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Sample records for char oil energy development process

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PALM SHELL-BASED BIO-CHAR AS A BY-PRODUCT OF BIO-OIL PRODUCTION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Arami-Niya,; Mohammad Saleh Sahfeeyan,; Faisal Abnisa,; W. M. A. Wan Daud,; Jaya Narayan Sahu

    2011-01-01

    In this study the optimum preparation conditions of bio-char were achieved as a by-product of the bio-oil production process from oil palm shell as an agricultural waste material. To investigate the possibility of utilizing bio-char as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment and other applications, a central composite design was applied to investigate the influence of carbonization temperatures, nitrogen flow rates, particle sizes of precursor, and duration on the bio-char yield and methylene b...

  2. Utilization of oil palm tree residues to produce bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • About 14.72% of the total landmass in Malaysia was used for oil palm plantations. • Oil palm tree residues were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. • The process was performed at a temperature of 500 °C and reaction time of 60 min. • Characterization of the products was performed. - Abstract: Oil palm tree residues are a rich biomass resource in Malaysia, and it is therefore very important that they be utilized for more beneficial purposes, particularly in the context of the development of biofuels. This paper described the possibility of utilizing oil palm tree residues as biofuels by producing bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis. The process was performed in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C, a nitrogen flow rate of 2 L/min and a reaction time of 60 min. The physical and chemical properties of the products, which are important for biofuel testing, were then characterized. The results showed that the yields of the bio-oil and bio-char obtained from different residues varied within the ranges of 16.58–43.50 wt% and 28.63–36.75 wt%, respectively. The variations in the yields resulted from differences in the relative amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, volatiles, fixed carbon, and ash in the samples. The energy density of the bio-char was found to be higher than that of the bio-oil. The highest energy density of the bio-char was obtained from a palm leaf sample (23.32 MJ/kg), while that of the bio-oil was obtained from a frond sample (15.41 MJ/kg)

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PALM SHELL-BASED BIO-CHAR AS A BY-PRODUCT OF BIO-OIL PRODUCTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Arami-Niya,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study the optimum preparation conditions of bio-char were achieved as a by-product of the bio-oil production process from oil palm shell as an agricultural waste material. To investigate the possibility of utilizing bio-char as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment and other applications, a central composite design was applied to investigate the influence of carbonization temperatures, nitrogen flow rates, particle sizes of precursor, and duration on the bio-char yield and methylene blue adsorption capacity as the responses. Methylene blue was chosen in this study due to its wide application and known strong adsorption onto solids. Two quadratic models were developed for the responses and to calculate the optimum operating variables providing a compromise between yield and adsorption. From the analysis of variance, temperature was identified as the most influential factor on each experimental design response. The predicted yield and adsorption capacity was found to agree satisfactorily with the experimental values. A temperature of 400°C, nitrogen flow of 2.6 L/min, particle size of 1.7 mm and time of 61.42 min were found as the optimum preparation conditions and near to the optimal bio-oil production variables.

  4. Bio-oil and bio-char production from biomass and their structural analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy demand is increasing day by day because of the rapid developments in the population, industrialization and urbanisation. Since, fossil fuels will be at the verge of getting extinct, researches are mostly focused on the renewable sources, such as biomass, in recent years. This paper provides an environmentally friendly process to convert waste biomass samples to bio-oil and bio-char by pyrolysis. For this purpose, pyrolysis characteristics of pomegranate peels under inert atmosphere were studied by using both TGA to analysis decomposition behaviour and a batch reactor to investigate product yields and properties. The properties of bio-oil and bio-char were investigated by different analytical techniques such as GC-MS, FT-IR, SEM, He pycnometry and elemental analysis. As a consequence, it is possible to obtain bio-oil, which has similar properties like petroleum hydrocarbons, and to obtain bio-char, which can be further used as a solid fuel or a carbonaceous adsorbent material via pyrolysis process. (full text)

  5. Development of measures to improve technologies of energy recovery from gaseous wastes of oil shale processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugov, A. N.; Ots, A.; Siirde, A.; Sidorkin, V. T.; Ryabov, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Prospects of the use of oil shale are associated with its thermal processing for the production of liquid fuel, shale oil. Gaseous by-products, such as low-calorie generator gas with a calorific value up to 4.3MJ/m3 or semicoke gas with a calorific value up to 56.57 MJ/m3, are generated depending on the oil shale processing method. The main methods of energy recovery from these gases are either their cofiring with oil shale in power boilers or firing only under gaseous conditions in reconstructed or specially designed for this fuel boilers. The possible use of gaseous products of oil shale processing in gas-turbine or gas-piston units is also considered. Experiments on the cofiring of oil shale gas and its gaseous processing products have been carried out on boilers BKZ-75-39FSl in Kohtla-Järve and on the boiler TP-101 of the Estonian power plant. The test results have shown that, in the case of cofiring, the concentration of sulfur oxides in exhaust gases does not exceed the level of existing values in the case of oil shale firing. The low-temperature corrosion rate does not change as compared to the firing of only oil shale, and, therefore, operation conditions of boiler back-end surfaces do not worsen. When implementing measures to reduce the generation of NO x , especially of flue gas recirculation, it has been possible to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides in the whole boiler. The operation experience of the reconstructed boilers BKZ-75-39FSl after their transfer to the firing of only gaseous products of oil shale processing is summarized. Concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur oxides in the combustion products of semicoke and generator gases are measured. Technical solutions that made it possible to minimize the damage to air heater pipes associated with the low-temperature sulfur corrosion are proposed and implemented. The technological measures for burners of new boilers that made it possible to burn gaseous products of oil shale processing with low

  6. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Task 4, System integration studies: Char upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes the results of Task 4 under which a 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU) was designed in the second half of 1989, with construction completed in June 1990. The CTC PRU at Golden was operated for nearly one year during which 35 runs were completed for a total of nearly 800 hours of operation. Char methanation and carbon production reactor development activities are detailed in this report, as well as the results of integrated runs of the CTC process. Evaluation of the process and the carbon product produced is also included. It was concluded that carbon could be produced from mild gasification char utilizing the CTC process. Char methanation and membrane separation steps performed reasonably well and can scaled up with confidence. However, the novel directly heated reactor system for methane cracking did not work satisfactorily due to materials of construction and heat transfer problems, which adversely affected the quantity and quality of the carbon product. Alternative reactor designs are recommended.

  7. Properties of slurries made of fast pyrolysis oil and char or beech wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    2014-01-01

    The properties of slurries made of pyrolysis oil mixed with wood, char or ground char were investigated with respect to phase transitions, rheological properties, elemental compositions, and energy density. Also the pumping properties of the slurries were investigated at temperatures of 25, 40 and...... ground char slurry samples with 5e20 wt% solid loading obtain a volumetric energy density of 21e23 GJ/m3. The slurry sample with 20 wt% ground char having a d80 of 118 mm was pumped successfully into a pressurized chamber (0e6 bar) while plugging appeared when the slurry samples with 15 wt% char having a...

  8. Bio-char from treated and untreated oil palm fronds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati; Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul

    2013-05-01

    The palm oil industry generates almost 94% of biomass in Malaysia, while other agricultural and forestry by-products contribute the remaining of 6%. Oil palm fronds (OPF) are estimated to be the highest available biomass amounting to 44.84 million tonnes in Malaysia. However, studies on OPF for thermochemical conversion technology which has good potential for energy conversion are still lacking. In this work, pyrolysis of OPF is conducted by using a fixed bed reactor. Samples were carbonized at slow pyrolysis temperature of around 300 to 500°C with heating rate of 10°C min-1. In addition, samples were treated for 20 min with distilled water at ambient temperature to reduce the ash content. Effectiveness of pre-treatment can be determined by observing the percentage of ash content reduction of each sample after undergoing washing pre-treatment. At 300°C, the char yields of the untreated OPF were slightly higher at 50.95% compared to the treated sample at 49.77%. Approximately all bio-char from the treated samples have better high heating value (HHV) of around 18-20 MJ kg-1 compared to the untreated samples. Besides that, all treated OPF char is more carbon rich and considered to be environmental friendly due to its low nitrogen content compared to the untreated OPF char. In this work, microscopic analysis of OPF bio-char were also studied by observing and evaluating their structure surface and morphology.

  9. Production of Bio char with High Mineral Content from Oil Palm Biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) biomass for the production of high mineral content bio char under an uncontrolled carbonization temperature and controlled air flow rate was studied using a pilot-scale brick carbonization reactor. The maximum temperature during the carbonization process was found to be in the range of 543 to 564 degree Celsius at exhaust gas flow rate of 36 m3/ hr. All minerals (for example P, K ,Mg, Ca, Na, Mn, Fe, Cr, AI) showed an increased from the feedstock concentration up to 300 %. The concentration of heavy metal extracted from OPEFB bio char was lower than listed ceiling permitted levels. This proposed system without electrical control and heating source is preferable to the industry due to its simplicity, ease of operation and low energy requirement making it suitable for OPEFB bio char production for mulching purposes with more than double the mineral content compared to raw OPEFB biomass. (author)

  10. Study of bio-oil and bio-char production from algae by slow pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. A thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) was used to investigate the pyrolytic characteristics and essential components of algae. It was found that the temperature for the maximum degradation, 322 °C, is lower than that of other biomass. With our fixed-bed reactor, 125 g of dried Spirulina Sp. algae was fed under a nitrogen atmosphere until the temperature reached a set temperature between 450 and 600 °C. It was found that the suitable temperature to obtain bio-char and bio-oil were at approximately 500 and 550 °C respectively. The bio-oil components were identified by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The saturated functional carbon of the bio-oil was in a range of heavy naphtha, kerosene and diesel oil. The energy consumption ratio (ECR) of bio-oil and bio-char was calculated, and the net energy output was positive. The ECR had an average value of 0.49. -- Highlights: •Bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. •Suitable temperature to obtained bio-oil and bio-char were at about 550 and 500 °C. •Saturated functional carbon of bio-oil was heavy naphtha, kerosene, diesel oil. •ECR had an average value of 0.49

  11. Analysis of selected energy security issues related to US crude oil and natural gas exploration, development, production, transportation and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1989, President Bush directed the Secretary of Energy to initiate the development of a comprehensive National Energy Strategy (NES) built upon a national consensus. The overall principle for the NES, as defined by the President and articulated by the Economic Policy Council (EPC), is the continuation of the successful policy of market reliance, consistent with the following goals: Balancing of energy, economic, and environmental concerns; and reduced dependence by the US and its friends and allies on potentially unreliable energy suppliers. The analyses presented in this report draw upon a large body of work previously conducted for DOE/Office of Fossil Energy, the US Department of Interior/Minerals Management Service (DOI/MMS), and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), referenced throughout the text of this report. This work includes assessments in the following areas: the potential of advanced oil and gas extraction technologies as improved through R ampersand D, along with the successful transfer of these technologies to the domestic petroleum industry; the economic and energy impacts of environmental regulations on domestic oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation; the potential of tax incentives to stimulate domestic oil and gas development and production; the potential environmental costs associated with various options for leasing for US oil and gas resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); and the economic impacts of environmental regulations affecting domestic crude oil refining

  12. Fast pyrolysis char - Assessment of alternative uses within the bioliq® concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, A; Niebel, A; Richter, D; Abbas, M M; Müller, A-K; Radloff, S; Paneru, M; Maier, J; Dahmen, N; Sauer, J

    2016-01-01

    Experiments with a process development unit for fast pyrolysis of biomass residues of 10kgh(-1) have been performed to quantify the impact of two different product recovery options. Wheat straw, miscanthus and scrap wood have been used as feedstock. A separate recovery of char increases the organic oil yield as compared to a combined recovery of char and organic condensate (OC). Furthermore, it allows for an alternative use of the byproduct char which represents an important product fraction for the high ash biomass residues under consideration. The char produced shows little advantage over its biomass precursor when considered as energy carrier due to its high ash content. Significant value can be added by demineralizing and activating the char. The potential to increase the economic feasibility of fast pyrolysis is shown by an assessment of the bioliq® process chain. PMID:26609947

  13. Modeling and field observations of char bed processes in black liquor recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engblom, M.

    2010-07-01

    The char bed plays an important role in kraft black liquor combustion. Stable operation of the char bed promotes efficient and safe operation of the black liquor recovery boiler. It also plays a crucial role in the recovery of the pulping chemicals. Char bed operation involves controlling the char bed size and shape. Mathematical modeling based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) haas been applied to recovery boilers for increased insights into the recovery furnace processes and to aid in the design of new boilers. So far, all CED-based char bed models reported in literature have used a fixed bed shape. This imposes restrictions on simulation of char bed burning by not considering inherently occurring changes in bed shape. In this thesis, a CED -based recovery furnace model is further developed to predict changes in bed shape. The new model is used in simulation of existing recovery boilers. The predictions of bed shape are compared with observations from real boilers. The furnace model is capable of correctly simulating the overall response of the char bed size to operational changes. This confirms the current quantitative overall understanding of char bed burning. In addition to modeling, visual observations of the char bed processes were made in this work. The observations provide validation data concerning the physical behavior of the char bed, and the findings from the observations can be used in further development of char bed models. Modeling and simulations of fundamental laboratory scale char bed experiments reported in literature are also carried out. The simulations complement the experimental data by providing detailed insights into gas phase reactions that can occur inside the gas boundary layer above a char bed. (orig.)

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF DIRECT UPGRADING PROCESS FOR HEAVY CRUDE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The direct upgrading process from heavy crude oil to sweet and light oil (IKC process) has been deve-loped for about 10 years in Idemitsu Kosan. Compared with conventional refinery scheme consisting of YR-HDS, VGOHYC and so on, the new refinery scheme combined with IKC process and Topper was always economically feasible with lower cost and smaller energy consumption. In the existing refinery of no middle distillate HDS and residue HDS of HYC plants to supplement IKC process is expected to be one of the efficient methods to cope with the environmental regulations.

  15. Energy and oil developments in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the energy economies of the Eastern European countries are in a state of transition. This is just one aspect of their overall transition from Communism to more liberal political and economic systems. Since these six nations-East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania-are geographically located between Western Europe and the Soviet Union, the term Central European states would be more appropriate; both terms will be used as synonyms in this paper. Future developments in the energy sectors in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union will have important implications for the world oil and energy market, since these countries comprise as a group the world's largest oil and gas producers, and they are the second largest energy consumers in the world

  16. Synthesis of palm oil empty fruit bunch magnetic pyrolytic char impregnating with FeCl3 by microwave heating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) is one of the most abundant residues of the Palm oil mill industry in Malaysia. The novel magnetic bio-char was synthesized by single stage microwave heating technique, using EFB in the presence of ferric chloride hexahydrate. The effect of microwave powers, radiation time and impregnation ratio (IR) of ferric chloride hexahydrate to biomass were studied. Also the process parameters such as microwave powers, radiation times and IR were optimized using response surface method. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimum conditions for the high porosity magnetic bio-char production were at 900 W microwave power, 20 min radiation time and 0.5 (FeCl3: biomass) impregnation ratio. These newly produced magnetic bio-char have a high surface area of 890 m2 g−1 and that leads to highly efficient in the removal of methylene blue (MB) with an efficiency of 99.9% from aqueous solution with a maximum adsorption capacity of 265 mg g−1. - Highlights: • Magnetic bio-char production using discarded material EFB with chemical activation. • Single stage synthesis of magnetic bioc-har via microwave heating was narrated. • Effect of each process parameters on synthesis of magnetic bio-char was elaborated. • Magnetic bio-char has high surface area, high porosity and high adsorption capacity. • Novel magnetic bio-char adds new dimension to the materials as an adsorbent

  17. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-oil and bio-char were produced from corn cobs and corn stover (stalks, leaves and husks) by fast pyrolysis using a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. Yields of 60% (mass/mass) bio-oil (high heating values are ∼20 MJ kg-1, and densities >1.0 Mg m-3) were realized from both corn cobs and from corn stover. The high energy density of bio-oil, ∼20-32 times on a per unit volume basis over the raw corn residues, offers potentially significant savings in transportation costs particularly for a distributed 'farm scale' bio-refinery system. Bio-char yield was 18.9% and 17.0% (mass/mass) from corn cobs and corn stover, respectively. Deploying the bio-char co-product, which contains most of the nutrient minerals from the corn residues, as well as a significant amount of carbon, to the land can enhance soil quality, sequester carbon, and alleviate environmental problems associated with removal of crop residues from fields.

  18. Development, Verification and Validation of Enclosure Radiation Capabilities in the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Giovanni; Droba, Justin C.; Oliver, Brandon; Amar, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    With the recent development of multi-dimensional thermal protection system (TPS) material response codes including the capabilities to account for radiative heating is a requirement. This paper presents the recent efforts to implement such capabilities in the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) code developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This work also describes the different numerical methods implemented in the code to compute view factors for radiation problems involving multiple surfaces. Furthermore, verification and validation of the code's radiation capabilities are demonstrated by comparing solutions to analytical results, to other codes, and to radiant test data.

  19. Energy Efficient Pump Control for an Offshore Oil Processing System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Soleiman, Kian; Løhndorf, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficient control of a pump system for an offshore oil processing system is investigated. The seawater is lifted up by a pump system which consists of three identical centrifugal pumps in parallel, and the lifted seawater is used to cool down the crude oil flowing out of a threephase...

  20. Thermal process development on integrated pyrolysis gasification combined cycle for waste to energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, SeongYeon [K. K. Incinerator Engineering and Construction Co., Ltd., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ha, ManYeong [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    The thermal process of wastes with higher calorific value by pyrolysis is reviewed to recover the value added three by-products; a pyrolytic char, a pyrolytic oil, and a non-condensable gas. These by-products from pyrolysis of the waste is converted for electricity power and thermal energy thru gasification process as well as waste heat recovery process. The energy resource and several processes in the integrated pyrolysis gasification combined cycle for waste treatment are investigated with the conceptual design in using the obtained operation data from the pyrolysis pilot, demonstration and commercial plant.

  1. Thermal process development on integrated pyrolysis gasification combined cycle for waste to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal process of wastes with higher calorific value by pyrolysis is reviewed to recover the value added three by-products; a pyrolytic char, a pyrolytic oil, and a non-condensable gas. These by-products from pyrolysis of the waste is converted for electricity power and thermal energy thru gasification process as well as waste heat recovery process. The energy resource and several processes in the integrated pyrolysis gasification combined cycle for waste treatment are investigated with the conceptual design in using the obtained operation data from the pyrolysis pilot, demonstration and commercial plant.

  2. Photochemical Processes and Accumulation of Solar Energy in Oil Luminophors

    OpenAIRE

    MAMEDOV, A.P.; RUSTAMOV, M.I.; DZHAFAROVA, R.A.; SALMANOVA, Ch.K.

    2000-01-01

    Using the methods of absorption spectroscopy, luminescence and EPR there has been studied the mechanism of solar energy accumulation by high boiling products of oil refining and by luminophors prepared on their basis within wide temperature range (77-550 K). The photochemical processes with participation of all main components of oil products and luminophors have been considered. The mechanisms of accumulation of solar energy of the studied products and luminophors have been conside...

  3. Development and Verification of Enclosure Radiation Capabilities in the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Giovanni; Droba, Justin C.; Oliver, Brandon; Amar, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    With the recent development of multi-dimensional thermal protection system (TPS) material response codes, the capability to account for surface-to-surface radiation exchange in complex geometries is critical. This paper presents recent efforts to implement such capabilities in the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) code developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This work also describes the different numerical methods implemented in the code to compute geometric view factors for radiation problems involving multiple surfaces. Verification of the code's radiation capabilities and results of a code-to-code comparison are presented. Finally, a demonstration case of a two-dimensional ablating cavity with enclosure radiation accounting for a changing geometry is shown.

  4. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A., E-mail: aidabenhassen@yahoo.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Kraiem, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Naoui, S. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Belayouni, H. [Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

  5. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy

  6. Influence of the Pyrolysis Temperature on Sewage Sludge Product Distribution, Bio-Oil, and Char Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    2013-01-01

    behaviors of sludge oils were found to be considerably influenced by the applied pyrolysis temperatures. The sludge oil properties obtained at the optimal temperature of 575 °C were a HHV of 25.5 MJ/kg, a water-insoluble fraction of 18.7 wt %, a viscosity of 43.6 mPa s at 40 °C, a mean molecular weight of...... centrifugel reactor (PCR) at 475, 525, 575, and 625 °C. Maxima of both organic oil yield of 41 wt % on a dry ash free feedstock basis (daf) and a sludge oil energy recovery of 50% were obtained at 575 °C. The water-insoluble fraction, molecular-weight distribution, higher heating value (HHV), and thermal...... 392 g/mol, and metal concentrations lower than 0.14 wt % on a dry basis (db). Less optimal oil properties with respect to industrial applications were observed for oil samples obtained at 475 and 625 °C. Char properties of the 575 °C sample were an ash content of 81 wt % and a HHV of 6.1 MJ/kg db. A...

  7. Slow pyrolysis of nutshells: characterization of derived chars and of process kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonelli, P.R. [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dpto. de Industrias

    2003-08-01

    Char samples were obtained from slow pyrolysis of hazelnut and peanut shells at different temperatures (623 K, 873 K, and 1123 K). Composition, heating values, and surface properties of the charcoals were analyzed to explore their potentiality as bio-fuels and/or for further conversion into activated carbons. The chars generated from both wastes at 873 K exhibited good properties for these purposes, although the hazelnut shell-derived char showed a relatively greater potential. Furthermore, kinetics of the shell's pyrolysis over the temperature range 300 to 1200 K was characterized from nonisothermal thermogravimetric measurements by applying a model that assumes a steadily increasing variation in the activation energy with the process course. It allowed for a satisfactory description of kinetic data for the pyrolysis of hazelnut and peanut shells over the whole range of temperatures examined. Differences in the estimated kinetic parameters characterizing the wastes were found. (author)

  8. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be explaine

  9. Investigation of non-isothermal and isothermal gasification process of coal char using different kinetic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guangwei; Zhang Jianliang; Shao Jiugang; Li Kejiang; Zuo Haibin

    2015-01-01

    Isothermal and non-isothermal gasification kinetics of coal char were investigated by using thermogravi-metric analysis (TGA) in CO2 atmosphere, and the experimental data were interpreted with the aids of random pore model (RPM), unreacted shrinking core model (URCM) and volume model (VM). With the increase of heating rate, gasification curve moves into high temperature zone and peak rate of gasification increases;with the increase of gasification temperature, gasification rate increases and the total time of gasification is shortened. The increase of both heating rate and gasification temperature could improve gasification process of coal char. Kinetics analysis indicates that experimental data agree better with the RPM than with the other two models. The apparent activation energy of non-isothermal and isother-mal gasification of coal char using RPM is 193.9 kJ/mol and 212.6 kJ/mol respectively, which are in accor-dance with reported data. Gasification process of coal char under different heating rates and different temperatures are predicted by the RPM derived in this study, and it is found that the RPM predicts the reaction process satisfactorily.

  10. An investigation of the reactivity of chars formed in fluidized-bed gasifiers: equipment development and initial tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Cousins; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2006-03-15

    Chars formed during air and oxygen blown gasification processes have a low reactivity. This is due to changes that occur in the structure and morphology of the original coal during heating. In part, the changes depend on conditions prevailing during the pyrolysis stage and partly on the length of time spent at peak temperature. Previous work in this laboratory has highlighted that the gasification reactivity of a char depends on the conditions of its formation. This means that chars must be prepared under realistic conditions when conducting laboratory scale reactivity studies that are intended to support a larger scale development. This is not easy to do and requires the development of dedicated methods for preparing the char. In this paper, the development of a laboratory-scale test, based on a laboratory-scale spouted bed gasifier, is described that is able to prepare chars under conditions that represent those in an air-blown gasifier. The reactivity of the prepared chars is then examined to identify how the reactivity of the char varies within the envisaged operating window of the process. A feature of this apparatus is that the char formation time is known accurately, which has required the development of novel feeding and draining mechanisms. These enable the coal particles to be injected quickly into the reactor and the sand/char bed drained and quenched rapidly after a known residence time. The extent of char deactivation can be measured with residence times between 2 and 3600 s. In this paper, the validation of the experiment is described and some preliminary results are reported. 7 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Energy efficiency of the oil transportation processes and alternative energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : The energy efficiency of the transportation processes of Azerbaijan oil by pipelines on Western routes has been assessed. It was shown that the surface facilities of oil pipelines in many cases, the power supply is realized through autonomous energy sources. This report dedicated to analysis of organic fuel combustion processes in the autonomic generators and turbogenerators, definition of energy efficiency of these facilities. The facilities are grouped by energy capacity

  12. Low-energy and chemical-free activation of pyrolytic tire char and its adsorption characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Augustine; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2009-06-01

    It is generally known that the solid char obtained from pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires can be used as an adsorbent for several applications such as wastewater treatment. In this study, scrap tires were first pyrolyzed under nitrogen (N2) or carbon dioxide (CO2) gas under various temperatures to produce char. The char was activated in situ by post-pyrolysis oxygenation (PPO) at different temperature ranges as soon as the pyrolysis process was completed. Elemental and spectroscopic analyses showed significant zinc content in the char after PPO. Batch-mode removal of aqueous copper (Cu) using the chars revealed that, for N2 and CO2, the optimum condition for pyrolysis was at 550 degrees C and for activation was from 550 to 250 degrees C. Although CO2-pyrolyzed char had lower Cu and lead (Pb) removal than N2-pyrolyzed char, it had higher char yields. For both N2- and CO2-pyrolyzed char, activation with PPO improved their heavy metal removal efficiencies significantly compared with unactivated char. PPO chars had much faster removal rates and higher Cu removal compared with both pyrolyzed, unactivated char and commercial activated carbons. PMID:19603742

  13. Integrated palm oil processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Googin, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: the best modern varieties can provide up to 6 tonnes per hectare per year of mesocarp and kernal oils. Palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization of cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production is can range between village level manual operations and highly industrialized mills. Process energy is often supplied by combustion of byproducts. Although palm oil is a good energy crop, its physical and combustion properties preclude most use in conventional diesel engines, although palm oil could be directly blended with residual fuel oils for use in some large engines. At present, two uses for palm oil as a diesel fuel extender or substitute appear attractive: microemulsion blends using palm soapstock and monoesters produced by exchanging small alcohols for the glycerol in triglycerides. The amount of alcohols required for conversion of a substantial fraction of palm oil or palm oil soapstock to fuel extenders or substitutes is proportionately small, and, to a major extent, can be supplied by palm processing waste materials. Fermentation and gasification produced alcohols in the one to four carbon range are suitable for use in formulating palm oil based fuels. On a stoichiometric basis, it appears that the value of the palm oil and alcohols are very close to their value as export items. Use of these palm oil fuels could help to decrease balance of payments problems for developing countries, as well as provide a secure market for agricultural products and improved rural employment.

  14. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  15. Hydrogen Production From Crude Bio-oil and Biomass Char by Electrochemical Catalytic Reforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-long Li; Shen Ning; Li-xia Yuan; Quan-xin Li

    2011-01-01

    We reports an efficient approach for production of hydrogen from crude bio-oil and biomass char in the dual fixed-bed system by using the electrochemical catalytic reforming method.The maximal absolute hydrogen yield reached 110.9 g H2/kg dry biomass.The product gas was a mixed gas containing 72%H2,26%CO2,1.9%CO,and a trace amount of CH4.It was observed that adding biomass char (a by-product of pyrolysis of biomass) could remarkably increase the absolute H2 yield (about 20%-50%).The higher reforming temperature could enhance the steam reforming reaction of organic compounds in crude bio-oil and the reaction of CO and H2O.In addition,the CuZn-Al2O3 catalyst in the water-gas shift bed could also increase the absolute H2 yield via shifting CO to CO2.

  16. Future strategies for oil shale development as a new indigenous energy resource in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indigenous oil shale deposits could satisfy Jordan's demand for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity for many centuries. Markets also exist for raw and retorted oil shale, spent shale, and for sulfur recovered during the upgrading and refining of crude shale oil. Although the potential benefits of oil shale development are substantial, complex and expensive facilities would be required, and these have serious economic, environmental, and social implications for the Kingdom and its people. In January 2006, the United States Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) awarded a grant to the Jordanian Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation to support the analysis of current oil shale processing technologies and the application of international expertise to the development of a oil shale industry in Jordan. The goal of the technical assistance project was to help the Government of Jordan (GoJ) establish short and long-term strategies for oil shale development and to facilitate the commercial production of shale oil in the country. This paper discusses the results of the project. The Kingdom's current energy situation and its previous work on oil shale are summarized, and the incentives and restraints on oil shale commercialization are described. Impediments to development are identified, and possible governmental responses are assessed. (author)

  17. Overview of the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Adam J.; Oliver, A. Brandon; Kirk, Benjamin S.; Salazar, Giovanni; Droba, Justin

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the capabilities of the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) code is presented. CHAR is a one-, two-, and three-dimensional unstructured continuous Galerkin finite-element heat conduction and ablation solver with both direct and inverse modes. Additionally, CHAR includes a coupled linear thermoelastic solver for determination of internal stresses induced from the temperature field and surface loading. Background on the development process, governing equations, material models, discretization techniques, and numerical methods is provided. Special focus is put on the available boundary conditions including thermochemical ablation and contact interfaces, and example simulations are included. Finally, a discussion of ongoing development efforts is presented.

  18. Techno-Economic Assessment of Pyrolysis Char Production and Application – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    KUPPENS, Tom; VAN DAEL, Miet; Vanreppelen, Kenny; Carleer, Robert; Yperman, Jan; SCHREURS, Sonja; Van Passel, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Many organic residue streams such as pig manure are not or inefficiently used, although they can be converted into valuable materials, as well as energy, using pyrolysis. The yield of the pyrolysis products (i.e. oil, gas and char) is dependent on the process conditions and the feedstock used. Char as a soil amendment or activated carbon are interesting options for valorization of biomass residues. Here, a review is presented of the techno-economic potential of both valorization options based...

  19. Activated carbon from char obtained from vacuum pyrolysis of teak sawdust: pore structure development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismadji, S; Sudaryanto, Y; Hartono, S B; Setiawan, L E K; Ayucitra, A

    2005-08-01

    The preparation of activated carbon from vacuum pyrolysis char of teak sawdust was studied and the results are presented in this paper. The effects of process variables such as temperature and activation time on the pore structure of activated carbons were studied. The activated carbon prepared from char obtained by vacuum pyrolysis has higher surface area and pore volume than that from atmospheric pyrolysis char. The BET surface area and pore volume of activated carbon prepared from vacuum pyrolysis char were 1150 m2/g and 0.43 cm3/g, respectively. PMID:15792584

  20. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Nelson; F. Zhang; J. Drzymala; M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1997-11-01

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During a batch agglomeration test the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspensions or by observing changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. Dilute suspensions were employed for investigating the kinetics of agglomeration, whereas concentrated suspensions were used for determining parameters that characterize the process of agglomeration. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. Each tank was enclosed to control the amount of air present. A variable speed agitator fitted with a six blade turbine impeller was used for agitation. Tests were conducted with moderately hydrophobic Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with more hydrophobic Upper Freeport coal using either n-heptane, i-octane, or hexadecane as an agglomerant.

  1. The development of a small-scale palm oil mill producing crude palm oil by the vacumm frying process

    OpenAIRE

    Limworaphan, C.; Kooptanond, C.; Klinpikul, S.

    2000-01-01

    This study aims to design and develop a new dry palm oil milling process which yields a good quality Crude Palm Oil (CPO) without mixing of Crude Palm Kernel Oil (CPKO) in the first extraction. The process uses vacuum fruit frying process with a twin screw press. The advantages of this process are (1) no waste water (2) a good quality crude palm oil in the first extraction (3) safety due to no pressure vessel and better working condition for workers since there is no smoke during the frying p...

  2. Production of bio-oil and bio-char from pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fast pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was carried out using a fluidized-fixed bed reactor. An electric furnace heated the reactor with a heated length of 135 mm and an inner diameter of 40 mm. The sand bed was fluidized using argon at a rate of 0.5 litre per minute (LPM). The sand bed consisted of 100 g zircon sand of 180 - 250 μm. Several process parameters such as the pyrolysis temperature, particle size and different types of pre-treatment that can affect the yield of the pyrolysis products were investigated. The experiment of fast pyrolysis was conducted using 2 - 4 g of EFB which was fed into the reactor using argon at a rate of 2.5 LPM. The temperature used was in the range of 400-600 degree Celsius and particle size of EFB was 2SO4, NaOH and distilled water. The results indicated that the optimum yield of bio-oils was obtained using unwashed EFB having particle size of 91-106 μm at pyrolyzed temperature of 500 degree Celsius. The maximum yield of bio-char was obtained using washed EFB with NaOH at temperature of 600 degree Celsius and particle size of 106-125 μm. (author)

  3. Combustion kinetics of char from pyrolysis of coal with coke oven gas (COG). Distribution to combustion apparent activation energy of char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, H.; Sun, C.; Li, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan(China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    1999-06-01

    Combustion kinetics of chars from pyrolysis of lignite with COG was studied in detail. The combustion kinetics model of char was set by the equation -dX/dt=6K(1-X){sup 0.66}P{sub O{sub 2}}{sup 0.5}/{rho}{sub O}d{sub O}. A new method was suggested to describe the distribution of apparent energy during the combustion of char. It was found that the apparent activation energy shows the similar but reverse shape with combustion rate plot during the combustion of char and spreads over 47-95 kJ/mol. The lowest apparent activation energy was found in the combustion conversion (f) of about 40w% (daf). In the combustion of the same char, there is a definite correlation between combustion rate and apparent activation energy, i.e., high burning rate is related to low apparent activation energy. Thus, apparent activation energy can be used to describe the combustion reactivity of char. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Pyrolysis of flax straw: Characterization of char, liquid, and gas as fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushar, Mohammad Shahed Hasan Khan

    The demand for energy continues to outstrip its supply and necessitates the development of renewable energy options. Biomass has been recognized as a major renewable energy source to supplement the declining fossil fuel source of energy. It is the most popular form of renewable energy and, currently, biofuel production is becoming more promising. Being carbon neutral, readily available, and low in sulphur content makes biomass a very promising source of renewable energy. In the present research, both the isothermal and non-isothermal pressurized pyrolysis of flax straw is studied for the first time. In case of isothermal pyrolysis, the influence of pyrolysis temperature and reaction time on char yield and morphology was investigated. The applied pyrolysis temperature was varied between 300 and 500°C. The reaction time was varied from 15 to 60 min. The char yield was found to decrease as pyrolysis temperature and reaction time increased. The char structure and surface morphology were thoroughly investigated by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The degree of porosity and graphitization increased as pyrolysis temperature and time increased. In fact, the experiment performed at 500°C for 1h duration did not yield any char; only residual ash could be obtained. The TPO studies on the char samples corroborated the XRD findings and showed the presence of two types of carbon, namely, amorphous filamentous carbon and graphitic carbon. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the char was performed to gain an understanding of combustion kinetics and reactivity. It implied that the reactivity of the char decreases as temperature increases, and this finding is well supported by the TPO, TGA, SEM, and XRD characterization data. Furthermore, an empirical global model was devised based on the power law to estimate activation energy and other kinetic parameters. For the non-isothermal pressurized

  5. Evaluation of energy efficiency efforts of oil and gas offshore processing

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter; Elmegaard, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms are energy-intensive systems, and each facility consumes from a few to several hundred MW of power, depending on the oil, gas and water extraction, as well as different field and export conditions. Despite these differences, several strategies can be applied to improve the energy performance of these facilities, by decreasing the power and heating requirements and designing more efficient processes. Several technologies that have been proposed are to (i) promote energy i...

  6. A burnout prediction model based around char morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wu; E. Lester; M. Cloke [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Energy and Fuel Centre

    2005-07-01

    Poor burnout in a coal-fired power plant has marked penalties in the form of reduced energy efficiency and elevated waste material that can not be utilized. The prediction of coal combustion behaviour in a furnace is of great significance in providing valuable information not only for process optimization but also for coal buyers in the international market. Coal combustion models have been developed that can make predictions about burnout behaviour and burnout potential. Most of these kinetic models require standard parameters such as volatile content, particle size and assumed char porosity in order to make a burnout prediction. This paper presents a new model called the Char Burnout Model (ChB) that also uses detailed information about char morphology in its prediction. The model can use data input from one of two sources. Both sources are derived from image analysis techniques. The first from individual analysis and characterization of real char types using an automated program. The second from predicted char types based on data collected during the automated image analysis of coal particles. Modelling results were compared with a different carbon burnout kinetic model and burnout data from re-firing the chars in a drop tube furnace operating at 1300{sup o}C, 5% oxygen across several residence times. An improved agreement between ChB model and DTF experimental data proved that the inclusion of char morphology in combustion models can improve model predictions. 27 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Development and Prospects for Energy Saving Technology in Oil & Gas Fields, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Youwang; Yu Jiqing; Lin Ran; Zhu Yingru; Liu Feijun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Current state of energy saving technology in China's oil and gas fields System optimization To optimize the oil-gas field surface engineering system is critical to improve the efficiency of oil and gas field system.To adapt to the changes in development of old oil and gas fields, all oilfields are adjusted and reconstructed;a set of optimized and simplified modes and technical measures are developed.

  8. Evaluation of energy efficiency efforts of oil and gas offshore processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms are energy-intensive systems, and each facility consumes from a few to several hundred MW of power, depending on the oil, gas and water extraction, as well as different field and export conditions. Despite these differences, several strategies can be applied to improve the...... energy performance of these facilities, by decreasing the power and heating requirements and designing more efficient processes. Several technologies that have been proposed are to (i) promote energy integration within the oil and gas processing plant, (ii) add an additional pressure extraction level......, (iii) implement multiphase expanders, and (iv) install a waste heat recovery system. The present work builds on two case studies located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions and strategies. The findings suggest that no generic improvement can...

  9. Properties of oil and char derived from slow pyrolysis of Tetraselmis chui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, Scott; Strezov, Vladimir; Shah, Pushan

    2011-09-01

    Pyrolysis of biomass is a means to industrially manufacture renewable oil and gas, in addition to biochar for soil amendment and long-term carbon fixation. In this work, oil and char derived from the slow pyrolysis of the unicellular marine diatom Tetraselmis chui are analysed using a variety of techniques. The pyrolytic oil fraction exhibits a wide variety of fatty acids, alkanes, alkenes, amides, aldehydes, terpenes, pyrrolidinines, phytol and phenols, with a high heating value (HHV) of 28 MJ/kg. The biochar produced has a HHV of 14.5 MJ/kg and reveals a number of properties that are potentially valuable from an agronomic point of view, including high cation exchange capacity (CEC), large concentration of N, and a low C:N ratio. The quantity of C in T. chui biochar that can be expected to stabilise in soil amounts to approximately 9%/wt of the original feedstock, leading to a potential net reduction in atmospheric CO(2). PMID:21704515

  10. Development of carbon dioxide adsorbent from rice husk char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abang, S.; Janaun, J.; Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Ikhwan, F. S.

    2016-06-01

    This study was mainly concerned about the development of carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorbent from rice husk (RH). Several chemical treatments were used to produce activated rice husk char (RHAC) from RH. Initially the RH was refluxed with 3M of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, activation followed by using 0.5M of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) solution and finally acidic treatment by using 0.1M of hydrochloric acid (HCl). Then, the RHAC was functionalized by using 3-chloropropylamine hydrochloride (3-CPA) and noted as RHN. RHN samples were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Based on the SEM, the RHN sample had a large pore diameter compared to RH sample after being treated. Based on MIP data, the average pore diameter between RH and RHAC samples were increased significantly from 0.928 microns to 1.017 microns. The RHN sample also had higher total porosity (%) compared to RHAC and RH (58.45%, 47.82% and 45.57% respectively). The total specific surface area of the sample was much increasing from RHO to RHAC (29.17 m2/g and 62.94 m2/g respectively) and slightly being decreasing from RHAC to RHN (58.88 m2/g). FTIR result showed the present of weak band at 1587 cm-1 which demonstrating of the amine group present on the sample. The CO2 capture result showed that the decreasing of operating temperature can increase the breakthrough time of CO2 capture. On the contrary decreasing of CO2 gas flow rate can increase the breakthrough time of CO2 capture. The highest total amount of CO2 adsorbed was 25338.57 mg of CO2/g of RHN sample by using 100 mL/min of gas flow rate at 30oC. Based on adsorption isotherm analysis, the Freundlich isotherm was the best isotherm to describe the CO2 adsorption on the sample.

  11. A solid state NMR investigation of char forming processes in polymer degradation

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, C M

    2002-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the condensed phase chemistry occurring in polymers exposed to elevated temperatures is crucial to understanding the behaviour of polymers exposed to fire. This is particularly true when trying to reduce polymer flammability by means of promoting char-forming reactions. Until recently, however, structural information on highly crosslinked chars and their precursors has been difficult to obtain, and as a consequence many degradation workers have merely labelled degradation residues as 'intractable'. However, the application of solid state NMR techniques developed in our laboratories for the structural characterisation of coals has provided a considerable insight into the structure and chemistry of polymer chars formed under both oxidative and non-oxidative conditions. A series of polymers including poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl acetate), polyurethanes, polychloropene, cis and trans polyisoprene have been studied. These polymers have been used to describe the application of quantitati...

  12. A business process for enhanced heavy oil recovery research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husky Oil's enhanced oil recovery (EOR) research management processes for reducing process development time and increasing investment efficiency were described. The considerations that went into the development of the plan a decade ago were reviewed and new ideas incorporated into the revised plan were presented. Four case studies were presented to illustrate the need for process to reservoir matching. A need for strategic research planning was emphasized. Proposed technologies for enhancement of heavy oil reservoir productivity were presented in tabular form. 1 tab., 7 figs

  13. 生物质富氮热解联产高值含氮油炭的理化特性%Physicochemical properties of nitrogen rich in oil and char during biomass nitrogen-rich pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻明; 张世红; 邵敬爱; 陈应泉; 冯磊; 王贤华; 陈汉平

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most important renewable resources. Pyrolysis for producing high value added products provides additional value for biomass energy utilization. Through the introduction of exogenous nitrogen in biomass pyrolysis in nitrogen-rich conditions, it can get high value of nitrogen-containing products, i.e. nitrogen-rich char and oil. In this study, wood chips were used as raw materials. The experiment was carried out in a fixed bed reactor at 350 to 850℃, and the effect of temperature and impregnation ratio(5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) on products yields, compositions and characteristics were investigated. Firstly, wood chips were immersed in different mass fractions of urea solution, stirred for 12 hours with a magnetic mixer at room temperature. The woodchips was then separated from solution by filtration and was dried after for 24 hours in an oven. The dried woodchips was then gone through pyrolysis and the bio-oil obtained at different temperatures was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Derived bio-oil and char were also analyzed for their compositions to trace nitrogen mass transfer. The surface physicochemical property of the char under nitrogen-rich conditions was characterized using a diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. With the rise of impregnation ratio, the yield of char and bio-oil had little change. Temperature had a remarkable effect on the yield and nitrogen content of boichar and bio oil. Change of product yields was mainly due to the three components (cellulose, ligin and semicellulose) decomposing at different temperatures, and to the volatilization of the secondary cracking at high temperature. The GC-MS results indicated that after treated with urea solution, biomass pyrolysis oil contains large amounts of nitrogen-containing chemicals that can be used to refine high value-added chemical products. The nitrogen-containing chemicals in the bio-oil mainly include aromatic amine

  14. Development of the Write Process for Pipeline-Ready Heavy Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Brecher; Charles Mones; Frank Guffey

    2009-03-07

    Work completed under this program advances the goal of demonstrating Western Research Institute's (WRI's) WRITE{trademark} process for upgrading heavy oil at field scale. MEG Energy Corporation (MEG) located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada supported efforts at WRI to develop the WRITE{trademark} process as an oil sands, field-upgrading technology through this Task 51 Jointly Sponsored Research project. The project consisted of 6 tasks: (1) optimization of the distillate recovery unit (DRU), (2) demonstration and design of a continuous coker, (3) conceptual design and cost estimate for a commercial facility, (4) design of a WRITE{trademark} pilot plant, (5) hydrotreating studies, and (6) establish a petroleum analysis laboratory. WRITE{trademark} is a heavy oil and bitumen upgrading process that produces residuum-free, pipeline ready oil from heavy material with undiluted density and viscosity that exceed prevailing pipeline specifications. WRITE{trademark} uses two processing stages to achieve low and high temperature conversion of heavy oil or bitumen. The first stage DRU operates at mild thermal cracking conditions, yielding a light overhead product and a heavy residuum or bottoms material. These bottoms flow to the second stage continuous coker that operates at severe pyrolysis conditions, yielding light pyrolyzate and coke. The combined pyrolyzate and mildly cracked overhead streams form WRITE{trademark}'s synthetic crude oil (SCO) production. The main objectives of this project were to (1) complete testing and analysis at bench scale with the DRU and continuous coker reactors and provide results to MEG for process evaluation and scale-up determinations and (2) complete a technical and economic assessment of WRITE{trademark} technology to determine its viability. The DRU test program was completed and a processing envelope developed. These results were used for process assessment and for scaleup. Tests in the continuous coker were intended to

  15. Biodiesel development from rice bran oil: Transesterification process optimization and fuel characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving industry to develop viable alternative fuels from renewable resources that are environmentally more acceptable. Vegetable oil is a potential alternative fuel. The most detrimental properties of vegetable oils are its high viscosity and low volatility, and these cause several problems during their long duration usage in compression ignition (CI) engines. The most commonly used method to make vegetable oil suitable for use in CI engines is to convert it into biodiesel, i.e. vegetable oil esters using process of transesterification. Rice bran oil is an underutilized non-edible vegetable oil, which is available in large quantities in rice cultivating countries, and very little research has been done to utilize this oil as a replacement for mineral Diesel. In the present work, the transesterification process for production of rice bran oil methyl ester has been investigated. The various process variables like temperature, catalyst concentration, amount of methanol and reaction time were optimized with the objective of producing high quality rice bran oil biodiesel with maximum yield. The optimum conditions for transesterification of rice bran oil with methanol and NaOH as catalyst were found to be 55 deg. C reaction temperature, 1 h reaction time, 9:1 molar ratio of rice bran oil to methanol and 0.75% catalyst (w/w). Rice bran oil methyl ester thus produced was characterized to find its suitability to be used as a fuel in engines. Results showed that biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions has comparable properties to substitute mineral Diesel, hence, rice bran oil methyl ester biodiesel could be recommended as a mineral Diesel fuel substitute for compression ignition (CI) engines in transportation as well as in the agriculture sector

  16. CHARCOAL PACKED FURNACE FOR LOW-TECH CHARRING OF BONE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    A low-tech furnace for charring of raw bone using char coal is developed and tested. The furnace consists of a standard oil drum, fitted with simple materials as available in every market in small towns in developing counties. 80 kg of raw bone and 6 kg of charcoal are used for production of 50 k...

  17. Energy and technological efficiency of crude oil processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present the possibilities which modern science-based management offers to the operating and strategic management in the sphere of monitoring, the process efficiency and business effectiveness of fuel type refineries. In order to establish efficient management system, it is necessary to determine the corresponding instruments and measures upon which the mentioned management system could be based. Constant improvement of the existing and the development of new instruments and measures for monitoring the efficiency and effectiveness are necessary as well, because the main goal of the production is the profit or benefit, and not the production itself. (Original)

  18. Serbian oil sector: A new energy policy regulatory framework and development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serbia has established a great part of new legislative and institutional framework as a basis for all energy sub-sectors' development in compliance with EU energy acquis. Main objectives of Serbian energy policy outlined in the new Energy Law are focused to increasing the energy supply security, energy efficiency, competitiveness of the energy market, use of renewable energy sources and environmental protection. Further steps of Serbia toward full EU membership concerning the new energy policy regulatory framework involve implementing and enforcing legislation. Besides considering the issue of Serbian energy policy and degree of its framework's alignment with the EU acquis, this paper provides an overview of new development strategies in the oil sector. The aim of Gazprom neft, a majority owner of the Petroleum industry of Serbia, is to increase crude oil production to 3 million tonnes, refining and sales volume of petroleum products to 5 million tonnes by 2020. Strategic development projects in crude oil and petroleum products transportation are: petroleum product pipeline construction in Serbia and Pan-European oil pipeline. The basic prerequisites for oil supply security, regarding the future high dependency of Serbian economy on imported oil, are establishment of the emergency oil stocks and diversification of supply sources. - Highlight: ► New energy policy regulatory framework significantly complied with EU acquis. ► Full EU membership requires implementing and enforcing new energy legislation. ► NIS-Gazpromneft has defined ambitious oil sector's development programmes to 2020. ► Supply security requires mandatory oil stocks and supply source diversification.

  19. Development and Verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Adam J.; Calvert, Nathan D.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2010-01-01

    The development and verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver is presented. This work concentrates on the derivation and verification of the stationary grid terms in the equations that govern three-dimensional heat and mass transfer for charring thermal protection systems including pyrolysis gas flow through the porous char layer. The governing equations are discretized according to the Galerkin finite element method with first and second order implicit time integrators. The governing equations are fully coupled and are solved in parallel via Newton's method, while the fully implicit linear system is solved with the Generalized Minimal Residual method. Verification results from exact solutions and the Method of Manufactured Solutions are presented to show spatial and temporal orders of accuracy as well as nonlinear convergence rates.

  20. Slow pyrolysis for rural small biomass energy by joint project developments of Brazil and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampegowda, Rajesh; Chandayot, Pongchan [Asian University, Chonburi (Thailand)], email: rkempegowda@asianust.ac.th; Pannirselvam, Pagandai V.; Humberto, Maricy; Santos, Joao Matias [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEQ/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Engenharia de Custos], email: pannirbr@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The efficiency for carbonization by slow pyrolysis is still low in the current method studied using rice straw in Thailand and cashewnut shell in Brazil, however direct heating process yields better char yield of 17% as compared to indirect heating with 15% process using horizontal metal drum kiln.where as vertical kiln were mainly used in Brazil. Higher yield is made possible from Brasilian cashew nut shell to make oil and char. Carbon and energy balance was also carried out and the results were compared for the direct and indirect process. Burning by indirect draft gives better results like more char, faster process. Direct draft gives less char, but higher quality (higher C and H2). Also a lot of straw is left unburnt in the direct draft kiln, because of bad temperature distribution and flow inside. The kiln design is found to be more suitable for indirect draft rather than direct draft. Both methods still give rice straw charcoal that has low calorific value with an output char LHV of 4337 kcal/kg as compared to fresh rice straw of 3412 kcal/kg. In the direct heating method output char is enriched to 45% with a still unburnt rice straw left out as compared to indirect heating method with carbon enrichment of 39%. There is a loss of 13% of carbon through the ash in the both the methods. The carbon content in the condensate is in the order of 18.5% for the indirect process as compared to 13.9% in the direct process due to less exhaust and carbon enrichment inside the kiln. There is a loss of 43% of carbon in the exhaust from indirect heating process as compared to direct heating process which is reduced to 26%. The energy balance predicts a heat loss of 14% in exhaust gases. A practical small scale slow pyrolysis project was developed to meet rural energy and heat requirements. to make the clean energy from waste resources possible by the joint project. (author)

  1. Effect of temperature on energy potential of pyrolysis products from oil palm shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Romero Millán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Taking into account that near 220 000 tons of oil palm shells are produced every year in Colombia, as a waste of the Elaeis Guineensis palm oil transformation process, the aim of this work is to determine the energy potential of oil palm shells, when transformed through slow pyrolysis process.Methods: Using a fixed bed lab scale reactor, different oil palm shells pyrolysis tests were performed between 300°C and 500°C. The effect of the temperature in the process product yield and in the energy content of produced solids and gases were analyzed.Results: With a maximum mass yield of 50%, the char is considered the main product of oil palm shells pyrolysis, containing up to 73% of the raw biomass energy. The heating value of char raised with the temperature, from 29,6 MJ/kg at 300°C to 31,34 MJ/kg at 500°C. Moreover, the gas produced in the established temperature range had up to 13% of the energy content of the raw biomass, with a heating value near 12,5 MJ/m3.Conclusions: According to the results, slow pyrolysis can be considered an interesting process for the valorization of residual biomass as oil palm shells, through the production of solids and gases that can be used as fuels, or as precursor of other value-added products.

  2. Evaluation of energy efficiency options in steam assisted gravity drainage oil sands surface facilities via process integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While new technologies are being developed for extracting unconventional oil, in the near term economic benefits and footprint reduction can be achieved by enhancing the energy efficiency of existing facilities. The objective of this work is to evaluate energy efficiency opportunities for in situ extraction of Canada's oil sands resource using pinch analysis. Modifications to an original plant design are analyzed in order to estimate utility savings beyond those obtained for the initial process configuration. The modifications explored in this paper are estimated to deliver energy savings of up to 6% beyond ‘business as usual’. This corresponds to GHG emissions reduction of approximately 5%. However, in some cases, this increase in energy savings comes at the cost of increasing demand for make-up water and volume of disposal water. Surplus generation of steam beyond heating requirements in the water treatment system leads to energy inefficiencies. Additional cost and energy savings are obtained by reducing or eliminating the use of glycol in the cooling circuit. - Highlights: • Pinch analysis performed for unconventional oil recovery process to identify inefficiencies. • Both the removal of pinch violations and process modifications lead to savings. • Effect of energy savings on water consumption for the process is considered. • Greenhouse gas emissions reduction and economic benefit are estimated for the studied cases

  3. The ERCB's [Energy Resources Conservation Board] role in the development and reclamation of oil sands projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Oil Sands Conservation Act, the Energy Resources Conservation Board is charged with the responsibility for many aspects of oil sands development. Included among these is ensuring the orderly, efficient and economical development, in the public interest, of the oil sands resources of Alberta. All aspects of resource development, including resource exploitation, production processing design, waste storage and handling, land disturbance and reclamation, must be considered in the original project application. In addition, continued surveillance, research and field testing of development and reclamation techniques is essential for success. The Board's role, from the project application to reclamation/abandonment stages, is discussed, as well as the Board's views on industry's role in full-cycle resource development. The use of deviated and horizontal well drilling has potential to greatly reduce land disturbance and associated issues. Key areas warranting attention are subsidence potential, confirmation of acceptable oily waste storage and disposal techniques, and final reclamation of suspended or abandoned sites. 4 refs., 4 figs

  4. Terrestrial effects of oil shale development and development of chemical reactions, stability and transport model of oil shale process wastes in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for domestic energy supplies will lead to increased exploitation of domestic fossil fuels. Vast domestic resources of oil shale may provide a long-term alternative to petroleum-derived fuel products. Practical processing experience with shale oil is limited in comparison to other fossil fuel production since serious industry consideration of shale oil production has not been concerted. Methods proposed for winning shale oil from its deposits range from conventional mining and aboveground retorting technologies to in situ combustion methodology. Although the technical and economic aspects of this wide range of options have been generally studied, the environmental impacts must be assessed, as questions of siting, control technology, licensing, and regulation can strongly affect the best production strategy. Preliminary results are reported from studies on the chemical characterization of effluent residuals from oil shale process wastes, their transport through soils, and toxic effects on plants

  5. Kinetics and Mechanisms of NO(x) - Char Reduction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suurerg, E.M.; Lilly, W.D.; Aarna, I.

    1997-12-31

    Most industrially important carbons are produced from naturally occurring materials such as coal, oil, peat or wood by some form of thermal process. Chars are obtained from those natural materials as a residue after removal of the volatile matter. Chars (prepared from coal or other organic precursors) are non-graphitizable carbons, meaning that they cannot be transformed into graphitic carbon. Chars are comprised of elementary crystallites in parallel layers which are randomly oriented with respect to each other and are crosslinked together through weak bonds. Voids between crystallites determine the porosity of the char, and this plays an important role in char gasification behavior. Chars usually contain a pore size distribution, in which the larger macro- and mesopores play an important role in transport of reactants into the much smaller micropores, in which most gasification and combustion take place. Therefore, the effectiveness of micropores in gasification depends heavily on the numbers of meso- and macropores.

  6. Sustainable development of tyre char-based activated carbons with different textural properties for value-added applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Pejman; Yeung, Kit Ying; Guo, Jiaxin; Wang, Huaimin; McKay, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims at the sustainable development of activated carbons for value-added applications from the waste tyre pyrolysis product, tyre char, in order to make pyrolysis economically favorable. Two activation process parameters, activation temperature (900, 925, 950 and 975 °C) and residence time (2, 4 and 6 h) with steam as the activating agent have been investigated. The textural properties of the produced tyre char activated carbons have been characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments at -196 °C. The activation process has resulted in the production of mesoporous activated carbons confirmed by the existence of hysteresis loops in the N2 adsorption-desorption curves and the pore size distribution curves obtained from BJH method. The BET surface area, total pore volume and mesopore volume of the activated carbons from tyre char have been improved to 732 m(2)/g, 0.91 cm(3)/g and 0.89 cm(3)/g, respectively. It has been observed that the BET surface area, mesopore volume and total pore volume increased linearly with burnoff during activation in the range of experimental parameters studied. Thus, yield-normalized surface area, defined as the surface area of the activated carbon per gram of the precursor, has been introduced to optimize the activation conditions. Accordingly, the optimized activation conditions have been demonstrated as an activation temperature of 975 °C and an activation time of 4 h. PMID:26775155

  7. Combustion of char from plastic wastes pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saptoadi, Harwin; Rohmat, Tri Agung; Sutoyo

    2016-06-01

    A popular method to recycle plastic wastes is pyrolysis, where oil, gas and char can be produced. These products can be utilized as fuels because they are basically hydrocarbons. The research investigates char properties, including their performance as fuel briquettes. There are 13 char samples from PE (Polyethylene) pyrolyzed at temperatures of around 450 °C, with and without a catalyst. Some of the samples were obtained from PE mixed with other types, such as Polystyrene (PS), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), and Others. Char properties, such as moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents, are revealed from the proximate analysis, whereas calorific values were measured with a bomb calorimeter. Briquettes are made by mixing 4 g of char with 0.5 - 1 g binder. Briquettes are hollow cylinders with an outer and inner diameter of around 1.75 cm and 0.25 cm, respectively. Combustion is carried out in a furnace with wall temperatures of about 230°C and a constant air velocity of 0.7 m/s. Five out of 13 char briquettes are not feasible because they melt during combustion. Briquettes made from 100% PE wastes burn in substantially shorter duration than those from mixed plastic wastes. Char #1 and #5 are excellent due to their highest energy release, whereas #10 show the worst performance.

  8. Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin; Thaer N. N. Mahmoud; Daryl S. Sequeira; Amit P. Sharma

    2006-09-30

    This is the final report describing the evolution of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' from its conceptual stage in 2002 to the field implementation of the developed technology in 2006. This comprehensive report includes all the experimental research, models developments, analyses of results, salient conclusions and the technology transfer efforts. As planned in the original proposal, the project has been conducted in three separate and concurrent tasks: Task 1 involved a physical model study of the new GAGD process, Task 2 was aimed at further developing the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for gas-oil miscibility determination, and Task 3 was directed at determining multiphase gas-oil drainage and displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks at realistic pressures and temperatures. The project started with the task of recruiting well-qualified graduate research assistants. After collecting and reviewing the literature on different aspects of the project such gas injection EOR, gravity drainage, miscibility characterization, and gas-oil displacement characteristics in porous media, research plans were developed for the experimental work to be conducted under each of the three tasks. Based on the literature review and dimensional analysis, preliminary criteria were developed for the design of the partially-scaled physical model. Additionally, the need for a separate transparent model for visual observation and verification of the displacement and drainage behavior under gas-assisted gravity drainage was identified. Various materials and methods (ceramic porous material, Stucco, Portland cement, sintered glass beads) were attempted in order to fabricate a satisfactory visual model. In addition to proving the effectiveness of the GAGD process (through measured oil recoveries in the range of 65 to 87% IOIP), the visual models demonstrated

  9. Development of other oil-alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Development efforts are being given on a large wind power generation system which has high reliability and economy and suits the actual situations in Japan. Verification tests will be conducted to establish control systems to realize load leveling against the increase in maximum power demand and the differences in demands between seasons, days and nights. Development will also be made on technologies for systems to operate devices optimally using nighttime power for household use. Solar light and heat energies will be introduced and used widely in housing to achieve efficient comprehensive energy utilization. Wastes, waste heat and unused energies locally available will be utilized to promote forming environment harmonious type energy communities. Photovoltaic and fuel cell power generation facilities will be installed on a trial basis to promote building a groundwork for full-scale installations. Photovoltaic power generation systems will be installed on actual houses to establish technologies to assess and optimize the load leveling effect. Attempts will be made on practical application of high-efficiency regional heat supply systems which utilize such unutilized energies as those from sea water and river water. Assistance will be given through preparing manuals on introduction of wastes power generation systems by local governments, and introduction of regional energy systems by using new discrete type power generation technologies and consumer-use cogeneration systems. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Development Process of Chinese New Energy Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    "Major Sci-Tech Special Project of New Energy Vehicles in Project 863",with industrialization as the goal.actively carried out three main strategies of talents.patents and standards.Through resource integration.management optimization.technical and mechanism innovation.the Project has made prominent progress in the R&D of new energy vehicles.building of industrialization environment and organizing and management of large sci-tech projects.

  11. The role of oil extraction and demand in development of the state energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems of efficient oil exploration and production are connected with development of the management and regulatory body which would satisfy interests of international oil companies and the State as the owner of natural resources. This article covers the essentials of energy markets, the role of petroleum in the national economy and the economic use of non-renewable resources from the national point of view and that of the international companies. (author)

  12. Improvement in char formability of phenolic resin for development of Carbon/Carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the processing of carbon/carbon composites using polymer resin as the matrix precursor, it is inevitable that a porous structure was formed after carbonization. As a result, densification by liquid phase impregnation followed by recarbonization is required to obtain a densified composite. Consequently, the char formability of resin is an important factor in reducing the number of densification cycles and hence the processing cost. In this study, a novel approach is adopted to improve the densification of carbon/carbon composites by using a new phenolic resin modified by pitch. For this purpose, soluble part of pitch was extracted and dispersed in resol type phenolic resin. The polymerization reaction was performed in presence of para-formaldehyde and a resol-pitch compound was obtained. The second compound was prepared by mixing novolac-furfural in 55:45 weight ratio containing 9% by weight hexamethylene tetramine. This compound was added to resol-pitch compound in 10,20,50 and 80 w %. The microstructure of carbonized resin was investigated by X-ray diffraction and char yield, and the linear and volumetric shrinkage were obtained. Results show that in 80:20 ratio of resol-pitch to novolac-furfural , the char yield would be maximized by 71% and volumetric shrinkage would be minimized at 16.4%. At the same time, XRD results indicate that the resin has a strong ability to graphitize carbon/carbon composites matrix as a necessary step for its processing

  13. Variation of natural oil and gas reservoir properties at the development process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We know that in some cases the processes of oil and gas development is followed by variations in bardic drive and fluid saturation in the formation, and thus, variations in reservoir-rock properties may take place. The present paper deals with some effects that appear in reservoirs at the development process. Being at natural occurrence conditions the reservoir rocks are influenced by effective pressure. The above pressure is a difference of overburden and formation pressures. The variation of formation pressure results in effective pressure increase, and this, in its turn may result in deformation processes in the formation

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandina N. Rao

    2003-10-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Progress Report being submitted to the U. S. Department of Energy on the work performed under the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15323. This report follows two other progress reports submitted to U.S. DOE during the first year of the project: The first in April 2003 for the project period from October 1, 2002 to March 31, 2003, and the second in July 2003 for the period April 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003. Although the present Annual Report covers the first year of the project from October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2003, its contents reflect mainly the work performed in the last quarter (July-September, 2003) since the work performed during the first three quarters has been reported in detail in the two earlier reports. The main objective of the project is to develop a new gas-injection enhanced oil recovery process to recover the oil trapped in reservoirs subsequent to primary and/or secondary recovery operations. The project is divided into three main tasks. Task 1 involves the design and development of a scaled physical model. Task 2 consists of further development of the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 involves the determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. Each technical progress report, including this one, reports on the progress made in each of these tasks during the reporting period. Section I covers the scaled physical model study. A survey of literature in related areas has been conducted. Test apparatus has been under construction throughout the reporting period. A bead-pack visual model, liquid injection system, and an image analysis system have been completed and used for preliminary experiments. Experimental runs with decane and paraffin oil have been conducted in the bead pack model. The results indicate the need for modifications in the apparatus, which are currently underway. A bundle of capillary tube model has been considered and

  15. Improved oil recovery process for heavy oil: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillas, J.L.M.; Dutra Junior, T.V.; Mata, W. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], E-mail: jennys@eq.ufrn.br

    2008-01-15

    Petroleum is one of the main sources of energy in the world, occupying the first place of the Brazilian energy matrix. Therefore, technologies that involve the development and application of techniques capable of increasing the profitability of oil fields are important and require more thorough studies. In Brazil, self-sufficiency has been already reached in oil production, however it is necessary that improved oil recovery technologies be continually studied to maintain the current production or to increase it. Rio Grande do Norte (a Brazilian State) comprises many heavy oil reserves and the exploration activities in the Brazilian Basins of Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo have led to the discovery of large amounts of heavy oils. It is possible to increase heavy oil recovery in some of these reservoirs with the help of improved oil recovery processes, thus enhancing oil field productivity and profitability. Until recently, heavy oil reserves did not attract much interest. The lowest oil profitability, the low price of the oil barrel in the international market, the difficulties involved in its extraction and its refining, and the large amount of light and medium oils to be explored could not justify the investments. Maturity of light and medium oil fields and the significant increase in oil price placed that source of energy under a new perspective. In Brazil, the confirmed reserves constitute 2.9 billion barrels approximately, 26% of the total reserves, and the production should reach 450 thousand barrels daily or 25% of the total production predicted for 2010 (ANP, 'Agencia Nacional do Petroleo' - Brazilian Petroleum National Agency, 2006). To improve the capacity of drainage of the heavy oils and to increase its recovery, different thermal methods have been developed. Those more used involve steam in the process, because they are more efficient than other processes such as 'in situ' combustion or water injection. The steam is used with the

  16. HEAVY OIL DEVELOPMENT KEY TO CHINA'S OIL PRODUCTION GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunpeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ How to raise the heavy oil production rate has long been a difficult research project focused by international oil giants while the super-heavy oil development is particularly a world-class bottleneck for many oil producers. However, China's main oil companies will give priority to heavy oil exploration and production in the next decade to meet China's increasing energy needs.

  17. Influence of nanomirelal phases on development processes of oil reservoirs in Volga-Ural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Victor; Sitdikova, Lyalya

    2010-05-01

    The optimisation of oil-field development by enhancing oil recovery is the most important target in further improvement of oil production processes. The resulting economic benefits often exceed those from discoveries of new fields, especially in hard-to-reach regions. Despite the wide use of enhanced oil recovery methods, their efficiency is in many cases not as high as expected. For instance, in terrigenous reservoirs of the Volga-Ural region oil recovery rarely exceeds 0.4, and in carbonate reservoirs with the complex structure, variability and high oil viscosity it can be as low as 0.15-0.20. In natural bitumen fields, the recovery factor is even lower. Analysis of the conducted EOR optimisation operations indicates that EOR methods mainly aim to change the hydrodynamic conditions in the reservoir under development or the physicochemical properties of oil, - for instance, to decrease its viscosity or to change its lyophilic behaviour. The impact of EOR methods on the reservoir's mineral component remains largely unstudied. It is generally believed that the mineral component of the reservoir, its matrix, is inert and remains unaffected by EOR methods. However, the analysis of oil-field development processes and the available studies allow the conclusion that natural hydrocarbon reservoirs are sensitive to any impact on both the near-wellbore zone and the whole reservoir. The authors' research in the reservoir's mineral phase dynamics has permitted the conclusion that the reservoir's fluid phases (including hydrocarbons) and the reservoir itself form a lithogeochemical system that remains in unstable equilibrium. Any external impact, such as the reservoir penetration or the use of EOR methods, disturbs this equilibrium and changes the filtration characteristics of the reservoir, the fluid chemistry and the reaction of the reservoir's mineral component to the impact. In order to characterise the processes in the reservoir in the course of its development, the

  18. Development of a CMOS process using high energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main interest of this thesis is the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) in electronic technology. Problems in developing a CMOS process are mostly related to the isolation well of p-n junctions. It is shown that by using high energy ion implantation, it is possible to reduce lateral dimensions to obtain a rather high packing density. High energy ion implantation is also presented as a means of simplifying CMOS processing, since extended processing steps at elevated temperatures are superfluous. Process development is also simplified. (Auth.)

  19. Development of process energy intensity formula under different state variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光

    2004-01-01

    In a production process, the actual energy consumption is greatly affected by the production state.Certain processing operations are classified into six states, including normal production, abnormal production,planned overhaul, unplanned overhaul, transitional period from unplanned overhaul to normal production (referred for short as unplanned transition) and transitional period from planned overhaul to normal production (referred for short as planned transition). The article takes the analysis of relationship between different states of a certain processing operation and corresponding energy consumptions as a startup point to develop a process energy intensity formula with variables of operating rate, yielding rate and operating frequency, etc. This process energy intensity formula can be used to analyze effectively the pattern of impact exerted by different state variables on energy consumption.

  20. Alternative energy in oil transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A few percent of the oil are used to cover own needs as an energy sources in the oil transportation processes. In the terminals, pumping and pigging stations, valves for production of electricity by the generators and turbo-generators the organic fuel are used. The transporation, storage and incineration of organic fuel facilities creates a number of environmental problems and reduces the total energy efficiency of the oil transportation processes

  1. The Relationship Between Palm Oil Index Development and Mechanical Properties in the Ripening Process of Tenera Variety Fresh Fruit Bunches

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin Keshvadi; Johari Bin Endan, Haniff Harun, Desa Ahmad and Farah Saleena

    2011-01-01

    This research has done to determine of the relationship between palm oil development in mesocarp and kernel and Mechanical properties of fresh fruit bunches during the ripening process. For this purpose, Tenera oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) variety (A cross between Dura and Pisifera) on 8 year- old palms planted in 2003 at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) research station were selected. Fresh fruit bunches were harvested and were divided into three regions (Top, Middle and Bottom) where the...

  2. Production and Characterization of Bio-Char from the Pyrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad A. Sukiran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB, shell, frond, trunk and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. For 88 million tones of Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 26 million tones. Studies about production of bio-char from oil palm biomass are still lacking in Malaysia. So, this study was aimed to: (i determine the effect of pyrolysis temperatures on bio-char yield (ii characterize the bio-char obtained under different pyrolysed temperatures. Approach: In this study, pyrolysis of EFB was conducted using a fluidized fixed bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperatures on bio-char yield was investigated. The pyrolysis temperature used ranged from 300-700°C. The elemental analysis, calorific value, surface area and total pore volume of the bio-char were determined. Results: The highest bio char yield of 41.56% was obtained at an optimum pyrolysis temperature of 300°C with particle size of 91-106 μm and the heating rate of 30°C min-1. The calorific values of bio-char ranged from 23-26 MJ kg-1. Conclusion: It was found that the bio-char products can be characterized as carbon rich, high calorific value and potential solid biofuels.

  3. Converting oil shale to liquid fuels: energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the Shell in situ conversion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R

    2008-10-01

    Oil shale is a sedimentary rock that contains kerogen, a fossil organic material. Kerogen can be heated to produce oil and gas (retorted). This has traditionally been a CO2-intensive process. In this paper, the Shell in situ conversion process (ICP), which is a novel method of retorting oil shale in place, is analyzed. The ICP utilizes electricity to heat the underground shale over a period of 2 years. Hydrocarbons are produced using conventional oil production techniques, leaving shale oil coke within the formation. The energy inputs and outputs from the ICP, as applied to oil shales of the Green River formation, are modeled. Using these energy inputs, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the ICP are calculated and are compared to emissions from conventional petroleum. Energy outputs (as refined liquid fuel) are 1.2-1.6 times greater than the total primary energy inputs to the process. In the absence of capturing CO2 generated from electricity produced to fuel the process, well-to-pump GHG emissions are in the range of 30.6-37.1 grams of carbon equivalent per megajoule of liquid fuel produced. These full-fuel-cycle emissions are 21%-47% larger than those from conventionally produced petroleum-based fuels. PMID:18939591

  4. Charred olive stones: experimental and archaeological evidence for recognizing olive processing residues used as fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, Freek; Marinova, E.; Sarpaki, A.

    2016-01-01

    After extracting oil from olives a residue is left usually referred to as the olive oil processing residue (OPR). This study explores the way in which ancient societies may have used OPR as fuel for fires to generate heat and the various issues that are related to the residues of this fuel. After dr

  5. Spent oil recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borza, M.; Leoncini, S.; Modenesi, A.

    1983-09-27

    A process is disclosed for reclaiming spent oil comprises the steps of removing water and light hydrocarbons, thermally treating the stripped oil, extracting it with a supercritical gas to insolubilize impurities and additives, separating the gas-rich fractions from the oil-depleted gas fractions, expanding the insoluble fractions, separating the additives and impurities, separating the various hydrocarbon fractions according to the respective viscosities, compressing and recycling the gas phases and withdrawing the residue and the oil fractions according to the respective viscosities.

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Amit P. Sharma

    2004-10-01

    This report describes the progress of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' for the duration of the second project year (October 1, 2003--September 30, 2004). There are three main tasks in this research project. Task 1 is scaled physical model study of GAGD process. Task 2 is further development of vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 is determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. In Section I, preliminary design of the scaled physical model using the dimensional similarity approach has been presented. Scaled experiments on the current physical model have been designed to investigate the effect of Bond and capillary numbers on GAGD oil recovery. Experimental plan to study the effect of spreading coefficient and reservoir heterogeneity has been presented. Results from the GAGD experiments to study the effect of operating mode, Bond number and capillary number on GAGD oil recovery have been reported. These experiments suggest that the type of the gas does not affect the performance of GAGD in immiscible mode. The cumulative oil recovery has been observed to vary exponentially with Bond and capillary numbers, for the experiments presented in this report. A predictive model using the bundle of capillary tube approach has been developed to predict the performance of free gravity drainage process. In Section II, a mechanistic Parachor model has been proposed for improved prediction of IFT as well as to characterize the mass transfer effects for miscibility development in reservoir crude oil-solvent systems. Sensitivity studies on model results indicate that provision of a single IFT measurement in the proposed model is sufficient for reasonable IFT predictions. An attempt has been made to correlate the exponent (n) in the mechanistic model with normalized solute compositions present in

  7. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-09-15

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  8. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  9. Evaluation of solid fuel char briquettes from human waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Barbara J; Yacob, Tesfayohanes W; Montoya, Lupita D

    2014-08-19

    The developing world faces dual crises of escalating energy demand and lack of urban sanitation infrastructure that pose significant burdens on the environment. This article presents results of a study evaluating the feasibility of using human feces-derived char as a solid fuel for heating and cooking and a potential way to address both crises. The study determined the energy content and the elemental composition of chars pyrolyzed at 300, 450, and 750 °C. Fecal chars made at 300 °C were found to be similar in energy content to wood chars and bituminous coal, having a heating value of 25.6 ± 0.08 MJ/kg, while fecal chars made at 750 °C had an energy content of 13.8 ± 0.48 MJ/kg. The higher heating values of the studied chars were evaluated using their elemental composition and a published predictive model; results found good agreement between the measured and predicted values. Fecal chars made at low temperatures were briquetted with molasses/lime and starch binders. Briquettes made with 10% starch had an average impact resistance index of 79 and a higher heating value of 25 MJ/kg. These values are comparable to those of commercial charcoal briquettes, making fecal char briquettes a potential substitute that also contributes to the preservation of the environment. PMID:25020243

  10. Comparing biological and thermochemical processing of sugarcane bagasse: An energy balance perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical performance of lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation versus pyrolysis processes for sugarcane bagasse was evaluated, based on currently available technology. Process models were developed for bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using three different pretreatment methods, i.e. dilute acid, liquid hot water and steam explosion, at various solid concentrations. Two pyrolysis processes, namely fast pyrolysis and vacuum pyrolysis, were considered as alternatives to biological processing for the production of biofuels from sugarcane bagasse. For bioethanol production, a minimum of 30% solids in the pretreatment reactor was required to render the process energy self-sufficient, which led to a total process energy demand equivalent to roughly 40% of the feedstock higher heating value. Both vacuum pyrolysis and fast pyrolysis could be operated as energy self-sufficient if 45% of the produced char from fast pyrolysis is used to fuel the process. No char energy is required to fuel the vacuum pyrolysis process due to lower process energy demands (17% compared to 28% of the feedstock higher heating value). The process models indicated that effective process heat integration can result in a 10-15% increase in all process energy efficiencies. Process thermal efficiencies between 52 and 56% were obtained for bioethanol production at pretreatment solids at 30% and 50%, respectively, while the efficiencies were 70% for both pyrolysis processes. The liquid fuel energy efficiency of the best bioethanol process is 41%, while that of crude bio-oil production before upgrading is 67% and 56% via fast and vacuum pyrolysis, respectively. Efficiencies for pyrolysis processes are expected to decrease by up to 15% should upgrade to a transportation fuel of equivalent quality to bioethanol be taken into consideration. -- Highlights: → Liquid biofuels can be produced via lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation or pyrolysis. → A minimum of

  11. The Relationship between Palm Oil Quality Index Development and Physical Properties of Fresh Fruit Bunches in the Ripening Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Keshvadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis is the most important tree crop in the rural economy of the humid rainforest of Malaysia. The oil is consumed as household food, used domestically for industrial purposes, and an important foreign exchange earning export. Normally, oil palm will be harvested after four years of planting. The oil palm yield will increase variously until the tenth year of planting. The yield will then remains at a stable stage until the twenty-fifth year. The maturity and palm oil development in the fruit ripening process is a good way to monitor harvest time and recommendation to evaluate the palm oil performance in food industries. This research is done on Tenera oil palm variety (A cross between Dura and Pisifera on 8-year-old planted in 2003 at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB Research Station. Fresh fruit Bunches were carried and were divided to three regions (Top, Middle and Bottom then were removed the fruits from outer and inner layers of them randomly, during the ripening process between 8, 12,16 and 20 weeks after anthesis for these aims: The relationship between maturity and oil development in mesocarp and kernel also investigate to fatty acid compositions during the ripening process at each three regions of bunch by Gas Chromatography (GC and Physical properties of oil palm fresh fruits such as length, width, thickness, weight, apparent volume, true density, bulk density, porosity, sphericity and surface area. Calculation of earned data related to ripening time, oil content and physical properties were done by MSTAT-C, SAS and Microsoft Excel computer programs.

  12. Role of oil imports in economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that energy has a vital role to play in a developing economy. The process of industrialization calls for continuous increase in energy use. In general, the greater the use of energy, the higher the economy is placed in the order of developed countries. Countries with high per-capita income have a high consumption level of energy too. On a per-capita basis, energy consumed in U.S.A. is 51.7 barrels of oil equivalent per year while in India, it is 0.9 barrels of oil equivalent only. Therefore, energy consumption, industrial development and economic growth are interlinked. Energy became a significant part in the process of development. In the case of developing countries, any change in the price of oil has a negative effect on economic growth. It was stated in one of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission reports that a fivefold increase in the international price of oil, in real terms, over the past 15 years has had profound effects on balance of payments and growth prospects in developing countries

  13. Differing perspectives of major oil firms on future energy developments: An illustrative framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study develops a framework to analyse the perspectives of major oil firms in terms of their perceptions of current energy developments and projections of future energy potentials, and illustrates their views on the possibility of a paradigm shift in fuel use. The three A's themes-availability of resource (AV), applicability of technology (AP) and acceptability by society (AC)-make up the analytical framework. Divergence in oil firms' behaviour and perspectives are captured by the 3-A triangle that illustrates how the four largest oil firms in the world balance their stakes among the three A's. ExxonMobil's position is markedly skewed towards the theme of AV, whilst BP has the most balanced approach among the four. Shell and Total both share a similarly shaped 3-A triangle with more stakes placed on the theme of AP. The results would imply that a paradigm shift in resource use or a full-scale transition to a backstop technology is unlikely in the coming decades

  14. Oil spill stranding processes

    OpenAIRE

    Korenika, Romina

    2015-01-01

    In the thesis, we discuss the processes of stranding and release of oil on the coast and off the coast in the case of an oil spill. We presented different ways of determining the maximum oil–holding capacity of the beach, and established that the retention mainly depends on the types of coastline and type of oil. Based on the classification of the coastline types in Slovenia, we chose a section of sandy and gravelly coastline as an example. For these types of coastlines, we calcul...

  15. Oil and gas activities in the program energy research and development (PERD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of non-nuclear energy research and development activities are covered under the umbrella of the Program of Energy Research and Development (PERD) managed by Natural Resources Canada. The research and development budget amounts to 52.5 million dollars annually, and is distributed across twelve federal departments and agencies. Horizontal coordinated research activities are taking place. Of this total budget, approximately 14 million dollars annually are spent to carry out oil and gas research and development activities by five federal departments and one agency. A results-based management for PERD was recently implemented by the Office of Energy Research and Development in an effort to improve the strategic management. Some of the efforts are directed toward research in the following general classification: upstream activities, offshore and frontier activities, and cross-cutting activities. Upgrading technologies and advanced separation technologies with the focus on oil sands bitumen represent the main issues addressed under the heading upstream activities. The major issues studied in the offshore and frontier activities are: basin assessment and geotechnics, wind-wave-current modelling, managing sea ice, ice-structure interactions, transportation safety, marine operations and ship design, management of offshore drilling and production waste, oil spills remediation and environmental impact assessment of offshore wastes and produced waters. Flaring, pipelines and soil and groundwater remediation are topics classified under the heading cross-cutting activities. The authors provided an overview of the activities and identified the future trends in PERD to meet the requirements of the various stakeholders and the Canadian population. 1 tab

  16. Eco-friendly and cleaner process for isolation of essential oil using microwave energy. Experimental and theoretical study

    OpenAIRE

    Farhat, Asma; Ginies, Christian; Romdhane, Mehrez; CHEMAT, Farid

    2009-01-01

    Microwave steam diffusion (MSD) was developed as a cleaner and new process design and operation for isolation of essentials oils and was compared to conventional steam diffusion (SD). The essential oils extracted by MSD for 3 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional steam diffusion for 20 min. In addition, an optimal operating steam flow rate of 25 g min―1 and microwave power 200W were found to ensure complete extraction yi...

  17. The development process and its relation to oil revenues and dependence on imported labor market in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes and analyzes the process of development in Saudi Arabia in relation to oil revenues and Saudi Arabian dependence on imported foreign labor. Modern development and societal change in Saudi Arabia began with the commercial exploitation of oil in 1939, therefore Saudi economy must be viewed from a dual perspective: a highly capital-intensive oil sector and a labor-intensive non-oil sector. In one generation the Kingdom created an infrastructure suitable to a rapid transformation from Bedouin tribes to a modern state, which became a leading regional power and now occupies an important place in international society. Important advances were made in social services, health services and education at all levels. Large-scale importation of foreign labor workers during the 1970s and early 1980s was necessary for the Development Plans. By the 1990s the major infrastructure was completed and only the maintenance work and minor projects remained for foreign labor sources

  18. The development of nitrogen functionality in model chars during gasification in CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A.; Matzner, S.; Boehm, H.P. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Waterman Inst.

    1999-10-01

    The development of the nitrogen functionality of model chars as a function of burn-off for gasification in CO{sub 2} or in O{sub 2} has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The type of carbon precursor (sucrose or phenolformaldehyde resin) and of nitrogen precursor (uracil, aniline or 3-hydroxypyridine), to synthesise the nitrogen doped model chars, did not have an influence on this development. The high-temperature chars (1373 K) exhibit N-functionalities attributed to pyridinic nitrogen, pyridones, and oxidic nitrogen species at the edges of the graphene structures and quaternary nitrogen incorporated in the graphene structure. With increasing burn-off levels, nitrogen accumulates in the char, especially during O{sub 2} gasification. A gradual transition from quaternary nitrogen to pyridine and pyridinic nitrogen is observed, due to the removal of surrounding carbon. In O{sub 2} this phenomenon is more pronounced than in CO{sub 2} gasification, and more pyridine is formed due to its association with carbon-oxygen functionalities. A schematic model is presented that accounts for the development of nitrogen functionalities and the nitrogen retention.

  19. Influence of reaction conditions and the char separation system on the production of bio-oil from radiata pine sawdust by fast pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Ju; Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Joo Sik [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong-Dong, Dondaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-743 (Korea)

    2008-08-15

    Radiata pine sawdust was pyrolyzed in a bubbling fluidized bed equipped with a char separation system. The influence of the reaction conditions on the production of bio-oil was investigated through the establishment of mass balance, and the examination of the products' chemical and physical characteristics. The optimal reaction temperature for the production of bio-oil was between 673 and 723 K, and the yield was above 50 wt.% of the product. An optimal feed size also existed. In a particle with a size that was less than 0.3 mm, the bio-oil yield decreased due to overheating, which led to gas formation. A higher flow rate and feeding rate were found to be more effective for the production of bio-oil, but did not significantly affect it. The main compounds of bio-oil were phenolics, including cresol, guaiacol, eugenol, benzendiol and their derivatives, ketones, and aldehydes. In addition, high-quality bio-oils, which contained less than 0.005 wt.% of solid, no ash and low concentrations of alkali and alkaline earth metals, were produced due to the char removal system. (author)

  20. Production and Characterization of Bio-Char from the Pyrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad A. Sukiran; Loh S. Kheang; Nasrin A. Bakar; Choo Y. May

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), shell, frond, trunk and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). For 88 million tones of Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 26 million tones. Studies about production of bio-char from oil palm biomass are still lacking in Malaysia. So, this study was aimed to: (i) determine the effect of pyrolysis temperatures on bio-char yield (ii...

  1. The merger of Statoil and Hydro Oil & Energy : managing the integration process

    OpenAIRE

    Szumilas, Aniela; Stensaker, Inger G.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the post-merger integration process between Statoil and Hydro oil & gas. While the two organizations were formally merged in October 2007, the work of planning the integration began even earlier and has proceeded well into 2009. Issues pertaining to how to organize a large-scale change process, designing and manning a new and integrated organization, the role of middle management during change and how the integration has influenced one of the international subsidiaries a...

  2. Oil shales and the nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two of the primary energy sources most dited as alternatives to the traditional fossil fuels are oil shales and nuclear energy. Several proposed processes for the extraction and utilization of oil and gas from shale are given. Possible efficient ways in which nuclear heat may be used in these processes are discussed

  3. Optimisation of slow-pyrolysis process conditions to maximise char yield and heavy metal adsorption of biochar produced from different feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, E; Lewys-James, A; Rao Ravella, S; Thomas-Jones, S; Perkins, W; Gallagher, J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to identify biomass feedstocks and optimum pyrolysis process conditions to produce a biochar capable of adsorbing metals from polluted groundwater. Taguchi experimental design was used to determine the effects of slow-pyrolysis process conditions on char yield and zinc adsorption. Treatments were repeated using six candidate feedstocks (Lolium perenne, Lolium perenne fibre, Miscanthus x giganteus, Salix viminalis, Fraxinus excelsior and Picea sitchensis) and the resultant chars were tested for metal adsorption performance. Chars produced from L. perenne and its extracted fibre displayed the greatest zinc adsorption performance and removed 83.27-92.96% respectively. Optimum process conditions in terms of both char yield and zinc adsorption performance were achieved from slow-pyrolysis at 300°C for 2h using a feedstock with a particle size of less than 1mm. PMID:27179953

  4. Development of coconut pith chars towards high elemental mercury adsorption performance - Effect of pyrolysis temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Khairiraihanna; Saman, Norasikin; Song, Shiow Tien; Cheu, Siew Chin; Kong, Helen; Mat, Hanapi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, chars from coconut pith (CP) were prepared aiming for superior adsorption towards elemental mercury (Hg(o)). The yield, proximate analysis, textural characteristics, surface functional groups and elemental composition analyses of the chars produced at pyrolysis temperature of 300 °C, 500 °C, 700 °C and 900 °C were compared. The surface area, pore volume, ash and carbon content of chars increased, while the yield and moisture content decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. The changing of physical and chemical properties of the chars produced at variety pyrolysis temperature was much effect on the Hg(o) adsorption performance and definitely provides important information on the Hg(o) adsorption mechanism. The highest Hg(o) adsorption capacity was observed for CP900 (6067.49 μg/g), followed by CP700 (2395.98 μg/g), CP500 (289.76 μg/g), CP300 (1.68 μg/g), and CP (0.73 μg/g). The equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. The pseudo-second order best described the kinetic data of the Hg(o) adsorption onto CP and CP300. For chars produced at higher pyrolysis temperature, however, the pseudo-zero order and pseudo-second order fitted well for the adsorption and breakthrough regions, respectively. The Hg(o) adsorption capacity of chars obtained from high pyrolysis temperature of CP significantly outperformed the commercial activated carbon (Darco KB-B) as well as superior to chars reported in the literature indicating the CP can be used as a precursor for preparation of chars as elemental mercury adsorbents. PMID:27160635

  5. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnia, Jundika C.; Sachin V. Jangam; Saad Akhtar; Agus P. Sasmito; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet) which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further...

  6. Production, characterization and reactivity studies of chars produced by the isothermal pyrolysis of flax straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of pyrolysis temperature and residence time on the char yields and resultant char characteristics were investigated in the isothermal pyrolysis of flax straw. The pyrolysis temperature was varied in the range between 300 and 500 °C and reaction residence time was varied from 15 to 60 min. The char yield was found to decrease with both increasing pyrolysis temperature and residence time. The char structure and physical characteristics were thoroughly investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) and N2 physisorption techniques. The results show that the degree of porosity and graphitization increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature and time. TPO studies on the char samples corroborate well with the XRD findings and showed the presence of two types of carbon; namely, amorphous filamentous carbon and crystalline graphitic carbon. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the char was performed to understand the combustion kinetics and reactivity. Chars formed at lower pyrolysis temperatures were found to be more reactive than the chars produced at higher pyrolysis temperatures, and these findings are well supported by the TPO, TGA, N2 physisorption and XRD characterization data. Furthermore, an empirical global kinetic model was devised based on power law and used to estimate the activation energy and other kinetic parameters of both flax straw pyrolysis and char combustion processes. -- Highlights: ► The results show conditions to obtain reactive chars from pyrolysis of flax straw. ► A higher pyrolysis temperature leads to a higher amount of nonreactive chars. ► A longer reaction time leads to a higher amount of nonreactive chars. ► A lower pyrolysis temperature and a shorter residence time lead to reactive chars. ► Pyrolysis temperature has a stronger effect on char reactivity than residence time.

  7. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Ucchesu

    Full Text Available The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC, allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants.

  8. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  9. The Relationship Between Palm Oil Index Development and Mechanical Properties in the Ripening Process of Tenera Variety Fresh Fruit Bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Keshvadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research has done to determine of the relationship between palm oil development in mesocarp and kernel and Mechanical properties of fresh fruit bunches during the ripening process. For this purpose, Tenera oil palm (Elaeis guineensis variety (A cross between Dura and Pisifera on 8 year- old palms planted in 2003 at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB research station were selected. Fresh fruit bunches were harvested and were divided into three regions (Top, Middle and Bottom where the fruits from outer and inner layers of them were removed randomly during the ripening process between 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after anthesis. Fruit firmness test was done by using a Instron Universal Testing Machine to determine the mechanical responses of oil palm fruit under compressive loading of a cylindrical probe with a soft tip at 25ºC (Cylindrical probe diameter = 6 mm, tip thickness = 3.2 mm, and tip elasticity = 3.27 MPa. The soxhlet extraction tubes were used to the palm oil extraction.Calculation of earned data related to ripening time, oil content and mechanical properties has done by MSTAT-C and Microsoft Excel computer programs.

  10. Butia Yatay coconut oil: Process development for biodiesel production and kinetics of esterification with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Coconut oil contains high levels of phosphorous and free fatty acids. • Especial degumming process is needed in order to decrease the phosphorous content. • Kinetic constant for esterification reaction decreases as a function of time. • Two-step esterification is more efficient to reduce acidity than one-step. • Approximately 15% of esters are formed by acid-catalyzed transesterification. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study biodiesel production using Butia Yatay coconut oil. This oil has acid values between 109 and 140 mg KOH/g, and phosphorus content in the order of 600 ppm. A three-step degumming pre-treatment of the raw material was adjusted in order to decrease the phosphorus content to approximately 200 ppm. Afterwards, a two-step esterification followed by transesterification was required in order to obtain a high-quality product. The esterification kinetics was studied including the simultaneous reactions that take place during the esterification of free fatty acids: autocatalysis, triacylglycerides hydrolysis, transesterification, and the reaction of sulphuric acid with the alcohol, being the most important ones. The kinetic parameters for the esterification and autocatalysis reactions were also obtained, being different compared to sunflower oil, due to the presence of short chain fatty acids. The kinetic constant for the esterification reaction rapidly decreases as a function of time, due to the consumption of the catalyst by the alkyl-sulphate formation reaction

  11. Development of the process of energy transfer from a nuclear Power Plant to an intermediate temperature electrolyse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty million tons of hydrogen are consumed annually in the world in various industrial processes. Among them, the ammonia production, oil refining and the production of methanol. One of the methods to produce it is the electrolysis of water, oxygen and hydrogen. This process needs electricity and steam which a central nuclear It can be your source; Hence the importance of developing the transfer process energy between the two. The objective of the study is to characterize the process of thermal energy transfer from a nuclear power plant to an electrolyzer of intermediate temperature (ITSE) already defined. The study is limited to the intermediate engineering process, from the central to the cell.

  12. Oxidation behavior of biomass chars: pectin and Populus deltoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-Shig Shim; Mohammad R. Hajaligol; Vicki L. Baliga [Philip Morris USA, Richmond, VA (United States). Research Center

    2004-08-01

    Biomass chars of pectin and cotton wood (Populus deltoides) were prepared by using a heating rate of about 1{sup o}C/s, peak pyrolysis temperatures of 400-800{sup o}C, and residence times of 10-60 min at peak temperatures. Char samples were pyrolyzed in a helium atmosphere using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Oxidation reactivity measurements of the same char samples in the TGA were collected after converting the helium atmosphere to an oxygen containing atmosphere. Reactivities were measured using an isothermal method at various reaction temperatures from 400 to 700{sup o}C and oxygen concentrations of 2-21%. Oxidation kinetic parameters such as apparent reaction order and apparent activation energies were obtained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to study morphological and structural development in the char samples as a function of heat treatment temperature. An interesting morphological development on the surface of the char was observed by SEM, which showed evolution of vesicle formation and whisker growth as heat treatment temperatures increased. Its implication on char reactivity is discussed. Preliminary results showed decreasing reactivity with increasing peak heat treatment temperatures. Char reactivity was affected more by the heat treatment temperature than by the hold times (10-60 min). 15 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  14. Influence of pyrolysis conditions on the structure and gasification reactivity of biomass chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; B. Moghtaderi; R. Gupta; T.F. Wall [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering

    2004-11-01

    The physical and chemical structure as well as gasification reactivities of chars generated from several biomass species (i.e. pinus radiata, eucalyptus maculata and sugar cane bagasse) were studied to gain insight into the role of heating rate and pressure on the gasification characteristics of biomass chars. Char samples were generated in a suite of reactors including a wire mesh reactor, a tubular reactor, and a drop tube furnace. Scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, digital cinematography and surface area analysis were employed to determine the impact of operating conditions on the char structure. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined for a range of pressures between 1 and 20 bar using pressurised thermogravimetric analysis technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. It was found that under high heating rates the char particles underwent plastic deformation (i.e. melted) developing a structure different to that of the virgin biomass. Pressure was also found to influence the physical and chemical structures of char particles. The difference in the gasification reactivities of biomass chars at pressure was found to correlate well with the effect of pyrolysis pressure on the graphitisation process in the biomass char structure. 29 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Development of CFD-Based Simulation Tools for In-Situ Thermal Processing of Oil Shale/Sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-02-01

    In our research, we are taking the novel approach of developing and applying high performance computing, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulation tools to a modified in-situ process for production of oil from oil shale. The simulation tools being developed capture the relevant physical processes and data from a large-scale system. The modified in-situ application is a pilot-scale heat transfer process inside Red Leaf Resources EcoShale capsule. We demonstrate the need to understand fluid flow behavior in the convective channels of the rubblized shale bed as convective heating greatly decreases the time required to heat the oil shale to the production temperature when compared with conductive heating alone. We have developed and implemented a geometry creation strategy for a representative section of the EcoShale capsule, developed a meshing approach to deal with the complicated geometry and produce a well-behaved mesh, analyzed the effects of boundary conditions on the simulation results, and devised a new operator splitting solution algorithm that reduces computational costs by taking advantage of the differing convective and conductive time scales occurring in the simulation. These simulation tools can be applied to a wide range of processes involving convective fluid flow heating in rubblized beds.

  16. Intensification of adsorption process by using the pyrolytic char from waste tires to remove chromium(Ⅵ) from wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jie; YANG Yong-rong

    2004-01-01

    Pyrolysis has the potential of transforming waste into valuable recyclable products. Pyrolytic char(PC) is one of the most important products from the pyrolysis of used tires. One of the most significant applications for pyrolytic char recovered is used for the removal of Cr(Ⅵ) in the wastewater effluent to control waste by waste. The surface chemistry properties of surface element distribution / concentration and chemical structure were examined for the pyrolytic char and the commercial activated carbon(CAC) respectively. The results showed that surfaces of PC possesses a large amount of ester and hydrocarbon graft, whereas there are mainly carbon functional components of C-OH, C=O and COOH on the surface of CAC. Therefore the surface electronegativity of PC is lower than that of CAC in the water. The repulsive interactions between the surfaces of PC and the negatively charged Cr(Ⅵ) ion are weaker than that of CAC, which results in an intensification of the adsorption process by the utilization of PC. The adsorption isotherms of Cr(Ⅵ) ion on the two kinds of carbons were determined experimentally. The larger adsorption amount on the PC in the case of Cr(Ⅵ) may be attributed mainly to its special surface micro-chemical environment. The mechanism of the removal Cr(Ⅵ) from aqueous solution was assumed to be the integration of adsorption and redox reaction. The adsorption was the rate-controlled step for Cr(Ⅵ) removal. The adsorption of Cr(Ⅵ) has been identified as pseudo-second- order kinetics. The rate constants of adsorption have been evaluated.

  17. The development of a neuroscience-based methodology for the nuclear energy learning/teaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When compared to other energy sources such as fossil fuels, coal, oil, and gas, nuclear energy has perhaps the lowest impact on the environment. Moreover, nuclear energy has also benefited other fields such as medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and agriculture, among others. However, despite all benefits that result from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the theme is still addressed with prejudice. Education may be the starting point for public acceptance of nuclear energy as it provides pedagogical approaches, learning environments, and human resources, which are essential conditions for effective learning. So far nuclear energy educational researches have been conducted using only conventional assessment methods. The global educational scenario has demonstrated absence of neuroscience-based methods for the teaching of nuclear energy, and that may be an opportunity for developing new strategic teaching methods that will help demystifying the theme consequently improving public acceptance of this type of energy. This work aims to present the first step of a methodology in progress based on researches in neuroscience to be applied to Brazilian science teachers in order to contribute to an effective teaching/learning process. This research will use the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to verify implicit attitudes of science teachers concerning nuclear energy. Results will provide data for the next steps of the research. The literature has not reported a similar neuroscience-based methodology applied to the nuclear energy learning/teaching process; therefore, this has demonstrated to be an innovating methodology. The development of the methodology is in progress and the results will be presented in future works. (author)

  18. The development of a neuroscience-based methodology for the nuclear energy learning/teaching process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, Roberta de C.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: robertabarabas@usp.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    When compared to other energy sources such as fossil fuels, coal, oil, and gas, nuclear energy has perhaps the lowest impact on the environment. Moreover, nuclear energy has also benefited other fields such as medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and agriculture, among others. However, despite all benefits that result from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the theme is still addressed with prejudice. Education may be the starting point for public acceptance of nuclear energy as it provides pedagogical approaches, learning environments, and human resources, which are essential conditions for effective learning. So far nuclear energy educational researches have been conducted using only conventional assessment methods. The global educational scenario has demonstrated absence of neuroscience-based methods for the teaching of nuclear energy, and that may be an opportunity for developing new strategic teaching methods that will help demystifying the theme consequently improving public acceptance of this type of energy. This work aims to present the first step of a methodology in progress based on researches in neuroscience to be applied to Brazilian science teachers in order to contribute to an effective teaching/learning process. This research will use the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to verify implicit attitudes of science teachers concerning nuclear energy. Results will provide data for the next steps of the research. The literature has not reported a similar neuroscience-based methodology applied to the nuclear energy learning/teaching process; therefore, this has demonstrated to be an innovating methodology. The development of the methodology is in progress and the results will be presented in future works. (author)

  19. Application of Wood Char in Processing Oolitic High-phosphorus Hematite for Phosphorus Removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-qing TANG; Yan-qi QIN; Teng-fei QI; Zhi-lei DONG; Qing-guo XUE

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus removal from oolitic high-phosphorus hematite using direct reduction followed by melting sep-aration was investigated.At the direct reduction stage,highly volatile wood char was prepared by carbonizing j uj ube wood at 673 K for 2 h and was used as reducing agent.The results of the direct reduction tests show that at a tem-perature of 1 373 K,a char mixing ratio of 0�8,and a reduction time of 10-25 min,the briquettes reached a metal-lization degree of 80%-84% and a residual carbon content of 0�13-1�98 mass%.Phosphorus remained in the gangue as calcium phosphate after reduction.The results of the melting separation tests show that residual carbon in reduced briquette negatively affects the phosphorus content (w[P])in hot metal.When the reduced briquettes ob-tained under the aforementioned conditions were used for melting separation,hot metal suitable for basic oxygen steelmaking (w[P]<0�4 mass%)could not be obtained from metallic briquettes with a residual carbon content more than 1�0 mass%.In contrast,it could be obtained from metallic briquettes with residual carbon content less than 0�35 mass% by mixing with 2%-4% Na2 CO3 .

  20. Slow pyrolysis of poultry litter and pine woody biomass: impact of chars and bio-oils on microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, K C; Garcia-Perez, M; Bibens, B; Melear, N

    2008-06-01

    Accidental or prescribed fires in forests and in cultivated fields, as well as primitive charcoal production practices, are responsible for the release of large amounts of gases, char and condensable organic molecules into the environment. This paper describes the impact of condensable organic molecules and chars resulting from the slow pyrolysis of poultry litter, pine chips and pine pellets on the growth of microbial populations in soil and water. The proximate and elemental analyses as well as the content of proteins, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and ash for each of these bio-materials are reported. The yields and some properties of char and condensable liquids are also documented. The behavior of microbial populations in soil and water is followed through respiration studies. It was found that biological activity was highest when aqueous fractions from poultry litter were applied in water. Cumulative oxygen consumption over a 120-h period was highest in the aqueous phases from poultry litter coarse fraction (1.82 mg/g). On average the oxygen consumption when oily fractions from poultry litter were applied represented 44 to 62% of that when aqueous fractions were applied. Pine chip and pine pellet derived liquids and chars produced respiration activity that were an order of magnitude lower than that of poultry litter liquid fractions. These results suggest that the growth observed is due to the effect of protein-derived molecules. PMID:18444073

  1. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250–300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the ...

  2. Oil-free bearing development for high-speed turbomachinery in distributed energy systems - dynamic and environmental evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Eliza; Kozanecka, Dorota; Kozanecki, Zbigniew; Łagodziński, Jakub

    2015-09-01

    Modern distributed energy systems, which are used to provide an alternative to or an enhancement of traditional electric power systems, require small size highspeed rotor turbomachinery to be developed. The existing conventional oil-lubricated bearings reveal performance limits at high revolutions as far as stability and power loss of the bearing are concerned. Non-conventional, oil-free bearings lubricated with the machine working medium could be a remedy to this issue. This approach includes a correct design of the machine flow structure and an accurate selection of the bearing type. Chosen aspects of the theoretical and experimental investigations of oil-free bearings and supports; including magnetic, tilting pad, pressurized aerostatic and hydrostatic bearings as well as some applications of oil-free bearing technology for highspeed turbomachinery; are described in the paper.

  3. Oil-free bearing development for high-speed turbomachinery in distributed energy systems – dynamic and environmental evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkacz Eliza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern distributed energy systems, which are used to provide an alternative to or an enhancement of traditional electric power systems, require small size highspeed rotor turbomachinery to be developed. The existing conventional oil-lubricated bearings reveal performance limits at high revolutions as far as stability and power loss of the bearing are concerned. Non-conventional, oil-free bearings lubricated with the machine working medium could be a remedy to this issue. This approach includes a correct design of the machine flow structure and an accurate selection of the bearing type. Chosen aspects of the theoretical and experimental investigations of oil-free bearings and supports; including magnetic, tilting pad, pressurized aerostatic and hydrostatic bearings as well as some applications of oil-free bearing technology for highspeed turbomachinery; are described in the paper.

  4. Relationship between attachment probability and surface energy in adhesion process of gold particles to oil-carbon agglomerates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xi-qing(伍喜庆); A.J. Monhemius; R.J. Gochin

    2003-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analyses, the adhesion process of fine gold particles to oil-carbon agglomerates in a dynamic system was quantitatively investigated in terms of the relationship between the attachment probability and the surface energy. The proposed way to establish this relationship is to firstly theoretically derive the formula to evaluate the surface energy change of the system by analyzing the adhesion process of a gold particle on an oil-carbon agglomerate in a mathematic and thermodynamic way. The obtained formula of the maximum energy change of unit surface area is, △ω'max =-1/2σhw (cosθ-1), which involves two measurable elements: interfacial tension and contact angle. In a well-quantified system, based on the related model it is also possible to calculate the complicated concept, namely, the attachment probability by transferring other measurable indices. In this way, after some adhesion experiments and measurements of relevant parameters, the empirical relationship between the attachment probability and the surface energy change was established in an exponential function, Pa =Aexp(-△Gsurf/k).

  5. Oil Pipelines, This is an ESRI feature class of Enbridge Energy's Rock County crude oil lines., Published in 2005, Rock County Planning, Economic, and Community Development Agency.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Oil Pipelines dataset as of 2005. It is described as 'This is an ESRI feature class of Enbridge Energy's Rock County crude oil lines.'. Data by this publisher...

  6. Development of a microbial process for the recovery of petroleum oil from depleted reservoirs at 91-96°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Preeti; Ranade, Dilip R; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K

    2014-08-01

    A consortium of bacteria growing at 91°C and above (optimally at 96°C) was developed for the recovery of crude oil from declining/depleted oil reservoirs having temperature of more than 91°C. PCR-DGGE-Sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments of NJS-4 consortium revealed the presence of four strains identified as members of the genus Clostridium. The metabolites produced by NJS-4 consortium included volatile fatty acids, organic acids, surfactants, exopolysaccarides and CO2, which reduced viscosity, emulsified crude oil and increased the pressure that facilitated displacement of emulsified oil towards the surface. NJS-4 enhanced oil recovery by 26.7% and 10.1% in sand pack trials and core flood studies respectively in optimized nutrient medium comprised of sucrose and sodium acetate as carbon/energy source and urea as nitrogen source (pH 7-9, 96°C, and 4% salinity). Nutrient medium for MEOR was constituted using commercial grade cheap nutrients to improve the economic viability of MEOR process. PMID:24746769

  7. The development of the super-biodiesel production continuously from Sunan pecan oil through the process of reactive distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohana, Eflita; Yulianto, Moh. Endy; Ikhsan, Diyono; Nanta, Aditya Marga; Puspitasari, Ristiyanti

    2016-06-01

    In general, a vegetable oil-based biodiesel production commercially operates a batch process with high investments and operational costs. Thus, it is necessary to develop super-biodiesel production from sunan pecan oil continuously through the process of reactive distillation. There are four advantages of the reactive distillation process for the biodiesel production, as follows: (i) it incorporates the process of transesterification reaction, and product separation of residual reactants become one stage of the process, so it saves the investment and operation costs, (ii) it reduces the need for raw materials because the methanol needed corresponds to the stoichiometry, so it also reduces the operation costs, (iii) the holdup time in the column is relatively short (5±0,5 minutes) compared to the batch process (1-2 hours), so it will reduce the operational production costs, and (iv) it is able to shift the reaction equilibrium, because the products and reactants that do not react are instantly separated (based on Le Chatelier's principles) so the conversion will be increased. However, the very crucial problem is determining the design tools and process conditions in order to maximize the conversion of the transesterification reaction in both phases. Thus, the purpose of this research was to design a continuous reactive distillation process by using a recycled condensate to increase the productivity of the super-biodiesel from sunan pecan oil. The research was carried out in three stages including (i) designing and fabricating the reactive distillation equipment, (ii) testing the tool performance and the optimization of the biodiesel production, and (iii) biodiesel testing on the diesel engine. These three stages were needed in designing and scaling-up the process tools and the process operation commercially. The reactive distillation process tools were designed and manufactured with reference to the design system tower by Kitzer, et.al. (2008). The manufactured

  8. Comparison of real waste (MSW and MPW) pyrolysis in batch reactor over different catalysts. Part II: contaminants, char and pyrolysis oil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskolczi, Norbert; Ateş, Funda; Borsodi, Nikolett

    2013-09-01

    Pyrolysis of real wastes (MPW and MSW) has been investigated at 500°C, 550°C and 600°C using Y-zeolite, β-zeolite, equilibrium FCC, MoO3, Ni-Mo-catalyst, HZSM-5 and Al(OH)3 as catalysts. The viscosity of pyrolysis oils could be decreased by the using of catalysts, especially by β-zeolite and MoO3. Both carbon frame and double bound isomerization was found in case of thermo-catalytic pyrolysis. Char morphology and texture analysis showed more coke deposits on the catalyst surface using MSW raw material. Pyrolysis oils had K, S, P Cl, Ca, Zn, Fe, Cr, Br and Sb as contaminants; and the concentrations of K, S, P, Cl and Br could be decreased by the using of catalysts. PMID:23891947

  9. Upgrading the extra heavy oil from Orinoco petroleum belt : a global energy development opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Acurero, I.G.; Quijada Alvarado, T.J.; Guzman-Garcia Marin, C. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) plans to construct 2 extra heavy crude oil (XHO) upgrader complexes in the Orinoco Petroleum Belt (OPB) in order to enhance Venezuela's large reserves of XHO. Each complex will consist of at least 2 upgraders, 1 Industrial Hub and the associated infrastructure for handling, transporting and dispatching the liquid and solids products. Each Upgrader will have a minimum capacity of processing 200 MBD of crude oil of about 8.5 API from the Carabobo and Junin areas of the OPB, to produce a better quality oil with more than 30 API and less than 0.1 per cent sulfur by weight. The oil can be used as diluent in the preparation of mixtures that can be processed at existing refineries. PDVSA has conducted several studies on the upgrading process, some of which consider new technologies like hydrogen addition instead of carbon rejection. It was concluded that the use of HDHPLUS technology offers the best advantages because it has the best profitability indicators and higher dilution capacity. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Integrated processing for heavy crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Yadira

    2015-01-01

    Energy based on non-renewable resources such as gas, oil, coal and nuclear fission, even with their serious problems of pollution, contributes to 86% of the global energy consumption. Oil will remain the dominant transport fuel: about 87% of transport fuel in 2030 will still be petroleum-based.Discoveries of conventional sources of light easy-to-access crude oil are becoming less common and current oil production levels are struggling to match demand, it is necessary to develop new non-conven...

  11. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: → We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. → Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. → Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. → Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. → At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  12. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman, E-mail: mohdnorh@andrew.cmu.ed [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Jaramillo, Paulina [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Griffin, W. Michael [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO{sub 2}-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO{sub 2}-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: {yields} We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. {yields} Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. {yields} Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. {yields} Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. {yields} At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  13. Energy policy, social exclusion and sustainable development: The biofuels and oil and gas cases in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno

    2010-09-15

    Recent Brazilian policies have encouraged impoverished communities to participate in the country's growing energy industry. This paper explores the country's attempts to encourage such participation within the oil and gas and biofuels sectors. Our research is based on interviews with industry executives, policymakers, non-governmental organizations and farmers conducted between 2005-2009 in Brazil, an emerging energy leader, yet a country grappling with social exclusion. We propose that some sectors have a propensity to be exclusive due to technological complexity, whereas other sectors, although less complex, tend to economize at the expense of social programs. We conclude with managerial and policy implications.

  14. 污水处理工艺对污泥热解半焦热解特性的影响%Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the chars from sewage sludge pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 解立平; 高建东; 曹占平

    2013-01-01

    The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis chars,derived from the pyrolysis of five different sewage sludges from three wastewater treatment plants under 450 ℃ , were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis with a heating rate of 10 ℃/min in nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the five chars all can be divided into four stages: the stages of water release, slow weight loss, volatile release and residue decomposition respectively. Both the anaerobic process of wastewater treatment processes and sludge anaerobic digestion make the organic compounds in char complicated. The sludge anaerobic digestion improves the pyrolysis property of char, but the processes of " anaerobic + aerobic" and "aerobic + anaerobic" in wastewater treatment processes make the properties decrease,in which the influence of " aerobic + anaerobic " on the pyrolysis property of sludge is different from that of char; the third stage of char pyrolysis corresponds to the fourth stage of the sludge pyrolysis to some degree. The pyrolysis mechanisms of the five chars have been studied with Coats-Redfern method. It indicates that the mechanism functions of the five chars are not identical each other, but the pyrolysis activation energies of chars are higher than that of sludges.%通过在升温速率10℃/min和氮气氛围下的热重实验,对来自3个污水处理厂的5种污泥在450℃下热解制得半焦的热解特性进行了研究.结果表明,5种半焦的热解过程均为水分析出、缓慢失重、挥发分析出和残余物分解4个阶段.污水处理工艺中的厌氧过程和污泥厌氧消化使半焦中的有机物复杂化;污泥厌氧消化改善了半焦的热解性能,污水处理工艺中的“厌氧+好氧”和“好氧+厌氧”过程则降低了半焦的热解性能,其中“好氧+厌氧”过程对半焦热解性能的影响异于其对污泥热解性能的影响;半焦热解时的第三阶段与污泥的第四阶段

  15. Cyber-Spatial Academic Networking for Energy (Oil, Natural Gas, Electricity Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard INGWE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers of society/sociology recently espoused the concept of a new society and its new paradigm distinguished from the old that was based on industry and the energy forms that drove them since the industrial revolution. The new society which is driven by information and communications technologies (ICTs has created the network society whereby cyber-spatial (internet-based platforms operate in leveraging previous and conventional interaction among researchers concerned with single subjects and/or multi-disciplinary research projects, exchanges of ideas, opinions, concerns/worries, viewpoints, project management, among other issues in the nexus of developing and applying academic knowledge. While most of those that are popularly used are of the universal (non-specific nationality or global character, fairly country-specific (i.e. restricted membership or nation-focused cyber-spatial platforms present opportunities for enhancing or optimizing the profit of academic interaction and exchanges that concentrate on challenges that are limited to one country but promote greater understanding among those academics involved compared to the rather universal cyber-spatial platforms. Here, we conceive and hypothetically theorize a cyber-spatial platform for enhancing interaction among Nigerian scholars and academics concerned with energy which has been driving industry. Examined in this article are: contexts of scholarship in Nigeria (tertiary educational institutions, research and knowledge needs for sustainable development; the network society as a suitable framework for theoretically framing the cyber-spatial platform; an exemplary multi-disciplinary approach for multi-disciplinary petroleum oil, natural gas and energy concentrating on (or drawing from the social sciences; management of the program; discussion and conclusion. The implications of this article for policy is that while the National Universities’ Commission and the Federal Ministry of

  16. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250-300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes.

  17. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinti, Jennifer [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Birgenheier, Lauren [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, Milind [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Facelli, Julio [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, Michal [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Miller, Jan [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); McLennan, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, Terry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Uchitel, Kirsten [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report summarizes the significant findings from the Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources program sponsored by the Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory. There were four principle areas of research; Environmental, legal, and policy issues related to development of oil shale and oil sands resources; Economic and environmental assessment of domestic unconventional fuels industry; Basin-scale assessment of conventional and unconventional fuel development impacts; and Liquid fuel production by in situ thermal processing of oil shale Multiple research projects were conducted in each area and the results have been communicated via sponsored conferences, conference presentations, invited talks, interviews with the media, numerous topical reports, journal publications, and a book that summarizes much of the oil shale research relating to Utah’s Uinta Basin. In addition, a repository of materials related to oil shale and oil sands has been created within the University of Utah’s Institutional Repository, including the materials generated during this research program. Below is a listing of all topical and progress reports generated by this project and submitted to the Office of Science and Technical Information (OSTI). A listing of all peer-reviewed publications generated as a result of this project is included at the end of this report; Geomechanical and Fluid Transport Properties 1 (December, 2015); Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis (February, 2015); and Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach (November, 2014); Policy Issues Associated With Using Simulation to Assess Environmental Impacts (November, 2014); Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience (September, 2013); V-UQ of Generation 1 Simulator with AMSO Experimental Data (August, 2013); Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges

  18. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from demineralized tyre char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, S.; Prasad, Guddu R.; Joshi, Parth.; Zala, Ranjitsingh S.; Gokhale, Siddharth S.; Manocha, L. M.

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon is the most adsorbing material for industrial waste water treatment. For wider applications, the main consideration is to manufacture activated carbon from low cost precursors, which are easily available and cost effective. One such source is scrap tyres. Recently much effort has been devoted to the thermal degradation of tyres into gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons and solid char residue, all of which have the potential to be processed into valuable products. As for solid residue, char can be used either as low-grade reinforcing filler or as activated carbon. The product recovered by a typical pyrolysis of tyres are usually, 33-38 wt% pyrolytic char, 38-55 wt% oil and 10-30 wt% solid fractions. In the present work activated carbon was prepared from pyrolyzed tyre char (PC). Demineralization involves the dissolution of metal into acids i.e. HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4 and in base i.e. NaOH. Different concentration of acid and base were used. Sodium hydroxide showed maximum amount of metal oxide removal. Further the concentration of sodium hydroxide was varied from 1N to 6N. As the concentration of acid are increased demineralization increases. 6N Sodium hydroxide is found to be more effective demineralising agent of tyre char.

  19. Mixed waste treatment using the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diversity of mixed waste matrices contained at Department of Energy sites that require treatment preclude a single, universal treatment technology capable of handling sludges, solids, heterogeneous debris, aqueous and organic liquids and soils. Versatility of the treatment technology, volume reduction and containment of the radioactive component of the mixed waste streams are three criteria to be considered when evaluating potential treatment technologies. The ChemChar thermolytic detoxification process being developed under this R and D contract is a thermal, chemically reductive technology that converts the organic portion of a mixed waste stream to an energy-rich synthesis gas while simultaneously absorbing volatile inorganic species (metals and acid gases) on a macroporous, carbon-based char. The latter is mixed with the waste stream prior to entering the reactor. Substoichiometric amounts of oxidant are fed into the top portion of the cylindrical reactor generating a thin, radial thermochemical reaction zone. This zone generates all the necessary heat to promote the highly endothermic reduction of the organic components in the waste in the lower portion of the reactor, producing, principally, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The solid by-product is a regenerated carbon char that, depending on the inorganic loading, is capable for reuse. The in situ scrubbing of contaminants by the char within the reactor coupled with a char filter for final polishing produce an exceptionally clean synthesis gas effluent suitable for on-site generation of heat, steam or electricity. Despite the elevated temperatures in the thermochemical reaction zone, the reductive nature of the process precludes formation of nitrogen oxides and halogenated organic compound by-products

  20. Steam gasification of char from wood chips fast pyrolysis: Development of a semi-empirical model for a fluidized bed reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study, performed in the context of GAYA project, focuses on the development of a simple predictive model about steam gasification of char from woodchips fast pyrolysis. A semi-empirical model was developed through experiments in a macro thermogravimetric analyzer which owns the peculiar ability of fast heating, as well as to deal with macro-size particles and higher mass loads compared to conventional TGA. The experimental results show that gasification is controlled by chemical kinetics and internal transfer phenomena. During gasification, char particles can be considered as isothermal in a given range of temperatures and particle sizes, more likely for low values. The gasification model was based on the effectiveness factor, which involves the chemical kinetics and diffusion rate. The chemical kinetics were expressed by a classical Arrhenius law, whereas empirical expressions from mathematical fitting of the experimental data were established for the diffusion coefficient and surface function. The diffusion coefficient from this work is suspected to probably include supplementary rate limiting phenomena, apart from steam porous diffusion, such as H2 inhibition and/or the decrease of temperature within char particles because of the endothermic character of gasification. The model globally predicts with accuracy the gasification rate in typical operating conditions of a fluidized bed reactor. For its simplicity and reliability, this approach can be used for the modelling of char gasification in the conditions of interest. - Highlights: • Char gasification is controlled by chemical kinetics and internal transfers. • Char particles are isothermal during gasification only at certain conditions. • The temperature decrease within char particles may affect gasification rate. • Gasification within the particle could be inhibited by the produced H2. • The developed semi-empirical model predicts with accuracy gasification rate

  1. Global Trends and Development Prospects for Oil and the Oil Products Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dorozhkina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the important issue of the development of the global market of oil and oil products. It offers an overview of how this market was formed and its current status, classification, location and potential of countries in the oil and oil processing business. It analyzes the Ukrainian oil products market. The article discusses the shortcomings and strategic areas for the development of Ukraine’s oil transport system. It presents an optimum method for creating integration groups in order to develop the oil processing business in Ukraine for the future. The article considers the main trends and outlines development prospects for the global oil and oil products market.

  2. Oil for development 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    In this report present key achievements for each of the various cooperation countries. Oil for Development (OfD) assistance has been important for the ability of a country like Ghana to improve petroleum resource management on its most important oil and gas field, and to better safeguard that the petroleum activities are conducted in an environmentally sustainable way. Competence building on Increased Oil Recovery (IOR), and negotiation training have helped to increase both the resource extraction potential and the revenue generation potential of a more mature oil producing country like Iraq. Furthermore, OfD has contributed to improving the legislative frameworks in several of our cooperating countries, including Afghanistan, Cambodia and Madagascar, although it will take time before we can assess to what extent the laws have been implemented. OfD's strong focus on providing legal assistance reflects our belief that clear divisions of roles and firm legal mandates are prerequisites for good governance of the petroleum sector and for attracting serious investors. A lot of our capacity building took place through seminars and more tailored workshops with a national or regional scope. We believe that some of these events have significantly increased awareness as well as the level of debate among government institutions and civil society. The oil production accounting workshop in Nigeria and the NOC workshop in Timor-Leste are particularly valid examples. Timor-Leste also addressed other petroleum sector governance issues with a focus on including civil society and by the end of 2009 had nearly fulfilled all criteria for becoming Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) compliant. It should be noted that OfD assistance only made a relatively small contribution to this process, which was very much nationally driven. Petroleum related environmental issues were addressed at different levels and from different angles. A thorough environmental needs

  3. Compromised development and survival in amphibians in reclaimed wetlands' water containing oil sands process-affected material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When closing a mine, operators must comply with government regulations to ensure that the sites are ecologically sustainable to support endemic flora and fauna. Creating wetlands in order to age and detoxify oil sands process-affected materials (OSPM) is a common reclamation strategy. In this study, amphibians indigenous to the boreal forest ecosystem were examined to determine if they can complete their lifecycle in water from reclaimed wetlands. Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) eggs were collected from a natural pond 60 km south of an oil sand mining site. Tadpoles were raised in 1 of 6 water treatments refreshed every two days. The 2 reference water treatments included aged tap water and water from natural wetlands. The remaining 4 water treatments were from research wetlands on Syncrude and Suncor lease sites. Of the 120 tadpoles raised per water treatment, there was no significant difference in growth, development, or survival rates between the aged tap water and reference wetland water, but the fastest growth, development, and highest survival rates occurred in the two reference groups. There was a pronounced difference among the 4 treatment groups from Suncor and Syncrude reclamation sites. Survival was high in 3 of the water treatments from Syncrude and Suncor sites, but development rates were considerably reduced. Tadpoles that do not metamorphose before winter do not survive. It was therefore concluded that delayed development in tadpoles poses a serious risk to population stability in OSPM-containing wetlands.

  4. Production and characterization of Lemna minor bio-char and its catalytic application for biogas reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass - Lemna minor (commonly known as duckweed) with the emphasis on production, characterization and catalytic application of bio-char is reported in this paper. The yield of bio-char was determined as a function of L. minor pyrolysis temperature and sweep gas flow rate. It was found that the pore development during L. minor pyrolysis was not significant and the changes in the reaction conditions (temperature and sweep gas flow rate) did not alter markedly the textural characteristics and BET surface area of the bio-char produced. Thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses of L. minor and different bio-char samples in inert (helium) and oxidative (air) media showed substantial differences in their TG/DTG patterns. A comparison of scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of L. minor, bio-char and ash indicated that the basic structural features of L. minor remained intact and were not affected by thermolysis. The inorganic ash content of L. minor derived bio-char is significantly higher than that of typical terrestrial (plant) biomass. The energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analysis of L. minor ash showed that it mostly consisted of silica, and small quantities of Na, K and Ca compounds. The treatment of bio-char with CO2 at 800 °C increased its BET surface area. It was found that CO2-treated bio-char exhibited appreciable initial catalytic activity in biogas reforming. -- Highlights: New data on characterization of bio-chars derived from Lemna minor are presented. ► Effect of pyrolysis operational parameters on bio-char properties is determined. ► Basic skeletal structure of Lemna minor leaflets does not change during pyrolysis. ► Bio-chars show an appreciable initial catalytic activity for biogas reforming.

  5. Development of Statistical Accuracy Improvement Methodology for Oil Refinery Sector's Energy and Carbon Balance and Statistical Accuracy on Japanese General Energy Statistics (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KAINOU Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Current Japanese General Energy Statistics quantifies energy and carbon balance of oil refinery sector solely by input such as crude oil and output such as gasoline, and regards the discrepancy as a statistical error and does not count energy consumption or energy origin carbon dioxide emission for the discrepancy. But issues are raised by a related committee of Ministry of the Environment that some part of the discrepancy of oil refinery sector might contain energy consumption and energy ori...

  6. Jatropha seed oils for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerji, R.; Chowdhury, A.R.; Misra, G.; Sudarsanam, G.; Verma, S.C.; Srivastava, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Oil contents, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition and energy values of seed samples of four species of Jatropha (J. curcas, J. glandulifera, J. gossypifolia and J. multifida) were determined. The energy value of J. multifida oil was found to be the highest (13.647 kcal/g). All the oil samples were rich in oleic and linoleic acids (72.2-84.0%). However, no correlation between the energy values and fatty acid composition could be obtained.

  7. Mixed waste treatment using the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchynka, D. [Mirage Systems, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The diversity of mixed waste matrices contained at Department of Energy sites that require treatment preclude a single, universal treatment technology capable of handling sludges, solids, heterogeneous debris, aqueous and organic liquids and soils. This report describes the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification process. The process is a thermal, chemically reductive technology that converts the organic portion of mixed wastes to a synthesis gas, while simultaneously absorbing volatile inorganics on a carbon-based char.

  8. Review on biofuel oil and gas production processes from microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microalgae, as biomass, are a potential source of renewable energy, and they can be converted into energy such as biofuel oil and gas. This paper presents a brief review on the main conversion processes of microalgae becoming energy. Since microalgae have high water content, not all biomass energy conversion processes can be applied. By using thermochemical processes, oil and gas can be produced, and by using biochemical processes, ethanol and biodiesel can be produced. The properties of the microalgae product are almost similar to those of offish and vegetable oils, and therefore, it can be considered as a substitute of fossil oil.

  9. Oil sand synfuel production using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of oil sand as a primary energy carrier is illustrated. The oil sand mining project 'synfuel' in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, is described. On the basis of a layout of an In-situ-process different possibilities of introducing nuclear energy to the process are described. This leads to an increase of the product yield, leading finally to a doubling of the energy output compared to the reference layout. The introduction of nuclear energy contributes to the reduction of emissions, in particular to the emission of carbon dioxide in the conversion process. (orig.)

  10. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-11: Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venezuela

    2000-04-06

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Tenth Amendment anti Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Energy Agreement. This report is presented in sections (for each of the six Tasks) and each section contains one or more reports that were prepared to describe the results of the effort under each of the Tasks. A statement of each Task, taken from the Agreement Between Project Managers, is presented on the first page of each section. The Tasks are numbered 68 through 73. The first through tenth report on research performed under Annex IV Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report Number IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, IV-8, IV-9, IV-10 contain the results of the first 67 Tasks. These reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, March 1995, and December 1997, respectively.

  11. Effect of processing conditions on oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed

    OpenAIRE

    N.A. Aviara; Musa, W. B.; O.K. Owolarafe; B.S. Ogunsina; F.A. Oluwole

    2014-01-01

    Seed oil expression is an important economic venture in rural Nigeria. The traditional techniques of carrying out the operation is not only energy sapping and time consuming but also wasteful. In order to reduce the tedium involved in the expression of oil from moringa oleifera seed and develop efficient equipment for carrying out the operation, the oil point pressure of the seed was determined under different processing conditions using a laboratory press. The processing conditions employed ...

  12. Energy balance of the lavender oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman GÖKDOĞAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the energy input-output analysis of lavender oil production. Data from agricultural farms in Isparta province was used. Energy input was calculated as 1993.89 MJ and energy output was calculated as 2925.51 MJ. Wood energy, fresh stalked lavender flower energy, equipment energy, human labour energy, electricity energy, and water energy inputs were 54.22 %, 41.86 %, 3.40 %, 0.23 %, 0.18 %, and 0.10 % of energy inputs, respectively. In this production, it is noteworthy that wood was used as fuel in the lavender oil production distillation process as the highest input. In the energy outputs, an average of 3.10 kg lavender oil and 130 kg lavender water were extracted by processing 234 kg fresh stalked lavender flower. Energy use efficiency, specific energy, energy productivity, and net energy for lavender oil production were calculated as 1.47, 643.19 MJ kg-1, 0.002 kg MJ-1 and 931.62 MJ, respectively.

  13. An improved crude oil atmospheric distillation process for energy integration: Part II: New approach for energy saving by use of residual heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Part I of this paper, it was shown on thermodynamic grounds that introducing a flash in the preheating train of an atmospheric oil distillation process, together with an appropriate introduction of the resulting vapour into the column, could potentially bring substantial energy savings, by reducing the duty of the preheating furnace, by doing some pre-fractionation and by reducing the column irreversibilities. Part II expands on this idea by showing how this can be done while keeping the throughput and the product characteristics unchanged. The outcome is that placing several flashes after the heat exchangers and feeding the corresponding vapour streams to the appropriate trays of the column reduces the pumparound flows and the heat brought to the preheating train. The resulting heat deficit may then be compensated in an additional heat exchanger by using low level heat recuperated from the products of the distillation and/or imported from other processes. The use of this residual heat reduces the furnace duty by approximately an equivalent amount. Thus high level energy (fuel-gas burnt in the furnace) is replaced by residual low level heat. The simulation with an example flowsheet shows that the savings on fuel could be as high as 21%. - Highlights: ► Flash installation in the preheating train of the crude oil distillation process. ► Pumparound streams and heat sent to the preheating train are reduced. ► A high level heat deficit is induced and replaced by low level heat. ► Considerable energy savings and greenhouse gas emissions are achieved.

  14. Global Trends and Development Prospects for Oil and the Oil Products Market

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Dorozhkina

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the important issue of the development of the global market of oil and oil products. It offers an overview of how this market was formed and its current status, classification, location and potential of countries in the oil and oil processing business. It analyzes the Ukrainian oil products market. The article discusses the shortcomings and strategic areas for the development of Ukraine’s oil transport system. It presents an optimum method for creating integration group...

  15. Applications of Enzymes in Oil and Oilseed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing

    Enzymes, through the last 20-30 years research and development, have been widely explored for the uses in oil and oilseed processing. Following the conventional processing technology from oilseeds, the oil can be produced through pressing or solvent extraction. The crude oil is then refined to meet...... edible requirements. The oil can be also modified to meet functional or even nutritional needs. In each of those steps, enzymes have been used in industry successfully. For the oil processing stage, enzymes have been used to destroy the cell structure so that makes the oil release easier, where...... conventionally high temperature conditioning or cooking is necessary. The good story in industry is the fish oil and olive oil processing. Good quality and higher oil yield have been achieved through the use of enzymes in the processing stages. For the refining stage, the use of enzymes for degumming has...

  16. Clean energy and hydrogen for oil sands development with CANDU SCWR nuclear reactors and Cu-Cl cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the unique capabilities and advantages of SCWR technology for cleaner oil sands development are discussed from two perspectives: lower temperature steam generation by supercritical water for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), and hydrogen production for oil sands upgrading by coupling SCWR with the thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle. The heat requirements for bitumen extraction from the oil sands and the hydrogen requirements for bitumen upgrading are evaluated. A conceptual layout of SCWR coupled with oil sands development is presented. The reduction of CO2 emissions due to the use of SCWR and thermo chemical hydrogen production cycle is also analyzed. (author)

  17. Active sites in char gasification: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtowicz, M.; Lilly, W.D.; Perkins, M.T.; Hradil, G.; Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

    1987-09-01

    Among the key variables in the design of gasifiers and combustors is the reactivity of the chars which must be gasified or combusted. Significant loss of unburned char is unacceptable in virtually any process; the provision of sufficient residence time for complete conversion is essential. A very wide range of reactivities are observed, depending upon the nature of the char in a process. The current work focuses on furthering the understanding of gasification reactivities of chars. It has been well established that the reactivity of char to gasification generally depends upon three principal factors: (1) the concentration of ''active sites'' in the char; (2) mass transfer within the char; and (3) the type and concentration of catalytic impurities in the char. The present study primarily addresses the first factor. The subject of this research is the origin, nature, and fate of active sites in chars derived from parent hydrocarbons with coal-like structure. The nature and number of the active sites and their reactivity towards oxygen are examined in ''model'' chars derived from phenol-formaldehyde type resins. How the active sites are lost by the process of thermal annealing during heat treatment of chars are studied, and actual rate for the annealing process is derived. Since intrinsic char reactivities are of primary interest in the present study, a fair amount of attention was given to the model char synthesis and handling so that the effect of catalytic impurities and oxygen-containing functional groups in the chemical structure of the material were minimized, if not completely eliminated. The project would not be considered complete without comparing characteristic features of synthetic chars with kinetic behavior exhibited by natural chars, including coal chars.

  18. Comparison of the Acceptability of Various Oil Shale Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A K; McConaghy, J R

    2006-03-11

    While oil shale has the potential to provide a substantial fraction of our nation's liquid fuels for many decades, cost and environmental acceptability are significant issues to be addressed. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined a variety of oil shale processes between the mid 1960s and the mid 1990s, starting with retorting of rubble chimneys created from nuclear explosions [1] and ending with in-situ retorting of deep, large volumes of oil shale [2]. In between, it examined modified-in-situ combustion retorting of rubble blocks created by conventional mining and blasting [3,4], in-situ retorting by radio-frequency energy [5], aboveground combustion retorting [6], and aboveground processing by hot-solids recycle (HRS) [7,8]. This paper reviews various types of processes in both generic and specific forms and outlines some of the tradeoffs for large-scale development activities. Particular attention is given to hot-recycled-solids processes that maximize yield and minimize oil shale residence time during processing and true in-situ processes that generate oil over several years that is more similar to natural petroleum.

  19. Characterization of char from slow pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Ying; Wu, Di

    2016-01-01

    The effects of final pyrolysis temperature Tend from 300 ºC to 550 ºC, heating rates β of 2 ºC/min, 3 ºC/min and 5 ºC/min, retention time RT from 45 min to 90 min, and the moisture content MC from 0 to 70% on characteristics of the pyrolysis char from sewage sludge were investigated using a tube furnace in this study. The resulting chars were characterized by sorption of nitrogen (surface area and pore volume). Their adsorption characteristics were evaluated via iodine value and methylene blue value. Either the pore structures or adsorption characteristics depend on the pyrolysis processing and moisture content of the sludge precursors. In terms of iodine value and surface area of the char, Tend of 450 ºC, RT of 75 min and β of 3 ºC/min proved the optimum combination of pyrolysis parameters. The chars have an undeveloped mesopore and macropore structure and a developed micropore structure. The sodium phenoxide adsorption equilibrium data fit well with the Langmuir model of adsorption, suggesting monolayer coverage of sodium phenoxide molecules at the surface of the char. Its adsorption mechanism is mainly physical in nature, enhanced by chemisorption. PMID:27191557

  20. Kinetics characteristics of straw semi-char gasification with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ruirui; Yang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The gasification process has promising potential as a solution for the current global energy problem. Kinetics characteristics of straw semi-char gasification were investigated. The main influence factors of gasification, which include bio-char particle size, pyrolysis temperature and pyrolysis atmosphere, were studied. The smaller the particle size is, the higher is the conversion rate. The gasification reactivity of semi-chars increases with pyrolysis temperature and reaches its maximum at approximately 400°C. The straw semi-char obtained in an H2 pyrolysis atmosphere has the best gasification reactivity, while the semi-char obtained in a CO2 atmosphere has the worst reactivity. In addition, characteristics of semi-char were systematically tested. A random pore model, unreacted core shrinking model and integrated model were employed to describe the reactive behavior of semi-chars. Gasification kinetics parameters were calculated. The random pore model fitting result is in better agreement with the experiments than that of the other two models. PMID:26890792

  1. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  2. The renewable energies development policy. Statement of renewable energies. Cogeneration. Gas distribution. Oil rates. The after-mining. The European helps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of 'Energies et Matieres Premieres' comprises 7 papers dealing successively with: the French policy for the development of renewable energies (talk given by C. Pierret, French state secretary of Industry, at the colloquium 'energy diversification and environment protection: the renewable energies at the 2010 vista'); the statement of the renewable energies development policy (wood-fuel, wind energy, thermal solar energy, electrification of isolated areas, biomass for power production, revalorization of the conditions of power repurchase); the recent development of cogeneration in France (advantages, promotion, financial incentives, contracts, future developments); the natural gas distribution or how to combine public utility and market deregulation; the crude oil rates (key-role of Saudi Arabia, effect of speculation, perspectives and uncertainties); the human, technical, financial and legal problems linked with mines decommissioning; the European helps in favour of energy mastery (the fifth R and D management program, the energy program and its 6 specific programs: ETAP, SYNERGY, ALTENER, SAVE, CARNOT, SURE). (J.S.)

  3. Oil Depletion and the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production: The Case of California

    OpenAIRE

    Adam R. Brandt

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the impact of oil depletion on the energetic efficiency of oil extraction and refining in California. These changes are measured using energy return ratios (such as the energy return on investment, or EROI). I construct a time-varying first-order process model of energy inputs and outputs of oil extraction. The model includes factors such as oil quality, reservoir depth, enhanced recovery techniques, and water cut. This model is populated with historical data for 306 Calif...

  4. Scoping of fusion-driven retorting of oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the time frame beyond 2005, fusion reactors are likely to make their first appearance when the oil shale industry will probably be operating with 20% of the production derived from surface retorts operating on deep mined shale from in situ retorts and 80% from shale retorted within these in situ retorts using relatively fine shale uniformly rubblized by expensive mining methods. A process was developed where fusion reactors supply a 6000C mixture of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor to both surface and in situ retorts. The in situ production is accomplished by inert gas retorting, without oxygen, avoiding the burning of oil released from the larger shale particles produced in a simpler mining method. These fusion reactor-heated gases retort the oil from four 50x50x200m in-situ rubble beds at high rate of 40m/d and high yield (i.e., 95% F.A.), which provided high return on investment around 20% for the syncrude selling at $20/bbl, or 30% if sold as $30/bbl for heating oil. The bed of 6000C retorted shale, or char, left behind was then burned by the admission of ambient air in order to recover all of the possible energy from the shale resource. The hot combustion gases, mostly nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapor are then heat-exchanged with fusion reactor blanket coolant flow to be sequentially introduced into the next rubble bed ready for retorting. The advantages of this fusion-driven retorting process concept are a cheaper mining method, high yield and higher production rate system, processing with shale grades down to 50 l/mg (12 gpt), improved resource recovery by complete char utilization and low energy losses by leaving behind a cold, spent bed

  5. Improvement of biomass char-CO2 gasification reactivity using microwave irradiation and natural catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We study microwave-induced gasification of EFB ash-loaded biomass char with CO2. • Synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst resulted in CO2 conversion of 93%. • Gasification of pristine char using conventional heating gives CO2 conversion of 58%. • Ea of 74 and 247 kJ/mol were obtained for microwave and conventional CO2 gasification. - Abstract: In char-CO2 gasification, the highly endothermic nature of the Boudouard reaction (CO2 (g) + C (s) ↔ 2CO (g)) dictates use of very high temperatures to shift the equilibrium towards CO production. In this study, such high temperature (750–900 °C) was provided by microwave irradiation. A microwave heating system was developed to perform the gasification tests by passing CO2 through a packed bed of oil palm shell (OPS) char. In order to speed up the microwave-induced CO2 gasification, ash of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was used as natural catalyst (rich in potassium) and incorporated into the skeleton of the OPS char. The synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst concluded to very encouraging results, where a CO2 conversion of 93% was achieved at 900 °C, within 60 min microwave gasification. In comparison, CO2 conversion in thermal gasification (conventional heating) of pristine OPS char was only 58% under the same operating condition

  6. Improvement of biomass char-CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity using microwave irradiation and natural catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahijani, Pooya, E-mail: pooya.lahijani@gmail.com [Biomass and Bioenergy Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohammadi, Maedeh, E-mail: m.mohammadi@nit.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol Noushirvani University of Technology, 47148 Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin, E-mail: mezainal@eng.usm.my [Biomass and Bioenergy Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Rahman, E-mail: chrahman@usm.my [Low Carbon Economy (LCE) Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-20

    Highlights: • We study microwave-induced gasification of EFB ash-loaded biomass char with CO{sub 2}. • Synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst resulted in CO{sub 2} conversion of 93%. • Gasification of pristine char using conventional heating gives CO{sub 2} conversion of 58%. • E{sub a} of 74 and 247 kJ/mol were obtained for microwave and conventional CO{sub 2} gasification. - Abstract: In char-CO{sub 2} gasification, the highly endothermic nature of the Boudouard reaction (CO{sub 2} (g) + C (s) ↔ 2CO (g)) dictates use of very high temperatures to shift the equilibrium towards CO production. In this study, such high temperature (750–900 °C) was provided by microwave irradiation. A microwave heating system was developed to perform the gasification tests by passing CO{sub 2} through a packed bed of oil palm shell (OPS) char. In order to speed up the microwave-induced CO{sub 2} gasification, ash of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was used as natural catalyst (rich in potassium) and incorporated into the skeleton of the OPS char. The synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst concluded to very encouraging results, where a CO{sub 2} conversion of 93% was achieved at 900 °C, within 60 min microwave gasification. In comparison, CO{sub 2} conversion in thermal gasification (conventional heating) of pristine OPS char was only 58% under the same operating condition.

  7. Fossil Energy: Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Detailed are the highlights of the history and technology of crude oil and its end products. Included also are some of the important programs that American industry and the Federal government are planning and undertaking in order to enhance the benefits of oil and make use of the limited available quantities as wisely as possible, both now and in…

  8. Screening process : oil and gas industry projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An updated version of the screening process used by Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management (SERM) under the Environmental Assessment Act is presented. Improvements have been made to increase the effectiveness and timeliness of oil and gas project proposal reviews. Each year, SERM reviews hundreds of proposals for oil and gas projects which vary from small geophysical exploration programs to intensive production programs involving wells and related facilities. As of February 1, 1999 companies must contact the Oil and Gas Coordinator in the ecoregion where an exploration or production project is planned. This paper also describes other changes under SERM's review process including regulated pipelines, hydrostatic tests, exploration and production. There have been no changes for waste treatment and National Energy Board (NEB) projects. These will continue to be handled by the Environmental Assessment Branch in Regina. 1 fig

  9. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  10. Production of activated carbon from TCR char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Fabian; Heberlein, Markus; Klinner, Tobias; Hornung, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of char for adsorptive purposes is known since the 18th century. At that time the char was made of wood or bones and used for decoloration of fluids. In the 20th century the production of activated carbon in an industrial scale was started. The today's raw materials for activated carbon production are hard coal, peat, wood or coconut shells. All these materials entail costs especially the latter. Thus, the utilization of carbon rich residues (biomass) is an interesting economic opportunity because it is available for no costs or even can create income. The char is produced by thermo-catalytic reforming (TCR®). This process is a combination of an intermediate pyrolysis and subsequently a reforming step. During the pyrolysis step the material is decomposed in a vapor and a solid carbon enriched phase. In the second step the vapor and the solid phase get in an intensive contact and the quality of both materials is improved via the reforming process. Subsequently, the condensables are precipitated from the vapor phase and a permanent gas as well as oil is obtained. Both are suitable for heat and power production which is a clear advantage of the TCR® process. The obtained biochar from the TCR® process has special properties. This material has a very low hydrogen and oxygen content. Its stability is comparable to hard coal or anthracite. Therefore it consists almost only of carbon and ash. The latter depends from input material. Furthermore the surface structure and area can be influenced during the reforming step. Depending from temperature and residence time the number of micro pores and the surface area can be increased. Preliminary investigations with methylene blue solution have shown that a TCR® char made of digestate from anaerobic digestion has adsorptive properties. The decoloration of the solution was achieved. A further influencing factor of the adsorption performance is the particle size. Based on the results of the preliminary tests a

  11. Microwave processing of oil sands and contribution of clay minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, John P.; Binner, Eleanor; Saeid, Abdul; Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad; Kingman, S. W.

    2014-01-01

    This study establishes the feasibility of microwave heating for extracting oil from Oil Sands in ex-situ processes. Previous studies in this area have shown some potential, but have not characterised the dielectric properties of the Oil Sands used, nor related them to the mineral composition, both of which are vital if successful scale up is to be achieved. In this work the fundamental interactions of microwave energy with Oil Sands are investigated and understood for the first time, and the ...

  12. Processing and Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianqing; Men Cungui

    1995-01-01

    @@ Recently China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has gradually set up its own down stream industry in response to the development of oil fields, the demand of domestic market and the unique characteristics of crude oil resources.The capacity of crude oil processing has reached 21million tons per year approximately and 14 million tons of crude oil was processed in 1994,making up one-tenth of CNPC's total output.

  13. Advancing district energy development in Canada : a process for site selection, review and community participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Municipalities are giving greater consideration to the role of energy in the design, development, and operation of communities. Organizations and governments around the world are beginning to assess various energy risks beyond just the generation or delivery of energy. Municipalities planning for population growth no longer include only the potential increases in revenue from property taxes or the requirement to expand urban growth boundaries to accommodate new development. Energy planning requires an understanding of how communities can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and local energy consumption. This report presented the development of a process in order to assist decision makers, business leaders and local citizens in reviewing the role of energy in urban regions and how district energy (DE) can be part of the solution. The report presented an overview of the approach developed to identify 10 communities across Canada for the application of DE to assist with urban revitalization, brownfield remediation, community economic development, and sustainable energy conservation. The report outlined the development of an energy selection framework and how the framework could be replicated in urban regions to identify the interest in a community for DE. It was concluded that development of a DE system is complex and requires consideration for the interaction of land use policies and energy supply goals, the support of senior decision makers at the public and private level, an open dialogue between planners, engineers, utility operators and developers, as well as an informed and involved citizens. 3 tabs., 1 fig., 8 appendices

  14. Bone char surface modification by nano-gold coating for elemental mercury vapor removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel nanocomposite including bone char and gold nanoparticle was developed for capture of Hg0 vapor. • EDS and XRD results confirm the presence of nano-gold on the surface of the bone char support. • The majority of the pores were found to be in the mesoporous range. • The dynamic capacity of 586 μg/g was obtained for Hg0 vapor. - Abstract: The present work was done to develop a novel nanocomposite using bone char coated with nano-gold for capture of elemental mercury (Hg0) from air. The morphologies, structures, and chemical constitute of the prepared nanocomposite were evaluated by UV–VIS–NIR, dynamic light-scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The capture performance of nanocomposite was evaluated in a needle trap for mercury vapor. An on-line setup based on cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) was designed for Hg0 determination. Dynamic capacity of nanocomposite for Hg0 was shown high efficient operating capacity of 586.7 μg/g. As temperature increases, the dynamic adsorption capacity of the nanocomposite was decreased, which are characteristics of physicosorption processes. It was found that the surface modification of bone char with nano-gold has various advantages such as high operating dynamic adsorption capacity and low cost preparation. It was also demonstrated that the developed nanocomposite is suitable for on-line monitoring of Hg0. It could be applied for the laboratory and field studies

  15. Bone char surface modification by nano-gold coating for elemental mercury vapor removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assari, Mohamad javad [Department of Environmental & Occupational Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares university, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaee, Abbas, E-mail: rezaee@modares.ac.ir [Department of Environmental & Occupational Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares university, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rangkooy, Hossinali [Occupational Health Department, Faculty of Health, Jondishapor Medical Sciences University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • A novel nanocomposite including bone char and gold nanoparticle was developed for capture of Hg{sup 0} vapor. • EDS and XRD results confirm the presence of nano-gold on the surface of the bone char support. • The majority of the pores were found to be in the mesoporous range. • The dynamic capacity of 586 μg/g was obtained for Hg{sup 0} vapor. - Abstract: The present work was done to develop a novel nanocomposite using bone char coated with nano-gold for capture of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) from air. The morphologies, structures, and chemical constitute of the prepared nanocomposite were evaluated by UV–VIS–NIR, dynamic light-scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The capture performance of nanocomposite was evaluated in a needle trap for mercury vapor. An on-line setup based on cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) was designed for Hg{sup 0} determination. Dynamic capacity of nanocomposite for Hg{sup 0} was shown high efficient operating capacity of 586.7 μg/g. As temperature increases, the dynamic adsorption capacity of the nanocomposite was decreased, which are characteristics of physicosorption processes. It was found that the surface modification of bone char with nano-gold has various advantages such as high operating dynamic adsorption capacity and low cost preparation. It was also demonstrated that the developed nanocomposite is suitable for on-line monitoring of Hg{sup 0}. It could be applied for the laboratory and field studies.

  16. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that...

  17. Utilization possibilities of palm shell as a source of biomass energy in Malaysia by producing bio-oil in pyrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture residues such as palm shell are one of the biomass categories that can be utilized for conversion to bio-oil by using pyrolysis process. Palm shells were pyrolyzed in a fluidized-bed reactor at 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 oC with N2 as carrier gas at flow rate 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 L/min. The objective of the present work is to determine the effects of temperature, flow rate of N2, particle size and reaction time on the optimization of production of renewable bio-oil from palm shell. According to this study the maximum yield of bio-oil (47.3 wt%) can be obtained, working at the medium level for the operation temperature (500 oC) and 2 L/min of N2 flow rate at 60 min reaction time. Temperature is the most important factor, having a significant positive effect on yield product of bio-oil. The oil was characterized by Fourier Transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. -- Highlights: → This study reports the results of experimental investing of conversion palm shell into bio-oil by using pyrolysis and to find the optimum condition to produce the highest yield of bio-oil. → Several parameters which have effect to the process such as temperature, N2 flow rate, reaction time and particle size is will be investigated in this study. → The outcome of this result will be important for abatement and control of increasingly waste palm shell storage problems any energy source to the world.

  18. An overview of renewable hydrogen production from thermochemical process of oil palm solid waste in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 40% of energy demand of Malaysia could be supplied by thermochemical process of PSR. • SCWG of PSR is preferable thermochemical process due to char and tar elimination. • Potential of H2 production from SCWG of PSR is 1.05 × 1010 kgH2 per year in Malaysia. • Highly moisturized PSR could be used in hydrogen production by SCWG process. - Abstract: Hydrogen is one of the most promising energy carriers for the future of the world due to its tremendous capability of pollution reduction. Hydrogen utilization is free of toxic gases formation as well as carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Hydrogen production can be implemented using a wide variety of resources including fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable and sustainable energy (RSE). Amongst various RSE resources, biomass has great capacity to be employed for renewable hydrogen production. Hydrogen production from palm solid residue (PSR) via thermochemical process is a perfect candidate for waste-to-well strategy in palm oil mills in Malaysia. In this paper, various characteristics of hydrogen production from thermochemical process of PSR includes pyrolysis and gasification are reviewed. The annual oil palm fruits production in Malaysia is approximately 100 million tonnes which the solid waste of the fruits is capable to generate around 1.05 × 1010 kgH2 (1.26 EJ) via supercritical water gasification (SCWG) process. The ratio of energy output to energy input of SCWG process of PSR is about 6.56 which demonstrates the priority of SCWG to transform the energy of PSR into a high energy end product. The high moisture of PSR which is the most important barrier for its direct combustion, emerges as an advantage in thermochemical reactions and highly moisturized PSR (even more than 50%) is utilized directly in SCWG without application of any high cost drying process. Implementation of appropriate strategies could lead Malaysia to supply about 40% of its annual energy demand by hydrogen yield from SCWG

  19. Exploration of process parameters for continuous hydrolysis of canola oil, camelina oil and algal oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-07-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of triglycerides to form free fatty acid (FFA) is a well-established industry practice. Recently, this process has been employed as a first step in the production of biofuels from lipids. To that end, batch and continuous hydrolysis of various feedstocks has been examined at the laboratory scale. Canola, the primary feedstock in this paper, camelina and algal oils were converted to high quality FFA. For the different reaction temperatures, the continuous hydrolysis system was found to provide better yields than the laboratory batch system. In addition, CFD simulation with ANSYS-CFX was used to model the performance and reactant/product separation in the continuous, counter-flow reactor. The effects of reaction temperature, water-to-oil ratio (ratio of water and oil volumetric inflow rate), and preheating of the reactants were examined experimentally. Optimization of these parameters has resulted in an improved, continuous process with high mass yields (89-93%, for reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1) and energy efficiency (76%, for reactor temperature of 250°C and water-to-oil ratio of 2:1). Based on the product quality and energy efficiency considerations, the reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1 have provided the optimal condition for the lab scale continuous hydrolysis reaction. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  1. Development of wear resistant nanostructured duplex coatings by high velocity oxy-fuel process for use in oil sands industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gobinda C; Khan, Tahir I; Glenesk, Larry B

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands deposits in Northern Alberta, Canada represent a wealth of resources attracting huge capital investment and significant research focus in recent years. As of 2005, crude oil production from the current oil sands operators accounted for 50% of Canada's domestic production. Alberta's oil sands deposits contain approximately 1.7 trillion barrels of bitumen, of which over 175 billion are recoverable with current technology, and 315 billion barrels are ultimately recoverable with technological advances. A major problem of operating machinery and equipment in the oil sands is the unpredictable failure from operating in this highly aggressive environment. One of the significant causes of that problem is premature material wear. An approach to minimize this wear is the use of protective coatings and, in particular, a cermet thin coating. A high level of coating homogeneity is critical for components such as bucketwheels, draglines, conveyors, shovels, heavyhauler trucks etc. that are subjected to severe degradation through abrasive wear. The identification, development and application of optimum wear solutions for these components pose an ongoing challenge. Nanostructured cermet coatings have shown the best results of achieving the degree of homogeneity required for these applications. In this study, WC-17Co cermet powder with nanocrystalline WC core encapsulated with 'duplex' Co layer was used to obtain a nanostructured coating. To apply this coating, high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying technique was used, as it is known for producing wear-resistant coatings superior to those obtained from plasma-based techniques. Mechanical, sliding wear and microstructural behavior of the coating was compared with those of the microstructured coating obtained from spraying WC-10Co-4Cr cermet powder by HVOF technique. Results from the nanostructured coating, among others, showed an average of 25% increase in microhardness, 30% increase in sliding wear resistance and

  2. Thermal processes for heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.K.; Sarathi, P.S.

    1993-11-01

    This status report summarizes the project BE11B (Thermal Processes for Heavy Oil Recovery) research activities conducted in FY93 and completes milestone 7 of this project. A major portion of project research during FY93 was concentrated on modeling and reservoir studies to determine the applicability of steam injection oil recovery techniques in Texas Gulf Coast heavy oil reservoirs. In addition, an in-depth evaluation of a steamflood predictive model developed by Mobil Exploration and Production Co. (Mobil E&P) was performed. Details of these two studies are presented. A topical report (NIPER-675) assessing the NIPER Thermal EOR Research Program over the past 10 years was also written during this fiscal year and delivered to DOE. Results of the Gulf Coast heavy oil reservoir simulation studies indicated that though these reservoirs can be successfully steamflooded and could recover more than 50% of oil-in-place, steamflooding may not be economical at current heavy oil prices. Assessment of Mobil E&P`s steamflood predictive model capabilities indicate that the model in its present form gives reasonably good predictions of California steam projects, but fails to predict adequately the performance of non-California steam projects.

  3. Importance of oil substitution for energy policy and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilli, P.V.

    1984-04-01

    Oil substitution - that is the planned, sped-up substitution of oil products by longer available energy sources - is one of the most urgent tasks of energy policy because of the limited oil resources and because of the fact that Europe depends on oil supplies from politically unstable regions. An international study of the International Oil Substitution Task Force (OSTF) in which Austria participated showed that this task has to be solved first of all in the largely non-oil specific end-energy sectors small consumers and industry; oil substitution in the oil-specific sector transport will only start later on. The use of oil products (residual oil) for generating electricity is degressing rapidly. Apart from direct use of coal in industry there are electric energy generated from water power, nuclear energy and coal that are important due to their high substitution value as a substitute for oil, especially in the sectors small consumers and industry. Austria is highly dependent on other countries for supplies of oil and energy total. To substitute oil is therefore a vital concern for Austria. The real oil substitution on the sectors industry and small consumers as well as with respect to the total end energy was higher than predicted throughout the last years in Austria. A trend extrapolation of the absolute values and the dimensionless characteristics as introduced by OSTF shows that this development does not yet show in the values prognosticated by the Austrian Institute for Economic Research.

  4. Dwarf char, a new form of chars (the genus Salvelinus) in Lake Kronotskoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, S.D.; Pivovarov, E.A.; Ostberg, C.O.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Kronotskoe is situated in the Kronotskii State Nature Reserve and is a unique natural heritage of Kamchatka. The lake–river system of the reserve includes numerous springs and small streams and three large inflowing rivers, Listvennichnaya, Unana, and Uzon, which form the main bays of Lake Kronotskoe; one river (Kronotskaya) flows from the lake. This river is characterized by several rapids, which are assumed to be unsurmountable barriers for fish migration. The ichthyofauna of the lake has been isolated for a long time, and some endemic fishes appeared, including char of the genus Salvelinus and the residential form of red salmon Oncorhynchus nerka (the local name is kokanee). These species are perfect model objects to study microevolution processes. Char of Lake Kronotskoe are characterized by significant polymorphism and plasticity [1–3]; therefore, they are extremely valuable for studying the processes of speciation and form development. That is why the populations of char in Lake Kronotskoe are unique and attract special attention of researchers. 

  5. Assessing local population vulnerability to wind energy development with branching process models: an application to wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the impact of anthropogenic development on local populations is important for conservation biology and wildlife management. However, these local populations are often subject to demographic stochasticity because of their small population size. Traditional modeling efforts such as population projection matrices do not consider this source of variation whereas individual-based models, which include demographic stochasticity, are computationally intense and lack analytical tractability. One compromise between approaches is branching process models because they accommodate demographic stochasticity and are easily calculated. These models are known within some sub-fields of probability and mathematical ecology but are not often applied in conservation biology and applied ecology. We applied branching process models to quantitatively compare and prioritize species locally vulnerable to the development of wind energy facilities. Specifically, we examined species vulnerability using branching process models for four representative species: A cave bat (a long-lived, low fecundity species), a tree bat (short-lived, moderate fecundity species), a grassland songbird (a short-lived, high fecundity species), and an eagle (a long-lived, slow maturation species). Wind turbine-induced mortality has been observed for all of these species types, raising conservation concerns. We simulated different mortality rates from wind farms while calculating local extinction probabilities. The longer-lived species types (e.g., cave bats and eagles) had much more pronounced transitions from low extinction risk to high extinction risk than short-lived species types (e.g., tree bats and grassland songbirds). High-offspring-producing species types had a much greater variability in baseline risk of extinction than the lower-offspring-producing species types. Long-lived species types may appear stable until a critical level of incidental mortality occurs. After this threshold, the risk of

  6. Effect of reduction roasting by using bio-char derived from empty fruit bunch on the magnetic properties of Malaysian iron ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurul A. Yunus; Mohd H. Ani; Hamzah M. Salleh; Rusila Z. A. Rashid; Tomohiro Akiyama; Hadi Purwanto; Nur E. F. Othman

    2014-01-01

    Beneficiation of Malaysian iron ore is becoming necessary as iron resources are depleting. However, the upgrading process is challenging because of the weak magnetic properties of Malaysian iron ore. In this study, bio-char derived from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was utilized as an energy source for reduction roasting. Mixtures of Malaysian iron ore and the bio-char were pressed into briquettes and subjected to reduction roasting processes at 873-1173 K. The extent of reduction was estimated on the basis of mass loss, and the mag-netization of samples was measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). When reduced at 873 K, the original goethite-rich ore was converted into hematite. An increase in temperature to 1073 K caused a significant conversion of hematite into magnetite and enhanced the magnetic susceptibility and saturation magnetization of samples. The magnetic properties diminished at 1173 K as the iron ore was par-tially reduced to wustite. This reduction roasting by using the bio-char can assist in upgrading the iron ore by improving its magnetic proper-ties.

  7. Effect of reduction roasting by using bio-char derived from empty fruit bunch on the magnetic properties of Malaysian iron ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Nurul A.; Ani, Mohd H.; Salleh, Hamzah M.; Rashid, Rusila Z. A.; Akiyama, Tomohiro; Purwanto, Hadi; Othman, Nur E. F.

    2014-04-01

    Beneficiation of Malaysian iron ore is becoming necessary as iron resources are depleting. However, the upgrading process is challenging because of the weak magnetic properties of Malaysian iron ore. In this study, bio-char derived from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was utilized as an energy source for reduction roasting. Mixtures of Malaysian iron ore and the bio-char were pressed into briquettes and subjected to reduction roasting processes at 873-1173 K. The extent of reduction was estimated on the basis of mass loss, and the magnetization of samples was measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). When reduced at 873 K, the original goethite-rich ore was converted into hematite. An increase in temperature to 1073 K caused a significant conversion of hematite into magnetite and enhanced the magnetic susceptibility and saturation magnetization of samples. The magnetic properties diminished at 1173 K as the iron ore was partially reduced to wustite. This reduction roasting by using the bio-char can assist in upgrading the iron ore by improving its magnetic properties.

  8. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm3, weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced compared

  9. Interactive process of accounting: an analysis of the development of financial accounting and reporting standards for oil- and gas-producing activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedaghat, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This study describes the development of accounting standards for the measurement and disclosure of oil and gas exploration and development activities. While existing literature examines the standard-setting process in terms of economic interests, this paper takes a historical approach that recognizes the interactive nature of the process and examines all parties and factors involved. It describes the general environment in which the process occurred, outlines the position adopted by the various parties involved in oil and gas accounting, and reviews the justification given for each accounting method suggested. According to the interactive process theory, standard setting in accounting involves a series of actions by and interactions among individuals, who may be motivated by more than economic interests. The standard-setting bodies, for example, may pursue goals of credibility, control, and survival. The study concludes that the final standards developed for the measurement and disclosure of oil- and gas-producing activities have partially satisfied the needs and preferences of the different parties involved, including groups advocating standards based on (a) the full cost, (b) successful efforts, (c) free choice, and (d) value-base disclosures, such as reserve recognition accounting.

  10. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm(3), weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced compared to conventional vitrification and sintering method. Chemical resistance and heavy metals leaching results of glass ceramic composites further confirmed the possibility of its engineering applications. PMID:25649918

  11. Perspectives for advanced nuclear power technology applications in the development of the Venezuelan Orinoco Oil Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venezuela has the world's greatest deposits of extra-heavy oil located at the Orinoco Oil Belt, estimated to contain 1-2x1012 barrels of crude oil. In addition, deposits other than the Orinoco Oil Belt, containing around 260x109 barrels of oil with less than 14 0API, have been identified in the country. Assuming a recovery of just 15-20%, Venezuela could sustain a production rate of 2x106 bpd during more than two centuries. So it becomes of great importance for Venezuela to develop and to make these energy reserves available, not just for its own benefit, but for the rest of the world. Steam injection is the most promising method for heavy oil extraction. Also, it is unavoidable to process this kind of oil to obtain useful commercial products. Both the extraction and the processing require substantial amounts of medium and high temperature process heat, implying a large demand of energy which might even get close to a negative net energy balance if inefficient energy production methods are employed. Recent important developments in advanced nuclear power technologies open new possibilities which demand their consideration as the main energy sources in the Orinoco Oil Belt development. Moreover, it has been found that extra amounts of hydrogen are required for obtaining light synthetic crudes from heavy oil. High temperature reactors represent a valid option for the production of the required hydrogen. Additional perspectives appear for the future as abundant hydrogen produced by nuclear plants might be used as an energy transportation mean to supply part of the energy demand of the main populated centers of Venezuela. This paper covers a preliminary study, indicating good perspectives for the use of nuclear energy in the exploitation of the extra-heavy oil resources from the Orinoco Oil Belt. (author). 11 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Energy Markets in the United States: The Influence of Politics, Regulations, and Markets on Energy Development in the Oil and Gas and Wind Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Karen Kay

    2011-12-01

    My dissertation focuses on the influence of politics, policies, and markets in determining oil and natural gas and wind energy development. In the first chapter, I examine the role of federal elected political influence and market factors in determining the acres of oil and natural gas leases issued on Bureau of Management (BLM) lands in the western United States between 1978 and 2008. I seek to determine if the political party and ideology of the federal political environment influence the number of acres that are leased and if there is disparate federal political influence in states that have a large amount of federal lands. Using a random effects Tobit model for a 17-state sample of the westernmost states in the contiguous United States, I find that more conservative federal political influence leads to additional leasing. The results are consistent across Senate committee leaders, Senate majority leadership, and the President's office. The further found that the influence of politics on leasing is not stronger in states with more federal lands. In the second chapter, I analyze the influence of state and federal political party changes and market factors on state oil and natural gas permitting. My findings, using a first-differenced empirical model for two samples, a 19-state sample, from 1990--2007, and a 14-state sample, from 1977--2007, indicate that the influence of state political party changes are trumped by economic factors. Oil and gas prices are the main drivers of permitting changes, while the state political party changes for the state legislatures and Governor's office are consistently not significant. In the third chapter I focus on the role of electricity markets and renewable energy regulation in wind development across the United States. My findings, using a random effects Tobit model with a 25-state sample, from 1994--2008, indicate that the implementation of state Renewables Portfolio Standards (RPS), the Federal Production Tax Credit (PTC

  13. US oil dependency and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three papers of this document were written in the framework of a seminar organized the 30 may 2002 by the IFRI in the framework of its program Energy and Climatic Change. The first presentation deals with the american oil policy since 1980 (relation between the oil dependence and the energy security, the Reagan oil policy, the new oil policy facing the increase of the dependence). The second one deals with the US energy security (oil security, domestic energy security, policy implications). The last presentation is devoted to the US oil dependence in a global context and the problems and policies of international energy security. (A.L.B.)

  14. Does nuclear energy have a role in the development of Canada's oil sands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) completed a study for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) that compares the economics of a modified ACR-700 Advanced CANDU Reactor with the economics of a natural gas-fired facility to supply steam to a hypothetical Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) project located in northeastern Alberta. The results were initially presented at the Petroleum Society's Canadian International Petroleum Conference 2003, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, June 10-12, 2003. The comparison was made by using discounted cash-flow methodology to estimate the levelized unit cost of steam that could be supplied to the SAGD project from either a nuclear or a gas-fired facility. The unit cost of steam was determined by treating the steam supply facility as a standalone business; it would ensure that all costs are recovered including capital costs, operating costs, fuel costs, and a return on investment. The study indicated that steam supply form an ACR-700 nuclear facility is economically competitive with stea supply from a gas-fired facility. An examination of key variables indicated that the cost of steam form the nuclear facility is very sensitive to the capital cost of the facility, while the cost of steam from the gas-fired facility is very sensitive to the price of natural gas and possible Kyoto Protocol compliance costs. (author)

  15. Caracterização dos produtos líquidos e do carvão da pirólise de serragem de eucalipto Characterization of liquid products and char from the pyrolysis of eucalyptus sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrton F. Martins

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the low temperature pyrolysis as an alternative conversion process for residual biomass and for obtaining gaseous, liquid and solid chemical feedstocks. Using a bench electrical pyrolysis oven, four product fractions from eucalyptus sawdust were obtained: a gaseous one, two liquid (aqueous and oily, and a solid residue (char. These products were characterized by different analytical methods. The liquid fractions showed themselves as potential sources for input chemicals. The residual char revealed appreciable adsorption capability. The process demonstrated good efficiency, generating at least two fractions of great industrial interest: bio oil and char.

  16. Energy-efficient biomass processing with pulsed electric fields for bioeconomy and sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Golberg, Alexander; Sack, Martin; Teissie, Justin; Pataro, Gianpiero; Pliquett, Uwe; Saulis, Gintautas; Töpfl, Stefan; Miklavcic, Damijan; Vorobiev, Eugene; Frey, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Fossil resources-free sustainable development can be achieved through a transition to bioeconomy, an economy based on sustainable biomass-derived food, feed, chemicals, materials, and fuels. However, the transition to bioeconomy requires development of new energy-efficient technologies and processes to manipulate biomass feed stocks and their conversion into useful products, a collective term for which is biorefinery. One of the technological platforms that will enable various pathways of bio...

  17. Role of the national energy system modelling in the process of the policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merse Stane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning and decision making, nonetheless making energy policies and strategies, is very extensive process and has to follow multiple and often contradictory objectives. During the preparation of the new Slovenian Energy Programme proposal, complete update of the technology and sector oriented bottom up model of Reference Energy and Environmental System of Slovenia (REES-SLO has been done. During the redevelopment of the REES-SLO model trade-off between the simulation and optimisation approach has been done, favouring presentation of relations between controls and their effects rather than the elusive optimality of results which can be misleading for small energy systems. Scenario-based planning was integrated into the MESAP (Modular Energy System Analysis and Planning environment, allowing integration of past, present and planned (calculated data in a comprehensive overall system. Within the paper, the main technical, economic and environmental characteristics of the Slovenian energy system model REES-SLO are described. This paper presents a new approach in modelling relatively small energy systems which goes beyond investment in particular technologies or categories of technology and allows smooth transition to low carbon economy. Presented research work confirms that transition from environment unfriendly fossil fuelled economy to sustainable and climate friendly development requires a new approach, which must be based on excellent knowledge of alternative possibilities of development and especially awareness about new opportunities in exploitation of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources.

  18. Electrocatalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis oils to chemical and fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Ho

    The present project's aim is to liquefy biomass through fast pyrolysis and then upgrade the resulting "bio-oil" to renewable fuels and chemicals by intensifying its energy content using electricity. This choice reflects three points: (a) Liquid hydrocarbons are and will long be the most practical fuels and chemical feedstocks because of their energy density (both mass and volume basis), their stability and relative ease of handling, and the well-established infrastructure for their processing, distribution and use; (b) In the U.S., the total carbon content of annually harvestable, non-food biomass is significantly less than that in a year's petroleum usage, so retention of plant-captured carbon is a priority; and (c) Modern technologies for conversion of sunlight into usable energy forms---specifically, electrical power---are already an order of magnitude more efficient than plants are at storing solar energy in chemical form. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) generates flammable gases, char, and "bio-oil", a viscous, corrosive, and highly oxygenated liquid consisting of large amounts of acetic acid and water together with hundreds of other organic compounds. With essentially the same energy density as biomass and a tendency to polymerize, this material cannot practically be stored or transported long distances. It must be upgraded by dehydration, deoxygenation, and hydrogenation to make it both chemically and energetically compatible with modern vehicles and fuels. Thus, this project seeks to develop low cost, general, scalable, robust electrocatalytic methods for reduction of bio-oil into fuels and chemicals.

  19. The Relationship between Palm Oil Quality Index Development and Physical Properties of Fresh Fruit Bunches in the Ripening Process

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin Keshvadi; Johari Bin Endan, Haniff Harun, Desa Ahmad and Farah Saleena

    2011-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most important tree crop in the rural economy of the humid rainforest of Malaysia. The oil is consumed as household food, used domestically for industrial purposes, and an important foreign exchange earning export. Normally, oil palm will be harvested after four years of planting. The oil palm yield will increase variously until the tenth year of planting. The yield will then remains at a stable stage until the twenty-fifth year. The maturity and palm oil d...

  20. World crude oil market and its unpredictable process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functioning of the world oil market is complex and unpredictable process. This mechanism depends of following acting areas: Crude oil stocks; Demand of crude oil; Supply of crude oil; Refinery activity; Crude oil price. (Author)

  1. Properties and Developments of Combustion and Gasification of Coal and Char in a CO2-Rich and Recycled Flue Gases Atmosphere by Rapid Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigang Li; Xiaoming Zhang; Yuichi Sugai; Jiren Wang; Kyuro Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    Combustion and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char have been investigated experimentally under the conditions of high temperature gradient of order 200°C·s−1 by a CO2 gas laser beam and CO2-rich atmospheres with 5% and 10% O2. The laser heating makes a more ideal experimental condition compared with previous studies with a TG-DTA, because it is able to minimize effects of coal oxidation and combustion by rapid heating process like radiative heat transfer condition. The experim...

  2. Development of an energy module for the multi-objective optimisation of complex distillation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijani, Alhassan Salami

    2010-06-04

    Reduction of energy consumption has increasingly come into sharp focus in the chemical process industry. This is of great value not only for existing plant but also for the development of new processes. Therefore, the challenge for process design engineers to develop an integrated chemical process that simultaneously satisfies economic and environmental objectives has increased considerably. Particularly, multi-objective optimization in the chemical industry has become increasingly popular during the last decade. The main problem lies, in selecting the alternative best design during decision making with multiple and often conflicting objectives. This thesis work presents a methodology for the multi-objective optimization of process design alternatives under economic and environmental objectives and also to establish the linkage between exergy and the environment. Four distillation units design alternatives with increasing level of heat integration were considered. Each design is analysed from exergy, potential environmental impact (PEI) and economic point of view. A non-dominated solution known as the ''Pareto optimal solution'' is generated for decision making. The thermodynamic efficiency indicates where exergy losses occur. The demand for industrial process heat by means of solar energy has generated much interest because it offers an innovative way to reduce operating cost and improve clean renewable electric power. Concentrated Solar Thermal Power (CSP) can provide solution to global energy problems within a relatively short time and is capable of contributing to carbon dioxide reduction, which is an important step towards zero emissions in the process industries. This work provides an overview of a simulation model to evaluate the environmental and economic performance of two case studies of solar thermal power plants. A methodology is presented to integrate solar thermal power plant into industrial processes and this is then compared with

  3. Development of an oil spill forecast system for offshore China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Wei, Zexun; An, Wei

    2016-07-01

    An oil spill forecast system for offshore China was developed based on Visual C++. The oil spill forecast system includes an ocean environmental forecast model and an oil spill model. The ocean environmental forecast model was designed to include timesaving methods, and comprised a parametrical wind wave forecast model and a sea surface current forecast model. The oil spill model was based on the "particle method" and fulfills the prediction of oil particle behavior by considering the drifting, evaporation and emulsification processes. A specific database was embedded into the oil spill forecast system, which contained fundamental information, such as the properties of oil, reserve of emergency equipment and distribution of marine petroleum platform. The oil spill forecast system was successfully applied as part of an oil spill emergency exercise, and provides an operational service in the Research and Development Center for Offshore Oil Safety and Environmental Technology.

  4. Development of an oil spill forecast system for offshore China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Wei, Zexun; An, Wei

    2015-12-01

    An oil spill forecast system for offshore China was developed based on Visual C++. The oil spill forecast system includes an ocean environmental forecast model and an oil spill model. The ocean environmental forecast model was designed to include timesaving methods, and comprised a parametrical wind wave forecast model and a sea surface current forecast model. The oil spill model was based on the "particle method" and fulfills the prediction of oil particle behavior by considering the drifting, evaporation and emulsification processes. A specific database was embedded into the oil spill forecast system, which contained fundamental information, such as the properties of oil, reserve of emergency equipment and distribution of marine petroleum platform. The oil spill forecast system was successfully applied as part of an oil spill emergency exercise, and provides an operational service in the Research and Development Center for Offshore Oil Safety and Environmental Technology.

  5. The energy efficiency of oil sands extraction: Energy return ratios from 1970 to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been argued that the oil sands industry is not energy efficient: comparatively large energy inputs are required per unit of energy output from oil sands operations. Unfortunately, quantitative work to date in this area has suffered from poor data availability and uncertain methods. We apply a new methodology and new dataset to compute ERRs (energy return ratios) for the oil sands industry. We collected monthly oil sands energy consumption and output data from 1970 to 2010. Current oil sands operations have mine mouth NERs (net energy returns) of about 6 GJ output per GJ of energy consumed and point of use energy returns of about 3 GJ/GJ. Long-term trends show oil sands operations becoming significantly more efficient: point of use NER increased from about 1 GJ/GJ in 1970 to 3 GJ/GJ in 2010. These energy returns are lower than those observed in historical conventional oil operations, but low energy returns are not likely to hinder development of oil sands operations due to the large resource in place and the ability for largely self-fueled pathways to return significant amounts of energy to society for every unit of external energy supplied. - Highlights: • Oil sands operations have become significantly more energy efficient over the history of the industry. • Oil sands production is largely fueled with energy from the bitumen resource itself, making external energy returns high. • Oil sands production is still significantly less efficient than conventional oil production

  6. Renewable energy source from pyrolysis of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia is blessed with a significant renewable energy resource base such as solar energy and biomass. To continue with its industrial development, Malaysia must manages energy supply its c prudently in order to avoid becoming an energy importer supply. Most significantly renewable energy from biomass such as rice husks, wood wastes, oil palm wastes, rubber wastes and other agricultural wastes. Beside rice and timber. Malaysia produces a huge amount of palm oil and natural rubber. These generate a significant amount of solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rubber. These wastes are producing pollution and emission problems in Malaysia which is causing an environmental issue. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used as an alternative value-added source of energy. For this purpose a fast pyrolysis of 300 mi-n lone, and 50 mm diameter stainless-steel reactor was designed and fabricated. The grounded, sieved and dried solid feed particles underwent pyrolysis reactor at moderate temperature and were converted into pyrolytic oil, solid char and cas. Oil and char were collected while the cas was flared. The oil was characterised by GC-MS technique. Detailed analysis of the oil showed that there was no concentration of biologically active polycyclic aromatic species in the oil. The fuel properties of the derived oils were also analysed and compared to diesel fuel. (Author)

  7. Microbial oxidation of pyrrhotites in coal chars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.W.; Risatti, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans to oxidize pyrrhotite minerals occurring in coal chars was investigated, to evaluate the feasibility of microbial char desulphurization. Bio-oxidation of pyrrhotites in chars produced by two different processes was demonstrated conclusively. Microbial removal of sulphur from a char and its parent coal proceeded at the rate of 3.5% and 12% day-1, respectively with a total of 48% and 81% removal after 27 days. The pH of shake flask cultures containing the coal dropped naturally to a final value of 2.2, while the pH of cultures containing the corresponding char rose and had to be lowered artificially with additional acid. Amending char cultures with elemental sulphur to increase acidity upon bio-oxidation and prevent precipitation of ferric iron was successful; however, the extent of pyrrhotite removal, as demonstated by X-ray diffraction analysis, was not improved. As yet, there is no explanation for the failure of microbial removal of pyrrhotitic sulphur to go to completion. ?? 1988.

  8. TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS: PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF PYROLYSIS OIL PRODUCTION COSTS AND MATERIAL ENERGY BALANCE ASSOCIATED WITH A TRANSPORTABLE FAST PYROLYSIS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Badger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A techno-economic analysis was performed for a 100 dry-ton/day (90,719 kg/day fast pyrolysis transportable plant. Renewable Oil International® LLC provided the life cycle cost of operating a 100 dry-ton/day fast pyrolysis system using southern pine wood chips as feedstock. Since data was not available from an actual large-scale plant, the study examined data obtained from an actual 15 dry-ton/day pilot plant and from several smaller plants. These data were used to obtain base figures to aid in the development of models to generate scaled-up costs for a larger 100 dry-ton/day facility. Bio-oil represented 60% of mass of product yield. The cost for the bio-oil from fast pyrolysis was valued at $0.94/gal. Energy cost bio-oil and char was valued at $6.35/MMBTU. Costs associated with purchasing feedstocks can drastically influence the final cost of the bio-oil. The assumed cost of feedstocks was $25/wet ton or $50/dry ton. This paper is part of a larger study investigating the economic and environmental impacts for producing bio-oil / biocide wood preservatives.

  9. Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: Hot-Gas Filtration; Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.

    2012-07-01

    The hypothesis that was tested in this task was that separation of char, with its associated mineral matter from pyrolysis vapors before condensation, will lead to improved oil quality and stability with respect to storage and transportation. The metric used to evaluate stability in this case was a 10-fold reduction in the rate of increase of viscosity as determined by ASTM D445 (the accelerated aging test). The primary unit operation that was investigated for this purpose was hot-gas filtration. A custom-built heated candle filter system was fabricated by the Pall Corporation and furnished to NREL for this test campaign. This system consisted of a candle filter element in a containment vessel surrounded by heating elements on the external surface of the vessel. The filter element and housing were interfaced to NREL?s existing 0.5 MTD pyrolysis Process Development Unit (PDU). For these tests the pyrolysis reactor of the PDU was operated in the entrained-flow mode. The HGF test stand was installed on a slipstream from the PDU so that both hot-gas filtered oil and bio-oil that was not hot-gas filtered could be collected for purposes of comparison. Two filter elements from Pall were tested: (1) porous stainless steel (PSS) sintered metal powder; (2) sintered ceramic powder. An extremely sophisticated bio-oil condensation and collection system was designed and fabricated at NREL and interfaced to the filter unit.

  10. Gaharu oil processing: gaharu oil from conventional extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaharu oil is extracted through water or steam distillation of gaharu wood powder. Gaharu oil can fetch prices ranging from RM 25,000 to RM 50,000 per kg, depending on the quality or grade of gaharu wood used to produce the oil. The oil is commonly exported to the Middle East and customarily used as a perfume base. This paper describes gaharu oil extraction technique from traditional method which is commonly practiced by gaharu entrepreneurs in Malaysia. Gaharu woods are initially chopped, dried and ground into powder form. The gaharu wood powder is then soaked in water for a week. After the soaking process, the fermented powder is distilled with water using a special distiller for 4 to 10 days depending on the quality of gaharu wood used in the extraction process. (Author)

  11. Energy-efficient biomass processing with pulsed electric fields for bioeconomy and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Sack, Martin; Teissie, Justin; Pataro, Gianpiero; Pliquett, Uwe; Saulis, Gintautas; Stefan, Töpfl; Miklavcic, Damijan; Vorobiev, Eugene; Frey, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Fossil resources-free sustainable development can be achieved through a transition to bioeconomy, an economy based on sustainable biomass-derived food, feed, chemicals, materials, and fuels. However, the transition to bioeconomy requires development of new energy-efficient technologies and processes to manipulate biomass feed stocks and their conversion into useful products, a collective term for which is biorefinery. One of the technological platforms that will enable various pathways of biomass conversion is based on pulsed electric fields applications (PEF). Energy efficiency of PEF treatment is achieved by specific increase of cell membrane permeability, a phenomenon known as membrane electroporation. Here, we review the opportunities that PEF and electroporation provide for the development of sustainable biorefineries. We describe the use of PEF treatment in biomass engineering, drying, deconstruction, extraction of phytochemicals, improvement of fermentations, and biogas production. These applications show the potential of PEF and consequent membrane electroporation to enable the bioeconomy and sustainable development. PMID:27127539

  12. Development of Energy Models for Production Systems and Processes to Inform Environmentally Benign Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Elsayed, Nancy

    Between 2008 and 2035 global energy demand is expected to grow by 53%. While most industry-level analyses of manufacturing in the United States (U.S.) have traditionally focused on high energy consumers such as the petroleum, chemical, paper, primary metal, and food sectors, the remaining sectors account for the majority of establishments in the U.S. Specifically, of the establishments participating in the Energy Information Administration's Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey in 2006, the non-energy intensive" sectors still consumed 4*109 GJ of energy, i.e., one-quarter of the energy consumed by the manufacturing sectors, which is enough to power 98 million homes for a year. The increasing use of renewable energy sources and the introduction of energy-efficient technologies in manufacturing operations support the advancement towards a cleaner future, but having a good understanding of how the systems and processes function can reduce the environmental burden even further. To facilitate this, methods are developed to model the energy of manufacturing across three hierarchical levels: production equipment, factory operations, and industry; these methods are used to accurately assess the current state and provide effective recommendations to further reduce energy consumption. First, the energy consumption of production equipment is characterized to provide machine operators and product designers with viable methods to estimate the environmental impact of the manufacturing phase of a product. The energy model of production equipment is tested and found to have an average accuracy of 97% for a product requiring machining with a variable material removal rate profile. However, changing the use of production equipment alone will not result in an optimal solution since machines are part of a larger system. Which machines to use, how to schedule production runs while accounting for idle time, the design of the factory layout to facilitate production, and even the

  13. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S.

    2009-11-05

    The Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks and uncertainties of the waste processing programs and projects of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management (EM) mission through the timely development of solutions to technical issues. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment. The Office of Waste Processing works with other DOE Headquarters offices and project and field organizations to proactively evaluate technical needs, identify multi-site solutions, and improve the technology and engineering associated with project and contract management. Participants in this program are empowered with the authority, resources, and training to implement their defined priorities, roles, and responsibilities. The Office of Waste Processing Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) supports the goals and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Environmental Management Engineering and Technology Roadmap by providing direction for technology enhancement, development, and demonstration that will lead to a reduction of technical risks and uncertainties in EM waste processing activities. The MYPP summarizes the program areas and the scope of activities within each program area proposed for the next five years to improve safety and reduce costs and environmental impacts associated with waste processing; authorized budget levels will impact how much of the scope of activities can be executed, on a year-to-year basis. Waste Processing Program activities within the Roadmap and the MYPP are described in these seven program areas: (1) Improved Waste Storage Technology; (2) Reliable and Efficient Waste Retrieval Technologies; (3) Enhanced Tank Closure Processes; (4) Next-Generation Pretreatment Solutions; (5

  14. United States Department Of Energy Office Of Environmental Management Waste Processing Annual Technology Development Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks and uncertainties of the waste processing programs and projects of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management (EM) mission through the timely development of solutions to technical issues. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment. The Office of Waste Processing works with other DOE Headquarters offices and project and field organizations to proactively evaluate technical needs, identify multi-site solutions, and improve the technology and engineering associated with project and contract management. Participants in this program are empowered with the authority, resources, and training to implement their defined priorities, roles, and responsibilities. The Office of Waste Processing Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) supports the goals and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Environmental Management Engineering and Technology Roadmap by providing direction for technology enhancement, development, and demonstration that will lead to a reduction of technical risks and uncertainties in EM waste processing activities. The MYPP summarizes the program areas and the scope of activities within each program area proposed for the next five years to improve safety and reduce costs and environmental impacts associated with waste processing; authorized budget levels will impact how much of the scope of activities can be executed, on a year-to-year basis. Waste Processing Program activities within the Roadmap and the MYPP are described in these seven program areas: (1) Improved Waste Storage Technology; (2) Reliable and Efficient Waste Retrieval Technologies; (3) Enhanced Tank Closure Processes; (4) Next-Generation Pretreatment Solutions; (5

  15. Unconventional oil and gas development and its stresses on water resources in the context of Water-Energy-Food Nexus: The case of Weld County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, P. D.; Waskom, R.; Boone, K.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas resources in Colorado started to rapidly increase since the early 2000's. The recent oil price plunge resulted in a decline of well starts' rate in the US, but in Weld County, Colorado, it is currently at the 2013-levels. The additional water demand, despite its insignificant percentage in overall state's demand (0.1% in 2012), it competes with traditional ones, since Colorado's water is almost fully appropriated. Presently, the state has 53,597 active producing oil and gas wells. More than 40% of these are located in Weld County, which happens also to be one of top food production U.S. counties. The competition for land and water resources between the energy and agricultural sectors in water stressed areas, like the western U.S., is further intensified if recycle and reuse practices are not preferred to water disposal by the energy industry. Satisfying the multiple objectives of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in order to achieve sustainable economic development requires balanced management of these resources. Identifying pressures on key areas that food and energy sectors are competing for water, is essential for prudent water management and developing appropriate policies. Weld County, as a water stressed and fossil fuel producing area, was selected for investigating current stresses on local water resources alongside with future climatic and water demand scenarios for exploring probable long-term effects.

  16. Nuclear energy in industry: application to oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's commitment, via the Kyoto Protocol, to reduce carbon dioxide emissions poses some interesting challenges. New ways of undertaking activities to reduce emissions, while maintaining our standard of living, is the desired end goal. Canada has vast reserves of oil in its tar sands deposits in northern Alberta. These are world scale deposits relative to known conventional oil reserves and will play an important role in the world's economy in years to come. Substantial energy is required to extract the oil and upgrade it into usable products. This energy is currently derived from fossil fuels and releases of carbon dioxide are a consequence. Additionally, hydrogen may be produced as a material component used to upgrade the oil. This hydrogen is currently produced by reforming of methane to remove the hydrogen component which also produces carbon dioxide which is generally discarded. This paper examines a relatively new extraction and processing concept (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) which can use steam and electricity from CANDU reactors and also produces oxygen, and heavy water. These products, in turn, can be used to increase energy production while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. The paper focuses on the magnitude of carbon dioxide emission avoidance which is anticipated based on data from current and projected projects. The paper reviews the current status of development of the oil sands industry and projects carbon dioxide emissions which would be expected if current extraction and upgrading techniques are continued. The scope of a project using a CANDU nuclear reactor as an alternate energy source to produce steam and hydrogen for upgrading is outlined. It is concluded that the carbon dioxide emissions that could be avoided by deployment of nuclear energy powered oil sands projects would be a substantial fraction of Canada's emission reduction goals for Kyoto. (author)

  17. Nuclear energy in industry : application to oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's commitment, via the Kyoto Protocol, to reduce carbon dioxide emissions poses some interesting challenges. New ways of undertaking activities to reduce emissions, while maintaining our standard of living, is the desired end goal. Canada has vast reserves of oil in its tar sands deposits in northern Alberta. These are world scale deposits relative to known conventional oil reserves and will play an important role in the world's economy in years to come. Substantial energy is required to extract the oil and upgrade it into usable products. This energy is currently derived from fossil fuels and releases of carbon dioxide are a consequence. Additionally, hydrogen may be produced as a material component used to upgrade the oil. This hydrogen is currently produced by reforming of methane to remove the hydrogen component which also produces carbon dioxide which is generally discarded. This paper examines a relatively new extraction and processing concept (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) which can use steam and electricity from CANDU reactors and also produces oxygen, and heavy water. These products, in turn, can be used to increase energy production while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. The paper focuses on the magnitude of carbon dioxide emission avoidance which is anticipated based on data from current and projected projects. The paper reviews the current status of development of the oil sands industry and projects carbon dioxide emissions which would be expected if current extraction and upgrading techniques are continued. The scope of a project using a CANDU nuclear reactor as an alternate energy source to produce steam and hydrogen for upgrading is outlined. It is concluded that the carbon dioxide emissions that could be avoided by deployment of nuclear energy powered oil sands projects would be a substantial fraction of Canada's emission reduction goals for Kyoto. (author)

  18. Benefit-risk trade-offs in retrospect: how major stakeholders perceive the decision-making process in the Barents Sea oil field development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renn, Ortwin; Grieger, Khara Deanne; Øien, Knut;

    2013-01-01

    additional benefits to the communities which would then be fairly distributed among the beneficiaries have been disappointed. We review the reasons behind these results as well as formulate recommendations regarding potential improvements to the risk-benefit communication process in addition to future siting......This study provides an analysis of risk-benefit communication and participation of the siting process for the Norwegian Goliat oil field development, within the context of a revised model of the International Risk Governance Council’s framework. The main objective of the study is a retrospective...... review of the decision-making process seen through the lenses of the major stakeholders involved in this process. The research design used qualitative methods of empirical research including stakeholder interviews during a five-day period in 2011 in Northern Norway. Results showed that the siting process...

  19. Developing software for energy conservation in the process industries: executive briefing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The process industries provide many opportunities where computers can be used to assist in the reduction of energy use. The areas are monitoring, analysis, control, and optimization. Since the process industries consist of a variety of combinations of specialized technology, the plants are not suitable for mass produced software which would be broadly applicable. Software development for this industry requires a careful step-by-step analysis of specific applications in close cooperation with industry specialists. Once installed and operating, however, the continuous high throughput nature of manufacturing in those industries creates a situation where applied computer technology can provide very large returns on investment.

  20. Development of North Sumatra (Rantau Oil Field)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Y.

    1965-09-01

    General conditions of various oil fields in North Sumatra are illustrated. Geologic structure of North Sumatra and that of Rantau Oil Field, the largest among 11 oil fields, is described in detail. Rantau Oil Field has produced more than 14 million kl of crude oil since 1929. It is still going strong and gradually expanding its border to the north. Since 1957, PERMINA (Pertambangan Minjak National) had been the only company with mining right to the oil field, but NSODECO (North Sumatra Oil Development Corporation) joined in development of the oil field since June, 1960. The latter part of this article gives comparison of conditions before and after the participation of NSODECO.

  1. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) of Oil Shale

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. O’Connor; Cutler J. Cleveland

    2011-01-01

    The two methods of processing synthetic crude from organic marlstone in demonstration or small-scale commercial status in the U.S. are in situ extraction and surface retorting. The considerable uncertainty surrounding the technological characterization, resource characterization, and choice of the system boundary for oil shale operations indicate that oil shale is only a minor net energy producer if one includes internal energy (energy in the shale that is used during the process) as an energ...

  2. Towards Ideal NOx and CO2 Emission Control Technology for Bio-Oils Combustion Energy System Using a Plasma-Chemical Hybrid Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot-scale low-emission boiler system consisting of a bio-fuel boiler and plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal system is investigated. This system can achieve carbon neutrality because the bio-fuel boiler uses waste vegetable oil as one of the fuels. The plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal system has two processes: NO oxidation by ozone produced from plasma ozonizers and NO2 removal using a Na2SO3 chemical scrubber. Test demonstrations of the system are carried out for mixed oils (mixture of A-heavy oil and waste vegetable oil). Stable combustion is achieved for the mixed oil (20 – 50% waste vegetable oil). Properties of flue gas—e.g., O2, CO2 and NOx—when firing mixed oils are nearly the same as those when firing heavy oil for an average flue gas flow rate of 1000 Nm3/h. NOx concentrations at the boiler outlet are 90 – 95 ppm. Furthermore, during a 300-min continuous operation when firing 20% mixed oil, NOx removal efficiency of more than 90% (less than 10 ppm NOx emission) is confirmed. In addition, the CO2 reduction when heavy oil is replaced with waste vegetable oil is estimated. The system comparison is described between the plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal and the conventional technology.

  3. Structure Based Predictive Model for Coal Char Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Robert Essenhigh; Christopher Hadad

    2000-12-30

    This unique collaborative project has taken a very fundamental look at the origin of structure, and combustion reactivity of coal chars. It was a combined experimental and theoretical effort involving three universities and collaborators from universities outside the U.S. and from U.S. National Laboratories and contract research companies. The project goal was to improve our understanding of char structure and behavior by examining the fundamental chemistry of its polyaromatic building blocks. The project team investigated the elementary oxidative attack on polyaromatic systems, and coupled with a study of the assembly processes that convert these polyaromatic clusters to mature carbon materials (or chars). We believe that the work done in this project has defined a powerful new science-based approach to the understanding of char behavior. The work on aromatic oxidation pathways made extensive use of computational chemistry, and was led by Professor Christopher Hadad in the Department of Chemistry at Ohio State University. Laboratory experiments on char structure, properties, and combustion reactivity were carried out at both OSU and Brown, led by Principle Investigators Joseph Calo, Robert Essenhigh, and Robert Hurt. Modeling activities were divided into two parts: first unique models of crystal structure development were formulated by the team at Brown (PI'S Hurt and Calo) with input from Boston University and significant collaboration with Dr. Alan Kerstein at Sandia and with Dr. Zhong-Ying chen at SAIC. Secondly, new combustion models were developed and tested, led by Professor Essenhigh at OSU, Dieter Foertsch (a collaborator at the University of Stuttgart), and Professor Hurt at Brown. One product of this work is the CBK8 model of carbon burnout, which has already found practical use in CFD codes and in other numerical models of pulverized fuel combustion processes, such as EPRI's NOxLOI Predictor. The remainder of the report consists of detailed

  4. Offshore Oil Drilling: Buying Energy Independence or Buying Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the issues and concerns about offshore oil drilling in the United States. The demand for energy is going up, not down, and for a long time, even as alternative sources of energy are developed, more oil will be needed. The strongest argument against drilling is that it could distract the country from the pursuit of…

  5. Delay oil oxidation during frying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blend oil (mixed of refined sunflower and soy beans oils 1:1 w/w) containing add 200 ppm of rosemary leaves methanolic extract (rosemary extract) (RE) and 3% refined rice bran oil (RRBO), were used in frying process at 1800 degree c for 5 hrs/ day, four consecutive days to delay oil oxidation during frying. Therefore, rosemary extract (methanolic extract) was analyzed by HPLC technique for identification of flavonoids compounds (as a specific active compounds; gives high protection to frying oil). Physical and chemical properties, including refractive index(RI). Red color unit (R), viscosity, acidity (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV) oxidized fatty acid (OFA), polymer content (PC), total polar components (TPC) and trans fatty acid (TFA) as eliadic acid were determined. The results indicated that; rosemary extract contained about eight flavonoids compounds (hypersoid, rutin, 3-OH flavon, luleotin, kempferol, sakarutin, querectrin and apeginin). Addition of RE or RRBO to frying oil caused delay oil oxidation during frying process compared with frying oil without any addition. Also, the results indicated that rosemary extract was more effective in reducing formation of PV, FFA, OFA, PC, TPC and TFA in frying oil than refined rice bran oil

  6. Characterization of char derived from various types of solid wastes from the standpoint of fuel recovery and pretreatment before landfilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonization is a kind of pyrolysis process to produce char from organic materials under an inert atmosphere. In this work, chars derived from various solid wastes were characterized from the standpoint of fuel recovery and pretreatment of waste before landfilling. Sixteen kinds of municipal and industrial solid wastes such as residential combustible wastes, non-combustible wastes, bulky wastes, construction and demolition wastes, auto shredder residue, and sludges were carbonized at 500 deg. C for 1 h under nitrogen atmosphere. In order to evaluate the quality of char as fuel, proximate analysis and heating value were examined. The composition of raw waste had a significant influence on the quality of produced char. The higher the ratio of woody biomass in waste, the higher heating value of char produced. Moreover, an equation to estimate heating value of char was developed by using the weight fraction of fixed carbon and volatile matter in char. De-ashing and chlorine removal were performed to improve the quality of char. The pulverization and sieving method seems to be effective for separation of incombustibles such as metal rather than ash. Most char met a 0.5 wt% chlorine criterion for utilization as fuel in a shaft blast furnace after it was subjected to repeated water-washing. Carbonization could remove a considerable amount of organic matter from raw waste. In addition, the leaching of heavy metals such as chrome, cadmium, and lead appears to be significantly suppressed by carbonization regardless of the type of raw waste. From these results, carbonization could be considered as a pretreatment method for waste before landfilling, as well as for fuel recovery

  7. Mechanism of corrosion of structural materials in contact with coal chars in coal gasifier atmospheres. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, D.L.; Bhide, V.S.; Vineberg, E.

    1980-05-01

    Six alloys, 310 stainless steel, Hastelloy X, Inconel 671, Incoloy 800, Haynes 188, and FeCrAlY (GE1541 and MA956), were corroded in two chars at 1600 and 1800/sup 0/F. The chars, FMC and Husky, contained 2.7 and 0.9% sulfur, respectively. Various parameters were investigated, including char size, cover gas, char quantity, char replenishment period, gas composition, and the use of coatings. The corrosion process was strictly sulfidation when the char was replenished every 24 hours or less. The kinetics of reaction were nearly linear with time. The reaction resulted in thick external sulfide scales with extensive internal sulfidation in the substrate. The kinetics and reaction-product morphologies suggested that diffusion through the sulfide scale played a minor role and that an interfacial reaction was the rate-controlling step. A mathematical model was developed which supported this hypothesis. The reaction rates showed a relatively minor role on alloy composition, depending upon whether the alloys were tested singularly or in combination with others. Inconel 671, the best alloy in CGA environments, consistently corroded the most rapidly of the chromia-former types regardless of char sulfur content or of the temperature. Type 310 stainless was marginally better than Inconel 671. Incoloy 800 was intermediate, whereas, Haynes 188 and Hastelloy X exhibited the best corrosion resistance. The FeCrAlY alloys reacted very rapidly in the absence of preoxidation treatments. All alloys corroded in char at least 1000 times more rapidly than in the CGA (MPC-ITTRI) environment. None of the alloys will be acceptable for use in contact with char unless coatings are applied.

  8. Analysis of problems in the implementation of management systems of quality in the energy industry, oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borhi, Juan Carlos

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe the problem in the development of systems of quality management based on ISO 9001:2008 to implement in energy companies involved in the extraction, distribution and processing of oil and gas.

  9. Oil spill model development and application for emergency response system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The paper introduces systematically the developing principle ofCWCM 1.0 oil spill model based on Lagrange system and oil spill fate processes in environment, reviews two oil spill incidents of "East Ambassador" in Jiaozhou Bay and "Min Fuel 2" in the mouth of Pearl River, and designs the predict system simulating oil spill applied in contingency plans. It is indicated that CWCM 1.0 has met preliminarily the demands for functions of precision simulating and oil spill predicting, and can plan an important role to support oil spill response.

  10. Effect of pyrolysis conditions and composition on the char structure and char yield of biomass chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Steibel, Markus; Spliethoff, Hartmut; Barsberg, Søren Talbro; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    electron microscopy indicated different types of softening and melting of the biomass chars at all applied temperatures, heating rates and holding times, except for rice husks, which formed chars with a structure similar to the parent fuel. The char particles generated at high pyrolysis temperatures had......The char yield as well as physical and chemical structure of chars generated from different types of biomass divided into five different particle size fractions from 50μm to 1mm were studied to better understand the influences of holding time, final temperatures and heating rates on the pyrolysis...... structural changes. A significantly different char yield was observed between heating rates 10 K/s and 1000 K/s. For heating rates > 600 K/s a similar biomass char yield was obtained. Overall, it was found that the final temperature has more influence on the char yield than the heating rate. The scanning...

  11. Sulfur retention by ash during coal combustion. Part I. A model of char particle combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORISLAV GRUBOR

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A model for the combustion of porous char particles as a basis for modeling the process of sulfur retention by ash during coal combustion is developed in this paper. The model belongs to the microscopic intrinsic models and describes the dynamic behavior of a porous char particle during comustion, taking into account temporal and spatial changes of all important physical properties of the char particle and various combustion parameters. The parametric analysis of the enhanced model shows that the model represents a good basis for the development of a model for the process of sulfur retention by ash during coal combustion. The model enables the prediction of the values of all parameters necessary for the introduction of reactions between sulfur compounds and mineral components in ash, primarily calcium oxide.

  12. Shoreline processes, stranded oil and cleanup activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial character of stranded oil is a function of a large number of interactive variables that include the volume and character of the oil as it reaches the shore zone, nearshore oceanographic conditions at the time of stranding, and the character of the zone substrate. The fate of stranded oil on the shoreline is a function of weathering processes, natural removal, and of treatment activities. The presentation will review each of the major components described above and will present summary models to describe relative rates of natural change for selected scenarios. The role of coastal processes will be considered and used to illustrate how shoreline dynamics can remove or bury stranded oil. Examples will be provided to show some of the characteristic processes that cause changes in the distribution of stranded oil. Some shoreline treatment activities involve disturbance and relocation or removal of beach substrate; the effects of such activities will be illustrated and evaluated

  13. Kashagan oil field development. Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on our research and field investigations of the Kashagan oil field development and relevant infrastructure in the Atyrau and Mangistau regions of Kazakhstan (cities and vicinities of Aktau, Atash, Atyrau, Bautino, Bolashak, Karabatan and Koshanai) evidence has been collected that raises serious concerns about environmental, social and health effects of this oil field development - such as sulphur emissions and storage which may pose serious threats for the communities close to the Kashagan oil facilities and for the Caspian Sea environment. Furthermore, since becoming the single Operator of the North Caspian Sea Production Sharing Agreement (PSA), the Agip Kazakhstan North Caspian Operating Company N.V. (Agip KCO) has failed to release all information available on the environmental, health and social impacts of its operations in the Kashagan oil field. As requested by the local communities and required by Constitution of Kazakhstan Republic and Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters ratified by Kazakhstan in 2001, such information must be made available. There is also a growing concern among the civil society that the European Commission through its officials is publicly expressing support to European oil companies' members of the Agip KCO despite their failure to fulfil basic environmental regulations. This continued support contradicts the European Union's fundamental values and frequent statements related to Human Rights and Sustainable Development. Thousands of people have already been relocated in the region because of sulphur emissions and other highly poisonous chemicals such as mercaptans, which are present at very high levels in Northern Caspian oil. Unprotected storage of large quantities of sulphur is also recognised as a major cause of acid rain on a global level. This Report implores Agip KCO to release all available and required information on the

  14. Development and demonstration of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed waste is defined as waste contaminated with chemically hazardous (governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) and radioactive species [governed by US Department of Energy (DOE) orders]. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is responding to the need for DOE mixed waste treatment technologies that meet these dual regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing emerging and innovative treatment technologies to determine process feasibility. Technology demonstrations will be used to determine whether processes are superior to existing technologies in reducing risk, minimizing life-cycle cost, and improving process performance. The Program also provides a forum for stakeholder and customer involvement in the technology development process. MWIP is composed of six technical areas that support a mixed-waste treatment system: (1) systems analysis, (2) materials handling, (3) chemical/physical separation, (4) waste destruction and stabilization, (5) off-gas treatment, and (6) final waste form stabilization. The status of the technical initiatives and the current research, development, and demonstration in each of these areas is described in this paper

  15. Energy and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Carbonnier; Jacques Grinevald

    2012-01-01

    Published by Palgrave Macmillan This chapter introduces the thematic dossier of International Development Policy on the intimate relationship between energy and development. The authors discuss the centrality of fossil fuels in the economic growth of the Western world since the nineteenth century and the key role of oil in the twentieth century and question the future of this development model in the face of geological and climatic constraints. They examine the gaps and misunderstandings that...

  16. Gasification of oil shale by solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasification of oil shales followed by catalytic reforming can yield synthetic gas, which is easily transportable and may be used as a heat source or for producing liquid fuels. The aim of the present work was to study the gasification of oil shales by solar radiation, as a mean of combining these two energy resources. Such a combination results in maximizing the extractable fuel from the shale, as well as enabling us to store solar energy in a chemical bond. In this research special attention was focused upon the question of the possible enhancement of the gasification by direct solar irradiation of the solid carbonaceous feed stock. The oil shale served here as a model feedstock foe other resources such as coal, heavy fuels or biomass all of which can be gasified in the same manner. The experiments were performed at the Weizman institute's solar central receiver, using solar concentrated flux as an energy source for the gasification. The original contributions of this work are : 1) Experimental evidence is presented that concentrated sunlight can be used effectively to carry out highly endothermic chemical reactions in solid particles, which in turn forms an essential element in the open-loop solar chemical heat pipe; 2) The solar-driven gasification of oil shales can be executed with good conversion efficiencies, as well as high synthesis gas yields; 3)There was found substantial increase in deliverable energy compared to the conventional retorting of oil shales, and considerable reduction in the resulting spent shale. 5) A detailed computer model that incorporates all the principal optical and thermal components of the solar concentrator and the chemical reactor has been developed and compared favorably against experimental data. (author)

  17. The development and commercialization of solar pv technology in the oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkse, Jonatan; Van Den Buuse, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In diversifying energy supply, the transformation of the energy industry has been identified as a key challenge for a sustainable energy future. This suggests that incumbent firms in this industry have a vital role in the development and commercialization process of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides a comparative analysis of oil and gas firms' strategies regarding solar PV technology investments, a renewable energy technology that has seen explosive growth of late. The main a...

  18. Energy trends: The future oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciej, H

    1990-08-01

    Since the first oil price shocks of the early 70s, the price has fluctuated wildly, and for a while, skyrocketing prices actually reduced demand. This situation has now changed, and new trends are emerging. World energy demand is expected to rise in the 1990s and the scope of possible oil consumption trends is suggested. By 1995 or even earlier there is likely to be no excess productive capacity. Some OPEC members can expand production, although OPEC has signalled that it does not want to finance such an expansion itself. The prospect is for rising demand, tightening supply, and renewed cooperation between OPEC and the major oil companies. Two possible scenarios arising from this include a skillfully managed supply-demand equilibrium with steadily rising prices, or a serious supply shortfall with a consequent price spike. An influential factor will be non-OPEC production; the two largest producers in this group, the USA and USSR, are in periods of declining production. Significant increases may be possible if frontier areas can be developed and if technological improvements can be implemented in the new era of market liberalization and perestroika in the USSR. The place of Canada in this situation is assessed, with a focus on the challenges in finding new oil potential in the frontier regions and the oil sands. The Canadian industry's long term future appears secure and promising, but an interim period when production may fall below indigenous demand is forecast. 5 figs.

  19. Future role of Gulf oil in world energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The view that there will be a growing dependence on oil from the Gulf countries is shared by a great number of oil market analysts. This view is based on the fact that Gulf countries dominate the global oil reserves. Energy analyst argue that as the world demand for oil continues to grow driven largely by the growth in developing countries' consumption coupled with constrained non-OPEC supply, the end result will be that the call on Gulf oil will grow substantially. In summary, this paper has challenged the view of growing dependence on oil from the Gulf using available information in conjunction with reasonable and fairly plausible arguments. The aim was to point out to the GCC member counties the danger of relying on these views in shaping their economic policies and in setting their oil market strategies. They may run the ultimate risk of being left with huge oil reserves that no one wants. (orig.)

  20. Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Charles Chamberlin; Robert Chaney; Gang Chen; Godwin Chukwu; James Clough; Steve Colt; Anthony Covescek; Robert Crosby; Abhijit Dandekar; Paul Decker; Brandon Galloway; Rajive Ganguli; Catherine Hanks; Rich Haut; Kristie Hilton; Larry Hinzman; Gwen Holdman; Kristie Holland; Robert Hunter; Ron Johnson; Thomas Johnson; Doug Kame; Mikhail Kaneveskly; Tristan Kenny; Santanu Khataniar; Abhijeet Kulkami; Peter Lehman; Mary Beth Leigh; Jenn-Tai Liang; Michael Lilly; Chuen-Sen Lin; Paul Martin; Pete McGrail; Dan Miller; Debasmita Misra; Nagendra Nagabhushana; David Ogbe; Amanda Osborne; Antoinette Owen; Sharish Patil; Rocky Reifenstuhl; Doug Reynolds; Eric Robertson; Todd Schaef; Jack Schmid; Yuri Shur; Arion Tussing; Jack Walker; Katey Walter; Shannon Watson; Daniel White; Gregory White; Mark White; Richard Wies; Tom Williams; Dennis Witmer; Craig Wollard; Tao Zhu

    2008-12-31

    The Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory was created by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in response to a congressionally mandated funding opportunity through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), specifically to encourage research partnerships between the university, the Alaskan energy industry, and the DOE. The enabling legislation permitted research in a broad variety of topics particularly of interest to Alaska, including providing more efficient and economical electrical power generation in rural villages, as well as research in coal, oil, and gas. The contract was managed as a cooperative research agreement, with active project monitoring and management from the DOE. In the eight years of this partnership, approximately 30 projects were funded and completed. These projects, which were selected using an industry panel of Alaskan energy industry engineers and managers, cover a wide range of topics, such as diesel engine efficiency, fuel cells, coal combustion, methane gas hydrates, heavy oil recovery, and water issues associated with ice road construction in the oil fields of the North Slope. Each project was managed as a separate DOE contract, and the final technical report for each completed project is included with this final report. The intent of this process was to address the energy research needs of Alaska and to develop research capability at the university. As such, the intent from the beginning of this process was to encourage development of partnerships and skills that would permit a transition to direct competitive funding opportunities managed from funding sources. This project has succeeded at both the individual project level and at the institutional development level, as many of the researchers at the university are currently submitting proposals to funding agencies, with some success.

  1. Oil crops: requirements and possibilities for their utilization as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although vegetable oils have been used as an energy source for centuries, they were used almost exclusively in oil lamps. Their value as a foodstuff and the availability and low price of mineral oil had for a long time kept them from being seriously considered as a potential energy source. Now, owing to the increasing cost of fossil fuel, particularly oil, and increasing industrial energy consumption, as well as the negative impact of fossil fuel use on the environment, there is interest in a number of alternative energy sources, including vegetable oils. The discussion in this paper focuses on the use of untreated vegetable oils, particularly rapeseed oil. The energy potential of rapeseed oil is explored first. Then, conditions under which the use of oil crops as an energy source is feasible are briefly discussed; two concepts for decentralized oil-seed processing are described and, finally, future possibilities for use of vegetable oils as a fuel source are reviewed. (author)

  2. Oil heat technology research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweller, E.R. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); McDonald, R.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this United States Department of Energy (DOE)/Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) program is to develop a technology base for advancing the state-of-the-art related to oilfired combustion equipment. The major thrust is through technology based research that will seek new knowledge leading to improved designs and equipment optimization. The Combustion Equipment space Conditioning Technology program currently deals exclusively with residential and small commercial building oil heat technology.

  3. Restructuring the oil segment in South America: public policy, private capital and energy integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Oil Industry (WOI) developed through two types of economic organization, built up around vertically integrated and internationalized enterprises: the US model, based on private international firms, and the model centered on setting up State-run enterprises, initially in the United Kingdom, Argentina and Mexico. However, from the first oil crisis (1973) onwards, the World Oil Industry has gradually been un-bundled through nationalization and the loss of control over the reserves by the oil majors. With this new configuration of the industry, from the 1980's onwards, the strategies of the major international oil companies focused on developing the spot market, while lowering investment and operating costs, introducing correlated diversification strategies, and enhancing industrial concentration through mergers and acquisitions and/or cooperation agreements between companies. The core purpose of these strategic shifts is to obtain control over new oil field areas. The restructuring processes of national oil industries all over the world - particularly in South America - constituted an important drive aligned with these new guidelines, headed up by the global oil operators. This paper analyzes the changes in the South American oil sector during the 1990's, analyzing aspects involved in awarding mineral rights in the upstream segment. Despite similar policies, market deregulation processes follow different patterns. However, the most significant aspect is an increase in the presence of international private capital in the dynamics of this sector, mainly in regional energy integration processes. (authors)

  4. Nuclear energy for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, working with a number of Alberta-based companies, assessed the technical and economic feasibility of using a CANDU nuclear reactor to raise the production steam for the recovery of bitumen. The study followed several years of analysis which identified oil sands projects as the most appropriate single users of thermal energy of the amount and quality available from reactors. Over the life of an oil sands project a steam supply system based on a nuclear reactor is expected to offer a substantial cost advantage (25 - 50%) over the alternative system based on coal as the make-up fuel. Steam from natural gas is marginally more expensive than that from coal because the cost of natural gas is expected to escalate at a rate higher than inflation. For shallow deposits (150 - 250 metres) using intermediate pressure steam, the commercially proven Pressurized Heavy Water (PHW) reactor is most suitable. For deeper deposits (250 - 650 metres), the PHW reactor can provide the higher pressure steam using a compressor, but only with a reduction in thermal efficiency that substantially reduces its cost advantage. The CANDU Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR), however, can provide the high presure steam required with the large cost advantage. The economic benefit of nuclear steam supply systems, a saving of $2-4 per barrel of product, is large enough to justify a more detailed study

  5. Porous structure and morphology of granular chars from flash and conventional pyrolysis of grape seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studies the influence of the operating conditions used in the pyrolysis of grape seeds on the morphology and textural properties of the chars resulting. Flash and conventional (283 K min−1 heating rate) pyrolysis have been used within a wide range of temperature (300–1000 °C). The effect of a pretreatment for oil extraction has also been studied. The porous structure of the chars was characterized by adsorption of N2 at 77 K, Ar at 77 K and 87 K, and CO2 at 273 K and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. All the materials prepared revealed an essentially microporous structure, with a poor or even negligible contribution of mesopores. Increasing pyrolysis temperature led to higher specific surface areas and lower pore size. The highest specific surface area values occurred within 700–800 °C, reaching up to 500 m2 g−1 with pore sizes in the 0.4–1.1 nm range. No significant morphological changes were observed upon carbonization so that the resulting chars were granular materials of similar size than the starting grape seeds. The hollow core structure of the chars, with most of the material allocated at the periphery of the granules can help to overcome the mass transfer limitations of most common (solid or massive) granular activated carbons. The chars showed a good mechanical strength during attrition tests. These chars can be potential candidates for the preparation of granular carbons molecular sieve or activated carbons raw materials. -- Highlights: •We use a raw material that has a very low price and a high availability. •Not very much attention has been paid to this waste for carbonaceous materials preparation. •The chars obtained have high specific surface area that is an interesting starting point for later activation processes. •The chars show a micro-macro porous bimodal distribution. •Pyrolysis does not affect to morphology or initial seed, leading a carbonized particles

  6. Process for regenerating exhausted oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, S.; Borza, M.

    1980-11-11

    For refining spent motor oils in order to recover lubricating bases to be reused, the stock to be refined is first stripped of water and light hydrocarbons, then a first extraction with a solvent (Preferably a lower paraffin), heating the oil stripped of the solvent, distilling it under vacuum to separate light, medium and heavy lubricating bases, heating the heavier lubricating base and then extracting it with the same solvent as aforesaid, and sending the lubricating bases, separately and individually, to a hydrofinishing stage. The recycle to solvent extraction of the heavy bases affords the advantage of important heat savings and the possibility of adopting blander working conditions in the hydrofinishing of the heavier lubricating bases.

  7. Compilation of Sandia coal char combustion data and kinetic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.E.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L.; Hardesty, D.R.

    1992-06-01

    An experimental project was undertaken to characterize the physical and chemical processes that govern the combustion of pulverized coal chars. The experimental endeavor establishes a database on the reactivities of coal chars as a function of coal type, particle size, particle temperature, gas temperature, and gas and composition. The project also provides a better understanding of the mechanism of char oxidation, and yields quantitative information on the release rates of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing species during char combustion. An accurate predictive engineering model of the overall char combustion process under technologically relevant conditions in a primary product of this experimental effort. This document summarizes the experimental effort, the approach used to analyze the data, and individual compilations of data and kinetic analyses for each of the parent coals investigates.

  8. Particle-based characterisation of pulverised coals and chars for carbon burnout studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbins, J.R.; Seitz, M.H.; Kennedy, S.M.; Beeley, T.J.; Riley, G.S. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Mechanical Engineering Department

    1999-07-01

    The study of individual particle properties, as opposed to averaged behaviour of differing particles, was carried out for the combustion of coals and chars using optical microscopy and digital image processing. Chars from entrained flow reactors and corresponding pulverized fuel samples were characterized to examine possible char particle origins for real heterogeneous particles. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Energy return on (energy) invested (EROI), oil prices, and energy transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very little work has been done so far to model, test, and understand the relationship between oil prices and EROI over time. This paper investigates whether a declining EROI is associated with an increasing oil price and speculates on the implications of these results on oil policy. A model of the relationship between EROI and oil market prices was developed using basic economic and physical assumptions and non-linear least-squares regression models to correlate oil production price with EROI using available data from 1954–1996. The model accurately reflects historical oil prices (1954–1996), and it correlates well with historical oil prices (1997–2010) if a linear extrapolation of EROI decline is assumed. As EROI declines below 10, highly non-linear oil price movements are observed. Increasing physical oil scarcity is already providing market signals that would stimulate a transition away from oil toward alternative energy sources. But, price signals of physical oil scarcity are not sufficient to guarantee smooth transitions to alternative fuel sources, especially when there is insufficient oil extraction technology development, a declining mark-up ratio, a non-linear EROI–cost of production relationship, and a non-linear EROI–price relationship. - Highlights: ► A model of the relationship between EROI and oil prices has been developed. ► As EROI declines below 10, highly non-linear oil price movements are expected. ► Physical oil scarcity provides market signals for a transition to alternatives. ► Scarcity price signals are insufficient for smooth transitions to alternatives.

  10. Development of the process of energy transfer from a nuclear Power Plant to an intermediate temperature electrolyse; Desarrollo del proceso de transferencia de energia desde una central nuclear a un electrolizador de temperatura intermedia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Cervantes, A.; Cuadrado Garcia, P.; Soraino Garcia, J.

    2013-07-01

    Fifty million tons of hydrogen are consumed annually in the world in various industrial processes. Among them, the ammonia production, oil refining and the production of methanol. One of the methods to produce it is the electrolysis of water, oxygen and hydrogen. This process needs electricity and steam which a central nuclear It can be your source; Hence the importance of developing the transfer process energy between the two. The objective of the study is to characterize the process of thermal energy transfer from a nuclear power plant to an electrolyzer of intermediate temperature (ITSE) already defined. The study is limited to the intermediate engineering process, from the central to the cell.

  11. Energy Return on Investment (EROI of Oil Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. O’Connor

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The two methods of processing synthetic crude from organic marlstone in demonstration or small-scale commercial status in the U.S. are in situ extraction and surface retorting. The considerable uncertainty surrounding the technological characterization, resource characterization, and choice of the system boundary for oil shale operations indicate that oil shale is only a minor net energy producer if one includes internal energy (energy in the shale that is used during the process as an energy cost. The energy return on investment (EROI for either of these methods is roughly 1.5:1 for the final fuel product. The inclusions or omission of internal energy is a critical question. If only external energy (energy diverted from the economy to produce the fuel is considered, EROI appears to be much higher. In comparison, fuels produced from conventional petroleum show overall EROI of approximately 4.5:1. “At the wellhead” EROI is approximately 2:1 for shale oil (again, considering internal energy and 20:1 for petroleum. The low EROI for oil shale leads to a significant release of greenhouse gases. The large quantities of energy needed to process oil shale, combined with the thermochemistry of the retorting process, produce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. Oil shale unambiguously emits more greenhouse gases than conventional liquid fuels from crude oil feedstocks by a factor of 1.2 to 1.75. Much of the discussion regarding the EROI for oil shale should be regarded as preliminary or speculative due to the very small number of operating facilities that can be assessed.

  12. Development and stability evaluation of olive oil nanoemulsion using sucrose monoester laurate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ahmad M. M.; Baie, Saringat Haji; Arafat, Osama

    2012-11-01

    Nanoemulsion is a type of emulsion that consists of fine oil-in-water dispersions, with the droplets covering the size range of 20-200 nm. It can be achieved through emulsification process. One of the processes is through low energy emulsification method. Olive oil was chosen in this study due to its efficiency in treating skin problem. Olive oil nanophase gel (NPG) formulations were performed through various ratios of olive oil, sucrose laurate and glycerin. The particle sizes and stability of the prepared olive oil nanophase gel were evaluated and the optimal formulation was then selected for the development of olive oil nanoemulsion. This study proved that the composition of oil and surfactant play an important roles in influencing the nanophase gel droplet size. Nanophase gels containing olive oil in the concentration of 50 and 60 % show good stability at 4 °C and room temperature while it was less stable at 40 °C. Olive oil nanophase gels in the concentration of 50 % and 60 % with sucrose laurate 25 % in each formulation were good candidates to prepare nanoemulsion because they have the suitable droplets size and Polydispersing Index (PDI) when compared to other formulations. A mixture of NPG 50 % and water in the ratio of 40:60 and NPG 60 % and water in the ratio of 33.3:66.7 were used to produce nanoemulsions containing 20 % of oil with negative values of zeta potential (>60) which indicate the good stability of the nanoemulsions.

  13. 原油集输系统能耗分析软件开发与应用%The Development and Application of Energy Consumption Analysis of Oil Gathering System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾昭英; 周峤; 吴新果

    2012-01-01

    油田进入高含水、特高含水开发阶段后,运行效率降低,系统能耗升高,原油生产成本呈逐年上升趋势,必须进行能耗分析,优化工艺流程.研究开发原油集输系统能耗分析软件,对于控制原油生产中能耗上升,降低原油生产成本,实现油田地面工程高效、低耗运行和科学管理将起到重要作用.以大庆油田第三采油厂以北二二脱水站为例,对其集输系统用能现状和能损分布规律进行了研究,结果表明此软件分析结果准确高效.%As the oilfield is in high water and extra-high water cut stage, the problems, such as widespreadly declining load rate of surface producing system, decreasing operation efficiency, rising energy consumption of gathering system and increasing cost of crude oil production, are getting more serious. Therefore, it's necessary to opit-mize process links by research of energy consumption analysis and energy optimal utilization. Research and development of "energy consumption analysis of oil gathering system and integrated optimizing design" application software will play an important role in controling energy consumption of oil production, reducing oil production cost and achieving efficient, low consumption, orderly adjustment and scientific management of oil fields surface engineering. Research on present situation of energy consumption and regularity of distribution of gathering system, the center of which is a dehydration station in Oil Recovery Plant No. 3 , Daqing Oilfield Corp. Ltd. , is done by the use of the software, and the results show that the software are accurate and efficient.

  14. Stereoscopic pyrometer for char combustion characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiemann, M; Vorobiev, N; Scherer, V

    2015-02-10

    For many pulverized fuels, especially coal and biomass, char combustion is the time determining step. Based on intensified ICCD cameras, a novel setup has been developed to study pulverized fuel combustion, mainly in a laminar flow reactor. For char burning characterization, the typical measurement parameters are particle temperature, size, and velocity. The working principle of the camera setup is introduced and its capabilities are discussed by examination of coal particle combustion under CO(2)-enriched, so-called oxy-fuel atmospheres with varying O(2) content. PMID:25968027

  15. Formation, Structure and Properties of Amorphous Carbon Char from Polymer Materials in Extreme Atmospheric Reentry Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous carbonaceous char produced from the pyrolysis of polymer solids has many desirable properties for ablative heat shields for space vehicles. Molecular dynamics simulations are presented to study the transformation of the local atomic structure from virgin polymer to a dense, disordered char [1]. Release of polymer hydrogen is found to be critical to allow the system to collapse into a highly coordinated char structure. Mechanisms of the char formation process and the morphology of the resulting structures are elucidated. Thermal conductivity and mechanical response of the resulting char are evaluated [2]. During reenty, the optical response and oxidative reactivity of char are also important properties. Results of ab initio computations of char optical functions [3] and char reactivity [4] are also presented.

  16. Nuclear energy for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In working partnership with a number of Alberta-based companies an AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) study team assessed the technical and economic feasibility of using a nuclear reactor to raise the production steam for the recovery of bitumen. Technically sound concepts have been identified for using CANDU reactors for the in-situ recovery of bitumen from oil sands. Over the life of an oil sands project a steam supply system based on a nuclear reactor is expected to offer a substantial cost advantage (25 - 50 %) over the alternative system based on coal as the make-up fuel. Steam from natural gas is marginally more expensive than that from coal because the cost of natural gas is expected to escalate at a rate higher than inflation. For shallow deposits (150 -250 metres) using intermediate pressure steam, the commercially proven Pressurized Heavy Water (PHW) reactor is most suitable. For deeper deposits (250 - 650 metres), the PHW reactor can provide the higher pressure steam using a compressor, but only with a reduction in thermal efficiency that substantially reduces its cost advantage. The CANDU Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR), however, can provide a high pressure steam required with the large cost advantage. The economic benefit offered by nuclear steam supply systems, a saving of $2-4 per barrel of product, is large enough to justify the commitment of a more detailed study

  17. Energy cost reduction in oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limeira, Fabio Machado; Correa, Joao Luiz Lavoura; Costa, Luciano Macedo Josino da; Silva, Jose Luiz da; Henriques, Fausto Metzger Pessanha [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the key questions of modern society consists on the rational use of the planet's natural resources and energy. Due to the lack of energy, many companies are forced to reduce their workload, especially during peak hours, because residential demand reaches its top and there is not enough energy to fulfill the needs of all users, which affects major industries. Therefore, using energy more wisely has become a strategic issue for any company, due to the limited supply and also for the excessive cost it represents. With the objective of saving energy and reducing costs for oil pipelines, it has been identified that the increase in energy consumption is primordially related to pumping stations and also by the way many facilities are operated, that is, differently from what was originally designed. Realizing this opportunity, in order to optimize the process, this article intends to examine the possibility of gains evaluating alternatives regarding changes in the pump scheme configuration and non-use of pump stations at peak hours. Initially, an oil pipeline with potential to reduce energy costs was chosen being followed by a history analysis, in order to confirm if there was sufficient room to change the operation mode. After confirming the pipeline choice, the system is briefly described and the literature is reviewed, explaining how the energy cost is calculated and also the main characteristics of a pumping system in series and in parallel. In that sequence, technically feasible alternatives are studied in order to operate and also to negotiate the energy demand contract. Finally, costs are calculated to identify the most economical alternative, that is, for a scenario with no increase in the actual transported volume of the pipeline and for another scenario that considers an increase of about 20%. The conclusion of this study indicates that the chosen pipeline can achieve a reduction on energy costs of up to 25% without the need for investments in new

  18. Survey on alternative energy for industrial processes in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In consequence of the national industrial development, it is necessary to supply a lot of energy. This paper presented a discussion about the option of supplying nuclear processed heat as alternative energy sources for industry especially in Java island. The electrical energy requirement can be estimated rising. The stock and the requirement of energy in Indonesia is unbalance. If the oil production rate is constant, such as that of today, it can be estimated that the oil stock would be over in 20 years. The country is trying to difertify its source of energy and reduce its dependence on oil. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) produces electric and also heat at various temperature in the form of steam and gas. Heat processes from a high temperature reactor, could be used in industry for supplying heat for coal hidroforming, gasification of coal, metal annealing, petrochemical hydrogenation, distillation, purification of petrochemicals, evaporation, water heat, etc. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  19. Bone char surface modification by nano-gold coating for elemental mercury vapor removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Mohamad javad; Rezaee, Abbas; Rangkooy, Hossinali

    2015-07-01

    The present work was done to develop a novel nanocomposite using bone char coated with nano-gold for capture of elemental mercury (Hg0) from air. The morphologies, structures, and chemical constitute of the prepared nanocomposite were evaluated by UV-VIS-NIR, dynamic light-scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The capture performance of nanocomposite was evaluated in a needle trap for mercury vapor. An on-line setup based on cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) was designed for Hg0 determination. Dynamic capacity of nanocomposite for Hg0 was shown high efficient operating capacity of 586.7 μg/g. As temperature increases, the dynamic adsorption capacity of the nanocomposite was decreased, which are characteristics of physicosorption processes. It was found that the surface modification of bone char with nano-gold has various advantages such as high operating dynamic adsorption capacity and low cost preparation. It was also demonstrated that the developed nanocomposite is suitable for on-line monitoring of Hg0. It could be applied for the laboratory and field studies.

  20. Oil Depletion and the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production: The Case of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Brandt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of oil depletion on the energetic efficiency of oil extraction and refining in California. These changes are measured using energy return ratios (such as the energy return on investment, or EROI. I construct a time-varying first-order process model of energy inputs and outputs of oil extraction. The model includes factors such as oil quality, reservoir depth, enhanced recovery techniques, and water cut. This model is populated with historical data for 306 California oil fields over a 50 year period. The model focuses on the effects of resource quality decline, while technical efficiencies are modeled simply. Results indicate that the energy intensity of oil extraction in California increased significantly from 1955 to 2005. This resulted in a decline in the life-cycle EROI from 6.5 to 3.5 (measured as megajoules (MJ delivered to final consumers per MJ primary energy invested in energy extraction, transport, and refining. Most of this decline in energy returns is due to increasing need for steam-based thermal enhanced oil recovery, with secondary effects due to conventional resource depletion (e.g., increased water cut.

  1. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  2. Net energy yield from production of conventional oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historic profitability of bringing oil to market was profound, but most easy oil has been developed. Higher cost resources, such as tar sands and deep off-shore, are considered the best prospects for the future. Economic modelling is currently used to explore future price scenarios commensurate with delivering fuel to market. Energy policy requires modelling scenarios capturing the complexity of resource and extraction aspects as well as the economic profitability of different resources. Energy-return-on-investment (EROI) expresses the profitability of bringing energy products to the market. Net energy yield (NEY) is related to the EROI. NEY is the amount of energy less expenditures necessary to deliver a fuel to the market. This paper proposes a pattern for EROI of oil production, based on historic oil development trends. Methodology and data for EROI is not agreed upon. The proposed EROI function is explored in relation to the available data and used to attenuate the International Energy Agency (IEA) world oil production scenarios to understand the implications of future declining EROI on net energy yield. The results suggest that strategies for management and mitigation of deleterious effects of a peak in oil production are more urgent than might be suggested by analyses focussing only on gross production. - Highlights: → Brief introduction to methodological issues concerning net energy analysis. → Description of EROI function over the whole production cycle of an energy resource. → Calibration of this function to EROI data from historic oil production. → Application to determine the net energy yield from current global oil production. → Calculation of net energy yield from IEA projections of future oil production.

  3. Net energy yield from production of conventional oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Michael, E-mail: mikdale@stanford.edu [Advanced Energy and Material Systems (AEMS) Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury (New Zealand); Krumdieck, Susan [Advanced Energy and Material Systems (AEMS) Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury (New Zealand); Bodger, Pat [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Canterbury (New Zealand)

    2011-11-15

    Historic profitability of bringing oil to market was profound, but most easy oil has been developed. Higher cost resources, such as tar sands and deep off-shore, are considered the best prospects for the future. Economic modelling is currently used to explore future price scenarios commensurate with delivering fuel to market. Energy policy requires modelling scenarios capturing the complexity of resource and extraction aspects as well as the economic profitability of different resources. Energy-return-on-investment (EROI) expresses the profitability of bringing energy products to the market. Net energy yield (NEY) is related to the EROI. NEY is the amount of energy less expenditures necessary to deliver a fuel to the market. This paper proposes a pattern for EROI of oil production, based on historic oil development trends. Methodology and data for EROI is not agreed upon. The proposed EROI function is explored in relation to the available data and used to attenuate the International Energy Agency (IEA) world oil production scenarios to understand the implications of future declining EROI on net energy yield. The results suggest that strategies for management and mitigation of deleterious effects of a peak in oil production are more urgent than might be suggested by analyses focussing only on gross production. - Highlights: > Brief introduction to methodological issues concerning net energy analysis. > Description of EROI function over the whole production cycle of an energy resource. > Calibration of this function to EROI data from historic oil production. > Application to determine the net energy yield from current global oil production. > Calculation of net energy yield from IEA projections of future oil production.

  4. Study on incineration technology of oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to design, set up and operate an incinerator system capable of providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in Taiwan. In this study, we successfully develop a vertical-type incinerator, which consists of five oil gas burners with entrained primary air, a pilot burner, and an auxiliary burner. The incinerator system is equipped with necessary control units in order to achieve safe, easy, fast, and efficient operation. Flame appearance, flue gas temperature and CO emission of the incinerator system for burning oil gas are reported and discussed. Under the long-term operation, it is found that the new designed incinerator is satisfactory for burning oil gas with low supply pressure at various compositions and supply rates during the recovery process of oil spill. It is noteworthy that the results obtained herein are of great significance to provide a good guidance for those who need to design, set up and operate an incinerator system providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in a polluted site with a large area.

  5. Disintegration of beech wood char during thermal conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus

    In the present work the processes occurring in the structures of slowly pyrolysed beech wood char during thermal gasification have been investigated. Emphasis was put on physical changes and gas transport properties during conversion. The highly anisotropic structure of wood was preserved in its...... char. Direct observation of the microscopic char structures during gasification in CO2 at 735 QC showed that the basic structure was nearly intact up to degrees of conversion of 0.6—0.7. Uni-axial measurements of diffusion coefficients and permeabilities with a Wicke-Kallenbach cell revealed...... differences of 3—4 orders of magnitude between the longitudinal and other directions in freshly pyrolysed beech wood char. Diffusion in the longitudinal direction of the beech wood char before gasification corresponded to direct, unobstructed diffusion through its vessel cells. Radial and tangential diffusion...

  6. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S

    2008-08-12

    The Office of Environmental Management's (EM) Roadmap, U.S. Department of Energy--Office of Environmental Management Engineering & Technology Roadmap (Roadmap), defines the Department's intent to reduce the technical risk and uncertainty in its cleanup programs. The unique nature of many of the remaining facilities will require a strong and responsive engineering and technology program to improve worker and public safety, and reduce costs and environmental impacts while completing the cleanup program. The technical risks and uncertainties associated with cleanup program were identified through: (1) project risk assessments, (2) programmatic external technical reviews and technology readiness assessments, and (3) direct site input. In order to address these needs, the technical risks and uncertainties were compiled and divided into the program areas of: Waste Processing, Groundwater and Soil Remediation, and Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D). Strategic initiatives were then developed within each program area to address the technical risks and uncertainties in that program area. These strategic initiatives were subsequently incorporated into the Roadmap, where they form the strategic framework of the EM Engineering & Technology Program. The EM-21 Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) supports the goals and objectives of the Roadmap by providing direction for technology enhancement, development, and demonstrations that will lead to a reduction of technical uncertainties in EM waste processing activities. The current MYPP summarizes the strategic initiatives and the scope of the activities within each initiative that are proposed for the next five years (FY2008-2012) to improve safety and reduce costs and environmental impacts associated with waste processing; authorized budget levels will impact how much of the scope of activities can be executed, on a year-to-year basis. As a result of the importance of reducing technical risk and uncertainty in the EM Waste

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOGISTIC STRATEGY IN THE BOUNDARIES OF LOGISTIC BUSINESS PROCESS IMPROVEMENT OF ENERGY SYSTEM COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Sankov, V.; Tayakina, E.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the problems concerning the methods of logistic strategy development in the boundaries of logistic business process improvement of energy system companies. It is stated that logistic methods in solving the strategy problems are important.

  8. Gene expression profiling during seed-filling process in peanut with emphasis on oil biosynthesis networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kapil; Kayam, Galya; Faigenboim-Doron, Adi; Clevenger, Josh; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Hovav, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Pod-filling is an important stage of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed development. It is partially controlled by genetic factors, as cultivars considerably vary in pod-filling potential. Here, a study was done to detect changes in mRNA levels that accompany pod-filling processes. Four seed developmental stages were sampled from two peanut genotypes differing in their oil content and pod-filling potential. Transcriptome data were generated by RNA-Seq and explored with respect to genic and subgenomic patterns of expression. Very dynamic transcriptomic changes occurred during seed development in both genotypes. Yet, general higher expression rates of transcripts and an enrichment in processes involved "energy generation" and "primary metabolites" were observed in the genotype with the better pod-filling ("Hanoch"). A dataset of 584 oil-related genes was assembled and analyzed, resulting in several lipid metabolic processes highly expressed in Hanoch, including oil storage and FA synthesis/elongation. Homoeolog-specific gene expression analysis revealed that both subgenomes contribute to the oil genes expression. Yet, biases were observed in particular parts of the pathway with possible biological meaning, presumably explaining the genotypic variation in oil biosynthesis and pod-filling. This study provides baseline information and a resource that may be used to understand development and oil biosynthesis in the peanut seeds. PMID:27181953

  9. Development of the gaharu oil quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaharu (Agar wood) is a secondary metabolite produces by the Aquilaria spp. and accumulates in the plant cell in oleoresin form. The essential oil known as gaharu oil can be extracted from this oleoresin gaharu via varies extraction method such as the water distillation, solvent extraction, pressurize extraction and etc. The gaharu oil extracted through different methods will give different fragrances. Besides, different source of materials will also give different in chemical profiles. In gaharu oil trading market, most of the buyers request quality assurance from the gaharu oil manufacturer to assure the gaharu oil purchased meets their standard requirement. Since there is a demand on gaharu oil quality assurance then it become a need to develop the gaharu oil quality control method in order to have a standard quality control of gaharu oil presented in a certificate of analysis and verified by laboratory. (author)

  10. China Needs More Oil to Fuel Its Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The Chinese government has always insisted that development should be the theme of China's 10th Five-Year Plan (2001-2005) and the nation should take advantage of all opportunities to speed up development with economic construction as the focal point. However, economic researchers and energy experts were caught off guard by the surprisingly strong pace in oil imports despite their prediction of China's increasing need for crude oil. In addition, the doubledigit growth of oil-related industries such as automobile and transportation sectors has further resulted in rocketing demand for crude oil consumption and imports.

  11. Developing new markets for oil sands products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a review by Purvin and Gertz of western Canadian crude oil supply. This energy consulting firm provides advise to the energy sector. It suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes bitumen, synthetic crude oil (SCO), and diluent. It is forecasted that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. The potential of Alberta's oil sands was discussed along with a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. The author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. 15 figs

  12. Effect of processing conditions on oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviara, N A; Musa, W B; Owolarafe, O K; Ogunsina, B S; Oluwole, F A

    2015-07-01

    Seed oil expression is an important economic venture in rural Nigeria. The traditional techniques of carrying out the operation is not only energy sapping and time consuming but also wasteful. In order to reduce the tedium involved in the expression of oil from moringa oleifera seed and develop efficient equipment for carrying out the operation, the oil point pressure of the seed was determined under different processing conditions using a laboratory press. The processing conditions employed were moisture content (4.78, 6.00, 8.00 and 10.00 % wet basis), heating temperature (50, 70, 85 and 100 °C) and heating time (15, 20, 25 and 30 min). Results showed that the oil point pressure increased with increase in seed moisture content, but decreased with increase in heating temperature and heating time within the above ranges. Highest oil point pressure value of 1.1239 MPa was obtained at the processing conditions of 10.00 % moisture content, 50 °C heating temperature and 15 min heating time. The lowest oil point pressure obtained was 0.3164 MPa and it occurred at the moisture content of 4.78 %, heating temperature of 100 °C and heating time of 30 min. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that all the processing variables and their interactions had significant effect on the oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed at 1 % level of significance. This was further demonstrated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Tukey's test and Duncan's Multiple Range Analysis successfully separated the means and a multiple regression equation was used to express the relationship existing between the oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed and its moisture content, processing temperature, heating time and their interactions. The model yielded coefficients that enabled the oil point pressure of the seed to be predicted with very high coefficient of determination. PMID:26139917

  13. Numerical simualtions of fouling in crude-oil processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junfeng; Matar, Omar

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this study are to achieve fundamental understanding of the transfer processes underlying the development of a fouling layer on the inside of heat exchangers used in crude-oil processing. The numerical models developed are based on the solution of the mass and momentum conservation equations, coupled to the energy transport equation. These are complemented by relations that capture the dependence of the layer density, viscosity, and surface tension on temperature. In order to capture ageing effects, the thermal conductivity of the layer is allowed to depend on temperature, and a functional form is chosen for its viscosity that accounts for dynamic structure-building and destruction. Importantly, a chemical equilibria model is used to model the phase behaviour of the oil, and this is also coupled to the governing equations. The turbulence in the fluid phase is modelled using large eddy simulations. Numerical solutions of the model equations are obtained in a channel geometry using a volume-of-fluid approach. Our results capture the complex fouling dynamics that include phase separation, wall-layer deposition, and removal. Skolkovo Foundation, UNIHEAT project.

  14. US oil policy and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the energy dependence reached its historical maximum and will continue to increase for the next 20 years, the USA keep their oil policy. For the economist this policy is reasonable because of the poor room for the US imports reduction costs. To explain these conclusions the author discusses on the following topics: the links between the oil dependence and the energy security, the oil policy after Reagan, the oil policy evolution - or no evolution - facing the increasing dependency and the Cheney report. (A.L.B.)

  15. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  16. New development on electrochemical etching processes at the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrabi, M

    1999-01-01

    Some highlights of new developments made in our laboratory at the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran on chemical and electrochemical etching (ECE) of polymer track detectors like polycarbonate (PC) are presented. They include introduction of new ECE chamber systems and methods for production of ECE signs and symbols, and a new versatile ECE chamber (VECE) system for multi-purpose, multi-size, and/or multi-shape detector processing; determination of photoneutron doses in and around high-energy X-ray beams of a 20 MV medical accelerator; verification of the Smythe and Mason equations for ECE of tracks in polymers; ECE of alpha and recoil tracks in PC using PMW, PEW and PEMW etchants; introduction of a novel method using ethylene diamine for treatment of PC detectors with its applications, for example in precision removal of surface layers of PC (e.g. bulk removal rates of about 0.04, 0.15, 0.36, 0.66, and 1.33 mm min sup - sup 1 for 60%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 80% ethylene diamine solution (v/v) in water respectivel...

  17. Panorama of CNOOC's Recent Oil & Gas Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Offshore oil industry promising for China Vice President of CNOOC Jiang Longsheng recently pointed out that the incremental amount of China's crude production will come mainly from the offshore oil fields in the country's 11 th FiveYear Plan Period (2006-2010). He added that some onshore oil fields have entered their depletion stage while the offshore oil industry is experiencing a rapid business development.

  18. Radioactivity partitioning of oil sludge undergoing incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil sludge waste is a controlled item under the Atomic Energy Act (Act 304) 1984 of which the radioactivity content shall be subjected to analysis. Apart from that the treatment method also shall be approved by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). Thus, an analysis of the oil sludge for MSE fluidized incinerator was conducted to comply with above requirements using various techniques. Further screening analysis of fly ash as well as bed material were done to study the effect of incinerating the sludge. This paper highlights the analysis techniques and discusses the results with respect to the radioactivity level and the fate of radionuclides subjected to the processing of the waste

  19. A downdraft high temperature steam-only solar gasifier of biomass char: A modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical model of a solar downdraft gasifier of biomass char (biochar) with steam based on the systems kinetics is developed. The model calculates the dynamic and steady state profiles, predicting the temperature and concentration profiles of gas and solid phases, based on the mass and heat balances. The Rosseland equation is used to calculate the radiative transfer within the bed. The char reactivity factor (CFR) is taken into account with an exponential variation. The bed heating dynamics as well as the steam velocity effects are tested. The model results are compared with different experimental results from a solar packed bed gasifier, and the temperature profile is compared to an experimental downdraft gasifier. Hydrogen is the principal product followed by carbon monoxide, the carbon dioxide production is small and the methane production is negligible, indicating a high quality syngas production. By applying the temperature gradient theory in the steam-only gasification process for a solar gasifier design, a solar downdraft gasifier improves the energy conversion efficiency by over 20% when compared to a solar packed bed gasifier. The model predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results found in the literature. -- Highlights: → The solar downdraft gasifier set-up improve the solar updraft gasifier performance. → The temperature gradient theory is introduced. → A high quality syngas produced, the hydrogen is the principal component. → An exponential CFR variation is adjusted to the heat transfer in the bed.

  20. Pyrolysis oil from carbonaceous solid wastes in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agro-industrial sector of Malaysia produces a huge amount of oil palm and paddy rice. These generate a significant amount of renewable biomass solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rice husk. Apart from this a huge quantity of scrap tyre is generated from the country's faster increasing usage of transportation vehicles like motorcycle, car, bus and lorries. These wastes are producing pollution and disposal problems affecting the environment. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used for pyrolysis liquid oil production. Pyrolysis at present is deemed to be a potential method for the conversion of carbonaceous solid wastes into upgraded liquid products which can either be tried for liquid fuel or value-added chemical. A fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis system was employed for this thermochemical conversion process of solid wastes. Silica sand was used as fluidized bed material and nitrogen gas as the fluidising medium. The products obtained were liquid oil, solid char and gas. The liquid oil and solid char were collected separately while the gas was flared. The maximum liquid product yield was found to vary with feedstock material fluidized bed temperature. The maximum liquid product yield was found to be 58, 53 and 40 wt. % of biomass fed at fluidized bed temperature at 500, 525 and 4500C respectively for oil palm shell, scrap tyre and rice husk. The solid char yield was 25, 36 and 53 wt. % of biomass fed at the condition of maximum liquid product yield for oil palm shell, scrap tyre and rice husk respectively. The oil products were subjected to FTIR, GC and GC/MS analysis for their group composition and detailed chemical compositions. The pyrolysis oil from scrap tyre was found to contain highest percentage of pure hydrocarbons (25 wt. % of total feed) with esters and oxygenated

  1. Macondo crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disrupts specific developmental processes during zebrafish embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Soysa T Yvanka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Deepwater Horizon disaster was the largest marine oil spill in history, and total vertical exposure of oil to the water column suggests it could impact an enormous diversity of ecosystems. The most vulnerable organisms are those encountering these pollutants during their early life stages. Water-soluble components of crude oil and specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been shown to cause defects in cardiovascular and craniofacial development in a variety of teleost species, but the developmental origins of these defects have yet to be determined. We have adopted zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model to test whether water accumulated fractions (WAF of the Deepwater Horizon oil could impact specific embryonic developmental processes. While not a native species to the Gulf waters, the developmental biology of zebrafish has been well characterized and makes it a powerful model system to reveal the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind Macondo crude toxicity. Results WAF of Macondo crude oil sampled during the oil spill was used to treat zebrafish throughout embryonic and larval development. Our results indicate that the Macondo crude oil causes a variety of significant defects in zebrafish embryogenesis, but these defects have specific developmental origins. WAF treatments caused defects in craniofacial development and circulatory function similar to previous reports, but we extend these results to show they are likely derived from an earlier defect in neural crest cell development. Moreover, we demonstrate that exposure to WAFs causes a variety of novel deformations in specific developmental processes, including programmed cell death, locomotor behavior, sensory and motor axon pathfinding, somitogenesis and muscle patterning. Interestingly, the severity of cell death and muscle phenotypes decreased over several months of repeated analysis, which was correlated with a rapid drop-off in the aromatic and alkane

  2. Green oil : clean energy for the 21st century?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.

    2009-07-01

    In order to end its dependency on foreign oil supplies, Canada must consider the use of various renewable and non-renewable energy resources. A balanced approach between economic development and environmental stewardship is needed to ensure that Canada reduces its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while continuing to grow. This book discussed the political implications of Canada's oil sands resources, and argued that sustainable development of the resources will help Canada to play a leading role in the transition from a high carbon economy to a a clean energy future. The book was divided into the following 8 chapters: (1) the tyranny of oil, (2) the reluctant superpower, (3) tar sands or oil sands, (4) pollution, emissions, solutions, (5) an obligation of stewardship, (6) the way ahead, (7) the green future, and (8) green oil. 39 refs.

  3. Techno-economic analysis of the coal-to-olefins process in comparison with the oil-to-olefins process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Present the opportunities and challenges of coal-to-olefins (CTO) development. • Conduct a techno-economic analysis on CTO compared with oil-to-olefins (OTO). • Suggest approaches for improving energy efficiency and economic performance of CTO. • Analyze effects of plant scale, feedstock price, CO2 tax on CTO and OTO. - Abstract: Olefins are one of the most important oil derivatives widely used in industry. To reduce the dependence of olefins industry on oil, China is increasing the production of olefins from alternative energy resources, especially from coal. This study is concerned with the opportunities and obstacles of coal-to-olefins development, and focuses on making an overall techno-economic analysis of a coal-to-olefins plant with the capacity of 0.7 Mt/a olefins. Comparison is made with a 1.5 Mt/a oil-to-olefins plant based on three criteria including energy efficiency, capital investment, and product cost. It was found that the coal-based olefins process show prominent advantage in product cost because of the low price of its feedstock. However, it suffers from the limitations of higher capital investment, lower energy efficiency, and higher emissions. The effects of production scale, raw material price, and carbon tax were varied for the two production routes, and thus the operational regions were found for the coal-to-olefins process to be competitive

  4. A novel and innovative process to produce oil from tar sands and heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denivelle, C. [OSEAD, Paris (France); Fourt, J.F. [Truffle Capital, Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands extraction by adsorption (OSEAD) was created in October 2006 to develop an innovative hydrocarbon extraction technology from oil sands. It has since grown by taking control of a lead, zinc and silver mine in Morocco. This paper discussed the novel and innovative OSEAD process to produce oil from tar sands and heavy oil. The paper provided a description of the oil sand samples and discussed lab testing. The adsorption and desorption phases were both outlined. The main properties of the agent were identified. A summary of the test work results was also presented. The optimized OSEAD process includes an ore preparation step involving mixing of oil sand and water at ambient temperature; an adsorption step involving addition of agent to the sand/water mix; a phase separation step; a desorption step; and a tailings treatment step. It was concluded that the laboratory test work performed on Canadian oil sands is conclusive in demonstrating the capacity of the OSEAD process to efficiently adsorb heavy and viscous hydrocarbon at ambient temperature and with limited amount of water addition. 11 figs., 1 appendix.

  5. Review of new developments for oil spill response remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of recent developments in remote sensors for application to oil spills is provided. Among new developments in infrared cameras, the most noteworthy is the laser fluorosensor due to its unique ability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, ice and snow. Its major disadvantages are its size, weight and high cost. Radar, although infrequently used for this purpose, is the only piece of equipment that can provide searches over large areas and foul weather remote sensing. It, however, requires an aircraft and is subject to many disturbances. Passive microwave that has been the subject of much study as a tool to measure relative slick thickness has been found to be impractical owing to its lack of spatial resolution. A laser-acoustic instrument that provides the only technology to measure absolute oil thickness is currently being developed and has been tested in an aircraft recently. Thermal infrared detectors that offer high sensitivity without the need for cooling are just now entering the market. It is anticipated that in the next decade, advances in solid state laser technology will greatly reduce the size and energy consumption of laser-based remote sensors. This will give a boost to using these sensors in smaller, more economical aircraft, and rapidly improving computer capabilities will allow for true real-time processing. However, these advances in sensor technologies and computer capabilities to detect, classify and quantify oil in marine and coastal environments and to integrate and merge several sources of data into a real-time format, usable by emergency crews in the field, are still in the future; at present there is no single 'magic bullet' sensor that could provide all the answers needed for effective oil spill interventions. 26 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Energy security of supply and oil shale resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan must utilize its huge oil shale deposits in order to increase domestic security of energy supply and benefit financially. Utilization processes will require large scale financial expenditures, beyond Jordan's means. Therefore, the BOT scheme seems to be the perfects solution. Since oil shale retorting technology will produce oil which can be traded to generate valuable foreign exchange revenues, it is more advantageous than direct burning technology which produces electricity limited to local consumption regardless of economics. Under the BOT scheme, the incentive, for the foreign sponsor is to return his investment via quantities of oil; for Jordan the aim is to meet local energy demand and acquire the plant infrastructure in the long term. Recent events in the more traditional oil fields of the region make such a project in Jordan more attractive. (author) 3 tabs. 2 figs

  7. Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One promise source of alternative energy is biodiesel from rubber seed oil, because the raw materials available in plentiful quantities and can be renewed. In addition, the rubber seed is still lack of utilization, and Indonesia is one of the largest rubbers producing country in the world. The objective of this research is to studied on biodiesel production by esterification process. Parameters used in this study are the ratio of catalyst and temperature and its influence on the characteristics of the resulting biodiesel product. Characterization of rubber seed include acid content number analysis, saponification numbers, density, viscosity, iodine number, type of free fatty acids and triglyceride oils. The results of analysis showed that rubber seed oil content obtained is 50.5%. The results of the GCMS analysis showed that a free fatty acid level in rubber seed is very high. Conversion into bio-diesel oil is obtained by at most 59.91% and lowest 48.24%.

  8. Development in hydrotreating process of bio-oil%生物油加氢精制工艺研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雁斌; 徐莹; 马隆龙; 陈冠益; 王铁军; 张琦

    2014-01-01

    and mesoporous catalysts exhibit magnificent effects on reducing oxygen content and moisture content in bio-oil, but still can’t avoid coking in the reaction. Unfortunately, researchers have not found any catalyst's hydrothermal stability good enough to improve the effect of reaction continuously (more than seven days), Deactivation and coking of catalysts are still main problems. Obviously, further study is required to prepare these catalysts which have better durability. Finally, this article gives information about the problems which researchers may meet, including equipment plugging, catalyst deactivation, and high operation costs etc., and predicts that the future research directions of this technology is to optimize the hydrogenation process, and to develop new types of composite catalysts which exhibit excellent activity at low temperature and anti-coking performance. The technology development is still on the way but can play a significant role in supplying increasingly expensive petroleum.%该文针对近年来生物油加氢精制方面的研究进行了探讨,介绍了加氢精制原理,总结了国内外生物油加氢精制工艺研究取得的进展,包括催化剂性能,反应机理和工艺路线的创新与研究。详细说明了分段加氢、加氢酯化、原位加氢等工艺流程的创新和缺点;传统加氢催化剂:如NiMo、CoMo催化剂,以及Ru、Pt、Pd、Rh等贵金属催化剂,在加氢工艺中的特点,前者价格便宜但效果较差,失活现象更严重;后者具有更强的反应活性,但价格昂贵且须在反应后回收。同时,该文对模型化合物、生物油部分相以及生物油真实体系的加氢试验分别进行了详述。最后,针对目前研究中遇到的无法长时间连续运行,成本过高工艺复杂以及缺乏合适催化剂等问题,预测了该技术未来加强催化剂抗结焦能力和低温活性,简化工艺流程并降低成本的研究方向。

  9. The energy security impact of oil nationalization - alternate futures scenarios for the Global Futures Forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February 2009, a 2 day workshop was held in Washington, D.C. to discuss risks and opportunities pertaining to possible oil futures. This paper, presented during the workshop, aims at assessing the impact that nationalization of oil would have on the world. A quadrilateral projection process and model were used to develop the different potential scenarios. This study demonstrated that nationalization of oil reserves can lead to a destabilizing effect at the local, regional and global levels. This technical memorandum points out the possibility of increasing nationalization of oil resources as a political means to shape the behavior of import dependent countries. This report demonstrated that nationalization of oil resources may lead to a reduction in energy security and tensions between states; however solutions exist to mitigate these issues.

  10. China's Energy Security Strategy for Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, soaring energy consumption is posing a huge potential threat to China's energy security. China has rich coal resources, but most of the coal is mainly burned directly with low efficiency. Thus oil and gas plays a comparatively important role in national economic development. However domestic oil and gas cannot meet the need of economic development. To solve this problem, China would continue to import oil and gas from petroleum producing countries, especially from the Middle East. The dependence on oil import increases year after year and the sources of supply are concentrated in a few countries, which results in the insecurity of energy supply. Therefore, China should optimize its energy structure, improve energy efficiency, increase the geographic diversity of oil supply, build oil reserve bases, and develop new energies actively.

  11. Mass balance, energy and exergy analysis of bio-oil production by fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, energy and exergy balances are analyzed for bio-oil production in a bench scale fast pyrolysis system developed by the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) for the processing of commodity crops to fuel intermediates. Because mass balance closure is difficult to achieve due, in part, to ...

  12. Physico-chemical characterization of metal-doped bone chars and their adsorption behavior for water defluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Mayorga, C. K.; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A.; Silvestre-Albero, J.; Aguayo-Villarreal, I. A.; Mendoza-Castillo, D. I.

    2015-11-01

    New bone chars for fluoride adsorption from drinking water have been synthetized via metallic doping using aluminum and iron salts. A detailed statistical analysis of the metal doping process using the signal-to-noise ratios from Taguchi's experimental designs and its impact on the fluoride adsorption properties of modified bone chars have been performed. The best conditions, including the proper metallic salt, for metal doping were identified to improve the fluoride uptakes of modified bone chars. Results showed that the fluoride adsorption properties of bone chars can be enhanced up to 600% using aluminum sulfate for the surface modification. This aluminum-based adsorbent showed an adsorption capacity of 31 mg/g, which outperformed the fluoride uptakes reported for several adsorbents. Surface interactions involved in the defluoridation process were established using FTIR, DRX and XPS analysis. Defluoridation using the metal-doped bone chars occurred via an ion exchange process between fluoride ions and the hydroxyl groups on the adsorbent surface, whereas the Al(OH)xFy, FexFy, and CaF2 interactions could play also an important role in the removal process. These metal-doped adsorbents anticipate a promising behavior in water treatment, especially in developing countries where the efficiency - cost tradeoff is crucial for implementing new defluoridation technologies.

  13. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-11-19

    This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

  14. Development of new material for the environmental-friendly energy generation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristic S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a new material which has high hydrogen storage capacity and hydrogen absorption/desorption rate. This material, which is based on cobalt powder onto which palladium was chemically deposited can be used in environmentally friendly energy generation processes, thus ensuring preventive protection of human health. Hydrogen absorption was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and by measuring hydrogen pressure under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions in a chamber containing either pure cobalt powder either cobalt powder onto which palladium was chemically deposited (Co-0.003 Pd. The mechanism of hydrogen absorption has been described. It was noticed that palladium catalyses hydrogen absorption by dissociating the adsorbed H2 molecules into H atoms more rapidly on its own atoms than on cobalt ones. The catalysis of dissociation of H2 molecules enabled hydrogen absorption into Co-0.003 Pd powder to occur at lower temperatures. The results of this study enable integration of technological and public health investigation in order to ensure preventive protection of human health through enviromental protection.

  15. Problems in the development of high-energy radiation processing of woven and knitted fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modification of hygienic properties of garments made of polyamide and polyester planar structures has been investigated. The results underline the fact that radiation-induced modification aimed at increasing the serviceability of textile planar structures is a relatively complicated process of textile finishing resulting in the need of additional chemicals, facilities, manpower, and energy. (author)

  16. The development and commercialization of solar PV technology in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In diversifying energy supply, the transformation of the energy industry has been identified as a key challenge for a sustainable energy future. This suggests that incumbent firms in this industry have a vital role in the development and commercialization process of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides a comparative analysis of oil and gas firms’ strategies regarding solar PV technology investments, a renewable energy technology that has seen explosive growth of late. The main aim is to examine the strategic approach of incumbent firms in the oil and gas industry towards the development and commercialization of solar PV technology. To investigate this, a multiple case study has been conducted within the European oil industry, focusing on the three largest oil and gas firms: BP, Royal Dutch/Shell, and Total. Findings show that oil and gas firms have difficulties with integrating solar PV technology in their supply chain. The analysis suggests that it is uncertain whether all oil and gas firms will abandon solar completely, as this depends to what extent they are able to generate profits. Nevertheless, there is currently a trend in the oil industry of leaving solar and positioning towards a ‘recarbonization’ of business activities. - Research Highlights: ► Oil and gas incumbents have experienced difficulties in integrating solar technology in their supply chain and therefore established fairly independent business units, serving niche markets outside mainstream markets for oil and gas. ► It is uncertain whether all oil and gas firms will abandon solar completely, as it depends to what extent they are able to generate profits with these activities. ► The competitive strain and increased turbulence in the oil industry have led to erratic investment behavior of oil firms and, as a consequence, renewable energy projects in which incumbents are engaged are often cancelled for reasons which have nothing to do with the market viability of renewable

  17. MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Robin; Zodiatis, George

    2016-04-01

    MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments Robin Lardner and George Zodiatis Oceanography Center, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus MEDSLIK is a well established 3D oil spill model that predicts the transport, fate and weathering of oil spills and is used by several response agencies and institutions around the Mediterranean, the Black seas and worldwide. MEDSLIK has been used operationally for real oil spill accidents and for preparedness in contingency planning within the framework of pilot projects with REMPEC-Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea and EMSA-European Maritime Safety Agency. MEDSLIK has been implemented in many EU funded projects regarding oil spill predictions using the operational ocean forecasts, as for example the ECOOP, NEREIDs, RAOP-Med, EMODNET MedSea Check Point. Within the frame of MEDESS4MS project, MEDSLIK is at the heart of the MEDESS4MS multi model oil spill prediction system. The MEDSLIK oil spill model contains among other, the following features: a built-in database with 240 different oil types characteristics, assimilation of oil slick observations from in-situ or aerial, to correct the predictions, virtual deployment of oil booms and/or oil skimmers/dispersants, continuous or instantaneous oil spills from moving or drifting ships whose slicks merge can be modelled together, multiple oil spill predictions from different locations, backward simulations for tracking the source of oil spill pollution, integration with AIS data upon the availability of AIS data, sub-surface oil spills at any given water depth, coupling with SAR satellite data. The MEDSLIK can be used for operational intervention for any user-selected region in the world if the appropriate coastline, bathymetry and meteo-ocean forecast files are provided. MEDSLIK oil spill model has been extensively validated in the Mediterranean Sea, both in real oil spill incidents (i.e. during the Lebanese oil pollution crisis in

  18. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  19. Tetracycline adsorption onto activated carbons produced by KOH activation of tyre pyrolysis char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, R; Fierro, V; Martinez de Yuso, A; Nabarlatz, D; Celzard, A

    2016-04-01

    Tyre pyrolysis char (TPC), produced when manufacturing pyrolysis oil from waste tyre, was used as raw material to prepare activated carbons (ACs) by KOH activation. KOH to TPC weight ratios (W) between 0.5 and 6, and activation temperatures from 600 to 800 °C, were used. An increase in W resulted in a more efficient development of surface area, microporosity and mesoporosity. Thus, ACs derived from TPC (TPC-ACs) with specific surface areas up to 814 m(2) g(-1) were obtained. TPC, TPC-ACs and a commercial AC (CAC) were tested for removing Tetracycline (TC) in aqueous phase, and systematic adsorption studies, including equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic aspects, were performed. Kinetics was well described by the pseudo-first order model for TPC, and by a pseudo second-order kinetic model for ACs. TC adsorption equilibrium data were also fitted by different isotherm models: Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Dubinin-Astokov, Temkin, Redlich-Peterson, Radke-Prausnitz and Toth. The thermodynamic study confirmed that TC adsorption onto TPC-ACs is a spontaneous process. TC adsorption data obtained in the present study were compared with those reported in the literature, and differences were explained in terms of textural properties and surface functionalities. TPC-ACs had similar performances to those of commercial ACs, and might significantly improve the economic balance of the production of pyrolysis oil from waste tyres. PMID:26855221

  20. Heavy Oil Development Technology of Liaohe Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yun

    2007-01-01

    @@ Liaohe Oilfield, the largest heavy oil production base in China, features in various reservoir types, deep burial, and wide range of crude oil viscosity. For many years, a series of technologies have been developed for different oil products and reservoir types of the oilfield, of which water flooding, foam slug drive, steam stimulation, steam drive,and SAGD are the main technologies. After continuous improvement, they have been further developed and played an important role in the development of heavy oil in the oilfield.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Are They a Problem in Processed Oil Shales?

    OpenAIRE

    Maase, David L.; Adams, V. Dean

    1983-01-01

    Organic residues from processed oil shales were characterisized with specific attention to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Oil shale development in the White River Basin (Utah and Colorado) was projected and hydrological and geological parameters pertinent to estimations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) flux were focused. Oil shale samples from the Union B, Paraho, and Tosco II processes were extr...

  2. Thermal stability evaluation of palm oil as energy transport media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal stability of palm oil as energy transport media in a hydraulic system was studied. The oils were aged by circulating the oil in an open loop hydraulic system at an isothermal condition of 55 deg. C for 600 h. The thermal behavior and kinetic parameters of fresh and degraded palm oil, with and without oxidation inhibitor, were studied using the dynamic heating rate mode of a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). Viscometric properties, total acid number and iodine value analyses were used to complement the TGA data. The thermodynamic parameter of activation energy of the samples was determined by direct Arrhenius plot and integral methods. The results may have important applications in the development of palm oil based hydraulic fluid. The results were compared with commercial vegetable based hydraulic fluid. The use of F10 and L135 additives was found to suppress significantly the increase of acid level and viscosity of the fluid

  3. Removal of cobalt- and mercury-EDTA chelates from aqueous solutions with a macroporous char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bench-scale method was developed to remove cobalt- and mercury-EDTA chelates from water onto macroporous char. Experimental parameters included variations on solution pH, char pre-treatment, cobalt oxidation state, and apparatus configuration. The use of 60Co and 203Hg radiotracers allowed for total accountability of the metals in the char and effluents. Overall experimental results demonstrate the applicability of treated macroporous chars for the effective removal of both cobalt and mercury EDTA chelates from aqueous solutions. The char system was optimized to sequester 97.5% and 99.8% of the cobalt- and mercury-EDTA from 20 ppm solutions, respectively. (author)

  4. Stochastic models of oil spill processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper models the occurrence of an environmental accident as a stochastic event. In particular, the situation of an oil spill is explored. Characteristics of the ship operator, and the different types of the ship's operating environment determine a stochastic process governing the time patterns and size of spills. It is shown that both the time distribution of different types of oil spill and the distribution of spill size are affected by pollution control instruments such as fines, by enforcement effort, and by the alert level of the operating personnel. (Author)

  5. Petromyopia: Oil and the Energy Humanities

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher F. Jones

    2016-01-01

    Oil is currently over-represented in the energy humanities, a state of affairs I describe as petromyopia. While oil constitutes a vital source of energy in the modern world, focusing too heavily on petroleum can distract scholars from giving proper attention to other aspects of the social and cultural dimensions of energy. The goal of this article is to encourage those in the energy humanities to cast a broader net in their analyses and recognize the full diversity of energy systems in their ...

  6. Preliminary investigation on the production of fuels and bio-char from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii biomass residue after bio-hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Cristian; Samorì, Chiara; Adamiano, Alessio; Fabbri, Daniele; Faraloni, Cecilia; Torzillo, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential conversion of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii biomass harvested after hydrogen production. The spent algal biomass was converted into nitrogen-rich bio-char, biodiesel and pyrolysis oil (bio-oil). The yield of lipids (algal oil), obtained by solvent extraction, was 15 ± 2% w/w(dry-biomass). This oil was converted into biodiesel with a 8.7 ± 1% w/w(dry-biomass) yield. The extraction residue was pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor at 350 °C obtaining bio-char as the principal fraction (44 ± 1% w/w(dry-biomass)) and 28 ± 2% w/w(dry-biomass) of bio-oil. Pyrolysis fractions were characterized by elemental analysis, while the chemical composition of bio-oil was fully characterized by GC-MS, using various derivatization techniques. Energy outputs resulting from this approach were distributed in hydrogen (40%), biodiesel (12%) and pyrolysis fractions (48%), whereas bio-char was the largest fraction in terms of mass. PMID:21345670

  7. Production of phenol-rich bio-oil during catalytic fixed-bed and microwave pyrolysis of palm kernel shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoriyekomwan, Joy Esohe; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-05-01

    Catalytic fixed-bed and microwave pyrolysis of palm kernel shell using activated carbon (AC) and lignite char (LC) as catalysts and microwave receptors are investigated. The effects of process parameters including temperature and biomass:catalyst ratio on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products were studied. The addition of catalyst increased the bio-oil yield, but decreased the selectivity of phenol in fixed-bed. Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of PKS significantly enhanced the selectivity of phenol production. The highest concentration of phenol in bio-oil of 64.58 %(area) and total phenolics concentration of 71.24 %(area) were obtained at 500°C using AC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicated that concentration of OH, CH, CO and CO functional groups in char samples decreased after pyrolysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis clearly indicated the development of liquid phase in biomass particles during microwave pyrolysis, and the mechanism is also discussed. PMID:26890793

  8. Enabling technologies for oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of oil sands production and expansion possibilities in Alberta were presented. The enabling technologies for oil sands projects include mining (bucketwheels, draglines, trucks, shovels conveyors, slurry hydrotransport); extraction (conditioning tumblers, pipelines, tanks, hot water, caustic, cold water, frothers); froth cleaning (centrifuges, solvent treatment); tailings (tailings ponds, consolidated tailings); and upgrading (coking, hydrotreating for SCO, hydrocracking and multiple products). The enabling technologies for in situ production include cyclic steam stimulation for vertical wells, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for dual horizontal wells, and cold production with wormholes. This paper described the recovery potentials of each of these processes. It also discussed the role of government and industry in research and cooperative research involving both the private and public sectors. Examples of each of these were described such as SAGD, the OSLO cold water extraction process, The consolidated tailings (CT) project, the low energy extraction process (slurry production, hydrotransport, pipeline conditioning and warm water extraction), and research in fine tailings, to demonstrate that although objectives may differ, government and industry research objectives are complementary

  9. Solar energy for industrial process heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

  10. University of Utah Oil Sand Research and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the Oil Sand Research and Development Program at the University of Utah will be presented. It will include resource characterization of the Uinta Basin oils and deposits and bitumens and bitumen-derived liquid recovery and upgrading technology and product utilization. The characterization studies will include the Whiterocks and Asphalt Ridge oil sands. The discussion of recovery and upgrading technologies will include aqueous separation, thermal recovery processes; solvent extraction, and thermal and catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen-derived heavy oils. Product evaluation studies will include jet fuels, diesel fuel, asphalt and specialty chemicals. Plans for the future of the project will be discussed.

  11. Recent development of anaerobic digestion processes for energy recovery from wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Naomichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2007-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion leads to the overall gasification of organic wastewaters and wastes, and produces methane and carbon dioxide; this gasification contributes to reducing organic matter and recovering energy from organic carbons. Here, we propose three new processes and demonstrate the effectiveness of each process. By using complete anaerobic organic matter removal process (CARP), in which diluted wastewaters such as sewage and effluent from a methane fermentation digester were treated under anaerobic condition for post-treatment, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewater was decreased to less than 20 ppm. The dry ammonia-methane two-stage fermentation process (Am-Met process) is useful for the anaerobic treatment of nitrogen-rich wastes such as waste excess sludge, cow feces, chicken feces, and food waste without the dilution of the ammonia produced by water or carbon-rich wastes. The hydrogen-methane two-stage fermentation (Hy-Met process), in which the hydrogen produced in the first stage is used for a fuel cell system to generate electricity and the methane produced in the second stage is used to generate heat energy to heat the two reactors and satisfy heat requirements, is useful for the treatment of sugar-rich wastewaters, bread wastes, and biodiesel wastewaters. PMID:17368391

  12. Energy balance of the lavender oil production

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKDOĞAN, Osman; BARAN, Mehmet Fırat; Oktay ERDOĞAN

    2016-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the energy input-output analysis of lavender oil production. Data from agricultural farms in Isparta province was used. Energy input was calculated as 1993.89 MJ and energy output was calculated as 2925.51 MJ. Wood energy, fresh stalked lavender flower energy, equipment energy, human labour energy, electricity energy, and water energy inputs were 54.22 %, 41.86 %, 3.40 %, 0.23 %, 0.18 %, and 0.10 % of energy inputs, respectively. In this production, ...

  13. Upgrading Unconventional Oil Resources with the EST Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbianco, Alberto; Meli, Salvatori; Panariti, Nicolleta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2007-07-01

    We strongly believe that unconventional oils will play a much larger role in the growth of supply than is currently recognized. As a matter of fact, whereas the earth's conventional proven world oil reserves are 1.3 trillion barrels, extra-heavy plus bitumen resources amount to about 4 trillion barrels. The unconventional oils are characterized by low API gravity (<10), high viscosity and high concentration of poisons such as sulphur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltenes. For this reason, a key role for the full exploitation of these hydrocarbon resources is played by the downstream processes that are required to upgrade and convert them into valuable products. In this scenario, Eni has developed a novel hydrocracking process (EST: Eni Slurry Technology) which is particularly well-suited for the conversion and upgrading of heavy feedstocks (conventional vacuum residues, extra-heavy oils and bitumen). EST employs nano-sized hydrogenation catalysts and an original process scheme that allow complete feedstock conversion to an upgraded synthetic crude oil (SCO) with an API gravity gain greater than 20 and avoid the production of residual by-products, such as pet-coke or heavy fuel oil. A Commercial Demonstration Unit (CDP) of 1200 bbl/d capacity is successfully operating in the Eni's Taranto refinery since November 2005. (auth)

  14. A burnout prediction model based around char morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Wu; Edward Lester; Michael Cloke [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2006-05-15

    Several combustion models have been developed that can make predictions about coal burnout and burnout potential. Most of these kinetic models require standard parameters such as volatile content and particle size to make a burnout prediction. This article presents a new model called the char burnout (ChB) model, which also uses detailed information about char morphology in its prediction. The input data to the model is based on information derived from two different image analysis techniques. One technique generates characterization data from real char samples, and the other predicts char types based on characterization data from image analysis of coal particles. The pyrolyzed chars in this study were created in a drop tube furnace operating at 1300{sup o}C, 200 ms, and 1% oxygen. Modeling results were compared with a different carbon burnout kinetic model as well as the actual burnout data from refiring the same chars in a drop tube furnace operating at 1300{sup o}C, 5% oxygen, and residence times of 200, 400, and 600 ms. A good agreement between ChB model and experimental data indicates that the inclusion of char morphology in combustion models could well improve model predictions. 38 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Planning Oil Prices In The World Market And Preventive Policies In Energy Sector Of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planning of oil prices in the world can not be analyzed by means of the market-competition theory or the game theory. The current prices seem to be influenced greatly by large energy consuming industries of developed countries, oil producing corporations and cartels, and oil productions outside of OPEC. There is a lack of necessary long term policies and planning so that drastic changes in market prices can be avoided. The goal of this paper is to suggest new policies by means of discussing in following issues: 1.Initiating some form of a financial support for OPEC with the necessary follow up. 2. Utilization of oil income in sectors organized to have the least susceptibility against income loss and the lowest impact on other sectors. 3. Reducing of oil production level in the local and global framework and starting in industrialization process. 4. Replacement of oil with natural gas at a faster rate. 5. improving the oil industry infrastructure for lowering production costs and increasing variety in products in light of country economic policies and occupational strategies. 6. Imposing self-reliance on development of oil-production technology

  16. Development of a strategy for energy efficiency improvement in a Kraft process based on systems interactions analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Espejel, Enrique

    The objective of this thesis is to develop, validate, and apply a unified methodology for the energy efficiency improvement of a Kraft process that addresses globally the interactions of the various process systems that affect its energy performance. An implementation strategy is the final result. An operating Kraft pulping mill situated in Eastern Canada with a production of 700 adt/d of high-grade bleached pulp was the case study. The Pulp and Paper industry is Canada's premier industry. It is characterized by large thermal energy and water consumption. Rising energy costs and more stringent environmental regulations have led the industry to refocus its efforts toward identifying ways to improve energy and water conservation. Energy and water aspects are usually analyzed independently, but in reality they are strongly interconnected. Therefore, there is a need for an integrated methodology, which considers energy and water aspects, as well as the optimal utilization and production of the utilities. The methodology consists of four successive stages. The first stage is the base case definition. The development of a focused, reliable and representative model of an operating process is a prerequisite to the optimization and fine tuning of its energy performance. A four-pronged procedure has been developed: data gathering, master diagram, utilities systems analysis, and simulation. The computer simulation has been focused on the energy and water systems. The second stage corresponds to the benchmarking analysis. The benchmarking of the base case has the objectives of identifying the process inefficiencies and to establish guidelines for the development of effective enhancement measures. The studied process is evaluated by a comparison of its efficiency to the current practice of the industry and by the application of new energy and exergy content indicators. The minimum energy and water requirements of the process are also determined in this step. The third stage is

  17. Particle behavior and char burnout mechanisms under pressurized combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, C.M.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G.

    1999-07-01

    Combined cycle systems with coal-fired gas turbines promise highest cycle efficiencies for this fuel. Pressurized pulverized coal combustion, in particular, yields high cycle efficiencies due to the high flue gas temperatures possible. The main problem, however, is to ensure a flue gas clean enough to meet the high gas turbine standards with a dirty fuel like coal. On the one hand, a profound knowledge of the basic chemical and physical processes during fuel conversion under elevated pressures is required whereas on the other hand suitable hot gas cleaning systems need to be developed. The objective of this work was to provide experimental data to enable a detailed description of pressurized coal combustion processes. A series of experiments were performed with two German hvb coals, Ensdorf and Goettelborn, and one German brown coal, Garzweiler, using a semi-technical scale pressurized entrained flow reactor. The parameters varied in the experiments were pressure, gas temperature and bulk gas oxygen concentration. A two-color pyrometer was used for in-situ determination of particle surface temperatures and particle sizes. Flue gas composition was measured and solid residue samples taken and subsequently analyzed. The char burnout reaction rates were determinated varying the parameters pressure, gas temperature and initial oxygen concentration. Variation of residence time was achieved by taking the samples at different points along the reaction zone. The most influential parameters on char burnout reaction rates were found to be oxygen partial pressure and fuel volatile content. With increasing pressure the burn-out reactions are accelerated and are mostly controlled by product desorption and pore diffusion being the limiting processes. The char burnout process is enhanced by a higher fuel volatile content.

  18. Difficulties for innovation in energy technology development: thermoelectric generation with vegetable oils; As dificuldades para a inovacao em rotas tecnologicas de desenvolvimento energetico: geracao termeletica com oleos vegetais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Jose Antonio Sales de [Universidade de Brasilia (UNB-CDS), DF (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Sustentavel

    2008-07-01

    Analysis of the vegetable oil as energy source, observing the troubles caused by technology innovation insertion in the Brazilian Electrical Matrix by the use of renewable alternative energy sources while competing with the products and systems' market leaders that use fossil sources. (author)

  19. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report 8, October--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluating the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and preparing an R&D plan to develop the concept further. The power generating system being developed in this project will be an improvement over current coal-fired systems. Goals have been specified that relate to the efficiency, emissions, costs, and general operation of the system. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degrees}F in furnaces fired with coal-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor to about 2400{degrees}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuel gas is relatively clean, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need to be a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only.

  20. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.; Onischak, M.; Kline, S.; Babu, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    Research continued on the production of co-products from mild gasification. This quarter, 10 mild gasification tests were conducted in the 8-inch-I.D. process research unit (PRU). Modifications to the PRU were made during this period to improve mixing and to overcome the caking tendency of the Illinois No. 6 coal. Six of the tests resulted in satisfactory operation at steady conditions for 2.25 to 3.25 hours. Samples of char, gas, water, and organic condensables were collected over a one-hour period from each of these successful tests and analyzed. The effects of process temperature over the range of 1025{degree} to 1390{degree} was studied during this quarter. Compositional effects on the oils and tars observed with increased temperature are increased light oil content, decreased pitch content, decreased oxygen content, increased nitrogen and sulfur content, and increasing aromaticity. Char upgrading studies continued during the quarter. Briquettes made in a laboratory press, using either a pitch binder or Illinois No. 6 coal to provide an in-situ binder, were calcined and tested for diametral compression strength. Char was also subjected to steam activation at a variety of conditions to determine the potential for use as a low-cost absorbent for water treatment. 2 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Determination of the intrinsic reactivities for carbon dioxide gasification of rice husk chars through using random pore model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yaning; Li, Bingxi; Zhao, Yijun; Jiang, Baocheng

    2016-10-01

    Rice husk is abundantly available and environmentally friendly, and char-CO2 gasification is of great importance for the biomass gasification process. The intrinsic reaction rates of carbon dioxide gasification with rice husk chars derived from different pyrolysis temperatures were investigated in this study by conducting thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements. The effects of gasification temperature and reactant partial pressure on the char-CO2 gasification were investigated and the random pore model (RPM) was used to determine the intrinsic kinetic parameters based on the experimental data. The results obtained from this study show that the activation energy, reaction order and pre-exponential factor varied in the ranges of 226.65-232.28kJ/mol, 0.288-0.346 and 2.38×10(5)-2.82×10(5)1/sPa(n) for the rice husk chars pyrolyzed at 700-900°C, respectively. All the determination coefficients between the RPM predictions and experimental results were higher than 0.906, indicating the RPM is reliable for determining and evaluating the intrinsic reactivities of rice husk chars. PMID:27459684

  2. Evaluating energy efficiency and emissions of charred biomass used as a fuel for household cooking in rural Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Achour, Nemer

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa a large share of the energy use utilize biomass as a fuel. In some countries more than 90 percent of the energy use is biomass. This energy is primarily used for cooking, heating and drying. Cooking food on an open fire or using a traditional stove will combust the firewood inefficiently and leads to pollution in the form of particulate matter, carbon monoxide and other hazardous pollutants. Indoor pollution has serious health effects and especially women and children ar...

  3. Liquid-phase processing of fast pyrolysis bio-oil using platinum/HZSM-5 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

    Recent developments in converting biomass to bio-chemicals and liquid fuels provide a promising sight to an emerging biofuels industry. Biomass can be converted to energy via thermochemical and biochemical pathways. Thermal degradation processes include liquefaction, gasification, and pyrolysis. Among these biomass technologies, pyrolysis (i.e. a thermochemical conversion process of any organic material in the absence of oxygen) has gained more attention because of its simplicity in design, construction and operation. This research study focuses on comparative assessment of two types of pyrolysis processes and catalytic upgrading of bio-oil for production of transportation fuel intermediates. Slow and fast pyrolysis processes were compared for their respective product yields and properties. Slow pyrolysis bio-oil displayed fossil fuel-like properties, although low yields limit the process making it uneconomically feasible. Fast pyrolysis, on the other hand, show high yields but produces relatively less quality bio-oil. Catalytic transformation of the high-boiling fraction (HBF) of the crude bio-oil from fast pyrolysis was therefore evaluated by performing liquid-phase reactions at moderate temperatures using Pt/HZSM-5 catalyst. High yields of upgraded bio-oils along with improved heating values and reduced oxygen contents were obtained at a reaction temperature of 200°C and ethanol/HBF ratio of 3:1. Better quality, however, was observed at 240 °C even though reaction temperature has no significant effect on coke deposition. The addition of ethanol in the feed has greatly attenuated coke deposition in the catalyst. Major reactions observed are esterification, catalytic cracking, and reforming. Overall mass and energy balances in the conversion of energy sorghum biomass to produce a liquid fuel intermediate obtained sixteen percent (16 wt.%) of the biomass ending up as liquid fuel intermediate, while containing 26% of its initial energy.

  4. Growing markets to sustain oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of Alberta bitumen for the clean fuels market depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production in Western Canada. Several issues pose a challenge to the oil sands processing industry. The producers' market is affected by crude oil prices, market expansion options, diluent availability/cost, supply cost competitiveness, and regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. A brief review of markets for Canadian crude oil, including synthetic crude, was provided. The share of the Midwest market by Alberta must be retained and increased. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. To reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California, new pipeline capacity would be required. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. tabs., figs

  5. China's energy security: Oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is currently the largest energy consuming country in the world. Until the early 1990s, China had long been a net energy exporter. The country became a net oil importer in 1993, the first time since the 1960s. For China, energy security first means oil supply security. China turned into a net natural gas importer in 2007 and then a net coal importer in 2009. In other words, China is now a net importer of all three types of fossil energy—oil, natural gas, and coal. In the context of rising oil imports and implementation of China's 12th Five-Year Program from 2011 to 2015, this paper examines China's energy security strategies with a focus on three leading elements, namely overseas oil investment, strategic petroleum reserves (SPR)and unconventional gas development. Our findings suggest that the Chinese government has promoted overseas investment strongly; its SPR program has been established though the progress for Phase II has been slower than expected and the government intends to boost the unconventional gas sector development. However, the challenges are enormous as well. As for future research, other elements for each dimension of energy security should be reviewed to reach a comprehensive conclusion about how well China has done and what steps are needed to move forward. - Highlights: • Identified China's key energy security strategies during the 12th Five-Year Program (FYP) and previous FYPs. • Provided a unique insight into China's rising oil imports. • Reviewed China's overseas oil and gas investment as a key energy security measure. • Assessed China's strategic petroleum reserves program and the future growth. • Provided a comprehensive coverage of China's unconventional gas development, including both coal-bed methane and shale gas

  6. Scientific basis of development and application of nanotechnologies in oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development and introduction of nanotechnologies in the oil industry is one of the most pressing issues of the present times.For the first time in the world practice scientific-methodological basis and application practice of nanotechnologies in oil industry is developed on the basis of uniform, scientifically proven approach by taking into account the specificities of oil and gas industry.The application system of such nanotechnologies was developed in oil and gas production.Mathematical models of nanotechnological processes, i.e.chaos regulationand hyper-accidental process were offered. Nanomedium and nanoimpact on the well-layersystem was studied. Wide application results of nanotechnologies in SOCAR's production fields in oil and gas production are shown.Research results of NANOSAAon the basis of NANO + NANOeffect are described in the development.For the first time in world practice NANOOIL,NANOBITUMEN,NANOGUDRON' and NANOMAY' systems on the basis of machine waste oil in the drilling mud were developed for the application in oil and gas drilling. Original property, effect of super small concentrationsand nanomemoryin NANOOILand NANOBITUMENsystems was discovered.By applying NANOOIL,NANOBITUMENand NANOMAYsystems in the drilling process was discovered: the increase of linear speed, early turbulence, decrease of hydraulic resistance coefficient and economy in energy consumption.Hyper-accidental evaluation of mathematical expectation of general sum of values of the surface strain on the sample data is spelled out with the various experiment conditions. Estimated hyper-accidental value of the mathematical expectation allows us to offer practical recommendations for the development of new nanotechnologies on the basis of rheological parameters of oil.

  7. Energy and Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adopted by the United Nations in 2000 directly addressed energy, although for nearly all of them - from eradicating poverty and hunger to improving education and health - progress has depended on greater access to modern energy. Thirteen years later, energy is being given more attention. The target date for the MDGs is 2015, and in 2012 the UN began deliberations to develop sustainable development goals to guide support for sustainable development beyond 2015. The Future We Want, the outcome document of the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (also known as Rio+20) gives energy a central role: ''We recognize the critical role that energy plays in the development process, as access to sustainable modern energy services contributes to poverty eradication, saves lives, improves health and helps provide for basic human needs''

  8. Mechanical downstream processing of Single Cell Oils

    OpenAIRE

    De Coninck, Maarten; Van Hecke, Renaat; Deprez, Koen; De Baerdemaeker, Josse

    2011-01-01

    During the last years, the third generation of bio fuels has been arousing more and more interest. Under certain conditions some micro organisms: yeasts, algae, fungi and bacteria, can accumulate up to 50% oil (based on dry weight). These so-called ‘Single cell oils’ (SCO) are well known in this context. Nowadays, harvesting and recovery of interesting products from microalgae is one of the most problematic areas of algal biofuel production technology. The traditional downstream process,...

  9. Development of treatment technologies of the processing of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species is defined as mixed waste. Significant technology development has been conducted for separate treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste, but technology development addressing mixed-waste treatment has been limited. In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to mixed-waste technology development, the Office of Technology Development of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The program is identifying and evaluating treatment technologies to treat present and estimated future mixed wastes at DOE sites. The status of the technical initiatives in chemical/physical treatment, waste destruction/stabilization technology, off-gas treatment, and final waste form production/assessment is described in this paper

  10. Characteristic of oil palm residue for energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 tones per year (8.5 x 106 ty-1) of palm oil from 38.6 x 106 ty-1 of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residue such as fiber (5.4 x 106 ty-1), shell (2.3 x 106 ty-1 ), and empty fruit bunches (8.8 x 106 ty-1 ). A large fraction of the fiber and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity. The appropriate energy conversion system depends on the characteristic of the oil palm residue. In this paper, a description of characteristic of the oil palm residue is presented. The types of the energy conversion system presented are stoker type combustor and gasified. The paper focuses on the pulverized biomass material and the use of fluidized bed gasified. In the fluidized bed gasified, the palm shell and fiber has to be pulverized before feeding into gasified. For downdraft gasified and furnace, the palm shell and fiber can be used directly into the reactor for energy conversion. The heating value, burning characteristic, ash and moisture content of the oil palm residue are other parameters of the study

  11. Nuclear energy for oil sands production: Providing security of energy and hydrogen supply at economic cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    achieved with a focused pre-project schedule of activities to obtain nuclear regulatory and environmental assessment pre-approval. 4. Electrolytic hydrogen production and the associated technologies to use by-product oxygen and to produce side-stream heavy water are all well-proven and can be implemented. The economics of electrolytic H2/O2 production are highly dependent on relative costs of natural gas versus electricity, and on the future value of CO2 credits. For example, based on a 70 Mscuf/d hydrogen process, heavy water production of about 80 tonnes/year, earning revenue of about $25M/year, would be possible. 5. The additional longer-term strategic benefits of developing and implementing the CANDU based energy supply option are very large. Overall production of synthetic crude oil from Alberta's oil sands has been estimated to increase by up to a factor of five from today's ∼300,000 bbl/d, to up to 1.5 M bbl/d by 2025. The energy required for this production level would be equivalent to 8-10 mid-size CANDUs. 6. Implementation risks for a CANDU energy supply are well-understood, manageable, and are moderate compared with the normal risks of resource supply and price variation for alternatives such as natural gas-based energy supply. The present study has identified a number of opportunities to maximize the value of a nuclear-based investment. In particular, it is important to optimize both the steam-electricity supply mix, and the scheduling of steam supply versus production stages to maximize value to stakeholders. It is also important to match the (electrolytic and/or direct) hydrogen production with opportunities for by-product oxygen and heavy water. (author)

  12. A catalytic distillation process for light gas oil hydrodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Villamil, F.D.; Marroquin, J.O.; Paz, C. de la; Rodriguez, E. [Prog. de Matematicas Aplicadas y Computacion, Prog. de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A light gas oil hydrodesulfurization process via catalytic distillation is developed and compared to a conventional process. By integrating the separation and reaction into a single unit, the catalytic distillation may produce a diesel with low concentration of sulfur compounds at a lower cost than the traditional reaction/separation process. The process proposed in this work is compared to an optimised conventional hydrodesulfurization unit which represents fairly well a plant that belongs to the National System of Refineries. During the optimisation of the conventional process, a compromise is established among the production of diesel and naphtha and the operating costs. The results show that the light gas oil hydrodesulfurization via catalytic distillation is as or more efficient than the conventional process. However, the removal of the sulfur compounds is carried out under less rigorous conditions. This design reduces the fix and operational costs. (author)

  13. Oil and gas industry, exploration and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consistent investment boost on exploration and development, the favourable prospects connected with technological improvement, the opening of virgin areas of exploration are all factors granting extraordinary opportunities for the oil and gas industry. However, environmental constraints relevant to emission standards and products quality are also growing and will be increasingly binding upon both oil and car industries

  14. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Device Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Step 1 Discovery and Development Discovery and Development Research for a new drug ...

  15. Problems in the development of high-energy radiation processing of woven and knitted fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modification of clothing-hygienic properties of polyamide and polyester planar structures was investigated. Experiments were done with the simultaneous procedure, applying the modificator in the liquid phase. Depending on the process conditions the localization of the second component takes place within the whole cross-section of the fibre resulting in volume effects (modification of polyamide by acrylic acid), within a more or less thick surface layer resulting in partial volume effects, or within a mantle resulting only in surface effects (modification of polyester by polyethyleneglycolacrylate). The paper underlines the fact that the radiation-chemical modification for the enlargement of the utility value of textile planar structures is a relatively complicated process of textile finishing with the need of additional application of chemicals, plants, workmen and energy. (author)

  16. Prehistoric cereal foods from Greece and Bulgaria: investigation of starch microstructure in experimental and archaeological charred remains

    OpenAIRE

    Valamoti, Soultana-Maria; Samuel, Delwen; Bayram, Mustafa; Elena MARINOVA

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In order to investigate ancient cereal cooking practices, the microstructure of preserved starch in charred ground cereal remains recovered from prehistoric sites in Greece and Bulgaria has been analysed. A comparative modern set of cooked and subsequently charred cereals was produced. By scanning electron microscopy it is demonstrated that, under some conditions, distinctive cooked starch structure survives the charring process. Charring alone can occasionall...

  17. Combustion of rapeseed oil and diesel oil mixtures for use in the production of heat energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose Alonso, J. [Departamento Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez Sastre, J.A.; Romero-Avila, C.; Lopez Romero, E.J. [Departamento Quimica Organica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The energy policy of both Europe and Spain considers biomass to be the renewable energy source with the greatest possibilities of growth, from both the point of view of forestry and energy crops. One alternative to energy crops is the use of rapeseed oil as the fuel in thermic processes. This paper studies the use of rapeseed oil and diesel oil mixtures as the fuel for producing heat in a conventional diesel installation. The paper is set out as follows: a) Characterization of the properties of rapeseed oil as fuel and of diesel oil, as well as the mixtures of both. b) Selection of the mixtures according to their physical-chemical properties and to how they adapt to a conventional installation consisting of a mechanical pulverization burner. c) Experimentation with the selected mixtures in a conventional combustion installation, allowing the main combustion parameters to be measured. d) A study is carried out of the yield of the combustion. The conclusions show that the use of rapeseed and diesel mixtures for producing heat energy in conventional equipment is feasible. (author)

  18. Oil prices, nuclear energy consumption, and economic growth: New evidence using a heterogeneous panel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper applies panel data analysis to examine the short-run dynamics and long-run equilibrium relationships among nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, oil consumption, and economic growth for developed countries covering the period 1971-2006. The panel cointegration results show that in the long run, oil prices have a positive impact on nuclear energy consumption, suggesting the existence of the substitution relationship between nuclear energy and oil. The long-run elasticity of nuclear energy with respect to real income is approximately 0.89, and real income has a greater impact on nuclear energy than do oil prices in the long run. Furthermore, the panel causality results find evidence of unidirectional causality running from oil prices and economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in the long run, while there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in the short run. - Research highlights: → We examine the relationship among nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, oil consumption, and economic growth for developed countries. → The existence of the substitution relationship between nuclear energy and oil. → Real income has a greater impact on nuclear energy than do oil prices in the long run. → An unidirectional causality running from oil prices and economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in the long run.

  19. Oil prices, nuclear energy consumption, and economic growth: New evidence using a heterogeneous panel analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chien-Chiang, E-mail: cclee@cm.nsysu.edu.t [Department of Finance, National Sun Yat-sen University Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Yi-Bin [Department of Finance, National Sun Yat-sen University Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-15

    This paper applies panel data analysis to examine the short-run dynamics and long-run equilibrium relationships among nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, oil consumption, and economic growth for developed countries covering the period 1971-2006. The panel cointegration results show that in the long run, oil prices have a positive impact on nuclear energy consumption, suggesting the existence of the substitution relationship between nuclear energy and oil. The long-run elasticity of nuclear energy with respect to real income is approximately 0.89, and real income has a greater impact on nuclear energy than do oil prices in the long run. Furthermore, the panel causality results find evidence of unidirectional causality running from oil prices and economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in the long run, while there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in the short run. - Research highlights: {yields} We examine the relationship among nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, oil consumption, and economic growth for developed countries. {yields} The existence of the substitution relationship between nuclear energy and oil. {yields} Real income has a greater impact on nuclear energy than do oil prices in the long run. {yields} An unidirectional causality running from oil prices and economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in the long run.

  20. Development of the techniques for food processing with low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sterilization technology of rice (unpolished rice and paddy), wheat and buckwheat was developed. It was homogenous irradiation of low energy electron beam on the surface of them by use of a grain rotator. Samples were rice (Nihonbare, Koshihikari and from Ibaraki), wheat (ASW) and buckwheat (Hitachiakisoba). The electron beams and gamma ray irradiated the sample. The viable bacterial number, viscosity and TBA value were determined. Although γ-ray showed decrease of qualities such as viscosity and oxidation of lipid, low energy electron beam resulted small these changes. The part of damage of starch and lipid irradiated with the electron beam were outside of points reached by electrons. Accordingly, the part of damage in unpolished rice was removed by abrasive milling. Aseptic rice was obtained with keeping the qualities of edible parts. (S.Y.)

  1. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  2. A New Screening Methodology for Improved Oil Recovery Processes Using Soft-Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Claudia; Ertekin, Turgay

    2010-05-01

    The first stage of production of any oil reservoir involves oil displacement by natural drive mechanisms such as solution gas drive, gas cap drive and gravity drainage. Typically, improved oil recovery (IOR) methods are applied to oil reservoirs that have been depleted naturally. In more recent years, IOR techniques are applied to reservoirs even before their natural energy drive is exhausted by primary depletion. Descriptive screening criteria for IOR methods are used to select the appropriate recovery technique according to the fluid and rock properties. This methodology helps in assessing the most suitable recovery process for field deployment of a candidate reservoir. However, the already published screening guidelines neither provide information about the expected reservoir performance nor suggest a set of project design parameters, which can be used towards the optimization of the process. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANN) are used to build a high-performance neuro-simulation tool for screening different improved oil recovery techniques: miscible injection (CO2 and N2), waterflooding and steam injection processes. The simulation tool consists of proxy models that implement a multilayer cascade feedforward back propagation network algorithm. The tool is intended to narrow the ranges of possible scenarios to be modeled using conventional simulation, reducing the extensive time and energy spent in dynamic reservoir modeling. A commercial reservoir simulator is used to generate the data to train and validate the artificial neural networks. The proxy models are built considering four different well patterns with different well operating conditions as the field design parameters. Different expert systems are developed for each well pattern. The screening networks predict oil production rate and cumulative oil production profiles for a given set of rock and fluid properties, and design parameters. The results of this study show that the networks are

  3. Development of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species is defined as mixed waste. Significant technology development has been conducted for separate treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste, but technology development addressing mixed-waste treatment has been limited. Management of mixed waste requires treatment which must meet the standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous constituents while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. Technology has not been developed, demonstrated, or tested to produce a low-risk final waste form specifically for mixed waste. Throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex, mixed waste is a problem because definitive treatment standards have not been established and few disposal facilities are available. Treatment capability and capacity are also limited. Site-specific solutions to the management of mixed waste have been initiated; however, site-specific programs result in duplication of technology development between various sites. Significant progress is being made in developing technology for mixed waste under the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The status of the technical initiatives in chemical/physical treatment, destruction/stabilization technology, off-gas treatment, and final waste form production/assessment is described in this paper

  4. The bioliq {sup registered} bioslurry gasification process for the production of biosynfuels, organic chemicals, and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmen, Nicolaus; Henrich, Edmund; Dinjus, Eckhard; Weirich, Friedhelm [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. of Catalysis Research and Technology

    2012-12-15

    Biofuels may play a significant role in regard to carbon emission reduction in the transportation sector. Therefore, a thermochemical process for biomass conversion into synthetic chemicals and fuels is being developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) by producing process energy to achieve a desirable high carbon dioxide reduction potential. In the bioliq process, lignocellulosic biomass is first liquefied by fast pyrolysis in distributed regional plants to produce an energy-dense intermediate suitable for economic transport over long distances. Slurries of pyrolysis condensates and char, also referred to as biosyncrude, are transported to a large central gasification and synthesis plant. The bioslurry is preheated and pumped into a pressurized entrained flow gasifier, atomized with technical oxygen, and converted at > 1,200 C to an almost tar-free, low-methane syngas. Syngas - a mixture of CO and H2 - is a well-known versatile intermediate for the selectively catalyzed production of various base chemicals or synthetic fuels. At KIT, a pilot plant has been constructed together with industrial partners to demonstrate the process chain in representative scale. The process data obtained will allow for process scale-up and reliable cost estimates. In addition, practical experience is gained. The paper describes the background, principal technical concepts, and actual development status of the bioliq process. It is considered to have the potential for worldwide application in large scale since any kind of dry biomass can be used as feedstock. Thus, a significant contribution to a sustainable future energy supply could be achieved.

  5. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing

  6. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes the results of Task 4 under which a 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU) was designed in the second half of 1989, with construction completed in June 1990. The CTC PRU at Golden was operated for nearly one year during which 35 runs were completed for a total of nearly 800 hours of operation. Char methanation and carbon production reactor development activities are detailed in this report, as well as the results of integrated runs of the CTC process. Evaluation of the process and the carbon product produced is also included. It was concluded that carbon could be produced from mild gasification char utilizing the CTC process. Char methanation and membrane separation steps performed reasonably well and can scaled up with confidence. However, the novel directly heated reactor system for methane cracking did not work satisfactorily due to materials of construction and heat transfer problems, which adversely affected the quantity and quality of the carbon product. Alternative reactor designs are recommended.

  7. The influence of cooking process on the microwave-assisted extraction of cottonseed oil

    OpenAIRE

    Taghvaei, Mostafa; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Nowrouzieh, Shahram; Alishah, Omran

    2013-01-01

    Cooking process is one of the most energy and time consuming steps in the edible oil extraction factories. The main goal of this study was cottonseed oil extraction by microwave radiation and elimination of any heat treatment of cottonseeds before extraction. The effect of cooking process on the physicochemical properties of extracted oil from two varieties of cottonseed (Pak and Sahel) was evaluated by free fatty acid content, melting point, smoke point and refractive index. Our results didn...

  8. Effect of vegetable oil oxidation on the hydrogenation reaction process

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantari, Faranak; Bahmaei, Manochehr; Ameri, Majid; Shoaei, Ehsan

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogenation has been carried out in a batch reactor with three different oxidized bleached oils in order to discover the effect of oxidation on the hydrogenation reaction process. Specifications of hydrogenated oils such as melting point, Iodine value, solid fat content and fatty acid composition of the oxidized oils were compared with their un-oxidized reference oils. Oxidized bleached sunflower oil was hydrogenated to target melting points (34, 39 and 42°C) at higher iodine values vs. its...

  9. Low and Non-waste Process Technology: The Development of a High Calorific Fuel Gas from Waste Oil Using Electric Arc Cracking.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Jeong Guk; Kim, In Tae; Cho, Kwang Hun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yang Hwan; Kim, Su Joung [Teko Environment Company Limited, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Yong Chil; Song, Geum Ju; Sim, Sang Geul [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    A laboratory scale unit(5kg/hr) of high calorific fuel gas generator from waste oil by electric arc cracking is developed and made test runs with the collected waste oil at car repair shops to observe its performance and acceptability for various operating conditions. About 60-65% of total amount of generated gas is composed of hydrogen, acetylene and ethylene. Total calorific value of the product gas shows about 10,000 kcal/kg and it is acceptable to use for fuel gas in the industry. The optimum temperature of waste oil for the production of higher calorific fuel gas is found to be 40 deg C. The average size of soot collected from the equipment is 0.3 {mu}m and it could be utilized as carbon black after detail analysis. The generation rate of product fuel gas is 100 - 140 L/kWh and the economic assessment shows that the equipment cost could be recovered within two years. Further studies on scale-up of the equipment and the development of an new electrode system having less consumption but higher stability are required. 18 refs., 13 tabs., 15 figs. (author)

  10. Worldwide cheap and heavy oil productions: A long-term energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude oil, natural gas liquids, heavy oils, deepwater oils, and polar oils are non-renewable energy resources with increasing extraction costs. Two major definitions emerge: regular or 'cheap' oil and non-conventional or 'heavy' oil. Peaking time in conventional oil production has been a recent focus of debate. For two decades, non-conventional oils have been mixed with regular crude oil. Peaking time estimation and the rate at which production may be expected to decline, following the peak, are more difficult to determine. We propose a two-wave model for world oil production pattern and forecasting, based on the diffusion of innovation theories: a sequential multi-Bass model. Historical well-known shocks are confirmed, and new peaking times for crude oil and mixed oil are determined with corresponding depletion rates. In the final section, possible ties between the dynamics of oil extraction and refining capacities are discussed as a predictive symptom of an imminent mixed oil peak in 2016. - Highlights: → Production of conventional and non-conventional oils in aggregate time series. → Decomposition modelling and forecasting with a multi-regime model. → Diffusion of innovation theories and appropriateness of applying Bass concepts to the extraction of oil resources. → Partially overlapping oil extraction processes. → Refining capacities and dynamics of oil extraction.

  11. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of waste...

  12. The military and energy: Moving the United States beyond oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energized by service members wounded and killed protecting fuel convoys in Iraq in the mid-2000s and stunned by the oil price spike in 2008, the Department of Defense (DOD) had already started to seriously address energy challenges when the Obama Administration took steps to accelerate these actions. Real-world events, a growing military realization of threats and opportunities, and an Administration intent on fostering American leadership in clean-energy innovation have coalesced to promote change across the military services in the energy domain. This has been particularly evident in the Department's efforts to lessen its oil consumption. However, the ability to turn policy into practice has met numerous challenges from within and without the defense establishment. The question remains whether the DOD will be able to move beyond oil in a significant way. By examining a series of US government policy documents and programs, this article seeks to analyze the motivations behind the drive by the DOD to reduce oil consumption, to identify the challenges in meeting this objective, and to analyze efforts underway by the Department. Given that replacing oil for the largest transport fleet in the world will take several decades, it will require a sustained leadership from senior military officials. - Highlights: • The drive for less oil is about cost, combat maneuverability, and climate change. • Culture of oil, lagging research and development, and lack of leadership pose challenges. • Ultimately, the US Congress questioning the necessity to replace oil could derail the effort. • Lessening operational oil use could take several decades of sustained leadership

  13. Development of bioengineering processes to transform greenhouse waste into energy, fertilizer and tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, D.; Masse, D.I. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lennoxville, PQ (Canada). Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre; Juteau, P. [Quebec Univ., Laval, PQ (Canada). INRS-Institut Armand Frappier; Saint-Laurent CEGEP, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre des technologies de l' eau; Dorais, M. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Horticultural Research Centre

    2010-07-01

    Methods to promote sustainable production systems in greenhouses were discussed with particular reference to anaerobic digestion (AD) and nitrification processes for waste and nutrient management and energy consumption. The high cost of organic soluble fertilizers and the difficulty in obtaining a quality product are strong limitations for converting conventional greenhouses to organic practices. AD has been shown to be a promising solution for disposal of tomato leaves pruned during greenhouse operations. Studies have shown that AD generates end-products, notably supernatant sludge that have agronomic benefits of land application for forage and cereal crops. However, little has been done for horticultural crops. Unlike field crops, nitrification of digester effluents is a key step for using AD effluents as fertilizers for vegetable greenhouse plants. Greenhouse vegetables need nitrogen mainly under the nitrate form for an adequate growth because the other forms of nitrogen are detrimental to plant and fruit quality. However, nitrification of AD supernatant can be challenging because of its high ammonia content and its inhibition potential of nitrifying micro-organisms. This study examined the few nitrification processes that have the potential to operate under these conditions.

  14. Focusing on sustainable energy ambitions in the area development process. 2. ed.; Centraal stellen van duurzame energieambities in het gebiedsontwikkelingsproces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    Many local authorities have established firm energy ambitions. Making the built environment more sustainable, both by means of energy saving measures and by making the remaining energy use sustainable, are important focus points. The question rises how sustainable energy ambitions can be embedded in the area development process. Area developments related to new buildings or demolition/new building projects often involve lengthy and complex projects. Projects in which many parties and interests play a role, in which many instruments can be used and energy concepts can be applied. This report provides an overview of the area development process and the corresponding instruments and concepts. [Dutch] Veel gemeenten hebben stevige energieambities vastgesteld. Verduurzaming van de gebouwde omgeving, zowel door energiebesparingsmaatregelen als door het duurzaam invullen van het resterende energieverbruik, zijn daarbij belangrijke aangrijpingspunten. De vraag is hoe duurzame energieambities goed verankerd kunnen worden in het gebiedsontwikkelingsproces. Bij gebiedsontwikkeling van nieuwbouw of sloop/nieuwbouw projecten gaat het vaak om langdurige complexe projecten. Projecten waarbij vele partijen en belangen een rol spelen, diverse instrumenten kunnen worden gebruikt en energieconcepten kunnen worden toegepast. Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van het gebiedsontwikkelingsproces en de bijbehorende instrumenten en concepten.

  15. Kinetics of coal char gasification with CO2: Impact of internal/external diffusion at high temperature and elevated pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pressurized wire-heating reactor (PWHR) was designed for CO2 gasification kinetics coal char. • PWHR can provide experimental conditions up to 50 atm and 1750 K. • The intrinsic activation energies based on nth order reaction rate equation were determined. • The effectiveness factor was analyzed to determine the effects of pressure and temperature. - Abstract: A pressurized wire-heating reactor (PWHR) that can provide experimental conditions up to pressures and temperatures of 50 atm and 1750 K, respectively, was developed to evaluate the intrinsic reaction kinetics of CO2 gasification for Berau sub-bituminous coal char (Indonesian coal) at elevated pressure using a synchronized experimental method. This synchronization system consists of a thermocouple wire for both heating and direct measurement of the particle temperature and a photodetector sensor for measuring the intensity of the luminous emission from the reaction particle to determine the ignition/burnout points. The intrinsic reaction kinetics obtained from PWHR, which was analyzed from nth order reaction rate equations, was verified by comparison with TGA results. The internal/external effectiveness factor was analyzed to determine the effects of high pressure (up to 30 atm) and temperature (up to 1723 K) on char-CO2 gasification. Accordingly, the intrinsic activation energies based on nth order reaction rate equation were determined to be 152 kJ/mol (via TGA, 75 μm char particle), 150 kJ/mol (via TGA, 800 μm char particle), and 149.2 kJ/mol (via PWHR, 800 μm char particle)

  16. Development and demonstration of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed waste is defined as ''waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species.'' The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was established in response to the need for a unified, DOE complexwide solution to issues of mixed waste treatment that meets regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing treatment technologies that reduce risk, minimize life-cycle cost, and improve process performance as compared to existing technologies. Treatment for waste streams for which no current technology exists, and suitable waste forms for disposal, will be provided to improve operations of the DOE Office of Waste Management. MWIP is composed of six technical areas within a mixed-waste treatment system: (1) systems analysis, (2) materials handling, (3) chemical/physical separation, (4) waste destruction and stabilization, (5) off-gas treatment, and (6) final waste form stabilization. The status of the technical initiatives and the current research, development, and demonstration in each of these areas are described in this paper

  17. Features of hydrogeochemical technogenesis in the development of oil fields

    OpenAIRE

    Прибылова, В. Н.; Чуньсян, Хоу

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the features of hydrogeochemical technogenesis in the development of hydrocarbon deposits. The notion of hydrogeochemical technogenesis and its importance for the study of aggregate (superimposed) processes of the natural environment transformation in the oil fields has been introduced. A comparative analysis of selected concepts of geology, oil and gas and oilfield hydrogeochemistry has been carried out. A number of important practical problems that can be solved by the hy...

  18. Current Status of Oil Distribution and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qingfan

    2009-01-01

    @@ China has rich oil resources, yet relatively low-quality crude oil and difficulty in exploration and development limit the pace the oil industry will be. At present, the prospects of oil development are in a moderate mature stage, the increasing trend of high basic value in oil reserves pose a huge potential of oil exploration and development in China. The most proved reserves are distributed in big-and-middle-sized basins, and will be the main fields of undiscovered oil resources. In addition,though the degree of exploration in unconventional oil is low, its development with abundance resources will be as a significant complementary resource to conventional oil.

  19. The deep processing of oil residues conjunction with shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Maloletnev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the development of a new process of thermal cracking of tar oil as a slurry with crushed oil shale to obtain components of motor fuels. The results suggest doubtless advantages of the process before the industrial of thermo cracking, since the single-stage processing of raw materials in relatively in the mild conditions (5 MPa, 425ºC, volumetric feed rate 1.0 h-1 is achieved deep destruction of tar oil (the yield petrol fraction with a bp amounts to up to 180ºC - ~12 mass % of middle distillates with a bp 180-360ºC – 43-44 mass %, of raw material for catalytic cracking of a bp 360-520ºC – ~15-16%, based on the initial tar oil. Formed like coke products and raw materials contained in V and Ni is postponed on the mineral part of slate and removed from the reaction zone with the liquid products of the process.

  20. Technical Situation and Development Trend of Subsea Processing System of Offshore Oil and Gas%海洋油气水下处理系统研究现状和发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武超; 王定亚; 任克忍; 肖锐

    2012-01-01

    The oil and gas subsea processing technologies which have been put to use or are being tested and developed in today's world were introduced in the paper, including underwater multiphase mixed transportation technology, underwater seawater separation technology, underwater gas separation technology and underwater multiphase separation technology. The types and current application of subsea processing system were expounded. On the basis of in-depth analysis of development modes of subsea processing system at different stages of offshore oil and gas development, the design and development procedure of three typical subsea processing systems, including muhiphase mixed transportation, seawater separation and reinjection system and oil-gas-water three-phase separation system, were summarized. Finally, the suggestion on the research and development of offshore oil and gas subsea processing system at home was offered.%介绍了当今世界上已经投入使用或正在试验开发的油气水下处理技术,包括水下多相混输技术、水下海水分离技术、水下气体分离技术及水下多相分离技术,阐述了水下处理系统的种类和应用现状。在深入分析海洋油气田不同开发时期水下处理系统开发模式的基础上,总结了多相混输系统、海水分离回注系统和油气水三相分离系统等3种典型的水下处理系统设计开发流程。最后对国内海洋油气水下处理系统的研究开发提出了建议。

  1. Multipurpose nuclear process heat for energy supply in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrialized nations require 75% of the energy as heat and it is likely that developing countries in the course of industrialization will show a comparable energy consumption structure. The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) allows the utilization of nuclear energy at high temperatures as process heat. In the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) the development in the relevant technical areas is well advanced and warrants investigation as a matter for transfer to Brazil. In Brazil nuclear process heat finds possible applications in steel making, shale oil extraction, petroleum refining, and in the more distant future coal gasification with distribution networks. Based on growth forecasts for these industries a theoretical potential market of 38-53 GW (th) can be identified. At present nuclear process heat is marginally more expensive than conventional fossil technologies but the anticipated development is expected to add an economic incentive to the emerging necessity of providing a sound energy base in the developing countries. (author)

  2. Comparative exergy analyses of Jatropha curcas oil extraction methods: Solvent and mechanical extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Exergy analysis detects locations of resource degradation within a process. ► Solvent extraction is six times exergetically destructive than mechanical extraction. ► Mechanical extraction of jatropha oil is 95.93% exergetically efficient. ► Solvent extraction of jatropha oil is 79.35% exergetically efficient. ► Exergy analysis of oil extraction processes allow room for improvements. - Abstract: Vegetable oil extraction processes are found to be energy intensive. Thermodynamically, any energy intensive process is considered to degrade the most useful part of energy that is available to produce work. This study uses literature values to compare the efficiencies and degradation of the useful energy within Jatropha curcas oil during oil extraction taking into account solvent and mechanical extraction methods. According to this study, J. curcas seeds on processing into J. curcas oil is upgraded with mechanical extraction but degraded with solvent extraction processes. For mechanical extraction, the total internal exergy destroyed is 3006 MJ which is about six times less than that for solvent extraction (18,072 MJ) for 1 ton J. curcas oil produced. The pretreatment processes of the J. curcas seeds recorded a total internal exergy destructions of 5768 MJ accounting for 24% of the total internal exergy destroyed for solvent extraction processes and 66% for mechanical extraction. The exergetic efficiencies recorded are 79.35% and 95.93% for solvent and mechanical extraction processes of J. curcas oil respectively. Hence, mechanical oil extraction processes are exergetically efficient than solvent extraction processes. Possible improvement methods are also elaborated in this study.

  3. Rapid Development of China's Offshore Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Haimin

    2002-01-01

    @@ Founded on February 15, 1982, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) has experienced two decades of rapid development, in which the annual offshore oil production rose dramatically to 23.13 million tons in 2001 from 90,000 tons in 1982while the total assets jumped to 72 billion yuan from 2.8 billion yuan, but the total employees dropped to 21,000 people from 30,000. This offshore oil giant generated a profit of 9.2 billion yuan in 2001 and turned over 4 billion yuan in taxes to the State with the crude production cost lowered to US$9 per barrel.

  4. The effect of char structure on burnout during pulverized coal combustion at pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, G.; Wu, H.; Benfell, K.E.; Lucas, J.A.; Wall, T.F.

    1999-07-01

    An Australian bituminous coal sample was burnt in a drop tube furnace (DTF) at 1 atm and a pressurized drop tube furnace (PDTF) at 15 atm. The char samples were collected at different burnout levels, and a scanning electron microscope was used to examine the structures of chars. A model was developed to predict the burnout of char particles with different structures. The model accounts for combustion of the thin-walled structure of cenospheric char and its fragmentation during burnout. The effect of pressure on reaction rate was also considered in the model. As a result, approximately 40% and 70% cenospheric char particles were observed in the char samples collected after coal pyrolysis in the DTF and PDTF respectively. A large number of fine particles (< 30 mm) were observed in the 1 atm char samples at burnout levels between 30% and 50%, which suggests that significant fragmentation occurred during early combustion. Ash particle size distributions show that a large number of small ash particles formed during burnout at high pressure. The time needed for 70% char burnout at 15 atm is approximately 1.6 times that at 1 atm under the same temperature and gas environment conditions, which is attributed to the different pressures as well as char structures. The overall reaction rate for cenospheric char was predicted to be approximately 2 times that of the dense chars, which is consistent with previous experimental results. The predicted char burnout including char structures agrees reasonably well with the experimental measurements that were obtained at 1 atm and 15 atm pressures.

  5. Policy options for energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section reviews the energy policies implemented by Cuba regarding the expanded use of domestic crude oil and associated gas, increases in renewable energy sources, improvements in energy efficiency, and the introduction of electricity and fuel conservation programmes. Although these policies were not motivated by the search for sustainability in energy development, they make an intrinsic contribution to sustainable energy development through the positive results obtained from them, which demonstrate their value and the need to strengthen and to modify them. This section also discusses the basis for new energy policies whose application would contribute to Cuba's sustainable energy development. Finally, it briefly addresses the wide range of economic, environmental, industrial, social, institutional and transport policies that influence domestic energy demand, although a detailed examination of these policies is beyond the scope of this report

  6. Oil-Less Swing Compressor Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hugenroth, Jason James

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an oil-less swing compressor. The swing compressor, also known as a rotary piston pump, is a rotary compressor technology that is akin to the well know rolling piston compressor. The swing compressor differs from the rolling piston compressor in that the vane, which divides the suction and compression chambers is an integral part of the piston. The vane is both rotatably and slidingly supported by bushings in the compressor cylinder. Oil-less compressor...

  7. Oil companies and village development in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic interest of oil companies and the oil-producing Third World countries, together with the technological handicaps and political considerations of the latter, provide the scenarios within which the two groups interact. In the early history of oil exploitation, the relationship was such that the oil companies had the final say in all matters. Furthermore, apart from the token royalty, no taxes were usually imposed on the exploration companies. The relationship between the oil companies and the host local communities, even in the developed countries, seems to be a replica of that between the companies and the host countries. There is the feeling in many of the local communities that they have gained little or nothing from petroleum exploitation. This is the case not only in the setting of a less developed country, such as Nigeria, but also in that of a developed country, such as the United States. In these communities, the adverse environment effect of oil exploitation is usually perceived as being overwhelming. (author)

  8. The H-Oil Process : Preferred configurations for application to western Canadian feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical and economic evaluation of a method used to convert and upgrade petroleum residua and heavy oils into lighter products was described. The feasibility of applying the process to typical western Canadian oil sand feedstocks was evaluated. The H-Oil process, developed by HRI Inc., is an ebullated-bed catalytic hydrocracking process that accounts for more than 50 per cent of the worldwide vacuum residue hydroprocessing market. It has a unique flexibility to handle many different types of heavy crudes while producing clean transportation fuels. The unconverted vacuum residue from the process can be used for fuel oil production, blended into asphalt, or routed to a resid catalytic cracker or coker. The residue can also be directly combusted or gasified to produce hydrogen. Four different technologies that have been used commercially in Canada to upgrade western Canadian heavy oil residue have been reviewed and evaluated from a technical and economic viewpoint. The following improvements in the H-oil process have resulted in greater economy and product quality: (1) development of a new generation of high activity catalysts, (2) development of an improved recycle cup, and (3) new outlets for unconverted residue. It was suggested that the H-Oil process produces more revenue than the delayed coker process. As coke becomes harder to dispose of, the H-Oil process will become more attractive for producing synthetic crude from heavy oil. 6 refs., 9 tabs., 9 figs

  9. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [Wendy; Minnick, Matthew; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle; Mattson, Earl

    2012-09-30

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and

  10. Thermochemistry and kinetics of oxygen interaction with microporous chars. Technical report 12. [199 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, I M.K.; Walker, P L

    1979-01-01

    In processes involving the hydrogasification of coal, the coal is first exposed to hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures during which devolatilization and gasification of the more reactive parts of the coal occur. A microporous coal char, which is relatively unreactive, is also produced. The char, in turn, can be reacted with steam to generate the hydrogen needed in the first part of the process. Or the char, in part, can be used in a boiler to raise steam. In any case, characterization of coal chars and the relation of character to behavior during gasification and/or combustion is important. This report is primarily concerned with laying the experimental base for the measurement of the heat of interaction of a gas (oxygen in this case) with chars. Following the laying of this base, using a char produced from a reproducible polymer system, heats of interaction of oxygen with chars produced from American coals, ranging in rank from anthracite to lignite, were measured. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to study the exothermicity and kinetics of interaction between Saran chars and oxygen at selected isothermal temperatures in the range 75 to 850/sup 0/C. The combination of measuring heats of oxygen interaction with chars (using the DSC technique) and weight changes during the interaction opens up a valuable new technique to characterize coal chars. Heats of interaction at 100/sup 0/C are found to be related to rates of char gasification at higher temperatures. Both heats of interaction and gasification rates are, in turn, seen to increase sharply as the rank of coal from which the char is produced is decreased.

  11. S.341: A bill to reduce the Nation's dependence on imported oil, to provide for the energy security of the Nation and for other purposes, introduced in the United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, February 5, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bill would reduce the nation's dependence on imported oil to provide for the energy security of the nation. The purposes are to significantly reduce the nation's oil dependency; encourage more efficient use of energy; encourage development and deployment of renewable energy sources; streamline the hydroelectric licensing process; enhance the role of coal and clean coal technologies; establish priorities for Federal energy research, development, demonstration, and commercialization; encourage development of domestic energy resources on the Outer Continental Shelf; provide for oil and gas exploration, production, and development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska; encourage increased utilization of natural gas and other domestic energy resources to displace imported oil; reduce the consumption of oil in the transportation sector and encourage use of alternative energy sources for transportation; and encourage production and use of nuclear power by providing for the commercialization of advanced nuclear reactor technologies

  12. Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. [Centre of Excellence for Catalysis Science and Technology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Oil palm is one of the major economic crops in many countries. Malaysia alone produces about 47% of the world's palm oil supply and can be considered as the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia also generates huge quantity of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches (EFB), shells and fibers as waste from palm oil fruit harvest and oil extraction processing. At present there is a continuously increasing interest in the utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of clean energy. One of the major interests is hydrogen from oil palm biomass. Hydrogen from biomass is a clean and efficient energy source and is expected to take a significant role in future energy demand due to the raw material availability. This paper presents a review which focuses on different types of thermo-chemical processes for conversion of oil palm biomass to hydrogen rich gas. This paper offers a concise and up-to-date scenario of the present status of oil palm industry in contributing towards sustainable and renewable energy. (author)

  13. Oil and gas products and energy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planned activities of the Canadian oil and gas products and energy equipment industry for 1996-1997, were presented. The sector is made up of approximately 1500 small and medium sized enterprises. The Canadian oil field manufacturing and servicing industry holds only a small 2.5% share of the world export market, but it is recognized internationally as one of the leading suppliers of advanced petroleum equipment. Their exports include specialized equipment for extracting oil sands, gathering and treatment facilities for sour gas, underbalanced drilling technologies, equipment for wells experiencing declining production rates, top motor drives, winter drilling rigs, and horizontal drilling technologies. They also offer petroleum industry software products. Most exploration and production equipment sold abroad by Canadian firms is manufactured in Canada, but there is an increasing trend toward manufacturing in the country of operation. 2 tabs

  14. Process development for the removal and recovery of hazardous dye erythrosine from wastewater by waste materials-Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya as adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erythrosine is a water-soluble xanthene class of dye. It is widely used as colorant in foods, textiles, drugs and cosmetics. It is highly toxic, causes various types of allergies, thyroid activities, carcinogenicity, DNA damage behaviour, neurotoxicity and xenoestrogen nature in the humans and animals. The photochemical and biochemical degradation of the erythrosine is not recommended due to formation of toxic by-products. The present paper is an attempt to remove erythrosine from wastewater using adsorption over Bottom Ash-a power plant waste and De-Oiled Soya-an agricultural waste. Under the batch studies, effect of concentration of dye, temperature, pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbents, etc., have been studied for the uptake of the dye over both adsorbents. The adsorption process verifies Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms in both the cases and based on the data different thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated. Batch studies also include kinetic measurements, rate constant study, mass transfer behaviour and establishment of mechanistic pathway for both the cases. For the bulk removal of the dye column operations have been carried out and breakthrough capacities of the Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya columns have been calculated. Attempts have also been made for the recovery of the adsorbed dye from exhausted columns by eluting dilute NaOH and more than 90% of the dye was recovered

  15. Coal and Oil: The Dark Monarchs of Global Energy : Understanding Supply and Extraction Patterns and their Importance for Future Production

    OpenAIRE

    Höök, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    The formation of modern society has been dominated by coal and oil, and together these two fossil fuels account for nearly two thirds of all primary energy used by mankind.  This makes future production a key question for future social development and this thesis attempts to answer whether it is possible to rely on an assumption of ever increasing production of coal and oil. Both coal and oil are finite resources, created over long time scales by geological processes. It is thus impossible to...

  16. Geotechnical processes in closed oil shale mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the years 1998-2001 geotechnical processes in closed underground oil shale mines and open casts were investigated. In addition to kukersite oil shale deposit, the closed Sillamaee uranium (Dictyonema shale) mine was prospected. The main tools and methods included mine plans, aerial photographs and Geographical Information System data. 290 km2 of underground and 130 km2of strip-mined areas were studied. The mining maps of Estonian underground and surface mines were created. The stability of underground mined area, where room-and-pillar method was used, was the main objective of the study. It was studied with the help of aerial photographs, mine drawings, maps of quaternary sediments and mathematical modeling of rock failure. The main results are: 20 % of subsidences remain undiscovered and 42 % of subsidence occurrences have no remarkable influence to the land cover; the probability of subsidence remains and may increase in the case of mine drowning. As several mines will be closed during the next few years, the problems of drowned waste (which were not subjects of this study) are going to be more actual than before: increasing underground water level, pollution of underground water, formation of technogenic water sources, overflooding of reclaimed areas, etc. (author)

  17. 75 FR 44276 - Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE); Cancellation of Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE); Cancellation of Oil and Gas... Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Cancellation of Offshore... will allow time to develop and implement measures to improve the safety of oil and gas development...

  18. Microwave processing of oil contaminated drill cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Igor S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Easily accessible oil reserves are currently decreasing, leading to an increase in more complex offshore deep-sea drilling programs, which require increasingly greater depths to be drilled. Such wells are commonly drilled using oil based muds, which leads to the production of drilled rock fragments, drill cuttings, which are contaminated with the base oil present in the mud. It is a legal requirement to reduce oil content to below 1 wt% in order to dispose of these drill cuttings in the North...

  19. Advanced CANDU reactor: an optimized energy source of oil sands application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is developing the ACR-700TM (Advanced CANDU Reactor-700TM) to meet customer needs for reduced capital cost, shorter construction schedule, high capacity factor while retaining the benefits of the CANDU experience base. The ACR-700 is based on the concept of CANDU horizontal fuel channels surrounded by heavy water moderator. The major innovation of this design is the use of slightly enriched uranium fuel in a CANFLEX bundle that is cooled by light water. This ensures: higher main steam pressures and temperatures providing higher thermal efficiency; a compact and simpler reactor design with reduced capital costs and shorter construction schedules; and reduced heavy water inventory compared to existing CANDU reactors. ACR-700 is not only a technically advanced and cost effective solution for electricity generating utilities, but also a low-cost, long-life and sustainable steam source for increasing Alberta's Oil Sand production rates. Currently practiced commercial surface mining and extraction of Oil Sand resources has been well established over the last three decades. But a majority of the available resources are somewhat deeper underground require in-situ extraction. Economic removal of such underground resources is now possible through the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) process developed and proto-type tested in-site. SAGD requires the injection of large quantities of high-pressure steam into horizontal wells to form reduced viscosity bitumen and condensate mixture that is then collected at the surface. This paper describes joint AECL studies with CERI (Canadian Energy Research Institute) for the ACR, supplying both electricity and medium-pressure steam to an oil sands facility. The extensive oil sands deposits in northern Alberta are a very large energy resource. Currently, 30% of Canda's oil production is from the oil sands and this is expected to expand greatly over the coming decade. The bitumen deposits in the

  20. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-29

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Need to establish a national energy strategy and the role of nuclear power. In the age of spiraling oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil crises in 1970's forced Japan to make strenuous efforts to develop energy-saving measures and oil-alternative energy sources such as nuclear power. Recent spiraling oil price due to relativistic decline of supply capacity of oil-exporting countries and huge increase of oil demands of oil-importing countries such as China, India and Asian countries has raised some doubts on Japanese long-term energy security. Judging from future perspectives of global energy situation and global warming problems it's high time to establish national energy strategy to take right consideration of nuclear power. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwalt, C. J.; Hunter, J.

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation.

  3. Coal and char properties in high temperature entrained flow gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the objective to measure coal conversion at realistic operation conditions the Pressurised High Temperature Entrained Flow Reactor (PiTER) is developed. The pyrolysis of Rhenish lignite is studied at temperatures up to 1600 °C and pressures up to 2.5 MPa. At longer residence time (above 1.5 s) volatile yield is 68 wt% and independent of temperature and pressure. Char samples are extracted from the hot reaction zone and their reactivity is analysed by weight loss in TGA experiments at defined conditions. Furthermore, specific char surface area is measured. At 1200 °C the intrinsic reactivity of char decreases by a factor of almost 7 from 0.5 s to 2 s residence time, but surface area (approximately 500 m2/g) is hardly affected. At 1400 °C and 1600 °C, the intrinsic reactivity also decreases, but simultaneously the surface area is reduced to below 300 m2/g. The difference in deactivation can only be explained by two different mechanisms: (i) experiments at 1200 °C are below the ash fusion temperature and graphitisation at the char surface may lead to a reorganisation of carbon atoms; (ii) above the ash fusion temperature, the melting of mineral matter additionally blocks the micropore structure and results in a loss of specific surface area. -- Highlights: ► Development of a novel pilot scale entrained flow research reactor. ► Pyrolysis at up to 1600 °C and up to 2.5 MPa under entrained flow conditions. ► Surface area of char significantly decreases above the ash melting temperature. ► Intrinsic reactivity of char is dependent on heat treatment severity. ► Thermal annealing affects char reactivity, even at short residence time.

  4. Energy Criterion of Oil Film Failure during Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Fedorov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concepts developed by the thermodynamic theory of solid body strength and fracture are used to examine the conditions of lubricant film failure. We obtain a quantitative criterion that defines the lubricant film "defectness" - the critical value (constant for a given mineral oil of the internal (thermal energy density in the volume of the lubricant film. We propose analytic relations for evaluating scuffing in friction with lubrication and verify them experimentally on a full-scale stand for testing actual sliding bearings. We show the constancy of the critical value of the internal (thermal energy density in the volume of the oil film at the moment of scuffing for an inactive mineral oil.

  5. Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part B: oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled Part B of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). Part B consists of oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar energy resource information in support of the WLCI. The WLCI represents the USGS partnership with other Department of the Interior Bureaus, State and local agencies, industry, academia, and private landowners, all of whom collaborate to maintain healthy landscapes, sustain wildlife, and preserve recreational and grazing uses while developing energy resources in southwestern Wyoming. This product is the second and final part of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming series (also see USGS Data Series 683, http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/683/), and encompasses all of Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, and Uinta Counties, as well as areas in Fremont County that are in the Great Divide and Green River Basins.

  6. Development of a quality pedigree process and application to the Duane Arnold Energy Center probabilistic safety assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has become increasingly recognized by the USNRC and the industry as a useful complement to the more traditional deterministic analyses to support plant decision making. The benefits of a living PSA include its use in supporting licensing actions, license renewals, risk management, and integrated safety assessments. EPRI developed and implemented a quality pedigree process for the Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC) PSA that can be beneficially and cost-effectively applied at other utilities. The PSA pedigree process described in this report is comprised of a governing administrative PSA control procedure and PSA group internally administered guidelines. Controls are provided for the following PSA areas: personnel responsibilities, group training requirements, review processes, documentation, and maintenance. A number of lessons learned regarding the development and implementation of a pedigree process are also presented. These lessons address the structure of the pedigree process, PSA applications, the PSA review process, effects of the pedigree on PSA inputs, and DAEC plant-specific results. 32 refs

  7. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  8. The H-Oil process: a worldwide leader in vacuum residue hydro processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colyar, J.J.; Wisdom, L.I.; Koskas, A.

    1996-12-31

    The h-Oil process is a catalytic hydrocracking process which is used to convert and upgrade petroleum residua and heavy oils. This paper discusses additional background information on the H-Oil process, some of the key advances made to the process and applications for the Latin America market. 5 refs., 6 tabs.., 2 figs.

  9. Product Development Process Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The use of Concurrent Engineering and other modern methods of product development and maintenance require that a large number of time-overlapped "processes" be performed by many people. However, successfully describing and optimizing these processes are becoming even more difficult to achieve. The perspective of industrial process theory (the definition of process) and the perspective of process implementation (process transition, accumulation, and inter-operations between processes) are used to survey the method used to build one base model (multi-view) process model.

  10. Development of oil for lead shielded glass windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil filled glass windows are used in Hot Cells for viewing purposes. Absorption of moisture and radiation can cause degradation of the oil and the degradation products will make the oil cloudy. Hence, it is necessary to replace the oil at least once in two years. The requirements of the oil were met so far by importing it from USA, Germany and France. An attempt has been made to make the oil indigenously with a view to replenish the oil in future, and also as an alternate source for oil import. The details of the development of a radiation resistant oil, its specifications and the test procedures are discussed in this report. (author)

  11. Mixed Waste Treatment Using the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This R and D program addresses the treatment of mixed waste employing the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification process. Surrogate mixed waste streams will be treated in a four inch diameter, continuous feed, adiabatic reactor with the goal of meeting all regulatory treatment levels for the contaminants in the surrogates with the concomitant production of contaminant free by-products. Successful completion of this program will show that organic contaminants in mixed waste surrogates will be converted to a clean, energy rich synthesis gas capable of being used, without further processing, for power or heat generation. The inorganic components in the surrogates will be found to be adsorbed on a macroporous coal char activated carbon substrate which is mixed with the waste prior to treatment. These contaminants include radioactive metal surrogate species, RCRA hazardous metals and any acid gases formed during the treatment process. The program has three main tasks that will be performed to meet the above objectives. The first task is the design and construction of the four inch reactor at Mirage Systems in Sunnyvale, CA. The second task is production and procurement of the activated carbon char employed in the ChemChartest runs and identification of two surrogate mixed wastes. The last task is testing and operation of the reactor on char/surrogate waste mixtures to be performed at the University of Missouri. The deliverables for the project are a Design Review Report, Operational Test Plan, Topical Report and Final Report. This report contains only the results of the design and construction carbon production-surrogate waste identification tasks.Treatment of the surrogate mixed wastes has just begun and will not be reported in this version of the Final Report. The latter will be reported in the final version of the Final Report

  12. Mixed Waste Treatment Using the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchynka, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    This R and D program addresses the treatment of mixed waste employing the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification process. Surrogate mixed waste streams will be treated in a four inch diameter, continuous feed, adiabatic reactor with the goal of meeting all regulatory treatment levels for the contaminants in the surrogates with the concomitant production of contaminant free by-products. Successful completion of this program will show that organic contaminants in mixed waste surrogates will be converted to a clean, energy rich synthesis gas capable of being used, without further processing, for power or heat generation. The inorganic components in the surrogates will be found to be adsorbed on a macroporous coal char activated carbon substrate which is mixed with the waste prior to treatment. These contaminants include radioactive metal surrogate species, RCRA hazardous metals and any acid gases formed during the treatment process. The program has three main tasks that will be performed to meet the above objectives. The first task is the design and construction of the four inch reactor at Mirage Systems in Sunnyvale, CA. The second task is production and procurement of the activated carbon char employed in the ChemChartest runs and identification of two surrogate mixed wastes. The last task is testing and operation of the reactor on char/surrogate waste mixtures to be performed at the University of Missouri. The deliverables for the project are a Design Review Report, Operational Test Plan, Topical Report and Final Report. This report contains only the results of the design and construction carbon production-surrogate waste identification tasks.Treatment of the surrogate mixed wastes has just begun and will not be reported in this version of the Final Report. The latter will be reported in the final version of the Final Report.

  13. Development of the techniques for food processing with low-energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to construct a new electron beam irradiation apparatus which allows to perform homogeneous irradiation up to a certain depth of a spherical or granular material through rotating it. And the sterilizing effects of this apparatus on various kinds of spices such as black and white peppers (grains), turmeric (root), coriander (seed), basil (leaves) were investigated to compare with the effects of γ-ray irradiation. Electron beam irradiation was made changing the energy form 200 keV for 15 min to 500 keV for 5 min and a dose-depth curve was drawn for each electron energy. Indicator balls were used to examine the radiation effects. It became possible to make homogeneous irradiation onto a spherical surface of food by using the rotary system of the apparatus. It was demonstrated that satisfactory sterilizing effects as much as those of γ-ray were obtainable by superficial treatments with low-energy electron. (M.N.)

  14. Development of the techniques for food processing with low-energy electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoroki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    This study aimed to construct a new electron beam irradiation apparatus which allows to perform homogeneous irradiation up to a certain depth of a spherical or granular material through rotating it. And the sterilizing effects of this apparatus on various kinds of spices such as black and white peppers (grains), turmeric (root), coriander (seed), basil (leaves) were investigated to compare with the effects of {gamma}-ray irradiation. Electron beam irradiation was made changing the energy form 200 keV for 15 min to 500 keV for 5 min and a dose-depth curve was drawn for each electron energy. Indicator balls were used to examine the radiation effects. It became possible to make homogeneous irradiation onto a spherical surface of food by using the rotary system of the apparatus. It was demonstrated that satisfactory sterilizing effects as much as those of {gamma}-ray were obtainable by superficial treatments with low-energy electron. (M.N.)

  15. Prospects for applications of electron beams in processing of gas and oil hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, A. V., E-mail: ponomarev@ipc.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry (Russian Federation); Pershukov, V. A. [ROSATOM National Nuclear Corporation (Russian Federation); Smirnov, V. P. [CJSC “Nauka i Innovatsii” (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Waste-free processing of oil and oil gases can be based on electron-beam technologies. Their major advantage is an opportunity of controlled manufacturing of a wide range of products with a higher utility value at moderate temperatures and pressures. The work considers certain key aspects of electron beam technologies applied for the chain cracking of heavy crude oil, for the synthesis of premium gasoline from oil gases, and also for the hydrogenation, alkylation, and isomerization of unsaturated oil products. Electronbeam processing of oil can be embodied via compact mobile modules which are applicable for direct usage at distant oil and gas fields. More cost-effective and reliable electron accelerators should be developed to realize the potential of electron-beam technologies.

  16. Prospects for applications of electron beams in processing of gas and oil hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste-free processing of oil and oil gases can be based on electron-beam technologies. Their major advantage is an opportunity of controlled manufacturing of a wide range of products with a higher utility value at moderate temperatures and pressures. The work considers certain key aspects of electron beam technologies applied for the chain cracking of heavy crude oil, for the synthesis of premium gasoline from oil gases, and also for the hydrogenation, alkylation, and isomerization of unsaturated oil products. Electronbeam processing of oil can be embodied via compact mobile modules which are applicable for direct usage at distant oil and gas fields. More cost-effective and reliable electron accelerators should be developed to realize the potential of electron-beam technologies

  17. Prospects for applications of electron beams in processing of gas and oil hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. V.; Pershukov, V. A.; Smirnov, V. P.

    2015-12-01

    Waste-free processing of oil and oil gases can be based on electron-beam technologies. Their major advantage is an opportunity of controlled manufacturing of a wide range of products with a higher utility value at moderate temperatures and pressures. The work considers certain key aspects of electron beam technologies applied for the chain cracking of heavy crude oil, for the synthesis of premium gasoline from oil gases, and also for the hydrogenation, alkylation, and isomerization of unsaturated oil products. Electronbeam processing of oil can be embodied via compact mobile modules which are applicable for direct usage at distant oil and gas fields. More cost-effective and reliable electron accelerators should be developed to realize the potential of electron-beam technologies.

  18. Removal of heteroatoms and metals from heavy oils by bioconversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, E.N.

    1996-06-01

    Biocatalysts, either appropriate microorganisms or isolated enzymes, will be used in an aqueous phase in contact with the heavy oil phase to extract heteroatoms such as sulfur from the oil phase by bioconversion processes. Somewhat similar work on coal processing will be adapted and extended for this application. Bacteria such as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans will be studied for the reductive removal of organically-bound sulfur and bacteria such as Rhodococcus rhodochrum will be investigated for the oxidative removal of sulfur. Isolated bacteria from either oil field co-produced sour water or from soil contaminated by oil spills will also be tested. At a later time, bacteria that interact with organic nitrogen may also be studied. This type of interaction will be carried out in advanced bioreactor systems where organic and aqueous phases are contacted. One new concept of emulsion-phase contacting, which will be investigated, disperses the aqueous phase in the organic phase and is then recoalesced for removal of the contaminants and recycled back to the reactor. This program is a cooperative research and development program with the following companies: Baker Performance Chemicals, Chevron, Energy BioSystems, Exxon, Texaco, and UNOCAL. After verification of the bioprocessing concepts on a laboratory-scale, the end-product will be a demonstration of the technology at an industrial site. This should result in rapid transfer of the technology to industry.

  19. Development Situation and Future Tendency of Liaohe Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Weigeng

    1995-01-01

    @@ Liaohe Oil Province is the third largest one stably developing in China. It's composed of more than 20 oil and gas fields with complicated geological conditions. It has various types of reservoir developing 14 sets of oil-bearig horizon with multi-types of crude oil (light oil,heavy oil and high pour-point oil). From 1970 to the end of 1993, there were 22 oilfields which have been put into exploitation, including Huaxiling Oilfield etc. More, Shuangnan and Kailu Oilfields are now on trial production. Since 1984,the annual incremental production of crude oil from these fields reached over 85× 104 t (see Fig. 1).

  20. Effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and char reactivity for two types of coal and demineralized coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenkui Zhu; Wenli Song; Weigang Lin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Multi-phase Complex System

    2008-07-15

    A better understanding of the influence of particle size on pyrolysis and char reactivity is of crucial importance in optimizing the integrated process combining coal topping (coal fast pyrolysis) with char gasification. Different size fractions of two types of coal and demineralized coal were pyrolyzed in a spouted bed. The resulting chars were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and char reactivity was determined in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Within the range of particle sizes investigated, an increase in particle size results in an increase of char yield, which may be caused by the secondary reactions of volatile matters inside the coal particles. No significant difference in crystallinity was observed for the chars from different size fractions of the parent coals, while more crystallinity was observed for the chars from demineralized coals, which suggests that minerals in the coal play a role in the reduction of char crystallinity during pyrolysis. Char reactivity for raw coals decreased with the increasing of the particle size. For the demineralized coal samples, the change in char reactivity with the increasing of the particle size was reduced. Both the secondary reactions of volatiles and mineral distribution are believed to cause the influence of coal particle size on char reactivity. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Sustainable energy transitions in emerging economies: The formation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia 1990–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic development in emerging economies in Southeast Asia has significantly increased the use of fossil fuel based energy. This has severe implications for global climate change, and against this background, scholars within the sustainable transition tradition have taken an interest in addressing how transitions towards more sustainable development pathways in this region may be achieved. This paper contributes to the abovementioned literature by examining the conducive and limiting factors for development and proliferation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia during the period 1990–2011. Rising oil prices, strong pressure on the palm oil industry from environmental groups, and a persisting palm oil biomass waste disposal problem in Malaysia appear to have been conducive to niche proliferation, and on top of this national renewable energy policies and large-scale donor programmes have specifically supported the utilisation of palm oil biomass waste for energy. However, in spite of this, the niche development process has only made slow progress. The paper identifies reluctant implementation of energy policy, rise in biomass resource prices, limited network formation and negative results at the niche level, as the main factors hindering niche development. - Highlights: • We examine crucial factors for developing a biomass-to-energy niche in Malaysia. • In spite of interventions for policy support the niche has only made slow progress. • Oil prices, NGO pressure, waste problems and policy support were the enabling factors. • First, reluctant implementation of energy policy was hindering niche development. • Later, low performance level of implemented plants was hindering niche development

  2. INTERFACIAL ENERGY DURING THE EMULSIFICATION OF WATER-IN-HEAVY CRUDE OIL EMULSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karcher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the interfacial energy involved in the production of water-in-oil (W/O emulsions composed of water and a Brazilian heavy crude oil. For such purpose an experimental set-up was developed to measure the different energy terms involved in the emulsification process. W/O emulsions containing different water volume fractions (0.1, 0.25 and 0.4 were prepared in a batch calorimeter by using a high-shear rotating homogenizer at two distinct rotation speeds (14000 and 22000 rpm. The results showed that the energy dissipated as heat represented around 80% of the energy transferred to the emulsion, while around 20% contributed to the internal energy. Only a very small fraction of the energy (0.02 - 0.06% was stored in the water-oil interface. The results demonstrated that the high energy dissipation contributes to the kinetic stability of the W/O emulsions.

  3. The Development of Breakdown in Transformer Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Kudelcik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditions under which breakdown of composite liquid - solid insulation can be occurred, e.g. in transformer, play an important role in designing of such insulation. The initial state of breakdown development is explained based on development of streamers in cavitations. The whole breakdown development in transformer oil is represented by RLC circuit and it depends on the parameters of outer circuit.

  4. Energy security: it's not only oil. Increasing and replacing oil resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The security of energy supplies is once again right at the top of the list of energy policy subjects, following the political tensions in the Middle East, as well as major electricity failures of recent years, the hurricanes of August and September 2005 and the gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine. Even if the system of strategic oil stocks managed by the International Energy Agency has proved to be efficient, today keywords for guarding against the risks are diversification (of energy, of its sources, its suppliers and of its supply lines) and flexibility. Dialogue with the producers is essential. It will be difficult to find substitutes for hydrocarbons (oil and natural gas) in the short and medium terms to meet the needs of transport and for the petrochemical industry; they are likely to represent, in the order of two-thirds of the total demand for the world energy by the year 2030. In order to replace oil resources, taking account of all the risks of climate change, technological innovation will play a major role and should allow us to benefit from today potentially unreliable hydrocarbon supplies for many more years, allowing our society sufficient time to develop other sources of energy, and to do so at a cost that is acceptable to everybody. (authors)

  5. THE OIL AND GAS SECTOR’S DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Yuriy Bobylev

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Russia’s crude oil output hit its record high since 1990. At the same time, the growth rates of oil produc- tion and oil exports are displaying an obvious slowdown. Besides, some additional negative factors have emerged that impose still more constraints of the oil sector’s further development: the plummeting world prices for oil and the fi nancial and technological sanctions introduced against Russia. Since 2015, the oil sector’s taxation system has been undergoing structural transf...

  6. Method development and analysis of arsenolipids in marine oils

    OpenAIRE

    Sele, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic in marine oils is mainly present in the form of lipid-soluble compounds; collectively called arsenolipids. Although total arsenic concentrations in marine oils typically range from 0.2 to 16 mg kg-1 [1-3], knowledge regarding the chemical structures and distribution of arsenolipids in oils is limited. The present work describes the development of analytical methods for the determination of arsenolipids, and their application to marine oil, including fish oil and oil of ...

  7. Energy Requirement of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Mario Cappelletti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this chapter is to calculate the net energy of the production chain for virgin olive oil. Therefore, the determination was carried out for the direct and indirect energy inputs and the energy present as feedstock in the outputs (products and by-products. To perform this analysis, all of the production processes for olives and for oil extraction were studied. For the agricultural phase, three systems of cultivation were taken into consideration: the centenary olive grove (COO, the “intensive” olive grove (HDO and, the more recently introduced, “super-intensive” olive grove (HSDO. The last two models are distinguished by the high number of trees per hectare and by an intense mechanization of agricultural practices. Regarding the oil extraction phase, four different technologies were compared: the pressure system (PS, the two-phase system (2PS, the three-phase (3PS, and the system, called “de-pitted”, which provides for the separation of the pits before the oil is extracted (DPS. The analysis showed that the production of olives needs more than 90% of energy requirements, much of which is met by non-renewable sources of energy. The production of fertilizers, and also irrigation, are the production factors that require a considerable amount of energy. Among the three agricultural systems analyzed, the COO system of cultivation is the one that requires less energy as compared to the other systems. The scenario that enables the most energy return, however, is the SHDO system of cultivation, due to the greater amount of pruning residues that can be obtained.

  8. Sustaining high energy efficiency in existing processes with advanced process integration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Process integration with better modelling and more advanced solution methods. ► Operational changes for better environmental performance through optimisation. ► Identification of process integration technology for operational optimisation. ► Systematic implementation procedure of process integration technology. ► A case study with crude oil distillation to demonstrate the operational flexibility. -- Abstract: To reduce emissions in the process industry, much emphasis has been put on making step changes in emission reduction, by developing new process technology and making renewable energy more affordable. However, the energy saving potential of existing systems cannot be simply ignored. In recent years, there have been significant advances in process integration technology with better modelling techniques and more advanced solution methods. These methods have been applied to the new design and retrofit studies in the process industry. Here attempts are made to apply these technologies to improve the environmental performance of existing facilities with operational changes. An industrial project was carried out to demonstrate the importance and effectiveness of exploiting the operational flexibility for energy conservation. By applying advanced optimisation technique to integrate the operation of distillation and heat recovery in a crude oil distillation unit, the energy consumption was reduced by 8% without capital expenditure. It shows that with correctly identified technology and the proper execution procedure, significant energy savings and emission reduction can be achieved very quickly without major capital expenditure. This allows the industry to improve its economic and environment performance at the same time.

  9. The conversion of anaerobic digestion waste into biofuels via a novel Thermo-Catalytic Reforming process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Johannes; Meyer, Johannes; Ouadi, Miloud; Apfelbacher, Andreas; Binder, Samir; Hornung, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Producing energy from biomass and other organic waste residues is essential for sustainable development. Fraunhofer UMSICHT has developed a novel reactor which introduces the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming (TCR®) process. The TCR® is a process which can convert any type of biomass and organic feedstocks into a variety of energy products (char, bio-oil and permanent gases). The aim of this work was to demonstrate this technology using digestate as the feedstock and to quantify the results from the post reforming step. The temperature of a post reformer was varied to achieve optimised fuel products. The hydrogen rich permanent gases produced were maximised at a post reforming temperature of 1023 K. The highly de-oxygenated liquid bio-oil produced contained a calorific value of 35.2 MJ/kg, with significantly improved fuel physical properties, low viscosity and acid number. Overall digestate showed a high potential as feedstock in the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming to produce pyrolysis fuel products of superior quality. PMID:26190827

  10. Energy security policies in EU-25-The expected cost of oil supply disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A framework for analyzing the impact on the expected cost of oil disruption by energy policies in EU-25 is developed. The framework takes into account how energy policies affect the oil market, the expected oil price increase, and the disruption costs. OPEC's strategic behavior is modelled as a dominant firm, and the model includes price interdependence between different energy commodities to better estimate the cost of an oil disruption. It is found that substituting pellets for oil in households and using imported sugar cane ethanol are cost-efficient policies if greenhouse gas benefits are included. Domestically produced wheat ethanol is not found to be cost-efficient even if both the expected cost of oil disruption and greenhouse gas benefits are included, the same also holds for hybrid vehicles. The gross expected economic gain of the policies is found to be between 9 and 22 Euro /bbl oil replaced.

  11. Chemicals in the oil industry. Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cookson, L.; Ogden, P.H. [eds.

    1998-05-01

    Increasing water breakthrough in maturing oil-wells and the need to develop less accessible oil deposits has led to steadily growing consumption of well management and production chemicals. This, together with higher performance requirements of chemical formulations and increasing restriction of chemical choice due to environmental constraints, makes this industry a highly challenging one. However, reward for success can be high, and the combined chemical and service value of this market has been estimated to be worth billions. This book covers a wide range of subjects concerned with the application of chemistry in the drilling for, handling, and transportation of crude oil. Aimed at the interface between chemistry and engineering, where cost considerations are of vital importance, the book addresses developments over the past few years, both technical and commercial, with particular reference to the emergence of alliances between oil producers and major supply and service companies. It concentrates on those topics such as environmental issues, reservoir souring and analytical developments, where there is an immediate need for innovation. (author)

  12. Research on the optimal energy consumption of oil pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Liuting; Liu, Song; Wu, Mingchang; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    Most of the Chinese crude oil is easy to curdle and has high viscosity, so heating transportation is usually selected. Energy consumption by this method mainly comes from furnaces and pumps. Currently, operating parameters of these pipelines were determined according to experience of dispatch. It cause high energy consumption and high cost of pipeline running, so it could not adapt to energy conservation policy. The present study focused on consuming lowest energy to operate oil transportation line. To begin with, several optimization variables were set which included pump combinations, suction pressure, discharge pressure, and station temperature. Then constraint conditions were set to establish an optimal mathematical model of running transportation line. Furthermore, genetic algorithm was used to solve the model, in meantime, selection operation, cross operation and mutation operation in the genetic algorithm were improved. Finally, a crude oil pipeline running optimization software was developed. Through optimal analyzing, S-L transportation line and contrasting with the actual working conditions, it was found that optimal operation scheme could reduce energy consumption by 5% - 9%. In addition, optimal operation scheme also considered the effect of seasons and flow on energy consumption of S-L transportation line. PMID:26387343

  13. Steam process cogeneration using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of energy in a sustainable manner is to make processes more efficient. Oil industry requires of electricity and steam for refinery and petrochemical processes, nuclear energy can be a clean energy alternative. Cogeneration is an option to be assessed by Mexico to provide additional value to electricity generation. Mexico is a country with oil resources that requires process heat for gasoline production among other things. With the concern about the climate change and sustain ability policies it is adequate to use cogeneration as a way to optimize energy resources. Currently there is a national program that considers cogeneration for several Mexican refineries, and the first choices are combined cycle plants and thermo power plants using residual oil. This is long term program. The pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) is a next generation reactors that works with very high temperatures that can be used to produce steam process along with electricity, in this work two different couplings are assessed for the PBMR reactor to produce steam process, the two couplings are compared for using in the Mexican refineries and some conclusions are given. (Author)

  14. Fuel specification, energy consumption and CO2 emission in oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The more stringent environmental quality specifications for oil products worldwide are tending to step up energy use and, consequently, CO2 emissions at refineries. In Brazil, for example, the stipulated reduction in the sulfur content of diesel and gasoline between 2002 and 2009 should increase the energy use of Brazil's refining industry by around 30%, with effects on its CO2 emissions. Thus, the world refining industry must deal with trade-offs between emissions of pollutants with local impacts (due to fuel specifications) and emissions of pollutants with global impacts (due to the increased energy use at refineries to remove contaminants from oil products). Two promising technology options for refineries could ease this clash in the near-to-mid term: the reduction per se of the energy use at the refinery; and the development of treatment processes using non-hydrogen consuming techniques. For instance, in Brazilian refineries, the expanded energy use resulting from severe hydrotreatment to comply with the more stringent specifications of oil products may be almost completely offset by energy saving options and alternative desulfurization techniques, if barriers to invest in technological innovations are overcome. (author)

  15. Analysis of the environmental control technology for oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Eckhoff, D.; Swanson, S.; Glenne, B.; Wagner, F.

    1978-02-01

    The environmental control technology proposed in the various oil shale projects which are under development are examined. The technologies for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the processed shale were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. There are no published national standards against which to judge the stabilization and vegetation of the processed shale. However, based on the goal of producing an environmentally and aesthetically acceptable finished processed shale pile, it seems probable that this can be accomplished. It is concluded that the environmental control technology is available to meet all current legal requirements. This was not the case before Colorado changed their applicable Air Pollution regulations in August of 1977; the previous ones for the oil shale region were sufficiently stringent to have caused a problem for the current stage of oil shale development. Similarly, the federal air-quality, non-deterioration regulations could be interpreted in the future in ways which would be difficult for the oil shale industry to comply with. The Utah water-quality, non-deterioration regulations could also be a problem. Thus, the only specific regulations which may be a problem are the non-deterioration parts of air and water quality regulations. The unresolved areas of environmental concern with oil shale processing are mostly for the problems not covered by existing environmental law, e.g., trace metals, polynuclear organics, ground water-quality changes, etc. These may be problems, but no evidence is yet available that these problems will prevent the successful commercialization of oil shale production.

  16. The influence of South Korean energy policy on OPEC oil exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Korea is the fifth top oil importer worldwide with 64% of its oil coming from OPEC member countries. Over the last 30 years, South Korea accounted for a rapid increase in energy use. This in turn led South Korea to be totally dependent on oil imports. Due to this increase, South Korea has been experiencing drastic changes in its energy system which could potentially impact its dependence on OPEC oil import. External and internal factors have forced South Korea to change its energy strategy and targets. These targets would be achieved by reducing its energy intensity and utilizing electricity and renewable energies in order to reduce its dependence on oil consumption. “Low Carbon, Green Growth” is one policy along with many other energy policies developed by South Korea for reducing greenhouse gases, thus this policy is receiving a remarkable attention today. These national policies along with other international ones are needed to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and promote other green initiatives. This study puts emphasis on these policies as well as uses them to predict the future energy profile of South Korea and how these policies will impact on oil imports from OPEC member countries. - Highlights: • Analyze energy policy of South Korea and its energy profiles. • Study the factors that affect South Korea to change its energy strategy and targets. • Analyze the implications of South Korean energy policy on oil imports from OPEC. • South Korea will continue importing oil from OPEC countries for the next decade

  17. Physico-Chemical Characterizations of Sawdust-Derived Bio char as Potential Solid Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization Malaysian rubber-wood sawdust derived bio char (MRWSB) produced in the fixed bed pyrolysis under different temperatures (450 to 850 degree Celsius) were studied for its applicability as a solid fuel. A range of analyses were carried out, including bio char oxidation reactivity , inorganic species, oxygen and hydrogen contents in the bio chars, release of heteroatoms in bio char as the gaseous product, and bio char structural evolution during pyrolysis process. The results show that the optimum temperature for carbonization to obtain a char having moderately high yield was found as 450 degree Celsius. Thermogravimetric analyses (TG) shows that temperatures induces a progressively more ordered carbonaceous structure and leads to a significant changes in the bio char reactivity. The process is coupled with the loss of heteroatoms, released as dominantly carbon dioxide (C02) and carbon dioxide (CO). In addition, the elemental study of wood-derived bio char shows the higher carbon content but with low H/C and 0/C ratio suggested this material was dominated by highly aromatic structures and this were revealed in the Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR). More importantly, insignificant amount of inorganic species is evidenced in the samples. (author)

  18. U.S. oil dependence 2014: Is energy independence in sight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of reducing U.S. oil dependence may have changed in light of developments in the world oil market over the past two decades. Since 2005, increased domestic production and decreased oil use have cut U.S. import dependence in half. The direct costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy are estimated under four U.S. Energy Information Administration Scenarios to 2040. The key premises of the analysis are that the primary oil market failure is the use of market power by OPEC and that U.S. economic vulnerability is a result of the quantity of oil consumed, the lack of readily available, economical substitutes and the quantity of oil imported. Monte Carlo simulations of future oil market conditions indicate that the costs of U.S. oil dependence are likely to increase in constant dollars but decrease relative to U.S. gross domestic product unless oil resources are larger than estimated by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Reducing oil dependence therefore remains a valuable goal for U.S. energy policy and an important co-benefit of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. -- Highlights: •Increased oil production and decreased use caused U.S. oil imports to fall from 60% in 2005 to 27% in 2014. •OPEC's market power appears to have increased due to lower oil price elasticities. •Future costs of oil dependence to the U.S. are likely to increase but decrease relative to GDP. •If U.S. oil resources are far larger than EIA estimates, the U.S. could be oil independent by 2040

  19. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS IN CROATIA FROM 2000 TO 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipa Velić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the characteristics of the production and processing of oil, condensates and natural gas in the Republic of Croatia starting from 2000, until the end of 2014. Amounts of balance sheet (exploitable reserves of oil and condensates ranges from 9330,92 × 103 m3 in 2005, to 13 471,08 × 103 m3 in 2013, while extracted amounts are gradually declining from 1332,61 × 103 m3 to 639,96 × 103 m3. The ratio of extracted amounts and reserves is gradually declining, meaning that a slight increase in reserves does not affect the extracted amounts. Exploitable reserves of natural gas during the observed period fluctuate greatly. Being peaked in 2007, at 40,919.70 × 106 m3, they reached a low in 2014, at 17,932.98 × 106 m3. Unlike liquid hydrocarbons, the ratio of extracted and exploitable amounts is growing and peaked in 2014. Overall energy demands for oil in Croatia (shown as total consumption of crude oil amounted to 3032,8 × 103 m3 in 2013, while demands for natural gas amounted to 2809,90 × 106 m3. It is interesting to note that the consumption of oil is rapidly declining, which is a favorable trend from the standpoint of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. While needs are partly covered by domestic exploitation, the dependence on imports of oil and natural gas is still evident and ranges from 75% to 84% for oil and 28% to 46% for natural gas, without major changes to the trend. The amounts of processed hydrocarbons are declining gradually, especially motor gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel fuel amounts remain mostly the same. Further research as well as development of the exploitation of oil and natural gas is of paramount importance, especially by investing in cadre education and new technologies.

  20. Developing energy efficient lignin biomass processing - towards understanding mediator behaviour in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshtaya, Majd; Ejigu, Andinet; Stephens, Gill; Walsh, Darren A; Chen, George Z; Croft, Anna K

    2016-08-15

    Environmental concerns have brought attention to the requirement for more efficient and renewable processes for chemicals production. Lignin is the second most abundant natural polymer, and might serve as a sustainable resource for manufacturing fuels and aromatic derivatives for the chemicals industry after being depolymerised. In this work, the mediator 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), commonly used with enzyme degradation systems, has been evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) for enhancing the oxidation of the non-phenolic lignin model compound veratryl alcohol and three types of lignin (organosolv, Kraft and lignosulfonate) in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate, ([C2mim][C2SO4]). The presence of either veratryl alcohol or organosolv lignin increased the second oxidation peak of ABTS under select conditions, indicating the ABTS-mediated oxidation of these molecules at high potentials in [C2mim][C2SO4]. Furthermore, CV was applied as a quick and efficient way to explore the impact of water in the ABTS-mediated oxidation of both organosolv and lignosulfonate lignin. Higher catalytic efficiencies of ABTS were observed for lignosulfonate solutions either in sodium acetate buffer or when [C2mim][C2SO4] (15 v/v%) was present in the buffer solution, whilst there was no change found in the catalytic efficiency of ABTS in [C2mim][C2SO4]-lignosulfonate mixtures relative to ABTS alone. In contrast, organosolv showed an initial increase in oxidation, followed by a significant decrease on increasing the water content of a [C2mim][C2SO4] solution. PMID:27228384

  1. Energy Security Analysis: The case of constrained oil supply for Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ireland imports 88% of its energy requirements. Oil makes up 59% of total final energy consumption (TFC). Import dependency, low fuel diversity and volatile prices leave Ireland vulnerable in terms of energy security. This work models energy security scenarios for Ireland using long term macroeconomic forecasts to 2050, with oil production and price scenarios from the International Monetary Fund, within the Irish TIMES energy systems model. The analysis focuses on developing a least cost optimum energy system for Ireland under scenarios of constrained oil supply (0.8% annual import growth, and –2% annual import decline) and subsequent sustained long term price shocks to oil and gas imports. The results point to gas becoming the dominant fuel source for Ireland, at 54% total final energy consumption in 2020, supplanting oil from reference projections of 57% to 10.8% TFC. In 2012, the cost of net oil imports stood at €3.6 billion (2.26% GDP). The modelled high oil and gas price scenarios show an additional annual cost in comparison to a reference of between €2.9bn and €7.5bn by 2020 (1.9–4.9% of GDP) to choose to develop a least cost energy system. Investment and ramifications for energy security are discussed. - Highlights: • We investigate energy security within a techno-economic model of Ireland to 2050. • We impose scenarios constraints of volume and price derived from IMF forecasting. • Continued high oil prices lead to natural gas supplanting oil at 54% TFC by 2020. • Declining oil production induces additional energy system costs of 7.9% GDP by 2020. • High oil and gas prices are likely to strain existing Irish gas import infrastructure

  2. Water-in-oil emulsification and development of model EMU

    OpenAIRE

    Kvočka, Davor

    2013-01-01

    Oil-spill at sea represents one of the greatest threats for the environment. Immediately after occurence of an oil-spill several physical, chemical and biological processes occur, among which the process of emulsification is one of the most important. Emulsified oil is very difficult to clean; therefore, understnding of the emulsification processes is of great importance for successful clean-up. Preconditions for formation of water-in-oil emulsion are adequate chemical conditions ...

  3. Nuclear energy and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, about 80 developing countries are using nuclear techniques in various sectors of their national economies. In the sector of industry, the radiation processing using gamma rays of high energy electrons has grown. While in the sector of health care, an estimated 10000 gamma cameras-imaging instruments are used in combination with radioisotopes in medical diagnosis. In the field of agriculture there is, nearly, 1000 crop varieties derived from radiaton-induced mutations which are grown worldwide. Furthermore and concerning the energy sector there is 417 nuclear power plants operating in 26 countries, accounting for just 16% of the world's total electricity production; the nuclear energy helped in developing and supporting a variety of sciences. 2 tabs

  4. Sequential Remediation Processes for Effective Removal of Oil from Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Dave

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Over 2.2 billions of oil and oil products are transported every year and often these activities can result in air, water and soil contamination. Expousure to petroleum products can cause health problems to humn and animals and affect marine animals and wildlife habitats. Approach: The objective of this study was to develop a technology for the remediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The remediation method included three processes: (a an effective soil washing process for the removal of the hydrocarbons from the contaminated soil, (b an efficient water decontamination process using peat moss as an oil absorbent and (c an effective bioremediation process for converting the oil in peat moss into carbon dioxide and water. Results: The results showed that water is an effective solvent for the removal of oil from contaminated soil. It has also been determined that peat moss is an effective absorbent and could be used to remove oil from the contaminated water. Peat can absorb 12.6 times its weight liquid (water/oil. The bioremediation process was effective in degrading the oil into harmless carbon dioxide and water products. About 77.65% of the THC was removed within 60 days of bioremediation. The hemophilic microbial population in the compost quickly acclimatized to the hydrocarbon as was evident from the immediate rise in the reactor temperature. The C: N ratio decreased from 30:1-12:1 indicating the degradation of organic C in the petroleum hydrocarbons and the peat. Urea was a very effective source of nitrogen in initiating and maintaining intense microbial respiration activity. Conclusion: A sequential processes for the remediation of oil contaminated soil was developed. These included soil washing, absorption of oil from water using peat and bioremediation of contaminated peat. A degradation model was developed and used to calculate the time required for a complete degradation. The model indicated that a

  5. Heat Transfer in a Fixed Bed of Straw Char

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Jensen, Anker; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A model for the thermal conductivity of a straw char bed has been developed. The model extends the work of Yagi and Kunii to describe heat transfer in a bed of cylinders, using a relationship between the interparticle distance and the external porosity. To verify the model, thermal conductivity...... experimental uncertainty over the range of conditions investigated. The heat transfer model was used in a parametric study to evaluate the effect of gas flow rate, particle diameter, porosity, and temperature on the thermal conductivity in a straw char bed....

  6. Biodiesel development from high free fatty acid Punnakka oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaraju A.; Ashok Kumar T. V.

    2011-01-01

    Punnakka oil, non-edible oil available in India, was esterified to produce biodiesel. The procedure involves a two stage process, acid esterification and alkaline esterification. The oil contains high free fatty acid (FFA) content of 19.8%. The acid value of the oil was reduced by acid esterification. The product from this stage was subjected to alkaline esterification to produce biodiesel. The effects of important parameters like methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst concentr...

  7. Effects of rice husks and their chars from hydrothermal carbonization on the germination rate and root length of Lepidium sativum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jürgen; Mukhina, Irina; Dicke, Christiane; Lanza, Giacomo; Kalderis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    Currently, char substrates gain a lot of interest, since they are being discussed as a component in growing media, which may become one option for the replacement of peat. Among different thermal conversion processes of biomass hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has been found to produce chars with similar acidic pH values like peat. The question however is, if these hydrochars, which may contain toxic phenolic compounds are suitable to be introduced as a new substitute for peat in horticulture. In this study rice husk were hydrothermally carbonized at 200° C for 6 hours, yielding in hydrochars containing organic contaminants such as phenols and furfurals, which may affect plants and soil organisms. We investigated potential toxic effects on the germination rate and the root length of cress salad (Lepidium sativum) in four fractions: i) soil control, ii) raw rice husk + soil, iii) unwashed rice char + soil and iv) acetone/water washed rice char + soil. It could be shown that phenols and furfurals, which were removed from the hydrochar after washing by 80 to 96% did not affect the germination rate and the root length of the cress plants. The lowest germination rate and root length were found in the soil control, the highest in the non-washed hydrochar treatment, indicating a fertilization effect and growth stimulation of cress salad by hydrochar. If this result can be confirmed for other target and non-target organisms in future studies, a new strategy for the production of growing media may be developed.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Cutting Fluids Developed from Fixed Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Ogo ONCHE; Benjamin Iyenagbe UGHEOKE; Matthew Sunday ABOLARIN; Sunday Albert LAWAL

    2007-01-01

    In this work, different cutting fluid emulsions of about 10% concentration were developed from fixed oils and the performance of each of the developed cutting fluid was evaluated by a direct comparison with as purchased conventional cutting fluid (control sample), using the ability of each sample to effectively perform as coolant and lubricant during machining operation as determinant. In the evaluation process, straight turning operation on lathe machine at various speeds, but equal time int...

  9. Application of forward osmosis membrane technology for oil sands process-affected water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaxin; Liang, Jiaming; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The extraction process used to obtain bitumen from the oil sands produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As a newly emerging desalination technology, forward osmosis (FO) has shown great promise in saving electrical power requirements, increasing water recovery, and minimizing brine discharge. With the support of this funding, a FO system was constructed using a cellulose triacetate FO membrane to test the feasibility of OSPW desalination and contaminant removal. The FO systems were optimized using different types and concentrations of draw solution. The FO system using 4 M NH4HCO3 as a draw solution achieved 85% water recovery from OSPW, and 80 to 100% contaminant rejection for most metals and ions. A water backwash cleaning method was applied to clean the fouled membrane, and the cleaned membrane achieved 77% water recovery, a performance comparable to that of new FO membranes. This suggests that the membrane fouling was reversible. The FO system developed in this project provides a novel and energy efficient strategy to remediate the tailings waters generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and processing. PMID:27120634

  10. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. During this quarter, initial char combustion tests were performed at the CETF using a Foster Wheeler commercial burner. These preliminary tests were encouraging and will be used to support the development of an innovative char burner for the HIPPS

  11. Active carbons from low temperature conversion chars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulls obtained from the fruits of five tropical biomass have been subjected to low temperature conversion process and their chars activated by partial physical gasification to produce active carbons. The biomass are T. catappa, B. nitida, L leucophylla, D. regia and O. martiana. The bulk densities of the samples ranged from 0.32 g.cm3 to 0.52 g.cm3. Out of the samples T. catappa recorded the highest cellulose content (41.9 g.100g-1), while O. martiana contained the highest lignin content (40.7 g.100g-1). The ash of the samples were low (0.5 - 4.4%). The percentage of char obtained after conversion were high (33.7% - 38.6%). Active carbons obtained from T. catappa, D. regia and O. martiana, recorded high methylene blue numbers and iodine values. They also displayed good micro- and mesostructural characteristics. Micropore volume (Vmicro) was between 0.33cm3.g-1 - 0.40cm3.g-1, while the mesopore volume(Vmeso) was between 0.05 cm3.g-1 - 0.07 cm3.g-1. The BET specific surface exceeds 1000 m2.g-1. All these values compared favourably with high grade commercial active carbons. (author)

  12. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 7: an ecosystem simulation of perturbations applied to shale oil development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    Progress is outlined on activities leading toward evaluation of ecological and agricultural impacts of shale oil development in the Piceance Creek Basin region of northwestern Colorado. After preliminary review of the problem, it was decided to use a model-based calculation approach in the evaluation. The general rationale and objectives of this approach are discussed. Previous studies were examined to characterize climate, soils, vegetation, animals, and ecosystem response units. System function was methodically defined by developing a master list of variables and flows, structuring a generalized system flow diagram, constructing a flow-effects matrix, and conceptualizing interactive spatial units through spatial matrices. The process of developing individual mathematical functions representing the flow of matter and energy through the various system variables in different submodels is discussed. The system model diagram identified 10 subsystems which separately account for flow of soil temperatures, soil water, herbaceous plant biomass, shrubby plant biomass, tree cover, litter biomass, shrub numbers, animal biomass, animal numbers, and land area. Among these coupled subsystems there are 45 unique kinds of state variables and 150 intra-subsystem flows. The model is generalizeable and canonical so that it can be expanded, if required, by disaggregating some of the system state variables and allowing for multiple ecological response units. It integrates information on climate, surface water, ecology, land reclamation, air quality, and solid waste as it is being developed by several other task groups.

  13. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

    2010-12-31

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  14. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  15. Analysis of the fluidized bed combustion behavior of Quercus ilex char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the high content of alkaline metals, biomass has very reactive ashes and these have a strong impact upon pyrolysis and combustion phenomena. From the study of the evolution with the combustion temperature, of the kinetic and diffusive data of several wood chars, it was found that the Quercus ilex (holm oak) char had an unexpected evolution of the heterogeneous phase reaction rate constant. Scanning electronic microscopy analysis of the ashes and thermogravimetric analysis of the char where performed, and the results shown that close to 750 °C there is a loss of mass associated with the release of inorganic matter, especially potassium and phosphorus, which have a known influence on the combustion process and the subsequent kinetic data collection. - Highlights: • Fluidized bed combustion of biomass. • Combustion behavior of holm oak char. • Influence of alkaline components on char combustion kinetic data

  16. China's Oil Ties with Developing Countries Further Strengthened

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Petronas teams up with Chinese counterparts For Petroliam Nasional Bhd (Petronas),Malaysia's national petroleum corporation, China is a strategically important partner for growth as it expands into the country's energy market.Established in August 1974, Petronas is vested with all of Malaysia's oil and gas resources and is entrusted with the responsibility of developing and adding value to these resources. The company's foray into China began in the early 1990s in the upstream sector of the petroleum industry.

  17. A preliminary investigation of energy return on energy investment for global oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, N.; Hall, Ch. A.S. [Program in Environmental Science, State University of New York - College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse NY, 13210 (United States); Brinker, L. [John S. Herold, Inc., Norwalk CT, 06851 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Economies are fueled by energy produced in excess of the amount required to drive the energy production process. Therefore any successful society's energy resources must be both abundant and exploitable with a high ratio of energy return on energy invested (EROI). Unfortunately most of the data kept on costs of oil and gas operations are in monetary, not energy, terms. Fortunately we can convert monetary values into approximate energy values by deriving energy intensities for monetary transactions from those few nations that keep both sets of data. We provide a preliminary assessment of EROI for the world's most important fuels, oil and gas, based on time series of global production and estimates of energy inputs derived from monetary expenditures for all publicly traded oil and gas companies and estimates of energy intensities of those expenditures. We estimate that EROI at the wellhead was roughly 26:1 in 1992, increased to 35:1 in 1999, and then decreased to 18:1 in 2006. These trends imply that global supplies of petroleum available to do economic work are considerably less than estimates of gross reserves and that EROI is declining over time and with increased annual drilling levels. Our global estimates of EROI have a pattern similar to, but somewhat higher than, the United States, which has better data on energy costs but a more depleted resource base. (author)

  18. A Preliminary Investigation of Energy Return on Energy Investment for Global Oil and Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysle Brinker

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Economies are fueled by energy produced in excess of the amount required to drive the energy production process. Therefore any successful society’s energy resources must be both abundant and exploitable with a high ratio of energy return on energy invested (EROI. Unfortunately most of the data kept on costs of oil and gas operations are in monetary, not energy, terms. Fortunately we can convert monetary values into approximate energy values by deriving energy intensities for monetary transactions from those few nations that keep both sets of data. We provide a preliminary assessment of EROI for the world’s most important fuels, oil and gas, based on time series of global production and estimates of energy inputs derived from monetary expenditures for all publicly traded oil and gas companies and estimates of energy intensities of those expenditures. We estimate that EROI at the wellhead was roughly 26:1 in 1992, increased to 35:1 in 1999, and then decreased to 18:1 in 2006. These trends imply that global supplies of petroleum available to do economic work are considerably less than estimates of gross reserves and that EROI is declining over time and with increased annual drilling levels. Our global estimates of EROI have a pattern similar to, but somewhat higher than, the United States, which has better data on energy costs but a more depleted resource base.

  19. Rising tide of U.S. oil imports sparks debate on energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the historical trends in domestic oil production and the oil imports. The paper exposes government policies related to developing more strategic plans for curtailing such increases in imports while showing the continued increase in demand. It provides information from the Energy Information Administration on net oil imports as a share of US oil consumption. It also provides information showing the sources of current US imports. Discussion is made on the potential threat to national security as a result of political instability in numerous of these oil exporting countries

  20. Oil palm genetic improvement and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochard Benoît

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of the oil palm may have a role to play in the sustainability of this crop. Given the criticism aimed at this commodity chain, notably due to the extension of oil palm plantations to the detriment of forests, providing very high-yielding planting material might be a solution, particularly as world demand is continually increasing. This crop is mostly managed by agroindustrialists, but the smallholder sector is developing. It happens that this sector is classed as a sustainable type of agriculture by numerous NGOs, which are also asking plant breeders to take the specificities of smallholdings into consideration. Oil palm genetic improvement takes numerous criteria into account, many of which fit in with sustainable agriculture. For example, this crop is subject to pressure from different pests and diseases. In each case, a genetic hence eco-friendly approach has been taken and, in particular, vascular wilttolerant planting material has been a successfully produced. Moreover, for the future of this crop, planting material needs to be developed that requires fewer inputs, and consideration has to be given to extending this crop in less favourable zones, by developing planting material that consumes less water. Lastly, it is important to disseminate genetically diversified planting material.

  1. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  2. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IUEP

    2004-03-01

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1

  3. Thermogravimetric study on the influence of structural, textural and chemical properties of biomass chars on CO2 gasification reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation aims to examine the influence of textural, structural and chemical properties of biomass chars on the CO2 gasification rate. Various lignocellulosic biomass chars were prepared under the same conditions. Different analytical techniques were used to determine the char properties such as Scanning Electronic Microscopy, nitrogen adsorption manometry, Raman spectroscopy and X Ray Fluorescence. Gasification tests were carried out in a thermobalance under 20% CO2 in nitrogen at 800 °C. Significant differences of the total average reactivity were observed with a factor of 2 between the prepared chars. Moreover, different behaviors of gasification rate profiles versus conversion were obtained. This difference of behavior appeared to be correlated with the biomass char properties. Hence, up to 70% of conversion, the gasification rate was shown to depend on the char external surface and the potassium content. At higher conversion ratio, a satisfactory correlation between the Catalytic Index and the average gasification rate was identified. The results highlight the importance of knowing both textural and structural properties and mineral contents of biomass chars to predict fuel reactivity during CO2 gasification processes. Such behavior prediction is highly important in the gasifiers design for char conversion. - Highlights: • CO2 gasification reactivity of various lignocellulosic chars were examined. • Chars properties affect strongly samples gasification behavior. • Initial gasification rate is affected by external surface, K content and D3/G ratio. • Gasification rate behavior depends on the Alkali index at high conversion

  4. Effective Diffusion Coefficients in Coal Chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Jensen, Anker

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of effective diffusion coefficients in char particles is important when interpreting experimental reactivity measurements and modeling char combustion or NO and N2O reduction. In this work, NO and N2O reaction with a bituminous coal char was studied in a fixed-bed quartz glass reactor....... In the case of strong pore diffusion limitations, the error in the interpretation of experimental results using the mean pore radius could be a factor of 5 on the intrinsic rate constant. For an average coal char reacting with oxygen at 1300 K, this would be the case for particle sizes larger than...

  5. DEVELOPMENT TRENDS IN RUSSIA’S OIL & GAS SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Yuriy Bobylev

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, oil production in Russia reached its highest level since 1990 while exports of crude oil and refi ned products reached its highest-ever level in response to high prices of crude oil in global markets. However, a trend towards slower growth rates and worsening of oil and gas production conditions was observed. The recently adopted laws and regulations concerning tax incentives for the development of new oil and gas fi elds and hardtorecover reserves, liberalization of export of liquef...

  6. ENERGY EVALUATION OF HEATER-TREATER AT CANASÍ OIL BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Gozá

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results obtained in the energy evaluation of the heater-treater at Canasí oil battery in the first semester of 2010 are presented. The evaluation considered the calculation of separation efficiency, heat loss to ambient percent, air excess percent and thermal efficiency by direct and indirect methods. For the solution of mass and energy balances a Microsoft Excel workbook was developed, which facilitated to take into account in the evaluation other equipment in the plant such as the oil heat exchanger and the water cooler. The results showed that the heater-treater has a high hydrodynamic efficiency, but a low thermal efficiency, being gas sensible heat loss the biggest one

  7. Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

    1997-01-21

    A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

  8. Dioxin and PAH emissions from a shale oil processing plant in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleicher, O.; Jensen, A.A. [FORCE Technology, Soborg (Denmark); Roots, O. [Estonian Environmental Research Centre (EERC), Tallinn (Estonia); Herrmann, T. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Tordik, A. [AS Narva Elektrijaamad, Narva (Estonia)

    2004-09-15

    In March 2003, dioxin emissions were measured from a shale oil producing plant located near the city of Narva in Estonia. The measurement was a part of a project on measuring the dioxin emission from four oil shale fired boilers at two power plants located near the city of Narva in Estonia. These power plants produce more than 90% of the electricity consumption in Estonia by combusting more than 10 million tons of oil shale per year, which is around 85 % of the total consumption of oil shale in the country. The oil plant is the second largest consumer of oil shale, with an annual consumption of around 800,000 ton. Two other smaller plants producing oil from oil shale is known to exist in Estonia, and one in Australia. These measurements of dioxin air emission from oil shale pyrolysis are the first performed in Estonia. The aim of the measurements was to get background data for the estimation of the annual dioxin emission from the use of oil shale in pyrolysis processes in Estonia, in order to improve or qualify the estimation based on emissions factors for large coal fired power stations given in the recent DANCEE Project: Survey of anthropogenic sources of dioxins in the Baltic Region. The Danish environmental assistance to Eastern Europe (DANCEE) has sponsored the project, and dk-TEKNIK ENERGY and ENVIRONMENT (now FORCE Technology) was responsible for the measurements, which where conducted in cooperation with EERC in Tallinn.

  9. Coal pyrolysis and char burnout under conventional and oxy-fuel conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Makhadmeh, L.; Maier, J.; Scheffknecht, G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2009-07-01

    Coal utilization processes such as combustion or gasification generally involve several steps i.e., the devolatilization of organic materials, homogeneous reactions of volatile matter with the reactant gases, and heterogeneous reactions of the solid (char) with the reactant gases. Most of the reported work about coal pyrolysis and char burnout were performed at low temperatures under environmental conditions related to the air firing process with single particle tests. In this work, coal combustion under oxy-fuel conditions is investigated by studying coal pyrolysis and char combustion separately in practical scales, with the emphasis on improving the understanding of the effect of a CO{sub 2}-rich gas environment on coal pyrolysis and char burnout. Two coals, Klein Kopje a medium volatile bituminous coal and a low-rank coal, Lausitz coal were used. Coal pyrolysis in CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} environments were performed for both coals at different temperatures in an entrained flow reactor. Overall mass release, pyrolysis gas concentrations, and char characterization were performed. For char characterization ultimate analysis, particle size, and BET surface area were measured. Chars for both coals were collected at 1150 C in both CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} environments. Char combustion was performed in a once-through 20 kW test facility in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} atmospheres. Besides coal quality, oxygen partial pressure was chosen as a variable to study the effect of the gas environment on char burnout. In general, it is found that the CO{sub 2} environment and coal rank have a significant effect on coal pyrolysis and char burnout. (orig.)

  10. Energy use of residues and biomass - pyrolysis oil and gasification; Pyrolyysioeljy ja kaasutus jaetteiden ja biomassan energiakaeyttoeoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    Commission of European Union aims to triple the use of bioenergy from the present level by the year 2010. Finland is the leading user of bioenergy in industrialized countries. In Finland there are more than 120 multi-fuel boilers cogeneration power and heat. By the year 2010 the utilization of biomass as fuel could grow by 25-40%. However, this depends on development of the price and the taxes of competing energy sources. The utilization of wood fuels is mainly based on the combustion technology. New gasification power plants are being developed in Finland for utilization of wood and in Europe for utilization of field biomasses. In this plants the purified product gas is led either into a gas-engine or into gasturbines to produce power. VTT Energy is developing in cooperation with Condens Oy a new small-scale gas-engine power plant. VTT Energy participates also in development of Vaernamo gasification combined cycle power plant in Sweden by the side of Foster Wheeler Oy, and with Carbona Oy in development of a test facility in the USA. It is possible to produce pyrolysis oil from wood dust by using fast heating. It is possible to used the method, by small modifications, also for oil- fired boilers of large real estate houses. About 800 grams of pyrolysis oil is obtained from a kilogram of dry wood. About 15 000 liters of wood oil has been imported in Finland in the research projects coordinated by VTT Energy. Fortum Oil and Gas Oy and Oilon Oy are testing the utilization of pyrolysis oil in the oil-fired boilers. VTT Energy and Vapo Oy have developed in Finland a process, by which it is possible to produce pyrolysis oil in traditional power plants. The objective is to construct a pilot-scale facility in the year 2000. The objective of waste management in Finland is to develop material and energy utilization of wastes. Hereby Technology Development Centre TEKES started in autumn 1998 a technology program for energy use of residues. The objective of the program is to

  11. INVESTIGATION OF SLIME FORMATION PROCESSES IN TURBINE AND INDUSTRIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Л. Матвєєва

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  The problem of operating turbine and industrial oils is to ensure the preservation of physical and chemical properties of oils for a long period of time. It is established that at all stages of operation the oil exposed to various contaminants of dispersed phase, the nature and origin. Chemical analysis of oil contamination shows that up to 70% by weight of contaminants is silicon dioxide and the rest are air, water, “wear and corrosion products” and slime. These contaminants are the main reasons that cause slime formation. Slime is a resinous hydrocarbon residue, in most cases, brown in colour. As a result, slime formation lead to a change the physical and chemical properties of oils, active process of aging, the oil becomes a wastes.

  12. Processing and utilization of gamma irradiated oil seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide safe and nutritious food in adequate quantity to the rapidly expanding population is a challenging task for many countries in the world. One way of bridging this gap is by conserving what is produced by preventing or reducing post harvest losses. Oil seeds are second major agricultural crops next to food grains. The present investigation deals with the effect of low dose gamma irradiation on the storage life of oil seeds. Seeds chosen for the present study were ground nut, sesame and cottonseed. In view of the above the proposed study focuses on the effect of low dose gamma irradiation on the processing parameters of the oil extracted from irradiated as well as non irradiated oil seeds. Also the oil obtained was analysed for the various chemical and physical characteristics including the chemical composition (fatty acid composition) of the oil

  13. Wind Energy for Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing demand in energy and concern about depleting natural resources and global warming has led states worldwide to consider alternatives to the use of fossil fuel for energy production. Several countries especially in Europe have already increased their renewable energy share 6-10%, expected to increase to 20% by the year 2020. For Egypt excellent resources of wind and solar energy exist. The article discusses perspectives of wind energy in Egypt with projections to generate ∼ 3.5 GWe by 2022, representing ∼ 9% of the total installed power at that time (40.2 GW). Total renewable (hydro + wind + solar) are expected to provide ∼ 7.4 GWe by 2022 representing ∼ 19% of the total installed power. Such a share would reduce dependence on depleting oil and gas resources, and hence improve country's sustainable development

  14. PetroChina, Central Asia Oil Company Ltd Signed Oil Development Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ PetroChina and the Central Asia Oil Company Ltd signed a contract of oil development and production for Block 413 in Songliao Basin in Beijing on July 16. This is the first oil development and production contract signed by PetroChina for external cooperation this year.

  15. Structural evolution of biomass char and its effect on the gasification rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatehi, Hesameddin; Bai, Xue Song

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of char porous structure can affect the conversion rate of the char by affecting the intra-particle transport, especially in the zone II conversion regime. A multi-pore model based on the capillary pore theory is developed to take into account different conversion rates for pores with...... different radii. The model is valid for biomass chars produced under relatively low heating rates, when the original beehive structure of the biomass is not destroyed during the pyrolysis stage. The contribution of different pores with different radius is taken into account using an effectiveness factor...... presented for each pore radius with respect to different reactions. As the char conversion proceeds, the pore enlargement increases the contribution of micro-pores; consequently the effective surface area will increase. The increase in the effective surface area leads to an increased reactivity of char...

  16. HTL heavy oil upgrading a key solution for heavy oil upstream and midstream operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, M.A.; Pavel, S. K.; Hillderman, M. D. [Ivanhoe Energy (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, heavy oil has become a strategic resource due to the decline of light crude oil reserves and the rising energy demand. Many challenges have to be overcome during heavy oil development and Ivanhoe Energy has developed a new process to address these issues. The heavy to light (HTL) upgrading process converts heavy crude oil into lighter and more valuable synthetic oil. This process can be used upstream, midstream or near the well head. The aim of this paper is to present the history of HTL's development, the technology itself and its performance and advantages. HTL captures the majority of the market value difference between heavy and light oil while eliminating diluent requirement; in addition this technology is economic at small scales. The HTL upgrading process presented herein is a simple and efficient solution for exploiting heavy oil and bitumen reserves.

  17. Heat Transfer in a Fixed Biomass Char Bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Glarborg, P.; Jensen, A.; Arendt, P.

    2002-01-01

    A thermal conductivity model based on the Yagi and Kunii model together with a bed model was developed to describe the thermal conductivity of a straw char bed. The bed model describes the relationship between the distance between particles and the external porosity. To verify the model, thermal ...

  18. China's Offshore Oil Development Expected to Take Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's offshore oil industry will face a high-speed development with the crude oil production expected to top 50 million tons by 2010, according to a study recently released by China's State Oceanic Administration titled "China's Oceanic Development Report." Meanwhile, the offshore natural gas production will also enter a rapid growth stage. In addition, a series of new exploration technologies suitable for China's offshore areas will be developed, including 3D seismic imaging technology,data imaging logging technology, underwater multiphase flow oil and gas development technology, marginal oil field development technology and shallow sea oil and gas development technology.

  19. Oxidative processes in power plant oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the chemical properties differences between thermal-oxidation and radioactive-oxidation in turbine oils in order to estimate the oils' Service Life. The oils were Turbine R type, provided by Repsol-YPF with only few additives such as: anti rust, antioxidant, anticorrosion and without viscosity index improvers. The oils were ISO 32 and ISO 68 grade -with viscosity index 95- and API (American Petroleum Institute) group I, due to its viscosity index (95), the percent of paraffinic component (0.03%). Different samples from the heavy water main pumps were collected with different service times and radiation fields during an Embalse NPP's outage. For comparison purposes oils from feedwater pumps systems that convey light water to the steam generators in the Turbine building -without radiation- were obtained. The properties studied by ASTM standards were: colour (visual inspection), Viscosity Index VI (ASTM D227/93), viscosity at 40 C degrees (ASTM D445/96) and Total Acid Number, TAN (ASTM D974-97). Oxidative degradation of base oils could be described by two successive mechanisms that allow the definition of two stages: Primary and Secondary Oxidation. Primary oxidation begins with the thermal generation of alkylation's reactions and acid products formation. Radiation damage operates by two mechanisms: scission and cross-linking. The first one generates free radicals of low molecular weight while the other one can build-up complex molecular networks with high or low solubility in the base oil. Moreover, radiation damage destroys additives molecules and generates colour centres different from oxidative colour modification. Due to scission and cross-linking alkyl group substitution in the aromatic rings are formed. Then, radiation acts as a precursor of Primary Oxidation. Both, thermal and radioactive, damage mechanisms can act simultaneously making the isolated analysis for each one very difficult. To manage it, a Relative Damage Index (RDI) has been

  20. Thermochemical Process Development Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is used to demonstrate and evaluate the thermochemical conversion of biomass to produce syngas or pyrolysis oil that can be further converted to fuels...

  1. The effect of the 2010 Gulf oil spill on public attitudes toward offshore oil drilling and wind development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil well exploded, releasing over four million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This paper presents data from two national mail surveys undertaken in 2008 and 2010 that compare public attitudes to both offshore oil drilling and offshore wind development pre- and post-spill. The results show that while there was a drop in support for expanded drilling (from 66% in 2008 to 59% in 2010) the change was not significant. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for offshore drilling among coastal residents. There was a slight, non-significant increase in support for offshore wind development which remained significantly higher than support for offshore oil (80% in 2008 and 82% in 2010). Despite there being no significant change in overall support levels, there was a shift in the strength of feeling regarding offshore oil, with 80% of Americans either less supportive or more opposed to expanded drilling in 2010 than they were in 2008. -- Highlights: •We assess whether the Gulf oil spill affected attitudes to offshore energy. •Overall support for offshore wind (82%) was greater than for offshore oil (59%). •Support for expanded offshore oil drilling decreased but not significantly. •Support for offshore wind development increased slightly, again not significantly. •Although overall support levels did not change, the strength of feeling did

  2. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. PMID:22944493

  3. Alaska Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Permitting Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall

    2006-03-31

    This is the final technical report for Project 15446, covering the grant period of October 2002 through March 2006. This project connects three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for an advanced information technology infrastructure to better support resource development and resource conservation. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. The broad goal of this grant is to increase domestic production from Alaska's known producing fields through the implementation of preferred upstream management practices. (PUMP). Internet publication of extensive and detailed geotechnical data is the first task, improving the permitting process is the second task, and building an advanced geographical information system to offer continuing support and public access of the first two goals is the third task. Excellent progress has been made on all three tasks; the technical objectives as defined by the approved grant sub-tasks have been met. The end date for the grant was March 31, 2006.

  4. Combination of algae and yeast fermentation for an integrated process to produce single cell oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillschneider, R; Schulze, I; Neumann, A; Posten, C; Syldatk, C

    2014-09-01

    Economic and ecological reasons cause the industry to develop new innovative bio-based processes for the production of oil as renewable feedstock. Petroleum resources are expected to be depleted in the near future. Plant oils as sole substituent are highly criticized because of the competitive utilization of the agricultural area for food and energy feedstock production. Microbial lipids of oleaginous microorganisms are therefore a suitable alternative. To decrease production costs of microbial lipids and gain spatial independence from industrial sites of CO2 emission, a combination of heterotrophic and phototrophic cultivation with integrated CO2 recycling was investigated in this study. A feasibility study on a semi-pilot scale was conducted and showed that the cultivation of the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus on a 1.2-L scale was sufficient to supply a culture of the oleaginous microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum in a 21-L bubble column reactor with CO2 while single cell oils were produced in both processes due to a nutrient limitation. PMID:24943047

  5. Coal combustion science: Task 1, Coal char combustion: Task 2, Fate of mineral matter. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. [ed.; Hurt, R.H.; Davis, K.A.; Baxter, L.L.

    1994-07-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) kinetics and mechanisms of pulverized coal char combustion and (2) fate of inorganic material during coal combustion. The objective of Task 1 is to characterize the combustion behavior of selected US coals under conditions relevant to industrial pulverized coal-fired furnaces. In Sandia`s Coal Combustion Laboratory (CCL), optical techniques are used to obtain high-resolution images of individual burning coal char particles and to measure, in situ, their temperatures, sizes, and velocities. Detailed models of combustion transport processes are then used to determine kinetic parameters describing the combustion behavior as a function of coal type and combustion environment. Partially reacted char particles are also sampled and characterized with advanced materials diagnostics to understand the critical physical and chemical transformations that influence reaction rates and burnout times. The ultimate goal of the task is the establishment of a data base of the high temperature reactivities of chars from strategic US coals, from which important trends may be identified and predictive capabilities developed. The overall objectives for task 2 are: (1) to complete experimental and theoretical investigation of ash release mechanisms; (2) to complete experimental work on char fragmentation; (3) to establish the extent of coal (as opposed to char) fragmentation as a function of coal type and particle size; (4) to develop diagnostic capabilities for in situ, real-time, qualitative indications of surface species composition during ash deposition, with work continuing into FY94; (5) to develop diagnostic capabilities for in situ, real-time qualitative detection of inorganic vapor concentrations; and (6) to conduct a literature survey on the current state of understanding of ash deposition, with work continuing into FY94.

  6. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 2: technology characterization and production scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A technology characterization of processes that may be used in the oil shale industry is presented. The six processes investigated are TOSCO II, Paraho Direct, Union B, Superior, Occidental MIS, and Lurgi-Ruhrgas. A scanario of shale oil production to the 300,000 BPD level by 1990 is developed. (ACR)

  7. Canadian oilsands, heavy oil poised for surge in development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operators in Canada's oilsands and heavy oil regions are on the brink of a period of growth that could last well into the next century. Several factors are combining in a scenario a National Task Force report on oilsands says could dramatically increase investment and production in the next 25 years. By then, massive oilsands and heavy oil reserves in northern Alberta could account for as much as 50%--perhaps more--of Canada's oil production. Technological improvements in recovery and processing have slashed production costs and put nonconventional oil on a more competitive footing with declining reserves of conventional crude in western Canada. At the same time, persistent lobbying by industry and a well researched national study have persuaded federal and provincial governments to introduce a new royalty and fiscal regime designed to bolster oilsands investment. New policies give clear incentives to investors to put money into oilsands and heavy oil projects. Policies also will provide a generic tax treatment for all new projects, long a major objective of oilsands promoters. Previously, royalty and tax agreements were negotiated for project case by case. This paper reviews the resource base and the new operational developments resulting from these policies

  8. The oil industry in France: contribution to the debate on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed by the professional body of the French oil industry, this document proposes a contribution of this body to the energy challenge. The authors first discuss the context and its evolution in terms of energy demand and of energy sources. They outline the necessary development of renewable energies. While giving recommendations, they state how the oil sector will support the economy and employment, how this sector will keep on exploring and producing hydrocarbons, how the refining activity needs to be adapted, how the oil logistics must evolve, and how the service station network is already evolving

  9. Microbial processes in the Athabasca Oil Sands and their potential applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, N K; Richardson, T L; Thompson, K A; Best, R J; Best, A S; Trevors, J T

    2011-11-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands are located within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, which covers over 140,200 km(2) of land in Alberta, Canada. The oil sands provide a unique environment for bacteria as a result of the stressors of low water availability and high hydrocarbon concentrations. Understanding the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate these stresses may aid in our understanding of how hydrocarbon degradation has occurred over geological time, and how these processes and related tolerance mechanisms may be used in biotechnology applications such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The majority of research has focused on microbiology processes in oil reservoirs and oilfields; as such there is a paucity of information specific to oil sands. By studying microbial processes in oil sands there is the potential to use microbes in MEOR applications. This article reviews the microbiology of the Athabasca Oil Sands and the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate low water and high hydrocarbon availability in oil reservoirs and oilfields, and potential applications in MEOR. PMID:21853326

  10. Bitumen on Water: Charred Hay as a PFD (Petroleum Flotation Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Jahan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for petroleum keeps increasing while traditional supplies decline. One alternative to the use of conventional crude oils is the utilization of Canadian bitumen. Raw bitumen is a dense, viscous, semi-liquid that is diluted with lighter crude oil to permit its transport through pipelines to terminals where it can then be shipped to global markets. When spilled, it naturally weathers to its original form and becomes dense enough to sink in aquatic systems. This severely limits oil spill recovery and remediation options. Here we report on the application of charred hay as a method for modifying the surface behavior of bitumen in aquatic environments. Waste or surplus hay is abundant in North America. Its surface can easily be modified through charring and/or chemical treatment. We have characterized the modified and charred hay using solid-state NMR, contact angle measurements and infrared spectroscopy. Tests of these materials to treat spilled bitumen in model aquatic systems have been undertaken. Our results indicate that bitumen spills on water will retain their buoyancy for longer periods after treatment with charred hay, or charred hay coated with calcium oxide, improving recovery options.

  11. Striving for an Energy and Resources Saving Refinery with Harmonious Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Lili

    2007-01-01

    The operating circumstances of refinery industry in China in 2005 were referred to in this paper,along with the processes for development of petrochemical industry aimed at regionalization,concentrated disposition of enterprises and construction of industrial bases.The pressure faced currently by the oil refining industry in terms of resources avalibility and environmental regulations was analyzed.The key elements associated with the refining industry restructuring to economize on all kinds of resources were discussed and presented.It is stated that the key for building an energy and materials saving oil refining industry should rely on the adoption of advanced process and engineering technology,adjustment of refinery configuration,improving the energy and resources utilization efficiency,deep processing of crude oils,optimizing all kinds of resources,reducing effluents by saving water,as well as boosting the integration of oil refining with chemical production,concentrated disposition and realization of large scale of process units.

  12. Oil boom, human capital and economic development: Some recent evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights and assesses orthodox responses to three crucial questions in political economy, namely: the role of human capital in the process of economic development, how this role transforms during a period of resource abundance and what is the place of education in empowering labour to reclaim or transform surplus value. Drawing on recent evidence collected from Ghana, a new and young oil economy, it proposes different responses to all these questions which imply the need to rep...

  13. Oil and the political economy of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model.

  14. Oil and the political economy of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model. (author)

  15. Oil and the political economy of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutinovic, Igor [GfK-Center for Market Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-11-15

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model. (author)

  16. Intensification of microalgae drying and oil extraction process by vapor recompression and heat integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    Reducing energy penalty caused by drying and oil extraction is the most critical challenge in microalgae biodiesel production. In this study, vapor recompression and heat integration are utilized to optimize the performance of wet microalgae drying and oil extraction. In the microalgae drying stage, the hot exhaust stream is recompressed and coupled with wet microalgae to recover the condensate heat. In the oil extraction stage, the exergy rate of recovered solvent is also elevated by compressor and then exchanged heat with feed and bottom stream in the distillation column. Energy and mass balance of the intensified process is investigated and compared with the conventional microalgae drying-extraction process. The simulation results indicated that the total energy consumption of the intensified process can be saved by 52.4% of the conventional route. PMID:26871956

  17. Development of microwave technologies for the oil and gas extraction complex

    OpenAIRE

    Morozov, Gennadiy A.; Morozov, Oleg G.; Galimov, Marat R.

    2003-01-01

    Questions of microwave technologies development for the oil and gas extraction complex are considered. The data on the oil environment being object of microwave electromagnetic fields influence is resulted, the physical essence of carried out microwave technological processes are briefly discussed. Classification of the microwave technologies used and developed for the oil and gas extraction complex, the basic requirements is resulted for them, economic and ecological aspects of their applica...

  18. Heavy oil processing impacts refinery and effluent treatment operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornthwaite, P. [Nalco Champion, Northwich, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-01

    Heavy oils are becoming more common in Europe. The processing of heavier (opportunity or challenge) crudes, although financially attractive, introduce additional challenges to the refiner. These challenges are similar whether they come from imported crudes or in the future possibly from shale oils (tight oils). Without a strategy for understanding and mitigating the processing issues associated with these crudes, the profit potential may be eroded by decreased equipment reliability and run length. This paper focuses on the impacts at the desalter and how to manage them effectively while reducing the risks to downstream processes. Desalters have to deal with an increased viscosity, density (lower API gravity), higher solids loading, potential conductivity issues, and asphaltene stability concerns. All these factors can lead to operational problems impacting downstream of the desalter, both on the process and the water side. The other area of focus is the effluent from the desalter which can significantly impact waste water operations. This can take the form of increased oil under-carry, solids and other contaminants originating from the crudes. Nalco Champion has experience in working with these challenging crudes, not only, Azeri, Urals and African crudes, but also the Canadian oil sands, US Shale oil, heavy South American crudes and crudes containing metal naphthenates. Best practices will be shared and an outlook on the effects of Shale oil will be given. (orig.)

  19. Coal devolatilization and char conversion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker Degn; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    indicates that a shift from air to oxy-fuel combustion does not influence the devolatilization process significantly. Char combustion experiments yielded similar char conversion profiles when N2 was replaced with CO2 under conditions where combustion was primarily controlled by chemical kinetics. When char......The aim of the present investigation is to examine differences between O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres during devolatilization and char conversion of a bituminous coal at conditions covering temperatures between 1173 K and 1673 K and inlet oxygen concentrations between 5 and 28 vol.%. The experiments...... have been carried out in an electrically heated entrained flow reactor that is designed to simulate the conditions in a suspension fired boiler. Coal devolatilized in N2 and CO2 atmospheres provided similar results regarding char morphology, char N2-BET surface area and volatile yield. This strongly...

  20. Clean energy firms’ stock prices, technology, oil prices, and carbon price

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Madaleno; Alfredo Marvão Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Production costs of alternative energies are still high, but increased demand for oil, future oil supply shortage concerns and climate change concerns, have led to the fast development of renewable energy firms. The sector accomplished has accomplished remarkable progress and attracted attention to clean energy, both at the industry level and at the academic side. With this work we attempt to determine whether or not the placement of a price on carbon emissions encourages investments in clean...

  1. Energy and development : A modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid economic growth of developing countries like India and China implies that these countries become important actors in the global energy system. Examples of this impact are the present day oil shortages and rapidly increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. Global energy models are used explore p

  2. CO2 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomer, R.J.; Cole, R.; Kovar, M.; Prieditis, J.; Vogt, J.; Wehner, S.

    1999-02-24

    The application cyclic CO2, often referred to as the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in capital-intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration and Production Inc. and the US Department of Energy have teamed up in a attempt to develop the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg and San Andres formations which are light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs that exist throughout the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir.

  3. Identification of a charred corpse through dental records

    OpenAIRE

    Isamara Geandra Cavalcanti Caputo; Jair Naves dos Reis; Teresa Cristina Pantozzi Silveira; Marco Aurélio Guimarães; Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Forensic Dentistry is an area of Dentistry related to Law. Among its goals is the execution of human identification, defined as the process of determining the person’s identity. The forensic dentist uses, in this process, ante-mortem records and data for comparison with post-mortem information obtained from the examination of the body. Objective: To describe the process of identification of a charred corpse by using dental records. Case report: The human material remained from a...

  4. Modelling and analysis of offshore energy systems on North Sea oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian; Pierobon, Leonardo;

    2012-01-01

    Offshore processes are associated with significant energy consumption and large CO2 emissions. Conventional North Sea oil and gas facilities include the following operations: crude oil separation, gas compression and purification, wastewater treatment, gas lifting, seawater injection, oil and gas...... export, and power generation. In this paper, a generic model of a North Sea oil and gas platform is described and the most thermodynamically inefficient processes are identified by performing an exergy analysis. Models and simulations are built and run with the tools Aspen Plus R, DNA and Aspen HYSYS R....... Results reveal that the total exergy destruction of the system is particularly sensitive to the gas-to-oil ratio and amounts to 55-65 MW, while the total exergy losses amount to 15-20 MW. The gas compression train and the production manifold module are the most exergy-destructive operations of the oil...

  5. The energy efficiency of crude oil refining in Brazil: A Brazilian refinery plant case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article evaluates energy efficiency in Brazilian crude oil refining in comparison with the crude oil refining in the United States between 1930 and 2008. It aims to show that increased refinery complexity reduces the energy consumption of products of high value added. Moreover, the article shows that improvements in energy efficiency result in higher quality products and increased processing of oil. A Brazilian refinery with a capacity of 157,000 barrels per day (kbpd) was modernized in 2008 at a cost of US $1.3 billion. As a result, its capacity increased by 17%, from 157 to 189 kbpd. Its complexity index also rose from 3.2 to 6.8, allowing an improvement in the EII (energy intensity index) from 110% to 93%. In relation to the crude oil processed before being modernized, energy consumption fell from 0.75 to 0.52 MBtu (million British thermal units) per barrel processed. These proceedings show that increases in complexity reduce the energy consumed in the production of final products with high value added, such as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. -- Highlights: → Increased refinery complexity reduces the energy consumption of products of high value added. → Improvements in refinery energy efficiency result in higher quality products and increased processing of oil. → Brazilian refineries were not affected significantly in the 2008 crisis, such as the US refineries, due to many factors. → The EII of Brazilian refining presents real opportunities for gains through changes in the profile of energy consumed.

  6. Cuba [Energy indicators for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ' possibilities for hydroelectric generation is currently under way. The use of windmills for water pumping is also growing. The wind potential for electricity generation, which is estimated at about 400 MW, is being further evaluated. Important efficiency steps have been taken (e.g., modernizing and adapting thermal power plants to burn domestic crude oil, using associated gas in combined-cycle power plants, etc.) to improve transformation processes and utilize co-generation (even though its share of electricity generation on the island has actually been reduced). Similarly, the country has invested in electricity transmission lines to decrease electricity losses, and has sought to improve fuel transportation infrastructure (i.e., gas and oil pipelines, tanker stations for oil imports, etc.). The Cuban Electricity Conservation Programme has had a significant impact by reducing electricity use in households during peak hours, and also by managing and shifting the electricity demand of main consumers to non-peak hours. A comparable fuels and lubricants conservation programme began in 2001. The energy sector is the main contributor to adverse emissions to the environment, especially of SO2 emissions from the use of domestic crude oil in electricity generation. This fuel contains very high levels of sulfur, affecting the environment by contributing to acid rain and harming human health. Future options to achieve sustainable energy development include an increase in efficiency in the sugar sector, the exploitation of hydro and wind potential, an expansion in the use of solar applications, an evaluation of potential nuclear power penetration, and the development of biodiesel and alcohol programs. The use of the ISED framework methodology is recommended for evaluating sustainable energy development scenarios that could be undertaken in Cuba, and for evaluating possible options to reduce the environmental impact of Cuba's energy development

  7. Issues and answers on the Department of Energy Oil Shale RD and D Program Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This document consists of Department of Energy replies to public comments made on the Department's Oil Shale RD and D Program and the RD and D Program Management Plan during an oil shale workshop held in December 1979 in Denver, Colorado, and incorporates responses from a number of Department offices and divisions currently associated with the Oil Shale Program. Workshop participants expressed concern in a number of areas associated with oil shale development impacts. Comments addressed effects on water quality and availability; air quality and solid waste impacts; impacts on terrestrial ecosystems; the pace of oil shale development; health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns; coordination among Federal, State, and local agencies during development of the shale resource; legislative and regulatory issues; financing of oil shale development; continued public education and involvement; and technology considerations (e.g., comments relating to shale oil upgrading, refining, product composition, and stability). Replies made by RD and D Program staff to the comments of workshop participants provide an overview of Department of Energy oil shale activities, both planned and ongoing, in the areas of concern addressed by the workshop. Although the responses focus on Department efforts to resolve these concerns, the research activities and responsibilities of other Federal agencies are also outlined. To supplement the RD and D Program response, recently published sources of information on oil shale development are identified that offer the public a more thorough description of Departmental research programs.

  8. Solar energy emplacement developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  9. Canada's oil sands, opportunities and challenges to 2015 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report provides an assessment of the current state of the oil sands industry and the potential for growth. It also identifies the major issues and challenges associated with the development of Canada's oil sands, one of the world's largest hydrocarbon resources. Initial production of Canada's oil sands began in 1967. The resource has become more economic to develop in recent years due to higher energy prices and new technologies. The economic potential of Canada's oil sands has been recognized internationally. Canadian oil sands production in 2004 will surpass 160,000 cubic metres per day. By 2015, production is expected to more than double to meet market demands. The challenges facing the industry include higher natural gas prices, capital cost overruns and environmental impacts. The major factors that affect the rate of oil sands development include natural gas supply, energy demand, oil and gas pricing, markets and pipelines, environmental considerations, emerging technologies, geopolitical issues, and labour. This report includes key findings for the following four key components: economic potential and development of the resource base; markets and pipelines; environmental and socio-economic impacts; and, potential spin-off developments in the electricity and petrochemical industries. 26 tabs., 53 figs

  10. Exergy analysis of offshore processes on North Sea oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Pierobon, Leonardo; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Offshore processes are associated with significant energy consumption and large CO2 emissions. Conventional North Sea oil and gas facilities include the following operations: crude oil separation, gas compression and purification, wastewater treatment, gas lifting, seawater injection and power...... exergy losses amount to 22.3 MW. The gas lifting train and the production-separation module are the most exergy-destructive operations of the oil and gas processing system, consuming 8.83 MW and 8.17 MW respectively, while the power generation system alone is responsible for 46.7 MW. The exergetic...... efficiency of the oil and gas processing is about 39%, while the exergetic efficiency of the utility system is about 21-27%....

  11. Energetic assessment of air-steam gasification of sewage sludge and of the integration of sewage sludge pyrolysis and air-steam gasification of char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge is an interesting option for recovering energy and/or valuable products from this waste. This work presents an energetic assessment of pyrolysis and gasification of sewage sludge, also considering the prior sewage sludge thermal drying and the gasification of the char derived from the pyrolysis stage. Experimental data obtained from pyrolysis of sewage sludge, gasification of sewage sludge and gasification of char (all of these performed in a lab-scale fluidized reactor) were used for the energetic calculations. The results show that the energy contained in the product gases from pyrolysis and char gasification is not enough to cover the high energy consumption for thermal drying of sewage sludge. Additional energy could be obtained from the calorific value of the pyrolysis liquid, but some of its properties must be improved facing towards its use as fuel. On the other hand, the energy contained in the product gas of sewage sludge gasification is enough to cover the energy demand for both the sewage sludge thermal drying and the gasification process itself. Furthermore, a theoretical study included in this work shows that the gasification efficiency is improved when the chemical equilibrium is reached in the process. - Highlights: • 4 MJ kg−1 for thermal drying of sewage sludge (SS) from 65 to 6.5 wt.% of moisture. • 0.15 MJ kg−1 for thermal decomposition of sewage sludge during fast pyrolysis. • Not enough energy in gases from SS pyrolysis and char gasification for thermal drying. • Enough energy in SS gasification gas for thermal drying and gasification process. • Gasification efficiency improves when equilibrium is reached in the process

  12. Studies of the formation process of water-in-oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingas, Merv; Fieldhouse, Ben

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies to determine the formation process of water-in-oil emulsions and the stability of such emulsions formed in the laboratory and in a large test tank. These studies have confirmed that water-in-oil mixtures can be grouped into four states: stable emulsions, unstable water-in-oil mixtures, mesostable emulsion