia than as root tips, while russuloid and Cortinarius species appeared to be less dominant as mycelia than as root tips. Tomentella species were equally frequent as root tips and as mycelia. These discrepancies between the root-tip and the mycelial view of the ectomycorrhizal...

  5. Compartmentalized and contrasted response of ectomycorrhizal and soil fungal communities of Scots pine forests along elevation gradients in France and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón, Ana; Santamaría-Pérez, Blanca; Rabasa, Sonia G.; Coince, Aurore; Marcais, Benoit; Buee, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are principal actors of forest soils implied in many ecosystem services and the mediation of tree's responses. Forecasting fungal responses to environmental changes is necessary for maintaining forest productivity, although our partial understanding of how abiotic and biotic factors affect fungal communities is restricting the predictions. We examined fungal communities of Pinus sylvestris along elevation gradients to check potential responses to climate change-associated factors. Fungi...

  6. Elevated CO2 and O3 effects on ectomycorrhizal fungal root tip communities in consideration of a post-agricultural soil nutrient gradient legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Carrie; Lilleskov, Erik A

    2014-11-01

    Despite the critical role of EMF in nutrient and carbon (C) dynamics, combined effects of global atmospheric pollutants on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are unclear. Here, we present research on EMF root-level community responses to elevated CO2 and O3. We discovered that belowground EMF community richness and similarity were both negatively affected by CO2 and O3, but the effects of CO2 and O3 on EMF communities were contingent on a site soil pH and cation availability gradient. These results contrast with our previous work showing a strong direct effect of CO2 and O3 on sporocarp community dynamics and production. We discuss the possible role of carbon demand and allocation by EMF taxa in the discrepancy of these results. EMF communities were structured by a legacy of spatially defined soil properties, changing atmospheric chemistry and temporal dynamics. It is therefore necessary to understand global change impacts across multiple environmental gradients and spatiotemporal scales.

  7. Compartmentalized and contrasted response of ectomycorrhizal and soil fungal communities of Scots pine forests along elevation gradients in France and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Ana; Santamaría-Pérez, Blanca; Rabasa, Sonia G; Coince, Aurore; Marçais, Benoit; Buée, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Fungi are principal actors of forest soils implied in many ecosystem services and the mediation of tree's responses. Forecasting fungal responses to environmental changes is necessary for maintaining forest productivity, although our partial understanding of how abiotic and biotic factors affect fungal communities is restricting the predictions. We examined fungal communities of Pinus sylvestris along elevation gradients to check potential responses to climate change-associated factors. Fungi of roots and soils were analysed at a regional scale, by using a high-throughput sequencing approach. Overall soil fungal richness increased with pH, whereas it did not vary with climate. However, when representative sub-assemblages, i.e. Ascomycetes/Basidiomycetes, and families were analysed, they differentially answered to climatic and edaphic variables. This response was dependent on where they settled, i.e. soil versus roots, and/or on their lifestyle, i.e. mycorrhizal or not, suggesting different potential functional weights within the community. Our results revealed a highly compartmentalized and contrasted response of fungal communities in forest soils. The different response of fungal sub-assemblages indicated a range of possible selective direct and indirect (i.e. via host) impacts of climatic variations on these communities, of unknown functional consequences, that helps in understanding potential fungal responses under future global change scenarios. PMID:25953485

  8. Asynchronous origins of ectomycorrhizal clades of Agaricales

    OpenAIRE

    Ryberg, Martin; Matheny, P. Brandon

    2011-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis is the most widespread biotrophic nutritional mode in mushroom-forming fungi. ECM fungi include, though are not limited to, about 5000 described species of Agaricales from numerous, independently evolved lineages. Two central hypotheses suggest different explanations for the origin of ECM fungal diversity: (i) dual origins, initially with the Pinaceae in the Jurassic and later with angiosperms during the Late Cretaceous, and (ii) a simultaneous and converge...

  9. Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Bin; DONG Yuan-Rong; HOU Wei-Guo; TONG Li-Hua; YUAN Sheng

    2007-01-01

    A survey was conducted for about 3 years to study the abundance and diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) in Jiangsu Province, China. The identification of the fungal species was based on the microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of their fruiting bodies. About 126 species of EMF were found in Jiangsu Province. These fungi were largely categorized into three orders (of 121 species), four families (of 96 species), and six genera (of about 86 species).

  10. 接种菌根菌对桉树生长的影响%Effect of Genotype and Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Inoculation on Growth of Eucalyptus Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲崇禄; Nicholas; Malajczuk

    2001-01-01

    Taking Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis × urophylla, as test materials, 2 mycorrhizal trials were conducted in 1993 and 1994 at Zhenhai Forest Farm, Kaiping of Guangdong Province. A split plot design was employed with 4 replicates, 2 host species, 8 ectomycorrhizal fungi and 6 or 9 trees per plot (experiment 1), or 3 ectomycorrhizal fungi and 9 trees per plot (experiment 2). After planting, tree height (H), diameter at ground level (D) and diameter at breast height (DBH) were measured at regular intervals. Effectiveness of isolates inoculated for E. grandis × urophylla were significantly different in all indexes between fungus treatments, by analysis of variation (ANOVA) for single species of data per experiment, the effectiveness of isolates for Eucalyptus urophylla were only significantly different in a few indexes between fungus treatments when using the same isolates as E. grandis × urophylla, which meant that tree genotype affected the effectiveness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in field; By ANOVA for 2 host species of data per experiment, order of variation composition for all indexes in experiment 1 was genotype effect > genotype × fungus interaction effect or fungus effect, the order for tree height in experiment 2 was genotype effect > genotype × fungus interaction effect or fungus effect, the order for DBH in experiment 2 was fungus effect > genotype effect > genotype × fungus interaction effect; In experiment 1, only D at 3 months after planting was significantly different between genotype × fungus interaction; In experiment 2, only tree heights at 6 months after planting was significantly different between the interaction. Finally, the role of tree genotype in applying ectomycorrhizal fungi was discussed.%以尾叶桉和巨尾桉为材料,1993和1994年在广东省开平市镇海林场建立了2个外生菌根菌接种试验,均采用裂区设计,4次重复,每试验均2个树种为主区,菌根菌处理为副区。试验1有8

  11. Phosphorus source alters host plant response to ectomycorrhizal diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, James W; Dighton, John

    2005-11-01

    We examined the influence of phosphorus source and availability on host plant (Pinus rigida) response to ectomycorrhizal diversity under contrasting P conditions. An ectomycorrhizal richness gradient was established with equimolar P supplied as either inorganic phosphate or organic inositol hexaphosphate. We measured growth and N and P uptake of individual P. rigida seedlings inoculated with one, two, or four species of ectomycorrhizal fungi simultaneously and without mycorrhizas in axenic culture. Whereas colonization of P. rigida by individual species of ectomycorrhizal fungi decreased with increasing fungal richness, colonization of all species combined increased. Plant biomass and N content increased across the ectomycorrhizal richness gradient in the organic but not the inorganic P treatment. Plants grown under organic P conditions had higher N concentration than those grown under inorganic P conditions, but there was no effect of richness. Phosphorus content of plants grown in the organic P treatment increased with increasing ectomycorrhizal richness, but there was no response in the inorganic P treatment. Phosphorus concentration was higher in plants grown at the four-species richness level in the organic P treatment, but there was no effect of diversity under inorganic P conditions. Overall, few ectomycorrhizal composition effects were found on plant growth or nutrient status. Phosphatase activities of individual ectomycorrhizal fungi differed under organic P conditions, but there was no difference in total root system phosphatase expression between the inorganic or organic P treatments or across richness levels. Our results provide evidence that plant response to ectomycorrhizal diversity is dependent on the source and availability of P. PMID:15809869

  12. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  13. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species. PMID:24783775

  14. Dramatic changes in ectomycorrhizal community composition, root tip abundance and mycelial production along a stand-scale nitrogen deposition gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Nilsson, Lars Ola; Hansen, Karin;

    2012-01-01

    • Nitrogen (N) availability is known to influence ectomycorrhizal fungal components, such as fungal community composition, biomass of root tips and production of mycelia, but effects have never been demonstrated within the same forest. • We measured concurrently the abundance of ectomycorrhizal...... root tips and the production of external mycelia, and explored the changes in the ectomycorrhizal community composition, across a stand-scale N deposition gradient (from 27 to 43 kg N ha¿¹ yr¿¹) at the edge of a spruce forest. The N status was affected along the gradient as shown by a range of N...... availability indices. • Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and mycelial production decreased five and 10-fold, respectively, with increasing N deposition. In addition, the ectomycorrhizal fungal community changed and the species richness decreased. The changes were correlated with the measured indices of N...

  15. Ectomycorrhizal fungi increase soil carbon storage: molecular signatures of mycorrhizal competition driving soil C storage at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, C.; Barry, B. K.; Hawkes, C.

    2015-12-01

    Soil carbon storage and decay is regulated by the activity of free-living decomposer microbes, which can be limited by nitrogen availability. Many plants associate with symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi on their roots, which produce nitrogen-degrading enzymes and may be able to compete with free-living decomposers for soil organic nitrogen. By doing so, ectomycorrhizal fungi may able to induce nitrogen limitation and reduce activity of free-living microbial decomposition by mining soil organic nitrogen. The implication is that ectomycorrhizal-dominated systems should have increased soil carbon storage relative to non-ectomycorrhizal systems, which has been confirmed at a global scale. To investigate these effects, we analyzed 364 globally distributed observations of soil fungal communities using 454 sequencing of the ITS region, along with soil C and N concentrations, climate and chemical data. We assigned operational taxonomic units using the QIIME pipeline and UNITE fungal database and assigned fungal reads as ectomycorrhizal or non-mycorrhizal based on current taxonomic knowledge. We tested for associations between ectomycorrhizal abundance, climate, and soil carbon and nitrogen. Sites with greater soil carbon had quantitatively more ectomycorrhizal fungi within the soil microbial community based on fungal sequence abundance, after accounting for soil nitrogen availability. This is consistent with our hypothesis that ectomycorrhizal fungi induce nitrogen-limitation of free-living decomposers and thereby increase soil carbon storage. The strength of the mycorrhizal effect increased non-linearly with ectomycorrhizal abundance: the greater the abundance, the greater the effect size. Mean annual temperature, potential evapotranspiration, soil moisture and soil pH were also significant predictors in the final AIC selected model. This analysis suggests that molecular data on soil microbial communities can be used to make quantitative biogeochemical predictions. The

  16. An overview of Cistus ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandini, O; Contu, M; Rinaldi, A C

    2006-09-01

    The genus Cistus comprises a group of about 20 shrub species found in wide areas throughout the whole Mediterranean region to the Caucasus. Being one of the main constituents of the Mediterranean-type maquis, this plant genus is peculiar in that it has developed a range of specific adaptations to resist summer drought and frequent disturbance events, such as fire and grazing. In addition, it can form both ectomycorrhizas and arbuscular mycorrhizas. In this paper, we review the information available on the ectomycorrhizal fungi of Cistus across its entire geographic range, as gathered and critically sifted from both published literature sources and personal observations. Although the resulting data matrix was based primarily on accounts of sporocarp inventories in the field, existing knowledge on the features of Cistus natural and synthesized ectomycorrhizas was also included and discussed. In total, more than 200 fungal species belonging to 40 genera have been reported so far to be associated with Cistus. An analysis of the pattern of ectomycorrhizal diversity and host specificity revealed that members of the Cortinariaceae and Russulaceae make the most of both Cistus-aspecific and Cistus-specific mycobionts. Further studies are needed to expand our preliminary knowledge of the mycorrhizal ecology and biology of Cistus and its fungal associates, focusing on topics such as mycobiont diversity, host specificity, fungal succession, mycorrhizal influence on stress tolerance, and impact of disturbances, while comparing the findings with those from other ecosystems. PMID:16896800

  17. Secreted fungal sulfhydryl oxidases: sequence analysis and characterisation of a representative flavin-dependent enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faccio Greta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfhydryl oxidases are flavin-dependent enzymes that catalyse the formation of de novo disulfide bonds from free thiol groups, with the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Sulfhydryl oxidases have been investigated in the food industry to remove the burnt flavour of ultraheat-treated milk and are currently studied as potential crosslinking enzymes, aiming at strengthening wheat dough and improving the overall bread quality. Results In the present study, potential sulfhydryl oxidases were identified in the publicly available fungal genome sequences and their sequence characteristics were studied. A representative sulfhydryl oxidase from Aspergillus oryzae, AoSOX1, was expressed in the fungus Trichoderma reesei. AoSOX1 was produced in relatively good yields and was purified and biochemically characterised. The enzyme catalysed the oxidation of thiol-containing compounds like glutathione, D/L-cysteine, beta-mercaptoethanol and DTT. The enzyme had a melting temperature of 57°C, a pH optimum of 7.5 and its enzymatic activity was completely inhibited in the presence of 1 mM ZnSO4. Conclusions Eighteen potentially secreted sulfhydryl oxidases were detected in the publicly available fungal genomes analysed and a novel proline-tryptophan dipeptide in the characteristic motif CXXC, where X is any amino acid, was found. A representative protein, AoSOX1 from A. oryzae, was produced in T. reesei in an active form and had the characteristics of sulfhydryl oxidases. Further testing of the activity on thiol groups within larger peptides and on protein level will be needed to assess the application potential of this enzyme.

  18. Characterisation of a New Fungal Immunomodulatory Protein from Tiger Milk mushroom, Lignosus rhinocerotis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparajah, V; Fatima, A; Chong, C H; Gambule, T Z; Chan, C J; Ng, S T; Tan, C S; Fung, S Y; Lee, S S; Tan, N H; Lim, R L H

    2016-07-27

    Lignosus rhinocerotis (Tiger milk mushroom) is an important folk medicine for indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia. We previously reported its de novo assembled 34.3 Mb genome encoding a repertoire of proteins including a putative bioactive fungal immunomodulatory protein. Here we report the cDNA of this new member (FIP-Lrh) with a homology range of 54-64% to FIPs from other mushroom species, the closest is with FIP-glu (LZ-8) (64%) from Ganoderma lucidum. The FIP-Lrh of 112 amino acids (12.59 kDa) has a relatively hydrophobic N-terminal. Its predicted 3-dimensional model has identical folding patterns to FIP-fve and contains a partially conserved and more positively charged carbohydrates binding pocket. Docking predictions of FIP-Lrh on 14 glycans commonly found on cellular surfaces showed the best binding energy of -3.98 kcal/mol to N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Overexpression of a 14.9 kDa soluble 6xHisFIP-Lrh was achieved in pET-28a(+)/BL21 and the purified recombinant protein was sequence verified by LC-MS/MS (QTOF) analysis. The ability to haemagglutinate both mouse and human blood at concentration ≥0.34 μM, further demonstrated its lectin nature. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of 6xHisFIP-Lrh on MCF-7, HeLa and A549 cancer cell lines was detected at IC50 of 0.34 μM, 0.58 μM and 0.60 μM, respectively.

  19. Characterisation of a New Fungal Immunomodulatory Protein from Tiger Milk mushroom, Lignosus rhinocerotis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparajah, V.; Fatima, A.; Chong, C. H.; Gambule, T. Z.; Chan, C. J.; Ng, S. T.; Tan, C. S.; Fung, S. Y.; Lee, S. S.; Tan, N. H.; Lim, R. L. H.

    2016-01-01

    Lignosus rhinocerotis (Tiger milk mushroom) is an important folk medicine for indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia. We previously reported its de novo assembled 34.3 Mb genome encoding a repertoire of proteins including a putative bioactive fungal immunomodulatory protein. Here we report the cDNA of this new member (FIP-Lrh) with a homology range of 54–64% to FIPs from other mushroom species, the closest is with FIP-glu (LZ-8) (64%) from Ganoderma lucidum. The FIP-Lrh of 112 amino acids (12.59 kDa) has a relatively hydrophobic N-terminal. Its predicted 3-dimensional model has identical folding patterns to FIP-fve and contains a partially conserved and more positively charged carbohydrates binding pocket. Docking predictions of FIP-Lrh on 14 glycans commonly found on cellular surfaces showed the best binding energy of −3.98 kcal/mol to N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Overexpression of a 14.9 kDa soluble 6xHisFIP-Lrh was achieved in pET-28a(+)/BL21 and the purified recombinant protein was sequence verified by LC-MS/MS (QTOF) analysis. The ability to haemagglutinate both mouse and human blood at concentration ≥0.34 μM, further demonstrated its lectin nature. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of 6xHisFIP-Lrh on MCF-7, HeLa and A549 cancer cell lines was detected at IC50 of 0.34 μM, 0.58 μM and 0.60 μM, respectively. PMID:27460640

  20. Characterisation of a New Fungal Immunomodulatory Protein from Tiger Milk mushroom, Lignosus rhinocerotis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparajah, V; Fatima, A; Chong, C H; Gambule, T Z; Chan, C J; Ng, S T; Tan, C S; Fung, S Y; Lee, S S; Tan, N H; Lim, R L H

    2016-01-01

    Lignosus rhinocerotis (Tiger milk mushroom) is an important folk medicine for indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia. We previously reported its de novo assembled 34.3 Mb genome encoding a repertoire of proteins including a putative bioactive fungal immunomodulatory protein. Here we report the cDNA of this new member (FIP-Lrh) with a homology range of 54-64% to FIPs from other mushroom species, the closest is with FIP-glu (LZ-8) (64%) from Ganoderma lucidum. The FIP-Lrh of 112 amino acids (12.59 kDa) has a relatively hydrophobic N-terminal. Its predicted 3-dimensional model has identical folding patterns to FIP-fve and contains a partially conserved and more positively charged carbohydrates binding pocket. Docking predictions of FIP-Lrh on 14 glycans commonly found on cellular surfaces showed the best binding energy of -3.98 kcal/mol to N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Overexpression of a 14.9 kDa soluble 6xHisFIP-Lrh was achieved in pET-28a(+)/BL21 and the purified recombinant protein was sequence verified by LC-MS/MS (QTOF) analysis. The ability to haemagglutinate both mouse and human blood at concentration ≥0.34 μM, further demonstrated its lectin nature. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of 6xHisFIP-Lrh on MCF-7, HeLa and A549 cancer cell lines was detected at IC50 of 0.34 μM, 0.58 μM and 0.60 μM, respectively. PMID:27460640

  1. Effects of air pollution and forest regeneration methods on the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Kårén, Ola

    1997-01-01

    This thesis describes the ectomycorrhizal community and how it is affected by nitrogen fertilization and forest regeneration methods. Fertilizer treatments included ammonium sulphate (NS), lime +P+K+Ca+Mg+S (N-free) and ammonium nitrate, applied in spruce (Picea abies) stands in south Sweden and a pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand in north Sweden. None of the fertilizers decreased the proportion of short-roots colonized by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Estimations of fungal biomass of sho...

  2. Influence of soil parameters on ectomycorrhizal diversity in montado ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Barrento, Maria João Hortas

    2012-01-01

    This study characterized the composition and the diversity of macrofungal communities associated with four plots of montado situated in Grândola Hills, Southern Portugal, and evaluated the influence of soil parameters on ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and abundance. Phosphorus, potassium, total nitrogen, organic matter concentrations and soil pH were the parameters determined. Differences in soil chemical features were found between studied plots. A total of 132 species of macrofungi were f...

  3. Rock-eating fungi: Ectomycorrhizal fungi are picky eaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Nicholas; Smits, Mark; Berner, Christoffer; Kram, Pavel; Wallander, Hakan

    2014-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, which form mutualistic symbiosis with the roots of most temperate and boreal forest trees, play a key role in the provision of nitrogen and phosphorus to their plant symbionts; they have also been shown to provide potassium and magnesium. Ectomycorhizal hyphae colonize and take up mineral nutrients (including P, K, and Mg) from primary mineral surfaces in the soil. It is poorly understood whether mineral colonization and uptake of nutrients from minerals can increase in accordance with host plant demand for these nutrients, and this question has been difficult to address in field settings. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities are diverse and niche separation according to nutrient uptake and transport to the host is commonly considered one of the major factors maintaining diversity and shaping ectomycorrhizal community composition.We investigated ectomycorrhizal growth, community composition, and mineral colonization in a series of connected Norway spruce forests in the Czech republic. These forests have similar aspect, climate and stand history, but are underlain by different parent materials and are, as a result, limited by different nutrients. The productivity of forests overlying a high amount of serpentinite rock are co-limited by K and P, those growing on primarily granitic rock are limited by Mg, while those on amphibolite are N limited. We assessed the fungal community in both soil and in-growth mesh bags measuring biomarkers, using in-growth assays and performing community analysis with 454 sequencing of the ITS region. In-growth mesh bags were filled with quartz sand and incubated for two growing seasons in the soil. These mesh bags select for ectomycorrhizal hyphae and were either pure quartz sand or amended with ground apatite (Ca and P source), hornblende (Mg source) or biotite (K source). Ectomycorrhizal growth and community composition were most strongly affected by parent material. The phosphorus-limited site had the lowest tree

  4. Litter-forager termite mounds enhance the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Acacia holosericea A. Cunn. Ex G. Don and Scleroderma dictyosporum isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Duponnois, Robin; Assigbetse, Komi; Ramanankierana, H.; Kisa, Marija; Thioulouse, J.; Lepage, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The hypothesis of the present study was that the termite mounds of Macrotermes subhyalinus (MS) (a litter-forager termite) were inhabited by a specific microflora that could enhance with the ectomycorrhizal fungal development. We tested the effect of this feeding group mound material on (i) the ectomycorrhization symbiosis between Acacia holosericea (an Australian Acacia introduced in the sahelian areas) and two ectomycorrhizal fungal isolates of Scleroderma dictyosporum (IR408 and IR412) in ...

  5. Oak root response to ectomycorrhizal symbiosis establishment: RNA-Seq derived transcript identification and expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Sebastiana

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis is essential for the life and health of trees in temperate and boreal forests where it plays a major role in nutrient cycling and in functioning of the forest ecosystem. Trees with ectomycorrhizal root tips are more tolerant to environmental stresses, such as drought, and biotic stresses such as root pathogens. Detailed information on these molecular processes is essential for the understanding of symbiotic tissue development in order to optimize the benefits of this natural phenomenon. Next generation sequencing tools allow the analysis of non model ectomycorrhizal plant-fungal interactions that can contribute to find the "symbiosis toolkits" and better define the role of each partner in the mutualistic interaction. By using 454 pyrosequencing we compared ectomycorrhizal cork oak roots with non-symbiotic roots. From the two cDNA libraries sequenced, over 2 million reads were obtained that generated 19,552 cork oak root unique transcripts. A total of 2238 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed when ECM roots were compared with non-symbiotic roots. Identification of up- and down-regulated gens in ectomycorrhizal roots lead to a number of insights into the molecular mechanisms governing this important symbiosis. In cork oak roots, ectomycorrhizal colonization resulted in extensive cell wall remodelling, activation of the secretory pathway, alterations in flavonoid biosynthesis, and expression of genes involved in the recognition of fungal effectors. In addition, we identified genes with putative roles in symbiotic processes such as nutrient exchange with the fungal partner, lateral root formation or root hair decay. These findings provide a global overview of the transcriptome of an ectomycorrhizal host root, and constitute a foundation for future studies on the molecular events controlling this important symbiosis.

  6. Oak root response to ectomycorrhizal symbiosis establishment: RNA-Seq derived transcript identification and expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiana, Mónica; Vieira, Bruno; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Monteiro, Filipa; Figueiredo, Andreia; Sousa, Lisete; Pais, Maria Salomé; Tavares, Rui; Paulo, Octávio S

    2014-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis is essential for the life and health of trees in temperate and boreal forests where it plays a major role in nutrient cycling and in functioning of the forest ecosystem. Trees with ectomycorrhizal root tips are more tolerant to environmental stresses, such as drought, and biotic stresses such as root pathogens. Detailed information on these molecular processes is essential for the understanding of symbiotic tissue development in order to optimize the benefits of this natural phenomenon. Next generation sequencing tools allow the analysis of non model ectomycorrhizal plant-fungal interactions that can contribute to find the "symbiosis toolkits" and better define the role of each partner in the mutualistic interaction. By using 454 pyrosequencing we compared ectomycorrhizal cork oak roots with non-symbiotic roots. From the two cDNA libraries sequenced, over 2 million reads were obtained that generated 19,552 cork oak root unique transcripts. A total of 2238 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed when ECM roots were compared with non-symbiotic roots. Identification of up- and down-regulated gens in ectomycorrhizal roots lead to a number of insights into the molecular mechanisms governing this important symbiosis. In cork oak roots, ectomycorrhizal colonization resulted in extensive cell wall remodelling, activation of the secretory pathway, alterations in flavonoid biosynthesis, and expression of genes involved in the recognition of fungal effectors. In addition, we identified genes with putative roles in symbiotic processes such as nutrient exchange with the fungal partner, lateral root formation or root hair decay. These findings provide a global overview of the transcriptome of an ectomycorrhizal host root, and constitute a foundation for future studies on the molecular events controlling this important symbiosis.

  7. The effect of fertilization on the below-ground diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Shannon H A; Berch, Shannon M; Berbee, Mary L

    2009-04-01

    Fertilization typically reduces ectomycorrhizal diversity shortly after its application but less is known about its longer-term influence on fungal species. Long-term effects are important in forests where fertilizer is rarely applied. We compared fungal species composition in western hemlock control plots with plots last fertilized 7 years ago with nitrogen (N) or nitrogen plus phosphorus (N + P). The N + P fertilization had a significant lingering effect, increasing the tree size and foliar P content of the western hemlocks. From ectomycorrhizal roots of 24-year-old trees from northern Vancouver Island, Canada, we identified fungi from 12 samples per treatment, by amplifying, cloning, and sequencing fungal ribosomal DNA fragments, placing sequences with 97% or more identity in the same operational taxonomic unit (OTU). Diversity was high across treatments; we detected 77 fungal OTUs, 52 from ectomycorrhizal genera, among 922 clone sequences. The five most frequent OTUs were similar in abundance across treatments. Only 19 OTUs matched any of the 197 previously reported ectomycorrhizal species of western hemlock. Species composition but not diversity in nitrogen plus phosphorus plots differed significantly from control or nitrogen plots. Two Cortinarius OTUs were indicator species for nitrogen plus phosphorus plots and presence of Cortinarius cinnamomeus was correlated with control or nitrogen plots. After 7 years, fertilization history had made no detectable difference in ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity, but long-lasting changes in environment resulting from fertilization had a lingering effect on fungal ectomycorrhizal species composition. PMID:19139932

  8. Bio-Mobilization of Potassium from Clay Minerals: II. By Ectomycorrhizal Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, including Cenococcum geophilurn SIV (Cg SIV), and Pisolithus tinctorius 2144(Pt 2144), 441 (Pt 441) and XC1 (Pt XC1), were cultured in Pachlewski liquid medium with H2KPO4, KClsaturated vermiculite and mica as K sources, respectively, to investigate the mechanism of K absorption and mobilization by the fungi. Fungal growth rate, K absorption and mobilization varied significantly among the fungal species. Faster growth and greater K accumulation in Pt XC1 than Pt 2 144, Pt 441 and Cg siv were observed. Ectomycorrhizal fungi depressed HCl-soluble K in minerals after successive extractions by water and NH4OAc. Ratio of the total amount of K, including water-, NH4OAc- and HCl-soluble K, lost from substrates to the K accumulated in fungal colonies was less than 60%. These reveal that the ectomycorrhizal fungi could utilize K in interlayer and structural pools, which are usually unavailable for plants in short period. Large differences in the depletion of K in interlayer and structural pools by fungi were observed at fungal harvest. Taking into account the nutrient absorption by ectomycorrhizal fungi in symbionts and the direct contact between hyphae and soils, the fungi species colonized on the root surfaces seemed to be related to the effectiveness of mycorrhizas to utilize K in soils. Ectomycorrhizal fungi differed in the efflux of protons and oxalate. Pt XC1 was observed to have greatest ability to effuse protons and oxalate among the fungi adopted in the experiment. Furthermore, the higher the concentrations of protons and oxalate in the liquid culture solutions, the larger the depletion of K in interlayer and structural pools in minerals by fungi. Protons could replace interlayer K and chelation of oxalate with Fe and A1 in crystal lattice could cause weathering of clay minerals. So, protons and oxalate produced by ectomycorrhizal fungi might play an important role in K mobilization in these two pools.

  9. Chewing up the Wood-Wide Web: Selective Grazing on Ectomycorrhizal Fungi by Collembola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Kanters

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mycelia of some symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi form extensive networks—the so called “wood-wide web”—that have key roles in biogeochemical cycling. By interacting with myriad soil organisms such as collembola, the fungi directly affect the functioning of above- and below-ground multitrophic interactions in ecosystems. Here we tested whether the grazing activities of collembola affected the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi in single or mixed species axenic cultures, and their impact on ectomycorrhizal diversity in litterbags in the field. We also used 14CO2 pulse-labelling to test the effects of collembola on respiratory losses of recent plant assimilate from external mycelium of ectomycorrhizal fungi in symbiosis with Scots pine or birch. We found that the effects of collembola varied across species, and caused a significant reduction in the amount of 14CO2 released from external mycorrhizal mycelium from three of the eight species combinations but increased it in one. Selective grazing also significantly affected the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Our findings demonstrate the importance of collembola in regulating ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and activity and below-ground pathways of carbon flow.

  10. Species richness and abundance of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete sporocarps on a moisture gradient in the Tsuga heterophylla zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Thomas E.; Ammirati, Joseph F.; Schreiner, Edward G.

    1999-01-01

    Sporocarps of epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungi and vegetation data were collected from eight Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. - Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco stands along a wet to dry gradient in Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A. One hundred and fifty species of ectomycorrhizal fungi were collected from a total sample area of 2.08 ha. Over 2 years, fungal species richness ranged from 19 to 67 taxa per stand. Sporocarp standing crop ranged from 0 to 3.8 kg/ha, averaging 0.58 kg/ha, 0.06 kg/ha in spring and 0.97 kg/ha in fall. Sporocarp standing crop and fungal species richness were correlated with precipitation. These results demonstrated that ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarp abundance and species richness can be partly explained in terms of an environmental gradient.

  11. Molecular genetic characterisation of the Asc locus of tomato conferring resistance to the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biezen, E.A. van der; Overduin, B.; Kneppers, T.J.A.; Mesbah, L.A.; Nijkamp, H.J.J.; Hille, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Alternaria stem canker disease of tomato is caused by the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici and its host-selective AAL-toxins. Resistance to the pathogen and insensitivity to the toxins are conferred by the Asc locus on chromosome 3L. Sensitivity to AAL-toxins is a relative

  12. Beyond ectomycorrhizal bipartite networks: projected networks demonstrate contrasted patterns between early- and late-successional plants in Corsica

    OpenAIRE

    Taudiere, Adrien; Munoz, François; Lesne, Annick; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Bellanger, Jean-Michel; Selosse, Marc-André; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Richard, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis connects mutualistic plants and fungal species into bipartite networks. While links between one focal ECM plant and its fungal symbionts have been widely documented, systemic views of ECM networks are lacking, in particular, concerning the ability of fungal species to mediate indirect ecological interactions between ECM plant species (projected-ECM networks). We assembled a large dataset of plant–fungi associations at the species level and at the scale of C...

  13. Diversity of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Associated with Eucalyptus in Africa and Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ducousso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the Australian genus Eucalyptus in short rotation plantations in Africa and Madagascar has developed over the last century to such an extent that it is becoming the most frequently planted genus in Africa. In order to find ecologically well-adapted eucalypts, foresters have tested different species of various origins and the number of tested Eucalyptus species now exceeds 150 in Africa. Due to the ability of eucalypts to naturally form ectomycorrhizae, even in the absence of any controlled introduction of compatible ectomycorrhizal fungal partners, their introduction in new ecosystems has direct consequences for ectomycorrhizal fungus communities. A bibliographical compilation, together with original field observations on putative ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with eucalypts in Africa and in Madagascar, has been drawn up in two lists: one for Africa and one for Madagascar where surprisingly high fungal diversity was observed. The level of diversity, the putative origin of the fungi, and their potential impact on native ectomycorrhizal fungi are discussed. The development of eucalypts plantations will inexorably lead to the increase of exotic fungal species being potentially invasive in the considered region.

  14. Ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity and community structure with natural and cultivated truffle hosts: applying lessons learned to future truffle culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Ana María; Águeda, Beatriz; Sánchez, Sergio; Parladé, Javier

    2014-04-01

    Since the first truffle plantations were established in France, Italy and other parts in the world, many studies have been carried out to improve their productivity and sustainability. Success of plantations is clearly related to the mycorrhizal status of the host trees over the years, from inoculated seedlings to truffle-producing trees. The experience gained in monitoring the ectomycorrhizal fungus status in cultivated truffle grounds has allowed us to develop an extensive catalogue of the ectomycorrhizal fungi present in truffle plantations. Herein, we summarize fungal community data from 85 references that represent different truffle studies in natural habitats and plantations. Approximately 25% of the ectomycorrhizae reported in the 85 references are common to most of the studies. In general, more fungal species are detected in productive plantations than in the non-productive ones. Truffle plantations display a diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal community, in which species of the genus Tuber are well represented. Tuber rufum and some members of Boletales are typically restricted to productive truffle plots. On the other hand, Hebeloma, Laccaria and Russula species are mostly associated with unproductive plots. Ectomycorrhizae belonging to Thelephoraceae are frequently found in mature truffle orchards but do not seem to affect sporocarp production. Several biotic and abiotic factors affect the ectomycorrhizal fungus communities associated with truffle orchards. Among them are plantation age, host species and its growth, the surrounding environment (particularly the presence of other ectomycorrhizal hosts), and plantation management. Understanding the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities inhabiting different plantations may give us clues about the dynamics of the targeted truffles and the possibility of identifying mycorrhizal fungal species that are good indicators of successful truffle plantations. PMID:24424507

  15. Ectomycorrhizal communities associated with silver fir seedlings (Abies alba Mill.) differ largely in mature silver fir stands and in Scots pine forecrops

    OpenAIRE

    Ważny, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    & Context The requirement for rebuilding forecrop stands besides replacement of meadow vegetation with forest plants and formation of soil humus is the presence of a compatible ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community. & Aims This study aims to assess ectomycorrhizal fungi di-versity associated with silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) seedlings regenerating in silver fir stands and Scots pine forecrops. & Methods One-year-old seedlings were sampled in six study sites: three mature fir forests and thr...

  16. Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Affects Ectomycorrhizal Species Abundance and Increases Sporocarp Production under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Godbold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities during the last century have increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Forest net primary productivity increases in response to elevated CO2, altering the quantity and quality of carbon supplied to the rhizosphere. Ectomycorrhizal fungi form obligate symbiotic associations with the fine roots of trees that mediate improved scavenging for nutrients in exchange for a carbohydrate supply. Understanding how the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi is altered by climate change is important to further our understanding of ecosystem function. Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica were grown in an elevated CO2 atmosphere delivered using free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE under field conditions in the U.K., and Picea abies was grown under elevated CO2 in glass domes in the Czech Republic. We used morphotyping and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the fungal ribosomal operon to study ectomycorrhizal community structure. Under FACE, un-colonised roots tips increased in abundance for Fagus sylvatica, and during 2006, sporocarp biomass of Peziza badia significantly increased. In domes, ectomycorrhizal community composition shifted from short-distance and smooth medium-distance to contact exploration types. Supply and competition for carbon belowground can influence ectomycorrhizal community structure with the potential to alter ecosystem function.

  17. Ectomycorrhizal networks and seedling establishment during early primary succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Kazuhide

    2006-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal mycelia are the main organs for nutrient uptake in many woody plants, and often connect seedlings to mature trees. While it is known that resources are shared among connected plants via common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs), the net effects of CMNs on seedling performance in the field are almost unknown. CMNs of individual ECM fungal species were produced in an early succession volcanic desert by transplanting current-year seedlings of Salix reinii with ECM mother trees that had been inoculated with one of 11 dominant ECM fungal species. Most seedlings were connected to individual CMNs without being infected by other ECM fungi. Although control seedlings showed poor growth under severe nutrient competition with larger nonmycorrhizal mother trees, nutrient acquisition and growth of seedlings connected to CMNs were improved with most fungal species. The positive effects of CMNs on seedling performance were significantly different among ECM fungal species; for example, the maximum difference in seedling nitrogen acquisition was 1 : 5.9. The net effects of individual CMNs in the field and interspecific variation among ECM fungal species are shown. PMID:16390428

  18. Contrasting diversity and host association of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes versus root-associated ascomycetes in a dipterocarp rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Toju, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota) in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) region and fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region were sequenced using tag-encoded, massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to identify host plant and root-associated fungal taxa in root samples. In total, 1245 ascomycetous and 127 putative ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous taxa were detected from 442 root samples. The putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota were likely to be associated with closely related dipterocarp taxa to greater or lesser extents, whereas host association patterns of the root-associated Ascomycota were much less distinct. The community structure of the putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota was possibly more influenced by host genetic distances than was that of the root-associated Ascomycota. This study also indicated that in dipterocarp rainforests, root-associated Ascomycota were characterized by high biodiversity and indistinct host association patterns, whereas ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota showed less biodiversity and a strong host phylogenetic preference for dipterocarp trees. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that root-associated Ascomycota, which might be mainly represented by root-endophytic fungi, have biodiversity hotspots in the tropics, whereas biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota increases with host genetic diversity. PMID:25884708

  19. Contrasting diversity and host association of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes versus root-associated ascomycetes in a dipterocarp rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotoshi Sato

    Full Text Available Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL region and fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region were sequenced using tag-encoded, massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to identify host plant and root-associated fungal taxa in root samples. In total, 1245 ascomycetous and 127 putative ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous taxa were detected from 442 root samples. The putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota were likely to be associated with closely related dipterocarp taxa to greater or lesser extents, whereas host association patterns of the root-associated Ascomycota were much less distinct. The community structure of the putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota was possibly more influenced by host genetic distances than was that of the root-associated Ascomycota. This study also indicated that in dipterocarp rainforests, root-associated Ascomycota were characterized by high biodiversity and indistinct host association patterns, whereas ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota showed less biodiversity and a strong host phylogenetic preference for dipterocarp trees. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that root-associated Ascomycota, which might be mainly represented by root-endophytic fungi, have biodiversity hotspots in the tropics, whereas biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota increases with host genetic diversity.

  20. Sugar for my honey: carbohydrate partitioning in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Uwe; Grunze, Nina; Willmann, Martin; Reich, Marlis; Küster, Helge

    2007-01-01

    Simple, readily utilizable carbohydrates, necessary for growth and maintenance of large numbers of microbes are rare in forest soils. Among other types of mutualistic interactions, the formation of ectomycorrhizas, a symbiosis between tree roots and certain soil fungi, is a way to overcome nutrient and carbohydrate limitations typical for many forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhiza formation is typical for trees in boreal and temperate forests of the northern hemisphere and alpine regions world-wide. The main function of this symbiosis is the exchange of fungus-derived nutrients for plant-derived carbohydrates, enabling the colonization of mineral nutrient-poor environments. In ectomycorrhizal symbiosis up to 1/3 of plant photoassimilates could be transferred toward the fungal partner. The creation of such a strong sink is directly related to the efficiency of fungal hexose uptake at the plant/fungus interface, a modulated fungal carbohydrate metabolism in the ectomycorrhiza, and the export of carbohydrates towards soil growing hyphae. However, not only the fungus but also the plant partner increase its expression of hexose importer genes at the plant/fungus interface. This increase in hexose uptake capacity of plant roots in combination with an increase in photosynthesis may explain how the plant deals with the growing fungal carbohydrate demand in symbiosis and how it can restrict this loss of carbohydrates under certain conditions to avoid fungal parasitism. PMID:17078984

  1. EcM fungal community structure, but not diversity, altered in a Pb-contaminated shooting range in a boreal coniferous forest site in Southern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Nan; Jumpponen, Ari; Niskanen, Tuula; Liimatainen, Kare; Jones, Kenneth L; Koivula, Teija; Romantschuk, Martin; Strömmer, Rauni

    2011-04-01

    Boreal forests contain diverse fungal communities that form essential ectomycorrhizal symbioses with trees. To determine the effects of lead (Pb) contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with the dominant pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), we surveyed sporocarps for 3 years, analyzed morphotyped ectomycorrhizal root tips by direct sequencing, and 454-sequenced fungal communities that grew into in-growth bags during a 2-year incubation at a shooting range where sectors vary in the Pb load. We recorded a total of 32 ectomycorrhizal fungi that formed conspicuous sporocarps, 27 ectomycorrhizal fungal phylotypes from 294 root tips, and 116 ectomycorrhizal fungal operation taxonomic unit (OTUs) from a total of 8194 internal transcribed spacer-2 454 sequences. Our ordination analyses by nonparametric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated that the Pb enrichment induced a shift in the ectomycorrhizal community composition. This was visible as indicative trends in the sporocarp and root tip data sets, but was explicitly clear in the communities observed in the in-growth bags. The compositional shift in the ectomycorrhizal community was mainly attributable to an increase in the frequencies of OTUs assigned to genus Thelephora and to a decrease in the OTUs assigned to Pseudotomentella, Suillus, and Tylospora in Pb-contaminated areas when compared with the control. While the compositional shifts are clear, their functional consequences for the dominant trees or soil ecosystem function remain undetermined. PMID:21223331

  2. Phylogenetic, genomic organization and expression analysis of hydrophobin genes in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Plett, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophobins are morphogenetic, small secreted hydrophobic fungal proteins produced in response to changing development and environmental conditions. These proteins are important in the interaction between certain fungi and their hosts. In mutualistic ectomycorrhizal fungi several hydrophobins form a subclass of mycorrhizal-induced small secreted proteins that are likely to be critical in the formation of the symbiotic interface with host root cells. In this study, two genomes of the ectomyco...

  3. Effects of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi on Growth of Seedlings of Pinus densiflora

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Mi-Yeong; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the different effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal (ECMF) species on the growth of seedlings of Pinus densiflora, and the effects of ECMF diversity on plant productivity. A total of five species of ECMF were isolated from root tips of pine seedlings collected from Mt. Songni and used as inocula. Pots containing pine seedlings were inoculated with either a single ECMF species or a mixture of five ECMF species. All of the seedlings formed ECM on their roots ...

  4. Identification of some ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes by PCR amplification of their gpd (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuzinger, N; Podeu, R; Gruber, F; Göbl, F; Kubicek, C P

    1996-01-01

    Degenerated oligonucleotide primers designed to flank an approximately 1.2-kb fragment of the gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes were used to amplify the corresponding gpd fragments from several species of the ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa Boletus, Amanita, and Lactarius. Those from B. edulis, A. muscaria, and L. deterrimus were cloned and sequenced. The respective nucleotide sequences of these gene fragments showed a moderate degree...

  5. Characterisation of the bacterial and fungal communities associated with different lesion sizes of dark spot syndrome occurring in the coral Stephanocoenia intersepta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sweet

    Full Text Available The number and prevalence of coral diseases/syndromes are increasing worldwide. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS afflicts numerous coral species and is widespread throughout the Caribbean, yet there are no known causal agents. In this study we aimed to characterise the microbial communities (bacteria and fungi associated with DSS lesions affecting the coral Stephanocoenia intersepta using nonculture molecular techniques. Bacterial diversity of healthy tissues (H, those in advance of the lesion interface (apparently healthy AH, and three sizes of disease lesions (small, medium, and large varied significantly (ANOSIM R  = 0.052 p<0.001, apart from the medium and large lesions, which were similar in their community profile. Four bacteria fitted into the pattern expected from potential pathogens; namely absent from H, increasing in abundance within AH, and dominant in the lesions themselves. These included ribotypes related to Corynebacterium (KC190237, Acinetobacter (KC190251, Parvularculaceae (KC19027, and Oscillatoria (KC190271. Furthermore, two Vibrio species, a genus including many proposed coral pathogens, dominated the disease lesion and were absent from H and AH tissues, making them candidates as potential pathogens for DSS. In contrast, other members of bacteria from the same genus, such as V. harveyii were present throughout all sample types, supporting previous studies where potential coral pathogens exist in healthy tissues. Fungal diversity varied significantly as well, however the main difference between diseased and healthy tissues was the dominance of one ribotype, closely related to the plant pathogen, Rhytisma acerinum, a known causal agent of tar spot on tree leaves. As the corals' symbiotic algae have been shown to turn to a darker pigmented state in DSS (giving rise to the syndromes name, the two most likely pathogens are R. acerinum and the bacterium Oscillatoria, which has been identified as the causal agent of the colouration in

  6. Ectomycorrhizal fungi enhance nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition of Nothofagus dombeyi under drought conditions by regulating assimilative enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Olivares, Erick; Saavedra, Isabel; Alberdi, Miren; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Drought stress conditions (DC) reduce plant growth and nutrition, restraining the sustainable reestablishment of Nothofagus dombeyi in temperate south Chilean forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhizal symbioses have been documented to enhance plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake under drought, but the regulation of involved assimilative enzymes remains unclear. We studied 1-year-old N. dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. plants in association with the ectomycorrhizal fungi Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch. and Descolea antartica Sing. In greenhouse experiments, shoot and root dry weights, mycorrhizal colonization, foliar N and P concentrations, and root enzyme activities [glutamate synthase (glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT), EC 1.4.1.13-14), glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.2-4), nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1), and acid phosphomonoesterase (PME, EC 3.1.3.1-2)] were determined as a function of soil-water content. Inoculation of N. dombeyi with P. tinctorius and D. antartica significantly stimulated plant growth and increased plant foliar N and P concentrations, especially under DC. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation increased the activity of all studied enzymes relative to non-mycorrhizal plants under drought. We speculate that GDH is a key enzyme involved in the enhancement of ectomycorrhizal carbon (C) availability by fuelling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle under conditions of drought-induced carbon deficit. All studied assimilative enzymes of the ectomycorrhizal associations, involved in C, N, and P transfers, are closely interlinked and interdependent. The up-regulation of assimilative enzyme activities by ectomycorrhizal fungal root colonizers acts as a functional mechanism to increase seedling endurance to drought. We insist upon incorporating ectomycorrhizal inoculation in existing Chilean afforestation programs.

  7. Fungal arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and irritation (inflammation) of a joint by a fungal infection. It is also called mycotic arthritis. Causes Fungal ... symptoms of fungal arthritis. Prevention Thorough treatment of fungal infections elsewhere in the body may help prevent fungal ...

  8. Is the release of acid phosphatases by ectomycorrhizal fungi a matter of environmental conditions or species in situ?

    OpenAIRE

    Plassard, Claude; Ali, Muhhammad A.; Duchemin, Myriam; Legname-Vonarx, Elvira; Louche, Julien; Cloutier-Hurteau, Benoît

    2011-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are able to release significant amounts of phosphatases (Pases) in their environment. These enzymes, by releasing the phosphate group of organic P, may play an important role in the recycling of P in forest soil. However, whether this enzyme release depends on the fungal diversity and / or the nutrient availability is not known. We addressed this question in the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) forest, the first planted area in France on sandy podzol very poor in ...

  9. Ectomycorrhizal fungi slow soil carbon cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Colin; Hawkes, Christine V

    2016-08-01

    Respiration of soil organic carbon is one of the largest fluxes of CO2 on earth. Understanding the processes that regulate soil respiration is critical for predicting future climate. Recent work has suggested that soil carbon respiration may be reduced by competition for nitrogen between symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi that associate with plant roots and free-living microbial decomposers, which is consistent with increased soil carbon storage in ectomycorrhizal ecosystems globally. However, experimental tests of the mycorrhizal competition hypothesis are lacking. Here we show that ectomycorrhizal roots and hyphae decrease soil carbon respiration rates by up to 67% under field conditions in two separate field exclusion experiments, and this likely occurs via competition for soil nitrogen, an effect larger than 2 °C soil warming. These findings support mycorrhizal competition for nitrogen as an independent driver of soil carbon balance and demonstrate the need to understand microbial community interactions to predict ecosystem feedbacks to global climate. PMID:27335203

  10. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people.Infection can cause discomfo...

  11. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacteria on pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Dahm

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ecomycorrhizal fungi (Hebelon crustuliniforme(Bull.: Fr. Quél. 5392 and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers. Coker et Couch 5335 and bacteria (Bacillus polymyxa and Azospirillum brasilense. associated with mycorrhizas on the growth of pine seedligs was investigated. In addition the influence of bacteria on fungal biomass production and the relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungi and fungi pathogenic to root of pine seedlings were determined. In general, the shoot/root ratio was higher in plants inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme and bacteria than in the control seedlings (grown only under sterile conditions. In non-sterile substrate the root/shoot ratio of the mycorrhizal seedlings was lower as compared to the control. Similar phenomenon was noted in plants inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinetorius. The bacteria used as well as the time of introduction of these organisms into the cultures of mycorrhiza fungi affected the production of fungal biomass. Hebeloma crustuliniforme and Pisolithus tinctorius inhibited the growth of Rizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum fungi pathogenic to pine seedlings.

  12. Using next generation transcriptome sequencing to predict an ectomycorrhizal metabolome

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    Cseke Leland J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycorrhizae, symbiotic interactions between soil fungi and tree roots, are ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems. The fungi contribute phosphorous, nitrogen and mobilized nutrients from organic matter in the soil and in return the fungus receives photosynthetically-derived carbohydrates. This union of plant and fungal metabolisms is the mycorrhizal metabolome. Understanding this symbiotic relationship at a molecular level provides important contributions to the understanding of forest ecosystems and global carbon cycling. Results We generated next generation short-read transcriptomic sequencing data from fully-formed ectomycorrhizae between Laccaria bicolor and aspen (Populus tremuloides roots. The transcriptomic data was used to identify statistically significantly expressed gene models using a bootstrap-style approach, and these expressed genes were mapped to specific metabolic pathways. Integration of expressed genes that code for metabolic enzymes and the set of expressed membrane transporters generates a predictive model of the ectomycorrhizal metabolome. The generated model of mycorrhizal metabolome predicts that the specific compounds glycine, glutamate, and allantoin are synthesized by L. bicolor and that these compounds or their metabolites may be used for the benefit of aspen in exchange for the photosynthetically-derived sugars fructose and glucose. Conclusions The analysis illustrates an approach to generate testable biological hypotheses to investigate the complex molecular interactions that drive ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. These models are consistent with experimental environmental data and provide insight into the molecular exchange processes for organisms in this complex ecosystem. The method used here for predicting metabolomic models of mycorrhizal systems from deep RNA sequencing data can be generalized and is broadly applicable to transcriptomic data derived from complex systems.

  13. Mycorrhizal formation of nine ectomycorrhizal fungi on poplar cuttings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei MA; Xiaoqin WU; Ling ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    In order to discover which ectomycorrhizal-(ECM) fungi have better growth-promoting effects on poplars, cuttings from four poplar species were inoculated with nine species of ECM fungi by three methods. We investigated the status of mycorrhizal formation and the effects of these fungi on the growth of the poplars. The results show that Xrocomus chrysentero (Xc), Boletus edu-lis (Be), Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) and Laccaria amethystea (La) formed clear ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with the poplar seedlings. Among these four ECM fungi, Xc had the greatest ability to develop mycorrhizae with all four poplar species. Be shows a greater ability to form mycor-rhizae with Populus deltoides Bartr cv. 'Lux' (Poplar I-69). Pt and La had relatively weaker abilities of colonization. The other five ECM fungal species, i.e., Scleroderma luteus (S1), Leeeinum scabrum (Ls), Boletus speeiosus (Bs), Calvatia eraniiformis (Cc) and Rhizopogen luteous (RI) could not easily form mycorrhizae with poplar seed-lings grown in sterilized substrates, but could do so in non-sterilized soil. With the method of drilling and inject-ing liquid inoculum, a simple operation, the mycorrhizal infection rates were higher than with the other two meth-ods, applying solid inoculum as fertilizer at the bottom of the pots and dipping roots in the inoculum slurry. P. simonii Carr. formed mycorrhizae with most of the nine ECM fungi. P. × euramericana (Dode) Guinier cv. 'San Martino' (Poplar 1-72) and P. deltoids Harvard × P. del-toids Lux (Poplar NL-351) had the highest compatibility with Pt. Poplar I-69 shows the highest compatibility with Xc. The study indicates that the optimal ECM fungi for poplars I-69, I-72 and NL-351 were Be, Xc and Pt, respectively. The optimal fungi for P. simonii Carr. were Xc and Be. These ECM fungi promoted the growth of the poplar seedlings significantly.

  14. Diversity of ectomycorrhizal Thelephoraceae in Tuber melanosporum-cultivated orchards of Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Ana María; Águeda, Beatriz; Sáez, Raimundo; Sánchez, Sergio; Parladé, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Truffles are edible hypogeous ascomycetes highly appreciated worldwide, especially the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.). In recent decades, the cultivation of the black truffle has expanded across the Mediterranean climate regions in and outside its native range. Members of the Thelephoraceae (Thelephorales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) are commonly found in truffle plantations, but their co-occurrence with Tuber species and other members of the fungal community has been scarcely reported. Thelephoraceae is one of the most represented families of the ectomycorrhizal fungal community in boreal and Mediterranean forests. To reveal the diversity of these fungi in T. melanosporum-cultivated plantations, ten orchards located in the Navarra region (Northern Spain) were surveyed for 2 years. Morphological and molecular approaches were used to detect and identify the Thelephoraceae ectomycorrhizas present in those plantations. Ten different mycorrhizal types were detected and described. Four of them were morphologically identified as Tomentella galzinii, Quercirhiza cumulosa, Q. squamosa, and T39 Thelephoraceae type. Molecular analyses revealed 4-6 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), depending on the nucleotide database used, but similarities remained under 95 % and no clear species assignments could be done. The results confirm the diversity and abundance of this fungal family in the ectomycorrhizal community of black truffle plantations, generally established in Mediterranean areas. The occurrence and relative abundance of Thelephoraceae ectomycorrhizas is discussed in relation to their possible influence on truffle production. PMID:26458929

  15. Growth of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Pisolithus Microcarpus in different nutritional conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José Rossi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important plant species employed in reforestation programs depend on ectomycorrhizal fungi for their establishment and growth. The exploitation of this symbiosis to improve forest productivity requires fungal inoculants in a large scale level. To develop such a technology it is necessary to define the optimal composition of the culture medium for each fungus. With these objectives in mind, the effect of the composition of the culture medium on biomass production of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus microcarpus (isolate UFSC-Pt116 was studied. The original composition of two culture media, already employed for cultivation of ectomycorrhizal fungi, was submitted to several variations with the C/N ratio as the main variable. A variation of the Pridham-Gottlieb medium was the most efficient for the production of biomass. Therefore, it was submitted to a factorial assay where glucose, peptone and yeast extract components were the factors analyzed. Results showed that the glucose concentration may be increased up to 40 % in order to promote higher biomass production. Peptone had a positive effect on this variable, whereas yeast extract promoted a deleterious effect. These results indicate that it is advisable to eliminate yeast extract from the medium and replace it with peptone prior to use.

  16. Three-way interactions among ectomycorrhizal mutualists, scale insects, and resistant and susceptible pinyon pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, C A; Cobb, N S; Whitham, T G

    1997-05-01

    Herbivores and mycorrhizal fungi are important associates of most plants, but little is known about how these organisms interact. In a 9-yr experiment, we examined how the pinyon needle scale (Matsucoccus acalyptus) affects and is affected by the ectomycorrhizal mutualists found on the roots of scale-resistant and -susceptible pinyon pines (Pinus edulis). Three major results emerged. First, removal experiments demonstrated that scales negatively affected ectomycorrhiza. Second, although ectomycorrhiza could either positively or negatively influence scale performance by improving plant vigor or increasing plant investment in antiherbivore defenses, we found no ectomycorrhizal effect on scale mortality when we experimentally enhanced levels of ectomycorrhiza. This represented the first test of whether ectomycorrhiza promote plant resistance and contrasted with studies showing that arbuscular mycorrhiza negatively affected herbivores. Third, pinyon resistance to scales mediated the asymmetrical interaction between fungal mutualists and scale herbivores. High scale densities suppressed ectomycorrhizal colonization, but only on trees susceptible to scales. Similarities between mycorrhiza-herbivore interactions and competitive interactions among herbivores suggest broader generalities in the way aboveground herbivores interact with belowground plant associates. However, because mycorrhiza are mutualists, mycorrhiza-herbivore interactions do not fit within traditional competition paradigms. The widespread occurrence and importance of both herbivores and mycorrhiza argue for incorporating their interactions into ecological theory.

  17. Ectomycorrhizal communities above and below ground and truffle productivity in a Tuber aestivum orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Salerni; Maria D'Aguanno; Pamela Leonardi; Claudia Perini

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities (EM) above (EMFb) and below (EMMt) ground associated with Quercus cerris L., Q. pubescens Willd., and Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold was analyzed.Area of study: A 20 year-old orchard that produces Tuber aestivum truffles, located a few kilometers from Chiusi della Verna (latitude 43° 41’ 53’’; longitude 11° 56’ 9’’) in Tuscany (central Italy) was observed.Material and Methods: This investigation combined analyses of EMFb, EMMt, T. aest...

  18. Lack of host specificity leads to independent assortment of dipterocarps and ectomycorrhizal fungi across a soil fertility gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peay, Kabir G; Russo, Sabrina E; McGuire, Krista L; Lim, Zhenyu; Chan, Ju Ping; Tan, Sylvester; Davies, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    Plants interact with a diversity of microorganisms, and there is often concordance in their community structures. Because most community-level studies are observational, it is unclear if such concordance arises because of host specificity, in which microorganisms or plants limit each other's occurrence. Using a reciprocal transplant experiment, we tested the hypothesis that host specificity between trees and ectomycorrhizal fungi determines patterns of tree and fungal soil specialisation. Seedlings of 13 dipterocarp species with contrasting soil specialisations were seeded into plots crossing soil type and canopy openness. Ectomycorrhizal colonists were identified by DNA sequencing. After 2.5 years, we found no evidence of host specificity. Rather, soil environment was the primary determinant of ectomycorrhizal diversity and composition on seedlings. Despite their close symbiosis, our results show that ectomycorrhizal fungi and tree communities in this Bornean rain forest assemble independently of host-specific interactions, raising questions about how mutualism shapes the realised niche. PMID:26032408

  19. Lack of host specificity leads to independent assortment of dipterocarps and ectomycorrhizal fungi across a soil fertility gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peay, Kabir G; Russo, Sabrina E; McGuire, Krista L; Lim, Zhenyu; Chan, Ju Ping; Tan, Sylvester; Davies, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    Plants interact with a diversity of microorganisms, and there is often concordance in their community structures. Because most community-level studies are observational, it is unclear if such concordance arises because of host specificity, in which microorganisms or plants limit each other's occurrence. Using a reciprocal transplant experiment, we tested the hypothesis that host specificity between trees and ectomycorrhizal fungi determines patterns of tree and fungal soil specialisation. Seedlings of 13 dipterocarp species with contrasting soil specialisations were seeded into plots crossing soil type and canopy openness. Ectomycorrhizal colonists were identified by DNA sequencing. After 2.5 years, we found no evidence of host specificity. Rather, soil environment was the primary determinant of ectomycorrhizal diversity and composition on seedlings. Despite their close symbiosis, our results show that ectomycorrhizal fungi and tree communities in this Bornean rain forest assemble independently of host-specific interactions, raising questions about how mutualism shapes the realised niche.

  20. Mycorrhizal Fungal Community of Poplars Growing on Pyrite Tailings Contaminated Site near the River Timok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Katanić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Mycorrhizal fungi are of high importance for functioning of forest ecosystems and they could be used as indicators of environmental stress. The aim of this research was to analyze ectomycorrhizal community structure and to determine root colonization rate with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi of poplars growing on pyrite tailings contaminated site near the river Timok (Eastern Serbia. Materials and Methods: Identification of ectomycorrhizal types was performed by combining morphological and anatomical characterization of ectomycorrhizae with molecular identification approach, based on sequencing of the nuclear ITS rRNA region. Also, colonization of poplar roots with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septated endophytic fungi were analysed with intersection method. Results and Conclusions: Physico-chemical analyses of soil from studied site showed unfavourable water properties of soil, relatively low pH and high content of heavy metals (copper and zinc. In investigated samples only four different ectomycorrhizal fungi were found. To the species level were identified Thelephora terrestris and Tomentella ellisi, while two types remained unidentified. Type Thelephora terrestris made up 89% of all ectomycorrhizal roots on studied site. Consequently total values of Species richness index and Shannon-Weaver diversity index were 0.80 and 0.43, respectively. No structures of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were recorded. Unfavourable environmental conditions prevailing on investigated site caused decrease of ectomycorrhizal types diversity. Our findings point out that mycorrhyzal fungal community could be used as an appropriate indicator of environmental changes.

  1. Ectomycorrhizal identification in environmental samples of tree roots by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica ePena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Roots of forest trees are associated with various ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal species that are involved in nutrient exchange between host plant and the soil compartment. The identification of ECM fungi in small environmental samples is difficult. The present study tested the feasibility of attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy followed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA to discriminate in situ collected ECM fungal species. Root tips colonized by distinct ECM fungal species, i.e., Amanita rubescens, Cenococcum geophilum, Lactarius subdulcis, Russula ochroleuca, and Xerocomus pruinatus were collected in mono-specific beech (Fagus sylvatica and mixed deciduous forests in different geographic areas to investigate the environmental variability of the ECM FTIR signatures.A clear HCA discrimination was obtained for ECM fungal species independent of individual provenance. Environmental variability neither limited the discrimination between fungal species nor provided sufficient resolution to discern species sub-clusters for different sites. However, the de-convoluted FTIR spectra contained site-related spectral information for fungi with wide nutrient ranges, but not for Lactarius subdulcis, a fungus residing only in the litter layer. Specific markers for distinct ECM were identified in spectral regions associated with carbohydrates (i.e. mannans, lipids, and secondary protein structures. The present results support that FTIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis is a reliable and fast method to identify ECM fungal species in minute environmental samples. Moreover, our data suggest that the FTIR spectral signatures contain information on physiological and functional traits of ECM fungi.

  2. Soil propagule banks of ectomycorrhizal fungi share many common species along an elevation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yumiko; Nara, Kazuhide

    2016-04-01

    We conducted bioassay experiments to investigate the soil propagule banks of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in old-growth forests along an elevation gradient and compared the elevation pattern with the composition of EM fungi on existing roots in the field. In total, 150 soil cores were collected from three forests on Mt. Ishizuchi, western Japan, and subjected to bioassays using Pinus densiflora and Betula maximowicziana. Using molecular analyses, we recorded 23 EM fungal species in the assayed propagule banks. Eight species (34.8 %) were shared across the three sites, which ranged from a warm-temperate evergreen mixed forest to a subalpine conifer forest. The elevation pattern of the assayed propagule banks differed dramatically from that of EM fungi on existing roots along the same gradient, where only a small proportion of EM fungal species (3.5 %) were shared across sites. The EM fungal species found in the assayed propagule banks included many pioneer fungal species and composition differed significantly from that on existing roots. Furthermore, only 4 of 23 species were shared between the two host species, indicating a strong effect of bioassay host identity in determining the propagule banks of EM fungi. These results imply that the assayed propagule bank is less affected by climate compared to EM fungal communities on existing roots. The dominance of disturbance-dependent fungal species in the assayed propagule banks may result in higher ecosystem resilience to disturbance even in old-growth temperate forests. PMID:26231215

  3. Forest Age and Plant Species Composition Determine the Soil Fungal Community Composition in a Chinese Subtropical Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Fungal diversity and community composition are mainly related to soil and vegetation factors. However, the relative contribution of the different drivers remains largely unexplored, especially in subtropical forest ecosystems. We studied the fungal diversity and community composition of soils sampled from 12 comparative study plots representing three forest age classes (Young: 10-40 yrs; Medium: 40-80 yrs; Old: ≥80 yrs in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve in South-eastern China. Soil fungal communities were assessed employing ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Members of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota dominated the fungal community, with 22 putative ectomycorrhizal fungal families, where Russulaceae and Thelephoraceae were the most abundant taxa. Analysis of similarity showed that the fungal community composition significantly differed among the three forest age classes. Forest age class, elevation of the study plots, and soil organic carbon (SOC were the most important factors shaping the fungal community composition. We found a significant correlation between plant and fungal communities at different taxonomic and functional group levels, including a strong relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungal and non-ectomycorrhizal plant communities. Our results suggest that in subtropical forests, plant species community composition is the main driver of the soil fungal diversity and community composition.

  4. Transposable element dynamics among asymbiotic and ectomycorrhizal Amanita fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jaqueline; Skrede, Inger; Wolfe, Benjamin E; LaButti, Kurt; Ohm, Robin A; Grigoriev, Igor V; Pringle, Anne

    2014-07-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous inhabitants of eukaryotic genomes and their proliferation and dispersal shape genome architectures and diversity. Nevertheless, TE dynamics are often explored for one species at a time and are rarely considered in ecological contexts. Recent work with plant pathogens suggests a link between symbiosis and TE abundance. The genomes of pathogenic fungi appear to house an increased abundance of TEs, and TEs are frequently associated with the genes involved in symbiosis. To investigate whether this pattern is general, and relevant to mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses, we sequenced the genomes of related asymbiotic (AS) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Amanita fungi. Using methods developed to interrogate both assembled and unassembled sequences, we characterized and quantified TEs across three AS and three ECM species, including the AS outgroup Volvariella volvacea. The ECM genomes are characterized by abundant numbers of TEs, an especially prominent feature of unassembled sequencing libraries. Increased TE activity in ECM species is also supported by phylogenetic analysis of the three most abundant TE superfamilies; phylogenies revealed many radiations within contemporary ECM species. However, the AS species Amanita thiersii also houses extensive amplifications of elements, highlighting the influence of additional evolutionary parameters on TE abundance. Our analyses provide further evidence for a link between symbiotic associations among plants and fungi, and increased TE activity, while highlighting the importance individual species' natural histories may have in shaping genome architecture. PMID:24923322

  5. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis of tropical African trees

    OpenAIRE

    Bâ, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Moyersoen, B.; Diédhiou, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, ecology and function of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi and ectomycorrhizas (ECMs) on tropical African tree species are reviewed here. While ECMs are the most frequent mycorrhizal type in temperate and boreal forests, they concern an economically and ecologically important minority of plants in African tropical forests. In these African tropical forests, ECMs are found mainly on caesalpionioid legumes, Sarcolaenaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Asterpeiaceae, Phyllantaceae, Sapotaceae, Papil...

  6. Interactions between ectomycorrhizal associations and bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Marupakula, Srisailam

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forest podzol soils have vertically stratified horizons with different physico-chemical characteristics and high microbial diversity. Ectomycorrhizal fungi play key roles in accessing nutrients from both organic and mineral substrates. The role of associated bacteria in these processes is still poorly understood. The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to improve understanding of the distribution, diversity and community structure of fungi and bacteria on roots and in soil ...

  7. Fine-scale distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi colonizing Tsuga diversifolia seedlings growing on rocks in a subalpine Abies veitchii forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naohiro; Son, Joung A; Matsushita, Norihisa; Iwamoto, Kojiro; Hogetsu, Taizo

    2014-05-01

    Numerous species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi coexist under the forest floor. To explore the mechanisms of coexistence, we investigated the fine-scale distribution of ECM fungal species colonizing root tips in the root system of Tsuga diversifolia seedlings in a subalpine forest. ECM root tips of three seedlings growing on the flat top surface of rocks were sampled after recording their positions in the root system. After the root tips were grouped by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of ITS rDNA, the fungal species representing each T-RFLP group were identified using DNA sequencing. Based on the fungal species identification, the distribution of root tips colonized by each ECM fungus was mapped. Significant clustering of root tips was estimated for each fungal species by comparing actual and randomly simulated distributions. In total, the three seedlings were colonized by 40 ECM fungal species. The composition of colonizing fungal species was quite different among the seedlings. Twelve of the 15 major ECM fungal species clustered significantly within a few centimeters. Some clusters overlapped or intermingled, while others were unique. Areas with high fungal species diversity were also identified in the root system. In this report, the mechanisms underlying generation of these ECM root tip clusters in the root system are discussed. PMID:24212400

  8. Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Richard S; Jones, David L

    2010-06-01

    As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the growing season (spring and summer). We have used a culture-dependent method to isolate fungal endophytes and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction methods to determine arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation. All of the roots sampled contained culturable fungal root endophytes; additionally, we have provided molecular evidence that they also host arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Colonisation showed seasonal differences: Roots in the spring were colonised by Articulospora tetracladia, two isolates of uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungi, an unidentified species of fungal endophyte and Trichoderma viride, which was present in every plant sampled. In contrast, roots in the summer were colonised by Alatospora acuminata, an uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungus, Penicillium pinophilum and an uncultured fungal clone. Although the functional roles of fungal endophytes of D. rotundifolia are unknown, colonisation may (a) confer abiotic stress tolerance, (b) facilitate the acquisition of scarce nutrients particularly at the beginning of the growing season or (c) play a role in nutrient signalling between root and shoot. PMID:20012108

  9. An ectomycorrhizal nitrogen economy facilitates monodominance in a neotropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Adriana; Mangan, Scott A; Turner, Benjamin L; Dalling, James W

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests are renowned for their high diversity, yet in many sites a single tree species accounts for the majority of the individuals in a stand. An explanation for these monodominant forests remains elusive, but may be linked to mycorrhizal symbioses. We tested three hypotheses by which ectomycorrhizas might facilitate the dominance of the tree, Oreomunnea mexicana, in montane tropical forest in Panama. We tested whether access to ectomycorrhizal networks improved growth and survival of seedlings, evaluated whether ectomycorrhizal fungi promote seedling growth via positive plant-soil feedback, and measured whether Oreomunnea reduced inorganic nitrogen availability. We found no evidence that Oreomunnea benefits from ectomycorrhizal networks or plant-soil feedback. However, we found three-fold higher soil nitrate and ammonium concentrations outside than inside Oreomunnea-dominated forest and a correlation between soil nitrate and Oreomunnea abundance in plots. Ectomycorrhizal effects on nitrogen cycling might therefore provide an explanation for the monodominance of ectomycorrhizal tree species worldwide. PMID:26833573

  10. Spatial segregation and aggregation of ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi in the seedlings of two Quercus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Diverse clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi are potentially involved in competitive or facilitative interactions within host-plant roots. We investigated the potential consequences of these ecological interactions on the assembly process of root-associated fungi by examining the co-occurrence of pairs of fungi in host-plant individuals. Based on massively-parallel pyrosequencing, we analyzed the root-associated fungal community composition for each of the 249 Quercus serrata and 188 Quercus glauca seedlings sampled in a warm-temperate secondary forest in Japan. Pairs of fungi that co-occurred more or less often than expected by chance were identified based on randomization tests. The pyrosequencing analysis revealed that not only ectomycorrhizal fungi but also endophytic fungi were common in the root-associated fungal community. Intriguingly, specific pairs of these ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi showed spatially aggregated patterns, suggesting the existence of facilitative interactions between fungi in different functional groups. Due to the large number of fungal pairs examined, many of the observed aggregated/segregated patterns with very low P values (e.g., < 0.005 turned non-significant after the application of a multiple comparison method. However, our overall results imply that the community structures of ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi could influence each other through interspecific competitive/facilitative interactions in root. To test the potential of host-plants' control of fungus-fungus ecological interactions in roots, we further examined whether the aggregated/segregated patterns could vary depending on the identity of host plant species. Potentially due to the physiological properties shared between the congeneric host plant species, the sign of hosts' control was not detected in the present study. The pyrosequencing-based randomization analyses shown in this study provide a platform of the high

  11. Serpentine Soils Do Not Limit Mycorrhizal Fungal Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Sara; Ree, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Physiologically stressful environments tend to host depauperate and specialized biological communities. Serpentine soils exemplify this phenomenon by imposing well-known constraints on plants; however, their effect on other organisms is still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a combination of field and molecular approaches to test the hypothesis that serpentine fungal communities are species-poor and specialized. We conducted surveys of ectomycorrhizal funga...

  12. Convergence in mycorrhizal fungal communities due to drought, plant competition, parasitism, and susceptibility to herbivory: consequences for fungi and host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Catherine A; Mueller, Rebecca C; Haskins, Kristin E; Rubow, Tine K; Whitham, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Plants and mycorrhizal fungi influence each other's abundance, diversity, and distribution. How other biotic interactions affect the mycorrhizal symbiosis is less well understood. Likewise, we know little about the effects of climate change on the fungal component of the symbiosis or its function. We synthesized our long-term studies on the influence of plant parasites, insect herbivores, competing trees, and drought on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with a foundation tree species of the southwestern United States, pinyon pine (Pinus edulis), and described how these changes feed back to affect host plant performance. We found that drought and all three of the biotic interactions studied resulted in similar shifts in ectomycorrhizal fungal community composition, demonstrating a convergence of the community towards dominance by a few closely related fungal taxa. Ectomycorrhizal fungi responded similarly to each of these stressors resulting in a predictable trajectory of community disassembly, consistent with ecological theory. Although we predicted that the fungal communities associated with trees stressed by drought, herbivory, competition, and parasitism would be poor mutualists, we found the opposite pattern in field studies. Our results suggest that climate change and the increased importance of herbivores, competitors, and parasites that can be associated with it, may ultimately lead to reductions in ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity, but that the remaining fungal community may be beneficial to host trees under the current climate and the warmer, drier climate predicted for the future. PMID:25009537

  13. Convergence in mycorrhizal fungal communities due to drought, plant competition, parasitism and susceptibility to herbivory: Consequences for fungi and host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Gehring

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants and mycorrhizal fungi influence each other’s abundance, diversity and distribution. How other biotic interactions affect the mycorrhizal symbiosis is less well understood. Likewise, we know little about the effects of climate change on the fungal component of the symbiosis or its function. We synthesized our long-term studies on the influence of mistletoe parasites, insect herbivores, competing trees, and drought on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with a foundation tree species of the southwestern United States, pinyon pine (Pinus edulis, and described how these changes feed back to affect host plant performance. We found that drought and all three of the biotic interactions studied resulted in similar shifts in ectomycorrhizal fungal community composition, demonstrating a convergence of the community towards dominance by a few closely related fungal taxa. Ectomycorrhizal fungi responded similarly to each of these stressors resulting in a predictable trajectory of community disassembly, consistent with ecological theory. Although we predicted that the fungal communities associated with trees stressed by drought, herbivory, competition, and parasitism would be poor mutualists, we found the opposite pattern in field studies. Our results suggest that climate change and the increased importance of herbivores, competitors and parasites that can be associated with it, may ultimately lead to reductions in ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity, but that the remaining fungal community may be beneficial to host trees under the current climate and the warmer, drier climate predicted for the future.

  14. [Effect of exogenous calcium on the activities of antioxidative protective enzymes in ectomycorrhizal fungi under aluminum stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Xia; Huang, Jian-Guo; Yuan, Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Feng

    2012-10-01

    In order to investigate the function of Ca2+ in the alleviation of Al3+ stress in ectomycorrhizal fungi, four strains (Bo 02, Bo 15, Pt 715 and Sl 08) were grown in liquid culture media to study the Al resistance of different strains and the effect of exogenous Ca2+ (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mmol x L(-1)) on the activity of antioxidative protective enzymes under Al3+ stress. It was showed that ectomycorrhizal fungal species varied in resistance to Al3+ stress. Pt 715 and Sl 08 were more tolerant to Al3+ than Bo 02 and Bo 15 in vitro. The activities of CAT and SOD in Bo 02, SOD in Bo 15, CAT and POD in Sl 08 increased significantly under Al3+ stress. It was showed that the activities of these enzymes in ectomycorrhizal fungi had a close relationship with Al3+ stress. The enzymes in Bo 02 were most sensitive to exogenous Ca2+ and the function of Ca2+ in resisting Al3+ stress was the best in the four strains. A high concentration of Ca2+ (> or = 0.5 mmol x L(-1)) could alleviate or offset the increased activities of antioxidative protective enzymes by Al3+ stress in Sl 08.

  15. Integrated long-term responses of an arctic-alpine willow and associated ectomycorrhizal fungi to an altered environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization and morphotype community composition together with growth response and biomass distribution in the arctic-alpine, prostrate willow Salix herbacea L. x Salix polaris Wahlenb. after 11 seasons of shading, warming, and fertilization at a fellfield...... in subarctic Sweden. The aim was to assess responses of the integrated plant-fungal system to long-term field experiments simulating expected environmental changes. Warming more than doubled aboveground S. herbacea x S. polaris biomass and shoot growth, whereas shading and nutrient addition had less influence...

  16. Serpentine soils do not limit mycorrhizal fungal diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Branco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physiologically stressful environments tend to host depauperate and specialized biological communities. Serpentine soils exemplify this phenomenon by imposing well-known constraints on plants; however, their effect on other organisms is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a combination of field and molecular approaches to test the hypothesis that serpentine fungal communities are species-poor and specialized. We conducted surveys of ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity from adjacent serpentine and non-serpentine sites, described fungal communities using nrDNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS fragment and sequence analyses, and compared their phylogenetic community structure. Although we detected low fungal overlap across the two habitats, we found serpentine soils to support rich fungal communities that include representatives from all major fungal lineages. We failed to detect the phylogenetic signature of endemic clades that would result from specialization and adaptive radiation within this habitat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that serpentine soils do not constitute an extreme environment for ectomycorrhizal fungi, and raise important questions about the role of symbioses in edaphic tolerance and the maintenance of biodiversity.

  17. The role of phosphorus, magnesium and potassium availability in soil fungal exploration of mineral nutrient sources in Norway spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Nicholas P; Berner, Christoffer; Smits, Mark M; Krám, Pavel; Wallander, Håkan

    2016-07-01

    We investigated fungal growth and community composition in buried meshbags, amended with apatite, biotite or hornblende, in Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests of varying nutrient status. Norway spruce needles and soil collected from forests overlying serpentinite had low levels of potassium and phosphorus, those from granite had low levels of magnesium, whereas those from amphibolite had comparably high levels of these nutrients. We assayed the fungal colonization of meshbags by measuring ergosterol content and fungal community with 454 sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. In addition, we measured fine root density. Fungal biomass was increased by apatite amendment across all plots and particularly on the K- and P-deficient serpentinite plots, whereas hornblende and biotite had no effect on fungal biomass on any plots. Fungal community (total fungal and ectomycorrhizal) composition was affected strongly by sampling location and soil depth, whereas mineral amendments had no effect on community composition. Fine root biomass was significantly correlated with fungal biomass. Ectomycorrhizal communities may respond to increased host-tree phosphorus demand by increased colonization of phosphorus-containing minerals, but this does not appear to translate to a shift in ectomycorrhizal community composition. This growth response to nutrient demand does not appear to exist for potassium or magnesium limitation. PMID:26996085

  18. The role of phosphorus, magnesium and potassium availability in soil fungal exploration of mineral nutrient sources in Norway spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Nicholas P; Berner, Christoffer; Smits, Mark M; Krám, Pavel; Wallander, Håkan

    2016-07-01

    We investigated fungal growth and community composition in buried meshbags, amended with apatite, biotite or hornblende, in Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests of varying nutrient status. Norway spruce needles and soil collected from forests overlying serpentinite had low levels of potassium and phosphorus, those from granite had low levels of magnesium, whereas those from amphibolite had comparably high levels of these nutrients. We assayed the fungal colonization of meshbags by measuring ergosterol content and fungal community with 454 sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. In addition, we measured fine root density. Fungal biomass was increased by apatite amendment across all plots and particularly on the K- and P-deficient serpentinite plots, whereas hornblende and biotite had no effect on fungal biomass on any plots. Fungal community (total fungal and ectomycorrhizal) composition was affected strongly by sampling location and soil depth, whereas mineral amendments had no effect on community composition. Fine root biomass was significantly correlated with fungal biomass. Ectomycorrhizal communities may respond to increased host-tree phosphorus demand by increased colonization of phosphorus-containing minerals, but this does not appear to translate to a shift in ectomycorrhizal community composition. This growth response to nutrient demand does not appear to exist for potassium or magnesium limitation.

  19. Beyond ectomycorrhizal bipartite networks: projected networks demonstrate contrasted patterns between early- and late-successional plants in Corsica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eTaudiere

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ectomycorrhizal (ECM symbiosis connects mutualistic plants and fungal species into bipartite networks. While links between one focal ECM plant and its fungal symbionts have been widely documented, systemic views of ECM networks are lacking, in particular, concerning the ability of fungal species to mediate indirect ecological interactions between ECM plant species (projected-ECM networks. We assembled a large dataset of plant-fungi associations at the species level and at the scale of Corsica using molecular data and unambiguously host-assigned records to: (i examine the correlation between the number of fungal symbionts of a plant species and the average specialization of these fungal species, (ii explore the structure of the plant-plant projected network and (iii compare plant association patterns in regard to their position along the ecological succession. Our analysis reveals no trade-off between specialization of plants and specialization of their partners and a saturation of the plant projected network. Moreover, there is a significantly lower-than-expected sharing of partners between early- and late-successional plant species, with fewer fungal partners for early-successional ones and similar average specialization of symbionts of early- and late-successional plants. Our work paves the way for ecological readings of Mediterranean landscapes that include the astonishing diversity of below-ground interactions.

  20. Beyond ectomycorrhizal bipartite networks: projected networks demonstrate contrasted patterns between early- and late-successional plants in Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taudiere, Adrien; Munoz, François; Lesne, Annick; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Bellanger, Jean-Michel; Selosse, Marc-André; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Richard, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis connects mutualistic plants and fungal species into bipartite networks. While links between one focal ECM plant and its fungal symbionts have been widely documented, systemic views of ECM networks are lacking, in particular, concerning the ability of fungal species to mediate indirect ecological interactions between ECM plant species (projected-ECM networks). We assembled a large dataset of plant-fungi associations at the species level and at the scale of Corsica using molecular data and unambiguously host-assigned records to: (i) examine the correlation between the number of fungal symbionts of a plant species and the average specialization of these fungal species, (ii) explore the structure of the plant-plant projected network and (iii) compare plant association patterns in regard to their position along the ecological succession. Our analysis reveals no trade-off between specialization of plants and specialization of their partners and a saturation of the plant projected network. Moreover, there is a significantly lower-than-expected sharing of partners between early- and late-successional plant species, with fewer fungal partners for early-successional ones and similar average specialization of symbionts of early- and late-successional plants. Our work paves the way for ecological readings of Mediterranean landscapes that include the astonishing diversity of below-ground interactions. PMID:26539201

  1. Fungal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Fungal Meningitis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... the brain or spinal cord. Investigation of Fungal Meningitis, 2012 In September 2012, the Centers for Disease ...

  2. Genetic variability and taxonomic position of ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Shaveta; Reddy, M S; Marmeisse, R; Gay, G

    2004-01-01

    Eight ectomycorrhizal fungal isolates of Pisolithus associated with Eucalyptus species in different parts of India were collected and the genetic variability of these isolates was studied by ITS-RFLP and ITS sequencing. All the isolates showed same RFLP patterns with each restriction enzyme, indicating all these isolates of Pisolithus are of the same genotype. The sequence comparison of KN6 of Indian isolate showed high sequence similarities with the isolates of Pisolithus associated with Eucalyptus from Australia. Phylogeny analysis showed that all the isolates compared in this study clustered into four main groups The Indian isolate (KN6) clustered with Pisolithus albus isolates of group I, which are associated with Eucalyptus. These results suggested that Pisolithus isolates found in India are P. albus. PMID:15462520

  3. Towards global patterns in the diversity and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Bahram, Mohammad; Toots, Märt;

    2012-01-01

    nutrition in most temperate and many tropical forest ecosystems. Host plant family has the strongest effect on the phylogenetic community composition of fungi, whereas temperature and precipitation mostly affect EcM fungal richness that peaks in the temperate and boreal forest biomes, contrasting......Global species richness patterns of soil micro-organisms remain poorly understood compared to macro-organisms. We use a global analysis to disentangle the global determinants of diversity and community composition for ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi—microbial symbionts that play key roles in plant...... with latitudinal patterns of macro-organisms. Tropical ecosystems experience rapid turnover of organic material and have weak soil stratification, suggesting that poor habitat conditions may contribute to the relatively low richness of EcM fungi, and perhaps other soil biota, in most tropical ecosystems. For Ec...

  4. Ectomycorrhizal fungi - Molecular tools to study species and functional diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Landeweert, R.

    2003-01-01

    The extramatrical mycelium of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi represents a significant component of the ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbiosis, as the mycelium is primarily involved in the uptake of water and nutrients from the soil. The extramatrical mycelium may also actively mobilize nutrients from organic and mineral sources through excretion of enzymes and organic acids respectively. An observation of tunnel-like structures in weatherable mineral grains gave rise to the hypothesis that these were for...

  5. Nitrogen acquisition, transport and metabolism in intact ectomycorrhizal associations studied by 15N stable isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this thesis is on the external mycelium and its role in nitrogen uptake, assimilation and translocation. Tree seedlings in association with ectomycorrhizal fungi were grown in observation chambers. The fungal mycelium were fed with 15-N ammonium or 15-N nitrate or a combination of both. The effects of Collembola on the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis were also studied. The results demonstrates an important role of the external mycelium of Paxillus involutus not only in the uptake but also in the assimilation of ammonium into a variety of different amino acids, primarily glutamine but also glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and alanine, immediately after uptake. The results indicate that ammonium is assimilated by GS and GOGAT or GDH in the mycelium at the uptake site. When nitrate was added to the mycelium as the sole nitrogen source nitrate was reduced in the mycelium and the product assimilated into amino acids. When ammonium nitrate was supplied to the fungal mycelium nitrate was taken up the fungus and transferred to the plant, however, apparently no assimilation of nitrate occurred in the external mycelium. Ammonium or an assimilation product, such as glutamine, probably represses nitrate reductase (NR) but not nitrate uptake and transfer in P. involutus. P. involutus nitrogen uptake and transfer to the associated mycorrhizal pine was up to 76% higher when low numbers of the Collembola Onychiurus armatus were present compared to when they were completely absent. This was probably an indirect effect as P. involutus hyphal growth rate and extramatrical biomass increased at a low Collembola density. At high Collembola densities P. involutus hyphal growth rate was retarded. (74 refs.)

  6. Gut passage of epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungi by two opportunistic mycophagous rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Citlalli CASTILLO-GUEVARA; Josette SIERRA; Gema GALINDO-FLORES; Mariana CUAUTLE; Carlos LARA

    2011-01-01

    Mycophagists can influence fungal diversity within their home ranges by ensuring the continued and effective dispersal of spores from one site to another. However, the passage of spores through the digestive tract of vertebrates can affect the activity and viability of the spores ingested. This phenomenon has been rarely documented in opportunistic mycophagists consuming epigeous fungi. Using laboratory experiments, we investigated the activity and viability of spores of two epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungal species (Laccaria trichodermopkora and Suillus tomentosus) after passage through the digestive tract of two opportunistic mycophagous small rodents, the volcano mouse Peromyscus alstoni and the deer mouse P. Maniculatus. We found that passage through the gut of either species of rodent had a significant effect on spore activity and viability for both fungal species. The proportion of active spores (0.37-0.40) of L. Trichodermophora in the feces of both species of rodents was less than that recorded for the control (0.82). However, the proportion of active spores (0.64-0.73) of 5. Tomentosus in the feces of each species of rodent was higher than in the control (0.40). On the other hand, the viability of spores was lower (0.26-0.30 in L. Trichodermophora and 0.60-0.69 in 5. Tomentosus) for both fungi when consumed by either rodent relative to the controls (0.90 in L trichodermophora and 0.82 in 5. Tomentosus). These findings suggest that these rodent species may be effective dispersers of both epigeous fungi.

  7. Structure and phylogenetic diversity of post-fire ectomycorrhizal communities of maritime pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, A; Santamaría, B P; Ocaña, L; Verdú, M

    2014-02-01

    Environmental disturbances define the diversity and assemblage of species, affecting the functioning of ecosystems. Fire is a major disturbance of Mediterranean pine forests. Pines are highly dependent on the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal symbiosis, which is critical for tree recruitment under primary succession. To determine the effects of time since fire on the structure and recovery of EM fungal communities, we surveyed the young Pinus pinaster regenerate in three sites differing in the elapsed time after the last fire event. Pine roots were collected, and EM fungi characterized by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) regions of the nuclear ribosomal (nr)-DNA. The effects of the elapsed time after fire on the EM community structure (richness, presence/absence of fungi, phylogenetic diversity) and on soil properties were analysed.Fungal richness decreased with the elapsed time since the fire; although, the phylogenetic diversity of the EM community increased. Soil properties were different depending on the elapsed time after fire and particularly, the organic matter, carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio, nitrogen and iron significantly correlated with the assemblage of fungal species. Ascomycetes, particularly Tuberaceae and Pezizales, were significantly over-represented on saplings in the burned site. On seedlings, a significant over-representation of Rhizopogonaceae and Atheliaceae was observed in the most recently burned site, while other fungi (i.e. Cortinariaceae) were significantly under-represented. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that fire can act as a selective agent by printing a phylogenetic signal on the EM fungal communities associated with naturally regenerated pines, pointing out to some groups as potential fire-adapted fungi. PMID:23955264

  8. The Major Factors Affecting Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Diversity in the Forest Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Di-Di Chai; Su-Juan Guo; Xiao-Bing Sun; Tian-Tian Qin

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are important for plants growth which can enhance their resistance to drought, diseases, infertility and so on in the forest ecosystem, so researches on Ectomycorrhizal fungi are of necessity and great significance. As the basis for Ectomycorrhizal fungi research, the Ectomycorrhizal fungi diversity is attributed to many factors which can be divided to two parts in this review: biotic factors and abiotic factors. Biotic factors include chronosequences, bacteria living wi...

  9. Ectomycorrhizal communities in a productive Tuber aestivum Vittad. orchard: composition, host influence and species replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Benucci, Gian Maria Niccolò; Raggi, Lorenzo; Albertini, Emidio; Grebenc, Tine; Bencivenga, Mattia; Falcinelli, Mario; Di Massimo, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    Truffles (Tuber spp.) and other ectomycorrhizal species form species-rich assemblages in the wild as well as in cultivated ecosystems. We aimed to investigate the ectomycorrhizal communities of hazels and hornbeams that are growing in a 24-year-old Tuber aestivum orchard. We demonstrated that the ectomycorrhizal communities included numerous species and were phylogenetically diverse. Twenty-nine ectomycorrhizal taxa were identified. Tuber aestivum ectomycorrhizae were abundant (9.3%), only th...

  10. Enzymatic activities and stable isotope patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungi in relation to phylogeny and exploration types in an afrotropical rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Naadel, Triin; Bahram, Mohammad; Pritsch, Karin; Buegger, Franz; Leal, Miguel; Kõljalg, Urmas; Põldmaa, Kadri

    2012-09-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi obtain both mineral and simple organic nutrients from soil and transport these to plant roots. Natural abundance of stable isotopes (¹⁵N and ¹³C) in fruit bodies and potential enzymatic activities of ECM root tips provide insights into mineral nutrition of these mutualistic partners. By combining rDNA sequence analysis with enzymatic and stable isotope assays of root tips, we hypothesized that phylogenetic affinities of ECM fungi are more important than ECM exploration type, soil horizon and host plant in explaining the differences in mineral nutrition of trees in an African lowland rainforest. Ectomycorrhizal fungal species belonging to extraradical mycelium-rich morphotypes generally displayed the strongest potential activities of degradation enzymes, except for laccase. The signature of ¹⁵N was determined by the ECM fungal lineage, but not by the exploration type. Potential enzymatic activities of root tips were unrelated to ¹⁵N signature of ECM root tip. The lack of correlation suggests that these methods address different aspects in plant nutrient uptake. Stable isotope analysis of root tips could provide an additional indirect assessment of fungal and plant nutrition that enables enhancement of taxonomic coverage and control for soil depth and internal nitrogen cycling in fungal tissues.

  11. Mean reproductive traits of fungal assemblages are correlated with resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bässler, Claus; Halbwachs, Hans; Karasch, Peter; Holzer, Heinrich; Gminder, Andreas; Krieglsteiner, Lothar; Gonzalez, Ramiro Silveyra; Müller, Jörg; Brandl, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Organisms have evolved a fascinating variety of strategies and organs for successful reproduction. Fruit bodies are the reproductive organ of fungi and vary considerably in size and shape among species. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the differences in fruit body size among species is still limited. Fruit bodies of saprotrophic fungi are smaller than those of mutualistic ectomycorrhizal fungi. If differences in fruit body size are determined by carbon acquisition, then mean reproductive traits of saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal fungi assemblages should vary differently along gradients of resource availability as carbon acquisition seems more unpredictable and costly for saprotrophs than for ectomycorrhizal fungi. Here, we used 48 local inventories of fungal fruit bodies (plot size: 0.02 ha each) sampled along a gradient of resource availability (growing stock) across 3 years in the Bavarian Forest National Park in Germany to investigate regional and local factors that might influence the distribution of species with different reproductive traits, particularly fruit body size. As predicted, mean fruit body size of local assemblages of saprotrophic fungi was smaller than expected from the distribution of traits of the regional species pool across central and northern Europe, whereas that of ectomycorrhizal fungi did not differ from random expectation. Furthermore and also as expected, mean fruit body size of assemblages of saprotrophic fungi was significantly smaller than for assemblages of ectomycorrhizal species. However, mean fruit body sizes of not only saprotrophic species but also ectomycorrhizal species increased with resource availability, and the mean number of fruit bodies of both assemblages decreased. Our results indicate that the differences in carbon acquisition between saprotrophs and ectomycorrhizal species lead to differences in basic reproductive strategies, with implications for the breadth of their distribution. However, the

  12. High richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi and low host specificity in a coastal sand dune ecosystem revealed by network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Bolduc, Alice; Laliberté, Etienne; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are ubiquitous in temperate and boreal forests, comprising over 20,000 species forming root symbiotic associations with Pinaceae and woody angiosperms. As much as 100 different EM fungal species can coexist and interact with the same tree species, forming complex multispecies networks in soils. The degree of host specificity and structural properties of these interaction networks (e.g., nestedness and modularity) may influence plant and fungal community assembly and species coexistence, yet their structure has been little studied in northern coniferous forests, where trees depend on EM fungi for nutrient acquisition. We used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the composition and diversity of bulk soil and root-associated fungal communities in four co-occurring Pinaceae in a relic foredune plain located at Îles de la Madeleine, Québec, Canada. We found high EM fungal richness across the four hosts, with a total of 200 EM operational taxonomic units (OTUs), mainly belonging to the Agaricomycetes. Network analysis revealed an antinested pattern in both bulk soil and roots EM fungal communities. However, there was no detectable modularity (i.e., subgroups of interacting species) in the interaction networks, indicating a low level of specificity in these EM associations. In addition, there were no differences in EM fungal OTU richness or community structure among the four tree species. Limited shared resources and competitive exclusion typically restrict the number of taxa coexisting within the same niche. As such, our finding of high EM fungal richness and low host specificity highlights the need for further studies to determine the mechanisms enabling such a large number of EM fungal species to coexist locally on the same hosts. PMID:26811798

  13. Species turnover (β-diversity) in ectomycorrhizal fungi linked to NH4+ uptake capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranabetter, J M; Hawkins, B J; Jones, M D; Robbins, S; Dyer, T; Li, T

    2015-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal communities may be shaped by both deterministic and stochastic processes, potentially influencing ecosystem development and function. We evaluated community assembly processes for EcM fungi of Pseudotsuga menziesii among 12 sites up to 400 km apart in southwest British Columbia (Canada) by investigating species turnover (β-diversity) in relation to soil nitrogen (N) availability and physical distance. We then examined functional traits for an N-related niche by quantifying net fluxes of NH4+, NO3- and protons on excised root tips from three contrasting sites using a microelectrode ion flux measurement system. EcM fungal communities were well aligned with soil N availability and pH, with no effect of site proximity (distance-decay curve) on species assemblages. Species turnover was significant (β(1/2) = 1.48) along soil N gradients, with many more Tomentella species on high N than low N soils, in contrast to Cortinarius species. Ammonium uptake was greatest in the spring on the medium and rich sites and averaged over 190 nmol/m(2)/s for Tomentella species. The lowest uptake rates of NH4+ were by nonmycorrhizal roots of axenically grown seedlings (10 nmol/m(2)/s), followed by Cortinarius species (60 nmol/m(2)/s). EcM roots from all sites displayed only marginal uptake of nitrate (8.3 nmol/m(2)/s). These results suggest NH4+ uptake capacity is an important functional trait influencing the assembly of EcM fungal communities. The diversity of EcM fungal species across the region arguably provides critical belowground adaptations to organic and inorganic N supply that are integral to temperate rainforest ecology. PMID:26507980

  14. Differences in soil fungal communities between European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. dominated forests are related to soil and understory vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Wubet

    Full Text Available Fungi are important members of soil microbial communities with a crucial role in biogeochemical processes. Although soil fungi are known to be highly diverse, little is known about factors influencing variations in their diversity and community structure among forests dominated by the same tree species but spread over different regions and under different managements. We analyzed the soil fungal diversity and community composition of managed and unmanaged European beech dominated forests located in three German regions, the Schwäbische Alb in Southwestern, the Hainich-Dün in Central and the Schorfheide Chorin in the Northeastern Germany, using internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Multiple sequence quality filtering followed by sequence data normalization revealed 1655 fungal operational taxonomic units. Further analysis based on 722 abundant fungal OTUs revealed the phylum Basidiomycota to be dominant (54% and its community to comprise 71.4% of ectomycorrhizal taxa. Fungal community structure differed significantly (p≤0.001 among the three regions and was characterized by non-random fungal OTUs co-occurrence. Soil parameters, herbaceous understory vegetation, and litter cover affected fungal community structure. However, within each study region we found no difference in fungal community structure between management types. Our results also showed region specific significant correlation patterns between the dominant ectomycorrhizal fungal genera. This suggests that soil fungal communities are region-specific but nevertheless composed of functionally diverse and complementary taxa.

  15. Competitive avoidance not edaphic specialization drives vertical niche partitioning among sister species of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujic, Alija B; Durall, Daniel M; Spatafora, Joseph W; Kennedy, Peter G

    2016-02-01

    Soil depth partitioning is thought to promote the diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal communities, but little is known about whether it is controlled by abiotic or biotic factors. In three bioassay experiments, we tested the role of vertical soil heterogeneity in determining the distributions and competitive outcomes of the EM sister species Rhizopogon vinicolor and Rhizopogon vesiculosus. We planted Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings into soils that were either a homogenized mix of upper and lower depths or vertically stratified combinations mimicking natural field conditions. We found that both species colonized the upper or lower soil depths in the absence of competition, suggesting that their distributions were not limited by abiotic edaphic factors. In competition within homogeneous soils, R. vesiculosus completely excluded colonization by R. vinicolor, but R. vinicolor was able to persist when soils were stratified. The amount of colonization by R. vinicolor in the stratified soils was also significantly correlated with the number of multilocus genotypes present. Taken together, our findings suggest that the differential vertical distributions of R. vinicolor and R. vesiculosus in natural settings are probably attributable to competition rather than edaphic specialization, but that soil heterogeneity may play a key role in promoting EM fungal diversity. PMID:26391726

  16. Ectomycorrhizal communities above and below ground and truffle productivity in a Tuber aestivum orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Salerni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities (EM above (EMFb and below (EMMt ground associated with Quercus cerris L., Q. pubescens Willd., and Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold was analyzed.Area of study: A 20 year-old orchard that produces Tuber aestivum truffles, located a few kilometers from Chiusi della Verna (latitude 43° 41’ 53’’; longitude 11° 56’ 9’’ in Tuscany (central Italy was observed.Material and Methods: This investigation combined analyses of EMFb, EMMt, T. aestivum productivity, different host trees, and statistical data on community ecology.Main results: The EM communities showed high species richness and differed slightly in relation to both the host tree and their location above or below ground, providing frequent findings of Tricholoma and Tomentella, respectively. Positive correlations were found between the number of truffles and host trees, and between the weight and number of truffles and EMFb.Research highlights: Mycorrhizal fungi and truffle production are not in competition.Key words: Fungal communities; fruiting bodies; morphotypes; Tuber aestivum; competition; Italy.

  17. Mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces AcH 505 induces differential gene expression in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Silvia D; Schellhammer, Michael; Ecke, Margret; Hampp, Rüdiger; Tarkka, Mika T

    2005-10-01

    The interaction between the mycorrhiza helper bacteria Streptomyces nov. sp. 505 (AcH 505) and Streptomyces annulatus 1003 (AcH 1003) with fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and spruce (Picea abies) was investigated. The effects of both bacteria on the mycelial growth of different ectomycorrhizal fungi, on ectomycorrhiza formation, and on fungal gene expression in dual culture with AcH 505 were determined. The fungus specificities of the streptomycetes were similar. Both bacterial species showed the strongest effect on the growth of mycelia at 9 wk of dual culture. The effect of AcH 505 on gene expression of A. muscaria was examined using the suppressive subtractive hybridization approach. The responsive fungal genes included those involved in signalling pathways, metabolism, cell structure, and the cell growth response. These results suggest that AcH 505 and AcH 1003 enhance mycorrhiza formation mainly as a result of promotion of fungal growth, leading to changes in fungal gene expression. Differential A. muscaria transcript accumulation in dual culture may result from a direct response to bacterial substances. PMID:16159334

  18. Interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental factors in an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, and the potential for selection mosaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeksema Jason D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geographic selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions by testing whether the interaction between bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don and one of its common ectomycorrhizal fungi (Rhizopogon occidentalis Zeller and Dodge varies in outcome, when different combinations of plant and fungal genotypes are tested under a range of different abiotic and biotic conditions. Results We used a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment to test the main and interactive effects of plant lineage (two maternal seed families, fungal lineage (two spore collections, soil type (lab mix or field soil, and non-mycorrhizal microbes (with or without on the performance of plants and fungi. Ecological outcomes, as assessed by plant and fungal performance, varied widely across experimental environments, including interactions between plant or fungal lineages and soil environmental factors. Conclusion These results show the potential for selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions, and indicate that these interactions are likely to coevolve in different ways in different environments, even when initially the genotypes of the interacting species are the same across all environments. Hence, selection mosaics may be equally as effective as genetic differences among populations in driving divergent coevolution among populations of interacting species.

  19. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Calcofluor white stain): in general, if fungal elements are seen, then a fungus is the likely the cause of symptoms. These tests, however, do not identify the fungus. Culture: care must be taken when interpreting culture results. ...

  20. Survey of ectomycorrhizal, litter-degrading, and wood-degrading Basidiomycetes for dye decolorization and ligninolytic enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casieri, Leonardo; Anastasi, Antonella; Prigione, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2010-11-01

    Basidiomycetes are essential in forest ecology, being deeply involved in wood and litter decomposition, humification, and mineralization of soil organic matter. The fungal oxidoreductases involved in these processes are today the focus of much attention with a view to their applications. The ecological role and potential biotechnological applications of 300 isolates of Basidiomycetes were assessed, taking into account the degradation of model dyes in different culture conditions and the production of oxidoreductase enzymes. The tested isolates belong to different ecophysiological groups (wood-degrading, litter-degrading, ectomycorrhizal, and coprophilous fungi) and represent a broad systematic and functional biodiversity among Basidiomycetes occurring in deciduous and evergreen forests of northwest Italy (Piedmont Region). The high number of species tested and the use of different culture conditions allowed the investigation of the degradation activity of several novel species, neglected to date. Oxidative enzyme activities varied widely among all ecophysiological groups and laccases were the most commonly detected enzymes. A large number of isolates (86%), belonging to all ecophysiological groups, were found to be active against at least one model dye; the wood-degrading fungi represented the most efficient group. Noteworthily, also some isolates of litter-degrading and ectomycorrhizal fungi achieved good decolorization yield. The 25 best isolates were then tested against nine industrial dyes commonly employed in textile industries. Three isolates of Bjerkandera adusta efficiently decolorized the dyes on all media and can be considered important candidates for application in textile wastewater treatment. PMID:20585855

  1. High root concentration and uneven ectomycorrhizal diversity near Sarcodes sanguinea (Ericaceae): a cheater that stimulates its victims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidartondo, M I; Kretzer, A M; Pine, E M; Bruns, T D

    2000-12-01

    Sarcodes sanguinea is a nonphotosynthetic mycoheterotrophic plant that obtains all of its fixed carbon from neighboring trees through a shared ectomycorrhizal fungus. We studied the spatial structuring of this tripartite symbiosis in a forest where Sarcodes is abundant, and its only fungal and photosynthetic plant associates are Rhizopogon ellenae and Abies magnifica, respectively. We found disproportionately high concentrations of Abies roots adjacent to Sarcodes roots compared to the surrounding soil. Rhizopogon ellenae colonizes the vast majority of those Abies roots (86-98%), and its abundance tends to decrease with increasing distance from Sarcodes plants. At 500 cm from Sarcodes plants we did not detect R. ellenae, and the ectomycorrhizal community instead was dominated by members of the Russulaceae and Thelephoraceae, which are commonly dominant in other California pinaceous forests. The highly clumped distribution of Abies-R. ellenae ectomycorrhizas indicates that Sarcodes plants either establish within pre-existing clumps, or they stimulate clump formation. Several lines of evidence favor the latter interpretation, suggesting an unexpected mutualistic aspect to the symbiosis. However, the mechanism involved remains unknown. PMID:11118414

  2. Biochemical and ecophysiological responses to manganese stress by ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and in association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Gabriela C; Bertolazi, Amanda A; Cogo, Antônio J D; Eutrópio, Frederico Jacob; Melo, Juliana; de Souza, Sávio Bastos; A Krohling, Cesar; Campostrini, Eliemar; da Silva, Ary Gomes; Façanha, Arnoldo R; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Cruz, Cristina; Ramos, Alessandro C

    2016-07-01

    At relatively low concentrations, the element manganese (Mn) is essential for plant metabolism, especially for photosynthesis and as an enzyme antioxidant cofactor. However, industrial and agricultural activities have greatly increased Mn concentrations, and thereby contamination, in soils. We tested whether and how growth of Pisolithus tinctorius is influenced by Mn and glucose and compare the activities of oxidative stress enzymes as biochemical markers of Mn stress. We also compared nutrient accumulation, ecophysiology, and biochemical responses in Eucalyptus grandis which had been colonized by the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus tinctorius with those which had not, when both were exposed to increasing Mn concentrations. In vitro experiments comprised six concentrations of Mn in three concentrations of glucose. In vivo experiments used plants colonized by Pisolithus tinctorius, or not colonized, grown with three concentrations of Mn (0, 200, and 1000 μM). We found that fungal growth and glucose concentration were correlated, but these were not influenced by Mn levels in the medium. The anti-oxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase were both activated when the fungus was exposed to Mn. Also, mycorrhizal plants grew more and faster than non-mycorrhizal plants, whatever Mn exposure. Photosynthesis rate, intrinsic water use efficiency, and carboxylation efficiency were all inversely correlated with Mn concentration. Thus, we originally show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus provides protection for its host plants against varying and potentially toxic concentrations of Mn. PMID:26861483

  3. Convergence in mycorrhizal fungal communities due to drought, plant competition, parasitism, and susceptibility to herbivory: consequences for fungi and host plants

    OpenAIRE

    CatherineA.Gehring; RebeccaC.Mueller; KristinE.Haskins

    2014-01-01

    Plants and mycorrhizal fungi influence each other’s abundance, diversity and distribution. How other biotic interactions affect the mycorrhizal symbiosis is less well understood. Likewise, we know little about the effects of climate change on the fungal component of the symbiosis or its function. We synthesized our long-term studies on the influence of mistletoe parasites, insect herbivores, competing trees, and drought on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with a foundation ...

  4. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis affects functional diversity of rhizosphere fluorescent pseudomonads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey-Klett, P.; Chavatte, M.; Clausse, M.L.; Courrier, S.; Roux, Le C.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Giovanna Martinotti, M.; Pierrat, J.C.; Garbaye, J.

    2005-01-01

    Here we characterized the effect of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on the genotypic and functional diversity of soil Pseudomonas fluorescens populations and analysed its possible consequences in terms of plant nutrition, development and health. ¿ Sixty strains of P. fluorescens were isolated from the

  5. Horizontal transfer of carbohydrate metabolism genes into ectomycorrhizal Amanita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaib De Mares, Maryam; Hess, Jaqueline; Floudas, Dimitrios; Lipzen, Anna; Choi, Cindy; Kennedy, Megan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Pringle, Anne

    2015-01-01

    - The genus Amanita encompasses both symbiotic, ectomycorrhizal fungi and asymbiotic litter decomposers; all species are derived from asymbiotic ancestors. Symbiotic species are no longer able to degrade plant cell walls. The carbohydrate esterases family 1 (CE1s) is a diverse group of enzymes invol

  6. Evolution and host specificity in the ectomycorrhizal genus Leccinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, den H.C.; Zuccarello, G.C.; Kuyper, T.W.; Noordeloos, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Species of the ectomycorrhizal genus Leccinum are generally considered to be host specialists. We determined the phylogenetic relationships between species of Leccinum from Europe and North America based on second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh

  7. Impact of metal pollution on fungal diversity and community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op De Beeck, Michiel; Lievens, Bart; Busschaert, Pieter; Rineau, Francois; Smits, Mark; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V

    2015-06-01

    The impact of metal pollution on plant communities has been studied extensively in the past, but little is known about the effects of metal pollution on fungal communities that occur in metal-polluted soils. Metal-tolerant ecotypes of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus are frequently found in pioneer pine forests in the Campine region in Belgium on metal-polluted soils. We hypothesized that metal pollution would play an important role in shaping below-ground fungal communities that occur in these soils and that Suillus luteus would be a dominant player. To test these hypotheses, the fungal communities in a young pine plantation in soil polluted with zinc, and cadmium were studied using 454 amplicon pyrosequencing. Results show that zinc, cadmium and soil organic matter content were strongly correlated with the fungal community composition, but no effects on fungal diversity were observed. As hypothesized, S. luteus was found to be a dominant member of the studied fungal communities. However, other dominant fungal species, such as Sistotrema sp., Wilcoxina mikolae and Cadophora finlandica were found as well. Their presence in metal-polluted sites is discussed. PMID:24947496

  8. Gut passage of epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungi by two opportunistic mycophagous rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citlalli CASTILLO-GUEVARA, Josette SIERRA, Gema GALINDO-FLORES,Mariana CUAUTLE, Carlos LARA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycophagists can influence fungal diversity within their home ranges by ensuring the continued and effective dispersal of spores from one site to another. However, the passage of spores through the digestive tract of vertebrates can affect the activity and viability of the spores ingested. This phenomenon has been rarely documented in opportunistic mycophagists consuming epigeous fungi. Using laboratory experiments, we investigated the activity and viability of spores of two epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungal species (Laccaria trichodermophora and Suillus tomentosus after passage through the digestive tract of two opportunistic mycophagous small rodents, the volcano mouse Peromyscus alstoni and the deer mouse P. maniculatus. We found that passage through the gut of either species of rodent had a significant effect on spore activity and viability for both fungal species. The proportion of active spores (0.37–0.40 of L. trichodermophora in the feces of both species of rodents was less than that recorded for the control (0.82. However, the proportion of active spores (0.64–0.73 of S. tomentosus in the feces of each species of rodent was higher than in the control (0.40. On the other hand, the viability of spores was lower (0.26–0.30 in L. trichodermophora and 0.60–0.69 in S. tomentosus for both fungi when consumed by either rodent relative to the controls (0.90 in L. trichodermophora and 0.82 in S. tomentosus. These findings suggest that these rodent species may be effective dispersers of both epigeous fungi [Current Zoology 57 (3: 293–299, 2011].

  9. Fungal nail infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Infection - fungal - nails; Tinea unguium ... the hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the ...

  10. Trace metal effects on ectomycorrhizal growth, diversity, and colonization of host seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Belling Abler, Rebecca Alicia

    2004-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are essential to seedling establishment in disturbed sites. This dissertation examines the effects of trace metals and soil disturbance on ectomycorrhizal fungi in the laboratory and the field. The first experiment assessed Cu and Zn impact on growth of three ectomycorrhizal species in pure culture. Suillus granulatus and Pisolithus tinctorius were more tolerant to Cu than Paxillus involutus, however, none of the species grew at 250 ppm Cu. Suillus granulatus had th...

  11. Fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal S Tuli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonal S TuliUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA  Clinical question: What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis?Results: Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast. Voriconazole is rapidly becoming the drug of choice for all fungal keratitis because of its wide spectrum of coverage and increased penetration into the cornea.Implementation: Repeated debridement of the ulcer is recommended for the penetration of topical medications. While small, peripheral ulcers may be treated in the community, larger or central ulcers, especially if associated with signs suggestive of anterior chamber penetration should be referred to a tertiary center. Prolonged therapy for approximately four weeks is usually necessary.Keywords: fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, antifungal medications, debridement

  12. Host plant richness explains diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi: Response to the comment of Tedersoo et al. (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng; Shi, Nan-Nan; Liu, Yue-Xing; Zheng, Yong; Ding, Qiong; Mi, Xiang-Cheng; Ma, Ke-Ping; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Guo, Liang-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Exploring the relationships between the biodiversity of groups of interacting organisms yields insight into ecosystem stability and function (Hooper et al. ; Wardle ). We demonstrated positive relationships between host plant richness and ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal diversity both in a field study in subtropical China (Gutianshan) and in a meta-analysis of temperate and tropical studies (Gao et al. ). However, based on re-evaluation of our data sets, Tedersoo et al. () argue that the observed positive correlation between EM fungal richness and EM plant richness at Gutianshan and also in our metastudies was based mainly from (i) a sampling design with inconsistent species pool and (ii) poor data compilation for the meta-analysis. Accordingly, we checked our data sets and repeated the analysis performed by Tedersoo et al. (). In contrast to Tedersoo et al. (), our re-analysis still confirms a positive effect of plant richness on EM fungal diversity in Gutianshan, temperate and tropical ecosystems, respectively. PMID:24428237

  13. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils. - The evolutionary adaptation for higher Cd tolerance in Suillus luteus, an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is of major importance for the amelioration of Cd toxicity in pine trees exposed to high Cd concentrations.

  14. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krznaric, Erik [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Verbruggen, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Physiologie et de Genetique Moleculaire des Plantes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, CP242, Bd du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Wevers, Jan H.L. [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Carleer, Robert [Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Vangronsveld, Jaco [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Colpaert, Jan V., E-mail: jan.colpaert@uhasselt.b [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2009-05-15

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils. - The evolutionary adaptation for higher Cd tolerance in Suillus luteus, an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is of major importance for the amelioration of Cd toxicity in pine trees exposed to high Cd concentrations.

  15. Assessment of ectomycorrhizal biodiversity in Tuber macrosporum productive sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Gian Maria Niccolò; Raggi, Lorenzo; Albertini, Emidio; Csorbai, Andrea Gógán; Donnini, Domizia

    2014-05-01

    Tuber macrosporum Vittad. is a truffle with superb organoleptic properties, whose cultivation is still in its infancy. For the first time we have aimed to provide information on ectomycorrhizal communities in natural and cultivated T. macrosporum sites. Ectomycorrhizal morphotypes were identified using ITS nrDNA sequencing and sorted into molecular operational taxonomic unit (MOTU). We detected 16 MOTUs in the T. macrosporum cultivated plantation. Ascomycota were the most abundant (86.4%) with Helvellaceae, Pyronemataceae and Pezizaceae the most common. Twenty-two MOTUs were collected in the natural T. macrosporum site. Basidiomycota morphotypes were plentiful (70.6%) and Thelephoraceae dominated. Each site had different taxa belowground with only T. macrosporum in common, being more abundant in the natural (18.2%) than in the cultivated (14.4%) site. Species richness, Simpson and Shannon diversity indices, taxonomic diversity, distinctness and variation of taxonomic distinctness were lower in the cultivated than in the natural site. PMID:24232503

  16. Gold content of ectomycorrhizal and saprobic macrofungi - an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovika, J [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Charles University, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Randa [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Jelinek, E [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Charles University, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2006-05-15

    Species of macrofungi growing in the wild were collected from non-auriferous and unpolluted areas, and analyzed for gold. In addition, preliminary results of samples originated from an auriferous area are presented. Gold was determined using long-term instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In total, 108 samples, including 49 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi and 30 species of terrestrial saprobes, were examined. The highest concentrations (expressed in dry weight) were found in ectomycorrhizal species Russula nigricans (235 ng g{sup -1}) and Suillus variegatus (1070 ng g{sup -1}). Among the saprobic macrofungi, an extraordinary high value 2250 ng g{sup -1} was found in Lepiota cf. clypeolaria. Gold content of saprobic macrofungi originated from the auriferous area was obviously higher than that of macrofungi from non-auriferous areas. The highest contents were found in Agaricus silvaticus (4230 ng g{sup -1}) and in two samples of Lycoperdon perlatum (6955 and 7739 ng g{sup -1})

  17. Hyperdiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F; Miller, Orson K; Horton, Jonathan L

    2005-03-01

    Diversity of ectotrophic mycobionts on outplanted seedlings of two oak species (Quercus rubra and Quercus prinus) was estimated at two sites in mature mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains by sequencing nuclear 5.8S rRNA genes and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS). The seedlings captured a high diversity of mycorrhizal ITS-types and late-stage fungi were well represented. Total richness was 75 types, with 42 types having a frequency of only one. The first and second order jackknife estimates were 116 and 143 types, respectively. Among Basidiomycetes, tomentelloid/thelephoroid, russuloid, and cortinarioid groups were the richest. The ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum was ubiquitously present. Dominant fungi included a putative Tuber sp. (Ascomycetes), and Basidiomycetes including a putative Craterellus sp., and Laccaria cf. laccata. Diversity was lower at a drier high elevation oak forest site compared to a low elevation mesic cove--hardwood forest site. Fungal specificity for red oak vs. white oak seedlings was unresolved. The high degree of rarity in this system imposes limitations on the power of community analyses at finer scales. The high mycobiont diversity highlights the potential for seedlings to acquire carbon from mycelial networks and confirms the utility of using outplanted seedlings to estimate ectomycorrhizal diversity. PMID:15723674

  18. Surface-bound phosphatase activity in living hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Nothofagus obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Godoy, Roberto; Heyser, Wolfgang; Härtel, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    We determined the location and the activity of surface-bound phosphomonoesterase (SBP) of five ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi of Nothofagus oblique. EM fungal mycelium of Paxillus involutus, Austropaxillus boletinoides, Descolea antartica, Cenococcum geophilum and Pisolithus tinctorius was grown in media with varying concentrations of dissolved phosphorus. SBP activity was detected at different pH values (3-7) under each growth regimen. SBP activity was assessed using a colorimetric method based on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) to p-nitrophenol phosphate (pNP) + P. A new technique involving confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to locate and quantify SBP activity on the hyphal surface. EM fungi showed two fundamentally different patterns of SBP activity in relation to varying environmental conditions (P-concentrations and pH). In the cases of D. antartica, A. boletinoides and C. geophilum, changes in SBP activity were induced primarily by changes in the number of SBP-active centers on the hyphae. In the cases of P. tinctorius and P. involutus, the number of SBP-active centers per μm hyphal length changed much less than the intensity of the SBP-active centers on the hyphae. Our findings not only contribute to the discussion about the role of SBP-active centers in EM fungi but also introduce LSM as a valuable method for studying EM fungi.

  19. Exploratory workshop on diversity and function in ectomycorrhizal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Garbaye, Jean

    2011-01-01

    This proceedings contains eight articles dealing with community ecology and functional biodiversity targeting the central compartment of any forest ecosystem: the community of the symbiotic fungi which inhabit the roots. It covers the role of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities in the interaction between industrial soil pollution and tree stands and mobilization of nutrients from soil organic matter through the activity of extracellular enzymes, and discusses the general concepts of functional ...

  20. Environmental drivers of ectomycorrhizal communities in Europe's temperate oak forests

    OpenAIRE

    Suz, Laura M.; Barsoum, Nadia; Benham, Sue; Dietrich, Hans Peter; Fetzer, Karl Dieter; Fischer, Richard; Garcia, Paloma; Gehrman, Joachim; Kristöfel, Ferdinand; Manninger, Miklos; Neagu, Stefan; Nicolas, Manuel; Oldenburger, Jan; Raspe, Stephan; SANCHEZ, GERARDO

    2014-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are major ecological players in temperate forests, but they are rarely used in measures of forest condition because large-scale, high-resolution, standardized and replicated belowground data are scarce. We carried out an analysis of ectomycorrhizas at 22 intensively monitored long-term oak plots, across nine European countries, covering complex natural and anthropogenic environmental gradients. We found that at large scales, mycorrhizal richness and evenness declined wit...

  1. Effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi on bacterial wilt of Eucalyptus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum, is a very serious disease of Eucalyptus in southern China, mainly in Guangdong, Hainan and Guangxi provinces. It causes the death of seedlings and young trees and the mortality may exceed 90 percent in some sites. Susceptible species include E. grandis, E. urophylla, hybrids between the two and E. citriodora. In nursery and field trials with E. urophylla and field trial with E. grandis x E. urophylla inoculation of ectomycorrhizal fungi was found to red...

  2. Isolation, Identification and Screening of Ectomycorrhizal fungi for reforestation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinus pinaster occupies almost 30% of Portuguese forest area and fire is one of its major threat. Pinus pinaster is resistant to low fire intensities, however, the frequency and intensity of the current fire regime cuases a disturbing reduction of its area of distribution. Ectomycorrhizal fungi can form symbiotic associations with P. pinaster improving among other factors, plant growth and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, which can be a useful tool for an efficient reforestation of burned areas. (Author)

  3. Effects of Bifenox, DCPA, and Napropamide on Ectomycorrhizal Development of Conifer Seedlings in Central and Northern Rocky Mountain Nurseries

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1985-01-01

    Postseeding and postgermination treatments with three weed control herbicides (Bifenox, DCPA, Napropamide) at two rates of application caused little reduction of ectomycorrhizal development on 1- and 2-year-old conifer seedlings in Central or Northern Rocky Mountain nurseries. In many cases, herbicide treatment increased ectomycorrhizal development, particularly with DCPA. In general, herbicide treatment effects on ectomycorrhizal development were species and nursery specific.

  4. Beech carbon productivity as driver of ectomycorrhizal abundance and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druebert, Christine; Lang, Christa; Valtanen, Kerttu; Polle, Andrea

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that carbon productivity of beech (Fagus sylvatica) controls ectomycorrhizal colonization, diversity and community structures. Carbon productivity was limited by long-term shading or by girdling. The trees were grown in compost soil to avoid nutrient deficiencies. Despite severe limitation in photosynthesis and biomass production by shading, the concentrations of carbohydrates in roots were unaffected by the light level. Shade-acclimated plants were only 10% and sun-acclimated plants were 74% colonized by ectomycorrhiza. EM diversity was higher on roots with high than at roots with low mycorrhizal colonization. Evenness was unaffected by any treatment. Low mycorrhizal colonization had no negative effects on plant mineral nutrition. In girdled plants mycorrhizal colonization and diversity were retained although (14)C-leaf feeding showed almost complete disruption of carbon transport from leaves to roots. Carbohydrate storage pools in roots decreased upon girdling. Our results show that plant carbon productivity was the reason for and not the result of high ectomycorrhizal diversity. We suggest that ectomycorrhiza can be supplied by two carbon routes: recent photosynthate and stored carbohydrates. Storage pools may be important for ectomycorrhizal survival when photoassimilates were unavailable, probably feeding preferentially less carbon demanding EM species as shifts in community composition were found. PMID:19344334

  5. Influences of excessive Cu on photosynthesis and growth in ectomycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yi; TAO Shu

    2004-01-01

    Growth and photosynthesis responses were measured for Scots pine(Pinus sylvestris L. cv.) inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi(Suillus bovinus) under 6.5 and 25 mg/L Cu treatments to evaluate ectomycorrhizal seedlings' tolerance to heavy metal stress. Results showed that excessive Cu can significantly impair the growth and photosynthesis of pine seedlings, but such impairment is much smaller to the ectomycorrhizal seedlings. Under 25 mg/L Cu treatment, the dry weight of ectomycorrhizal seedlings is 25% lower than the control in contrary to 53% of the non-mycorrhizal seedlings, and the fresh weight of ectomycorrhizal roots was significantly higher than those of non-mycorrhizal roots, about 25% and 42% higher at 6.5 and 25 mg/L Cu treatments respectively. Furthermore, ectomycorrhizal fungi induced remarkable difference in the growth rate and pigment content of seedlings under excessive Cu stress. At 25 mg/L Cu, the contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b were 30% higher in ectomycorrhizal plants than those in non-mycorrhizal plants. O2 evolution and electron transport of PSI and PSII were restrained by elevated Cu stress. However, no significant improvement was observed in reducing the physiological restraining in ectomycorrhizal seedlings over the non-mycorrhizal ones.

  6. Soil propagule banks of ectomycorrhizal fungi along forest development stages after mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Nara, Kazuhide; Zong, Kun; Lian, Chunlan

    2015-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) propagules play an important role in seedling establishment following disturbance. However, little is known about how the EMF propagule community changes with forest development. In this study, EMF propagules were examined using seedling bioassays in rhizosphere soils collected from a recently closed Pb-Zn tailing (Taolin Pb-Zn tailing (TLT)), a Cu tailing (Dexing Cu No. 2 tailing (DXT)) that had undergone 21 years of restoration, and a mature Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest (DXC) outside the Cu mining areas. The corresponding EMF communities colonizing Masson pine at each site were also investigated for comparison. After 8 months of running bioassays, ectomycorrhizal colonization was poor for seedlings grown in TLT (9.0 % ± 14.9 %) and DXT soils (22.4 % ± 17.7 %), while DXC seedlings were well colonized (47.5 % ± 24.9 %). Internal transcribed spacer sequencing revealed that EMF species richness increased with forest development in both the propagule bank (TLT, 6; DXT, 7; DXC, 12) and in the field (TLT, 8; DXT, 14; DXC, 26), though richness was lower in propagule banks. Several lineages, such as Cenococcum, Rhizopogon, Inocybe, Suillus, and Atheliaceae, were frequently encountered in propagule communities, but species assemblages were different among the three sites. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that several soil parameters, i.e., N, EC, Cu, Pb, Zn, etc., were responsible for the distribution of EMF in the field and bioassay seedlings. The highest overlap in EMF species composition between the propagule bank and the field community was observed at the recently closed tailing (Morisita-Horn similarity = 0.71 for TLT), whereas the lowest overlap occurred at the mature forest (0.26 for DXC). These results indicate that EMF propagules in soil are less frequent and diverse in early primary succession and become more frequent and diverse along forest development, due mainly to the accumulation of

  7. Breakdown of Clays by Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Through Changes in Oxidation State of Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocena, J. M.; Velde, B.

    2012-04-01

    Organisms are known to play a significant role in the transformation of clay minerals in soils. In our earlier work on canola, barley and alfalfa, we reported that Glomus, an arbuscular mycorrhizae, selectively transformed biotite into 2:1 expanding clays through the oxidation of Fe (II) in biotite to Fe(III). In this presentation, we will share similar results on clay transformations mediated by ectomycorrhizal fungi colonizing the roots of coniferous trees. Clay samples were isolated from rhizosphere soils of sub-alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) in northern British Columbia (Canada). Chemical and mineralogical properties of these soils had been reported in our earlier paper. In this study, we subjected the clay samples to iron X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (Fe-XANES) at the Canadian Light Source synchrotron facility in Saskatoon (Canada). Our initial results showed relatively higher amounts of Fe (III) than Fe(II) in clays collected from rhizosphere of Piloderma (an ectomycorrhizal fungus) compared to soils influenced by non-Piloderma species and Control (non-rhizosphere soil). Coupled with the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, there seems to be a positive relationship between the relative amounts of Fe(III) and the 2:1 expanding clays. This relationship is consistent with our results on agricultural plants in laboratory experiments on biotites where we suggested that oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) results in the formation of 2:1 expanding clays. In a related data set on chlorite alteration we observed that after dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) treatment, the d-spacing of a slight portion of chloritic expanding clays shifted to higher angles indicating decreased d-spacing towards micaceous clays. The reductive process initiated through the action of the DCB treatment seems to indicate the collapsed of expandable clays upon the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). Initial results from the Fe-XANES and XRD analysis of DCB

  8. Decomposition of soil organic matter by ectomycorrhizal fungi studied by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, César; Tunlid, Anders; Persson, Per

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests accumulate a fifth of the global soil organic matter (SOM) pool and play an important role in the carbon cycling. Most trees in these boreal forests live in symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) that sheath the plant root tips. In the symbiotic relationship, EMF provide nutrients from the soil to plants such as nitrogen and phosphorous, and trees give carbon in return to the fungi. When foraging for these nutrients, EMF use different strategies to explore the soil matrix. Long-distance exploration types grow far into the soil surroundings of the roots, while short-medium distance exploration ones grow close to the root tips. Despite these morphological differences among EMF, there is still little evidence of their functional role in the SOM decomposition. In this study, two ectomycorrhizal fungi Paxillus involutus and Laccaria bicolor, which belong to long and medium-distance smooth exploration types respectively, were grown in axenic cultures on SOM extracted from forest litter. To trigger the fungal decomposing activity, the extracts were supplemented with glucose. Chemical analysis and infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze the organic matter and chemometric tools such as principal component analysis (PCA), two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) analysis were applied to further understand the chemical changes in the SOM. The first principal component of PCA explained 77% of the total variability and separated the treatments based on two infrared spectral regions: polysaccharides (970-1,150 cm-1) and carbonyl region (1,620-1,800 cm-1). Moreover, the 2D correlation analysis showed that the polysaccharides region in both treatments was negatively correlated with the carbonyl region, suggesting the production of oxidized compounds such as ketones during the uptake of glucose. The 2D correlation analysis also revealed that the diminution of intensity in the

  9. The Major Factors Affecting Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Diversity in the Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di-Di Chai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi are important for plants growth which can enhance their resistance to drought, diseases, infertility and so on in the forest ecosystem, so researches on Ectomycorrhizal fungi are of necessity and great significance. As the basis for Ectomycorrhizal fungi research, the Ectomycorrhizal fungi diversity is attributed to many factors which can be divided to two parts in this review: biotic factors and abiotic factors. Biotic factors include chronosequences, bacteria living with ECM, habitat area, host genotype and abiotic factors include forest fire, toxic metal contamination, nitrogen content, survey method and microenvironment. The effects by these factors are deeply analyzed and discussed based on the plenty of literatures, our previous work and current research. The review not only introduces the current research result, but also arouses new ideas on Ectomycorrhizal fungi diversity research.

  10. Leaf and root-associated fungal assemblages do not follow similar elevational diversity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Coince

    Full Text Available The diversity of fungi along environmental gradients has been little explored in contrast to plants and animals. Consequently, environmental factors influencing the composition of fungal assemblages are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the diversity and composition of leaf and root-associated fungal assemblages vary with elevation and to investigate potential explanatory variables. High-throughput sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 region was used to explore fungal assemblages along three elevation gradients, located in French mountainous regions. Beech forest was selected as a study system to minimise the host effect. The variation in species richness and specific composition was investigated for ascomycetes and basidiomycetes assemblages with a particular focus on root-associated ectomycorrhizal fungi. The richness of fungal communities associated with leaves or roots did not significantly relate to any of the tested environmental drivers, i.e. elevation, mean temperature, precipitation or edaphic variables such as soil pH or the ratio carbon∶nitrogen. Nevertheless, the ascomycete species richness peaked at mid-temperature, illustrating a mid-domain effect model. We found that leaf and root-associated fungal assemblages did not follow similar patterns of composition with elevation. While the composition of the leaf-associated fungal assemblage correlated primarily with the mean annual temperature, the composition of root-associated fungal assemblage was explained equally by soil pH and by temperature. The ectomycorrhizal composition was also related to these variables. Our results therefore suggest that above and below-ground fungal assemblages are not controlled by the same main environmental variables. This may be due to the larger amplitude of climatic variables in the tree foliage compared to the soil environment.

  11. Leaf and root-associated fungal assemblages do not follow similar elevational diversity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coince, Aurore; Cordier, Tristan; Lengellé, Juliette; Defossez, Emmanuel; Vacher, Corinne; Robin, Cécile; Buée, Marc; Marçais, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of fungi along environmental gradients has been little explored in contrast to plants and animals. Consequently, environmental factors influencing the composition of fungal assemblages are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the diversity and composition of leaf and root-associated fungal assemblages vary with elevation and to investigate potential explanatory variables. High-throughput sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 region was used to explore fungal assemblages along three elevation gradients, located in French mountainous regions. Beech forest was selected as a study system to minimise the host effect. The variation in species richness and specific composition was investigated for ascomycetes and basidiomycetes assemblages with a particular focus on root-associated ectomycorrhizal fungi. The richness of fungal communities associated with leaves or roots did not significantly relate to any of the tested environmental drivers, i.e. elevation, mean temperature, precipitation or edaphic variables such as soil pH or the ratio carbon∶nitrogen. Nevertheless, the ascomycete species richness peaked at mid-temperature, illustrating a mid-domain effect model. We found that leaf and root-associated fungal assemblages did not follow similar patterns of composition with elevation. While the composition of the leaf-associated fungal assemblage correlated primarily with the mean annual temperature, the composition of root-associated fungal assemblage was explained equally by soil pH and by temperature. The ectomycorrhizal composition was also related to these variables. Our results therefore suggest that above and below-ground fungal assemblages are not controlled by the same main environmental variables. This may be due to the larger amplitude of climatic variables in the tree foliage compared to the soil environment. PMID:24971637

  12. Characterisation of recombinant pyranose oxidase from the cultivated mycorrhizal basidiomycete Lyophyllum shimeji (hon-shimeji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamabhai Montarop

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flavin-dependent enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (P2Ox has gained increased attention during the last years because of a number of attractive applications for this enzyme. P2Ox is a unique biocatalyst with high potential for biotransformations of carbohydrates and in synthetic carbohydrate chemistry. Recently, it was shown that P2Ox is useful as bioelement in biofuel cells, replacing glucose oxidase (GOx, which traditionally is used in these applications. P2Ox offers several advantages over GOx for this application, e.g., its much broader substrate specificity. Because of this renewed interest in P2Ox, knowledge on novel pyranose oxidases isolated from organisms other than white-rot fungi, which represent the traditional source of this enzyme, is of importance, as these novel enzymes might differ in their biochemical and physical properties. Results We isolated and over-expressed the p2ox gene encoding P2Ox from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Lyophyllum shimeji. The p2ox cDNA was inserted into the bacterial expression vector pET21a(+ and successfully expressed in E. coli Rosetta 2. We obtained active, flavinylated recombinant P2Ox in yields of approximately 130 mg per L of medium. The enzyme was purified by a two-step procedure based on anion exchange chromatography and preparative native PAGE, yielding an apparently homogenous enzyme preparation with a specific activity of 1.92 U/mg (using glucose and air oxygen as the substrates. Recombinant P2Ox from L. shimeji was characterized in some detail with respect to its physical and catalytic properties, and compared to the well-characterised enzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes multicolor. Conclusion L. shimeji P2Ox shows properties that are comparable to those of P2Ox from white-rot fungal origin, and is in general characterised by lower Km and kcat values both for electron donor (sugar as well as electron acceptor (ferrocenium ion, 1,4-benzoquinone, 2

  13. The ectomycorrhizal community of conifer stands on peat soils 12 years after fertilization with wood ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavina, Darta; Pennanen, Taina; Gaitnieks, Talis; Velmala, Sannakajsa; Lazdins, Andis; Lazdina, Dagnija; Menkis, Audrius

    2016-02-01

    We studied long-term effects of fertilization with wood ash on biomass, vitality and mycorrhizal colonization of fine roots in three conifer forest stands growing in Vacciniosa turf. mel. (V), Myrtillosa turf. mel. (M) and Myrtillosa turf. mel./Caricoso-phragmitosa (MC) forest types on peat soils. Fertilization trials amounting 5 kg/m(2) of wood ash were established 12 years prior to this study. A total of 63 soil samples with roots were collected and analysed. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi in roots were identified by morphotyping and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. In all forest types, fine root biomass was higher in fertilized plots than in control plots. In M forest type, proportion of living fine roots was greater in fertilized plots than in control plots, while in V and MC, the result was opposite. Fifty ECM species were identified, of which eight were common to both fertilized and control plots. Species richness and Shannon diversity index were generally higher in fertilized plots than in control plots. The most common species in fertilized plots were Amphinema byssoides (17.8%) and Tuber cf. anniae (12.2%), while in control plots, it was Tylospora asterophora (18.5%) and Lactarius tabidus (20.3%). Our results showed that forest fertilization with wood ash has long-lasting effect on diversity and composition of ECM fungal communities. PMID:26208815

  14. Correspondence of ectomycorrhizal diversity and colonisation of willows (Salix spp.) grown in short rotation coppice on arable sites and adjacent natural stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Toljander, Ylva K; Baum, Christel; Fransson, Petra M A; Taylor, Andy F S; Weih, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are mycorrhizal tree species sometimes cultivated as short rotation coppice (SRC) on arable sites for energy purposes; they are also among the earliest plants colonising primary successional sites in natural stands. The objective of this study was to analyse the degree of colonisation and diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities on willows grown as SRC in arable soils and their adjacent natural or naturalized stands. Arable sites usually lack ectomycorrhizal host plants before the establishment of SRC, and adjacent natural or naturalized willow stands were hypothesized to be a leading source of ectomycorrhizal inoculum for the SRC. Three test sites including SRC stands (Salix viminalis, Salix dasyclados, and Salix schwerinii) and adjacent natural or naturalized (Salix caprea, Salix fragilis, and Salix × mollissima) stands in central Sweden were investigated on EM colonisation and morphotypes, and the fungal partners of 36 of the total 49 EM fungi morphotypes were identified using molecular tools. The frequency of mycorrhizas in the natural/naturalized stands was higher (two sites) or lower (one site) than in the corresponding cultivated stands. Correspondence analysis revealed that some EM taxa (e.g. Agaricales) were mostly associated with cultivated willows, while others (e.g. Thelephorales) were mostly found in natural/naturalized stands. In conclusion, we found strong effects of sites and willow genotype on EM fungi formation, but poor correspondence between the EM fungi abundance and diversity in SRC and their adjacent natural/naturalized stands. The underlying mechanism might be selective promotion of some EM fungi species by more effective spore dispersal.

  15. Correspondence of ectomycorrhizal diversity and colonisation of willows (Salix spp.) grown in short rotation coppice on arable sites and adjacent natural stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Toljander, Ylva K; Baum, Christel; Fransson, Petra M A; Taylor, Andy F S; Weih, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are mycorrhizal tree species sometimes cultivated as short rotation coppice (SRC) on arable sites for energy purposes; they are also among the earliest plants colonising primary successional sites in natural stands. The objective of this study was to analyse the degree of colonisation and diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities on willows grown as SRC in arable soils and their adjacent natural or naturalized stands. Arable sites usually lack ectomycorrhizal host plants before the establishment of SRC, and adjacent natural or naturalized willow stands were hypothesized to be a leading source of ectomycorrhizal inoculum for the SRC. Three test sites including SRC stands (Salix viminalis, Salix dasyclados, and Salix schwerinii) and adjacent natural or naturalized (Salix caprea, Salix fragilis, and Salix × mollissima) stands in central Sweden were investigated on EM colonisation and morphotypes, and the fungal partners of 36 of the total 49 EM fungi morphotypes were identified using molecular tools. The frequency of mycorrhizas in the natural/naturalized stands was higher (two sites) or lower (one site) than in the corresponding cultivated stands. Correspondence analysis revealed that some EM taxa (e.g. Agaricales) were mostly associated with cultivated willows, while others (e.g. Thelephorales) were mostly found in natural/naturalized stands. In conclusion, we found strong effects of sites and willow genotype on EM fungi formation, but poor correspondence between the EM fungi abundance and diversity in SRC and their adjacent natural/naturalized stands. The underlying mechanism might be selective promotion of some EM fungi species by more effective spore dispersal. PMID:22415721

  16. Profiling functions of ectomycorrhizal diversity and root structuring in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies) with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmala, Sannakajsa M; Rajala, Tiina; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Taylor, Andy F S; Pennanen, Taina

    2014-01-01

    We studied the role of taxonomical and functional ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal diversity in root formation and nutrient uptake by Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes. Seedlings were grown with an increasing ECM fungal diversity gradient from one to four species and sampled before aboveground growth differences between the two phenotypes were apparent. ECM fungal colonization patterns were determined and functional diversity was assayed via measurements of potential enzyme activities of eight exoenzymes probably involved in nutrient mobilization. Phenotypes did not vary in their receptiveness to different ECM fungal species. However, seedlings of slow-growing phenotypes had higher fine-root density and thus more condensed root systems than fast-growing seedlings, but the potential enzyme activities of ectomycorrhizas did not differ qualitatively or quantitatively. ECM species richness increased host nutrient acquisition potential by diversifying the exoenzyme palette. Needle nitrogen content correlated positively with high chitinase activity of ectomycorrhizas. Rather than fast- and slow-growing phenotypes exhibiting differing receptiveness to ECM fungi, our results suggest that distinctions in fine-root structuring and in the belowground growth strategy already apparent at early stages of seedling development may explain later growth differences between fast- and slow-growing families. PMID:24117652

  17. Effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization and drought on reactive oxygen species metabolism of Nothofagus dombeyi roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Fernandez, Carlos; Gacitúa, Yessy; Olivares, Erick; Saavedra, Isabel; Alberdi, Miren; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Infection with ectomycorrhizal fungi can increase the ability of plants to resist drought stress through morphophysiological and biochemical mechanisms. However, the metabolism of antioxidative enzyme activities in the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis remains poorly understood. This study investigated biomass production, reactive oxygen metabolism (hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde concentration) and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) in pure cultures of the ectomycorrhizal fungi Descolea antartica Sing. and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch, and non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal roots of Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) roots under well-watered conditions and drought conditions (DC). The studied ectomycorrhizal fungi regulated their antioxidative enzyme metabolism differentially in response to drought, resulting in cellular damage in D. antartica but not in P. tinctorius. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation and water treatment had a significant effect on all parameters studied, including relative water content of the plant. As such, N. dombeyi plants in symbiosis experienced a lower oxidative stress effect than non-mycorrhizal plants under DC. Additionally, ectomycorrhizal N. dombeyi roots showed a greater antioxidant enzyme activity relative to non-mycorrhizal roots, an effect which was further expressed under DC. The association between the non-specific P. tinctorius and N. dombeyi had a more effective reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism than the specific D. antartica-N. dombeyi symbiosis. We conclude that the combination of effective ROS prevention and ROS detoxification by ectomycorrhizal plants resulted in reduced cellular damage and increased plant growth relative to non-mycorrhizal plants under drought.

  18. Impact of alien pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities-evidence from two continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazol, Antonio; Zobel, Martin; Cantero, Juan José; Davison, John; Esler, Karen J; Jairus, Teele; Öpik, Maarja; Vasar, Martti; Moora, Mari

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of alien plants can influence biodiversity and ecosystems. However, its consequences for soil microbial communities remain poorly understood. We addressed the impact of alien ectomycorrhizal (EcM) pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities in two regions with contrasting biogeographic histories: in South Africa, where no native EcM plant species are present; and in Argentina, where EcM trees occur naturally. The effect of alien pines on AM fungal communities differed between these regions. In South Africa, plantations of alien EcM pines exhibited lower AM fungal richness and significantly altered community composition, compared with native fynbos. In Argentina, the richness and composition of local AM fungal communities were similar in plantations of alien EcM pines and native forest. However, the presence of alien pines resulted in slight changes to the phylogenetic structure of root AM fungal communities in both regions. In pine clearcut areas in South Africa, the richness and composition of AM fungal communities were intermediate between the native fynbos and the alien pine plantation, which is consistent with natural regeneration of former AM fungal communities following pine removal. We conclude that the response of local AM fungal communities to alien EcM pines differs between biogeographic regions with different histories of species coexistence. PMID:27056916

  19. Ectomycorrhizal community structure and function in relation to forest residue harvesting and wood ash applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with tree roots and assist in nutrient-uptake and -cycling in forest ecosystems, thereby constituting a most significant part of the microbial community. The aims of the studies described in this thesis were to evaluate the potential of DNA-based molecular methods in below-ground ectomycorrhizal community studies and to investigate changes in ectomycorrhizal communities on spruce roots in sites with different N deposition, and in sites subjected to harvesting of forest residues or application of wood ash. The ability of selected ectomycorrhizal fungi to mobilise nutrients from wood ash and to colonise root systems in the presence and absence of ash was also studied. In total 39 ectomycorrhizal species were detected in the experimental forests located in southern Sweden. At each site five to six species colonised around 60% of the root tips. The dominant species, common to the sites, were Tylospora fibrillosa, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum. Differences between two sites with differing levels of N deposition suggested that community structure may be influenced by N deposition, although site history, location and degree of isolation may also influence species composition. Repeated harvesting of forest residues reduced numbers of mycorrhizal roots in the humus layer to approximately 50% of that in control plots but no shift in the ectomycorrhizal community could be detected. At another site, application of granulated wood ash induced a shift in ectomycorrhizal community structure and three ectomycorrhizal fungi ('ash fungi') were found to colonise ash granules. Two 'ash fungi' showed a superior ability to solubilise stabilised wood ash in laboratory experiments compared to other ectomycorrhizal isolates from the same site. In laboratory microcosms containing intact mycorrhizal mycelia, colonisation of wood ash patches by one 'ash fungus' was good whereas colonisation by Piloderma croceum was poor. In a

  20. Site properties have a stronger influence than fire severity on ectomycorrhizal fungi and associated N-cycling bacteria in regenerating post-beetle-killed lodgepole pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Nabla M; Robertson, Susan J; Green, D Scott; Scholefield, Scott R; Arocena, Joselito M; Tackaberry, Linda E; Massicotte, Hugues B; Egger, Keith N

    2015-09-01

    Following a pine beetle epidemic in British Columbia, Canada, we investigated the effect of fire severity on rhizosphere soil chemistry and ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) and associated denitrifying and nitrogen (N)-fixing bacteria in the root systems of regenerating lodgepole pine seedlings at two site types (wet and dry) and three fire severities (low, moderate, and high). The site type was found to have a much larger impact on all measurements than fire severity. Wet and dry sites differed significantly for almost all soil properties measured, with higher values identified from wet types, except for pH and percent sand that were greater on dry sites. Fire severity caused few changes in soil chemical status. Generally, bacterial communities differed little, whereas ECM morphotype analysis revealed ectomycorrhizal diversity was lower on dry sites, with a corresponding division in community structure between wet and dry sites. Molecular profiling of the fungal ITS region confirmed these results, with a clear difference in community structure seen between wet and dry sites. The ability of ECM fungi to colonize seedlings growing in both wet and dry soils may positively contribute to subsequent regeneration. We conclude that despite consecutive landscape disturbances (mountain pine beetle infestation followed by wildfire), the "signature" of moisture on chemistry and ECM community structure remained pronounced. PMID:25540132

  1. Environmental drivers of ectomycorrhizal communities in Europe's temperate oak forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suz, Laura M; Barsoum, Nadia; Benham, Sue; Dietrich, Hans-Peter; Fetzer, Karl Dieter; Fischer, Richard; García, Paloma; Gehrman, Joachim; Kristöfel, Ferdinand; Manninger, Miklós; Neagu, Stefan; Nicolas, Manuel; Oldenburger, Jan; Raspe, Stephan; Sánchez, Gerardo; Schröck, Hans Werner; Schubert, Alfred; Verheyen, Kris; Verstraeten, Arne; Bidartondo, Martin I

    2014-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are major ecological players in temperate forests, but they are rarely used in measures of forest condition because large-scale, high-resolution, standardized and replicated belowground data are scarce. We carried out an analysis of ectomycorrhizas at 22 intensively monitored long-term oak plots, across nine European countries, covering complex natural and anthropogenic environmental gradients. We found that at large scales, mycorrhizal richness and evenness declined with decreasing soil pH and root density, and with increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Shifts in mycorrhizas with different functional traits were detected; mycorrhizas with structures specialized for long-distance transport related differently to most environmental variables than those without. The dominant oak-specialist Lactarius quietus, with limited soil exploration abilities, responds positively to increasing nitrogen inputs and decreasing pH. In contrast, Tricholoma, Cortinarius and Piloderma species, with medium-distance soil exploration abilities, show a consistently negative response. We also determined nitrogen critical loads for moderate (9.5-13.5 kg N/ha/year) and drastic (17 kg N/ha/year) changes in belowground mycorrhizal root communities in temperate oak forests. Overall, we generated the first baseline data for ectomycorrhizal fungi in the oak forests sampled, identified nitrogen pollution as one of their major drivers at large scales and revealed fungi that individually and/or in combination with others can be used as belowground indicators of environmental characteristics. PMID:25277863

  2. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Vincent L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch lines expressing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides L. caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (PtCOMT under the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV promoter showed a reduction in the relative expression of a putative silver birch COMT (BpCOMT gene and, consequently, a decrease in the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl composition ratio. Alterations were also detected in concentrations of certain phenolic compounds. All PtCOMT silver birch lines produced normal ectomycorrhizas with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus (Batsch: Fr., and the formation of symbiosis enhanced the growth of the transgenic plants. Conclusion The down-regulation of BpCOMT in the 35S-PtCOMT lines caused a reduction in the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin, but no significant effect was seen in the composition or quantity of phenolic compounds that would have been caused by the expression of PtCOMT under the 35S or UbB1 promoter. Moreover, the detected alterations in the composition of lignin and secondary phenolic compounds had no effect on the interaction between silver birch and P. involutus.

  3. The mid-domain effect in ectomycorrhizal fungi: range overlap along an elevation gradient on Mount Fuji, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yumiko; Nakano, Takashi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2014-08-01

    Mid-domain effect (MDE) models predict that the random placement of species' ranges within a bounded geographical area leads to increased range overlap and species richness in the center of the bounded area. These models are frequently applied to study species-richness patterns of macroorganisms, but the MDE in relation to microorganisms is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the characteristics of the MDE in richness patterns of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, an ecologically important group of soil symbionts. We conducted intensive soil sampling to investigate overlap among species ranges and the applicability of the MDE to EM fungi in four temperate forest stands along an elevation gradient on Mount Fuji, Japan. Molecular analyses using direct sequencing revealed 302 EM fungal species. Of 73 EM fungal species found in multiple stands, 72 inhabited a continuous range along the elevation gradient. The maximum overlap in species range and the highest species richness occurred at elevations in the middle of the gradient. The observed richness pattern also fit within the 95% confidence interval of the mid-domain null model, supporting the role of the MDE in EM fungal richness. Deviation in observed richness from the mean of the mid-domain null estimation was negatively correlated with some environmental factors, including precipitation and soil C/N, indicating that unexplained richness patterns could be driven by these environmental factors. Our results clearly support the existence of microbial species' ranges along environmental gradients and the potential applicability of the MDE to better understand microbial diversity patterns. PMID:24621523

  4. Associations between Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Bacterial Needle Endophytes in Pinus radiata: Implications for Biotic Selection of Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rúa, Megan A.; Wilson, Emily C.; Steele, Sarah; Munters, Arielle R.; Hoeksema, Jason D.; Frank, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors — biotic or abiotic — in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest that both biotic

  5. Comparison of root-associated communities of native and non-native ectomycorrhizal hosts in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothamer, K; Brown, S P; Mattox, J D; Jumpponen, A

    2014-05-01

    Non-native tree species are often used as ornamentals in urban landscapes. However, their root-associated fungal communities remain yet to be examined in detail. Here, we compared richness, diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizosphere fungi in general and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi in particular between a non-native Pinus nigra and a native Quercus macrocarpa across a growing season in urban parks using 454-pyrosequencing. Our data show that, while the ectomycorrhizosphere community richness and diversity did not differ between the two host, the EcM communities associated with the native host were often more species rich and included more exclusive members than those of the non-native hosts. In contrast, the ectomycorrhizosphere communities of the two hosts were compositionally clearly distinct in nonmetric multidimensional ordination analyses, whereas the EcM communities were only marginally so. Taken together, our data suggest EcM communities with broad host compatibilities and with a limited numbers of taxa with preference to the non-native host. Furthermore, many common fungi in the non-native Pinus were not EcM taxa, suggesting that the fungal communities of the non-native host may be enriched in non-mycorrhizal fungi at the cost of the EcM taxa. Finally, while our colonization estimates did not suggest a shortage in EcM inoculum for either host in urban parks, the differences in the fungi associated with the two hosts emphasize the importance of using native hosts in urban environments as a tool to conserve endemic fungal diversity and richness in man-made systems. PMID:24221903

  6. Associations between ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacterial needle endophytes in Pinus radiata: implications for biotic selection of microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Arlene Rúa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata, and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors — biotic or abiotic — in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest

  7. Associations between Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Bacterial Needle Endophytes in Pinus radiata: Implications for Biotic Selection of Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rúa, Megan A; Wilson, Emily C; Steele, Sarah; Munters, Arielle R; Hoeksema, Jason D; Frank, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors - biotic or abiotic - in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest that both biotic species

  8. Forest litter as the mulch improving growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity of bare-root Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aučina A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report the influence of pine, oak and spruce forest litter on the growth and ectomycorrhizal (ECM formation of Scots pine seedlings after the first growing season in a bare-root forest nursery. The mixture of collected forest litters and humus were used to obtain a 20-cm mulching layer on the prepared seedbeds. The concentrations of all nutrients and the C/N ratio of growth media were significantly higher in forest litter treatments than in negative control represented by mineral soil without litter. Addition of each forest litter type significantly enhanced pine seedling height and root-collar diameter compared to negative control. A significant positive influence on dry mass of stem, needles, roots and total dry mass of the seedling has been found only for pine litter. Based on molecular identification, seven ECM fungal taxa (Wilcoxina mikolae, Suillus luteus, Cenococcum geophilum, Meliniomyces bicolor, Laccaria laccata, unidentified Atheliaceae, unidentified Ascomycetes were distinguished in the observed mycorrhizal communities. Each forest litter type significantly increased the total number of mycorrhizal tips and ECM fungal diversity compared to the control soil. However, results showed a lack of significant differences in species composition and relative abundance of ECM fungi between different litter types. Such result suggests that forest litter has not been a key source of inoculum for tested fungal species, as root systems of all pine seedlings from different litter types were dominated by a few nursery- adapted ECM fungi, probably originating from natural air-borne inoculum. Our data rather indicate that forest litter considerably improves environmental conditions for development of ECM fungi previously present in the nursery soil. Therefore, any of the forest litter types used in our studies may be able to promote planting stock quality on a small scale in the nursery phase.

  9. Ectomycorrhizal communities of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine in the south-central Oregon pumice zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria O; Smith, Jane E; Luoma, Daniel L; Jones, Melanie D

    2016-05-01

    Forest ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest of the USA are changing as a result of climate change. Specifically, rise of global temperatures, decline of winter precipitation, earlier loss of snowpack, and increased summer drought are altering the range of Pinus contorta. Simultaneously, flux in environmental conditions within the historic P. contorta range may facilitate the encroachment of P. ponderosa into P. contorta territory. Furthermore, successful pine species migration may be constrained by the distribution or co-migration of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). Knowledge of the linkages among soil fungal diversity, community structure, and environmental factors is critical to understanding the organization and stability of pine ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to establish a foundational knowledge of the EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in the Deschutes National Forest, OR, USA, and to examine soil characteristics associated with community composition. We examined EMF root tips of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in soil cores and conducted soil chemistry analysis for P. ponderosa cores. Results indicate that Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon salebrosus, and Inocybe flocculosa were dominant in both P. contorta and P. ponderosa soil cores. Rhizopogon spp. were ubiquitous in P. ponderosa cores. There was no significant difference in the species composition of EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta. Ordination analysis of P. ponderosa soils suggested that soil pH, plant-available phosphorus (Bray), total phosphorus (P), carbon (C), mineralizable nitrogen (N), ammonium (NH4), and nitrate (NO3) are driving EMF community composition in P. ponderosa stands. We found a significant linear relationship between EMF species richness and mineralizable N. In conclusion, P. ponderosa and P. contorta, within the Deschutes National Forest, share the same dominant EMF species, which implies that P. ponderosa may be able to successfully establish

  10. How metal-tolerant ecotypes of ectomycorrhizal fungi protect plants from heavy metal pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Colpaert, Jan; Wevers, Jan; KRZNARIC, Erik; Adriaensen, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Heavy metal pollution is a strong driver of above- and belowground communities and triggers evolutionary adaptation in organisms. This review provides an overview of our knowledge on the effects of toxic concentrations of metals on ectomycorrhizal populations and communities. Discussion: Selection and adaptations within particular ectomycorrhizal species that colonise host plants in harsh environments is discussed. Among these adaptations, we focus on the metal exclusion strateg...

  11. Two mycoheterotrophic orchids from Thailand tropical dipterocarpacean forests associate with a broad diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Vessabutr Suyanee; Richard Franck; Stier Anna; Watthana Santi; Roy Mélanie; Selosse Marc-André

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Mycoheterotrophic plants are considered to associate very specifically with fungi. Mycoheterotrophic orchids are mostly associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi in temperate regions, or with saprobes or parasites in tropical regions. Although most mycoheterotrophic orchids occur in the tropics, few studies have been devoted to them, and the main conclusions about their specificity have hitherto been drawn from their association with ectomycorrhizal fungi in temperate regions....

  12. Studies on ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete in pine forest on the Lithuania-Poland transboundary region

    OpenAIRE

    Danutė Stankovičienė; Jonas Kaspravičius

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi and sporocarps abundance were investigated in 2003-2005 at nine permanent study plots in a 50-year-old pine forest. Diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi consisted of 53 taxa and the majority of them belonged to the genera Cortinarius, Russula, Amanita and Tricholoma. The most frequent species, whose fruit bodies were found in each study plot, were C. cibarius, L. necator L. rufus, P. involutus, R. aeruginea, T. saponaceum and the most abundant species whic...

  13. Chewing up the Wood-Wide Web: Selective Grazing on Ectomycorrhizal Fungi by Collembola

    OpenAIRE

    Clarisse Kanters; Anderson, Ian C.; David Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The mycelia of some symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi form extensive networks—the so called “wood-wide web”—that have key roles in biogeochemical cycling. By interacting with myriad soil organisms such as collembola, the fungi directly affect the functioning of above- and below-ground multitrophic interactions in ecosystems. Here we tested whether the grazing activities of collembola affected the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi in single or mixed species axenic cultures, and their impact on e...

  14. In vitro EVALUATION OF EUCALYPTUS ECTOMYCORRHIZAE ON SUBSTRATE WITH PHOSPHORUS DOSES FOR FUNGAL PRE-SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiomar Soares Costa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The benefit promoted by ectomycorrhizal depends on the interaction between symbionts and phosphorus (P contents. Phosphorus effect on ectomycorrhizal formation and the effectiveness of these in promoting plant growth for fungal pre-selection were assessed under in vitro conditions. For P effect evaluation, Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings inoculated with four Pisolithus sp. isolates and others non-inoculated were grown on substrate containing 0.87, 1.16 and 1.72 mg P per plant. For evaluation of effectiveness and fungal pre-selection, other 30 isolates of Pisolithus sp., Pisolithus microcarpus ITA06 isolate, Amanita muscaria AM16 isolate, Scleroderma areolatum SC129 isolate were studied. D26 isolate promoted the highest plant heights for the three P doses, D51 at the lower dose and D72 at the intermediate dose. P doses did not influenced shoot fresh weight and fungal colonization. In the pre-selection of fungi, 14 isolates of Pisolithus sp., P. microcarpus ITA06 isolate and S. areolatum SC129isolate increased plant height and fresh weight. D82 isolate of Pisolithus sp. had effect singly on plant height while D17 and D58 on fresh weight. Of these, only D15, D17, D58 and ITA06 had typical ectomycorrhizae. The cultivation in vitro has shown adequate for pre-selection of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Colonization and benefits depend on species and isolate. D15, D17 and D58 of Pisolithus sp. and P. microcarpus isolate ITA06 are the most promising for nursery studies.

  15. A Foray into Fungal Ecology: Understanding Fungi and Their Functions Across Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, N.; Dunkirk, N. C.; Peay, K.

    2015-12-01

    Despite their incredible diversity and importance to terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are not included in a standard high school science curriculum. This past summer, however, my work for the Stanford EARTH High School Internship program introduced me to fungal ecology through experiments involving culturing, genomics and root dissections. The two fungal experiments I worked on had very different foci, both searching for answers to broad ecological questions of fungal function and physiology. The first, a symbiosis experiment, sought to determine if the partners of the nutrient exchange between pine trees and their fungal symbionts could choose one another. The second experiment, a dung fungal succession project, compared the genetic sequencing results of fungal extractions from dung versus fungal cultures from dung. My part in the symbiosis experiment involved dissection, weighing and encapsulation of root tissue samples characterized based on the root thickness and presence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The dung fungi succession project required that I not only learn how to culture various genera of dung fungi but also learn how to extract DNA and RNA for sequencing from the fungal tissue. Although I primarily worked with dung fungi cultures and thereby learned about their unique physiologies, I also learned about the different types of genetic sequencing since the project compared sequences of cultured fungi versus Next Generation sequencing of all fungi present within a dung pellet. Through working on distinct fungal projects that reassess how information about fungi is known within the field of fungal ecology, I learned not only about the two experiments I worked on but also many past related experiments and inquiries through reading scientific papers. Thanks to my foray into fungal research, I now know not only the broader significance of fungi in ecological research but also how to design and conduct ecological experiments.

  16. Investigation of the degradation of 13C-labeled fungal biomass in soil - fate of carbon in a soil bioreactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, Michael; Fester, Thomas; Miltner, Anja; Kaestner, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Nutrient balances and degradation processes in boreal forests are mainly influenced by interactions of plant roots and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Plants benefit from nitrogen compounds provided by their symbiotic interaction partner. In return ectomycorrhiza are provided by large amounts of carbon from the plants which is used for the synthesis of hyphal networks in soil and for metabolic activity for nutrient uptake. Therefore, ectomycorrhizal fungi play a major role in ecosystems of boreal forests and are consequently an important sink for carbon by building large amount of mycelia. Recently, it has been shown that microbial biomass residues contribute significantly to soil organic matter formation. This suggests that also residues of ectomycorrhizal fungi may be an important source for soil organic matter formation in forest soils where these fungi are abundant. However, the fate of ectomycorrhizal biomass residues in soils is unknown. We therefore investigated the fate of ectomycorrhizal biomass in soil in a soil bioreactor system to quantify the contribution of this material to soil organic matter formation. As a model organism, we selected Laccaria bicolor, which was labelled by growing the fungus on 13C glucose. The stable isotope-labeled biomass was then homogenized and incubated in a podzol from a typical forest site in Central Germany. The fate of the labeled biomass was traced by analyzing the amount of 13C mineralized and the amount remaining in the soil. The fungal biomass carbon was mineralized rather rapidly during the first 50 days. Then the mineralization rate slowed down, but mineralization continued until the end of the experiment, when approximately 40% of the 13C was mineralized and 60% remained in soil. In addition, we analyzed biomolecules such as fatty acids to trace the incorporation of the L. bicolor-derived biomass carbon into other microorganisms and to identify potential primary consumers of fungal biomass. By these analyses, we found a

  17. Edible species of the fungal genus hebeloma and two neotropical pines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico has one of the largest diversities of pines and ectomycorrhizal fungi known world-wide. Therefore, describingnative ectomycorrizal species from the country associated with pines is important because of their biotechnological potential in the forestry and food sectors. Worldwide, Hebeloma has generally been considered a genus of poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, interestingly, in central Mexico there is a complex of under-studied Hebeloma species which are used as food in large quantities and have a great economic and social importance. Three edible species of Hebeloma widely marketed in the country were identified: Hebeloma alpinum, H. mesophaeum and H. leucosarx with scanning electron microscopy on the basis of different ornamentation patterns in the spores of these species. Synthesis was carried out by inoculating two Neotropical pines with sporomes of the three described Hebeloma species. To achieve this, inoculated pines were kept in greenhouse conditions during one year. A characteristic morphotype for each fungal species was observed and it is described here. The first known description of the morphotype of Hebeloma alpinum with pines is presented. This seminal work gives a tool to identify the morphotypes produced by the main edible ectomycorrhizal species of Hebeloma marketed in Mexico, with biotechnological potential to inoculate pines used in reforestation programmes in Neotropical areas. (author)

  18. The alpha-tubulin gene AmTuba1: a marker for rapid mycelial growth in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkka, Mika T; Schrey, Silvia; Nehls, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    The apical extension of hyphae is of central importance for extensive spread of fungal mycelium in forest soils and for effective ectomycorrhiza development. Since the tubulin cytoskeleton is known to be important for fungal tip growth, we have investigated the expression of an alpha-tubulin gene from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Amanita muscaria (AmTuba1). The phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences revealed the existence of two subgroups of alpha-tubulins in homobasidiomycetes, clearly distinguishable by defined amino acids. AmTuba1 belongs to subgroup1. The AmTuba1 transcript level is related to mycelial growth rate. Growth induction of carbohydrate starved (non-growing) hyphae resulted in an enhanced AmTuba1 expression as soon as hyphal growth started, reaching a maximum at highest mycelial growth rate. Bacterium-induced hyphal elongation also leads to increased AmTuba1 transcript levels. In mature A. muscaria/P. abies ectomycorrhizas, where fungal hyphae are highly branched, and slowly growing, AmTuba1 expression were even lower than in carbohydrate-starved mycelium, indicating a further down-regulation of gene expression in symbiosis. In conclusion, our analyses show that the AmTuba1 gene can be used as a marker for active apical extension in fly agaric, and that alpha-tubulin proteins are promising tools for the classification of fungi. PMID:16447071

  19. Arctic root-associated fungal community composition reflects environmental filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaalid, Rakel; Davey, Marie L; Kauserud, Håvard; Carlsen, Tor; Halvorsen, Rune; Høiland, Klaus; Eidesen, Pernille B

    2014-02-01

    There is growing evidence that root-associated fungi have important roles in Arctic ecosystems. Here, we assess the diversity of fungal communities associated with roots of the ectomycorrhizal perennial herb Bistorta vivipara on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and investigate whether spatial separation and bioclimatic variation are important structuring factors of fungal community composition. We sampled 160 plants of B. vivipara from 32 localities across Svalbard. DNA was extracted from entire root systems, and 454 pyrosequencing of ITS1 amplicons was used to profile the fungal communities. The fungal communities were predominantly composed of Basidiomycota (55% of reads) and Ascomycota (35%), with the orders Thelephorales (24%), Agaricales (13.8%), Pezizales (12.6%) and Sebacinales (11.3%) accounting for most of the reads. Plants from the same site or region had more similar fungal communities to one another than plants from other sites or regions, and sites clustered together along a weak latitudinal gradient. Furthermore, a decrease in per-plant OTU richness with increasing latitude was observed. However, no statistically significant spatial autocorrelation between sites was detected, suggesting that environmental filtering, not dispersal limitation, causes the observed patterns. Our analyses suggest that while latitudinal patterns in community composition and richness might reflect bioclimatic influences at global spatial scales, at the smaller spatial scale of the Svalbard archipelago, these changes more likely reflect varied bedrock composition and associated edaphic factors. The need for further studies focusing on identifying those specific bioclimatic and edaphic factors structuring root-associated fungal community composition at both global and local scales is emphasized. PMID:24320873

  20. The co-occurrence of ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal, and dark septate fungi in seedlings of four members of the Pinaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagg, Cameron; Pautler, Michael; Massicotte, Hugues B; Peterson, R Larry

    2008-02-01

    Although roots of species in the Pinaceae are usually colonized by ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, there are increasing reports of the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi in these species. The objective of this study was to determine the colonization patterns in seedlings of three Pinus (pine) species (Pinus banksiana, Pinus strobus, Pinus contorta) and Picea glauca x Picea engelmannii (hybrid spruce) grown in soil collected from a disturbed forest site. Seedlings of all three pine species and hybrid spruce became colonized by EM, AM, and DSE fungi. The dominant EM morphotype belonged to the E-strain category; limited colonization by a Tuber sp. was found on roots of Pinus strobus and an unknown morphotype (cf. Suillus-Rhizopogon group) with thick, cottony white mycelium was present on short roots of all species. The three fungal categories tended to occupy different niches in a single root system. No correlation was found between the percent root colonized by EM and percent colonization by either AM or DSE, although there was a positive correlation between percent root length colonized by AM and DSE. Hyphae and vesicles were the only AM intracellular structures found in roots of all species; arbuscules were not observed in any roots. PMID:18157555

  1. The ectomycorrhizal status of a tropical black bolete, Phlebopus portentosus, assessed using mycorrhizal synthesis and isotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumla, Jaturong; Hobbie, Erik A; Suwannarach, Nakarin; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2016-05-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is one of the most popular wild edible mushrooms in Thailand and can produce sporocarps in the culture without a host plant. However, it is still unclear whether Phlebopus portentosus is a saprotrophic, parasitic, or ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus. In this study, Phlebopus portentosus sporocarps were collected from northern Thailand and identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. We combined mycorrhizal synthesis and stable isotopic analysis to investigate the trophic status of this fungus. In a greenhouse experiment, ECM-like structures were observed in Pinus kesiya at 1 year after inoculation with fungal mycelium, and the association of Phlebopus portentosus and other plant species showed superficial growth over the root surface. Fungus-colonized root tips were described morphologically and colonization confirmed by molecular methods. In stable isotope measurements, the δ(13)C and δ(15)N of natural samples of Phlebopus portentosus differed from saprotrophic fungi. Based on the isotopic patterns of Phlebopus portentosus and its ability to form ECM-like structures in greenhouse experiments, we conclude that Phlebopus portentosus could be an ECM fungus. PMID:26671421

  2. Root endophyte symbiosis in vitro between the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tricholoma matsutake and the arbuscular mycorrhizal plant Prunus speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Yokota, Satoru; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kohei; Ohira, Tatsuro; Neda, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported that Tricholoma matsutake and Tricholoma fulvocastaneum, ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes that associate with Pinaceae and Fagaceae, respectively, in the Northern Hemisphere, could interact in vitro as a root endophyte of somatic plants of Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae), which naturally harbors arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in South America, to form a characteristic rhizospheric colony or "shiro". We questioned whether this phenomenon could have occurred because of plant-microbe interactions between geographically separated species that never encounter one another in nature. In the present study, we document that these fungi formed root endophyte interactions and shiro within 140 days of inoculation with somatic plants of Prunus speciosa (=Cerasus speciosa, Rosaceae), a wild cherry tree that naturally harbors arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Japan. Compared with C. odorata, infected P. speciosa plants had less mycelial sheath surrounding the exodermis, and the older the roots, especially main roots, the more hyphae penetrated. In addition, a large number of juvenile roots were not associated with hyphae. We concluded that such root endophyte interactions were not events isolated to the interactions between exotic plants and microbes but could occur generally in vitro. Our pure culture system with a somatic plant allowed these fungi to express symbiosis-related phenotypes that varied with the plant host; these traits are innately programmed but suppressed in nature and could be useful in genetic analyses of plant-fungal symbiosis. PMID:24158697

  3. Overexpression of Laccaria bicolor aquaporin JQ585595 alters root water transport properties in ectomycorrhizal white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Kemppainen, Minna; El Kayal, Walid; Lee, Seong Hee; Pardo, Alejandro G; Cooke, Janice E K; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of hyphae to water transport in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings was examined by altering expression of a major water-transporting aquaporin in Laccaria bicolor. Picea glauca was inoculated with wild-type (WT), mock transgenic or L. bicolor aquaporin JQ585595-overexpressing (OE) strains and exposed to root temperatures ranging from 5 to 20°C to examine the root water transport properties, physiological responses and plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) expression in colonized plants. Mycorrhization increased shoot water potential, transpiration, net photosynthetic rates, root hydraulic conductivity and root cortical cell hydraulic conductivity in seedlings. At 20°C, OE plants had higher root hydraulic conductivity compared with WT plants and the increases were accompanied by higher expression of P. glauca PIP GQ03401_M18.1 in roots. In contrast to WT L. bicolor, the effects of OE fungi on root and root cortical cell hydraulic conductivities were abolished at 10 and 5°C in the absence of major changes in the examined transcript levels of P. glauca root PIPs. The results provide evidence for the importance of fungal aquaporins in root water transport of mycorrhizal plants. They also demonstrate links between hyphal water transport, root aquaporin expression and root water transport in ECM plants. PMID:25323307

  4. Greenhouse seedlings of Alnus showed low host intrageneric specificity and a strong preference for some Tomentella ectomycorrhizal associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhra, Eduardo; Pastor, Nicolás; Becerra, Alejandra; Sarrionandia Areitio, Estibaliz; Geml, József

    2015-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal associates of Alnus are relatively few in comparison with those associated with other tree hosts. The composition of ECM assemblages associated with Alnus seems to change very little across the Northern Hemisphere. However, Alnus-associated ECM assemblages from the Western United States, Mexico, and Argentina tend to differ from those in eastern North America and Europe, presumably due to their different biogeographic histories. Alnus glutinosa is a northern European species subjected to diverse environmental conditions. To address intrageneric host preference within two distantly related Alnus species (Alnus acuminata and A. glutinosa), we tested the ECM colonization on seedlings of both species inoculated with natural soil from A. acuminata forests. Two tomentelloid ECM fungi from A. acuminata natural soils were determined from the anatomotyping and molecular analysis. Both species colonized A. glutinosa seedlings and presented similar relative abundances. Additional soil sequence data from A. acuminata sites suggest that a variety of tomentelloid taxa occur, including several unidentified Tomentella lineages. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences from various locations do not reflect associations of taxa based on their biogeographic origin, and clades are in general constituted by sequences from diverse regions, including South America, Mexico, USA, and Europe. Results illustrate the probable role of specific tomentelloid fungi in the early colonization of seedlings in A. acuminata forests as well as their importance in the structure of the ECM propagule community at the sites. PMID:25370884

  5. Fungal specificity bottlenecks during orchid germination and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidartondo, Martin I; Read, David J

    2008-08-01

    Fungus-subsidized growth through the seedling stage is the most critical feature of the life history for the thousands of mycorrhizal plant species that propagate by means of 'dust seeds.' We investigated the extent of specificity towards fungi shown by orchids in the genera Cephalanthera and Epipactis at three stages of their life cycle: (i) initiation of germination, (ii) during seedling development, and (iii) in the mature photosynthetic plant. It is known that in the mature phase, plants of these genera can be mycorrhizal with a number of fungi that are simultaneously ectomycorrhizal with the roots of neighbouring forest trees. The extent to which earlier developmental stages use the same or a distinctive suite of fungi was unclear. To address this question, a total of 1500 packets containing orchid seeds were buried for up to 3 years in diverse European forest sites which either supported or lacked populations of helleborine orchids. After harvest, the fungi associated with the three developmental stages, and with tree roots, were identified via cultivation-independent molecular methods. While our results show that most fungal symbionts are ectomycorrhizal, differences were observed between orchids in the representation of fungi at the three life stages. In Cephalanthera damasonium and C. longifolia, the fungi detected in seedlings were only a subset of the wider range seen in germinating seeds and mature plants. In Epipactis atrorubens, the fungi detected were similar at all three life stages, but different fungal lineages produced a difference in seedling germination performance. Our results demonstrate that there can be a narrow checkpoint for mycorrhizal range during seedling growth relative to the more promiscuous germination and mature stages of these plants' life cycle.

  6. Soil DNA pyrosequencing and fruitbody surveys reveal contrasting diversity for various fungal ecological guilds in chestnut orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Paula; Reis, Francisca; Pereira, Eric; Tavares, Rui M; Santos, Pedro M; Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Fungal diversity in Mediterranean forest soils is poorly documented, particularly when considering saprobic and pathogenic organisms. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods applied to soil fungi provide the opportunity to unveil the most inconspicuous functional guilds (e.g. saprobes) and life forms (e.g. Corticiaceae) of this tremendous diversity. We used fruitbody surveys over 2 years and soil 454 metabarcoding in Castanea sativa orchards to evaluate respectively the reproductive (fruitbodies) and vegetative (mycelia) parts of fungal communities in three 100-year-old stands. Analysis of 839 fruitbodies and 210 291 ITS1 reads revealed high fungal diversity, mainly shown by belowground analysis, with high (dominant) abundance of mycorrhizal fruitbodies and reads. Both methods displayed contrasted composition and structure of fungal communities, with Basidio- and Ascomycetes dominating above- and belowground, respectively. For the two dominant fungal guilds (i.e. ectomycorrhizal and saprobic), diversity above- and belowground overlapped weakly. This study is the first assessment of the complementarity of fruitbody surveys and NGS for analysing fungal diversity in Mediterranean ecosystems and shows that belowground methods still need to be completed by fruiting diversity to provide a comprehensive overview of the different fungal guilds. The results shed light on chestnut soil biodiversity and question the spatial distribution and synergies among fungal guilds. PMID:26391727

  7. Substantial compositional turnover of fungal communities in an alpine ridge-to-snowbed gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fang; Vik, Unni; Brysting, Anne K; Carlsen, Tor; Halvorsen, Rune; Kauserud, Håvard

    2013-10-01

    The main gradient in vascular plant, bryophyte and lichen species composition in alpine areas, structured by the topographic gradient from wind-exposed ridges to snowbeds, has been extensively studied. Tolerance to environmental stress, resulting from wind abrasion and desiccation towards windswept ridges or reduced growing season due to prolonged snow cover towards snowbeds, is an important ecological mechanism in this gradient. The extent to which belowground fungal communities are structured by the same topographic gradient and the eventual mechanisms involved are less well known. In this study, we analysed variation in fungal diversity and community composition associated with roots of the ectomycorrhizal plant Bistorta vivipara along the ridge-to-snowbed gradient. We collected root samples from fifty B. vivipara plants in ten plots in an alpine area in central Norway. The fungal communities were analysed using 454 pyrosequencing analyses of tag-encoded ITS1 amplicons. A distinct gradient in the fungal community composition was found that coincided with variation from ridge to snowbeds. This gradient was paralleled by change in soil content of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. A large proportion (66%) of the detected 801 nonsingleton operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were ascomycetes, while basidiomycetes dominated quantitatively (i.e. with respect to number of reads). Numerous fungal OTUs, many with taxonomic affinity to Sebacinales, Cortinarius and Meliniomyces, showed distinct affinities either to ridge or to snowbed plots, indicating habitat specialization. The compositional turnover of fungal communities along the gradient was not paralleled by a gradient in species richness. PMID:23962113

  8. Ectomycorrhizal community structure and function in relation to forest residue harvesting and wood ash applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Shahid

    2000-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with tree roots and assist in nutrient-uptake and -cycling in forest ecosystems, thereby constituting a most significant part of the microbial community. The aims of the studies described in this thesis were to evaluate the potential of DNA-based molecular methods in below-ground ectomycorrhizal community studies and to investigate changes in ectomycorrhizal communities on spruce roots in sites with different N deposition, and in sites subjected to harvesting of forest residues or application of wood ash. The ability of selected ectomycorrhizal fungi to mobilise nutrients from wood ash and to colonise root systems in the presence and absence of ash was also studied. In total 39 ectomycorrhizal species were detected in the experimental forests located in southern Sweden. At each site five to six species colonised around 60% of the root tips. The dominant species, common to the sites, were Tylospora fibrillosa, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum. Differences between two sites with differing levels of N deposition suggested that community structure may be influenced by N deposition, although site history, location and degree of isolation may also influence species composition. Repeated harvesting of forest residues reduced numbers of mycorrhizal roots in the humus layer to approximately 50% of that in control plots but no shift in the ectomycorrhizal community could be detected. At another site, application of granulated wood ash induced a shift in ectomycorrhizal community structure and three ectomycorrhizal fungi ('ash fungi') were found to colonise ash granules. Two 'ash fungi' showed a superior ability to solubilise stabilised wood ash in laboratory experiments compared to other ectomycorrhizal isolates from the same site. In laboratory microcosms containing intact mycorrhizal mycelia, colonisation of wood ash patches by one 'ash fungus' was good whereas colonisation by

  9. Two mycoheterotrophic orchids from Thailand tropical dipterocarpacean forests associate with a broad diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vessabutr Suyanee

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoheterotrophic plants are considered to associate very specifically with fungi. Mycoheterotrophic orchids are mostly associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi in temperate regions, or with saprobes or parasites in tropical regions. Although most mycoheterotrophic orchids occur in the tropics, few studies have been devoted to them, and the main conclusions about their specificity have hitherto been drawn from their association with ectomycorrhizal fungi in temperate regions. Results We investigated three Asiatic Neottieae species from ectomycorrhizal forests in Thailand. We found that all were associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Thelephoraceae, Russulaceae and Sebacinales. Based on 13C enrichment of their biomass, they probably received their organic carbon from these fungi, as do mycoheterotrophic Neottieae from temperate regions. Moreover, 13C enrichment suggested that some nearby green orchids received part of their carbon from fungi too. Nevertheless, two of the three orchids presented a unique feature for mycoheterotrophic plants: they were not specifically associated with a narrow clade of fungi. Some orchid individuals were even associated with up to nine different fungi. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that some green and mycoheterotrophic orchids in tropical regions can receive carbon from ectomycorrhizal fungi, and thus from trees. Our results reveal the absence of specificity in two mycoheterotrophic orchid-fungus associations in tropical regions, in contrast to most previous studies of mycoheterotrophic plants, which have been mainly focused on temperate orchids.

  10. Distribution pattern and maintenance of ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Gao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhiza (ECM are symbionts formed between soil fungi and plant root systems, in which the fungus exchanges soil-derived nutrients for carbohydrates obtained from the host plant. As an important component of terrestrial ecosystems, ECM fungi can play an essential role in biodiversity maintenance and plant community succession. Understanding the distribution pattern and maintenance of ECM fungal diversity is therefore critical to the study of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. An analysis of results of recent research indicates that ECM fungal diversity increases with increasing latitude, i.e. from tropical to subtropical and temperate regions. The role of dispersal in ECM fungal distribution is dependent on spatial scale. Thus, it has been found to be weak across global and local scales, but strong at regional and small scales. At the local scale, its influence has also been shown to be host-dominant dependent; thus, it is important in host non-dominant ecosystems, but not in host dominant ecosystems. Selection by plant, animal, microbe and abiotic factors can also affect the distribution pattern of ECM fungi, according to studies of temperate ecosystems. In contrast, studies of tropical ecosystems indicate that selection on ECM fungal distribution can be either strong or weak. ECM fungal diversity is also influenced by plant diversity and productivity. The plant diversity hypothesis at host genus-level fits well with ECM fungal diversity in temperate, subtropical and tropical forest ecosystems; in contrast, the productivity diversity hypothesis is only supported by some studies in temperate forest ecosystems. We propose that future studies should focus on the distribution pattern, maintenance mechanism and ecosystem function of ECM fungal diversity at a global scale, taking account ofscenarios of global climate change.

  11. Studies on ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete in pine forest on the Lithuania-Poland transboundary region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danutė Stankovičienė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi and sporocarps abundance were investigated in 2003-2005 at nine permanent study plots in a 50-year-old pine forest. Diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi consisted of 53 taxa and the majority of them belonged to the genera Cortinarius, Russula, Amanita and Tricholoma. The most frequent species, whose fruit bodies were found in each study plot, were C. cibarius, L. necator L. rufus, P. involutus, R. aeruginea, T. saponaceum and the most abundant species which made the main part of total sporocarp yield were C. cibarius and P. involutus. The lowest species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi was in study plots with the densest cover of grasses. Maximum of species over the fruiting period was characteristic for October and for September. It was noticed that some species virtually never occurred together at the same plot (eg. C. cibarius and H. aurantiaca, meanwhile others occurred together quite frequently (eg. H.aurantiaca and X. badius.

  12. Decomposition by ectomycorrhizal fungi alters soil carbon storage in a simulation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, J. A. M.; Jiang, J.; Post, W. M.;

    2015-01-01

    Carbon cycle models often lack explicit belowground organism activity, yet belowground organisms regulate carbon storage and release in soil. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are important players in the carbon cycle because they are a conduit into soil for carbon assimilated by the plant. It is hypothesized...... to decompose soil organic matter. Our review highlights evidence demonstrating the potential for ectomycorrhizal fungi to decompose soil organic matter. Our model output suggests that ectomycorrhizal activity accounts for a portion of carbon decomposed in soil, but this portion varied with plant productivity...... and the mycorrhizal carbon uptake strategy simulated. Lower organic matter inputs to soil were largely responsible for reduced soil carbon storage. Using mathematical theory, we demonstrated that biotic interactions affect predictions of ecosystem functions. Specifically, we developed a simple function to model...

  13. Limited transfer of nitrogen between wood decomposing and ectomycorrhizal mycelia when studied in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallander, Håkan; Lindahl, Björn D.; Nilsson, Lars Ola

    2006-01-01

    Transfer of 15N between interacting mycelia of a wood-decomposing fungus (Hypholoma fasciculare) and an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Tomentellopsis submollis) was studied in a mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest. The amount of 15N transferred from the wood decomposer to the ectomycorrhizal fungus...... was compared to the amount of 15N released from the wood-decomposing mycelia into the soil solution as 15N-NH4. The study was performed in peat-filled plastic containers placed in forest soil in the field. The wood-decomposing mycelium was growing from an inoculated wood piece and the ectomycorrhizal mycelium...... from an introduced root from a mature tree. The containers were harvested after 41 weeks when physical contact between the two foraging mycelia was established. At harvest, 15N content was analyzed in the peat (total N and 15NH4+) and in the mycorrhizal roots. A limited amount of 15N was transferred...

  14. Influence of host species on ectomycorrhizal communities associated with two co-occurring oaks (Quercus spp.) in a tropical cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Melissa H; Pérez-Pérez, Miguel A; Smith, Matthew E; Bledsoe, Caroline S

    2009-08-01

    Interactions between host tree species and ectomycorrhizal fungi are important in structuring ectomycorrhizal communities, but there are only a few studies on host influence of congeneric trees. We investigated ectomycorrhizal community assemblages on roots of deciduous Quercus crassifolia and evergreen Quercus laurina in a tropical montane cloud forest, one of the most endangered tropical forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified by sequencing internal transcribed spacer and partial 28S rRNA gene. We sampled 80 soil cores and documented high ectomycorrhizal diversity with a total of 154 taxa. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that oak host was significant in explaining some of the variation in ectomycorrhizal communities, despite the fact that the two Quercus species belong to the same red oak lineage (section Lobatae). A Tuber species, found in 23% of the soil cores, was the most frequent taxon. Similar to oak-dominated ectomycorrhizal communities in temperate forests, Thelephoraceae, Russulaceae and Sebacinales were diverse and dominant. PMID:19508503

  15. Visualizing carbon and nitrogen transfer in the tripartite symbiosis of Fagus sylvatica, ectomycorrhizal fungi and soil microorganisms using NanoSIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhofer, Werner; Dietrich, Marlies; Schintlmeister, Arno; Gabriel, Raphael; Gorka, Stefan; Wiesenbauer, Julia; Martin, Victoria; Schweiger, Peter; Reipert, Siegfried; Weidinger, Marieluise; Richter, Andreas; Woebken, Dagmar; Kaiser, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Translocation of recently photoassimilated plant carbon (C) into soil via root exudates or mycorrhizal fungi is key to understand global carbon cycling. Plants support symbiotic fungi and soil microorganisms with recent photosynthates to get access to essential elements, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus. While a 'reciprocal reward strategy' (plants trade C in exchange for nutrients from the fungus) has been shown for certain types of mycorrhizal associations, only little is known about the mechanisms of C and N exchange between mycorrhizal fungal hyphae and soil bacteria. Our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by the fact that C and N transfer between plants, mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria takes place at the micrometer scale, which makes it difficult to explore at the macro scale. In this project we intended to analyse carbon and nitrogen flows between roots of beech trees (Fagus sylvatica), their associated ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacterial community. In order to visualize this nutrient flow at a single cell level, we used a stable isotope double labelling (13C and 15N) approach. Young mycorrhizal beech trees were transferred from a forest to split-root boxes, consisting of two compartments separated by a membrane (35 μm mesh size) which was penetrable for hyphae but not for plant roots. After trees and mycorrhizal fungi were allowed to grow for one year in these boxes, 15N-labelled nitrogen solution was added only to the root-free compartment to allow labelled nitrogen supply only through the fungal network. 13C- labelled carbon was applied by exposing the plants to a 13CO2 gas atmosphere for 8 hours. Spatial distribution of the isotopic label was visualised at the microscale in cross sections of mycorrhizal root-tips (the plant/mycorrhizal fungi interface) and within and on the surface of external mycorrhizal hyphae (the fungi/soil bacteria interface) using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Corresponding

  16. Experimental soil warming at the treeline shifts fungal communities species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, Emily; Lindahl, Björn; Dawes, Melissa; Peter, Martina; Rixen, Christian; Hagedorn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi play a major role in decomposition processes, plant nutrient uptake and nutrient cycling. In high elevation ecosystems in Alpine and Arctic regions, the fungal community may be particularly sensitive to climate warming due to the removal of temperature limitation in the plant and soil system, faster nutrient cycling and changes in plant carbon allocation to maintain roots systems and sustain the rhizosphere. In our study, we estimated the effects of 9 years CO2 enrichment and three years of experimental soil warming on the community structure of fungal microorganisms in an alpine treeline ecosystem. In the Swiss Alps, we worked on a total of 40 plots, with c. 40-year-old Larix decidua and Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata trees (20 plots for each tree species). Half of the plots with each tree species were randomly assigned to an elevated CO2 treatment (ambient concentration +200 ppm), whereas the remaining plots received no supplementary CO2. Five individual plots for each combination of CO2 concentration and tree species were heated by an average of 4°C during the growing season with heating cables at the soil surface. At the treeline, the fungal diversity analyzed by high-throughput 454-sequencing of genetic markers, was generally low as compared to low altitude systems and mycorrhizal species made a particularly small contribution to the total fungal DNA. Soil warming led to a shift in the structure and composition of the fungal microbial community, with an increase of litter degraders and ectomycorrhizal fungi. We further observed changes in the productivity of specific fungal fruiting bodies (i.e. more Lactarius rufus sporocarps and less Hygrophorus lucorum sporocarps) during the course of the experiment, that were consistent with the 454-sequencing data. The warming effect was more pronounced in the Larix plots. These shifts were accompanied by an increased soil CO2 efflux (+40%), evidence of increased N availability and a

  17. Fungal transcript pattern during the preinfection stage (12 h) of ectomycorrhiza formed between Pisolithus tinctorius and Castanea sativa roots, identified using cDNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acioli-Santos, Bartolomeu; Sebastiana, Mónica; Pessoa, Fernando; Sousa, Lisete; Figueiredo, Andreia; Fortes, Ana Margarida; Baldé, Aladje; Maia, Leonor C; Pais, Maria S

    2008-12-01

    Transcriptional changes in Pisolithus tinctorius leading to ectomycorrhizal formation in P. tinctorius- Castanea sativa were investigated using a 12-h fungal interaction in vitro system. Using a 3107-cDNA clone microarray, 34 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were found to be differentially expressed. These ESTs represent 14 known genes, 5 upregulated and 9 downregulated, and 20 orphan sequences. Some transcripts of upregulated genes (with unknown function) were previously identified in other mycorrhizal Pisolithus spp. associations. ESTs for S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase and several orphan sequences were identified in our system. The identified transcript of downregulated genes involved hydrophobins, 5S, 18S, and 28S ribosomal RNA genes, large subunits of ribosomal RNA (mitochondrial gene), and two types of heat shock proteins. This study demonstrates the high complexity of molecular events involved in the preinfection steps and suggests the utilization of different fungal gene repertories before ectomycorrhizal formation. These data constitute a first contribution for the molecular understanding of early signaling events between P. tinctorius and C. sativa roots during ectomycorrhizal formation.

  18. Diversity and persistence of ectomycorrhizal fungi and their effect on nursery-inoculated Pinus pinaster in a post-fire plantation in Northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Albina R; Sousa, Nadine R; Ramos, Miguel A; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

    2014-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) play an important role in forest ecosystems, often mitigating stress factors and increasing seedling performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a nursery inoculation on Pinus pinaster growth and on the fungal communities established when reforesting burned areas. Inoculated P. pinaster saplings showed 1.5-fold higher stem height than the non-inoculated controls after a 5 year growth period, suggesting that fungal inoculation could potentiate tree growth in the field. Ordination analysis revealed the presence of different ECMF communities on both plots. Among the nursery-inoculated fungi, Laccaria sp., Rhizopogon sp., Suillus bovinus and Pisolithus sp. were detected on inoculated Pinus saplings on both sampling periods, indicating that they persisted after field establishment. Other fungi were also detected in the inoculated plants. Phialocephala sp. was found on the first assessment, while Terfezia sp. was detected on both sampling periods. Laccaria sp. and Rhizopogon sp. were identified in the control saplings, belonging however to different species than those found in the inoculated plot. Inocybe sp., Thelephora sp. and Paxillus involutus were present on both sampling periods in the non-inoculated plots. The results suggest that ECMF inoculation at nursery stage can benefit plant growth after transplantation to a post-fire site and that the inoculated fungi can persist in the field. This approach has great potential as a biotechnological tool to aid in the reforestation of burned areas. PMID:25004993

  19. Mycorrhizal fungal communities respond to experimental elevation of soil pH and P availability in temperate hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Kluber, Laurel A; Petersen, Sheryl M; Coyle, Kaitlin P; Hewins, Charlotte R; DeForest, Jared L; Smemo, Kurt A; Burke, David J

    2016-03-01

    Many forests are affected by chronic acid deposition, which can lower soil pH and limit the availability of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), but the response of mycorrhizal fungi to changes in soil pH and P availability and how this affects tree acquisition of nutrients is not well understood. Here, we describe an ecosystem-level manipulation in 72 plots, which increased pH and/or P availability across six forests in Ohio, USA. Two years after treatment initiation, mycorrhizal fungi on roots were examined with molecular techniques, including 454-pyrosequencing. Elevating pH significantly increased arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and total fungal biomass, and affected community structure of AM and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi, suggesting that raising soil pH altered both mycorrhizal fungal communities and fungal growth. AM fungal taxa were generally negatively correlated with recalcitrant P pools and soil enzyme activity, whereas EcM fungal taxa displayed variable responses, suggesting that these groups respond differently to P availability. Additionally, the production of extracellular phosphatase enzymes in soil decreased under elevated pH, suggesting a shift in functional activity of soil microbes with pH alteration. Thus, our findings suggest that elevating pH increased soil P availability, which may partly underlie the mycorrhizal fungal responses we observed. PMID:26850158

  20. Mycorrhizal fungal communities respond to experimental elevation of soil pH and P availability in temperate hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Kluber, Laurel A; Petersen, Sheryl M; Coyle, Kaitlin P; Hewins, Charlotte R; DeForest, Jared L; Smemo, Kurt A; Burke, David J

    2016-03-01

    Many forests are affected by chronic acid deposition, which can lower soil pH and limit the availability of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), but the response of mycorrhizal fungi to changes in soil pH and P availability and how this affects tree acquisition of nutrients is not well understood. Here, we describe an ecosystem-level manipulation in 72 plots, which increased pH and/or P availability across six forests in Ohio, USA. Two years after treatment initiation, mycorrhizal fungi on roots were examined with molecular techniques, including 454-pyrosequencing. Elevating pH significantly increased arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and total fungal biomass, and affected community structure of AM and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi, suggesting that raising soil pH altered both mycorrhizal fungal communities and fungal growth. AM fungal taxa were generally negatively correlated with recalcitrant P pools and soil enzyme activity, whereas EcM fungal taxa displayed variable responses, suggesting that these groups respond differently to P availability. Additionally, the production of extracellular phosphatase enzymes in soil decreased under elevated pH, suggesting a shift in functional activity of soil microbes with pH alteration. Thus, our findings suggest that elevating pH increased soil P availability, which may partly underlie the mycorrhizal fungal responses we observed.

  1. Impedimetric method for physiologically characterisation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Petersen, Karina

    1998-01-01

    Fungi are playing an important role in the food and pharmaceutical industry today, both as starter cultures, fermentation organisms, and as contaminants. Characterisation of fungal growth is normally time consuming as it includes measurements and study on a wide range of media at different...... temperatures, pH, water activity and atmosphere composition. Nevertheless is it important information in ecophysiological studies, where the growth potential by fungi are related to composition and storage of food. It is therefore of great interest to device a rapid method for characterisation of fungi.......The objective was to determine the growth phases of various fungi using an impedimetric method and compare this with traditional methods using agar plates, in order to determine if this rapid method can replace the traditional method.The method is based on impedimetric assessment of growth on the Bactometer 128...

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Burkholderia terrae Strain BS001, Which Interacts with Fungal Surface Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazir, Rashid; Hansen, Martin A.; Sorensen, Soren;

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia terrae BS001 is a soil bacterium which was originally isolated from the mycosphere of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria proxima. It exhibits a range of fungus-interacting traits which reveal its propensity to actively interact at fungal interfaces. Here, we present the approximately...... 11.5-Mb (G+C content, 61.52 draft genome sequence of B. terrae BS001 with the aim of providing insight into the genomic basis of its ecological success in fungus-affected soil settings....

  3. Vertical and seasonal dynamics of fungal communities in boreal Scots pine forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santalahti, Minna; Sun, Hui; Jumpponen, Ari; Pennanen, Taina; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2016-11-01

    Fungal communities are important for carbon (C) transformations in boreal forests that are one of the largest C pools in terrestrial ecosystems, warranting thus further investigation of fungal community dynamics in time and space. We investigated fungal diversity and community composition seasonally and across defined soil horizons in boreal Scots pine forest in Finland using 454 pyrosequencing. We collected a total of 120 samples from five vertical soil horizons monthly from March to October; in March, under snow. Boreal forest soil generally harbored diverse fungal communities across soil horizons. The communities shifted drastically and rapidly over time. In late winter, saprotrophs dominated the community and were replaced by ectomycorrhizal fungi during the growing season. Our studies are among the first to dissect the spatial and temporal dynamics in boreal forest ecosystems and highlights the ecological importance of vertically distinct communities and their rapid seasonal dynamics. As climate change is predicted to result in warmer and longer snow-free winter seasons, as well as increase the rooting depth of trees in boreal forest, the seasonal and vertical distribution of fungal communities may change. These changes are likely to affect the organic matter decomposition by the soil-inhabiting fungi and thus alter organic C pools. PMID:27515733

  4. Fungal Community Shifts in Structure and Function across a Boreal Forest Fire Chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Santalahti, Minna; Pumpanen, Jukka; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Raffaello, Tommaso; Jumpponen, Ari; Asiegbu, Fred O; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2015-11-01

    Forest fires are a common natural disturbance in forested ecosystems and have a large impact on the microbial communities in forest soils. The response of soil fungal communities to forest fire is poorly documented. Here, we investigated fungal community structure and function across a 152-year boreal forest fire chronosequence using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region and a functional gene array (GeoChip). Our results demonstrate that the boreal forest soil fungal community was most diverse soon after a fire disturbance and declined over time. The differences in the fungal communities were explained by changes in the abundance of basidiomycetes and ascomycetes. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi contributed to the increase in basidiomycete abundance over time, with the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) representing the genera Cortinarius and Piloderma dominating in abundance. Hierarchical cluster analysis by using gene signal intensity revealed that the sites with different fire histories formed separate clusters, suggesting differences in the potential to maintain essential biogeochemical soil processes. The site with the greatest biological diversity had also the most diverse genes. The genes involved in organic matter degradation in the mature forest, in which ECM fungi were the most abundant, were as common in the youngest site, in which saprotrophic fungi had a relatively higher abundance. This study provides insight into the impact of fire disturbance on soil fungal community dynamics. PMID:26341215

  5. 四川都江堰亚热带针阔混交林中主要晚生型外生菌根真菌类群的空间分布%Spatial Pattern of the Most Common Late-stage Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in a Subtropical Forest in Dujiangyan,Southwest of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁宇; 郭良栋; 马克平

    2004-01-01

    晚生型外生菌根真菌通常出现在森林演替的后期,是成熟林中的优势外生菌根真菌类群.对四川都江堰一片亚热带针阔混交林中的菌根真菌地上群落进行调查,并应用二元逻辑回归分析对晚生型外生菌根真菌的主要类群,即鹅膏菌科、牛肝菌科和红菇科,与周围(5 m×5 m样方)树种组成的关系进行研究.还应用次级变量分析方法对主要外生菌根真菌类群的空间格局进行了分析.结果表明,非外生菌根树种及某些外生菌根树种对特定类群菌根真菌子实体的出现有抑制作用,而不同类群外生菌根真菌在克隆生长上的差异并不是子实体空间分布的决定因素.我们认为,当研究自然林中外生菌根子实体的空间分布时,除了宿主植物的分布,也应考虑非宿主植物的分布以及菌根真菌相互作用的影响.%Late-stage or later-successional ectomycorrhizal fungi, dominant ectomycorrhizal species in mature forest, are generally important symbiotic partners of dominant tree species in many forest ecosystems. Spatial patterns of fungal sporocarps of three families, i.e. Amanitaceae, Boletaceae and Russulaceae, in a subtropical forest in Dujiangyan were examined using second-order analysis in the present paper. The woody plant compositions of the plots associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi of three families were also compared using binary logistic regression analysis. Results indicated that presences of nonectomycorrhizal and some ectomycorrhizal plants might have negative effects on the occurrence of ectomycorrhizas (ECM) fungal sporocarps and the characteristics in clonal growth of fungal taxa would not be the only determinant in the spatial pattern of ECM fungi. We suggest that besides host plants, nonectomycorrhizal woody plants and interaction of ECM fungi should also be considered in spatial studies of ECM fungal communities in natural forests.

  6. Implication of evolution and diversity in arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscot, François

    2015-01-01

    Being highly sensitive to ecological variations, symbiotic associations should inherently have a limited occurrence in nature. To circumvent this sensitivity and reach their universal distribution, symbioses used three strategies during their evolution, which all generated high biodiversity levels: (i) specialization to a specific environment, (ii) protection of one partner via its internalization into the other, (iii) frequent partner exchange. Mycorrhizal associations follow the 3rd strategy, but also present traits of internalization. As most ancient type, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) formed by a monophyletic fungal group with reduced species richness did constantly support the mineral nutrition of terrestrial plants and enabled their ecological radiation and actual biodiversity level. In contrast ectomycorrhiza (EM) evolved later and independently within different taxa of fungi able to degrade complex organic plant residues, and the diversity levels of EM fungal and tree partners are balanced. Despite their different origins and diversity levels, AM and EM fungi display similar patterns of diversity dynamics in ecosystems. At each time or succession interval, a few dominant and many rare fungi are recruited by plants roots from a wide reservoir of propagules. However, the dominant fungal partners are frequently replaced in relation to changes in the vegetation or ecological conditions. While the initial establishment of AM and EM fungal communities corresponds to a neutral recruitment, their further succession is rather driven by niche differentiation dynamics. PMID:25239593

  7. ECTOMYCORRHIZAL DIVERSITY IN A LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L.) GENETICS PLANTATION: INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) Has co-evolved a high dependency on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations most likely because its natural range includes soils of varying moisture that are P- and/or N-deficient. Because of its wide geographic distrubition, we would expect its roots t...

  8. A widely distributed ITS polymorphism within a biological species of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma velutipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Kuyper, T.W.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma velutipes consists of two biological species (BSP 16 and 17). Within BSP 17 a dikaryon was found with two divergent types of the ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1 and 2). The two ITS types segregated in monokaryotic progeny of that dikaryon, showing that

  9. Ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose soil organic matter using oxidative mechanisms adapted from saprotrophic ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Firoz; Nicolás, César; Bentzer, Johan; Ellström, Magnus; Smits, Mark; Rineau, Francois; Canbäck, Björn; Floudas, Dimitrios; Carleer, Robert; Lackner, Gerald; Braesel, Jana; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Henrissat, Bernard; Ahrén, Dag; Johansson, Tomas; Hibbett, David S; Martin, Francis; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders

    2016-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are thought to have a key role in mobilizing organic nitrogen that is trapped in soil organic matter (SOM). However, the extent to which ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose SOM and the mechanism by which they do so remain unclear, considering that they have lost many genes encoding lignocellulose-degrading enzymes that are present in their saprotrophic ancestors. Spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling were used to examine the mechanisms by which five species of ectomycorrhizal fungi, representing at least four origins of symbiosis, decompose SOM extracted from forest soils. In the presence of glucose and when acquiring nitrogen, all species converted the organic matter in the SOM extract using oxidative mechanisms. The transcriptome expressed during oxidative decomposition has diverged over evolutionary time. Each species expressed a different set of transcripts encoding proteins associated with oxidation of lignocellulose by saprotrophic fungi. The decomposition 'toolbox' has diverged through differences in the regulation of orthologous genes, the formation of new genes by gene duplications, and the recruitment of genes from diverse but functionally similar enzyme families. The capacity to oxidize SOM appears to be common among ectomycorrhizal fungi. We propose that the ancestral decay mechanisms used primarily to obtain carbon have been adapted in symbiosis to scavenge nutrients instead. PMID:26527297

  10. Oak protein profile alterations upon root colonization by an ectomycorrhizal fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastiana, Mónica; Martins, Joana; Figueiredo, Andreia;

    2016-01-01

    An increased knowledge on the real impacts of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in forest species is needed to optimize forest sustainable productivity and thus to improve forest services and their capacity to act as carbon sinks. In this study, we investigated the response of an oak species to ectomycor...

  11. Secretome discovery reveals lignocellulose degradation capacity of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Doris; Rineau, Francois; Olsen, Peter B.;

    2011-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the role ectomycorrhizal fungi play in biomass conversion, we studied the transcriptome of P. involutus grown on glass beads in extract of soil organic matter. The mycelium was used for a cDNA library screened by Transposon-Assisted Signal Trapping (TAST*) for genes...

  12. Host and habitat filtering in seedling root-associated fungal communities: taxonomic and functional diversity are altered in 'novel' soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Brian J; Gorzelak, Monika A; Green, D Scott; Egger, Keith N; Massicotte, Hugues B

    2015-10-01

    Climatic and land use changes have significant consequences for the distribution of tree species, both through natural dispersal processes and following management prescriptions. Responses to these changes will be expressed most strongly in seedlings near current species range boundaries. In northern temperate forest ecosystems, where changes are already being observed, ectomycorrhizal fungi contribute significantly to successful tree establishment. We hypothesised that communities of fungal symbionts might therefore play a role in facilitating, or limiting, host seedling range expansion. To test this hypothesis, ectomycorrhizal communities of interior Douglas-fir and interior lodgepole pine seedlings were analysed in a common greenhouse environment following growth in five soils collected along an ecosystem gradient. Currently, Douglas-fir's natural distribution encompasses three of the five soils, whereas lodgepole pine's extends much further north. Host filtering was evident amongst the 29 fungal species encountered: 7 were shared, 9 exclusive to Douglas-fir and 13 exclusive to lodgepole pine. Seedlings of both host species formed symbioses with each soil fungal community, thus Douglas-fir did so even where those soils came from outside its current distribution. However, these latter communities displayed significant taxonomic and functional differences to those found within the host distribution, indicative of habitat filtering. In contrast, lodgepole pine fungal communities displayed high functional similarity across the soil gradient. Taxonomic and/or functional shifts in Douglas-fir fungal communities may prove ecologically significant during the predicted northward migration of this species; especially in combination with changes in climate and management operations, such as seed transfer across geographical regions for forestry purposes. PMID:25694036

  13. Ectomycorrhizal fungi in Mexican Alnus forests support the host co-migration hypothesis and continental-scale patterns in phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter G; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Higgins, Logan M; Angeles-Arguiz, Rodolfo

    2011-08-01

    To examine the geographic patterns in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal assemblages and determine how they may relate to host plant biogeography, we studied ECM assemblages associated with two Alnus species (Alnus acuminata and Alnus jorullensis) in montane Mexico and compared them with Alnus-associated ECM assemblages located elsewhere in the Americas. ECM root samples were collected from four sites in Mexico (two per host species), identified with ITS and LSU rRNA gene sequences, and assessed using both taxon- (richness, diversity, evenness indices) and sequence divergence-based (UniFrac clustering and significance) analyses. Only 23 ECM taxa were encountered. Clavulina, an ECM lineage never before reported with Alnus, contained the dominant taxon overall. ECM assemblage structure varied between hosts, but UniFrac significance tests indicated that both associated with similar ECM lineage diversity. There was a strikingly high sequence similarity among a diverse array of the ECM taxa in Mexico and those in Alnus forests in Argentina, the United States, and Europe. The Mexican and United States assemblages had greater overlap than those present in Argentina, supporting the host-ECM fungi co-migration hypothesis from a common north temperate origin. Our results indicate that Alnus-associated ECM assemblages have clear patterns in richness and composition across a wide range of geographic locations. Additional data from boreal western North America as well as the eastern United States and Canada will be particularly informative in further understanding the co-biogeographic patterns of Alnus and ECM fungi in the Americas. PMID:21331794

  14. The impact of selective-logging and forest clearance for oil palm on fungal communities in Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Tripathi, Binu M; Lee, Junghoon; Edwards, David P; Adams, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging, and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil fungi, which play vital roles in the soil ecosystem functioning and services, is a major conservation frontier. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the ITS1 region of extracted soil DNA, we compared communities of soil fungi between unlogged, once-logged, and twice-logged rainforest, and areas cleared for oil palm, in Sabah, Malaysia. Overall fungal community composition differed significantly between forest and oil palm plantation. The OTU richness and Chao 1 were higher in forest, compared to oil palm plantation. As a proportion of total reads, Basidiomycota were more abundant in forest soil, compared to oil palm plantation soil. The turnover of fungal OTUs across space, true β-diversity, was also higher in forest than oil palm plantation. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal abundance was significantly different between land uses, with highest relative abundance (out of total fungal reads) observed in unlogged forest soil, lower abundance in logged forest, and lowest in oil palm. In their entirety, these results indicate a pervasive effect of conversion to oil palm on fungal community structure. Such wholesale changes in fungal communities might impact the long-term sustainability of oil palm agriculture. Logging also has more subtle long term effects, on relative abundance of EcM fungi, which might affect tree recruitment and nutrient cycling. However, in general the logged forest retains most of the diversity and community composition of unlogged forest. PMID:25405609

  15. Distribution pattern and maintenance of ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Gao; Liangdong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) are symbionts formed between soil fungi and plant root systems, in which the fungus exchanges soil-derived nutrients for carbohydrates obtained from the host plant. As an important component of terrestrial ecosystems, ECM fungi can play an essential role in biodiversity maintenance and plant community succession. Understanding the distribution pattern and maintenance of ECM fungal diversity is therefore critical to the study of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. An a...

  16. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  17. Response of ectomycorrhizal community structure to gap opening in natural and managed temperate beech-dominated forests

    OpenAIRE

    Grebenc, Tine; Christensen, Morten; Vilhar, Urša; Čater, Matjaž; Martín, María P.; Simončič, Primož; Kraigher, Hojka

    2009-01-01

    Data on the impact of forest management practices on ectomycorrhizal community structure remains fragmentary and mainly originates from studies in northern coniferous forests. This study focuses on a comparison of ectomycorrhizal communities between canopy gaps and closed canopy areas within natural and managed beech-dominated forests at four locations in Europe. We used high resolution rDNA techniques to identify ectomycorrhiza-forming fungi and attempted to extract potential stand-, gap-, s...

  18. Contrasting Diversity and Host Association of Ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycetes versus Root-Associated Ascomycetes in a Dipterocarp Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Toju, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota) in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large...

  19. Seasonal dynamics of fungal communities in a temperate oak forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voříšková, Jana; Brabcová, Vendula; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are the agents primarily responsible for the transformation of plant-derived carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known of their responses to the seasonal changes in resource availability in deciduous forests, including photosynthate allocation below ground and seasonal inputs of fresh litter. Vertical stratification of and seasonal changes in fungal abundance, activity and community composition were investigated in the litter, organic and upper mineral soils of a temperate Quercus petraea forest using ergosterol and extracellular enzyme assays and amplicon 454-pyrosequencing of the rDNA-ITS region. Fungal activity, biomass and diversity decreased substantially with soil depth. The highest enzyme activities were detected in winter, especially in litter, where these activities were followed by a peak in fungal biomass during spring. The litter community exhibited more profound seasonal changes than did the community in the deeper horizons. In the litter, saprotrophic genera reached their seasonal maxima in autumn, but summer typically saw the highest abundance of ectomycorrhizal taxa. Although the composition of the litter community changes over the course of the year, the mineral soil shows changes in biomass. The fungal community is affected by season. Litter decomposition and phytosynthate allocation represent important factors contributing to the observed variations. PMID:24010995

  20. Moth outbreaks alter root-associated fungal communities in subarctic mountain birch forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, Karita; Aikio, Sami; Wäli, Piippa R; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Kaukonen, Maarit; Huusko, Karoliina; Suokas, Marko; Brown, Shawn P; Jumpponen, Ari; Tuomi, Juha; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-05-01

    Climate change has important implications on the abundance and range of insect pests in forest ecosystems. We studied responses of root-associated fungal communities to defoliation of mountain birch hosts by a massive geometrid moth outbreak through 454 pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the ITS2 rDNA region. We compared fungal diversity and community composition at three levels of moth defoliation (intact control, full defoliation in one season, full defoliation in two or more seasons), replicated in three localities. Defoliation caused dramatic shifts in functional and taxonomic community composition of root-associated fungi. Differentially defoliated mountain birch roots harbored distinct fungal communities, which correlated with increasing soil nutrients and decreasing amount of host trees with green foliar mass. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) abundance and richness declined by 70-80 % with increasing defoliation intensity, while saprotrophic and endophytic fungi seemed to benefit from defoliation. Moth herbivory also reduced dominance of Basidiomycota in the roots due to loss of basidiomycete EMF and increases in functionally unknown Ascomycota. Our results demonstrate the top-down control of belowground fungal communities by aboveground herbivory and suggest a marked reduction in the carbon flow from plants to soil fungi following defoliation. These results are among the first to provide evidence on cascading effects of natural herbivory on tree root-associated fungi at an ecosystem scale. PMID:25687127

  1. Moth outbreaks alter root-associated fungal communities in subarctic mountain birch forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, Karita; Aikio, Sami; Wäli, Piippa R; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Kaukonen, Maarit; Huusko, Karoliina; Suokas, Marko; Brown, Shawn P; Jumpponen, Ari; Tuomi, Juha; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-05-01

    Climate change has important implications on the abundance and range of insect pests in forest ecosystems. We studied responses of root-associated fungal communities to defoliation of mountain birch hosts by a massive geometrid moth outbreak through 454 pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the ITS2 rDNA region. We compared fungal diversity and community composition at three levels of moth defoliation (intact control, full defoliation in one season, full defoliation in two or more seasons), replicated in three localities. Defoliation caused dramatic shifts in functional and taxonomic community composition of root-associated fungi. Differentially defoliated mountain birch roots harbored distinct fungal communities, which correlated with increasing soil nutrients and decreasing amount of host trees with green foliar mass. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) abundance and richness declined by 70-80 % with increasing defoliation intensity, while saprotrophic and endophytic fungi seemed to benefit from defoliation. Moth herbivory also reduced dominance of Basidiomycota in the roots due to loss of basidiomycete EMF and increases in functionally unknown Ascomycota. Our results demonstrate the top-down control of belowground fungal communities by aboveground herbivory and suggest a marked reduction in the carbon flow from plants to soil fungi following defoliation. These results are among the first to provide evidence on cascading effects of natural herbivory on tree root-associated fungi at an ecosystem scale.

  2. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  3. Fungal Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  4. Disruption of root carbon transport into forest humus stimulates fungal opportunists at the expense of mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Björn D; de Boer, Wietse; Finlay, Roger D

    2010-07-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi dominate the humus layers of boreal forests. They depend on carbohydrates that are translocated through roots, via fungal mycelium to microsites in the soil, wherein they forage for nutrients. Mycorrhizal fungi are therefore sensitive to disruptive disturbances that may restrict their carbon supply. By disrupting root connections, we induced a sudden decline in mycorrhizal mycelial abundance and studied the consequent effects on growth and activity of free living, saprotrophic fungi and bacteria in pine forest humus, using molecular community analyses in combination with enzyme activity measurements. Ectomycorrhizal fungi had decreased in abundance 14 days after root severing, but the abundance of certain free-living ascomycetes was three times higher within 5 days of the disturbance compared with undisturbed controls. Root disruption also increased laccase production by an order of magnitude and cellulase production by a factor of 5. In contrast, bacterial populations seemed little affected. The results indicate that access to an external carbon source enables mycorrhizal fungi to monopolise the humus, but disturbances may induce rapid growth of opportunistic saprotrophic fungi that presumably use the dying mycorrhizal mycelium. Studies of such functional shifts in fungal communities, induced by disturbance, may shed light on mechanisms behind nutrient retention and release in boreal forests. The results also highlight the fundamental problems associated with methods that study microbial processes in soil samples that have been isolated from living roots.

  5. [Pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Carratalà, Jordi

    2012-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections remain a life-threatening disease. The development of invasive fungal disease is dependent on multiple factors, such us colonization and efficient host immune response. We aimed to review the pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections, in particular, those caused by Candida and Aspergillus. For this we propose, to describe the fungal characteristics, to detail the host defence mechanisms against fungus and to analyse the host risk factors for invasive fungal infection.

  6. Fungal spore fragmentation as a function of airflow rates and fungal generation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaani, Hussein; Hargreaves, Megan; Ristovski, Zoran; Morawska, Lidia

    The aim of this study was to characterise and quantify the fungal fragment propagules derived and released from several fungal species ( Penicillium, Aspergillus niger and Cladosporium cladosporioides) using different generation methods and different air velocities over the colonies. Real time fungal spore fragmentation was investigated using an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVASP) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The study showed that there were significant differences ( p controlled conditions can be predicted on the basis of the number of spores, for Penicillium and A. niger, but not for C. cladosporioides. The fluorescence percentage of fragment samples was found to be significantly different to that of non-fragment samples ( p < 0.0001) and the fragment sample fluorescence was always less than that of the non-fragment samples. Size distribution and concentration of fungal fragment particles were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively, by both UVAPS and SMPS, and it was found that the UVAPS was more sensitive than the SMPS for measuring small sample concentrations, whilethe results obtained from the UVAPS and SMAS were not identical for the same samples.

  7. The contribution of DNA metabarcoding to fungal conservation: diversity assessment, habitat partitioning and mapping red-listed fungi in protected coastal Salix repens communities in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geml, József; Gravendeel, Barbara; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Neilen, Manon; Lammers, Youri; Raes, Niels; Semenova, Tatiana A; de Knijff, Peter; Noordeloos, Machiel E

    2014-01-01

    Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens) represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought. PMID:24937200

  8. The contribution of DNA metabarcoding to fungal conservation: diversity assessment, habitat partitioning and mapping red-listed fungi in protected coastal Salix repens communities in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Geml

    Full Text Available Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought.

  9. Divergence Times and Phylogenetic Patterns of Sebacinales, a Highly Diverse and Widespread Fungal Lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigisfredo Garnica

    Full Text Available Patterns of geographic distribution and composition of fungal communities are still poorly understood. Widespread occurrence in terrestrial ecosystems and the unique richness of interactions of Sebacinales with plants make them a target group to study evolutionary events in the light of nutritional lifestyle. We inferred diversity patterns, phylogenetic structures and divergence times of Sebacinales with respect to their nutritional lifestyles by integrating data from fossil-calibrated phylogenetic analyses. Relaxed molecular clock analyses indicated that Sebacinales originated late Permian within Basidiomycota, and their split into Sebacinaceae and Serendipitaceae nom. prov. likely occurred during the late Jurassic and the early Cretaceous, coinciding with major diversifications of land plants. In Sebacinaceae, diversification of species with ectomycorrhizal lifestyle presumably started during the Paleocene. Lineage radiations of the core group of ericoid and cavendishioid mycorrhizal Sebacinales started probably in the Eocene, coinciding with diversification events of their hosts. The diversification of Sebacinales with jungermannioid interactions started during the Oligocene, and occurred much later than the diversification of their hosts. Sebacinales communities associated either with ectomycorrhizal plants, achlorophyllous orchids, ericoid and cavendishioid Ericaceae or liverworts were phylogenetically clustered and globally distributed. Major Sebacinales lineage diversifications started after the continents had drifted apart. We also briefly discuss dispersal patterns of extant Sebacinales.

  10. Divergence Times and Phylogenetic Patterns of Sebacinales, a Highly Diverse and Widespread Fungal Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Schön, Max E; Oberwinkler, Franz; Setaro, Sabrina D

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of geographic distribution and composition of fungal communities are still poorly understood. Widespread occurrence in terrestrial ecosystems and the unique richness of interactions of Sebacinales with plants make them a target group to study evolutionary events in the light of nutritional lifestyle. We inferred diversity patterns, phylogenetic structures and divergence times of Sebacinales with respect to their nutritional lifestyles by integrating data from fossil-calibrated phylogenetic analyses. Relaxed molecular clock analyses indicated that Sebacinales originated late Permian within Basidiomycota, and their split into Sebacinaceae and Serendipitaceae nom. prov. likely occurred during the late Jurassic and the early Cretaceous, coinciding with major diversifications of land plants. In Sebacinaceae, diversification of species with ectomycorrhizal lifestyle presumably started during the Paleocene. Lineage radiations of the core group of ericoid and cavendishioid mycorrhizal Sebacinales started probably in the Eocene, coinciding with diversification events of their hosts. The diversification of Sebacinales with jungermannioid interactions started during the Oligocene, and occurred much later than the diversification of their hosts. Sebacinales communities associated either with ectomycorrhizal plants, achlorophyllous orchids, ericoid and cavendishioid Ericaceae or liverworts were phylogenetically clustered and globally distributed. Major Sebacinales lineage diversifications started after the continents had drifted apart. We also briefly discuss dispersal patterns of extant Sebacinales. PMID:26938104

  11. Revisiting the 'Gadgil effect': do interguild fungal interactions control carbon cycling in forest soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Christopher W; Kennedy, Peter G

    2016-03-01

    1382 I. 1382 II. 1383 III. 1383 IV. 1384 V. 1386 VI. 1387 VII. 1389 VIII. 1391 1391 References 1391 SUMMARY: In forest ecosystems, ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi play a central role in the breakdown of soil organic matter (SOM). Competition between these two fungal guilds has long been hypothesized to lead to suppression of decomposition rates, a phenomenon known as the 'Gadgil effect'. In this review, we examine the documentation, generality, and potential mechanisms involved in the 'Gadgil effect'. We find that the influence of ectomycorrhizal fungi on litter and SOM decomposition is much more variable than previously recognized. To explain the inconsistency in size and direction of the 'Gadgil effect', we argue that a better understanding of underlying mechanisms is required. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each of the primary mechanisms proposed to date and how using different experimental methods (trenching, girdling, microcosms), as well as considering different temporal and spatial scales, could influence the conclusions drawn about this phenomenon. Finally, we suggest that combining new research tools such as high-throughput sequencing with experiments utilizing natural environmental gradients will significantly deepen our understanding of the 'Gadgil effect' and its consequences on forest soil carbon and nutrient cycling. PMID:26365785

  12. Metagenomic analysis of soil fungal communities on Ulleungdo and Dokdo Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoon-Jong; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Ulleungdo and Dokdo are volcanic islands that experience a characteristic marine climate, influenced by warm currents. The richness and diversity of the plant species, particularly vascular plants, are higher on Ulleungdo than on Dokdo. In contrast to the native plant life, little is known about the diversity of soil fungi living in the rhizosphere of these two islands. In this study, we utilized the barcoded pyrosequencing method to analyze rhizosphere soil fungi on Ulleungdo and Dokdo. In total, 768 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were analyzed from the Ulleungdo samples, while 640 OTUs and 382 OTUs were analyzed from the Dongdo and Seodo (islets of Dokdo) samples, respectively. Species richness was considerably higher in the Ulleungdo samples than in the Dongdo and Seodo samples, while there was little difference in species diversity between the samples. The taxonomic composition analyses demonstrated that members of the phylum Basidiomycota dominated the Ulleungdo samples, whereas members of the phylum Ascomycota were predominant in the Dokdo samples. Ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to the phylum Basidiomycota, in particular, were more abundant in the Ulleungdo samples. This finding suggests that the difference in the abundance of the ectomycorrhizal fungi in the rhizospheres of Ulleungdo and Dokdo may have been affected by species richness and diversity of the vascular plants. Our study is the first detailed report of the composition of soil fungal communities on the Ulleungdo and Dokdo islands. In addition, our findings provide a basis for understanding the ecological interactions between plants and fungi. PMID:26227909

  13. [Resource and ecological distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi under pine forests of Huangshan Mountain district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Lixia; Liu, Birong

    2005-03-01

    Pinus massoniana and Pinus taiwanensis are the most common and important tree species in the Huangshan Mountain district, and ectomycorrhizae plays an important role in their forestation. Our investigations in 1998-2003 showed that under the pine forests of this district, there were 43 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 10 families and 17 genera, of which, 43 were under Pinus massoniana forest, and 12 under Pinus taiwanensis forest. Only a few species were found under young Pinus massoniana forest, with the dominant of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coken and Rhizopogon spp., but under mature Pinus massoniana forest, there were plentiful species, with the dominant of Russulaceae, Amanitaceae, Boletaceae and Canthurellaceae. The relationships between woody species and ectomycorrhizal fungi, and between fungi distribution and temperature, moisture and soil condition were discussed in this paper, which would benefit to the further studies on the effects of different ectomyrrhizal fungi to Pinus massoniana and Pinus taiwanensis forests. PMID:15943356

  14. Fungal endocarditis: current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattevin, Pierre; Revest, Matthieu; Lefort, Agnès; Michelet, Christian; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Whilst it used to affect mostly intravenous drug users and patients who underwent valvular surgery with suboptimal infection control procedures, fungal endocarditis is now mostly observed in patients with severe immunodeficiency (onco-haematology), in association with chronic central venous access and broad-spectrum antibiotic use. The incidence of fungal endocarditis has probably decreased in most developed countries with access to harm-reduction policies (i.e. needle exchange programmes) and with improved infection control procedures during cardiac surgery. Use of specific blood culture bottles for diagnosis of fungal endocarditis has decreased due to optimisation of media and automated culture systems. Meanwhile, the advent of rapid techniques, including fungal antigen detection (galactomannan, mannan/anti-mannan antibodies and β-1,3-d-glucans) and PCR (e.g. universal fungal PCR targeting 18S rRNA genes), shall improve sensitivity and reduce diagnostics delays, although limited data are available on their use for the diagnosis of fungal endocarditis. New antifungal agents available since the early 2000s may represent dramatic improvement for fungal endocarditis: (i) a new class, the echinocandins, has the potential to improve the management of Candida endocarditis owing to its fungicidal effect on yeasts as well as tolerability of increased dosages; and (ii) improved survival in patients with invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole compared with amphotericin B, and this may apply to Aspergillus sp. endocarditis as well, although its prognosis remains dismal. These achievements may allow selected patients to be cured with prolonged medical treatment alone when surgery is considered too risky.

  15. Interaction with mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces sp. AcH 505 modifies organisation of actin cytoskeleton in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria (fly agaric).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Silvia D; Salo, Vanamo; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Hampp, Rüdiger; Nehls, Uwe; Tarkka, Mika T

    2007-08-01

    The actin cytoskeleton (AC) of fungal hyphae is a major determinant of hyphal shape and morphogenesis, implicated in controlling tip structure and secretory vesicle delivery. Hyphal growth of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria and symbiosis formation with spruce are promoted by the mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces sp. AcH 505 (AcH 505). To investigate structural requirements of growth promotion, the effect of AcH 505 on A. muscaria hyphal morphology, AC and actin gene expression were studied. Hyphal diameter and mycelial density decreased during dual culture (DC), and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the dense and polarised actin cap in hyphal tips of axenic A. muscaria changes to a loosened and dispersed structure in DC. Supplementation of growth medium with cell-free bacterial supernatant confirmed that reduction in hyphal diameter and AC changes occurred at the same stage of growth. Transcript levels of both actin genes isolated from A. muscaria remained unaltered, indicating that AC changes are regulated by reorganisation of the existing actin pool. In conclusion, the AC reorganisation appears to result in altered hyphal morphology and faster apical extension. The thus improved spreading of hyphae and increased probability to encounter plant roots highlights a mechanism behind the mycorrhiza helper effect. PMID:17632722

  16. Unravelling soil fungal communities from different Mediterranean land-use backgrounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Orgiazzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fungi strongly influence ecosystem structure and functioning, playing a key role in many ecological services as decomposers, plant mutualists and pathogens. The Mediterranean area is a biodiversity hotspot that is increasingly threatened by intense land use. Therefore, to achieve a balance between conservation and human development, a better understanding of the impact of land use on the underlying fungal communities is needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used parallel pyrosequencing of the nuclear ribosomal its regions to characterize the fungal communities in five soils subjected to different anthropogenic impact in a typical mediterranean landscape: a natural cork-oak forest, a pasture, a managed meadow, and two vineyards. Marked differences in the distribution of taxon assemblages among the different sites and communities were found. Data analyses consistently indicated a sharp distinction of the fungal community of the cork oak forest soil from those described in the other soils. Each soil showed features of the fungal assemblages retrieved which can be easily related to the above-ground settings: ectomycorrhizal phylotypes were numerous in natural sites covered by trees, but were nearly completely missing from the anthropogenic and grass-covered sites; similarly, coprophilous fungi were common in grazed sites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data suggest that investigation on the below-ground fungal community may provide useful elements on the above-ground features such as vegetation coverage and agronomic procedures, allowing to assess the cost of anthropogenic land use to hidden diversity in soil. Datasets provided in this study may contribute to future searches for fungal bio-indicators as biodiversity markers of a specific site or a land-use degree.

  17. Drought resistance of Pinus sylvestris seedlings conferred by plastic root architecture rather than ectomycorrhizal colonisation

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Barbara; Kipfer, Tabea; Richter, Sarah; Egli, Simon; Wohlgemuth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract ContextIncreased summer drought is considered as a threat to the regeneration of Pinus sylvestris in the Central Alps. To a certain degree, seedlings are able to mitigate negative effects of drought by altering root/shoot ratios. But, seedlings may also enhance access to water and nutrients by cooperation with ectomycorrhizal fungi. AimsWe tested the importance of both mechanisms for drought resistance of P. sylvestris seedlings during early establishment and assessed whether differe...

  18. Ectomycorrhizal colonization and growth of the hybrid larch F₁ under elevated CO₂ and O₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaona; Qu, Laiye; Mao, Qiaozhi; Watanabe, Makoto; Hoshika, Yasutomo; Koyama, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Korin; Tamai, Yutaka; Koike, Takayoshi

    2015-02-01

    We studied the colonization of ectomycorrhizal fungi and species abundance of a hybrid larch (F1) under elevated CO₂ and O₃. Two-year-old seedlings were planted in an Open-Top-Chamber system with treatments: Control (O3 diversity. No effects of combined fumigation were observed in any parameters except the P concentration in needles. The tolerance of F1 to O₃ might potentially be related to a shift in ECM community structure. PMID:25521414

  19. Ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with two species of Kobresia in an alpine meadow in the eastern Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Qian; Yang, Zhu L.

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) on Kobresia filicina and Kobresia capillifolia in an alpine meadow in China’s southwestern mountains, one of the word’s hotspots of biodiversity, was estimated based on internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence analysis of root tips. Seventy EMF operational taxonomical units (OTUs) were found in the two plant species. Dauciform roots with EMF were detected in species of Kobresia for the first time. OTU richness of EMF was high in Tomentella/Theloph...

  20. Habitat and diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in forests of South Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Onguene, N.A.; Kuyper, T. W.

    2012-01-01

    Information is lacking on habitat and diversity of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi of African humid forests. For three years, mushroom excursions were carried out in four sites with contrasted soil and altitude characteristics of South Cameroon, during wet seasons. Collected fungi were described in fresh state and dried exsiccates examined for microscopic description before morpho-anatomical identification. ECM fungi abundantly fruited exclusively in mixed caesalp, monodominant Gilbertiodendron a...

  1. Potential of ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius to tolerate and to degrade trifluoroacetate into fluoroform

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Albina R.; Ramos, Miguel A.; Cravo, Sara; Afonso, Carlos; Castro, Paula M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Trifluoroacetate (TFA) is a persistent fluorinated organic compound originated from the degradation of fluorinated compounds, such as HCFC and isoflurane, or as a side product from the thermolysis of fluoropolymers, like Teflon. TFA can reach soil through precipitation, where it persists in water and soil, and may contribute to forest decline. In this study, we assessed the capacity of P. tinctorius, an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECMF), to tolerate and/or degrade TFA. In vitro studies in glucose...

  2. Epipactis helleborine shows strong mycorrhizal preference towards ectomycorrhizal fungi with contrasting geographic distributions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Yukawa, Tomohisa

    2008-09-01

    Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz, one of the most widespread orchid species, occurs in a broad range of habitats. This orchid is fully myco-heterotrophic in the germination stage and partially myco-heterotrophic in the adult stage, suggesting that a mycorrhizal partner is one of the key factors that determines whether E. helleborine successfully colonizes a specific environment. We focused on the coastal habitat of Japanese E. helleborine and surveyed the mycorrhizal fungi from geographically different coastal populations that grow in Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) forests of coastal sand dunes. Mycorrhizal fungi and plant haplotypes were then compared with those from inland populations. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of large subunit rRNA sequences of fungi from its roots revealed that E. helleborine is mainly associated with several ectomycorrhizal taxa of the Pezizales, such as Wilcoxina, Tuber, and Hydnotrya. All individuals from coastal dunes were exclusively associated with a pezizalean fungus, Wilcoxina, which is ectomycorrhizal with pine trees growing on coastal dunes. Wilcoxina was not detected in inland forests. Coastal populations were indistinguishable from inland populations based on plant trnL intron haplotypes. Our results indicate that mycorrhizal association with geographically restricted pezizalean ectomycorrhizal fungi is a key control upon this orchid species' distribution across widely different forest habitats.

  3. Relationship between plant hormone level excreted by ectomycorrhizal fungi and growth of poplar NL-895

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei MA; Xiaoqin WU; Ling ZHENG

    2009-01-01

    To explore the effects of plant hormones levels excreted by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi on the growth of poplars, Populus x euramericana cv. NL-895 seedlings were inoculated with nine species of ECM fungi. We investigated the status of ectomycorrhizal formation and the effects of these fungi on poplar growth, and using the HPLC method, we measured the contents of four kinds of plant hormones, indole acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in both the culture filtrate and the mycelium of these fungi. The results showed that the effects of nine ECM fungi on the growth of poplar NL-895 varied. The inoculated seedlings, whether or not obvious mycorrhizas were developed, grew better than those non-inoculated ones. All nine ectomycorrhizal fungi excreted the four plant hormones, but at different levels. The hormone contents in culture filtrate were higher than that in mycelium, which showed a definite relationship with poplar growth. Significantly, correlation analysis suggested the height and stem diameter of the poplar were positively correlated with zeatin contents in the mycelium, and were negatively correlated with the levels of ABA or IAA in the mycelium.

  4. Ectomycorrhizal Cortinarius species participate in enzymatic oxidation of humus in northern forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bödeker, Inga T M; Clemmensen, Karina E; de Boer, Wietse; Martin, Francis; Olson, Åke; Lindahl, Björn D

    2014-07-01

    In northern forests, belowground sequestration of nitrogen (N) in complex organic pools restricts nutrient availability to plants. Oxidative extracellular enzymes produced by ectomycorrhizal fungi may aid plant N acquisition by providing access to N in macromolecular complexes. We test the hypotheses that ectomycorrhizal Cortinarius species produce Mn-dependent peroxidases, and that the activity of these enzymes declines at elevated concentrations of inorganic N. In a boreal pine forest and a sub-arctic birch forest, Cortinarius DNA was assessed by 454-sequencing of ITS amplicons and related to Mn-peroxidase activity in humus samples with- and without previous N amendment. Transcription of Cortinarius Mn-peroxidase genes was investigated in field samples. Phylogenetic analyses of Cortinarius peroxidase amplicons and genome sequences were performed. We found a significant co-localization of high peroxidase activity and DNA from Cortinarius species. Peroxidase activity was reduced by high ammonium concentrations. Amplification of mRNA sequences indicated transcription of Cortinarius Mn-peroxidase genes under field conditions. The Cortinarius glaucopus genome encodes 11 peroxidases - a number comparable to many white-rot wood decomposers. These results support the hypothesis that some ectomycorrhizal fungi--Cortinarius species in particular--may play an important role in decomposition of complex organic matter, linked to their mobilization of organically bound N.

  5. The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic mechanisms for lignin degradation reconstructed using 31 fungal genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Riley, Robert; Barry, Kerrie; Blanchette, Robert A; Henrissat, Bernard; Martinez, Angel T.; Otillar, Robert; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Yadav, Jagit S.; Aerts, Andrea; Benoit, Isabelle; Boyd, Alex; Carlson, Alexis; Copeland, Alex; Coutinho, Pedro M.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Ferreira, Patricia; Findley, Keisha; Foster, Brian; Gaskell, Jill; Glotzer, Dylan; Gorecki, Pawel; Heitman, Joseph; Hesse, Cedar; Hori, Chiaki; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Jurgens, Joel A.; Kallen, Nathan; Kersten, Phil; Kohler, Annegret; Kues, Ursula; Kumar, T. K. Arun; Kuo, Alan; LaButti, Kurt; Larrondo, Luis F.; Lindquist, Erika; Ling, Albee; Lombard, Vincent; Lucas, Susan; Lundell, Taina; Martin, Rachael; McLaughlin, David J.; Morgenstern, Ingo; Morin, Emanuelle; Murat, Claude; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Nolan, Matt; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Rokas, Antonis; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco J.; Sabat, Grzegorz; Salamov, Asaf; Samejima, Masahiro; Schmutz, Jeremy; Slot, Jason C.; John, Franz; Stenlid, Jan; Sun, Hui; Sun, Sheng; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Tsang, Adrian; Wiebenga, Ad; Young, Darcy; Pisabarro, Antonio; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hibbett, David S.

    2012-03-12

    Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non?lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study) suggest that lignin-degrading peroxidases expanded in the lineage leading to the ancestor of the Agaricomycetes, which is reconstructed as a white rot species, and then contracted in parallel lineages leading to brown rot and mycorrhizal species. Molecular clock analyses suggest that the origin of lignin degradation might have coincided with the sharp decrease in the rate of organic carbon burial around the end of the Carboniferous period.

  6. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As an ... fungal infections. What you need to know about fungal infections Fungal infections can range from mild to life- ...

  7. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious that the a......Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...

  8. 137Cs in the fungal compartment of Swedish forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 137Cs activities in soil profiles and in the mycelia of four ectomycorrhizal fungi were studied in a Swedish forest in an attempt to understand the mechanisms governing the transfer and retention of 137Cs in forest soil. The biomass of four species of fungi was determined and estimated to be 16 g m-2 in a peat soil and 47-189 g m-2 in non-peat soil to the depth of 10 cm. The vertical distribution was rather homogeneous for two species (Tylospora spp. and Piloderma fallax) and very superficial for Hydnellum peckii. Most of the 137Cs activity in mycelium of non-peat soils was found in the upper 5 cm. Transfer factors were quite high even for those species producing resupinate sporocarps. In the peat soil only approximately 0.3% of the total 137Cs inventory in soil was found in the fungal mycelium. The corresponding values for non-peat soil were 1.3, 1.8 and 1.9%

  9. Bilateral endogenous fungal endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Michal, Wilczynski; Olena, Wilczynska; Wojciech, Omulecki

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare and severe intraocular infection which can be vision-threatening. We describe a case of bilateral fungal endogenous endophthalmitis in a 64-year-old male which was successfully treated with systemic administration of fluconazole followed by pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreous injection of amphotericin B.

  10. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  11. Thai marine fungal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattaket Choeyklin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungal diversity of Thailand was investigated and 116 Ascomycota, 3 Basidiomycota, 28 anamorphic fungi, 7 Stramenopiles recorded, with 30 tentatively identified. These species have primarily been collected from driftwood and attached decayed wood of mangrove trees. The holotype number of 15 taxa is from Thailand and 33 are new records from the country.

  12. Surface and Interface Characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilometry...... representing some average property of the surface under examination. Measurement methods, as well as their application and limitations, are briefly reviewed, including standardisation and traceability issues....

  13. Soil Radiological Characterisation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the general methodology and best practice approaches which combine proven existing techniques for sampling and characterisation to assess the contamination of soils prior to remediation. It is based on feedback of projects conducted by main French nuclear stakeholders involved in the field of remediation and dismantling (EDF, CEA, AREVA and IRSN). The application of this methodology will enable the project managers to obtain the elements necessary for the drawing up of files associated with remediation operations, as required by the regulatory authorities. It is applicable to each of the steps necessary for the piloting of remediation work-sites, depending on the objectives targeted (release into the public domain, re-use, etc.). The main part describes the applied statistical methodology with the exploratory analysis and variogram data, identification of singular points and their location. The results obtained permit assessment of a mapping to identify the contaminated surface and subsurface areas. It stakes the way for radiological site characterisation since the initial investigations from historical and functional analysis to check that the remediation objectives have been met. It follows an example application from the feedback of the remediation of a contaminated site on the Fontenay aux Roses facility. It is supplemented by a glossary of main terms used in the field from different publications or international standards. This technical report is a support of the ISO Standard ISO ISO/TC 85/SC 5 N 18557 'Sampling and characterisation principles for soils, buildings and infrastructures contaminated by radionuclides for remediation purposes'. (authors)

  14. Contenido de nutrientes e inoculación con hongos ectomicorrízicos comestibles en dos pinos neotropicales Nutrient contents and inoculation with edible ectomycorrhizal fungi on two neotropical pines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA CARRASCO-HERNÁNDEZ

    2011-03-01

    stimulate their growth. Due to the ecological and physiological importance of the ectomycorrhizal fungi, this work evaluated the effect in terms of growth, dry weight, percentage of colonization and nutrient content as a result of the inoculation with six edible ectomycorrhizal fungi within the genera Laccaria and Hebeloma on Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham. and P.pseudostrobus Lindl. under greenhouse conditions. 397 days after sowing, it was observed a beneficial effect in terms of growth and dry weight of aerial and radical parts, as well as a higher contents of N, P and K of both pines as a result of the inoculation. The percentage of mycorrhization in plants inoculated with the fungi species ranged from 57 % to 90 %. When combined inoculation of ectomycorrhizal species was carried out, dominance of one of the inoculated species, in terms of root colonization, was observed. In these treatments with simultaneous inoculation, the beneficial effects reported in the hosts were comparable with those observed in plants inoculated exclusively with the dominant fungal species. According to the results, the inoculation of P. patula and P. pseudostrobus with fungal species of the genera Laccaria and Hebeloma is recommended in the establishment of forest plantations.

  15. Human Skin Fungal Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Findley, Keisha; OH, JULIA; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A.; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; ,; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A

    2013-01-01

    Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the etiology of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases including athlete’s foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms, while providing a home for diverse commensal microbiota 1 . Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders 2,3,4 . However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; micro...

  16. Fungal photobiology: a synopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Corrochano, Luis M.

    2011-01-01

    Fungi respond and adapt to many environmental signals including light. The photobiology of fungi has been extensively investigated, but in recent years the identification of the first fungal photoreceptor, WC-1 in the ascomycete Neurospora crassa, and the discovery that similar photoreceptors are required for photoreception in other ascomycete, basidiomycete and zygomycete fungi has allowed the molecular characterization of light reception and the early steps of signal transduction in a numbe...

  17. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet, M. J.; Singleton, I.

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing varia...

  18. Characterisation of polymers, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Crompton, Roy

    2008-01-01

    This essential guide to Polymer Characterisation is a complete compendium of methodologies that have evolved for the determination of the chemical composition of polymers. This 478-page book gives an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the state-of-the-art theories and availability of instrumentation needed to effect chemical and physical analysis of polymers. This is supported by approximately 1200 references. Volume 1 covers the methodology used for the determination of metals, non-metals and organic functional groups in polymers, and for the determination of the ratio in which different m

  19. Negligible contribution from roots to soil-borne phospholipid fatty acid fungal biomarkers 18:2ω6,9 and 18:1ω9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Christina; Frank, Alexander; Wild, Birgit; Koranda, Marianne; Richter, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    The phospholipid fatty acid biomarkers 18:1ω9, 18:2ω6,9 and 18:3ω3,6,9 are commonly used as fungal biomarkers in soils. They have, however, also been found to occur in plant tissues, such as roots. Thus, the use of these PLFAs as fungal biomarkers in sieved soil, which may still contain small remains of roots, has been questioned. We used data from a recent beech tree girdling experiment to calculate the contribution of roots to these biomarkers and were able to demonstrate that not more than 0.61% of 18:1ω9 and 18:2ω6,9 in sieved soil samples originated from roots (but 4% of 18:3ω3,6,9). Additionally, the abundance of the biomarker 18:2ω6,9 in the soil was found to be highly correlated to ectomycorrhizal root colonization, which further corroborates its fungal origin. PLFA biomarkers were substantially reduced in vital roots from girdled trees compared to roots of control trees (by up to 76%), indicating that the major part of PLFAs measured in roots may actually originate from ectomycorrhizal fungi growing inside the roots. We calculated, that even a near to 50% reduction in fine root biomass - as observed in the girdling treatment - accounted for only 0.8% of the measured decrease of 18:2ω6,9. Our results demonstrate that both 18:1ω9 and 18:2ω6,9 are suitable biomarkers for detecting fungal dynamics in soils and that especially 18:2ω6,9 is a reliable biomarker to study mycorrhizal dynamics in beech forests.

  20. Fungal osteomyelitis and septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariteau, Jason T; Waryasz, Gregory R; McDonnell, Matthew; Fischer, Staci A; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Christopher T

    2014-06-01

    Management of fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis is challenging, especially in the setting of immunodeficiency and conditions that require immunosuppression. Because fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis are rare conditions, study of their pathophysiology and treatment has been limited. In the literature, evidence-based treatment is lacking and, historically, outcomes have been poor. The most common offending organisms are Candida and Aspergillus, which are widely distributed in humans and soil. However, some fungal pathogens, such as Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Sporothrix, have more focal areas of endemicity. Fungal bone and joint infections result from direct inoculation, contiguous infection spread, or hematogenous seeding of organisms. These infections may be difficult to diagnose and eradicate, especially in the setting of total joint arthroplasty. Although there is no clear consensus on treatment, guidelines are available for management of many of these pathogens.

  1. The impact of selective-logging and forest clearance for oil palm on fungal communities in Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorsaf Kerfahi

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging, and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil fungi, which play vital roles in the soil ecosystem functioning and services, is a major conservation frontier. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the ITS1 region of extracted soil DNA, we compared communities of soil fungi between unlogged, once-logged, and twice-logged rainforest, and areas cleared for oil palm, in Sabah, Malaysia. Overall fungal community composition differed significantly between forest and oil palm plantation. The OTU richness and Chao 1 were higher in forest, compared to oil palm plantation. As a proportion of total reads, Basidiomycota were more abundant in forest soil, compared to oil palm plantation soil. The turnover of fungal OTUs across space, true β-diversity, was also higher in forest than oil palm plantation. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungal abundance was significantly different between land uses, with highest relative abundance (out of total fungal reads observed in unlogged forest soil, lower abundance in logged forest, and lowest in oil palm. In their entirety, these results indicate a pervasive effect of conversion to oil palm on fungal community structure. Such wholesale changes in fungal communities might impact the long-term sustainability of oil palm agriculture. Logging also has more subtle long term effects, on relative abundance of EcM fungi, which might affect tree recruitment and nutrient cycling. However, in general the logged forest retains most of the diversity and community composition of unlogged forest.

  2. Systems Biology of Fungal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    FabianHorn; ThorstenHeinekamp; JohannesPollmächer; AxelABrakhage

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections. A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal i...

  3. Effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi on the uptake of Ca, Mg and Al by Pinus sylvestris under aluminium toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schöll, van L.; Keltjens, W.G.; Hoffland, E.; Breemen, van N.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium toxicity has been considered an important factor in forest decline. In earlier pot experiments, ectomycorrhizal tree seedlings were reported to have higher growth rates than non-mycorrhizal seedlings under aluminium toxicity. In this paper, we test that if this is caused by exclusion of Al

  4. Inoculation of Pinus halepensis Mill. with selected ectomycorrhizal fungi improves seedling establishment 2 years after planting in a degraded gypsum soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Ana; de Felipe, M R; Fernández-Pascual, M

    2007-12-01

    Vegetative inoculum of Amanita ovoidea (Bull.) Link and three isolates of Suillus collinitus (Fr.) Kuntze, as well as spore inoculum of Rhizopogon roseolus (Corda) Th. M. Fr. and S. collinitus, were evaluated for the production of Pinus halepensis Mill. in nursery and for the establishment of seedlings in a degraded gypsum soil. In nursery, most of the fungi significantly improved the height of seedlings and modified the accumulation of nutrients in needles. The percentage of ectomycorrhizas (ESR) per seedling ranged from 25 to 78%, depending on the fungi. One and 2 years after planting in the field, the survival of seedlings was significantly improved by inoculation with two isolates of S. collinitus and with spores of the same fungus. Inoculation with A. ovoidea had no significant effect on seedling survival, whilst R. roseolus caused a significant mortality of seedlings. Seedling height was significantly improved by inoculation with all fungi except R. roseolus and isolate CCMA-1 of S. collinitus. One year after planting, mycorrhization of control seedlings was negligible, and percentages of ESR were under 38% for the rest of treatments. In spring of the second year, seedlings in all treatments, including the control, became highly mycorrhizal (60-77% of ESR). Low ectomycorrhizal diversity (five morphotypes described) and seasonal variation on morphotype composition were detected 2 years after plantation. From a perspective of soil restoration management under limiting environmental conditions, nursery inoculation with selected fungi can be a key advantage for tree seedlings to surmount the initial transplant stress, assuring their establishment in the field. Our results emphasise the importance of selecting compatible fungal-host species combinations for nursery inoculation and sources of inoculum adapted to the environmental conditions of the transplantation site. PMID:17874144

  5. Ectomycorrhizal Community Structure and Soil Characteristics of Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta) and Adjacent Stands of Old Growth Mixed Conifer in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Robert B.; Parker, V. Thomas; Cullings, Kenneth W.; Sun, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Forest development patterns following disturbance are known to influence the physical and chemical attributes of soils at different points in time. Changes in soil resources are thought to have a corresponding effect on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community structure. We used molecular methods to compare below-ground ECM species richness, composition, and abundance between adjacent stands of homogenous lodgepole pine and old growth mixed conifer in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). In each stand-type we collected soil cores to both identify mycorrhizae and assess soil chemistry. Although no statistical difference was observed in the mean number of ECM root tips per core between stand types, the total number of species identified (85 versus 35) and the mean number of species per core (8.8 +/- 0.6 versus 2.5 +/- 0.3) were significantly higher in lodgepole pine. Differences between the actual and estimated species richness levels indicated that these forest types support a high number of ECM species and that undersampling was severe. Species compositions were widely disparate between stands where only four species were shared out of a total of 116. Soil analysis also revealed that mixed conifer was significantly lower in pH, but higher in organic matter, potassium, phosphorus, and ammonium when compared to lodgepole pine stands. Species richness per core was correlated with these chemical data, however, analysis of covariance indicated that stand type was the only statistically significant factor in the observed difference in species richness. Our data suggest that ECM fungal richness increases as homogenous lodgepole pine stands grow and mature, but declines after Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir colonize. Despite difficulties linking species composition with soil chemistry, there are a variety of physical and chemical factors that could be influencing ECM community structure. Future field experiments are necessary to test some of the mechanisms potentially operating

  6. Tasting soil fungal diversity with earth tongues: phylogenetic test of SATe alignments for environmental ITS data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang

    Full Text Available An abundance of novel fungal lineages have been indicated by DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region from environmental samples such as soil and wood. Although phylogenetic analysis of these novel lineages is a key component of unveiling the structure and diversity of complex communities, such analyses are rare for environmental ITS data due to the difficulties of aligning this locus across significantly divergent taxa. One potential approach to this issue is simultaneous alignment and tree estimation. We targeted divergent ITS sequences of the earth tongue fungi (Geoglossomycetes, a basal class in the Ascomycota, to assess the performance of SATé, recent software that combines progressive alignment and tree building. We found that SATé performed well in generating high-quality alignments and in accurately estimating the phylogeny of earth tongue fungi. Drawing from a data set of 300 sequences of earth tongues and progressively more distant fungal lineages, 30 insufficiently identified ITS sequences from the public sequence databases were assigned to the Geoglossomycetes. The association between earth tongues and plants has been hypothesized for a long time, but hard evidence is yet to be collected. The ITS phylogeny showed that four ectomycorrhizal isolates shared a clade with Geoglossum but not with Trichoglossum earth tongues, pointing to the significant potential inherent to ecological data mining of environmental samples. Environmental sampling holds the key to many focal questions in mycology, and simultaneous alignment and tree estimation, as performed by SATé, can be a highly efficient companion in that pursuit.

  7. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  8. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Med 1998;24:206-16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics ... 25:201-25. Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF. Fungal infections in the ICU. Infect Dis ... D. Nosocomial aspergillosis and building construction. Med Mycol 2009;47 ...

  9. Repeated evolution of fungal cultivar specificity in independently evolved ant-plant-fungus symbioses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumsaïs Blatrix

    Full Text Available Some tropical plant species possess hollow structures (domatia occupied by ants that protect the plant and in some cases also provide it with nutrients. Most plant-ants tend patches of chaetothyrialean fungi within domatia. In a few systems it has been shown that the ants manure the fungal patches and use them as a food source, indicating agricultural practices. However, the identity of these fungi has been investigated only in a few samples. To examine the specificity and constancy of ant-plant-fungus interactions we characterised the content of fungal patches in an extensive sampling of three ant-plant symbioses (Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana subsp. africana, Aphomomyrmex afer/Leonardoxa africana subsp. letouzeyi and Tetraponera aethiops/Barteria fistulosa by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacers of ribosomal DNA. For each system the content of fungal patches was constant over individuals and populations. Each symbiosis was associated with a specific, dominant, primary fungal taxon, and to a lesser extent, with one or two specific secondary taxa, all of the order Chaetothyriales. A single fungal patch sometimes contained both a primary and a secondary taxon. In one system, two founding queens were found with the primary fungal taxon only, one that was shown in a previous study to be consumed preferentially. Because the different ant-plant symbioses studied have evolved independently, the high specificity and constancy we observed in the composition of the fungal patches have evolved repeatedly. Specificity and constancy also characterize other cases of agriculture by insects.

  10. Reducing the infectivity and richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous Quercus ilex forest through soil preparations for truffle plantation establishment: A bioassay study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Molina-Grau, Sara; Reyna, Santiago

    2015-11-01

    In the early years of a black truffle plantation, the field proliferation of the nursery-inoculated fungi can be hampered by native ectomycorrhizal fungi colonising the seedling roots. Reducing the soil ectomycorrhizal infectivity in the planting hole before introducing the inoculated seedling could be an effective strategy to reduce this problem. Three bioassays were conducted to evaluate the impact of several soil preparations on the ectomycorrhizal infectivity and richness of a Quercus ilex soil in a truffle-producing region. Microwaves, quicklime, and acetic acid significantly decreased the percent root colonisation and morphotype richness of the native ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, they also decreased seedling survival or growth. Peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite did not show a significant negative effect on the soil ectomycorrhizal community. The results support the potential of soil preparation for reducing the ectomycorrhizal infectivity of forest soils, thus being a promising strategy to reduce the early colonisation by native fungi in truffle plantations. However, the indications of damage to the seedling development must be addressed. PMID:26466886

  11. The fungal consortium of Andromeda polifolia in bog habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Filippova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Andromeda polifolia (bog rosemary is a common plant species in northern circumboreal peatlands. While not a major peat-forming species in most peatlands, it is characterised by a substantial woody below-ground biomass component that contributes directly to the accumulation of organic matter below the moss surface, as well as sclerophyllous leaf litter that contributes to the accumulation of organic matter above the moss surface. Rather little is known about the fungal communities associated with this plant species. Hence, we investigated the fungal consortium of A. polifolia in three distinct vegetation communities of ombrotrophic bogs near Khanty-Mansiysk, West Siberia, Russia, in 2012 and 2013. These vegetation communities were forested bog (Tr = treed, Sphagnum-dominated lawn (Ln, and Eriophorum-Sphagnum-dominated hummock (Er. (2 In total, 37 fungal taxa, belonging to five classes and 16 families, were identified and described morphologically. Seven fungal species were previously known from Andromeda as host. Others are reported for the first time, thus considerably expanding the fungal consortium of this dwarf shrub. Most taxa were saprobic on fallen leaves of A. polifolia found amongst Sphagnum in the bog. Two taxa were parasitic on living plant tissues and one taxon was saprobic on dead twigs. Three taxa, recorded only on A. polifolia leaves and on no other plant species or materials, may be host-specific to this dwarf shrub. (3 A quantitative analysis of the frequency of occurrence of all taxa showed that one taxon (Coccomyces duplicarioides was very abundant, 64 % of the taxa occurred frequently, and 32 % of the taxa occurred infrequently. The mean Shannon diversity index of the community was 2.4. (4 There were no statistical differences in the fungal community composition of A. polifolia in the three vegetation communities investigated in this study. Redundancy analysis suggested that some fungal taxa were positively, and others

  12. Fungal keratitis: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keratomycosis is a vision-threatening fungal corneal infection. The dramatic increase in the number of cases over the past three decades is attributable not only to better diagnostic recognition, improved laboratory techniques and greater awareness by the ophthalmic society as a whole, but is also due to a true increase in the incidence of keratitis related to the indiscriminate use of topical broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, as well as surgical trauma. Corneal trauma has remained the main predisposing factor over the years, though in recent years HIV-positive cases and AIDS are taking lead in certain areas. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Candida species remains the commonest 'organisms' isolated worldwide. Although the approach to this form of keratitis is similar to other types of microbial keratitis, it remains the most difficult in terms of diagnosis and management. Early recognition, prevention, prompt treatment and timely keratoplasty are crucial for a better outcome. (author)

  13. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  14. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP

  15. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. J., E-mail: m.sweet@derby.ac.uk [University of Derby, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences (United Kingdom); Singleton, I. [Newcastle University, School of Biology (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  16. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi forming symbiosis with Pinus pinaster seedlings exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals and its accumulation in the upper layers of forest soils affects plants, microorganisms and their interactions. Adequate strategies for the reforestation of metal contaminated sites are of vital importance. The aim of this work was to evaluate the response of Pinus pinaster seedlings to Cd exposure and to assess the effect of inoculation with two selected ectomycorrhizal fungi, Suillus bovinus and Rhizopogon roseolus on that response. Seedlings were exposed to soil contaminated at 15 and 30 mg Cd kg−1. Shoot biomass of P. pinaster decreased ca. 36% when exposed to 15 mg Cd kg−1. Overall, colonization by S. bovinus significantly enhanced shoot development up to 30% in contaminated soil while colonization by R. roseolus produced no significant effect at both Cd concentrations tested and significantly increased the level of Cd in the shoots at both Cd concentrations. Metal accumulation in the shoots and roots of non-inoculated and S. bovinus-inoculated seedlings increased at the higher Cd levels whereas R. roseolus-inoculated seedlings were not sensitive to Cd variation in the soil. The results from our research show that inoculation with ECM fungi has a significant impact on metal uptake and development of P. pinaster seedlings; the differential response induced by the two tested species highlights the importance of selecting the appropriate strains for nursery inoculation, and, as such, this biological tool ought to be considered in reforestation processes of heavy metal contaminated areas by woody species. - Highlights: ► Ectomycorrhizal fungi can aid the reforestation of heavy metal contaminated areas. ► Cd inhibited the growth of non-inoculated 6 months-old Pinus pinaster seedlings. ► Inoculation with Suillus bovinus enhanced P. pinaster growth in Cd contaminated soil. ► Mycorrhizal symbiosis influenced the accumulation of Cd in P. pinaster seedlings.

  17. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi forming symbiosis with Pinus pinaster seedlings exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Nadine R.; Ramos, Miguel A.; Marques, Ana P.G.C.; Castro, Paula M.L., E-mail: plcastro@esb.ucp.pt

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals and its accumulation in the upper layers of forest soils affects plants, microorganisms and their interactions. Adequate strategies for the reforestation of metal contaminated sites are of vital importance. The aim of this work was to evaluate the response of Pinus pinaster seedlings to Cd exposure and to assess the effect of inoculation with two selected ectomycorrhizal fungi, Suillus bovinus and Rhizopogon roseolus on that response. Seedlings were exposed to soil contaminated at 15 and 30 mg Cd kg{sup -1}. Shoot biomass of P. pinaster decreased ca. 36% when exposed to 15 mg Cd kg{sup -1}. Overall, colonization by S. bovinus significantly enhanced shoot development up to 30% in contaminated soil while colonization by R. roseolus produced no significant effect at both Cd concentrations tested and significantly increased the level of Cd in the shoots at both Cd concentrations. Metal accumulation in the shoots and roots of non-inoculated and S. bovinus-inoculated seedlings increased at the higher Cd levels whereas R. roseolus-inoculated seedlings were not sensitive to Cd variation in the soil. The results from our research show that inoculation with ECM fungi has a significant impact on metal uptake and development of P. pinaster seedlings; the differential response induced by the two tested species highlights the importance of selecting the appropriate strains for nursery inoculation, and, as such, this biological tool ought to be considered in reforestation processes of heavy metal contaminated areas by woody species. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectomycorrhizal fungi can aid the reforestation of heavy metal contaminated areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd inhibited the growth of non-inoculated 6 months-old Pinus pinaster seedlings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inoculation with Suillus bovinus enhanced P. pinaster growth in Cd contaminated soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mycorrhizal symbiosis

  18. Characterisation of areal surface texture

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the areal framework that is being adopted by the international community, concentrating on characterisation methods, and presenting case studies highlighting use of areal methods in applications from automobile manufacturing to archaeology.

  19. Fungal quorum sensing molecules: Role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsuk, Thanwa; Pumeesat, Potjaman; Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2016-05-01

    When microorganisms live together in high numbers, they need to communicate with each other. To achieve cell-cell communication, microorganisms secrete molecules called quorum-sensing molecules (QSMs) that control their biological activities and behaviors. Fungi secrete QSMs such as farnesol, tyrosol, phenylethanol, and tryptophol. The role of QSMs in fungi has been widely studied in both yeasts and filamentous fungi, for example in Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, Aspergillus niger, A. nidulans, and Fusarium graminearum. QSMs impact fungal morphogenesis (yeast-to-hypha formation) and also play a role in the germination of macroconidia. QSMs cause fungal cells to initiate programmed cell death, or apoptosis, and play a role in fungal pathogenicity. Several types of QSMs are produced during stages of biofilm development to control cell population or morphology in biofilm communities. This review article emphasizes the role of fungal QSMs, especially in fungal morphogenesis, biofilm formation, and pathogenicity. Information about QSMs may lead to improved measures for controlling fungal infection. PMID:26972663

  20. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  1. Soil compaction and organic matter affect conifer seedling nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and diversity. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaranthus, M.P.; Page-Dumroese, D.; Harvey, A.; Cazares, E.; Bednar, L.F.

    1996-05-01

    Three levels of organic matter removal (bole only; bole and crowns; and bole, crowns, and forest floor) and three levels of mechanical soil compaction (no compaction, moderate compaction, and severe soil compaction) were studied as they influence Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) seedlings following outplanting. Moderate and severe soil compaction significantly reduced nonmycorrhizal root tip abundance on both Douglas-fir and western white pine seedlings (p less than or equal to 0.05). Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in severely compacted areas with bole and crowns and bole, crowns, and forest floor removed. Ectomycorrhizal diversity also was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in all severely compacted areas.

  2. Fungal Biotransformation of Tetracycline Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhuo; Salim, Angela A; Khalil, Zeinab; Bernhardt, Paul V; Capon, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    The commercial antibiotics tetracycline (3), minocycline (4), chlortetracycline (5), oxytetracycline (6), and doxycycline (7) were biotransformed by a marine-derived fungus Paecilomyces sp. to yield seco-cyclines A-H (9-14, 18 and 19) and hemi-cyclines A-E (20-24). Structures were assigned by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and in the case of 10 X-ray crystallography. Parallel mechanisms account for substrate-product specificity, where 3-5 yield seco-cyclines and 6 and 7 yield hemi-cyclines. The susceptibility of 3-7 to fungal biotransformation is indicative of an unexpected potential for tetracycline "degradation" (i.e., antibiotic resistance) in fungal genomes. Significantly, the fungal-derived tetracycline-like viridicatumtoxins are resistant to fungal biotransformation, providing chemical insights that could inform the development of new tetracycline antibiotics resistant to enzymatic degradation. PMID:27419475

  3. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site. Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in cancer patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are a natural part of the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  4. Do ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal temperate tree species systematically differ in root order-related fine root morphology and biomass?

    OpenAIRE

    Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    While most temperate broad-leaved tree species form ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses, a few species have arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). It is not known whether EM and AM tree species differ systematically with respect to fine root morphology, fine root system size and root functioning. In a species-rich temperate mixed forest, we studied the fine root morphology and biomass of three EM and three AM tree species from the genera Acer, Carpinus, Fagus, Fraxinus, and Tilia searching for principal dif...

  5. First report of the ectomycorrhizal status of boletes on the Northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico determined using isotopic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselquist, Niles J.; Douhan, Greg W.; Allen, Michael F

    2011-01-01

    Despite their prominent role for tree growth, few studies have examined the occurrence of ectomycorrhizal fungi in lowland, seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF). Although fruiting bodies of boletes have been observed in a dry tropical forest on the Northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, their occurrence is rare and their mycorrhizal status is uncertain. To determine the trophic status (mycorrhizal vs. saprotrophic) of these boletes, fruiting bodies were collected and isotopically compared to k...

  6. Distribution patterns of soil entomopathogenic and birch symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi across native woodland and degraded habitats in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Edda Sigurdís Oddsdóttir 1971; Charlotte Nielsen; Robin Sen; Susanne Harding; Jørgen Eilenberg; Guðmundur Halldórsson 1952

    2010-01-01

    In Iceland, extensive afforestation programmes have been initiated, often involving the outplanting of nursery seedling stock on eroded land. In some areas high seedling mortality, to a large extent due to root damage caused by Otiorhynchus spp. larvae, has been reported. Even though recent studies have shown that inoculation with entomopathogenic and ectomycorrhizal fungi may reduce the effects of Otiorhynchus spp. on seedling mortality, information on the occurrence and distribution of thes...

  7. The mid-domain effect in ectomycorrhizal fungi: range overlap along an elevation gradient on Mount Fuji, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    MIYAMOTO, Yumiko; Nakano, Takashi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    Mid-domain effect (MDE) models predict that the random placement of species' ranges within a bounded geographical area leads to increased range overlap and species richness in the center of the bounded area. These models are frequently applied to study species-richness patterns of macroorganisms, but the MDE in relation to microorganisms is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the characteristics of the MDE in richness patterns of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, an ecologically important...

  8. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  9. Fungal-Fungal Interactions in Leaf-Cutting Ant Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunshine A. Van Bael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many organisms participate in symbiotic relationships with other organisms, yet studies of symbioses typically have focused on the reciprocal costs and benefits within a particular host-symbiont pair. Recent studies indicate that many ecological interactions involve alliances of symbionts acting together as mutualistic consortia against other consortia. Such interacting consortia are likely to be widespread in nature, even if the interactions often occur in a cryptic fashion. Little theory and empirical data exist concerning how these complex interactions shape ecological outcomes in nature. Here, we review recent work on fungal-fungal interactions between two consortia: (i leaf-cutting ants and their symbiotic fungi (the latter grown as a food crop by the former and (ii tropical plants and their foliar endophytes (the cryptic symbiotic fungi within leaves of the former. Plant characteristics (e.g., secondary compounds or leaf physical properties of leaves are involved in leaf-cutting ant preferences, and a synthesis of published information suggests that these plant traits could be modified by fungal presence. We discuss potential mechanisms for how fungal-fungal interactions proceed in the leaf-cutting ant agriculture and suggest themes for future research.

  10. Effects of nitrogen with and without acidified sulphur on an ectomycorrhizal community in a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr) forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carfrae, J A; Skene, K R; Sheppard, L J; Ingleby, K; Crossley, A

    2006-05-01

    This preliminary study investigated the effects of enhanced nitrogen (NH4NO3 at 48 kg ha(-1) y(-1)), sulphur (Na2SO4 at 50 kg ha(-1) y(-1)), acidified nitrogen and sulphur (H2SO4 + NH4NO3) at pre-stated doses (pH 2.5), and acidified nitrogen and sulphur deposition at double these doses on the ectomycorrhizal community associated with a 13-year-old Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) forest. Sulphur deposition had little impact on below ground ectomycorrhizal diversity, but stimulated sporocarp production. Nitrogen inputs increased below ground colonisation compared to acidified nitrogen and sulphur, largely due to an increase in Tylospora fibrillosa colonisation. Sporocarp production and ectomycorrhizal root colonisation by Lactarius rufus were reduced in the nitrogen treated plots. These observations suggest that nitrogen deposition to a young plantation may suppress ectomycorrhizal fungi producing large sporocarps. It is proposed that enhanced nitrogen deposition increases ectomycorrhizal nitrogen assimilation, consuming more carbon and leaving less for extrametrical mycelium and sporocarp development. PMID:16246472

  11. Effects of nitrogen with and without acidified sulphur on an ectomycorrhizal community in a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr) forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carfrae, J.A. [Division of Environmental and Applied Biology, School of Life Sciences, Biological Science Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom) and Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jeac@ceh.ac.uk; Skene, K.R. [Division of Environmental and Applied Biology, School of Life Sciences, Biological Science Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Sheppard, L.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Ingleby, K. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Crossley, A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    This preliminary study investigated the effects of enhanced nitrogen (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} at 48 kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}), sulphur (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 50 kg ha{sup -1}y{sup -1}), acidified nitrogen and sulphur (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) at pre-stated doses (pH 2.5), and acidified nitrogen and sulphur deposition at double these doses on the ectomycorrhizal community associated with a 13-year-old Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) forest. Sulphur deposition had little impact on below ground ectomycorrhizal diversity, but stimulated sporocarp production. Nitrogen inputs increased below ground colonisation compared to acidified nitrogen and sulphur, largely due to an increase in Tylospora fibrillosa colonisation. Sporocarp production and ectomycorrhizal root colonisation by Lactarius rufus were reduced in the nitrogen treated plots. These observations suggest that nitrogen deposition to a young plantation may suppress ectomycorrhizal fungi producing large sporocarps. It is proposed that enhanced nitrogen deposition increases ectomycorrhizal nitrogen assimilation, consuming more carbon and leaving less for extrametrical mycelium and sporocarp development. - N deposition effects on T. fibrillosa versus L. rufus colonisation of a Sitka spruce plantation.

  12. Effects of nitrogen with and without acidified sulphur on an ectomycorrhizal community in a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr) forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary study investigated the effects of enhanced nitrogen (NH4NO3 at 48 kg ha-1 y-1), sulphur (Na2SO4 at 50 kg ha-1y-1), acidified nitrogen and sulphur (H2SO4 + NH4NO3) at pre-stated doses (pH 2.5), and acidified nitrogen and sulphur deposition at double these doses on the ectomycorrhizal community associated with a 13-year-old Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) forest. Sulphur deposition had little impact on below ground ectomycorrhizal diversity, but stimulated sporocarp production. Nitrogen inputs increased below ground colonisation compared to acidified nitrogen and sulphur, largely due to an increase in Tylospora fibrillosa colonisation. Sporocarp production and ectomycorrhizal root colonisation by Lactarius rufus were reduced in the nitrogen treated plots. These observations suggest that nitrogen deposition to a young plantation may suppress ectomycorrhizal fungi producing large sporocarps. It is proposed that enhanced nitrogen deposition increases ectomycorrhizal nitrogen assimilation, consuming more carbon and leaving less for extrametrical mycelium and sporocarp development. - N deposition effects on T. fibrillosa versus L. rufus colonisation of a Sitka spruce plantation

  13. Rich and cold: diversity, distribution and drivers of fungal communities in patterned-ground ecosystems of the North American Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timling, I; Walker, D A; Nusbaum, C; Lennon, N J; Taylor, D L

    2014-07-01

    Fungi are abundant and functionally important in the Arctic, yet comprehensive studies of their diversity in relation to geography and environment are not available. We sampled soils in paired plots along the North American Arctic Transect (NAAT), which spans all five bioclimatic subzones of the Arctic. Each pair of plots contrasted relatively bare, cryoturbated patterned-ground features (PGFs) and adjacent vegetated between patterned-ground features (bPGFs). Fungal communities were analysed via sequencing of 7834 ITS-LSU clones. We recorded 1834 OTUs - nearly half the fungal richness previously reported for the entire Arctic. These OTUs spanned eight phyla, 24 classes, 75 orders and 120 families, but were dominated by Ascomycota, with one-fifth belonging to lichens. Species richness did not decline with increasing latitude, although there was a decline in mycorrhizal taxa that was offset by an increase in lichen taxa. The dominant OTUs were widespread even beyond the Arctic, demonstrating no dispersal limitation. Yet fungal communities were distinct in each subzone and were correlated with soil pH, climate and vegetation. Communities in subzone E were distinct from the other subzones, but similar to those of the boreal forest. Fungal communities on disturbed PGFs differed significantly from those of paired stable areas in bPGFs. Indicator species for PGFs included lichens and saprotrophic fungi, while bPGFs were characterized by ectomycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi. Our results suggest that the Arctic does not host a unique mycoflora, while Arctic fungi are highly sensitive to climate and vegetation, with potential to migrate rapidly as global change unfolds. PMID:24689939

  14. Database characterisation of HEP applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, Mariusz; Grancher, Eric; Topurov, Anton

    2012-12-01

    Oracle-based database applications underpin many key aspects of operations for both the LHC accelerator and the LHC experiments. In addition to the overall performance, the predictability of the response is a key requirement to ensure smooth operations and delivering predictability requires understanding the applications from the ground up. Fortunately, database management systems provide several tools to check, measure, analyse and gather useful information. We present our experiences characterising the performance of several typical HEP database applications performance characterisations that were used to deliver improved predictability and scalability as well as for optimising the hardware platform choice as we migrated to new hardware and Oracle 11g.

  15. Database characterisation of HEP applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oracle-based database applications underpin many key aspects of operations for both the LHC accelerator and the LHC experiments. In addition to the overall performance, the predictability of the response is a key requirement to ensure smooth operations and delivering predictability requires understanding the applications from the ground up. Fortunately, database management systems provide several tools to check, measure, analyse and gather useful information. We present our experiences characterising the performance of several typical HEP database applications performance characterisations that were used to deliver improved predictability and scalability as well as for optimising the hardware platform choice as we migrated to new hardware and Oracle 11g.

  16. The characterisation of precipitated magnetites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods are described for the preparation of magnetite by precipitation from aqueous solutions of iron(II) and iron(III) salts. The magnetites have been characterised by transmission electron microscopy, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. Transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy has also been used to characterise precipitated magnetites and a comparison of the spectra has been made with those obtained from nickel ferrite and hydrated ferric oxides. The hydrothermal stability of magnetite at 573 K has also been investigated. This work is relevant to corrosion processes that can occur in the water coolant circuits of nuclear reactors. (author)

  17. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.;

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...... characterisation methods, such as fractals, wavelets, change trees and others, including for each method a short review, the parameters that the new methods calculate, and applications of the methods to solve surface problems. The paper contains a discussion on the relevance of the different parameters...

  18. Fungal sensing of host environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sánchez, D; Schaller, M

    2016-09-01

    To survive inside a host, fungi have to adapt to a changing and often hostile environment and therefore need the ability to recognize what is going on around them. To adapt to different host niches, they need to sense external conditions such as temperature, pH and to recognize specific host factors. The ability to respond to physiological changes inside the host, independent of being in a commensal, pathogenic or even symbiotic context, implicates mechanisms for sensing of specific host factors. Because the cell wall is constantly in contact with the surrounding, fungi express receptors on the surface of their cell wall, such as pheromone receptors, which have important roles, besides mediating chemotropism for mating. We are not restricting the discussion to the human host because the receptors and mechanisms used by different fungal species to sense their environment are often similar even for plant pathogens. Furthermore, the natural habitat of opportunistic pathogenic fungi with the potential to cause infection in a human host is in soil and on plants. While the hosts' mechanisms of sensing fungal pathogens have been addressed in the literature, the focus of this review is to fill the gap, giving an overview on fungal sensing of a host-(ile) environment. Expanding our knowledge on host-fungal interactions is extremely important to prevent and treat diseases of pathogenic fungi, which are important issues in human health and agriculture but also to understand the delicate balance of fungal symbionts in our ecosystem. PMID:27155351

  19. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  20. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  1. Map kinases in fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J R

    2000-12-01

    MAP kinases in eukaryotic cells are well known for transducing a variety of extracellular signals to regulate cell growth and differentiation. Recently, MAP kinases homologous to the yeast Fus3/Kss1 MAP kinases have been identified in several fungal pathogens and found to be important for appressorium formation, invasive hyphal growth, and fungal pathogenesis. This MAP kinase pathway also controls diverse growth or differentiation processes, including conidiation, conidial germination, and female fertility. MAP kinases homologous to yeast Slt2 and Hog1 have also been characterized in Candida albicans and Magnaporthe grisea. Mutants disrupted of the Slt2 homologues have weak cell walls, altered hyphal growth, and reduced virulence. The Hog1 homologues are dispensable for growth but are essential for regulating responses to hyperosmotic stress in C. albicans and M. grisea. Overall, recent studies have indicated that MAP kinase pathways may play important roles in regulating growth, differentiation, survival, and pathogenesis in fungal pathogens. PMID:11273677

  2. Characterising agrammatism in Standard Indonesian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anjarningsih, Harwintha Yuhria; Haryadi-Soebadi, Ratna D.; Gofir, Abdul; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2012-01-01

    Background: The spontaneous speech of speakers of Standard Indonesian (SI) with agrammatic Broca's aphasia has not yet been characterised, although there are features of SI that are relevant for the discussion of agrammatic speech. Aims: The purpose of this study was to find the characteristic featu

  3. Fungal laryngitis in immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, A; Prasanna Kumar, S; Somu, L; Sudhir, B

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of fungal laryngitis is often overlooked in immunocompetent patients because it is commonly considered a disease of the immunocompromised. Further confusion is caused by clinical and histological similarity to more common conditions like Leukoplakia. Demonstration of hyperkeratosis particularly if associated with intraepithelial neutrophils on biopsy should trigger a search for fungus using specialized stains. These patients usually present with hoarseness of voice. Pain is present inconsistently along with dysphagia and odynophagia. We present three cases of fungal laryngitis in immunocompetent patients out of which one underwent microlaryngeal surgery with excision biopsy. All these patients responded well with oral antifungal therapy.

  4. Into and out of the tropics: global diversification patterns in a hyperdiverse clade of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Brian P; Ryberg, Martin; Hampe, Felix; Sánchez-García, Marisol; Matheny, P Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, symbiotic mutualists of many dominant tree and shrub species, exhibit a biogeographic pattern counter to the established latitudinal diversity gradient of most macroflora and fauna. However, an evolutionary basis for this pattern has not been explicitly tested in a diverse lineage. In this study, we reconstructed a mega-phylogeny of a cosmopolitan and hyperdiverse genus of ECM fungi, Russula, sampling from annotated collections and utilizing publically available sequences deposited in GenBank. Metadata from molecular operational taxonomic unit cluster sets were examined to infer the distribution and plant association of the genus. This allowed us to test for differences in patterns of diversification between tropical and extratropical taxa, as well as how their associations with different plant lineages may be a driver of diversification. Results show that Russula is most species-rich at temperate latitudes and ancestral state reconstruction shows that the genus initially diversified in temperate areas. Migration into and out of the tropics characterizes the early evolution of the genus, and these transitions have been frequent since this time. We propose the 'generalized diversification rate' hypothesis to explain the reversed latitudinal diversity gradient pattern in Russula as we detect a higher net diversification rate in extratropical lineages. Patterns of diversification with plant associates support host switching and host expansion as driving diversification, with a higher diversification rate in lineages associated with Pinaceae and frequent transitions to association with angiosperms. PMID:26642189

  5. High speciation rate at temperate latitudes explains unusual diversity gradients in a clade of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ramírez, Santiago; Etienne, Rampal S; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the patterns of biodiversity through time and space is a challenging task. However, phylogeny-based macroevolutionary models allow us to account and measure many of the processes responsible for diversity buildup, namely speciation and extinction. The general latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) is a well-recognized pattern describing a decline in species richness from the equator polewards. Recent macroecological studies in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi have shown that their LDG is shifted, peaking at temperate rather than tropical latitudes. Here we investigate this phenomenon from a macroevolutionary perspective, focusing on a well-sampled group of edible EM mushrooms from the genus Amanita-the Caesar's mushrooms, which follow similar diversity patterns. Our approach consisted in applying a suite of models including (1) nontrait-dependent time-varying diversification (Bayesian analysis of macroevolutionary mixtures [BAMM]), (2) continuous trait-dependent diversification (quantitative-state speciation and extinction [QuaSSE]), and (3) diversity-dependent diversification. In short, results give strong support for high speciation rates at temperate latitudes (BAMM and QuaSSE). We also find some evidence for different diversity-dependence thresholds in "temperate" and "tropical" subclades, and little differences in diversity due to extinction. We conclude that our analyses on the Caesar's mushrooms give further evidence of a temperate-peaking LDG in EM fungi, highlighting the importance and the implications of macroevolutionary processes in explaining diversity gradients in microorganisms. PMID:26179951

  6. Into and out of the tropics: global diversification patterns in a hyperdiverse clade of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Brian P; Ryberg, Martin; Hampe, Felix; Sánchez-García, Marisol; Matheny, P Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, symbiotic mutualists of many dominant tree and shrub species, exhibit a biogeographic pattern counter to the established latitudinal diversity gradient of most macroflora and fauna. However, an evolutionary basis for this pattern has not been explicitly tested in a diverse lineage. In this study, we reconstructed a mega-phylogeny of a cosmopolitan and hyperdiverse genus of ECM fungi, Russula, sampling from annotated collections and utilizing publically available sequences deposited in GenBank. Metadata from molecular operational taxonomic unit cluster sets were examined to infer the distribution and plant association of the genus. This allowed us to test for differences in patterns of diversification between tropical and extratropical taxa, as well as how their associations with different plant lineages may be a driver of diversification. Results show that Russula is most species-rich at temperate latitudes and ancestral state reconstruction shows that the genus initially diversified in temperate areas. Migration into and out of the tropics characterizes the early evolution of the genus, and these transitions have been frequent since this time. We propose the 'generalized diversification rate' hypothesis to explain the reversed latitudinal diversity gradient pattern in Russula as we detect a higher net diversification rate in extratropical lineages. Patterns of diversification with plant associates support host switching and host expansion as driving diversification, with a higher diversification rate in lineages associated with Pinaceae and frequent transitions to association with angiosperms.

  7. Soil transfers from valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) stands increase ectomycorrhizal diversity and alter root and shoot growth on valley oak seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, J T; Bledsoe, C S

    1998-02-01

    Soils from valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) riparian areas of the Cosumnes River Nature Conservancy Preserve near Sacramento, California were added to growth medium of valley oak seedlings grown in a greenhouse or in agricultural fields at Cosumnes which probably once supported valley oak trees and are now replanted with native riparian vegetation or allowed to revegetate naturally. Agricultural field soil from the Cosumnes River Preserve was presumed to be low or lacking in ectomycorrhizal inoculum. The study was designed to (1) determine whether valley oak stand soil transfer could cause mycorrhizal infection on valley oak seedlings in an agricultural field and in a greenhouse, (2) describe ectomycorrhizal morphological types formed on valley oak seedlings, and (3) determine whether seedling growth is enhanced more by transfer of natural valley oak stand soil than agricultural field soil. In the field study, transfer of forest soil increased average ectomycorrhizal diversity (2.4 types) more than transfer of agricultural field soil (1.2 types). Valley oak seedlings were responsive to ectomycorrhizal infection in the field study. With increase in mycorrhizal infection there was an increase in shoot growth at the expense of root growth. In the greenhouse study, both percent mycorrhizal infection and mycorrhizal diversity were increased more by transfer of oak forest and woodland soils than agricultural field soil. Eight morphotypes occurred on seedlings in forest and woodland soils but only three morphotypes in agricultural soil. This result strongly suggests that the agricultural field also harbors ectomycorrhizal propagules but forest and woodland soils support a more abundant and diverse ectomycorrhizal flora. PMID:24578047

  8. Protective immune responses to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of fungal infections has been on the rise over several decades. Fungal infections threaten animals, plants and humans alike and are thus of significant concern to scientists across disciplines. Over the last decade, significant advances on fungal immunology have lead to a better understanding of important mechanisms of host protection against fungi. In this article, I review recent advances of relevant mechanisms of immune-mediated protection to fungal infections.

  9. Burden of fungal disease in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Dorgan, Eileen; Denning, David W; McMullan, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to estimate the burden of fungal disease on the island of Ireland, as part of a coordinated project estimating the global burden. Published epidemiology data describing fungal infection in Ireland were identified. Population and underlying disease data were collected for 2010 and a structured set of assumptions were applied to estimate burden of fungal disease based on immunosuppression, chronic disease, and other demographic information indicating predisposition to fungal i...

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in the Tuber melanosporum brûlé.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Antonietta; Lumini, Erica; Napoli, Chiara; Bianciotto, Valeria; Bonfante, Paola

    2015-06-01

    The development of the fruiting body (truffle) of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum is associated with the production of an area (commonly referred to with the French word brûlé) around its symbiotic plant that has scanty vegetation. As truffles produce metabolites that can mediate fungal-plant interactions, the authors wondered whether the brûlé could affect the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that colonize the patchy herbaceous plants inside the brûlé. A morphological evaluation of the roots of plants collected in 2009 from a T. melanosporum/Quercus pubescens brûlé in France has shown that the herbaceous plants are colonized by AMF to a great extent. An analysis of the 18S rRNA sequences obtained from roots and soil inside the brûlé has shown that the AMF community structure seemed to be affected in the soil inside the brûlé, where less richness was observed compared to outside the brûlé. PMID:25986549

  11. (Post-)genomics approaches in fungal research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar-Pontes, María Victoria; de Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, M.; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, hundreds of fungal genomes have been sequenced and many more are in progress. This wealth of genomic information has provided new directions to study fungal biodiversity. However, to further dissect and understand the complicated biological mechanisms involved in fungal life styles, functio

  12. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  13. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  14. Influence of Aluminum and Manganese on the Growth, Nutrient Uptake and the Efflux by Ectomycorrhizal Fungi%铝和锰对外生菌根真菌生长、养分吸收及分泌作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 黄建国; 袁玲

    2013-01-01

    在强酸性土壤和铝锰矿墟上,铝和锰是影响森林生长和植被恢复的主要限制因子,研究它们对外生菌根真菌的影响,筛选优良的抗性菌株,可为开展污染土壤生物修复提供技术支撑及理论依据.试验采用纯培养技术研究了Al3+、Mn2+单独或共存对褐环乳牛肝菌13(Suillus luteus 13,SI 13)、土生空团菌04(Cenococcum geophilum 04,Cg 04)、彩色豆马勃715(Pisolithus tinctorius 715,Pt 715)这3株外生菌根真菌生长、养分吸收、有机酸分泌的影响.结果表明,Mn2+使Sl 13、Cg 04、Pt 715的生物量分别降低了70.35%、52.44%和18.55%;Al3+使Sl 13的生物量下降50.74%,但增加Cg 04的生物量;Al3+和Mn2+共存对3种菌株生长均有协同抑制作用,但对Pt 715的抑制最小,表明Cg 04抗铝,Pt 715对铝、锰的单独污染和复合污染均有较强的抗性.Al3+和Mn2+抑制外生菌根真菌吸收养分,对Sl 13的抑制作用显著大于Pt 715和Cg 04;但提高3个菌株的草酸和H+分泌速率,增加其分泌量,两者共存对Cg 04草酸分泌速率具有协同促进效应,Pt 715不仅能分泌草酸而且还分泌丁二酸.因此,抗性强的外生菌根真菌可通过分泌较多的有机酸络合Al3和Mn2+而缓解其毒害.%Al3+ and Mn2+ limit forest growth and vegetation restoration in strongly acidic soils and mining areas of aluminum and manganese. The knowledge on the influence of these two elements on ectomycorrhizal fungi can provide theoretical and technical supports for the selection of powerful ectomycorrhizal fungal strains and the bioremediation of contaminated soil. Three ectomycorrhizal fungal strains, namely Suillus luleus 13 (Sl 13) , Cenococcum geophilum 04 ( Cg 04) and Pisolithus tinctorius 715 (Pt 715) , were grown in liquid culture mediums with Al3+ and Mn2+ added alone and together to investigate fungal growth, nutrient uptake and organic acid efflux. The results showed that the biomass of Sl 13, Cg 04 and Pt 715 was

  15. Characterizing root-associated fungal communities and soils of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands that naturally produce Oregon white truffles (Tuber oregonense and Tuber gibbosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Gian Maria Niccolò; Lefevre, Charles; Bonito, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    Many truffle species in the genus Tuber are endemic to North America. Some of these have commercial value such as Tuber oregonense and Tuber gibbosum, commonly known as Oregon white truffles. Most of what is known about the ecology of these truffles comes from observational data. These truffle species form ectomycorrhizas with Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and sometimes fruit abundantly in early successional forest regrowth. The goal of this study was to characterize fungal communities and soils associated with truffle-producing Douglas-fir sites. We extracted DNA from roots of five trees at four different truffle-producing Douglas-fir sites (n = 20). We amplified the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) and sequenced amplicons with 454 pyrosequencing. After quality filtering, we assembled 15,713 sequences into 150 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Pezizomycetes (Tuber and Pyronemataceae) were the most abundant taxa detected followed by Helotiales. Agaricomycetes represented most by Thelephoraceae, Russulaceae, and Inocybaceae were also abundant. A total of five Tuber species were detected. T. oregonense was the most abundant OTU, followed by T. gibbosum and Wilcoxina mikolae. Fungal root endophytes were also detected and well represented by Chalara and Phialocephala spp. Fungal community structure and soil chemistry differed between sites. This study represents the first characterization of the fungal communities in Douglas-fir stands producing Oregon white truffles. We found that Tuber species can be dominant ectomycorrhizal symbionts of Douglas-fir. Truffle fungi are also important in forest health, food webs, and as a non-timber forest resource that can contribute to rural economies. PMID:26743427

  16. Scots pine and its ectomycorrhizal symbionts under chronic low-level urban pollution—responses and restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Tarvainen, O. (Oili)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Boreal urban forests are becoming more and more fragmented and, at the same time, are exposed to low-level but long-term nitrogen and sulphur deposition. Natural mid-boreal forests are dominated by few tree and shrub species, while herbs and grasses are rare. Soils in mid-boreal forests are rich in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, forming a symbiotic relationship with forest trees, which is important for the nutrient cycle especially in nutrient-poor ecosystems. Aims of this thes...

  17. Ectomycorrhizal association of three Lactarius species with Carpinus and Quercus trees in a Mexican montane cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamus, Valentina; Montoya, Leticia; Aguilar, Carlos J; Bandala, Victor M; Ramos, David

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are being monitored in the Santuario del Bosque de Niebla in the central region of Veracruz (eastern Mexico). Based on the comparison of DNA sequences (ITS rDNA) of spatiotemporally co-occurring basidiomes and EM root tips, we discovered the EM symbiosis of Lactarius indigo, L. areolatus and L. strigosipes with Carpinus caroliniana, Quercus xalapensis and Quercus spp. The host of the EM tips was identified by comparison of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL). Descriptions coupled with photographs of ectomycorrhizas and basidiomes are presented.

  18. Ectomycorrhizal association of three Lactarius species with Carpinus and Quercus trees in a Mexican montane cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamus, Valentina; Montoya, Leticia; Aguilar, Carlos J; Bandala, Victor M; Ramos, David

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are being monitored in the Santuario del Bosque de Niebla in the central region of Veracruz (eastern Mexico). Based on the comparison of DNA sequences (ITS rDNA) of spatiotemporally co-occurring basidiomes and EM root tips, we discovered the EM symbiosis of Lactarius indigo, L. areolatus and L. strigosipes with Carpinus caroliniana, Quercus xalapensis and Quercus spp. The host of the EM tips was identified by comparison of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL). Descriptions coupled with photographs of ectomycorrhizas and basidiomes are presented. PMID:22675052

  19. Forest litter as the mulch improving growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity of bare-root Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Aučina A; Rudawska M; Leski T; Skridaila A; Pašakinskiene I; Riepšas E

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the influence of pine, oak and spruce forest litter on the growth and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) formation of Scots pine seedlings after the first growing season in a bare-root forest nursery. The mixture of collected forest litters and humus were used to obtain a 20-cm mulching layer on the prepared seedbeds. The concentrations of all nutrients and the C/N ratio of growth media were significantly higher in forest litter treatments than in negative control represented by m...

  20. Thermomechanical characterisation of cellular rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, H.; Scheffer, T.; Diebels, S.

    2016-09-01

    This contribution discusses an experimental possibility to characterise a cellular rubber in terms of the influence of multiaxiality, rate dependency under environmental temperature and its behaviour under hydrostatic pressure. In this context, a mixed open and closed cell rubber based on an ethylene propylene diene monomer is investigated exemplarily. The present article intends to give a general idea of the characterisation method and the considerable effects of this special type of material. The main focus lies on the experimental procedure and the used testing devices in combination with the analysis methods such as true three-dimensional digital image correlation. The structural compressibility is taken into account by an approach for a material model using the Theory of Porous Media with additional temperature dependence.

  1. The Humber Regional Environmental Characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tappin, D. R.; Pearce, B.; Fitch, S.; Dove, D.; Gearey, B.; Hill, J M; Chambers, C.; R. Bates; Pinnion, J.; Diaz Doce, D.; Green, M; Gallyot, J.; Georgiou, L.; Brutto, D.; Marzialetti, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Humber Regional Environmental Characterisation (REC) is a multidisciplinary marine study of the geology, biology and archaeology of an area of 11 000 km2 off the east coast of England. It was funded by the Marine Aggregate Levy Sustainability Fund (MALSF). 2. Within the REC area, there are 12 active aggregate licences with applications submitted for 10 more. Within the region there is also gas production, wind energy development, and intensive shellfish harvesting....

  2. Characterising rag-forming solids

    OpenAIRE

    Kupai, MM; Yang, F.; Harbottle, D; Moran, K.; Masliyah, J; Xu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In oil sands froth treatment, an undesirable intermediate layer, often accumulates during the separation of water-oil emulsions. The layer referred to as rag layer is a complex mixture of water, oil, solids and interfacially active components. The presence of a rag layer has a detrimental impact on the separation of water and fine solids from diluted bitumen. The current study focuses on characterisation of solids from a rag layer forming stream of a naphthenic froth treatment plant in an att...

  3. Characterisation of gold from Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Naden, Jon; Henney, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This is a study of the variation in chemistry and inclusion mineralogy of bedrock and placer gold from Fiji. It forms part of a large project, undertaking gold characterisation from a wide range of geological environments in Ecuador, Zimbabwe, Malaysia and Fiji. The work was carried out under the Overseas Development AdministratiodBritish Geological Survey Technology Development and Research programme (Project R5549) as part of the British Government’s provision of technical...

  4. Characterisation of Electric Bicycles Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Jan; Lataire, Philippe; Maggetto, Gaston; Meeusen, Roman; Kempenaers, Farid

    2002-01-01

    The proposed paper reports on characterisation work performed in the scope of the E-tour project. This project has already been presented at EVS-18. At the ‘Vrije Universiteit Brussel’ different EPACs (Electric Power Assisted Cycles) are put at the public’s disposal for testing. To quantify the performances of these electrical bicycles we want to link the subjective experienced driving comfort to some measurable objective parameters. For this purpose we converted a treadmill in...

  5. The Chemical Basis of Fungal Bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, Konstantin V; Petushkov, Valentin N; Baranov, Mikhail S; Mineev, Konstantin S; Rodionova, Natalja S; Kaskova, Zinaida M; Tsarkova, Aleksandra S; Petunin, Alexei I; Bondar, Vladimir S; Rodicheva, Emma K; Medvedeva, Svetlana E; Oba, Yuichi; Oba, Yumiko; Arseniev, Alexander S; Lukyanov, Sergey; Gitelson, Josef I; Yampolsky, Ilia V

    2015-07-01

    Many species of fungi naturally produce light, a phenomenon known as bioluminescence, however, the fungal substrates used in the chemical reactions that produce light have not been reported. We identified the fungal compound luciferin 3-hydroxyhispidin, which is biosynthesized by oxidation of the precursor hispidin, a known fungal and plant secondary metabolite. The fungal luciferin does not share structural similarity with the other eight known luciferins. Furthermore, it was shown that 3-hydroxyhispidin leads to bioluminescence in extracts from four diverse genera of luminous fungi, thus suggesting a common biochemical mechanism for fungal bioluminescence.

  6. Standardization in optical coating characterisation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Ristau

    2005-01-01

    In the rapid development course of laser technology and modern optics, optical metrology continuously gains importance for the quality management in the industrial production environment and also for research in optical coatings. Besides absorption and scatter losses, the spectral characteristics and laser induced damage thresholds are considered as common quality factors for coated optical components and often define the optimization targets for new products and applications. Also, these quality parameters are the basis for the comparison of commercial optics and can be found in the product catalogues of most manufacturers of optical components. As a consequence, standardization of characterisation procedures for these fundamental properties evolved to a crucial point for the optics industry. During the last decade, adapted standard measurement techniques have been elaborated and discussed by representatives from many industrial companies and research institutes within working groups of the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO). In this contribution, the current state of standardized characterisation techniques for optical coatings is summarised. Selected standards for the measurement of absorption (ISO 11551), scattering (ISO 13696) and laser induced damage thresholds (ISO 11254, Parts 1 and 2) will be described and discussed in view of their applicability and reproducibility. The report will be concluded by an outlook on the current projects and future tasks of standardization in optics characterisation.

  7. UNITE: a database providing web-based methods for the molecular identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köljalg, U.; Larsson, K.H.; Abarenkov, K.;

    2005-01-01

    complete or trustworthy. In order to overcome this deficiency, we report on UNITE, an open-access database. •  UNITE comprises well annotated fungal ITS sequences from well defined herbarium specimens that include full herbarium reference identification data, collector/source and ecological data...

  8. Nattrassia mangiferae causing fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindo A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fungal keratitis caused by the coelomycetous fungus Nattrassia mangiferae in a 70 year old gentleman, agriculturist by occupation, with a history of injury to his right eye. The scraping showed narrow septate fungal hyphae on a KOH mount, isolation of a fast growing black mould, which demonstrated hyphae and arthroconidia of varying widths typical of the Scytalidium synanamorph (S. dimidiatum. The formation of the pycnidia, which at maturity, expressed conidia. The patient was started on topical itraconazole one hourly and topical atropine thrice a day. The patient was lost to follow up hence we are not able to comment on the final outcome of the patient.

  9. Molecular analysis of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete communities in a Pinus sylvestris L. stand reveals long-term increased diversity after removal of litter and humus layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Eric; Veenman, Christiaan; Baar, Jacqueline

    2003-07-01

    Abstract The number of fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal species in pine forests in The Netherlands has decreased dramatically in recent decades. This decrease has been attributed to an increase in nitrogen deposition and the accumulation of litter and humus. The effects of sod cutting and the removal of litter and humus, to restore ectomycorrhizal diversity in a Scots pine forest in Dwingeloo, The Netherlands, were investigated previously from 1990 to 1993. Removal of the litter and humus resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of species and fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, until now all data were obtained by counting fruiting bodies and the effects on mycelial development below ground were not assessed. To investigate hyphal development, DNA was extracted from bulk soil and polymerase chain reaction products were obtained by amplification using basidiomycete-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers. The differences in diversity between the control plots and the treated plots were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. To assess the species composition and differences, ITS regions of the amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced. Sequences were compared with sequences from GenBank and from fruiting bodies collected from the same plots. Data indicated increased below-ground ectomycorrhizal diversity in the plots that had been subjected to removal of the litter and humus layers. PMID:19719606

  10. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

    2013-12-01

    The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

  11. Directed Evolution of Fungal Laccases

    OpenAIRE

    Maté, Diana; García-Ruiz, Eva; Camarero, Susana; Alcalde, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Fungal laccases are generalists biocatalysts with potential applications that range from bioremediation to novel green processes. Fuelled by molecular oxygen, these enzymes can act on dozens of molecules of different chemical nature, and with the help of redox mediators, their spectrum of oxidizable substrates is further pushed towards xenobiotic compounds (pesticides, industrial dyes, PAHs), biopolymers (lignin, starch, cellulose) and other complex molecules. In recent years, extraordinary e...

  12. Fungal genome resources at NCBI

    OpenAIRE

    Robbertse, B.; Tatusova, T.

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/...

  13. Fungal contaminants in cytopathology specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A pseudo-epidemic of environmental fungi, most likely by Fusarium spp., leading to inappropriate investigations for disseminated systemic mycosis is described. Subtle diagnostic clues, including the specimens affected, the nature of the host response, and the type of fungal elements noted helped to determine the nature of contaminants. The potential pitfall can be avoided by the knowledge of pertinent disease biology, prompt consultation for infectious diseases, and investigations of the potential environmental sources followed by source control.

  14. Zn pollution counteracts Cd toxicity in metal-tolerant ectomycorrhizal fungi and their host plant, Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krznaric, Erik; Wevers, Jan H L; Cloquet, Christophe; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Vanhaecke, Frank; Colpaert, Jan V

    2010-08-01

    Adaptive Zn and Cd tolerance have evolved in populations of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus. When exposed to high concentrations of both metals in vitro, a one-sided antagonism was apparent in the Zn- and Cd-tolerant isolates. Addition of high Zn concentrations restored growth of Cd-stressed isolates, but not vice versa. The antagonistic effect was not detected in a S. luteus isolate from non-contaminated land and in Paxillus involutus. The fungi were inoculated on pine seedlings and subsequently exposed to ecologically relevant Zn and Cd concentrations in single and mixed treatments. The applied doses severely reduced nutrient acquisition of non-mycorrhizal pines and pines inoculated with metal-sensitive S. luteus. Highest translocation of Zn and Cd to shoots occurred in the same plants. Seedlings inoculated with fungi collected from the polluted site reduced metal transfer to their host and maintained nutrient acquisition under high metal exposure. The isolate showing highest tolerance in vitro also offered best protection in symbiosis. The antagonistic effect of high Zn on Cd toxicity was confirmed in the plant experiment. The results indicate that a Zn- and Cd-polluted soil has selected ectomycorrhizal fungi that are able to survive and protect their phytobiont from nutrient starvation and excessive metal uptake. PMID:21966908

  15. Toxic effects of cadmium and zinc on ectomycorrhizal colonization of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from soil inoculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley-Whitaker, J.; Cairney, J.W.G.; Meharg, A.A.

    2000-03-01

    Scots pine seedlings colonized by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi from natural soil inoculum were exposed to a range of Cd or Zn concentrations to investigate the effects of metals on ECM fungi-Scots pine associations in a realistic soil environment. Experiments focused on the relationship between the sensitivity of ECM fungi and their host plants, the influence of metals on ECM community dynamics on Scots pine roots, and the effects of metal exposure on ECM colonization from soil-borne propagules. Ectomycorrhizal colonization was inhibited by Cd and Zn, with a decrease in the proportion of ECM-colonized root tips. Shoot and root biomass, total root length, and total root-tip density, however, were unaffected by Cd or Zn. A decrease in the diversity of ECM morphotypes also occurred, which could have a negative effect on tree vigor. Overall, colonization by ECM fungi was more sensitive than seedling growth to Cd and Zn, and this could have serious implications for successful tree establishment on metal-contaminated soils.

  16. Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Simard, Suzanne W; Carroll, Allan; Mohn, William W; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2015-01-01

    Extensive regions of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, IDF) forests in North America are being damaged by drought and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis). This damage is resulting from warmer and drier summers associated with climate change. To test whether defoliated IDF can directly transfer resources to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae) regenerating nearby, thus aiding in forest recovery, we examined photosynthetic carbon transfer and defense enzyme response. We grew pairs of ectomycorrhizal IDF 'donor' and ponderosa pine 'receiver' seedlings in pots and isolated transfer pathways by comparing 35 μm, 0.5 μm and no mesh treatments; we then stressed IDF donors either through manual defoliation or infestation by the budworm. We found that manual defoliation of IDF donors led to transfer of photosynthetic carbon to neighboring receivers through mycorrhizal networks, but not through soil or root pathways. Both manual and insect defoliation of donors led to increased activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase in the ponderosa pine receivers, via a mechanism primarily dependent on the mycorrhizal network. These findings indicate that IDF can transfer resources and stress signals to interspecific neighbors, suggesting ectomycorrhizal networks can serve as agents of interspecific communication facilitating recovery and succession of forests after disturbance. PMID:25683155

  17. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  18. Fungal genome resources at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, B; Tatusova, T

    2011-09-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools. PMID:22737589

  19. Allergen Immunotherapy in an HIV+ Patient with Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Myles, Ian A.; Satyen Gada

    2015-01-01

    Patients with HIV/AIDS can present with multiple types of fungal rhinosinusitis, fungal balls, granulomatous invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, acute or chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, or allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). Given the variable spectrum of immune status and susceptibility to severe infection from opportunistic pathogens it is extremely important that clinicians distinguish aggressive fungal invasive fungal disease from the much milder forms such as AFRS. Here we descr...

  20. Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Weete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergosterol has been considered the "fungal sterol" for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Delta(5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Delta(5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade, and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol, and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles target reactions in

  1. A framework for Higgs characterisation

    CERN Document Server

    Artoisenet, P; Demartin, F; Frederix, R; Frixione, S; Maltoni, F; Mandal, M K; Mathews, P; Mawatari, K; Ravindran, V; Seth, S; Torrielli, P; Zaro, M

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a framework, based on an effective field theory approach, that allows one to perform characterisation studies of the boson recently discovered at the LHC, for all the relevant channels and in a consistent, systematic and accurate way. The production and decay of such a boson with various spin and parity assignments can be simulated by means of multi-parton, tree-level matrix elements and of next-to-leading order QCD calculations, both matched with parton showers. Several sample applications are presented which show, in particular, that beyond-leading-order effects in QCD have non-trivial phenomenological implications.

  2. Molecular Characterisation of Endophytic Fungi from Roots of Wild Banana (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Jamil, Muhamad Izham Muhamad; Anuar, Intan Sakinah Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp. and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of other fungi. The most common fungal isolates were species of the genus Fusarium, which were identified as F. proliferatum, Fusarium sp., F. solani species complex, and F. oxysporum. Other isolated endophytic fungi included Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma atroviride, Calonectria gracilis, Rhizoctonia solani, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Stromatoneurospora phoenix (Xylariceae). Several of the fungal genera, such as Fusarium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, and Xylariceae, are among the common fungal endophytes reported in plants. This study showed that the roots of wild banana harbour a diverse group of endophytic fungi. PMID:27019688

  3. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  4. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  5. Site characterisation methods and data interpretation. The Drigg site characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further site characterisation work is being undertaken to underpin the impact assessment of BNFL's Drigg low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. This site has been in operation for about forty years and is located approximately seven kilometres south of the Sellafield reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The site accepts the majority of LLW produced in the U.K. which may be generated by hospitals and general industry as well as the nuclear industry itself. Historically, waste was tumble tipped into trenches which were then covered with an interim cap incorporating a plastic membrane. Waste is now placed in a concrete vault within steel Isofreight containers. This practice will continue through to the end of operations which is anticipated to be in the middle of the next century. Subsequently, a final closure cap will be emplaced over the disposal area. The five year Drigg Site Characterisation programme was, therefore, set up in order to improve and build upon our current understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site. The first one and a half years are devoted entirely to data acquisition with the greatest activity surrounding the drilling and geophysical aspects of the programme. Four years will be devoted to collecting a high quality time series data set of water levels, stream flows and meteorological variables and to produce a comprehensive interpretation of the hydrogeology of the site. The programme to date has been very successful and the acquired information has enabled us to start refining our geological model of the site which will then be used to underpin our eventual conceptual hydrogeological model. 3 refs

  6. Large-scale fungal diversity assessment in the Andean Yungas forests reveals strong community turnover among forest types along an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geml, József; Pastor, Nicolás; Fernandez, Lisandro; Pacheco, Silvia; Semenova, Tatiana A; Becerra, Alejandra G; Wicaksono, Christian Y; Nouhra, Eduardo R

    2014-05-01

    The Yungas, a system of tropical and subtropical montane forests on the eastern slopes of the Andes, are extremely diverse and severely threatened by anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Previous mycological works focused on macrofungi (e.g. agarics, polypores) and mycorrhizae in Alnus acuminata forests, while fungal diversity in other parts of the Yungas has remained mostly unexplored. We carried out Ion Torrent sequencing of ITS2 rDNA from soil samples taken at 24 sites along the entire latitudinal extent of the Yungas in Argentina. The sampled sites represent the three altitudinal forest types: the piedmont (400-700 m a.s.l.), montane (700-1500 m a.s.l.) and montane cloud (1500-3000 m a.s.l.) forests. The deep sequence data presented here (i.e. 4 108 126 quality-filtered sequences) indicate that fungal community composition correlates most strongly with elevation, with many fungi showing preference for a certain altitudinal forest type. For example, ectomycorrhizal and root endophytic fungi were most diverse in the montane cloud forests, particularly at sites dominated by Alnus acuminata, while the diversity values of various saprobic groups were highest at lower elevations. Despite the strong altitudinal community turnover, fungal diversity was comparable across the different zonal forest types. Besides elevation, soil pH, N, P, and organic matter contents correlated with fungal community structure as well, although most of these variables were co-correlated with elevation. Our data provide an unprecedented insight into the high diversity and spatial distribution of fungi in the Yungas forests. PMID:24762095

  7. Regulation of the fungal secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCotter, Sean W; Horianopoulos, Linda C; Kronstad, James W

    2016-08-01

    The ability of countless representatives of the Kingdom Fungi to adapt to and proliferate in diverse environments is facilitated by regulation of their secretomes to respond to changes in environmental conditions and to mediate interactions with other organisms. Secretome changes often fulfill common functions of nutrient acquisition, facilitation of host/symbiont interactions, cell wall modification, and optimization of the enzyme suite to adapt to new environmental resources. In this review, we expand on our recent work on signaling and the secretome in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to consider a range of selected examples of regulation of fungal secretomes. These examples include the impact of carbon source and aspects of the response to plant and animal hosts. Additionally, the influence of key protein kinases (e.g., Pka1, Snf1) and transcription factors (e.g., Rim101/PacC) is highlighted to illustrate some underlying regulatory factors influencing the secretome. Although there is a wealth of information about fungal secretomes from both experimentation and genome sequence mining, there are also major gaps in our knowledge about the complete composition of fungal secretomes and mechanisms of dynamic change. For example, a more comprehensive understanding of the composition and regulation of the secretome will require consideration of the emerging roles of unconventional secretion and extracellular vesicles in delivering proteins outside the cell. Overall, changes in the secretome are well documented in diverse fungi and the underlying mechanisms are currently under investigation; however, there remain unknown steps in the regulation of secretory pathways and gaps in understanding the regulation of unconventional secretion, which warrant further research. PMID:26879194

  8. 5.5.Fungal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930234 Penicilliosis marneffei report of a caseand review of literatures.KANG Xiaoming (康晓明),et al.Nanjing Army General Hosp,210002.Chin J Tuberc & Respir Dis 1992;15(6):336—338.Penicilliosis marneffei is a rare deep fungal in-fection.Southeast Asia is the endemic area.Inthe literatures before 1990,29 cases were re-ported and most of them were diagnosed patho-logically from autopsy.Since 1989 there havebeen more reports of P.marneffei in the HIV in-fected individuals or graft recipient,so far as

  9. Immune response to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jose L; Garcia, Marta E

    2008-09-15

    The immune mechanisms of defence against fungal infections are numerous, and range from protective mechanisms that were present early in evolution (innate immunity) to sophisticated adaptive mechanisms that are induced specifically during infection and disease (adaptive immunity). The first-line innate mechanism is the presence of physical barriers in the form of skin and mucous membranes, which is complemented by cell membranes, cellular receptors and humoral factors. There has been a debate about the relative contribution of humoral and cellular immunity to host defence against fungal infections. For a long time it was considered that cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was important, but humoral immunity had little or no role. However, it is accepted now that CMI is the main mechanism of defence, but that certain types of antibody response are protective. In general, Th1-type CMI is required for clearance of a fungal infection, while Th2 immunity usually results in susceptibility to infection. Aspergillosis, which is a disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus, has been the subject of many studies, including details of the immune response. Attempts to relate aspergillosis to some form of immunosuppression in animals, as is the case with humans, have not been successful to date. The defence against Aspergillus is based on recognition of the pathogen, a rapidly deployed and highly effective innate effector phase, and a delayed but robust adaptive effector phase. Candida albicans, part of the normal microbial flora associated with mucous surfaces, can be present as congenital candidiasis or as acquired defects of cell-mediated immunity. Resistance to this yeast is associated with Th1 CMI, whereas Th2 immunity is associated with susceptibility to systemic infection. Dermatophytes produce skin alterations in humans and other animals, and the essential role of the CMI response is to destroy the fungi and produce an immunoprotective status against re-infection. The resolution

  10. A characterisation of algebraic exactness

    CERN Document Server

    Garner, Richard

    2011-01-01

    An algebraically exact category in one that admits all of the limits and colimits which every variety of algebras possesses and every forgetful functor between varieties preserves, and which verifies the same interactions between these limits and colimits as hold in any variety. Such categories were studied by Ad\\'amek, Lawvere and Rosick\\'y: they characterised them as the categories with small limits and sifted colimits for which the functor taking sifted colimits is continuous. They conjectured that a complete and sifted-cocomplete category should be algebraically exact just when it is Barr-exact, finite limits commute with filtered colimits, regular epimorphisms are stable by small products, and filtered colimits distribute over small products. We prove this conjecture.

  11. Characterisation of TRISO fuel particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez H, E. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, 25900 Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Yang, D., E-mail: eddie.lopez@cinvestav.edu.mx [The Academy of Armoured Forces Engineering, Science and Technology on Remanufacturing Laboratory, 100072 Beijing (China)

    2012-10-15

    The TRISO (tri structural isotropic) coated fuel particle is a key component contributing to the inherent safety of the High Temperature Reactor. A uranium kernel is coated with three layers of pyrolytic carbon and one of silicon carbide. The purpose of these coatings is to work as a miniature fission product containment vessel capable of enclosing all important radio nuclei under normal and off-normal reactor operating conditions. Due to the importance of these coatings, is of great interest to establish characterisation techniques capable of providing a detailed description of their microstructure and physical properties. Here we describe the use of Raman spectroscopy and two modulator generalised ellipsometry to study the anisotropy and thermal conductivity of pyrolytic carbon coatings, as well as the stoichiometry of the silicon carbide coatings and fibres. (Author)

  12. Influence of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi on Absorption and Balance of Essential Elements of Pinus tabulaeformis Seedlings in Saline Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jie; HUANG Yi; JIANG Xue-Yan

    2011-01-01

    Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings were grown under a factorial design to measure biomass accumulation and P, Na and K concentrations of plants, with 3 different ectomycorrhizal fungus (EMF) strains (Boletus edulis, Xerocomus chrysenteron and Gomphidius viscidus) and two P treatments (with or without extra P). Growth and mineral nutrition of pine seedlings were stimulated by three EMF under salinity stress. Na concentrations were changed and plant K and P concentrations were increased significantly by EMF. Adding extra P made no difference in accumulation of seedlings biomass, and did not assist element absorption of plants. Although three strains of EMF can all enhance the tolerance of pine seedlings to salinity stress, they may utilize different mechanisms because of different performance in absorption of elements. The increased P and K accumulation and the balance of ion concentrations might be due to the enhanced tolerance of EMF-inoculated plants to saline conditions.

  13. Naming names: the etymology of fungal entomopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter introduces the reader to the etymology of the generic names given to 26 fungal entomopathogens. Possessing some knowledge on how a name originates sometimes provides us with information on a fungal characteristic that might help us identify the organism, e.g., Conidiobolus, Cordyceps, P...

  14. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyun Jeon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.

  15. Fungal host specificity is not a bottleneck for the germination of Pyroleae species (Ericaceae) in a Bavarian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynson, Nicole A; Weiß, Michael; Preiss, Katja; Gebauer, Gerhard; Treseder, Kathleen K

    2013-03-01

    Plants that produce dust seeds can recruit fungi to meet their earliest requirements for carbon and other nutrients. This germination strategy, termed initial mycoheterotrophy, has been well investigated among the orchid family, but there are numerous other plant lineages that have independently evolved mycoheterotrophic germination strategies. One of these lineages is the tribe Pyroleae (Ericaceae). While the fungi associated with mature plants in Pyroleae have been fairly well documented, their mycobionts at the germination and seedling stages are largely unknown. Here, we use an in situ seed baiting experiment along with molecular fingerprinting techniques and phylogenetic tests to identify the fungi associated with seedlings of two Pyroleae species, Pyrola chlorantha and Orthilia secunda. Our results indicate that similar to adult plants, Pyroleae seedlings can associate with a suite of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Some seedlings harboured single mycobionts, while others may have been inhabited by multiple fungi. The dominant seedling mycobiont of both Pyroleae species was a fungus of unknown trophic status in the order Sebacinales. This taxon was also the only one shared among seedlings of both investigated Pyroleae species. We discuss these results juxtaposed to orchids and one additional Pyrola species in the context of ontogenetic shifts in fungal host specificity for mycoheterotrophic nutrition.

  16. Responses of fungal and plant communities to partial humus removal in mid-boreal N-enriched forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Oili; Hamberg, Leena; Ohenoja, Esteri; Strömmer, Rauni; Markkola, Annamari

    2012-10-15

    Partial removal of the forest humus layer was performed in nitrogen-enriched urban Scots pine forest stands in the northern Finland in order to improve soil conditions for ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, important symbionts of trees. Aboveground part of understory vegetation and the uppermost half of the humus layer were removed (REMOVAL treatment) from sample plots in six urban and eight rural reference forest sites at the beginning of the 2001 growing season. During the seasons 2001-2005, we inventoried sporocarp production of ECM and saprophytic fungi, and in 2003 the recovery of understory vegetation. The REMOVAL treatment resulted in a higher number of fruiting ECM species and sporocarps than controls at the rural, but not at urban sites. The sporocarp number of saprophytic fungi declined in the REMOVAL subplots at the urban sites. The recovery of bryophytes and lichens in the REMOVAL treatment was slow at both the urban and rural sites, whereas Vaccinium dwarf shrub cover, and herb and grass cover returned rapidly at the urban sites. We conclude that the partial vegetation and humus layer removal as a tool to promote the reproduction of ECM fungal species is limited in the boreal urban forests.

  17. Hydrodynamics, Fungal Physiology, and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Carreón, L; Galindo, E; Rocha-Valadéz, J A; Holguín-Salas, A; Corkidi, G

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous cultures, such as fungi and actinomycetes, contribute substantially to the pharmaceutical industry and to enzyme production, with an annual market of about 6 billion dollars. In mechanically stirred reactors, most frequently used in fermentation industry, microbial growth and metabolite productivity depend on complex interactions between hydrodynamics, oxygen transfer, and mycelial morphology. The dissipation of energy through mechanically stirring devices, either flasks or tanks, impacts both microbial growth through shearing forces on the cells and the transfer of mass and energy, improving the contact between phases (i.e., air bubbles and microorganisms) but also causing damage to the cells at high energy dissipation rates. Mechanical-induced signaling in the cells triggers the molecular responses to shear stress; however, the complete mechanism is not known. Volumetric power input and, more importantly, the energy dissipation/circulation function are the main parameters determining mycelial size, a phenomenon that can be explained by the interaction of mycelial aggregates and Kolmogorov eddies. The use of microparticles in fungal cultures is also a strategy to increase process productivity and reproducibility by controlling fungal morphology. In order to rigorously study the effects of hydrodynamics on the physiology of fungal microorganisms, it is necessary to rule out the possible associated effects of dissolved oxygen, something which has been reported scarcely. At the other hand, the processes of phase dispersion (including the suspended solid that is the filamentous biomass) are crucial in order to get an integral knowledge about biological and physicochemical interactions within the bioreactor. Digital image analysis is a powerful tool for getting relevant information in order to establish the mechanisms of mass transfer as well as to evaluate the viability of the mycelia. This review focuses on (a) the main characteristics of the two most

  18. IAEA Perspectives on Radiological Characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements for characterization of radiological and other hazards in nuclear facilities are reflected in the IAEA Safety Standards. WS-R-5, Safety Requirements for Decommissioning of Facilities using Radioactive Material, includes a requirement that 'During the preparation of the final decommissioning plan, the extent and type of radioactive material (irradiated and contaminated structures and components) at the facility shall be determined by means of a detailed characterization survey and on the basis of records collected during the operational period'. The subsidiary Safety Guide WS-G-2.1, Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors, further elaborates that 'A survey of radiological and non-radiological hazards provides an important input for the safety assessment and for implementing a safe approach during the work'. Although the characterisation requirements addressed in the Safety Standards relate primarily to the detailed survey activities undertaken following the shutdown of the facility, it is evident that radiological characterization is of relevance to all major phases of the lifetime of a nuclear facility, including: - the siting phase - baseline surveys are undertaken to determine background radiation levels; - the construction phase - construction materials are retained to support future calculations of radioactivity distributions; - the operational phase - surveys are done regularly, with additional surveys being required following incidents involving plant contamination; - the transition phase - detailed radiological surveys are required to support the development of the final decommissioning plan; and - the closure phase - a final survey of the site and any remaining structures will be needed to support an application for release of the site from regulatory control. In the case of facilities that are already shut down, the main purpose of radiological characterisation is to provide a reliable database of information on the

  19. Morphological and molecular analyses of ectomycorrhizal diversity in a man-made T. melanosporum plantation: description of novel truffle-like morphotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciarelli-Falini, Leonardo; Rubini, Andrea; Riccioni, Claudia; Paolocci, Francesco

    2006-10-01

    Below-ground ectomycorrhizal communities are often species-rich, and monitoring their dynamics is important to understand the conditions that promote truffle fructification. Characterization of the different ectomycorrhizas (ECM) at the species level can now be achieved by combining detailed morphological and anatomical descriptions with molecular approaches. Following this strategy, we have characterized ectomycorrhizal biodiversity in an artificial Tuber melanosporum plantation. Although the plantation was unproductive, T. melanosporum mycorrhizas were the most present and two Tuber-like mycorrhizal morphotypes, named ECMm1 and ECMm3, showing distinctive features were found. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that ECMm3 is related to the Tuber rufum/Tuber ferrugineum species complex, whereas ECMm1 shows the highest ITS similarity with Tuber scruposum and fungi-colonizing Epipactis roots. The results presented here provide more insights into genetic variability, mycorrhizal morphology, and below-ground distribution of fungi associated with artificial truffle plantations. PMID:16909286

  20. Innate Defense against Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Rebecca A; Gaffen, Sarah L; Hise, Amy G; Brown, Gordon D

    2014-11-10

    Human fungal infections have been on the rise in recent years and proved increasingly difficult to treat as a result of the lack of diagnostics, effective antifungal therapies, and vaccines. Most pathogenic fungi do not cause disease unless there is a disturbance in immune homeostasis, which can be caused by modern medical interventions, disease-induced immunosuppression, and naturally occurring human mutations. The innate immune system is well equipped to recognize and destroy pathogenic fungi through specialized cells expressing a broad range of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). This review will outline the cells and PRRs required for effective antifungal immunity, with a special focus on the major antifungal cytokine IL-17 and recently characterized antifungal inflammasomes.

  1. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  2. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus converts organic matter in plant litter using a trimmed brown-rot mechanism involving Fenton chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rineau, Francois; Roth, Doris; Shah, Firoz; Smits, Mark; Johansson, Tomas; Canbäck, Björn; Olsen, Peter Bjarke; Persson, Per; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Lindquist, Erika; Grigoriev, Igor V; Lange, Lene; Tunlid, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Soils in boreal forests contain large stocks of carbon. Plants are the main source of this carbon through tissue residues and root exudates. A major part of the exudates are allocated to symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi. In return, the plant receives nutrients, in particular nitrogen from the mycorrhizal fungi. To capture the nitrogen, the fungi must at least partly disrupt the recalcitrant organic matter–protein complexes within which the nitrogen is embedded. This disruption process is poorly characterized. We used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine the mechanism by which the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus degrades organic matter when acquiring nitrogen from plant litter. The fungus partially degraded polysaccharides and modified the structure of polyphenols. The observed chemical changes were consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, involving Fenton chemistry similar to that of brown-rot fungi. The set of enzymes expressed by Pa. involutus during the degradation of the organic matter was similar to the set of enzymes involved in the oxidative degradation of wood by brown-rot fungi. However, Pa. involutus lacked transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes needed for metabolizing the released carbon. The saprotrophic activity has been reduced to a radical-based biodegradation system that can efficiently disrupt the organic matter–protein complexes and thereby mobilize the entrapped nutrients. We suggest that the released carbon then becomes available for further degradation and assimilation by commensal microbes, and that these activities have been lost in ectomycorrhizal fungi as an adaptation to symbiotic growth on host photosynthate. The interdependence of ectomycorrhizal symbionts and saprophytic microbes would provide a key link in the turnover of nutrients and carbon in forest ecosystems. PMID:22469289

  3. Ectomycorrhizal Colonization and Diversity in Relation to Tree Biomass and Nutrition in a Plantation of Transgenic Poplars with Modified Lignin Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsen, Lara; Lohaus, Gertrud; Sirrenberg, Anke; Karlovsky, Petr; Bastien, Catherine; Pilate, Gilles; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Wood from biomass plantations with fast growing tree species such as poplars can be used as an alternative feedstock for production of biofuels. To facilitate utilization of lignocellulose for saccharification, transgenic poplars with modified or reduced lignin contents may be useful. However, the potential impact of poplars modified in the lignification pathway on ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, which play important roles for plant nutrition, is not known. The goal of this study was to investiga...

  4. Ectomycorrhizal Community Structure of Salix and Betula spp. at a Saline Site in Central Poland in Relation to the Seasons and Soil Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Sonia; Piernik, Agnieszka; Thiem, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Saline stress is one of the most important abiotic factors limiting the growth and development of plants and associated microorganisms. While the impact of salinity on associations of arbuscular fungi is relatively well understood, knowledge of the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi of trees growing on saline land is limited. The main objective of this study was to determine the density and diversity of EM fungi associated with three tree species, Salix alba, Salix caprea and Betula pendula, growing ...

  5. Responses of Pinus halepensis growth, soil microbial catabolic functions and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria after rock phosphate amendment and ectomycorrhizal inoculation

    OpenAIRE

    Ouahmane, L.; Revel, J.C.; Hafidi, M; Thioulouse, J.; Prin, Y.; Galiana, A; Dreyfus, Bernard; Duponnois, Robin

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of an ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungus, Pisolithus sp., on of the growth of Pinus halepensis (Allepo pine) seedlings, soil microbial functions and rock phosphate solubilization in a un-disinfected soil amended or not with a Moroccan rock phosphate. Allepo pine seedlings were inoculated with an EM fungus (Pisolithus sp. strain PH4) isolated from a P. halepensis plantation and selected for its high ability to mobilize P from an inorganic form of phosphate. After 4 month's cul...

  6. Mimosa 32-ter Chip Characterisation

    CERN Document Server

    Behera, Arabinda

    2013-01-01

    The Inner Tracking System (ITS) is a very important part of the ALICE detector. Present ITS is made up of 6 coaxial layers of silicon detectors (2 SPD, 2 SDD and 2 SSD). This system has a lot of limitations. Its tracking efficiency and resolution is low. Its readout rate is also very slow. Its not possible to study charm and beauty baryons and mesons with this system. So the upcoming ITS Upgrade plan will try to overcome these shortcomings. A very crucial part in this plan is to replace the existing hybrid sensors by new and advanced Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors(MAPS). In MAPS the sensor and the electronics are embedded in the same chip. The MAPS will reduce the material budget, increase the readout rate and enhance the tracking efficiency and momentum resolution. In this report I will present the results for the Characterisation of MIMOSA 32-ter chip, which is a MAPS. My main aim is to calculate the Charge Collection Efficiency of different sectors of the chip and compare between them. And most importa...

  7. Fungal infection in organ transplant patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪微; 温海; 廖万清

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To review the characteristics and evolution of the fungal spectrum, and the risk factors causing fungal infection, and to make progress in diagnosing fungal infection after organ transplantation.Data sources An English-language literature search (MEDLINE 1990-2000) and bibliographic review of textbooks and review articles.Study selection Twenty-three articles were selected from the literature that specifically addressed the stated purpose.Results Fungal infections in organ transplant patients were generally divided into two types: ① disseminated primary or reactivation infection with one of the geographically restricted systemic mycoses; ② opportunistic infection by fungal species that rarely cause invasive infection in normal hosts. The risk factors of fungal infection after a transplant can be evaluated and predicted according to the organ recipient ’s conditions before, during and after the transplant. Progress in early diagnostic methods during the past 10 years has mainly revolved around two aspects, culture and non-culture. Conclusions It is important to undertake a systemic evaluation on the condition of the organ recipient before, during and after a transplant; should any risk factor for fungal infection be suspected, diagnosis should be made as early as possible by employing mycological techniques including culture and non-culture methods.

  8. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research. PMID:25721271

  9. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research.

  10. Fungal infections in neutropenic cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasive fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with prolonged neutropenia following chemotherapy. Recent trends indicate a change toward infections by Aspergillus species, non-albicans species of Candida, and previously uncommon fungal pathogens. These have decreased susceptibility to current antifungal agents. In the last decade there has been much effort to find solutions for these changing trends. This article reviews current approaches to prevention and treatment of opportunistic fungal infections in postchemotherapy neutropenic patients and discussion future antifungal approaches and supportive methods. (author)

  11. Characterisation of mycelial morphology using image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, G C; Thomas, C R

    1998-01-01

    Image analysis is now well established in quantifying and characterising microorganisms from fermentation samples. In filamentous fermentations it has become an invaluable tool for characterising complex mycelial morphologies, although it is not yet used extensively in industry. Recent method developments include characterisation of spore germination from the inoculum stage and of the subsequent dispersed and pellet forms. Further methods include characterising vacuolation and simple structural differentiation of mycelia, also from submerged cultures. Image analysis can provide better understanding of the development of mycelial morphology, of the physiological states of the microorganisms in the fermenter, and of their interactions with the fermentation conditions. This understanding should lead to improved design and operation of mycelial fermentations. PMID:9468800

  12. Molecular weight characterisation of synthetic polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Holding, Steve R

    1995-01-01

    The report comprises a state-of-the-art overview of the subject of molecular weight characterisation, supported by an extensive, indexed bibliography. The bibliography contains over 400 references and abstracts, compiled from the Polymer Library.

  13. Expanding Fungal Diets Through Synthetic Algal-Fungal Mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alaisha; Galazka, Jonathan (Editor)

    2015-01-01

    Fungi can synthesize numerous molecules with important properties, and could be valuable production platforms for space exploration and colonization. However, as heterotrophs, fungi require reduced carbon. This limits their efficiency in locations such as Mars, where reduced carbon is scarce. We propose a system to induce mutualistic symbiosis between the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the filamentous fungi Neurospora crassa. This arrangement would mimic natural algal-fungal relationships found in lichens, but have added advantages including increased growth rate and genetic tractability. N. crassa would metabolize citrate (C6H5O7 (sup -3)) and release carbon dioxide (CO2) that C. reinhardtii would assimilate into organic sugars during photosynthesis. C. reinhardtii would metabolize nitrate (NO3-) and release ammonia (NH3) as a nitrogen source for N. crassa. A N. crassa mutant incapable of reducing nitrate will be used to force this interaction. This system eliminates the need to directly supply its participants with carbon dioxide and ammonia. Furthermore, the release of oxygen by C. reinhardtii via photosynthesis would enable N. crassa to respire. We hope to eventually create a system closer to lichen, in which the algae transfers not only nitrogen but reduced carbon, as organic sugars, to the fungus for growth and production of valuable compounds.

  14. PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2009-11-30

    In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

  15. Mycorrhizal Fungal Community of Poplars Growing on Pyrite Tailings Contaminated Site near the River Timok

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Katanić; Saša Orlović; Tine Grebenc; Branislav Kovačević; Marko Kebert; Milan Matavulj; Hojka Kraigher

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Mycorrhizal fungi are of high importance for functioning of forest ecosystems and they could be used as indicators of environmental stress. The aim of this research was to analyze ectomycorrhizal community structure and to determine root colonization rate with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi of poplars growing on pyrite tailings contaminated site near the river Timok (Eastern Serbia). Materials and Methods: Identification of ectomycorrhi...

  16. Analysis of fungal ball rhinosinusitis by culturing fungal clumps under endoscopic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junyi; Li, Yunchuan; Lu, Xinxin; Wang, Xiangdong; Zang, Hongrui; Wang, Tong; Zhou, Bing; Zhang, Luo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the clinical microbiology of fungal ball (FB) rhinosinusitis by culturing fungal clumps collected under endoscopic surgery. Methods: From April to November of 2012, fungal clumps were sampled by endoscopic surgery from patients diagnosed with FB using clinical and histopathological methods. The specimens were subjected to smear microscopy, and cultured for bacteria and fungi analysis. Results: Out of the 81 specimens from 80 patients, 69 (69/8...

  17. Zoosporic fungal parasites of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, C.

    laboratory media. In such instances, a detailed and careful examination of the disease symptoms and the endobiotic fungal parasites is to be recorded. Maintaining dual culture of the healthy and infected host also helps to fulfill these postulates partially....

  18. Fungal keratitis - improving diagnostics by confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Esben; Heegaard, S; Prause, J U;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological...

  19. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette;

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary meta...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  20. FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS1

    OpenAIRE

    Wajszczuk, Charles P.; Dummer, J. Stephen; Ho, Monto; Van Thiel, David H.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Shaw, Byers

    1985-01-01

    Sixty-two adults who underwent orthotopic liver transplantations between February 1981 and June 1983 were followed for a mean of 170 days after the operation. Twenty-six patients developed 30 episodes of significant fungal infection. Candida species and Torulopsis glabrata were responsible for 22 episodes and Aspergillus species for 6. Most fungal infections occurred in the first month after transplantation. In the first 8 weeks after transplantation, death occurred in 69% (18/26) of patients...

  1. Treatment of fungal infections: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Giannattasio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections represent a serious problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs worldwide. Preterm infants are a vulnerable population for major events and adverse sequelae from fungal sepsis. The primary fungus of concern in neonates is C. albicans, whose colonization is associated with devastating complication and high rate of mortality. Among the risk factors responsible for development of invasive fungal infections, previous mucosal and skin colonization are of primary importance. Fungal colonization in neonates may be secondary to either maternal transmission or nosocomial acquisition in the nursery. Antifungal prophylaxis is currently applied in different NICUs and in various patients groups with successful results. Prophylactic drugs can include oral nystatin and oral or intravenous fluconazole. To date, antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole is the recommended approach for neonates lower than 1,000 g and/or 27 weeks’ gestation or less, manly in NICUs with relatively high frequency of invasive candidiasis. First-line treatment of invasive fungal infections includes amphotericin B deoxycholate, lipid preparations of amphotericin B, fluconazole, or micafungin. However, data on pharmacokinetic, schedule treatment and appropriate dosage of antifungal agents in neonates, mainly in premature, are still limited. Future strategies to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality derived from invasive fungal infections include new echinocandins not yet approved for neonatal use (caspofungin or anidulafungin and other adjuvant treatments as intravenous immunoglobulin, lactoferrin or probiotics. Since current therapies for systemic fungal diseases are not universally successful and morbidity remains high, future efforts will be also focused on better prevention of fungal diseases and understanding of appropriate dosing schedule of the available antifungal agents. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy

  2. Spontaneous course of an untreated fungal spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 29 known cases in the world, we report another case of fungal spondylitis being not yet treated. Within four months with increasing clinical complaints and without neurological defects the disease led to a complete involvement of two vertebras and their partial resorption. An early radiologic hint in fungal spondylitis is possible, a sure diagnosis, however, depends on puncture. Pathogenetic aspects and the importance of a new method to identify candida infection in blood-sample are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Striking a Balance: Fungal Commensalism versus Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Iliev, Iliyan D.; Underhill, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The environment is suffused with nearly countless types of fungi, and our immune systems must be tuned to cope with constant exposure to them. In addition, it is becoming increasingly clear that many surfaces of our bodies are colonized with complex populations of fungi (the mycobiome) in the same way that they are colonized with complex populations of bacteria. The immune system must tolerate colonization with commensal fungi but defend against fungal invasion. Truly life-threatening fungal ...

  4. Experimental study on cryotherapy for fungal corneal ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yingxin; Yang, Weijia; Gao, Minghong; Belin, Michael Wellington; Yu, Hai; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Fungal corneal ulcer is one of the major causes of visual impairment worldwide. Treatment of fungal corneal ulcer mainly depends on anti-fungal agents. In the current study, we developed an integrated combination therapy of cryotherapy and anti-fungal agents to facilitate effective treatment of fungal corneal ulcer. Methods Rabbit models of cornea infection were established using a combined method of intrastromal injection and keratoplasty. After treatment with cryotherapy and anti...

  5. Fungal allelochemicals in insect pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holighaus, Gerrit; Rohlfs, Marko

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between insects and fungi are widespread, and important mediators of these interactions are fungal chemicals that can therefore be considered as allelochemicals. Numerous studies suggest that fungal chemicals can affect insects in many different ways. Here, we apply the terminology established by insect-plant ecologists for categorizing the effect of fungal allelochemicals on insects and for evaluating the application potential of these chemicals in insect pest management. Our literature survey shows that fungal volatile and non-volatile chemicals have an enormous potential to influence insect behavior and fitness. Many of them still remain to be discovered, but some recent examples of repellents and toxins could open up new ways for developing safe insect control strategies. However, we also identified shortcomings in our understanding of the chemical ecology of insect-fungus interactions and the way they have been investigated. In particular, the mode-of-action of fungal allelochemicals has often not been appropriately designated or examined, and the way in which induction by insects affects fungal chemical diversity is poorly understood. This review should raise awareness that in-depth ecological studies of insect-fungus interactions can reveal novel allelochemicals of particular benefit for the development of innovative insect pest management strategies. PMID:27147531

  6. Structure and biological functions of fungal cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto-Bergter Eliana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, cerebrosides are glycosphingolipids composed of a hydrophobic ceramide linked to one sugar unit. In fungal cells, CMHs are very conserved molecules consisting of a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine in amidic linkage to 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic or 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acids, and a carbohydrate portion consisting of one residue of glucose or galactose. 9-Methyl 4,8-sphingadienine-containing ceramides are usually glycosylated to form fungal cerebrosides, but the recent description of a ceramide dihexoside (CDH presenting phytosphingosine in Magnaporthe grisea suggests the existence of alternative pathways of ceramide glycosylation in fungal cells. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. In Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, A. fumigatus, and Schizophyllum commune, CMHs are apparently involved in morphological transitions and fungal growth. The elucidation of structural and functional aspects of fungal cerebrosides may therefore contribute to the design of new antifungal agents inhibiting growth and differentiation of pathogenic species.

  7. Fungal Keratitis - Improving Diagnostics by Confocal Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Nielsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results: A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12-69, 6 out of 17 (35% cultures were positive and a total of 6/7 (86% IVCM scans were positive. Three different categories of IVCM results for the grading of diagnostic certainty were formed. Conclusion: IVCM is a valuable tool for diagnosing filamentous fungal keratitis. In order to improve the reliability of IVCM, we suggest implementing a simple and clinically applicable grading system for aiding the interpretation of IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis.

  8. Hypopyon in patients with fungal keratitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ling-juan; SONG Xiu-sheng; ZHAO Jing; SUN Shi-ying; XIE Li-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypopyon is common in eyes with fungal keratitis.The evaluation of the clinical features,culture results and the risk factors for hypopyon and of the possible correlation between hypopyon and the treatment outcome could be helpful for making treatment decisions.Methods The medical records of 1066 inpatients (1069 eyes) with fungal keratitis seen at the Shandong Eye Institute from January 2000 to December 2009 were reviewed retrospectively for demographic features,risk factors,clinical characteristics,laboratory findings and treatment outcomes.The incidence of hypopyon,the fungal culture positivity for hypopyon,risk factors for hypopyon and the effect of hypopyon on the treatment and prognosis were determined.Results We identified 1069 eyes with fungal keratitis.Of the 850 fungal culture-positive eyes,the Fusarium species was the most frequent (73.6%),followed by Altemaria (10.0%) and Aspergillus (9.0%).Upon admission,562 (52.6%)eyes with hypopyon were identified.The hypopyon of 66 eyes was evaluated via fungal culturing,and 31 eyes (47.0%)were positive.A total of 194 eyes had ocular hypertension,and 172 (88.7%) of these eyes had hypopyon (P <0.001).Risk factors for incident hypopyon included long duration of symptoms (P <0.001),large lesion size (P <0.001) and infection caused by the Fusarium and Aspergillus species (P <0.001).The positivity of fungal culture for hypopyon was associated with duration of symptoms and lesion size.Surgical intervention was more common in cases with hypopyon (P <0.001).Hypopyon was a risk factor for the recurrence of fungal keratitis after corneal transplantation (P=0.002).Conclusions Hypopyon is common in patients with severe fungal keratitis and can cause ocular hypertension.About half of the hypopyon cases were positive based on fungal culture.Long duration of symptoms,large lesion size and infection with the Fusarium and Aspergillus species were risk factors for hypopyon.The presence of hypopyon

  9. Comunidad ectomicorrícica en una cronosecuencia de Pinus radiata (Pinophyta: Pinaceae de la zona de transición climática mediterráneo-templada de Chile central The ectomycorrhizal community in a chronosequence of Pinus radiata (Pinophyta: Pinaceae of the transitional Mediterranean-temperate climatic zone of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUSSI M PALACIOS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En ecosistemas naturales y plantaciones, las coníferas establecen asociaciones mutualistas con una comunidad diversa de hongos micorrícicos. El estudio de este tema en Sudamérica es aún incipiente, y no existen antecedentes sobre la dinámica temporal de esta comunidad, y menos de sus potenciales causas, a pesar de su importancia para un país forestal como Chile. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la dinámica de la comunidad ectomicorrícica, identificando y cuantificando los hongos formadores de esta asociación en raíces finas de Pinus radiata en plantaciones de 3, 10 y 20 años. Los resultados confirman que la comunidad ectomicorrícica de P. radiata cambia con la edad de los árboles, la cual difiere más bien en el patrón de dominancia que en la riqueza de especies, separándose un primer grupo de árboles de 3 y 10 años de un segundo grupo de 20 años. Un total de once morfotipos de micorrizas fueron diferenciados. Cuatro de ellos, identificados como Hebeloma crustuliniforme, Inocybe sp., Russula sardonia y Pinirhiza spinulosa, fueron los más abundantes (77, 29, 78 y 8 % respectivamente, mientras las otras se encontraron colonizando menos de 100 puntas de raíz (In natural forest ecosystems and plantations, most trees live in mutualistic association with mycorrhizal fungi. Studies of this association in South America are still scarce, especially when referring to the causes of temporal dynamics of this symbiotic community, despite its importance in countries with a thriving forestry industry like Chile. This study evaluates the dynamics of the ectomycorrhizal community of Pinus radiata stands of 3, 10 and 20 years of age, identifying and quantifying the most common fungal colonizers of fine roots in each age class. The results confirm that the mycobiont community changes with host tree age but that age classes differ in dominance patterns rather than in species richness, with the three- and ten-year-old tree cohorts forming a

  10. Production and turnover of ectomycorrhizal extramatrical mycelial biomass and necromass under elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Alf; Mikusinska, Anna; Ågren, Göran I; Menichetti, Lorenzo; Wallander, Håkan; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bahr, Adam; Eriksson, Ulrika

    2016-08-01

    Extramatrical mycelia (EMM) of ectomycorrhizal fungi are important in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests, but poor knowledge about EMM biomass and necromass turnovers makes the quantification of their role problematic. We studied the impacts of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on EMM production and turnover in a Pinus taeda forest. EMM C was determined by the analysis of ergosterol (biomass), chitin (total bio- and necromass) and total organic C (TOC) of sand-filled mycelium in-growth bags. The production and turnover of EMM bio- and necromass and total C were estimated by modelling. N fertilization reduced the standing EMM biomass C to 57% and its production to 51% of the control (from 238 to 122 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) ), whereas elevated CO2 had no detectable effects. Biomass turnover was high (˜13 yr(-1) ) and unchanged by the treatments. Necromass turnover was slow and was reduced from 1.5 yr(-1) in the control to 0.65 yr(-1) in the N-fertilized treatment. However, TOC data did not support an N effect on necromass turnover. An estimated EMM production ranging from 2.5 to 6% of net primary production stresses the importance of its inclusion in C models. A slow EMM necromass turnover indicates an importance in building up forest humus. PMID:27118132

  11. Ectomycorrhizal community structure in a healthy and a Phytophthora-infected chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) stand in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Jan Maarten; Vannini, Andrea; Vettraino, Anna Maria; Hale, Michael D; Godbold, Douglas L

    2009-11-01

    Ink disease caused by Phytophthora cambivora is a major disease of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa). In two C. sativa stands in central Italy, one (Montesanti) that is infected with P. cambivora and the trees showing symptoms of ink disease and another healthy stand (Puzzella), the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community structure was investigated. On the roots of the surviving trees of the diseased stand, 29 different ECM species were determined compared to 23 in the healthy stand. Eleven ECM species were common to both stands; however, a number of species were unique to one of the stands. Cenococcum geophilum was dominant at both sites, but the percentage colonisation was much higher at Montesanti (40.8%) compared to Puzzella (27.2%). There was a switch in species from Russula vesca, Russula lepida and Russula azurea at Puzzella to Russula nigricans, R. lepida and Russula delica at Montesanti. Both R. vesca and R. azurea were found only at the Puzzella site. At the diseased site, the ECMs formed had a smaller root tip diameter, and the ECM at the healthy site had more abundant extramatrical hyphae.

  12. Fine Root Productivity and Turnover of Ectomycorrhizal and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Tree Species in a Temperate Broad-Leaved Mixed Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Advancing our understanding of tree fine root dynamics is of high importance for tree physiology and forest biogeochemistry. In temperate broad-leaved forests, ectomycorrhizal (EM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tree species often are coexisting. It is not known whether EM and AM trees differ systematically in fine root dynamics and belowground resource foraging strategies. We measured fine root productivity (FRP) and fine root turnover (and its inverse, root longevity) of three EM and three AM broad-leaved tree species in a natural cool-temperate mixed forest using ingrowth cores and combined the productivity data with data on root biomass per root orders. FRP and root turnover were related to root morphological traits and aboveground productivity. FRP differed up to twofold among the six coexisting species with larger species differences in lower horizons than in the topsoil. Root turnover varied up to fivefold among the species with lowest values in Acer pseudoplatanus and highest in its congener Acer platanoides. Variation in root turnover was larger within the two groups than between EM and AM species. We conclude that the main determinant of FRP and turnover in this mixed forest is species identity, while the influence of mycorrhiza type seems to be less important. PMID:27617016

  13. Location and Survival of Mycorrhiza Helper Pseudomonas fluorescens during Establishment of Ectomycorrhizal Symbiosis between Laccaria bicolor and Douglas Fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey-Klett, P.; Pierrat, J. C.; Garbaye, J.

    1997-01-01

    The mycorrhiza helper bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6, isolated from a Laccaria bicolor sporocarp, consistently promotes L. bicolor-Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) ectomycorrhizal formation, even with low doses of bacterial inoculum. In order to describe this phenomenon more accurately, we have looked at the location and survival of the introduced bacterial strain in the soil and in the rhizosphere during the establishment of mycorrhizal symbiosis in glasshouse and nursery experiments. Bacterial populations were quantified with a spontaneous, stable, rifampin-resistant mutant, BBc6R8, which phenotypically conformed to the parental strain. BBc6R8 populations declined rapidly, reaching the detection limit after 19 weeks, and did not increase either when L. bicolor sporocarps were forming in autumn or when Douglas fir roots resumed growing in spring. BBc6R8 was neither an endophyte nor a rhizobacterium. Furthermore, it was not particularly associated with either mycorrhizas of Douglas fir-L. bicolor or L. bicolor sporocarps. Surprisingly, a significant mycorrhiza helper effect was observed when the inoculated BBc6R8 population had dropped as low as 30 CFU g of dry matter(sup-1) in the soil. This study raises questions concerning the bacterial concentration in the soil which is effective for promotion of mycorrhizal establishment and the timing of the bacterial effect. It allows us to develop working hypotheses, which can be tested experimentally, to identify the mechanisms of the mycorrhiza helper effect. PMID:16535478

  14. Production and turnover of ectomycorrhizal extramatrical mycelial biomass and necromass under elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Alf; Mikusinska, Anna; Ågren, Göran I; Menichetti, Lorenzo; Wallander, Håkan; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bahr, Adam; Eriksson, Ulrika

    2016-08-01

    Extramatrical mycelia (EMM) of ectomycorrhizal fungi are important in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests, but poor knowledge about EMM biomass and necromass turnovers makes the quantification of their role problematic. We studied the impacts of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on EMM production and turnover in a Pinus taeda forest. EMM C was determined by the analysis of ergosterol (biomass), chitin (total bio- and necromass) and total organic C (TOC) of sand-filled mycelium in-growth bags. The production and turnover of EMM bio- and necromass and total C were estimated by modelling. N fertilization reduced the standing EMM biomass C to 57% and its production to 51% of the control (from 238 to 122 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) ), whereas elevated CO2 had no detectable effects. Biomass turnover was high (˜13 yr(-1) ) and unchanged by the treatments. Necromass turnover was slow and was reduced from 1.5 yr(-1) in the control to 0.65 yr(-1) in the N-fertilized treatment. However, TOC data did not support an N effect on necromass turnover. An estimated EMM production ranging from 2.5 to 6% of net primary production stresses the importance of its inclusion in C models. A slow EMM necromass turnover indicates an importance in building up forest humus.

  15. Ectomycorrhizal Fungus-Induced Changes of Cu and Cd speciation in the rhizosphere of Chinese Pine Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yi; LI Ting; HUANG Zhi-Ji; FEI Ying-Heng

    2008-01-01

    To understand the role of ectomycorrhizas in improving the tolerance of its host to excessive heavy metals in soil, this study was conducted to exam the patterns of four fractions (the exchangeable, the carbonate-bound, the Fe-Mn oxide-bound and the organically bound) of both Cu and Cd in the rhizosphere of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) seedlings grown in excessive Cu and Cd environment. The results showed that the speciation of Cu and Cd in the rhizosphere was significantly influenced by inoculation of ectomycorrhizal fungus Boletus edulis. Compared to the rhizosphere, the content of exchangeable Cu slightly decreased in the mycorrhizosphere of the seedlings grown in 166 and 400 mg kg-1Cu contaminated soil, whereas the exchangeable Cd in the mycorrhizosphere decreased remarkably to only 33% and to 60% that of the rhizosphcre at 0.75 and 1.50 mg kg-1 Cd levels, respectively. These indicate the potential capacity of mycorrhizas to alleviate the damage of heavy metals to the host plants by reducing the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil. Distribution of the 4 tested fractions of Cu and Cd at different contamination levels showed that there was a strong tendency of changing from loosely associatcd fractions to strongly associated fractions in the mycorrhizosphere. The most stable Cd fraction, organically bound Cd, was significantly larger in the mycorrhizosphere than in the rhizosphere at different Cd contamination levels. This phenomenon was also observed for Cu but the difference was not statistically significant.

  16. Performance of ectomycorrhizal alders exposed to specific Canadian oil sands tailing stressors under in vivo bipartite symbiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin-Nadeau, Martin; Gagné, André; Bissonnette, Cyntia; Bélanger, Pier-Anne; Fortin, J André; Roy, Sébastien; Greer, Charles W; Khasa, Damase P

    2016-07-01

    Canadian oil sands tailings are predominately sodic residues contaminated by hydrocarbons such as naphthenic acids. These conditions are harsh for plant development. In this study, we evaluated the effect of inoculating roots of Alnus viridis ssp. crispa and Alnus incana ssp. rugosa with ectomycorrhizal fungi in the presence of tailings compounds. Seedlings were inoculated with 7 different strains of Paxillus involutus and Alpova diplophloeus and were grown under different treatments of NaCl, Na2SO4, and naphthenic acids in a growth chamber. Afterwards, seedling survival, height, dry biomass, leaf necrosis, and root mycorrhization rate were measured. Paxillus involutus Mai was the most successful strain in enhancing alder survival, health, and growth. Seedlings inoculated with this strain displayed a 25% increase in survival rate, 2-fold greater biomass, and 2-fold less leaf necrosis compared with controls. Contrary to our expectations, A. diplophloeus was not as effective as P. involutus in improving seedling fitness, likely because it did not form ectomycorrhizae on roots of either alder species. High intraspecific variation characterized strains of P. involutus in their ability to stimulate alder height and growth and to minimize leaf necrosis. We conclude that in vivo selection under bipartite symbiotic conditions is essential to select effective strains that will be of use for the revegetation and reclamation of derelict lands. PMID:27170470

  17. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  18. Complement and fungal pathogens: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter; Würzner, Reinhard; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2008-11-01

    Fungal infections are a serious complication in immunocompromised patients such as human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, patients with organ transplantations or with haematological neoplasia. The lethality of opportunistic fungal infection is high despite a growing arsenal of antimycotic drugs, implying the urgent need for supportive immunological therapies to strengthen the current inefficient antimicrobial defences of the immunocompromised host. Therefore, increasing effort has been directed to investigating the interplay between fungi and the host immunity and thus to find starting points for additional therapeutic approaches. In this article, we review the actual state of the art concerning the role of complement in the pathogenesis of fungal infections. Important aspects include the activation of the complement system by the fungal pathogen, the efficiency of the complement-associated antimicrobial functions and the arsenal of immune evasion strategies applied by the fungi. The twin functions of complement as an interactive player of the innate immunity and at the same time as a modulator of the adaptive immunity make this defence weapon a particularly interesting therapeutic candidate to mobilise a more effective immune response and to strengthen in one fell swoop a broad spectrum of different immune reactions. However, we also mention the 'Yin-Yang' nature of the complement system in fungal infections, as growing evidence assigns to complement a contributory part in the pathogenesis of fungus-induced allergic manifestations. PMID:18705662

  19. Proteomics of survival structures of fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, Dmitry; Šebela, Marek

    2016-09-25

    Fungal pathogens are causal agents of numerous human, animal, and plant diseases. They employ various infection modes to overcome host defense systems. Infection mechanisms of different fungi have been subjected to many comprehensive studies. These investigations have been facilitated by the development of various '-omics' techniques, and proteomics has one of the leading roles in this regard. Fungal conidia and sclerotia could be considered the most important structures for pathogenesis as their germination is one of the first steps towards a host infection. They represent interesting objects for proteomic studies because of the presence of unique proteins with unexplored biotechnological potential required for pathogen viability, development and the subsequent host infection. Proteomic peculiarities of survival structures of different fungi, including those of biotechnological significance (e.g., Asperillus fumigatus, A. nidulans, Metarhizium anisopliae), in a dormant state, as well as changes in the protein production during early stages of fungal development are the subjects of the present review. We focused on biological aspects of proteomic studies of fungal survival structures rather than on an evaluation of proteomic approaches. For that reason, proteins that have been identified in this context are discussed from the point of view of their involvement in different biological processes and possible functions assigned to them. This is the first review paper summarizing recent advances in proteomics of fungal survival structures. PMID:26777984

  20. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26646287

  1. Fungal Involvement in Patients with Paranasal Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kordbacheh

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal involvement of the paranasal sinuses is frequently observed in the immunocompromised host and it can become lifethreatening if it is not diagnosed. Definitive diagnosis is made by tissue biopsy and culture. In this study biopsy materials of maxillary, ethmoidal and frontal sinuses of 60 patients with clinical manifestation of sinusitis and no response to medical therapy were assessed by mycological and pathological methods for the presence of fungi. Invasive fungal sinusitis was diagnosed in 3 patients and etiologic agents were Candida albicans, Rhizopus sp. and Aspergillus fumigatus. Predisposing factors in these patients were leukemia, diabetes mellitus and previous sinus and polyp surgery, respectively. Allergic fungal sinusitis also was seen in one patient and Alternaria sp. isolated from the biopsy material. Only the patient with allergic form of disease survived but all the patients with invasive form of fungal infection were expired. This clearly underscores the need of early recognition of fungal sinusitis in at risk population in order to start urgent treatment. In this study Nocardia asteroids also was isolated from the biopsy sample in a patient with sinunasal adenocarcinoma.

  2. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-10-27

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the JGI Fungal Genomic Program. One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts and pathogens) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation and sugar fermentation) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Science Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 400 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics will lead to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such ‘parts’ suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  3. Diagnostics for characterisation of plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsonis, Marios

    2015-09-01

    The popularity of plasma actuators as flow control devices has sparked a flurry of diagnostic efforts towards their characterisation. This review article presents an overview of experimental investigations employing diagnostic techniques specifically aimed at AC dielectric barrier discharge, DC corona and nanosecond pulse plasma actuators. Mechanical, thermal and electrical characterisation techniques are treated. Various techniques for the measurement of induced velocity, body force, heating effects, voltage, current, power and discharge morphology are presented and common issues and challenges are described. The final part of this report addresses the effect of ambient conditions on the performance of plasma actuators.

  4. Biosorption of radionuclides by fungal biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four kinds of bioreactor were evaluated for thorium removal by fungal biomass. An air-lift bioreactor removed approximately 90-95% of the thorium supplied over extended time periods and exhibited a well-defined breakthrough point after biosorbent saturation. The air-lift bioreactor promoted efficient circulation and effective contact between the thorium solution and the mycelial pellets. Of several fungal species tested, Rhizopus arrhizus and Aspergillus niger were the most effective biosorbents. The efficiency of thorium biosorption by A. niger was markedly reduced in the presence of other inorganic solutes while thorium biosorption by R. arrhizus was relatively unaffected. Air-lift bioreactors containing R. arrhizus biomass could effectively remove thorium from acidic solution over a wide range of initial thorium concentrations. The biotechnological application and significance of these results are discussed in the wider context of fungal biosorption of radionuclides. (author)

  5. Involutin is an Fe3+ reductant secreted by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus during Fenton-based decomposition of organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Firoz; Schwenk, Daniel; Nicolás, César; Persson, Per; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Tunlid, Anders

    2015-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi play a key role in mobilizing nutrients embedded in recalcitrant organic matter complexes, thereby increasing nutrient accessibility to the host plant. Recent studies have shown that during the assimilation of nutrients, the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus decomposes organic matter using an oxidative mechanism involving Fenton chemistry (Fe(2+) + H2O2 + H(+) → Fe(3+) + ˙OH + H2O), similar to that of brown rot wood-decaying fungi. In such fungi, secreted metabolites are one of the components that drive one-electron reductions of Fe(3+) and O2, generating Fenton chemistry reagents. Here we investigated whether such a mechanism is also implemented by P. involutus during organic matter decomposition. Activity-guided purification was performed to isolate the Fe(3+)-reducing principle secreted by P. involutus during growth on a maize compost extract. The Fe(3+)-reducing activity correlated with the presence of one compound. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) identified this compound as the diarylcyclopentenone involutin. A major part of the involutin produced by P. involutus during organic matter decomposition was secreted into the medium, and the metabolite was not detected when the fungus was grown on a mineral nutrient medium. We also demonstrated that in the presence of H2O2, involutin has the capacity to drive an in vitro Fenton reaction via Fe(3+) reduction. Our results show that the mechanism for the reduction of Fe(3+) and the generation of hydroxyl radicals via Fenton chemistry by ectomycorrhizal fungi during organic matter decomposition is similar to that employed by the evolutionarily related brown rot saprotrophs during wood decay. PMID:26431968

  6. Mycorrhizal status and diversity of fungal endophytes in roots of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likar, Matevz; Bukovnik, Urska; Kreft, Ivan; Chrungoo, Nikhil K; Regvar, Marjana

    2008-09-01

    To determine the mycorrhizal status and to identify the fungi colonising the roots of the plants, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum) were inoculated with an indigenous fungal mixture from a buckwheat field. Root colonisation was characterised by the hyphae and distinct microsclerotia of dark septate endophytes, with occasional arbuscules and vesicles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Sequences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonising tartary buckwheat clustered close to the Glomus species group A. Sequences with similarity to the Ceratobasidium/Rhizoctonia complex, a putative dark septate endophyte fungus, were amplified from the roots of both common and tartary buckwheat. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation in tartary buckwheat and the first molecular characterisation of these fungi that can colonise both of these economically important plant species.

  7. Identification & Characterization of Fungal Ice Nucleation Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Kampf, Christopher Johannes; Mauri, Sergio; Weidner, Tobias; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Freezing of water at relatively warm subfreezing temperatures is dependent on ice nucleation catalysis facilitated by ice nuclei (IN). These IN can be of various origins and although extensive research was done and progress was achieved, the nature and mechanisms leading to an effective IN are to date still poorly understood. Some of the most important processes of our geosphere like the water cycle are highly dependent on effective ice nucleation at temperatures between -2°C - -8°C, a temperature range which is almost exclusively covered by biological IN (BioIN). BioIN are usually macromolecular structures of biological polymers. Sugars as well as proteins have been reported to serve as IN and the best characterized BioIN are ice nucleation proteins (IN-P) from gram negative bacteria. Fungal strains from Fusarium spp. were described to be effective IN at subfreezing temperatures up to -2°C already 25 years ago and more and more fungal species are described to serve as efficient IN. Fungal IN are also thought to be proteins or at least contain a proteinaceous compound, but to date the fungal IN-P primary structure as well as their coding genetic elements of all IN active fungi are unknown. The aim of this study is a.) to identify the proteins and their coding genetic elements from IN active fungi (F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, M. alpina) and b.) to characterize the mechanisms by which fungal IN serve as effective IN. We designed an interdisciplinary approach using biological, analytical and physical methods to identify fungal IN-P and describe their biological, chemical, and physical properties.

  8. Fractal dimension based corneal fungal infection diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Perkins, A. Louise; Beuerman, Roger W.; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

    2006-08-01

    We present a fractal measure based pattern classification algorithm for automatic feature extraction and identification of fungus associated with an infection of the cornea of the eye. A white-light confocal microscope image of suspected fungus exhibited locally linear and branching structures. The pixel intensity variation across the width of a fungal element was gaussian. Linear features were extracted using a set of 2D directional matched gaussian-filters. Portions of fungus profiles that were not in the same focal plane appeared relatively blurred. We use gaussian filters of standard deviation slightly larger than the width of a fungus to reduce discontinuities. Cell nuclei of cornea and nerves also exhibited locally linear structure. Cell nuclei were excluded by their relatively shorter lengths. Nerves in the cornea exhibited less branching compared with the fungus. Fractal dimensions of the locally linear features were computed using a box-counting method. A set of corneal images with fungal infection was used to generate class-conditional fractal measure distributions of fungus and nerves. The a priori class-conditional densities were built using an adaptive-mixtures method to reflect the true nature of the feature distributions and improve the classification accuracy. A maximum-likelihood classifier was used to classify the linear features extracted from test corneal images as 'normal' or 'with fungal infiltrates', using the a priori fractal measure distributions. We demonstrate the algorithm on the corneal images with culture-positive fungal infiltrates. The algorithm is fully automatic and will help diagnose fungal keratitis by generating a diagnostic mask of locations of the fungal infiltrates.

  9. Does host plant richness explain diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi? Re-evaluation of Gao et al. (2013) data sets reveals sampling effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Bahram, Mohammad; Dickie, Ian A

    2014-03-01

    The generally positive relationship between biodiversity of groups of directly or indirectly interacting organisms is one of the most important ecological concepts (Gaston, 2000 Nature, 405, 220-227; Scherber C, Eisenhauer N, Weisser WW et al., 2010 Nature, 468, 553-556). In a recent issue of Molecular Ecology, Gao C, Shi N-N, Liu Y-X et al. (2013: 22, 3403-3414) reported that the richness of plants and ectomycorrhizal fungi is positively correlated both at local and at global scales. Here, we challenge these findings by re-analysis of data and ascribe the reported results to sampling effect and poor data compilation. PMID:24400823

  10. Hongos ectomicorrícicos y la tolerancia a la salinidad en plantas Ectomycorrhizal fungi and tolerance to salinity in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SELENE AGUILAR-AGUILAR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de salinización de los suelos constituye un problema generalizado a nivel global. En este sentido, los hongos ectomicorrícicos tienen una importante participación en la recuperación de suelos forestales ya que involucran una serie de mecanismos celulares que pueden contribuir a la tolerancia a la salinidad en plantas que habitan los bosques templados o boreales. La participación de los hongos ectomicorrícicos en la tolerancia a la salinidad involucra la regulación homeostática de los iones, la mejora de captación de agua y la inducción de genes específicos en las raíces colonizadas. Los hongos ectomicorrícicos pueden estimular la presencia de osmolitos como la prolina, azúcares y polioles que contribuyen en la protección de las células vegetales. Además, estos organismos inducen la síntesis de enzimas antioxidantes y glutatión que participan en la disminución de especies reactivas de oxígeno. Esta revisión ofrece una descripción de la participación de los hongos ectomicorrícicos en la tolerancia a la salinidad en plantas.The process of salinization of the soil is a widespread problem at the global level. In this sense, ectomycorrhizal fungi have an important role in the recovery of forest soil, as it involves a number of cellular mechanisms that may contribute to the salinity tolerance in plants that inhabit temperate and boreal forests. The participation of ectomycorrhizal fungi on the salinity tolerance involves the ion-homeostasis regulation, improving uptake water and inducing specific gene in roots colonized. Likewise ectomycorrhizal fungi can stimulate the presence of osmolytes as proline, sugars and polyols that contribute to the protection of plant cells. Additionally, these organisms stimulate the synthesis of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes involved in the decrease of reactive oxygen species. This review provides an overview of participation of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the salinity tolerance in

  11. Changes in the Community of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Increased Fine Root Number Under Adult Beech Trees Chronically Fumigated with Double Ambient Ozone Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Grebenc, Tine; Kraigher, Hojka

    2007-01-01

    Forest soils are an important but under-studied part of forest ecosystems. The effects of O3 on below-ground processes in a mature forest have only received limited attention so far. In our study, we have analysed the community of ectomycorrhizal fungi and beech fine root dynamics over two growing seasons (2003–2004) in a 70-year old mixed spruce-beech forest stand, in which two groups of five adult beech trees were either fumigated by 2 × ambient ozone concentration or used as control. The m...

  12. 外生菌根真菌促进油松人工幼林生长试验%Growth-Promoting Experiment of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi on Pinus tabuliformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛敬心

    2012-01-01

    应用从不同林型下分离获得的外生菌根真菌纯培养菌株中的优良菌种,对油松人工林进行菌剂混合接种试验。结果表明:采用外生菌根真菌对油松林接菌,能使土壤微生物种群数量发生变化;接菌后的土壤中的细菌、真菌、放线菌总数比对照有明显的增加,其中真菌增加558.7%。接菌后的油松菌根侵染率为75%,对照为20%;采用外生菌根真菌对油松林接菌,能够提高其抗病力,增强抗旱性,促进林木的生长。对连续2年接种菌剂的油松幼林调查表明,施用菌剂的油松与对照相比,其地径、树高均有显著增加,树高增长46.1%,地径增长41.3%。所以说外生菌根真菌作为一项生物接种技术,对提高油松林的抗病力,增强抗旱性,促进林木的生长具有重要的作用。%Using excellent species of ectomycorrhizal fungi from different forest types,a mixed inoculation test about Pinus tabuliformis were conducted.Result shows that: ectomycorrhizal fungi can change the population of microbial in the soil;the bacteria,fungi actinomycetes have increased significantly,in which the fungi has increased by 558.7%.The mycorrhizal infection of Pinus tabuliformis is 75% after inoculation,with the CK being 20%;ectomycorrhizal fungi can improve the disease-resistance,drought-resistance growth of Pinus tabuliformis forest.If the time last for two years,tree height ground diameter are both larger than the control group by 46.1% 41.3%,respectively.So as a biological inoculation technology,ectomycorrhizal fungi inoculation can improve the disease-resistance,drought-resistance growth of Pinus tabuliformis forest.

  13. Mucormycosis: a devastating fungal infection in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucormycosis is a highly invasive, devastating and usually fatal fungal infection of the sinuses, brain, or lungs that occurs primarily in people with immune disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, a high mortality still exists. We present a middle aged diabetic male with this serious fungal infection involving nose, paranasal area and adjacent periorbital regions with a high risk of progressing further towards the dura mater. He was promptly diagnosed and managed with serial surgical debridements with systemic antifungals and was later fitted with a nasal prosthesis. (author)

  14. Fungal outbreak in a show cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, V; Porca, E; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Sanchez-Moral, S; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2010-08-01

    Castañar de Ibor Cave (Spain) was discovered in 1967 and declared a Natural Monument in 1997. In 2003 the cave was opened to public visits. Despite of extensive control, on 26 August 2008 the cave walls and sediments appeared colonized by long, white fungal mycelia. This event was the result of an accidental input of detritus on the afternoon of 24 August 2008. We report here a fungal outbreak initiated by Mucor circinelloides and Fusarium solani and the methods used to control it.

  15. Tropospheric ozone as a fungal elicitor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paolo Zuccarini

    2009-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone has been proven to trigger biochemical plant responses that are similar to the ones induced by an attack of fungal pathogens, i.e. it resembles fungal elicitors. This suggests that ozone can represent a valid tool for the study of stress responses and induction of resistance to pathogens. This review provides an overview of the implications of such a phenomenon for basic and applied research. After an introduction about the environmental implications of tropospheric ozone and plant responses to biotic stresses, the biochemistry of ozone stress is analysed, pointing out its similarities with plant responses to pathogens and its possible applications.

  16. Characterisation and Testing of Multifunctional Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro

    of MUFU surfaces in different applications. In machine elements, characterised by lower normal pressures, a new test rig is designed and developed studying the friction between bodies in pure sliding contact. Tests with this new device display how the employment of MUFU surfaces can reduce friction up...

  17. Characterisation and immobilisation of SGHWR wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the progress made during the year ending March 1984 on characterisation and immobilisation of SGHWR wastes. The results from analysing further samples of active sludge are reported together with results from the cementation programme. Those properties of the cemented sludge which relate to its performance in product preparation and handling in storage, transport and disposal are addressed. (author)

  18. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-16

    MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in response to an urgent call from the fungal community for integration of all fungal genomes and analytical tools in one place (Pan-fungal data resources meeting, Feb 21-22, 2010, Alexandria, VA). MycoCosm integrates genomics data and analysis tools to navigate through over 100 fungal genomes sequenced at JGI and elsewhere. This resource allows users to explore fungal genomes in the context of both genome-centric analysis and comparative genomics, and promotes user community participation in data submission, annotation and analysis. MycoCosm has over 4500 unique visitors/month or 35000+ visitors/year as well as hundreds of registered users contributing their data and expertise to this resource. Its scalable architecture allows significant expansion of the data expected from JGI Fungal Genomics Program, its users, and integration with external resources used by fungal community.

  19. Modulation of host-cell MAPkinase signaling during fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nir Osherov

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections contribute substantially to human suffering and mortality. The interaction between fungal pathogens and their host involves the invasion and penetration of the surface epithelium, activation of cells of the innate immune system and the generation of an effective response to block infection. Numerous host-cell signaling pathways are activated during fungal infection. This review will focus on the main fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus n...

  20. Cracking the Toll-like receptor code in fungal infections

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Cristina; Romani, Luigina; Carvalho, Agostinho

    2010-01-01

    Innate control of fungal infection requires the specific recognition of invariant fungal molecular structures by a variety of innate immune receptors, including Toll-like receptors. In addition to the role in inducing protective immune responses, Toll-like receptor engagement may paradoxically favor fungal infections, by inducing inflammatory pathology and impairing antifungal immunity. Although the dissection of complex genetic traits modulating susceptibility to fungal infections is complex...

  1. Modelling, fabrication and characterisation of THz fractal meta-materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, S.; Zhou, L.; Malureanu, Radu;

    2011-01-01

    We present theoretical predictions, fabrication procedure and characterisation results of fractal metamaterials for the THz frequency range. The characterisation results match well the predicted response thus validating both the fabrication procedure as well as the simulation one. Such systems sh...

  2. The potential of Dark Septate Endophytes to form root symbioses with ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal middle European forest plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukešová, Tereza; Kohout, Petr; Větrovský, Tomáš; Vohník, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The unresolved ecophysiological significance of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE) may be in part due to existence of morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species in the most common Phialocephala fortinii s. l.--Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). We inoculated three middle European forest plants (European blueberry, Norway spruce and silver birch) with 16 strains of eight PAC cryptic species and other DSE and ectomycorrhizal/ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and focused on intraradical structures possibly representing interfaces for plant-fungus nutrient transfer and on host growth response. The PAC species Acephala applanata simultaneously formed structures resembling ericoid mycorrhiza (ErM) and DSE microsclerotia in blueberry. A. macrosclerotiorum, a close relative to PAC, formed ectomycorrhizae with spruce but not with birch, and structures resembling ErM in blueberry. Phialocephala glacialis, another close relative to PAC, formed structures resembling ErM in blueberry. In blueberry, six PAC strains significantly decreased dry shoot biomass compared to ErM control. In birch, one A. macrosclerotiorum strain increased root biomass and the other shoot biomass in comparison with non-inoculated control. The dual mycorrhizal ability of A. macrosclerotiorum suggested that it may form mycorrhizal links between Ericaceae and Pinaceae. However, we were unable to detect this species in Ericaceae roots growing in a forest with presence of A. macrosclerotiorum ectomycorrhizae. Nevertheless, the diversity of Ericaceae mycobionts was high (380 OTUs) with individual sites often dominated by hitherto unreported helotialean and chaetothyrialean/verrucarialean species; in contrast, typical ErM fungi were either absent or low in abundance. Some DSE apparently have a potential to form mycorrhizae with typical middle European forest plants. However, except A. applanata, the tested representatives of all hitherto described PAC cryptic species formed typical DSE colonization without

  3. Ectomycorrhizal colonization and growth of the hybrid larch F1 under elevated CO2 and O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the colonization of ectomycorrhizal fungi and species abundance of a hybrid larch (F1) under elevated CO2 and O3. Two-year-old seedlings were planted in an Open-Top-Chamber system with treatments: Control (O3 < 6 nmol/mol), O3 (60 nmol/mol), CO2 (600 μmol/mol), and CO2 + O3. After two growing seasons, ectomycorrhiza (ECM) colonization and root biomass increased under elevated CO2. Additionally, O3 impaired ECM colonization and species richness, and reduced stem biomass. However, there was no clear inhibition of photosynthetic capacity by O3. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Mo, and P in needles were reduced by O3, while K and Mg in the roots increased. This might explain the distinct change in ECM colonization rate and diversity. No effects of combined fumigation were observed in any parameters except the P concentration in needles. The tolerance of F1 to O3 might potentially be related to a shift in ECM community structure. - Highlights: • Elevated CO2 enhanced growth of hybrid larch F1 (F1). • ECM colonization rate and species richness of ECM were reduced by O3. • Species abundance of ECM community differed between O3 and control. • F1 potentially resisted O3 impacts via specific selection of Suillus spp. for element uptake. - Elevated CO2 moderated the negative effects of O3 on the growth of hybrid larch F1, by stimulating ectomycorrhizas and nutrient uptake

  4. The potential of Dark Septate Endophytes to form root symbioses with ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal middle European forest plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Lukešová

    Full Text Available The unresolved ecophysiological significance of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE may be in part due to existence of morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species in the most common Phialocephala fortinii s. l.--Acephala applanata species complex (PAC. We inoculated three middle European forest plants (European blueberry, Norway spruce and silver birch with 16 strains of eight PAC cryptic species and other DSE and ectomycorrhizal/ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and focused on intraradical structures possibly representing interfaces for plant-fungus nutrient transfer and on host growth response. The PAC species Acephala applanata simultaneously formed structures resembling ericoid mycorrhiza (ErM and DSE microsclerotia in blueberry. A. macrosclerotiorum, a close relative to PAC, formed ectomycorrhizae with spruce but not with birch, and structures resembling ErM in blueberry. Phialocephala glacialis, another close relative to PAC, formed structures resembling ErM in blueberry. In blueberry, six PAC strains significantly decreased dry shoot biomass compared to ErM control. In birch, one A. macrosclerotiorum strain increased root biomass and the other shoot biomass in comparison with non-inoculated control. The dual mycorrhizal ability of A. macrosclerotiorum suggested that it may form mycorrhizal links between Ericaceae and Pinaceae. However, we were unable to detect this species in Ericaceae roots growing in a forest with presence of A. macrosclerotiorum ectomycorrhizae. Nevertheless, the diversity of Ericaceae mycobionts was high (380 OTUs with individual sites often dominated by hitherto unreported helotialean and chaetothyrialean/verrucarialean species; in contrast, typical ErM fungi were either absent or low in abundance. Some DSE apparently have a potential to form mycorrhizae with typical middle European forest plants. However, except A. applanata, the tested representatives of all hitherto described PAC cryptic species formed typical DSE

  5. Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Thrane, Ulf; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply...

  6. Pb2+ Biosorption by Pretreated Fungal Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    ÇABUK, Ahmet; İLHAN, Semra; FİLİK, Cansu; ÇALIŞKAN, Figen

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment on the Pb2+ biosorption capacity of fungal biomasses, Aspergillus versicolor, Metarrhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, and Penicillium verrucosum, was investigated. For this purpose, the biomasses were subjected to physical treatments such as heat and autoclaving, and chemical treatments such as sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde, gluteraldehyde, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, commercial laundry detergent, orthophosphoric acid and dimethyl sulfoxide. Dimethyl sulfoxid...

  7. Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, M.D.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, fungi have adapted to occupy specific niches, from symbiotically inhabiting the flora of the intestinal tract of mammals to saprophytic growth on leaf litter resting on the forest floor. In Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field d

  8. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture. R...

  9. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J;

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...

  10. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  11. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Manuel Flores, Jose;

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. ...

  12. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, Said A., E-mail: saghab00@email.uky.edu [Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Castón, José R. [Department of Structure of Macromolecules, Centro Nacional Biotecnologıa/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Jiang, Daohong [State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Nibert, Max L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  13. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O; Ebbole, D J; Freeman, S; Rodriguez, R J; Dickman, M B

    2003-10-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  14. Meeting report : fungal its workshop (october 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bates, Scott T; Ahrendt, Steven; Bik, Holly M; Bruns, Thomas D; Caporaso, J Gregory; Cole, James; Dwan, Michael; Fierer, Noah; Gu, Dai; Houston, Shawn; Knight, Rob; Leff, Jon; Lewis, Christopher; Maestre, Juan P; McDonald, Daniel; Nilsson, R Henrik; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Robert, Vincent; Schoch, Conrad; Scott, James; Taylor, D Lee; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Stajich, Jason E

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes a meeting held in Boulder, CO USA (19-20 October 2012) on fungal community analyses using ultra-high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The meeting was organized as a two-day workshop, with the prima

  15. FUNGAL ASSOCIATION WITH SESSILE MARINE INVERTEBRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded eYarden

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence and association of fungi with sessile marine animals such as coral and sponges has been well established, yet information on the extent of diversity of the associated fungi is still in its infancy. Culture- as well as metagenomic- and transcriptomic-based analyses have shown that fungal presence in association with these animals can be dynamic and can include core residents as well as shifts in fungal communities. Evidence for detrimental and beneficial interactions between fungi and their marine hosts is accumulating and current challenges include the elucidation of the chemical and cellular crosstalk between fungi and their associates within the holobionts. The ecological function of fungi in association with sessile marine animals is complex and is founded on a combination of factors such as fungal origin, host health, environmental conditions and the presence of other resident or invasive microorganisms in the host. Based on evidence from the much more studied terrestrial systems, the evaluation of marine animal-fungal symbioses under varying environmental conditions may well prove to be critical in predicting ecosystem response to global change, including effects on the health of sessile marine animals.

  16. Fungal natural products targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Kildgaard, Sara; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen;

    2012-01-01

    compounds to be identified within these species. Until now we have found that 11 out of 289 fungal extracts are active against CLL cells. Using our established chemotaxonomic discovery approach we have dereplicated and fractionated these extracts to track the activity into single fractions/compounds.2...

  17. Fungal peritonitis in children on peritoneal dialysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Schroder, C.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Warris, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication in children on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study, risk factors were evaluated, and therapeutic measures were reviewed. A retrospective, multi-centre study was performed in 159 Dutch paediatric PD patients, between 1980 and 2005 (3,573 month

  18. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi

  19. Habitat filters in fungal endophyte community assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes can influence host health, and more broadly, can instigate trophic cascades with effects scaling to the ecosystem level. Despite this, biotic mechanisms of endophyte community assembly are largely unknown. We used maize to investigate three potential habitat filters in endophyte co...

  20. October 2012 Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-17

    This podcast gives an overview of the October 2012 multistate fungal meningitis outbreak, including symptoms to watch for and a website for up-to-date information.  Created: 10/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  1. Fungal hydrophobins in medical and technical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtmeijer, K; Wessels, JGH; Woster, HAB

    2001-01-01

    Class I and class II hydrophobins are small secreted fungal proteins that self-assemble at hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces into amphipathic films. Apart from eight conserved cysteine residues, the amino acid sequences between and within both classes have diverged considerably, and this is reflect

  2. Fungal bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues; opportunities & perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and beta-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains. PMID:19774110

  3. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dashtban, Heidi Schraft, Wensheng Qin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains.

  4. CT scan findings of fungal pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of fungal infection of the lung in immunocompromised patients has increased substantially during the last decades. Numerically the most patients are those with neutropenia, e.g. patients with malignancies or solid organ and stem cell transplantation, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use and HIV infection. Although fungal infections can occur in immunocompetent patients, their frequency in this population is rare. The clinical symptoms such as fever accompanied with non-productive cough are unspecific. In some patients progression to hypoxemia and dyspnea may occur rapidly. In spite of improved antifungal therapy morbidity and mortality of these infections are still high. Therefore an early and non-invasive diagnosis is very important. That is why CT and even better High-Resolution-CT (HR-CT) is a very important modality in examining immunocompromised patients with a probability of fungal infection. CT is everywhere available and, as a non-invasive method, able to give the relevant diagnose efficiently. This paper should give an overview about the radiologic findings and possible differential diagnosis of diverse pulmonary fungal infections in CT. Pneumonias caused by Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Candida, Histoplasma, Mucor and Geotrichum capitatum are illustrated. (orig.)

  5. Pulmonary fungal infections after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 319 pediatric patients treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) during a 10-year period, 27 developed pulmonary fungal infections (PFI). Only 2 patients (7%) survived. Twenty-three patients (85%) had been treated with systemic anti-fungal therapy immediately before or at the time of diagnosis. Nineteen patients (70%) were neutropenic, and 4 of the 8 patients who were not neutropenic were being treated with systemic steroids for graft vs. host disease (GVHD). Seven patients (26%) died within 7 days of diagnosis. The diagnosis was made ante-mortem in 9 patients (33%). Radiographic abnormalities were variable. At the onset of chest X-ray (CXR) change, the pulmonary infiltrates were unilateral in 14 patients (52%) and, at diagnosis, bilateral in 18 (66%). At diagnosis the infiltrates were interstitial in 3 patients (11%), alveolar in 20 (74%) and mixed in 4 (15%). Six patients (22%) developed cavitary lesions. The infecting agents were Aspergillus in 21 patients (78%), Candida in 7 (26%), Mucormycosis in 3 (11%), and Fusarium in 1 (4%). Five patients (19%) had mixed fungal infections and 7 (26%) had concurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) pulmonary infections. Although the radiographic changes are often nonspecific in PFI, alveolar or nodular infiltrates in neutropenic patients or in those being treated for GVHD should strongly suggest a fungal etiology. (orig.)

  6. Pre- and postharvest fungal apple diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domesticated apple (Malus domestica) is the most significant pome fruit grown and consumed worldwide. China is the largest producer followed by the United States on a global scale. However, fungal plant pathogens cause significant economic losses in the field and in storage which negatively impa...

  7. Modelling Fungal Fermentations for Enzyme Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten S.;

    We have developed a process model of fungal fed-batch fermentations for enzyme production. In these processes, oxygen transfer rate is limiting and controls the substrate feeding rate. The model has been shown to describe cultivations of both Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei strains in 550...

  8. Fungal infections of the folds (intertriginous areas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin, Ahmet; Dilek, Nursel; Demirseven, Duriye Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections are widespread, regardless of age and gender, in populations all around the world and may affect the skin and skin appendages. Although there are thousands of fungal infections from various genera and families in nature, those that are pathogenic for humans and nesting in skin folds are limited in number. The prevalence and distribution of these fungi vary according to the patients and certain environmental factors. Because the areas including the lids, external auditory canal, behind the ears, navel, inguinal region, and axillae, also called flexures, are underventilated and moist areas exposed to friction, they are especially sensitive to fungal infections. Fungi can both directly invade the skin, leading to infections, and indirectly stimulate immune mechanisms due to tissue interaction and their antigenic character and contribute to the development or exacerbation of secondary bacterial infections, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Superficial fungal infections can be classified and studied as dermatophyte infections, candidal infections, Malassezia infections, and other superficial infections independently from the involved skin fold areas. PMID:26051058

  9. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    composition of fungi, but the effects were generally limited to the litter layer and the uppermost humus layer (0-5 cm), which was unexpected considering the ecosystem had been manipulated for 18 years. Taken together the global change experiments altered the soil fungal communities and thereby highlight...

  10. Diagnostic of Fungal Infections Related to Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella

    2016-01-01

    Fungal biofilm-related infections, most notably those caused by the Candida and Aspergillus genera, need to be diagnosed accurately and rapidly to avoid often unfavorable outcomes. Despite diagnosis of these infections is still based on the traditional histopathology and culture, the use of newer, rapid methods has enormously enhanced the diagnostic capability of a modern clinical mycology laboratory. Thus, while accurate species-level identification of fungal isolates can be achieved with turnaround times considerably shortened, nucleic acid-based or antigen-based detection methods can be considered useful adjuncts for the diagnosis of invasive forms of candidiasis and aspergillosis. Furthermore, simple, reproducible, and fast methods have been developed to quantify biofilm production by fungal isolates in vitro. In this end, isolates can be categorized as low, moderate, or high biofilm-forming, and this categorization may reflect their differential response to the conventional antifungal therapy. By means of drug susceptibility testing performed on fungal biofilm-growing isolates, it is now possible to evaluate not only the activity of conventional antifungal agents, but also of novel anti-biofilm agents. Despite this, future diagnostic methods need to target specific biofilm components/molecules, in order to provide a direct proof of the presence of this growth phenotype on the site of infection. In the meantime, our knowledge of the processes underlying the adaptive drug resistance within the biofilm has put into evidence biofilm-specific molecules that could be potentially helpful as therapeutic targets. Surely, the successful management of clinically relevant fungal biofilms will rely upon the advancement and/or refinement of these approaches. PMID:27300347

  11. Optimisation of Environmental Conditions for Enhanced Production of Fungal Exopectinase Using Agro-industrial Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Sabika; Prasuna, R Gyana; Theja, B; Chakradhar, Y M S

    2014-07-01

    Management of household solid waste and agro industrial residues generated from various sources is a serious problem due to huge ever increasing population and pollution. Application of these worthless agro waste materials to generate a commercially valuable product, pectinase enzyme, using locally isolated fungal strain, Aspergillus flavipes, was the main motive of this study. Physiological characterisation and enzyme profile determination were done along with formulation of production media. Fruit skins, rags were used as C source and oil cakes were used for N source. Various combinations of these C and N sources were applied for revised production of pectinase enzyme compared to YEP basal media (29 U/ml). A huge increase in pectinase production of 40 U/ml was obtained with Citrus peel - Sesame oil cake (CS) media. The enzyme had its maximum activity at 500C, 4.5 pH. This was achieved at 45 min in 1.5% substrate concentration. PMID:26563086

  12. Fungal biomolecules assisted biosynthesis of Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles and evaluation of their catalytic property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ravi Mani; Gupta, Rohit Kumar; Bhadwal, Akhshay Singh; Singh, Priti; Shrivastav, Archana; Shrivastav, B R

    2015-08-01

    The catalytic reduction of methylene blue was studied using biosynthesised gold-silver (Au-Ag) alloy nanoparticles (NPs). The fungal biomass of Trichoderma harzianum was used as a reducing and stabilising agent in the synthesis of Au-Ag alloy NPs. The synthesised NPs were well characterised by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The plausible synthesis mechanism involved in the formation of Au-Ag alloy NPs was also discussed with diagrammatic representation. A series of experiments was performed to investigate the catalytic activity of the as-prepared Au-Ag alloy NPs and found that the alloy NPs show excellent catalytic activity. PMID:26224346

  13. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Drechmeria coniospora Reveals Core and Specific Genetic Requirements for Fungal Endoparasitism of Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Nishant; Arguel, Marie-Jeanne; Polanowska, Jolanta; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Barbe, Valérie; Raffaele, Sylvain; Barbry, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Drechmeria coniospora is an obligate fungal pathogen that infects nematodes via the adhesion of specialized spores to the host cuticle. D. coniospora is frequently found associated with Caenorhabditis elegans in environmental samples. It is used in the study of the nematode’s response to fungal infection. Full understanding of this bi-partite interaction requires knowledge of the pathogen’s genome, analysis of its gene expression program and a capacity for genetic engineering. The acquisition of all three is reported here. A phylogenetic analysis placed D. coniospora close to the truffle parasite Tolypocladium ophioglossoides, and Hirsutella minnesotensis, another nematophagous fungus. Ascomycete nematopathogenicity is polyphyletic; D. coniospora represents a branch that has not been molecularly characterized. A detailed in silico functional analysis, comparing D. coniospora to 11 fungal species, revealed genes and gene families potentially involved in virulence and showed it to be a highly specialized pathogen. A targeted comparison with nematophagous fungi highlighted D. coniospora-specific genes and a core set of genes associated with nematode parasitism. A comparative gene expression analysis of samples from fungal spores and mycelia, and infected C. elegans, gave a molecular view of the different stages of the D. coniospora lifecycle. Transformation of D. coniospora allowed targeted gene knock-out and the production of fungus that expresses fluorescent reporter genes. It also permitted the initial characterisation of a potential fungal counter-defensive strategy, involving interference with a host antimicrobial mechanism. This high-quality annotated genome for D. coniospora gives insights into the evolution and virulence of nematode-destroying fungi. Coupled with genetic transformation, it opens the way for molecular dissection of D. coniospora physiology, and will allow both sides of the interaction between D. coniospora and C. elegans, as well as the

  14. Synthesis and Characterisation of Diaryl Furoxans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Krishnamurthy

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the synthesis, characterisation, and performance evaluation of diarylfuroxans namely, bis-phenyl-3,4-furoxan (5 and bis-(4’-nitrophenyl-3,4-furoxan (6. Themolecules have been synthesised on the lines of reported method by cyclodimerisation of thenitrile oxides generated from benzaldoxime and p-nitro benzaldoxime, respectively. The synthesisedfuroxans (5 and (6 were characterised by the elemental analysis, UV, IR, and 1H NMRspectroscopy. The hazard characteristics (impact and friction sensitivity confirm that thecompounds are safe to handle. The oxygen balance, velocity of detonation and detonationpressure have been computed. The detonation velocity and pressure along with oxygen balanceincreased with the substitution of nitro group in the benzene ring, as expected. Thethermogravimetric studies on promising compound (6 brings out that maximum weight lossoccurs at decomposition temperature of 259–260 °C.

  15. Preparation and characterisation of nevirapine oral nanosuspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Raju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare and characterise nevirapine nanosuspensions so as to improve the dissolution rate of nevirapine. Nevirapine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of immunodeficiency virus type-1 and it is poorly water-soluble antiretroviral drug. The low solubility of nevirapine can lead to decreased and variable oral bioavailability. Nanosuspension can overcome the oral bioavailability problem of nevirapine. Nevirapine nanosuspensions were prepared using nanoedge method. The suspensions were stabilised using surfactants Lutrol F 127 or Poloxamer 407 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose. The nanosuspension was characterised for particle size, polydispersibility index, crystalline state, particle morphology, in vitro drug release and pharmacokinetics in rats after oral administration. The results support the claim for the preparation of nanosuspensions with enhanced solubility and bioavailability.

  16. Detailed Electrochemical Characterisation of Large SOFC Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, R.;

    2012-01-01

    application of advanced methods for detailed electrochemical characterisation during operation. An operating stack is subject to steep compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and significant temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which makes it a complex system...... Fuel Cell A/S was characterised in detail using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An investigation of the optimal geometrical placement of the current probes and voltage probes was carried out in order to minimise measurement errors caused by stray impedances. Unwanted stray impedances...... are particularly problematic at high frequencies. Stray impedances may be caused by mutual inductance and stray capacitance in the geometrical set-up and do not describe the fuel cell. Three different stack geometries were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Impedance measurements were carried...

  17. Characterisation of Quaternary sediments from East Anglia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C J; Bloodworth, A.J.; Evans, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the mineralogical investigations of Quaternary sediments,mainly Cromer Till, collected from East Anglia. The main aim of the work was to characterise the mineralogical and physical properties of the till samples to facilitate correlation between tills from different localities. The clast composition of the samples was determined using a binocular microscope and the mineralogy of the matrix was determined using X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. Calibration charts we...

  18. Applied synthesis and characterisation of nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Bear, J C

    2014-01-01

    This thesis covers three areas of development of nanomaterials synthesis; namely the synthesis of superhydrophobic polymer-nanoparticle composites (chapter 3), the synthesis of doped quantum dots for catalysis and photoluminescence enhancement (chapter 4) and the synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles from inexpensive, readily available reagents (chapter 5). Details of characterisation and analytical techniques and synthetic methods used are given in chapter 2, and the thesis summaris...

  19. Engineering characterisation of Norwegian glaciomarine silt

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Michael; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Donohue, Shane; Hagberg, Knut

    2010-01-01

    Guidance is provided for geotechnical engineers designing civil engineering works in silty soils based on a detailed characterisation of a glaciomarine silt from Os in western Norway. It was found that these soils are susceptible to disturbance by good quality fixed piston tube sampling and care needs to be taken when using laboratory derived design parameters, particularly for consolidation and shear strength properties. A technique for assessing sample disturbance using shear wave vel...

  20. Characterisation of fan-beam collimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareto, D; Pavía, J; Falcón, C; Juvells, I; Cot, A; Ros, D

    2001-02-01

    Fan-beam collimators offer a good balance between resolution and noise. The collimator response may be included in iterative reconstruction algorithms in order to improve single-photon emission tomography (SPET) resolution. To this end, accurate determination of the focal region and characterisation of the collimator response as a function of the source co-ordinates must be performed. In this paper, a method to characterise fanbeam collimators is evaluated. First, we calculated the real focal region and the accuracy of the collimator convergence. Then, we confirmed the hypothesis that Gaussian distributions adequately fit the collimator responses, although no individualised treatment was performed for the tails of detector response which are associated with scattering and septal penetration. Finally, analytical functions were used to model the resolution and sensitivity. The parameter values in these functions were obtained from experimental measures by non-linear regression fitting. Our findings show differences of 1.43% between nominal and real focal length and standard deviations of 2.5 mm in the x-direction and 7.1 mm in the y-direction for the focal convergence. The correlation coefficients between experimental and predicted values were 0.994 for resolution and 0.991 for sensitivity. As a consequence, the proposed method can be used to characterise the collimator response.