Sample records for channelopathies increase resurgent

  1. Channelopathies


    Kim, June-Bum


    Channelopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from the dysfunction of ion channels located in the membranes of all cells and many cellular organelles. These include diseases of the nervous system (e.g., generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, familial hemiplegic migraine, episodic ataxia, and hyperkalemic and hypokalemic periodic paralysis), the cardiovascular system (e.g., long QT syndrome, short QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ven...

  2. Channelopathies. (United States)

    Kim, June-Bum


    Channelopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from the dysfunction of ion channels located in the membranes of all cells and many cellular organelles. These include diseases of the nervous system (e.g., generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, familial hemiplegic migraine, episodic ataxia, and hyperkalemic and hypokalemic periodic paralysis), the cardiovascular system (e.g., long QT syndrome, short QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia), the respiratory system (e.g., cystic fibrosis), the endocrine system (e.g., neonatal diabetes mellitus, familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis, and familial hyperaldosteronism), the urinary system (e.g., Bartter syndrome, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, and hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia), and the immune system (e.g., myasthenia gravis, neuromyelitis optica, Isaac syndrome, and anti-NMDA [N-methyl-D-aspartate] receptor encephalitis). The field of channelopathies is expanding rapidly, as is the utility of molecular-genetic and electrophysiological studies. This review provides a brief overview and update of channelopathies, with a focus on recent advances in the pathophysiological mechanisms that may help clinicians better understand, diagnose, and develop treatments for these diseases.

  3. The channelopathies: an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    REVIEW ARTICLE. Southern ... membrane, permit the controlled passage of a specific ion that results in ... The action potentials that propagate along the plasma mem- branes of ... Channelopathies; Ion Channel Proteins; Inherited disorders.

  4. Bordetella pertussis strains with increased toxin production associated with pertussis resurgence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, F.R.; Loo, I.H. van; Gent, M. van; He, Q.; Bart, M.J.; Heuvelman, K.J.; Greeff, S.C. de; Diavatopoulos, D.A.; Teunis, P.; Nagelkerke, N.; Mertsola, J.


    Before childhood vaccination was introduced in the 1940s, pertussis was a major cause of infant death worldwide. Widespread vaccination of children succeeded in reducing illness and death. In the 1990s, a resurgence of pertussis was observed in a number of countries with highly vaccinated

  5. Resurgence as Choice. (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A; Craig, Andrew R


    Resurgence is typically defined as an increase in a previously extinguished target behavior when a more recently reinforced alternative behavior is later extinguished. Some treatments of the phenomenon have suggested that it might also extend to circumstances where either the historic or more recently reinforced behavior is reduced by other non-extinction related means (e.g., punishment, decreases in reinforcement rate, satiation, etc.). Here we present a theory of resurgence suggesting that the phenomenon results from the same basic processes governing choice. In its most general form, the theory suggests that resurgence results from changes in the allocation of target behavior driven by changes in the values of the target and alternative options across time. Specifically, resurgence occurs when there is an increase in the relative value of an historically effective target option as a result of a subsequent devaluation of a more recently effective alternative option. We develop a more specific quantitative model of how extinction of the target and alternative responses in a typical resurgence paradigm might produce such changes in relative value across time using a temporal weighting rule. The example model does a good job in accounting for the effects of reinforcement rate and related manipulations on resurgence in simple schedules where Behavioral Momentum Theory has failed. We also discuss how the general theory might be extended to other parameters of reinforcement (e.g., magnitude, quality), other means to suppress target or alternative behavior (e.g., satiation, punishment, differential reinforcement of other behavior), and other factors (e.g., non- contingent versus contingent alternative reinforcement, serial alternative reinforcement, and multiple schedules). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Painful Na-channelopathies: an expanding universe. (United States)

    Waxman, Stephen G


    The universe of painful Na-channelopathies--human disorders caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels--has recently expanded in three dimensions. We now know that mutations of sodium channels cause not only rare genetic 'model disorders' such as inherited erythromelalgia and channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain but also common painful neuropathies. We have learned that mutations of NaV1.8, as well as mutations of NaV1.7, can cause painful Na-channelopathies. Moreover, recent studies combining atomic level structural models and pharmacogenomics suggest that the goal of genomically guided pain therapy may not be unrealistic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Therapeutic approaches to genetic ion channelopathies and perspectives in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eImbrici


    Full Text Available In the human genome more than 400 genes encode ion channels, which are transmembrane proteins mediating ion fluxes across membranes. Being expressed in all cell types, they are involved in almost all physiological processes, including sense perception, neurotransmission, muscle contraction, secretion, immune response, cell proliferation and differentiation. Due to the widespread tissue distribution of ion channels and their physiological functions, mutations in genes encoding ion channel subunits, or their interacting proteins, are responsible for inherited ion channelopathies. These diseases can range from common to very rare disorders and their severity can be mild, disabling, or life-threatening. In spite of this, ion channels are the primary target of only about 5% of the marketed drugs suggesting their potential in drug discovery. The current review summarizes the therapeutic management of the principal ion channelopathies of central and peripheral nervous system, heart, kidney, bone, skeletal muscle and pancreas, resulting from mutations in calcium, sodium, potassium and chloride ion channels. For most channelopathies the therapy is mainly empirical and symptomatic, often limited by lack of efficacy and tolerability for a significant number of patients. Other channelopathies can exploit ion channel targeted drugs, such as marketed sodium channel blockers. Developing new and more specific therapeutic approaches is therefore required. To this aim, a major advancement in the pharmacotherapy of channelopathies has been the discovery that ion channel mutations lead to change in biophysics that can in turn specifically modify the sensitivity to drugs: this opens the way to a pharmacogenetics strategy, allowing the development of a personalized therapy with increased efficacy and reduced side effects. In addition, the identification of disease modifiers in ion channelopathies appears an alternative strategy to discover novel druggable targets.

  8. Dendritic ion channelopathy in acquired epilepsy (United States)

    Poolos, Nicholas P.; Johnston, Daniel


    Summary Ion channel dysfunction or “channelopathy” is a proven cause of epilepsy in the relatively uncommon genetic epilepsies with Mendelian inheritance. But numerous examples of acquired channelopathy in experimental animal models of epilepsy following brain injury have also been demonstrated. Our understanding of channelopathy has grown due to advances in electrophysiology techniques that have allowed the study of ion channels in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in cortex and hippocampus. The apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons comprise the vast majority of neuronal surface membrane area, and thus the majority of the neuronal ion channel population. Investigation of dendritic ion channels has demonstrated remarkable plasticity in ion channel localization and biophysical properties in epilepsy, many of which produce hyperexcitability and may contribute to the development and maintenance of the epileptic state. Here we review recent advances in dendritic physiology and cell biology, and their relevance to epilepsy. PMID:23216577

  9. Sodium and chloride channelopathies with myositis: coincidence or connection? (United States)

    Matthews, E.; Miller, J.A.L.; Macleod, M.R.; Ironside, J.; Ambler, G.; Labrum, R.; Sud, R.; Holton, J.L.; Hanna, M.G.


    Introduction A proximal myopathy develops in some patients with muscle channelopathies, but the causative molecular mechanisms are unknown. Methods We reviewed retrospectively all clinical and muscle biopsy findings of three patients with channelopathy and additional myositis. Direct DNA sequencing was performed. Results Pathogenic mutations were identified in each case. Biopsies illustrated inflammatory infiltrates. Conclusions Clinicians should consider muscle biopsy in channelopathy patients with severe myalgia and/or subacute weakness and accompanying elevated CK. Chance association of myositis and channelopathy is statistically unlikely. An alternative hypothesis suggests that inflammatory insults could contribute to myopathy in some patients. PMID:21698652

  10. Autoimmune AQP4 channelopathies and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. (United States)

    Hinson, Shannon R; Lennon, Vanda A; Pittock, Sean J


    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders (SD) represent an evolving group of central nervous system (CNS)-inflammatory autoimmune demyelinating diseases unified by a pathogenic autoantibody specific for the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel. It was historically misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis (MS), which lacks a distinguishing biomarker. The discovery of AQP4-IgG moved the focus of CNS demyelinating disease research from emphasis on the oligodendrocyte and myelin to the astrocyte. NMO is recognized today as a relapsing disease, extending beyond the optic nerves and spinal cord to include brain (especially in children) and skeletal muscle. Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, identifiable in 60% of patients at the second attack, are consistent with MS in 10% of cases. NMOSD-typical lesions (another 10%) occur in AQP4-enriched regions: circumventricular organs (causing intractable nausea and vomiting) and the diencephalon (causing sleep disorders, endocrinopathies, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis). Advances in understanding the immunobiology of AQP4 autoimmunity have necessitated continuing revision of NMOSD clinical diagnostic criteria. Assays that selectively detect pathogenic AQP4-IgG targeting extracellular epitopes of AQP4 are promising prognostically. When referring to AQP4 autoimmunity, we suggest substituting the term "autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy" for the term "NMO spectrum disorders." Randomized clinical trials are currently assessing the efficacy and safety of newer immunotherapies. Increasing therapeutic options based on understanding the molecular pathogenesis is anticipated to improve the outcome for patients with AQP4 channelopathy. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Channelopathy Pathogenesis in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina eSchmunk


    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting body of evidence implies a role of various ion channel gene defects (channelopathies in the pathogenesis of autism. Indeed, recent genome-wide association, and whole exome- and whole- genome resequencing studies linked polymorphisms and rare variants in calcium, sodium and potassium channels and their subunits with susceptibility to ASD, much as they do with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and animal models with these genetic variations recapitulate endophenotypes considered to be correlates of autistic behavior seen in patients. An ion flux across the membrane regulates a variety of cell functions, from generation of action potentials to gene expression and cell morphology, thus it is not surprising that channelopathies have profound effects on brain functions. In the present work, we summarize existing evidence for the role of ion channel gene defects in the pathogenesis of autism with a focus on calcium signaling and its downstream effects.

  12. Cardiac Channelopathies and Sudden Death: Recent Clinical and Genetic Advances. (United States)

    Fernández-Falgueras, Anna; Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Ramon; Campuzano, Oscar


    Sudden cardiac death poses a unique challenge to clinicians because it may be the only symptom of an inherited heart condition. Indeed, inherited heart diseases can cause sudden cardiac death in older and younger individuals. Two groups of familial diseases are responsible for sudden cardiac death: cardiomyopathies (mainly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy) and channelopathies (mainly long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia). This review focuses on cardiac channelopathies, which are characterized by lethal arrhythmias in the structurally normal heart, incomplete penetrance, and variable expressivity. Arrhythmias in these diseases result from pathogenic variants in genes encoding cardiac ion channels or associated proteins. Due to a lack of gross structural changes in the heart, channelopathies are often considered as potential causes of death in otherwise unexplained forensic autopsies. The asymptomatic nature of channelopathies is cause for concern in family members who may be carrying genetic risk factors, making the identification of these genetic factors of significant clinical importance.

  13. Divergent series, summability and resurgence I monodromy and resurgence

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschi, Claude


    Providing an elementary introduction to analytic continuation and monodromy, the first part of this volume applies these notions to the local and global study of complex linear differential equations, their formal solutions at singular points, their monodromy and their differential Galois groups. The Riemann-Hilbert problem is discussed from Bolibrukh’s point of view. The second part expounds 1-summability and Ecalle’s theory of resurgence under fairly general conditions. It contains numerous examples and presents an analysis of the singularities in the Borel plane via “alien calculus”, which provides a full description of the Stokes phenomenon for linear or non-linear differential or difference equations. The first of a series of three, entitled Divergent Series, Summability and Resurgence, this volume is aimed at graduate students, mathematicians and theoretical physicists interested in geometric, algebraic or local analytic properties of dynamical systems. It includes useful exercises with solution...

  14. Cardiac Channelopathies and Sudden Death: Recent Clinical and Genetic Advances


    Fernández Falgueras, Anna; Sarquella Brugada, Georgia; Brugada Terradellas, Josep; Brugada, Ramon; Campuzano Larrea, Oscar


    Sudden cardiac death poses a unique challenge to clinicians because it may be the only symptom of an inherited heart condition. Indeed, inherited heart diseases can cause sudden cardiac death in older and younger individuals. Two groups of familial diseases are responsible for sudden cardiac death: cardiomyopathies (mainly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy) and channelopathies (mainly long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, a...

  15. Caldera resurgence driven by magma viscosity contrasts. (United States)

    Galetto, Federico; Acocella, Valerio; Caricchi, Luca


    Calderas are impressive volcanic depressions commonly produced by major eruptions. Equally impressive is the uplift of the caldera floor that may follow, dubbed caldera resurgence, resulting from magma accumulation and accompanied by minor eruptions. Why magma accumulates, driving resurgence instead of feeding large eruptions, is one of the least understood processes in volcanology. Here we use thermal and experimental models to define the conditions promoting resurgence. Thermal modelling suggests that a magma reservoir develops a growing transition zone with relatively low viscosity contrast with respect to any newly injected magma. Experiments show that this viscosity contrast provides a rheological barrier, impeding the propagation through dikes of the new injected magma, which stagnates and promotes resurgence. In explaining resurgence and its related features, we provide the theoretical background to account for the transition from magma eruption to accumulation, which is essential not only to develop resurgence, but also large magma reservoirs.

  16. Resurgence in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. (United States)

    da Silva, Stephanie P; Cançado, Carlos R X; Lattal, Kennon A


    Resurgence of previously reinforced responding was investigated in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Swimming through a ring produced 15-s mirror presentations according to, with different fish, either a fixed-ratio 1 or a variable-interval 60-s schedule of reinforcement. When responding was stable, a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule was substituted for the mirror-presentation schedule. Following this, mirror presentations were discontinued (extinction). During this latter phase, there were transient increases in the ring-swim response relative to the frequency of such responding during the differential-reinforcement-of-other behavior schedule. Resurgence was similar for the fish exposed previously to the fixed-ratio or to the variable-interval schedule. These results extend to Siamese fighting fish a well-established behavioral phenomenon previously not observed in this species or with this response topography, and only rarely reported following the removal of a non-consumable reinforcer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tuberculous otitis media: a resurgence? (United States)

    Kameswaran, M; Natarajan, K; Parthiban, M; Krishnan, P V; Raghunandhan, S


    Tuberculosis is a global health problem that is especially prevalent in developing countries such as India. Recently, atypical presentation has become more common and a high index of suspicion is essential. This study analysed the various presenting symptoms and signs of tuberculous otitis media and the role of diagnostic tests, with the aim of formulating criteria for the diagnosis. A total of 502 patients underwent tympanomastoidectomy over a two-year period. Microbiological and histopathological examinations and polymerase chain reaction analysis of tissue taken during tympanomastoidectomy were performed. A total of 25 patients (5 per cent) were diagnosed with tuberculous otitis media. Severe mixed hearing loss, facial palsy, labyrinthine fistula, post-aural fistula, perichondritis and extradural abscess were noted. There seems to be a resurgence in tuberculous otitis media in India. Microbiological, histopathological and polymerase chain reaction tests for tuberculosis are helpful for its diagnosis.

  18. Divergent series, summability and resurgence III resurgent methods and the first Painlevé equation

    CERN Document Server

    Delabaere, Eric


    The aim of this volume is two-fold. First, to show how the resurgent methods introduced in volume 1 can be applied efficiently in a non-linear setting; to this end further properties of the resurgence theory must be developed. Second, to analyze the fundamental example of the First Painlevé equation. The resurgent analysis of singularities is pushed all the way up to the so-called “bridge equation”, which concentrates all information about the non-linear Stokes phenomenon at infinity of the First Painlevé equation. The third in a series of three, entitled Divergent Series, Summability and Resurgence, this volume is aimed at graduate students, mathematicians and theoretical physicists who are interested in divergent power series and related problems, such as the Stokes phenomenon. The prerequisites are a working knowledge of complex analysis at the first-year graduate level and of the theory of resurgence, as presented in volume 1. .

  19. Unsteady resurgence flows in karstic media (United States)

    Adler, Pierre; Drygas, Piotr; Mityushev, Vladimir


    Geological porous media are heterogeneous materials which in addition contain discontinuities such as fractures and conduits which facilitate fluid transport. Fractures are relatively plane objects which strongly interact with the surrounding porous medium because of their large contact surface. A different situation occurs in karsts where distant regions of the medium can be connected by relatively thin conduits which have little if any hydrodynamic interaction with the porous medium that they cross, except at their ends. This phenomenon is called resurgence because of the obvious analogy with rivers which suddenly disappear underground and go out at the ground surface again. Similar ideas have already been developed in other fields, such as Physics with random networks and Geophysics with electrical tomography. Media with resurgences are addressed in the following way. They consist of a double structure. The first one is the continuous porous medium described by the classical Darcy law. The second one is composed by the resurgences modeled by conduits with impermeable walls which relate distant points of the continuous medium. When non steady regimes are considered, it appears necessary to confer a capacity to these conduits in addition to their hydrodynamic resistance. Therefore, the conduits are able to store some quantity of fluid. In addition, two kinds of resurgence are addressed, namely punctual and extended; in the second case, the dimensions of the ends of the conduit are not negligible compared to the characteristic length scales of the embedding porous medium. Capacities and extended resurgences are new features which were not taken into account in our previous studies. The punctual resurgence is described by a spatial network with a finite number of conduits embedded in a continuous porous medium. The flow in the network is described by the classical Kirchhoff law (including capacities). The equations for flow in the network and in the continuous

  20. Conference on Resurgence, Physics and Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Manchon, Dominique; Marmi, Stefano; Sauzin, David


    This book is issued from a conference around resurgent functions in Physics and multiple zetavalues, which was held at the Centro di Ricerca Matematica Ennio de Giorgi in Pisa, on May 18-22, 2015. This meeting originally stemmed from the impressive upsurge of interest for Jean Ecalle's alien calculus in Physics, in the last years – a trend that has considerably developed since then. The volume contains both original research papers and surveys, by leading experts in the field, reflecting the themes that were tackled at this event:  Stokes phenomenon and resurgence, in various mathematical and physical contexts but also related constructions in algebraic combinatorics and results concerning numbers, specifically multiple zetavalues. .

  1. The diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of loss-of-function cardiac sodium channelopathies in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, Priya; Clur, Sally-Ann B.; Breur, Johannes M. P. J.; Kriebel, Thomas; Paul, Thomas; Rammeloo, Lukas A.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Blom, Nico A.


    BACKGROUND Loss-of-function sodium channelopathies manifest as a spectrum of diseases including Brugada syndrome (BrS) and cardiac conduction disease. OBJECTIVE To analyze the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these disorders in children. METHODS Patients aged <= 16 years with genetically

  2. Resurgence of the cusp anomalous dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorigoni, Daniele; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Theory Group, DESY Hamburg,Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)


    We revisit the strong coupling limit of the cusp anomalous dimension in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. It is known that the strong coupling expansion is asymptotic and non-Borel summable. As a consequence, the cusp anomalous dimension receives non-perturbative corrections, and the complete strong coupling expansion should be a resurgent transseries. We reveal that the perturbative and non-perturbative parts in the transseries are closely interrelated. Solving the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher equation systematically, we analyze in detail the large order behavior in the strong coupling perturbative expansion and show that the non-perturbative information is indeed encoded there. An ambiguity of (lateral) Borel resummations of the perturbative expansion is precisely canceled by the contributions from the non-perturbative sectors, and the final result is real and unambiguous.

  3. Resurgence of the Cusp Anomalous Dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorigoni, Daniele; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group


    We revisit the strong coupling limit of the cusp anomalous dimension in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. It is known that the strong coupling expansion is asymptotic and non-Borel summable. As a consequence, the cusp anomalous dimension receives non-perturbative corrections, and the complete strong coupling expansion should be a resurgent transseries. We reveal that the perturbative and non-perturbative parts in the transseries are closely interrelated. Solving the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher equation systematically, we analyze in detail the large order behavior in the strong coupling perturbative expansion and show that the non-perturbative information is indeed encoded there. An ambiguity of (lateral) Borel resummations of the perturbative expansion is precisely canceled by the contributions from the non-perturbative sectors, and the final result is real and unambiguous.

  4. Resurgence of the Cusp Anomalous Dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorigoni, Daniele; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki


    We revisit the strong coupling limit of the cusp anomalous dimension in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. It is known that the strong coupling expansion is asymptotic and non-Borel summable. As a consequence, the cusp anomalous dimension receives non-perturbative corrections, and the complete strong coupling expansion should be a resurgent transseries. We reveal that the perturbative and non-perturbative parts in the transseries are closely interrelated. Solving the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher equation systematically, we analyze in detail the large order behavior in the strong coupling perturbative expansion and show that the non-perturbative information is indeed encoded there. An ambiguity of (lateral) Borel resummations of the perturbative expansion is precisely canceled by the contributions from the non-perturbative sectors, and the final result is real and unambiguous.

  5. Resurgent transseries & Dyson–Schwinger equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaczynski, Lutz, E-mail:


    We employ resurgent transseries as algebraic tools to investigate two self-consistent Dyson–Schwinger equations, one in Yukawa theory and one in quantum electrodynamics. After a brief but pedagogical review, we derive fixed point equations for the associated anomalous dimensions and insert a moderately generic log-free transseries ansatz to study the possible strictures imposed. While proceeding in various stages, we develop an algebraic method to keep track of the transseries’ coefficients. We explore what conditions must be violated in order to stay clear of fixed point theorems to eschew a unique solution, if so desired, as we explain. An interesting finding is that the flow of data between the different sectors of the transseries shows a pattern typical of resurgence, i.e. the phenomenon that the perturbative sector of the transseries talks to the nonperturbative ones in a one-way fashion. However, our ansatz is not exotic enough as it leads to trivial solutions with vanishing nonperturbative sectors, even when logarithmic monomials are included. We see our result as a harbinger of what future work might reveal about the transseries representations of observables in fully renormalised four-dimensional quantum field theories and adduce a tentative yet to our mind weighty argument as to why one should not expect otherwise. This paper is considerably self-contained. Readers with little prior knowledge are let in on the basic reasons why perturbative series in quantum field theory eventually require an upgrade to transseries. Furthermore, in order to acquaint the reader with the language utilised extensively in this work, we also provide a concise mathematical introduction to grid-based transseries.

  6. Resurgent transseries & Dyson-Schwinger equations (United States)

    Klaczynski, Lutz


    We employ resurgent transseries as algebraic tools to investigate two self-consistent Dyson-Schwinger equations, one in Yukawa theory and one in quantum electrodynamics. After a brief but pedagogical review, we derive fixed point equations for the associated anomalous dimensions and insert a moderately generic log-free transseries ansatz to study the possible strictures imposed. While proceeding in various stages, we develop an algebraic method to keep track of the transseries' coefficients. We explore what conditions must be violated in order to stay clear of fixed point theorems to eschew a unique solution, if so desired, as we explain. An interesting finding is that the flow of data between the different sectors of the transseries shows a pattern typical of resurgence, i.e. the phenomenon that the perturbative sector of the transseries talks to the nonperturbative ones in a one-way fashion. However, our ansatz is not exotic enough as it leads to trivial solutions with vanishing nonperturbative sectors, even when logarithmic monomials are included. We see our result as a harbinger of what future work might reveal about the transseries representations of observables in fully renormalised four-dimensional quantum field theories and adduce a tentative yet to our mind weighty argument as to why one should not expect otherwise. This paper is considerably self-contained. Readers with little prior knowledge are let in on the basic reasons why perturbative series in quantum field theory eventually require an upgrade to transseries. Furthermore, in order to acquaint the reader with the language utilised extensively in this work, we also provide a concise mathematical introduction to grid-based transseries.

  7. Resurgence of instrumental behavior after an abstinence contingency. (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E; Schepers, Scott T


    In resurgence, an extinguished instrumental behavior (R1) recovers when a behavior that has replaced it (R2) is also extinguished. The phenomenon may be relevant to understanding relapse that can occur after the termination of "contingency management" treatments, in which an unwanted behavior (e.g., substance abuse) is reduced by reinforcing an alternative behavior. When reinforcement is discontinued, the unwanted behavior might resurge. However, unlike most resurgence experiments, contingency management treatments also introduce a negative contingency, in which reinforcers are not delivered unless the client has abstained from the unwanted behavior. In two experiments with rats, we therefore examined the effects of adding a negative "abstinence" contingency to the resurgence design. During response elimination, R2 was not reinforced unless R1 had not been emitted for a minimum period of time (45, 90, or 135 s). In both experiments, adding such a contingency to simple R1 extinction reduced, but did not eliminate, resurgence. In Experiment 2, we found the same effect in a yoked group that could earn reinforcers for R2 at the same points in time as the negative-contingency group, but without the requirement to abstain from R1. Thus, the negative contingency per se did not contribute to the reduction in resurgence. These results suggest that the contingency reduced resurgence by making reinforcers more difficult to earn and more widely spaced in time. This could have allowed the animal to learn that R1 was extinguished in the "context" of infrequent reinforcement-a context more like that of resurgence testing. The results are thus consistent with a contextual (renewal) account of resurgence. The method might provide a better model of relapse after termination of a contingency management treatment.

  8. The grin of Cheshire cat resurgence from supersymmetric localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Dorigoni, Philip Glass


    Full Text Available First we compute the $\\mbox{S}^2$ partition function of the supersymmetric $\\mathbb{CP}^{N-1}$ model via localization and as a check we show that the chiral ring structure can be correctly reproduced. For the $\\mathbb{CP}^1$ case we provide a concrete realisation of this ring in terms of Bessel functions. We consider a weak coupling expansion in each topological sector and write it as a finite number of perturbative corrections plus an infinite series of instanton-anti-instanton contributions. To be able to apply resurgent analysis we then consider a non-supersymmetric deformation of the localized model by introducing a small unbalance between the number of bosons and fermions. The perturbative expansion of the deformed model becomes asymptotic and we analyse it within the framework of resurgence theory. Although the perturbative series truncates when we send the deformation parameter to zero we can still reconstruct non-perturbative physics out of the perturbative data in a nice example of Cheshire cat resurgence in quantum field theory. We also show that the same type of resurgence takes place when we consider an analytic continuation in the number of chiral fields from $N$ to $r\\in\\mathbb{R}$. Although for generic real $r$ supersymmetry is still formally preserved, we find that the perturbative expansion of the supersymmetric partition function becomes asymptotic so that we can use resurgent analysis and only at the end take the limit of integer $r$ to recover the undeformed model.

  9. Reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish (Danio rerio). (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Mizutani, Yuto; Cançado, Carlos R X; Podlesnik, Christopher A


    Zebrafish are used extensively as vertebrate animal models in biomedical research for having such features as a fully sequenced genome and transparent embryo. Yet, operant-conditioning studies with this species are scarce. The present study investigated reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish. A target response (approaching a sensor) was reinforced in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the target response was extinguished while reinforcing an alternative response (approaching a different sensor). In Phase 3, extinction was in effect for the target and alternative responses. Reversal learning was demonstrated when responding tracked contingency changes between Phases 1 and 2. Moreover, resurgence occurred in 10 of 13 fish in Phase 3: Target response rates increased transiently and exceeded rates of an unreinforced control response. The present study provides the first evidence with zebrafish supporting reversal learning between discrete operant responses and a laboratory model of relapse. These findings open the possibility to assessing genetic influences of operant behavior generally and in models of relapse (e.g., resurgence, renewal, reinstatement). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Resurgent Military Political Adventurism in West Africa: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The democratization efforts of the 1990s in West Africa appeared to have put paid to military political adventurism which had been the plague of that region since independence in the 1960s. But since the year 2000 there has been a resurgence of military intervention in the politics of some West African states and this calls ...

  11. Antecedent causes of a measles resurgence in the Democratic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Despite accelerated measles control efforts, a massive measles resurgence occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) starting in mid-2010, prompting an investigation into likely causes. Methods: We conducted a descriptive epidemiological analysis using measles immunization and surveillance ...

  12. Resurgence of malaria in Bombay (Mumbai) in the 1990s: a historical perspective. (United States)

    Kamat, V


    Bombay has achieved extraordinary success in controlling its malaria problem for nearly six decades by relying primarily on legislative measures and non-insecticidal methods of mosquito abatement. In 1992, however, malaria reemerged in Bombay with a vengeance. During 1992-1997, the city witnessed a manifold increase in the number of malaria cases diagnosed and treated by the public health system. The large number of malaria patients treated by private practitioners was not recorded by the municipal malaria surveillance system during this period. In 1995, at the peak of the resurgence, public health officials of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay (MCGB) confirmed that 170 persons in the city had died due to malaria. The crisis was unprecedented in Bombay's modern public health history. In response to intense criticism from the media, the city's public health officials attributed the resurgence to the global phenomenon of mosquito-vector resistance to insecticides, and Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Local scientists who investigated the problem offered no support to this explanation. So what might explain the resurgence? What factors led the problem to reach an epidemic level in a matter of two or three years? In addressing the above principal questions, this paper adopts a historical perspective and argues that in the resurgence of malaria in Bombay in the 1990s, there is an element of the 'presence of the past'. In many ways the present public health crisis in Bombay resembles the health scenario that characterized the city at the turn of the 19th century. It is possible to draw parallels between the early public health history of malaria control in Bombay, which was punctuated by events that followed the bubonic plague epidemic of 1896, and the present-day malaria epidemic punctuated by the threat of a plague epidemic in 1994. As such, the paper covers a long period, of almost 100 years. This time-depth is used to

  13. Resurgent Toba – field, chronologic, and model constraints on time scales and mechanisms of resurgence at large calderas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanaka L De Silva


    Full Text Available New data reveal details of the post-caldera history at the Earth’s youngest resurgent supervolcano, Toba caldera in Sumatra. Resurgence after the caldera-forming ~74 ka Youngest Toba Tuff eruption uplifted the caldera floor as a resurgent dome, Samosir Island, capped with 100m of lake sediments. 14C age data from the uppermost datable sediments reveal that Samosir Island was submerged beneath lake level (~900m a.s.l ~33.7 ky. Since then, Samosir experienced 700m of uplift as a tilted block dipping to the west. Using 14C ages and elevations of sediment along a transect of Samosir reveal that minimum uplift rates were ~4.9 cm/yr from ~33.7 to 22.5 ka, but diminished to ~0.7 cm/yr after 22.5ka. Thermo-mechanical models informed by these rates reveal that detumescence does not produce the uplift nor the uplift rates estimated for Samosir. However, models calculating the effect of volume change of the magma reservoir within a temperature-dependent viscoelastic host rock reveal that a single pulse of ~475 km3 of magma produces a better fit to the uplift data than a constant flux. Reproducing the uplift rates require more sophisticated models. Motivation for resurgent uplift of the caldera floor is rebound of remnant magma as the system re-established magmastatic and isostatic equilibrium after the caldera collapse. Previous assertions that the caldera floor was apparently at 400m a.s.l or lower requires that uplift must have initiated between sometime between 33.7 ka and 74 ka at a minimum average uplift rate of ~1.1 cm/ year. The change in uplift rate from pre-33.7 ka to immediately post-33.7 ka suggests a role for deep recharge augmenting rebound. Average minimum rates of resurgent uplift at Toba are at least an order of magnitude slower than net rates of restlessness at currently active calderas. This connotes a distinction between resurgence and restlessness controlled by different processes, scales of process, and controlling variables.

  14. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India


    Mahantesh V Parande; Subarna Roy; B G Mantur; Aisha M Parande; Rupali S Shinde


    Background: A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur) district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) in North Karnataka since then. Objectives: A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Materials and Methods: Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of dipht...

  15. Crisis in the Resurgent City? The Rise of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Thor; Winther, Lars


    Copenhagen today appears to be a resurgent city and city region. It came back to life in the mid-1990s and, until recently, has shown marked growth in key variables such as jobs, income and inhabitants, primarily as a result of the rise and spatial dynamics of its service- and knowledge-based eco......Copenhagen today appears to be a resurgent city and city region. It came back to life in the mid-1990s and, until recently, has shown marked growth in key variables such as jobs, income and inhabitants, primarily as a result of the rise and spatial dynamics of its service- and knowledge......-based economy. Its resurgence is also evident in the central municipalities that 20 years ago struggled with the repercussions of a long-term urban crisis. Financially, the central city was almost doomed in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and the city of Copenhagen was close to bankruptcy. Central......-city development was characterized by a set of eroding processes that included de-industrialization, suburbanization, high unemployment rates, high welfare costs, an outdated housing market, strong segregation and various other factors. Copenhagen city and its city region have now been revitalized and today...

  16. Neuromyelitis optica and the evolving spectrum of autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathies: a decade later (United States)

    Pittock, Sean J.; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.


    The discovery of AQP4-IgG (a pathogenic antibody that targets the astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4) as the first sensitive and specific biomarker for any inflammatory central nervous system demyelinating disease, has shifted emphasis from the oligodendrocyte and myelin to the astrocyte as a central immunopathogenic player. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders (SD) represent an evolving spectrum of IDDs extending beyond the optic nerves and spinal cord to include the brain (especially in children) and, rarely, muscle. NMOSD typical brain lesions are located in areas that highly express the target antigen, AQP4, including the circumventricular organs (accounting for intractable nausea and vomiting) and the diencephalon (accounting for sleep disorders, endocrinopathies, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain abnormalities fulfill Barkoff criteria for multiple sclerosis in up to 10% of patients. As the spectrum broadens, the importance of highly specific assays that detect pathogenic AQP4-IgG targeting extracellular epitopes of AQP4 cannot be overemphasized. The rapid evolution of our understanding of the immunobiology of AQP4 autoimmunity necessitates continuing revision of NMOSD diagnostic criteria. Here, we describe scientific advances that have occurred since the discovery of NMO-IgG in 2004 and review novel targeted immunotherapies. We also suggest that NMOSDs should now be considered under the umbrella term autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy. PMID:26096370

  17. Antecedent causes of a measles resurgence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (United States)

    Scobie, Heather Melissa; Ilunga, Benoît Kebela; Mulumba, Audry; Shidi, Calixte; Coulibaly, Tiekoura; Obama, Ricardo; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Simbu, Elisabeth Pukuta; Smit, Sheilagh Brigitte; Masresha, Balcha; Perry, Robert Tyrrell; Alleman, Mary Margaret; Kretsinger, Katrina; Goodson, James


    Introduction Despite accelerated measles control efforts, a massive measles resurgence occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) starting in mid-2010, prompting an investigation into likely causes. Methods We conducted a descriptive epidemiological analysis using measles immunization and surveillance data to understand the causes of the measles resurgence and to develop recommendations for elimination efforts in DRC. Results During 2004-2012, performance indicator targets for case-based surveillance and routine measles vaccination were not met. Estimated coverage with the routine first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 57% to 73%. Phased supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted starting in 2002, in some cases with sub-optimal coverage (≤95%). In 2010, SIAs in five of 11 provinces were not implemented as planned, resulting in a prolonged interval between SIAs, and a missed birth cohort in one province. During July 1, 2010-December 30, 2012, high measles attack rates (>100 cases per 100,000 population) occurred in provinces that had estimated MCV1 coverage lower than the national estimate and did not implement planned 2010 SIAs. The majority of confirmed case-patients were aged measles virus strains that were previously identified in the region. Conclusion The resurgence was likely caused by an accumulation of unvaccinated, measles-susceptible children due to low MCV1 coverage and suboptimal SIA implementation. To achieve the regional goal of measles elimination by 2020, efforts are needed in DRC to improve case-based surveillance and increase two-dose measles vaccination coverage through routine services and SIAs. PMID:26401224

  18. Genetic purgatory and the cardiac channelopathies: Exposing the variants of uncertain/unknown significance issue. (United States)

    Ackerman, Michael J


    Merriam-Webster's online dictionary defines purgatory as "an intermediate state after death for expiatory purification" or more specifically as "a place or state of punishment wherein according to Roman Catholic doctrine the souls of those who die in God׳s grace may make satisfaction for past sins and so become fit for heaven." Alternatively, it is defined as "a place or state of temporary suffering or misery." Either way, purgatory is a place where you are stuck, and you don't want to be stuck there. It is in this context that the term genetic purgatory is introduced. Genetic purgatory is a place where the genetic test-ordering physician and patients and their families are stuck when a variant of uncertain/unknown significance (VUS) has been elucidated. It is in this dark place where suffering and misery are occurring because of unenlightened handling of a VUS, which includes using the VUS for predictive genetic testing and making radical treatment recommendations based on the presence or absence of a so-called maybe mutation. Before one can escape from this miserable place, one must first recognize that one is stuck there. Hence, the purpose of this review article is to fully expose the VUS issue as it relates to the cardiac channelopathies and make the cardiologists/geneticists/genetic counselors who order such genetic tests believers in genetic purgatory. Only then can one meaningfully attempt to get out of that place and seek to promote a VUS to disease-causative mutation status or demote it to an utterly innocuous and irrelevant variant. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Canine CNGA3 Gene Mutations Provide Novel Insights into Human Achromatopsia-Associated Channelopathies and Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Tanaka

    Full Text Available Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG ion channels are key mediators underlying signal transduction in retinal and olfactory receptors. Genetic defects in CNGA3 and CNGB3, encoding two structurally related subunits of cone CNG channels, lead to achromatopsia (ACHM. ACHM is a congenital, autosomal recessive retinal disorder that manifests by cone photoreceptor dysfunction, severely reduced visual acuity, impaired or complete color blindness and photophobia. Here, we report the first canine models for CNGA3-associated channelopathy caused by R424W or V644del mutations in the canine CNGA3 ortholog that accurately mimic the clinical and molecular features of human CNGA3-associated ACHM. These two spontaneous mutations exposed CNGA3 residues essential for the preservation of channel function and biogenesis. The CNGA3-R424W results in complete loss of cone function in vivo and channel activity confirmed by in vitro electrophysiology. Structural modeling and molecular dynamics (MD simulations revealed R424-E306 salt bridge formation and its disruption with the R424W mutant. Reversal of charges in a CNGA3-R424E-E306R double mutant channel rescued cGMP-activated currents uncovering new insights into channel gating. The CNGA3-V644del affects the C-terminal leucine zipper (CLZ domain destabilizing intersubunit interactions of the coiled-coil complex in the MD simulations; the in vitro experiments showed incompetent trimeric CNGA3 subunit assembly consistent with abnormal biogenesis of in vivo channels. These newly characterized large animal models not only provide a valuable system for studying cone-specific CNG channel function in health and disease, but also represent prime candidates for proof-of-concept studies of CNGA3 gene replacement therapy for ACHM patients.

  20. Explaining the resurgent popularity of the wild: motivations for wild plant gathering in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal, Austria


    Schunko, Christoph; Grasser, Susanne; Vogl, Christian R.


    Background Wild plant gathering becomes again a popular and fashionable activity in Europe after gathering practices have been increasingly abandoned over the last decades. Recent ethnobotanical research documented a diversity of gathering practices from people of diverse socio-economic and cultural backgrounds who gather in urban and rural areas. Few efforts were though made to study the motivations for gathering wild plants and to understand the resurgent popularity of wild plant gathering....

  1. Divergent series, summability and resurgence II simple and multiple summability

    CERN Document Server

    Loday-Richaud, Michèle


    Addressing the question how to “sum” a power series in one variable when it diverges, that is, how to attach to it analytic functions, the volume gives answers by presenting and comparing the various theories of k-summability and multisummability. These theories apply in particular to all solutions of ordinary differential equations. The volume includes applications, examples and revisits, from a cohomological point of view, the group of tangent-to-identity germs of diffeomorphisms of C studied in volume 1. With a view to applying the theories to solutions of differential equations, a detailed survey of linear ordinary differential equations is provided which includes Gevrey asymptotic expansions, Newton polygons, index theorems and Sibuya’s proof of the meromorphic classification theorem that characterizes the Stokes phenomenon for linear differential equations. This volume is the second of a series of three entitled Divergent Series, Summability and Resurgence. It is aimed at graduate students and res...

  2. A panel study on patients with dominant cerebellar ataxia highlights the frequency of channelopathies. (United States)

    Coutelier, Marie; Coarelli, Giulia; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Konop, Juliette; Davoine, Claire-Sophie; Tesson, Christelle; Valter, Rémi; Anheim, Mathieu; Behin, Anthony; Castelnovo, Giovanni; Charles, Perrine; David, Albert; Ewenczyk, Claire; Fradin, Mélanie; Goizet, Cyril; Hannequin, Didier; Labauge, Pierre; Riant, Florence; Sarda, Pierre; Sznajer, Yves; Tison, François; Ullmann, Urielle; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Mochel, Fanny; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni; Durr, Alexandra


    Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias have a marked heterogeneous genetic background, with mutations in 34 genes identified so far. This large amount of implicated genes accounts for heterogeneous clinical presentations, making genotype-phenotype correlations a major challenge in the field. While polyglutamine ataxias, linked to CAG repeat expansions in genes such as ATXN1, ATXN2, ATXN3, ATXN7, CACNA1A and TBP, have been extensively characterized in large cohorts, there is a need for comprehensive assessment of frequency and phenotype of more 'conventional' ataxias. After exclusion of CAG/polyglutamine expansions in spinocerebellar ataxia genes in 412 index cases with dominantly inherited cerebellar ataxias, we aimed to establish the relative frequencies of mutations in other genes, with an approach combining panel sequencing and TaqMan® polymerase chain reaction assay. We found relevant genetic variants in 59 patients (14.3%). The most frequently mutated were channel genes [CACNA1A (n = 16), KCND3 (n = 4), KCNC3 (n = 2) and KCNA1 (n = 2)]. Deletions in ITPR1 (n = 11) were followed by biallelic variants in SPG7 (n = 9). Variants in AFG3L2 (n = 7) came next in frequency, and variants were rarely found in STBN2 (n = 2), ELOVL5, FGF14, STUB1 and TTBK2 (n = 1 each). Interestingly, possible risk factor variants were detected in SPG7 and POLG. Clinical comparisons showed that ataxias due to channelopathies had a significantly earlier age at onset with an average of 24.6 years, versus 40.9 years for polyglutamine expansion spinocerebellar ataxias and 37.8 years for SPG7-related forms (P = 0.001). In contrast, disease duration was significantly longer in the former (20.5 years versus 9.3 and 13.7, P=0.001), though for similar functional stages, indicating slower progression of the disease. Of interest, intellectual deficiency was more frequent in channel spinocerebellar ataxias, while cognitive impairment in adulthood was similar among the three groups. Similar

  3. Mirror Neurons Modeled Through Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity are Affected by Channelopathies Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder. (United States)

    Antunes, Gabriela; Faria da Silva, Samuel F; Simoes de Souza, Fabio M


    Mirror neurons fire action potentials both when the agent performs a certain behavior and watches someone performing a similar action. Here, we present an original mirror neuron model based on the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) between two morpho-electrical models of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Both neurons fired spontaneously with basal firing rate that follows a Poisson distribution, and the STDP between them was modeled by the triplet algorithm. Our simulation results demonstrated that STDP is sufficient for the rise of mirror neuron function between the pairs of neocortical neurons. This is a proof of concept that pairs of neocortical neurons associating sensory inputs to motor outputs could operate like mirror neurons. In addition, we used the mirror neuron model to investigate whether channelopathies associated with autism spectrum disorder could impair the modeled mirror function. Our simulation results showed that impaired hyperpolarization-activated cationic currents (Ih) affected the mirror function between the pairs of neocortical neurons coupled by STDP.

  4. Stroke-Like Episodes and Cerebellar Syndrome in Phosphomannomutase Deficiency (PMM2-CDG): Evidence for Hypoglycosylation-Driven Channelopathy (United States)

    Izquierdo-Serra, Mercè; Martínez-Monseny, Antonio F.; López, Laura; Carrillo-García, Julia; Edo, Albert; Ortigoza-Escobar, Juan Darío; García, Óscar; Carrasco-Marina, M Llanos; Gutiérrez-Solana, Luis G.; Muchart, Jordi; Montero, Raquel; Artuch, Rafael; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Pérez, Belén; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén; Macaya, Alfons


    Stroke-like episodes (SLE) occur in phosphomannomutase deficiency (PMM2-CDG), and may complicate the course of channelopathies related to Familial Hemiplegic Migraine (FHM) caused by mutations in CACNA1A (encoding CaV2.1 channel). The underlying pathomechanisms are unknown. We analyze clinical variables to detect risk factors for SLE in a series of 43 PMM2-CDG patients. We explore the hypothesis of abnormal CaV2.1 function due to aberrant N-glycosylation as a potential novel pathomechanism of SLE and ataxia in PMM2-CDG by using whole-cell patch-clamp, N-glycosylation blockade and mutagenesis. Nine SLE were identified. Neuroimages showed no signs of stroke. Comparison of characteristics between SLE positive versus negative patients’ group showed no differences. Acute and chronic phenotypes of patients with PMM2-CDG or CACNA1A channelopathies show similarities. Hypoglycosylation of both CaV2.1 subunits (α1A and α2α) induced gain-of-function effects on channel gating that mirrored those reported for pathogenic CACNA1A mutations linked to FHM and ataxia. Unoccupied N-glycosylation site N283 at α1A contributes to a gain-of-function by lessening CaV2.1 inactivation. Hypoglycosylation of the α2δ subunit also participates in the gain-of-function effect by promoting voltage-dependent opening of the CaV2.1 channel. CaV2.1 hypoglycosylation may cause ataxia and SLEs in PMM2-CDG patients. Aberrant CaV2.1 N-glycosylation as a novel pathomechanism in PMM2-CDG opens new therapeutic possibilities. PMID:29470411

  5. Sea-anemone toxin ATX-II elicits A-fiber-dependent pain and enhances resurgent and persistent sodium currents in large sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinger Alexandra B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gain-of-function mutations of the nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 lead to inherited pain syndromes, such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD. One characteristic of these mutations is slowed fast-inactivation kinetics, which may give rise to resurgent sodium currents. It is long known that toxins from Anemonia sulcata, such as ATX-II, slow fast inactivation and skin contact for example during diving leads to various symptoms such as pain and itch. Here, we investigated if ATX-II induces resurgent currents in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRGs and how this may translate into human sensations. Results In large A-fiber related DRGs ATX-II (5 nM enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents, but failed to do so in small C-fiber linked DRGs when investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Resurgent currents are thought to depend on the presence of the sodium channel β4-subunit. Using RT-qPCR experiments, we show that small DRGs express significantly less β4 mRNA than large sensory neurons. With the β4-C-terminus peptide in the pipette solution, it was possible to evoke resurgent currents in small DRGs and in Nav1.7 or Nav1.6 expressing HEK293/N1E115 cells, which were enhanced by the presence of extracellular ATX-II. When injected into the skin of healthy volunteers, ATX-II induces painful and itch-like sensations which were abolished by mechanical nerve block. Increase in superficial blood flow of the skin, measured by Laser doppler imaging is limited to the injection site, so no axon reflex erythema as a correlate for C-fiber activation was detected. Conclusion ATX-II enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents in large diameter DRGs, whereas small DRGs depend on the addition of β4-peptide to the pipette recording solution for ATX-II to affect resurgent currents. Mechanical A-fiber blockade abolishes all ATX-II effects in human skin (e.g. painful and itch

  6. Refining in the 1990's: Restructuring and resurgence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.B.


    After two years of uncertainty in dealing with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments coupled with the shutdown of 5% of total US refining capacity, the industry is now positioning itself for continued operations throughout the remainder of the decade. However, refineries are experiencing a shift in the mode of operations to a period of more restructuring (closings, ventures, alliances, etc.) followed by a resurgence in financial performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current industry and highlight the reasons for industry's current plans. The authors also speculate about the strategies companies will choose to better their financial performance. Fundamentally, the characteristics of a mature domestic business remain the driving force that shape decision making. In responding to the maturing of refining, the authors suggest that refiners will change the way they conduct business over the next few years. Building on the theme of the 1993 NPRA paper, strategies will target the domestic side of the business while simultaneously shifting to a global perspective

  7. Reflections on the Resurgence of Interest in the Testing Effect. (United States)

    Roediger, Henry L; Karpicke, Jeffrey D


    We discuss the findings from our 2006 article in Psychological Science on the testing effect and describe how the project arose. The testing effect (or retrieval-practice effect) was first reported in the experimental literature about a century before our article was published, and the effect had been replicated (and sometimes discovered anew) many times over the years. Our experiments used prose materials (unlike most prior research) and produced a more powerful effect than prior research even though we used a conservative control condition for comparison. In our discussion, we drew out possible implications for educational practice. We also reported that students in the experiment could not predict the effect; this lack of metacognitive awareness represented a new finding in this context. In a companion article the same year, we provided an historical review of the testing effect. We believe the synergistic effect of the two articles accounts in part for the resurgence in interest in this phenomenon and its application in educational settings.

  8. Ideology: Its Resurgence in Social, Personality, and Political Psychology. (United States)

    Jost, John T; Nosek, Brian A; Gosling, Samuel D


    We trace the rise, fall, and resurgence of political ideology as a topic of research in social, personality, and political psychology. For over 200 years, political belief systems have been classified usefully according to a single left-right (or liberal-conservative) dimension that, we believe, possesses two core aspects: (a) advocating versus resisting social change and (b) rejecting versus accepting inequality. There have been many skeptics of the notion that most people are ideologically inclined, but recent psychological evidence suggests that left-right differences are pronounced in many life domains. Implicit as well as explicit preferences for tradition, conformity, order, stability, traditional values, and hierarchy-versus those for progress, rebelliousness, chaos, flexibility, feminism, and equality-are associated with conservatism and liberalism, respectively. Conservatives score consistently higher than liberals on measures of system justification. Furthermore, there are personality and lifestyle differences between liberals and conservatives as well as situational variables that induce either liberal or conservative shifts in political opinions. Our thesis is that ideological belief systems may be structured according to a left-right dimension for largely psychological reasons linked to variability in the needs to reduce uncertainty and threat. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  9. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Parande, Mahantesh V; Roy, Subarna; Mantur, B G; Parande, Aisha M; Shinde, Rupali S


    A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur) district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) in North Karnataka since then. A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012-2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxin gene (toxA and toxB) was carried out on the isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed on the isolates with a panel of 14 antibiotics. Thirty-eight (8.79%) out of 432 samples yielded C. diphtheriae on culture. All isolates possessed the diphtheria toxin gene. Out of the 38 confirmed cases, whereas 21 (55.26%) were between 1 and 5 years of age, 14 (36.84%) were aged between 5 and 10 years. Male children were three times more than females in confirmed cases. No information was available on the immunisation status of the cases. Emergence of resistance to penicillin was found with minimum inhibitory concentration reaching up to 6.00 μg/ml. Our study identified an upsurge in cases of diphtheria in North Karnataka, particularly in Vijayapura District, and to the best of our knowledge, reports the emergence of penicillin resistance for the first time in India. The study calls for enhanced surveillance for the disease, making antidiphtheritic serum available in key hospitals in the region and serves to provide a baseline for future assessment of the impact of the recently launched 'Mission Indradhanush' programme in strengthening Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP).

  10. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahantesh V Parande


    Full Text Available Background: A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP in North Karnataka since then. Objectives: A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Materials and Methods: Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012–2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxin gene (toxA and toxB was carried out on the isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed on the isolates with a panel of 14 antibiotics. Results: Thirty-eight (8.79% out of 432 samples yielded C. diphtheriae on culture. All isolates possessed the diphtheria toxin gene. Out of the 38 confirmed cases, whereas 21 (55.26% were between 1 and 5 years of age, 14 (36.84% were aged between 5 and 10 years. Male children were three times more than females in confirmed cases. No information was available on the immunisation status of the cases. Emergence of resistance to penicillin was found with minimum inhibitory concentration reaching up to 6.00 μg/ml. Conclusion and Discussion: Our study identified an upsurge in cases of diphtheria in North Karnataka, particularly in Vijayapura District, and to the best of our knowledge, reports the emergence of penicillin resistance for the first time in India. The study calls for enhanced surveillance for the disease, making antidiphtheritic serum available in key hospitals in the region and serves to provide a baseline for future assessment of the impact of the recently launched 'Mission Indradhanush' programme in strengthening Universal Immunisation Programme

  11. Resurgent Transseries and the Holomorphic Anomaly: Nonperturbative Closed Strings in Local CP2

    CERN Document Server

    Couso-Santamaría, Ricardo; Schiappa, Ricardo; Vonk, Marcel


    The holomorphic anomaly equations describe B-model closed topological strings in Calabi-Yau geometries. Having been used to construct perturbative expansions, it was recently shown that they can also be extended past perturbation theory by making use of resurgent transseries. These yield formal nonperturbative solutions, showing integrability of the holomorphic anomaly equations at the nonperturbative level. This paper takes such constructions one step further by working out in great detail the specific example of topological strings in the mirror of the local CP2 toric Calabi-Yau background, and by addressing the associated (resurgent) large-order analysis of both perturbative and multi-instanton sectors. In particular, analyzing the asymptotic growth of the perturbative free energies, one finds contributions from three different instanton actions related by Z_3 symmetry, alongside another action related to the Kahler parameter. Resurgent transseries methods then compute, from the extended holomorphic anomal...

  12. Magnetotelluric survey of Ischia resurgent caldera (Southern Italy): inference for volcano-tectonics and dynamic (United States)

    Carlino, S.; Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troiano, A.


    The island of Ischia (located in the Bay of Naples) represents a peculiar case of well-exposed caldera that has experienced a large (>800m) and rapid resurgence, until recent time. It gives us the possibility for a better understanding of caldera resurgence process, by integrating the available geological information with new geophysical data of the deeper structures associated to the resurgence. To this aim, a magnetotelluric survey of the island, has been performed along two main profiles of the central-western sector, obtaining the first electrical resistivity map down to a depth of 3km. The resurgence is tough to be associated to a shallow magma intrusion, which also produced a vigorous hot fluids circulation with high geothermal gradients (>150°Ckm-1) in the southern and western sector. The interpretation of resistivity variations allow us to recognize the main volcano-tectonic features of central-western part of the island, along the two profiles, such as the presence of a possible very shallow magmatic intrusion to a depth of about 1km, the tectonic structures bordering the resurgent area and the occurrence of large thermal anomaly of the western sector. All these data are fundamental for the assessment of volcano-dynamic of the island and associated hazard. Furthermore, this study show a not common example of a large resurgence that is likely generated by a laccolith intrusion. This process is generally associated to the arrival of fresh magma into the system that, in turn, may imply imminent eruption and high volcanic hazard.

  13. On asymptotics and resurgent structures of enumerative Gromov-Witten invariants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couso-Santamaria, Ricardo [Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico (IST); Schiappa, Ricardo [Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico (IST); Geneve Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Theoretique et Section de Mathematiques; Vaz, Ricardo [Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico (IST); DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group


    Making use of large-order techniques in asymptotics and resurgent analysis, this work addresses the growth of enumerative Gromov-Witten invariants - in their dependence upon genus and degree of the embedded curve - for several different threefold Calabi-Yau toric-varieties. In particular, while the leading asymptotics of these invariants at large genus or at large degree is exponential, at combined large genus and degree it turns out to be factorial. This factorial growth has a resurgent nature, originating via mirror symmetry from the resurgent-transseries description of the B-model free energy. This implies the existence of nonperturbative sectors controlling the asymptotics of the Gromov-Witten invariants, which could themselves have an enumerative-geometry interpretation. The examples addressed include: the resolved conifold; the local surfaces local P{sup 2} and local P{sup 1} x P{sup 1}; the local curves and Hurwitz theory; and the compact quintic. All examples suggest very rich interplays between resurgent asymptotics and enumerative problems in algebraic geometry.

  14. Resurgence of Yellow Fever in Angola, 2015–2016

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of an article on the resurgence of yellow fever in Angola.  Created: 10/12/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/12/2016.

  15. On asymptotics and resurgent structures of enumerative Gromov-Witten invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couso-Santamaria, Ricardo; Schiappa, Ricardo; Geneve Univ.; Vaz, Ricardo; DESY Hamburg


    Making use of large-order techniques in asymptotics and resurgent analysis, this work addresses the growth of enumerative Gromov-Witten invariants - in their dependence upon genus and degree of the embedded curve - for several different threefold Calabi-Yau toric-varieties. In particular, while the leading asymptotics of these invariants at large genus or at large degree is exponential, at combined large genus and degree it turns out to be factorial. This factorial growth has a resurgent nature, originating via mirror symmetry from the resurgent-transseries description of the B-model free energy. This implies the existence of nonperturbative sectors controlling the asymptotics of the Gromov-Witten invariants, which could themselves have an enumerative-geometry interpretation. The examples addressed include: the resolved conifold; the local surfaces local P 2 and local P 1 x P 1 ; the local curves and Hurwitz theory; and the compact quintic. All examples suggest very rich interplays between resurgent asymptotics and enumerative problems in algebraic geometry.

  16. Resistance to change and resurgence in humans engaging in a computer task. (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Cançado, Carlos R X; Podlesnik, Christopher A


    The relation between persistence, as measured by resistance to change, and resurgence has been examined with nonhuman animals but not systematically with humans. The present study examined persistence and resurgence with undergraduate students engaging in a computer task for points exchangeable for money. In Phase 1, a target response was maintained on a multiple variable-interval (VI) 15-s (Rich) VI 60-s (Lean) schedule of reinforcement. In Phase 2, the target response was extinguished while an alternative response was reinforced at equal rates in both schedule components. In Phase 3, the target and the alternative responses were extinguished. In an additional test of persistence (Phase 4), target responding was reestablished as in Phase 1 and then disrupted by access to videos in both schedule components. In Phases 2 and 4, target responding was more persistent in the Rich than in the Lean component. Also, resurgence generally was greater in the Rich than in the Lean component in Phase 3. The present findings with humans extend the generality of those obtained with nonhuman animals showing that higher reinforcement rates produce both greater persistence and resurgence, and suggest that common processes underlie response persistence and relapse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pertussis resurgence: waning immunity and pathogen adaptation - two sides of the same coin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, F.R.; Maas, N. van der; Melker, H.E. de


    SUMMARY Pertussis or whooping cough has persisted and resurged in the face of vaccination and has become one of the most prevalent vaccine-preventable diseases in Western countries. The high circulation rate of Bordetella pertussis poses a threat to infants that have not been (completely) vaccinated

  18. Resurgence of pertussis at the age of vaccination: clinical, epidemiological, and molecular aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela S.L.A. Torres


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Report the incidence, epidemiology, clinical features, death, and vaccination status of patients with whooping cough and perform genotypic characterization of isolates of B. pertussis identified in the state of Paraná, during January 2007 to December 2013.METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 1,209 patients with pertussis. Data were obtained through the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN and molecular epidemiology was performed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR; DiversiLab(r, bioMerieux, France.RESULTS: The incidence of pertussis in the state of Paraná increased sharply from 0.15-0.76 per 100,000 habitants between 2007-2010 to 1.7-4.28 per 100,000 between 2011-2013. Patients with less than 1 year of age were more stricken (67.5%. Fifty-nine children (5% developed pertussis even after receiving three doses and two diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP boosters vaccine. The most common complications were pneumonia (14.5%, otitis (0.9%, and encephalopathy (0.7%. Isolates of B. pertussis were grouped into two groups (G1 and G2 and eight distinct patterns (G1: P1-P5 and G2: P6-P8.CONCLUSION: The resurgence of pertussis should stimulate new research to develop vaccines with greater capacity of protection against current clones and also encourage implementation of new strategies for vaccination in order to reduce the risk of disease in infants.

  19. Resurgence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W ST-11 (cc11) in Madagascar, 2015-2016. (United States)

    Rasoanandrasana, Saïda; Raberahona, Mihaja; Milenkov, Milen; Rakotomahefa Narison, Mbolanirina Lala; Ranaivo Rabetokotany, Felana; Rakotovao, Luc; Randria, Mamy Jean de Dieu; Hong, Eva; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mala


    The resurgence of invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W with sequence type ST-11 (cc11) was observed in Madagascar in 2015-2016. Three cases were investigated in this study. Molecular characterization of the strains suggests the local transmission of a single genotype that may have been circulating for years. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang


    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  1. Longer treatment with alternative non-drug reinforcement fails to reduce resurgence of cocaine or alcohol seeking in rats. (United States)

    Nall, Rusty W; Craig, Andrew R; Browning, Kaitlyn O; Shahan, Timothy A


    Provision of alternative non-drug reinforcement is among the most effective methods for treating substance use disorders. However, when alternative reinforcers become unavailable during treatment interruptions or upon cessation of treatment, relapse often occurs. Relapse following the loss of alternative reinforcement is known as resurgence. One factor that could reduce resurgence is longer duration of treatment with alternative reinforcement, but the available data are mixed. Further, the effects of length of treatment have previously only been examined with food seeking. The present experiments directly examined if duration of treatment impacted the magnitude of resurgence of cocaine or alcohol seeking in rats. First, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (Experiment 1) or alcohol (Experiment 2) by performing a target behavior. Second, target behavior was extinguished and performing an alternative behavior produced an alternative non-drug (i.e., food) reinforcer. Finally, resurgence was assessed following removal of alternative reinforcement after either 5 or 20 sessions of treatment. Treatment duration did not differentially affect resurgence of cocaine seeking in Experiment 1 or Alcohol seeking in Experiment 2. These results suggest that extended treatment with alternative non-drug reinforcement may not decrease propensity to relapse. Further, these results may have implications for treatment of substance use disorders and for theories of resurgence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibodies and antimatter: the resurgence of immuno-PET. (United States)

    Wu, Anna M


    The completion of the human genome, coupled with parallel major research efforts in proteomics and systems biology, has led to a flood of information on the roles of individual genes and proteins in normal physiologic processes and their disruptions in disease. In practical terms, this information has opened the door to increasingly targeted therapies as specific molecular markers are identified and validated. The ongoing transition from empiric to molecular medicine has engendered a need for corresponding molecular diagnostics, including noninvasive molecular imaging. Convergence of knowledge regarding key biomarkers that define normal biologic processes and disease with protein and imaging technology makes this an opportune time to revisit the combination of antibodies and PET, or immuno-PET.

  3. Radiation safety needs for the resurgent uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggitt, Peter


    Full text: After many years in the economic doldrums the world's uranium industry is undergoing a renaissance. The recent rapid price increase for the product and the anticipated market shortfalls in supply of yellowcake have are responsible for this. There is now a rush of new activity: abandoned mines from a previous era are being re-examined for their potential to be re-opened; planning for exploitation of known but undeveloped uranium deposits is proceeding at a rapid pace in many countries new to uranium mining; and finally worldwide exploration activity for uranium is expanding at a great rate with more than 400 companies now claiming to be involved in the uranium mining market. All of there activities have significant implications the radiation protection profession. At every stage of the uranium production cycle, from exploration to mining and processing through to remediation there are requirements for proper radiation protection procedures and regulation. The long period of reduced activity in uranium mining has meant that few young people have been joining the industry over the past 20 years. There is now a shortage of trained and experienced radiation protection professionals associated with the mining industry that cannot be overcome overnight. The paper discusses the development of this situation and the various strategies that are being put in place around the world to improve the situation. In particular the International Atomic Energy Agency has been working with radiation protection authorities and uranium mining industry representatives from around the world to address the issue. The latest developments in this project will be described and the future plans described. (author)

  4. Divergent series: from Thomas Bayes’s bewilderment to today’s resurgence via the rainbow

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Following the discovery in 1747 that Stirling’s series for the factorial is divergent, the study of asymptotic series has advanced so that today it is possible to sum the divergent tails of many series with an accuracy far beyond that of the smallest term. Key advances by Euler, Stokes, Dingle and Écalle unify the different series corresponding to different parameter domains, culminating in the concept of resurgence: quantifying the way in which the low orders of such series reappear in the high orders.

  5. Explaining the resurgent popularity of the wild: motivations for wild plant gathering in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal, Austria. (United States)

    Schunko, Christoph; Grasser, Susanne; Vogl, Christian R


    Wild plant gathering becomes again a popular and fashionable activity in Europe after gathering practices have been increasingly abandoned over the last decades. Recent ethnobotanical research documented a diversity of gathering practices from people of diverse socio-economic and cultural backgrounds who gather in urban and rural areas. Few efforts were though made to study the motivations for gathering wild plants and to understand the resurgent popularity of wild plant gathering. This paper addresses the following research questions: (1) which motivations activate wild plant gatherers? (2) which motivation-types of gatherers exist in the Grosses Walsertal? (3) how do the motivations for gathering relate to the socio-demographic background of gatherers? Field research was conducted in the Grosses Walsertal, Austria in the years 2008 and 2009 in two field research periods. Thirty-six local farmers were first interviewed with semi-structured interviews. The motivations identified in these interviews were then included in a structured questionnaire, which was used to interview 353 residents of the valley. Pupils of local schools participated in the data collection as interviewers. Principal Component Analysis was used to categorize the motivations and to identify motivation-types of wild plant gatherers. Generalized Linear Models were calculated to identify relations between motivations and the socio-demographic background of gatherers. The respondents listed 13 different motivations for gathering wild plants and four motivations for not gathering. These 17 motivations were grouped in five motivation-types of wild plant gatherers, which are in decreasing importance: product quality, fun, tradition, not-gathering, income. Women, older respondents and homegardeners gather wild plants more often for fun; older respondents gather more often for maintaining traditions; non-homegardeners more frequently mention motivations for not gathering. The resurgent popularity of

  6. Magnetotelluric imaging of the resurgent caldera on the island of Ischia (southern Italy): inferences for its structure and activity (United States)

    Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troiano, A.; Carlino, S.


    The island of Ischia (located in the Bay of Naples, Italy) represents a peculiar case of a well-exposed caldera that has experienced a large (>800 m) and rapid resurgence, accompanied by volcanic activity. What drives the resurgence of calderas is a crucial issue to investigate, because this process is associated with potential eruptions and high risk to people living within and around such large active volcanic systems. To improve the knowledge of volcano-tectonic processes affecting the caldera of Ischia, electromagnetic imaging of the structures associated with its resurgence was performed and integrated with available geological information. A magnetotelluric (MT) survey of the island was carried out along two main profiles through the central-western sector, providing an electrical resistivity map to a depth of 3 km. These resistivity cross sections allowed us to identify the presence of a very shallow magmatic intrusion, possibly a laccolith, at a depth of about 1 km, which was responsible for both the resurgence and the volcanic activity. Furthermore, the tectonic structures bordering the resurgent area and the occurrence of a large thermal anomaly in the western sector of the caldera also provided a signature in the resistivity cross sections, with the magma intrusion producing advection of hot fluids with high geothermal gradients (>150 °C km-1) in the southern and western sectors. All of these data are fundamental for the assessment of the island's volcano-tectonic dynamics and their associated hazards. The structure and activity of the island have been controlled by the process of resurgence associated with the arrival of new magma and the progressive intrusion of a laccolith at a shallow depth. The reactivation of such a shallow system may imply imminent eruption which would pose a major volcanic hazard.

  7. Malaria resurgence risk in southern Europe: climate assessment in an historically endemic area of rice fields at the Mediterranean shore of Spain. (United States)

    Sainz-Elipe, Sandra; Latorre, Jose Manuel; Escosa, Raul; Masià, Montserrat; Fuentes, Marius Vicent; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, Maria Dolores


    International travel and immigration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. This fact and climate change, prolonging the period favouring vector development, require an analysis of the malaria transmission resurgence risk in areas of southern Europe. Such a study is made for the first time in Spain. The Ebro Delta historically endemic area was selected due to its rice field landscape, the presence of only one vector, Anopheles atroparvus, with densities similar to those it presented when malaria was present, in a situation which pronouncedly differs from already assessed potential resurgence areas in other Mediterranean countries, such as France and Italy, where many different Anopheles species coexist and a different vector species dominates. The transmission risk was assessed analysing: 1) climate diagrams including the minimum temperature for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax development; 2) monthly evolution of the Gradient Model Risk (GMR) index, specifying transmission risk period and number of potential Plasmodium generations; 3) ecological characteristics using remote sensing images with the Eurasia Land Cover characteristics database and the monthly evolution of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); 4) evaluation of A. atroparvus population dynamics. Climatological analyses and GMR index show that a transmission risk presently exists, lasting from May until September for P. falciparum, and from May until October for P. vivax. The GMR index shows that the temperature increase does not actually mean a transmission risk increase if accompanied by a precipitation decrease reducing the number of parasite generations and transmission period. Nevertheless, this limitation is offset by the artificial flooding of the rice fields. Maximum NDVI values and A. atroparvus maximum abundance correspond to months with maximum growth of the rice fields. The Ebro Delta presents the ecological characteristics that favour

  8. Using complexity theory to analyse the organisational response to resurgent tuberculosis across London. (United States)

    Trenholm, Susan; Ferlie, Ewan


    We employ complexity theory to analyse the English National Health Service (NHS)'s organisational response to resurgent tuberculosis across London. Tennison (2002) suggests that complexity theory could fruitfully explore a healthcare system's response to this complex and emergent phenomenon: we explore this claim here. We also bring in established New Public Management principles to enhance our empirical analysis, which is based on data collected between late 2009 and mid-2011. We find that the operation of complexity theory based features, especially self-organisation, are significantly impacted by the macro context of a New Public Management-based regime which values control, measurement and risk management more than innovation, flexibility and lateral system building. We finally explore limitations and suggest perspectives for further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. "Women are the pillars of Our Culture": Bohna as a resurgent cloth among the Dhimal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Rai


    Full Text Available Bohna is the traditional ethnic dress woven and worn by Dhimal women. It is an everyday dress which Dhimal women wear it in all kinds of social spaces and events: home, fields, markets, cinema halls, colleges, mela, and other places. In the recent decades, with the resurgence of indigenous political movements and Dhimals' localized social movements for revival of their customary practices, bohna has emerged as a powerful marker of Dhimal indigenous identity. This paper examines the historical, cultural and political embeddedness of bohna in Dhimal society. The paper highlights the creative agency of Dhimal women by showing how weaving and exchange of bohna recreate and connect the embedded relations of affection, exchange and mutual obligations between Dhimal women.DOI: Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 8, 2014; 99-112

  10. Operant models of relapse in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Resurgence, renewal, and reinstatement. (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Mizutani, Yuto; Cançado, Carlos R X; Podlesnik, Christopher A


    Zebrafish are a widely used animal model in biomedical research, as an alternative to mammals, for having features such as a fully sequenced genome, high fecundity, and low-cost maintenance, but behavioral research with these fish remains scarce. The present study investigated whether zebrafish could be a new animal model for studies on the relapse of behavior (e.g., addiction and overeating) after the behavior has been extinguished. Specifically, we examined whether zebrafish would show three different types of relapse commonly studied with other species: resurgence, renewal, and reinstatement. For resurgence, a target response (i.e., approaching a sensor) was established by presenting a reinforcer (i.e., shrimp eggs) contingent upon the response in Phase 1; the target response was extinguished while introducing reinforcement for an alternative response in Phase 2; neither response produced the reinforcer in Phase 3. For renewal, a target response was established under Context A in Phase 1 and was extinguished under Context B in Phase 2; the fish were placed back in Context A in Phase 3, where extinction remained in effect. For reinstatement, a target response was established in Phase 1 and was extinguished in Phase 2; the reinforcer was presented independently of responding in Phase 3. Each type of relapse occurred in Phase 3. These results replicate and extend previous findings on relapse to a new species and suggest that zebrafish can be a useful animal model for studying the interactions of biological and environmental factors that lead to relapse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The resurgence of cultural borders in international finance during the financial crisis: Evidence from Eurozone cross-border depositing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleimeier, S.; Sander, H.; Heuchemer, S.


    In this paper, we demonstrate that cultural borders in international finance resurge during financial crises. To investigate the role of cultural borders during both tranquil and crisis periods, we employ a unique data set that focuses on Eurozone cross-border depositing in a gravity-model

  12. Fast summation of divergent series and resurgent transseries from Meijer-G approximants (United States)

    Mera, Héctor; Pedersen, Thomas G.; Nikolić, Branislav K.


    We develop a resummation approach based on Meijer-G functions and apply it to approximate the Borel sum of divergent series and the Borel-Écalle sum of resurgent transseries in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory (QFT). The proposed method is shown to vastly outperform the conventional Borel-Padé and Borel-Padé-Écalle summation methods. The resulting Meijer-G approximants are easily parametrized by means of a hypergeometric ansatz and can be thought of as a generalization to arbitrary order of the Borel-hypergeometric method [Mera et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 143001 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.143001]. Here we demonstrate the accuracy of this technique in various examples from quantum mechanics and QFT, traditionally employed as benchmark models for resummation, such as zero-dimensional ϕ4 theory; the quartic anharmonic oscillator; the calculation of critical exponents for the N -vector model; ϕ4 with degenerate minima; self-interacting QFT in zero dimensions; and the summation of one- and two-instanton contributions in the quantum-mechanical double-well problem.

  13. Relapse processes after the extinction of instrumental learning: Renewal, resurgence, and reacquisition (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E.; Winterbauer, Neil E.; Todd, Travis P.


    It is widely recognized that extinction (the procedure in which a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus or an instrumental action is repeatedly presented without its reinforcer) weakens behavior without erasing the original learning. Most of the experiments that support this claim have focused on several “relapse” effects that occur after Pavlovian extinction, which collectively suggest that the original learning is saved through extinction. However, although such effects do occur after instrumental extinction, they have not been explored there in as much detail. This article reviews recent research in our laboratory that has investigated three relapse effects that occur after the extinction of instrumental (operant) learning. In renewal, responding returns after extinction when the behavior is tested in a different context; in resurgence, responding recovers when a second response that has been reinforced during extinction of the first is itself put on extinction; and in rapid reacquisition, extinguished responding returns rapidly when the response is reinforced again. The results provide new insights into extinction and relapse, and are consistent with principles that have been developed to explain extinction and relapse as they occur after Pavlovian conditioning. Extinction of instrumental learning, like Pavlovian learning, involves new learning that is relatively dependent on the context for expression. PMID:22450305

  14. The relationship between mucosal immunity, nasopharyngeal carriage, asymptomatic transmission and the resurgence of Bordetella pertussis (United States)

    Gill, Christopher; Rohani, Pejman; Thea, Donald M


    The incidence of whooping cough in the US has been rising slowly since the 1970s, but the pace of this has accelerated sharply since acellular pertussis vaccines replaced the earlier whole cell vaccines in the late 1990s. A similar trend occurred in many other countries, including the UK, Canada, Australia, Ireland, and Spain, following the switch to acellular vaccines. The key question is why. Two leading theories (short duration of protective immunologic persistence and evolutionary shifts in the pathogen to evade the vaccine) explain some but not all of these shifts, suggesting that other factors may also be important. In this synthesis, we argue that sterilizing mucosal immunity that blocks or abbreviates the duration of nasopharyngeal carriage of Bordetella pertussis and impedes person-to-person transmission (including between asymptomatically infected individuals) is a critical factor in this dynamic. Moreover, we argue that the ability to induce such mucosal immunity is fundamentally what distinguishes whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines and may be pivotal to understanding much of the resurgence of this disease in many countries that adopted acellular vaccines. Additionally, we offer the hypothesis that observed herd effects generated by acellular vaccines may reflect a modification of disease presentation leading to reduced potential for transmission by those already infected, as opposed to inducing resistance to infection among those who have been exposed. PMID:28928960

  15. Resurgence of persisting non-cultivable Borrelia burgdorferi following antibiotic treatment in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Hodzic

    Full Text Available The agent of Lyme borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi, evades host immunity and establishes persistent infections in its varied mammalian hosts. This persistent biology may pose challenges to effective antibiotic treatment. Experimental studies in dogs, mice, and non-human primates have found persistence of B. burgdorferi DNA following treatment with a variety of antibiotics, but persisting spirochetes are non-cultivable. Persistence of B. burgdorferi DNA has been documented in humans following treatment, but the significance remains unknown. The present study utilized a ceftriaxone treatment regimen in the C3H mouse model that resulted in persistence of non-cultivable B. burgdorferi in order to determine their long-term fate, and to examine their effects on the host. Results confirmed previous studies, in which B. burgdorferi could not be cultured from tissues, but low copy numbers of B. burgdorferi flaB DNA were detectable in tissues at 2, 4 and 8 months after completion of treatment, and the rate of PCR-positive tissues appeared to progressively decline over time. However, there was resurgence of spirochete flaB DNA in multiple tissues at 12 months, with flaB DNA copy levels nearly equivalent to those found in saline-treated mice. Despite the continued non-cultivable state, RNA transcription of multiple B. burgdorferi genes was detected in host tissues, flaB DNA was acquired by xenodiagnostic ticks, and spirochetal forms could be visualized within ticks and mouse tissues by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. A number of host cytokines were up- or down-regulated in tissues of both saline- and antibiotic-treated mice in the absence of histopathology, indicating host response to the presence of non-cultivable, despite the lack of inflammation in tissues.

  16. Resurgence in sine-Gordon quantum mechanics: exact agreement between multi-instantons and uniform WKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misumi, Tatsuhiro [Department of Mathematical Science, Akita University,1-1 Tegata Gakuen-machi, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences,Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan); Nitta, Muneto; Sakai, Norisuke [Department of Physics, and Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences,Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)


    We compute multi-instanton amplitudes in the sine-Gordon quantum mechanics (periodic cosine potential) by integrating out quasi-moduli parameters corresponding to separations of instantons and anti-instantons. We propose an extension of Bogomolnyi-Zinn-Justin prescription for multi-instanton configurations and an appropriate subtraction scheme. We obtain the multi-instanton contributions to the energy eigenvalue of the lowest band at the zeroth order of the coupling constant. For the configurations with only instantons (anti-instantons), we obtain unambiguous results. For those with both instantons and anti-instantons, we obtain results with imaginary parts, which depend on the path of analytic continuation. We show that the imaginary parts of the multi-instanton amplitudes precisely cancel the imaginary parts of the Borel resummation of the perturbation series, and verify that our results completely agree with those based on the uniform-WKB calculations, thus confirming the resurgence structure: divergent perturbation series combined with the nonperturbative multi-instanton contributions conspire to give unambiguous results. We also study the neutral bion contributions in the ℂP{sup N−1} model on ℝ{sup 1}×S{sup 1} with a small circumference, taking account of the relative phase moduli between the fractional instanton and anti-instanton. We find that the sign of the interaction potential depends on the relative phase moduli, and that both the real and imaginary parts resulting from quasi-moduli integral of the neutral bion get quantitative corrections compared to the sine-Gordon quantum mechanics.

  17. In Flanders fields: the Great War, Antoine Depage, and the resurgence of débridement. (United States)

    Helling, T S; Daon, E


    The care of traumatic wounds has evolved over hundreds of years, largely as a result of armed conflicts. The lessons learned during World War I in the treatment of extensive soft-tissue injuries proved invaluable in reducing infection and preventing loss of limb and life. Foremost among these was the use of debridement. This report reviews the development of debridement as standard treatment of war wounds and highlights the surgeon largely responsible for its resurgence during one of this century's saddest chapters. Before World War I, the care of wounds consisted of minimal exploration and liberal use of then-new antiseptics. For limited injuries, this approach appeared adequate. World War I saw the introduction of devastating weapons that produced injuries that caused extensive devitalization of tissue. Standard treatment of these patients proved woefully inadequate to prevent life-threatening infections. This is a historical review of the conditions that occurred during World War I that prompted a change in wound management. One of those responsible for this change was the Belgian surgeon Antoine Depage. His life and contributions to the care of war wounds are profiled. Depage reintroduced the discarded French practice of wound incision and exploration (debridement) and combined it with excision of devitalized tissue. Through the use of debridement, excision, and delayed wound closure based on bacteriologic survey, Depage was able to reduce the incidence of infectious complications of soft-tissue injuries, particularly those involving fractures. Through his experiences in the Great War, Antoine Depage was able to formulate a treatment plan for wounds of war. All such injuries were assumed to be contaminated and, as such, they required early and careful debridement. Depage thought that wound closure should often be delayed and based his decision to close on the bacteriologic status of the wound. To him, we owe our current management of traumatic wounds.

  18. Homeostasis or channelopathy? Acquired cell type-specific ion channel changes in temporal lobe epilepsy and their antiepileptic potential (United States)

    Wolfart, Jakob; Laker, Debora


    Neurons continuously adapt the expression and functionality of their ion channels. For example, exposed to chronic excitotoxicity, neurons homeostatically downscale their intrinsic excitability. In contrast, the “acquired channelopathy” hypothesis suggests that proepileptic channel characteristics develop during epilepsy. We review cell type-specific channel alterations under different epileptic conditions and discuss the potential of channels that undergo homeostatic adaptations, as targets for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Most of the relevant studies have been performed on temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a widespread AED-refractory, focal epilepsy. The TLE patients, who undergo epilepsy surgery, frequently display hippocampal sclerosis (HS), which is associated with degeneration of cornu ammonis subfield 1 pyramidal cells (CA1 PCs). Although the resected human tissue offers insights, controlled data largely stem from animal models simulating different aspects of TLE and other epilepsies. Most of the cell type-specific information is available for CA1 PCs and dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs). Between these two cell types, a dichotomy can be observed: while DG GCs acquire properties decreasing the intrinsic excitability (in TLE models and patients with HS), CA1 PCs develop channel characteristics increasing intrinsic excitability (in TLE models without HS only). However, thorough examination of data on these and other cell types reveals the coexistence of protective and permissive intrinsic plasticity within neurons. These mechanisms appear differentially regulated, depending on the cell type and seizure condition. Interestingly, the same channel molecules that are upregulated in DG GCs during HS-related TLE, appear as promising targets for future AEDs and gene therapies. Hence, GCs provide an example of homeostatic ion channel adaptation which can serve as a primer when designing novel anti-epileptic strategies. PMID:26124723

  19. Muscle channelopathies and electrophysiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian Ajith


    Full Text Available Myotonic syndromes and periodic paralyses are rare disorders of skeletal muscle characterized mainly by muscle stiffness or episodic attacks of weakness. Familial forms are caused by mutation in genes coding for skeletal muscle voltage ionic channels. Familial periodic paralysis and nondystrophic myotonias are disorders of skeletal muscle excitability caused by mutations in genes coding for voltage-gated ion channels. These diseases are characterized by episodic failure of motor activity due to muscle weakness (paralysis or stiffness (myotonia. Clinical studies have identified two forms of periodic paralyses: hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (hyperKPP, based on changes in serum potassium levels during the attacks, and three distinct forms of myotonias: paramyotonia congenita (PC, potassium-aggravated myotonia (PAM, and myotonia congenita (MC. PC and PAM have been linked to missense mutations in the SCN4A gene, which encodes α subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, whereas MC is caused by mutations in the chloride channel gene (CLCN1. Exercise is known to trigger, aggravate, or relieve symptoms. Therefore, exercise can be used as a functional test in electromyography to improve the diagnosis of these muscle disorders. Abnormal changes in the compound muscle action potential can be disclosed using different exercise tests. Five electromyographic (EMG patterns (I-V that may be used in clinical practice as guides for molecular diagnosis are discussed.

  20. Channelopathies in children and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Arthur A. M.


    In the last decade, pediatric cardiologists have witnessed a revolution in the knowledge of the pathophysiology of rare arrhythmias. The identification of the molecular basis of several hereditary arrhythmia syndromes has been instrumental in this development. Within 12 years the number of causal

  1. HIV incidence on the increase among homosexual men attending an Amsterdam sexually transmitted disease clinic: using a novel approach for detecting recent infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.; Spaargaren, Joke; Geskus, Ronald B.; Beijnen, Jos; Coutinho, Roel A.; Fennema, Han S. A.


    Objective: Dramatic increases have occurred in sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and in sexual risk behaviour among homosexual men in Amsterdam and internationally. We investigated whether these trends indicate a resurgence of the HIV epidemic. Methods: HIV incidence was determined among

  2. Resurgence and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit: connecting weak and strong coupling in the Mathieu and Lamé systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Başar, Gökçe [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD, 20742 (United States); Dunne, Gerald V. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut,Storrs CT 06269 (United States)


    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit for the low-energy behavior of N=2 and N=2{sup ∗} supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theories is encoded in the spectrum of the Mathieu and Lamé equations, respectively. This correspondence is usually expressed via an all-orders Bohr-Sommerfeld relation, but this neglects non-perturbative effects, the nature of which is very different in the electric, magnetic and dyonic regions. In the gauge theory dyonic region the spectral expansions are divergent, and indeed are not Borel-summable, so they are more properly described by resurgent trans-series in which perturbative and non-perturbative effects are deeply entwined. In the gauge theory electric region the spectral expansions are convergent, but nevertheless there are non-perturbative effects due to poles in the expansion coefficients, and which we associate with worldline instantons. This provides a concrete analog of a phenomenon found recently by Drukker, Mariño and Putrov in the large N expansion of the ABJM matrix model, in which non-perturbative effects are related to complex space-time instantons. In this paper we study how these very different regimes arise from an exact WKB analysis, and join smoothly through the magnetic region. This approach also leads to a simple proof of a resurgence relation found recently by Dunne and Ünsal, showing that for these spectral systems all non-perturbative effects are subtly encoded in perturbation theory, and identifies this with the Picard-Fuchs equation for the quantized elliptic curve.

  3. The thermal regime in the resurgent dome of Long Valley Caldera, California: Inferences from precision temperature logs in deep wells (United States)

    Hurwitz, S.; Farrar, C.D.; Williams, C.F.


    Long Valley Caldera in eastern California formed 0.76Ma ago in a cataclysmic eruption that resulted in the deposition of 600km3 of Bishop Tuff. The total current heat flow from the caldera floor is estimated to be ~290MW, and a geothermal power plant in Casa Diablo on the flanks of the resurgent dome (RD) generates ~40MWe. The RD in the center of the caldera was uplifted by ~80cm between 1980 and 1999 and was explained by most models as a response to magma intrusion into the shallow crust. This unrest has led to extensive research on geothermal resources and volcanic hazards in the caldera. Here we present results from precise, high-resolution, temperature-depth profiles in five deep boreholes (327-1,158m) on the RD to assess its thermal state, and more specifically 1) to provide bounds on the advective heat transport as a guide for future geothermal exploration, 2) to provide constraints on the occurrence of magma at shallow crustal depths, and 3) to provide a baseline for future transient thermal phenomena in response to large earthquakes, volcanic activity, or geothermal production. The temperature profiles display substantial non-linearity within each profile and variability between the different profiles. All profiles display significant temperature reversals with depth and temperature gradients <50??C/km at their bottom. The maximum temperature in the individual boreholes ranges between 124.7??C and 129.5??C and bottom hole temperatures range between 99.4??C and 129.5??C. The high-temperature units in the three Fumarole Valley boreholes are at the approximate same elevation as the high-temperature unit in borehole M-1 in Casa Diablo indicating lateral or sub-lateral hydrothermal flow through the resurgent dome. Small differences in temperature between measurements in consecutive years in three of the wells suggest slow cooling of the shallow hydrothermal flow system. By matching theoretical curves to segments of the measured temperature profiles, we calculate

  4. An Analysis of Integrated Child Development Scheme Performance in Contributing to Alleviation of Malnutrition in Two Economically Resurgent States. (United States)

    Ruia, Aparna; Gupta, Rajul Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Gargi; Gupta, Rajshree R


    Good economic growth is considered synonymous with good nutrition. In recent past, some states (like Bihar and Gujarat) have seen unprecedented economic growth. Despite this and introducing plethora of programs (including integrated child development scheme [ICDS]) to reduce malnutrition, one state might be performing well in reducing malnutrition whereas other with equally high economic growth rate might lag behind. Is mere economic growth good enough to alleviate malnutrition? The aim of the article is to document a critical comparative analysis of malnutrition with special emphasis on ICDS (with respect to finances, infrastructure, training, performance) in the two economically resurgent states of Gujarat and Bihar. An exploratory study using secondary data sources (for ICDS performance) to critically analyze malnutrition status in Bihar and Gujarat. Gujarat, which was criticized for placing excessive emphasis on economic growth, has shown sharp improvement in combating malnutrition. Undernourished children declined from 73.04% in 2007 to 25.09% in 2013, with just 1.6% being severely malnourished. On the other hand, Bihar too exhibited an impressive economic growth but still languishes at bottom with malnutrition rate of 82%. A high economic growth does not have automatic immediate positive gains on malnutrition alleviation.

  5. Syphilis Resurgence in Belgrade, Serbia, in the New Millennium: An Outbreak in 2014. (United States)

    Bjekić, Milan; Šipetić-Grujičić, Sandra; Begović-Vuksanović, Biljana; Rafailović, Nevena; Vlajinac, Hristina


    A worldwide syphilis incidence increase was recorded at the beginning of the new millennium, occurring primarily among men who have sex with men (MSM). The aim of this study was to analyse the epidemiological situation of syphilis in the Belgrade population between 2005 and 2014 and to examine the characteristics of an early syphilis outbreak among MSM in Belgrade in 2014. Reporting of syphilis is compulsory in Serbia. Routinely reported data were analysed along with data collected from patients' charts. During the period observed, syphilis incidence increased from 1.07 per 100,000 in 2005 to 4.1 per 100,000 in 2014 (383.2%). From 2005 to 2009, syphilis rates in Belgrade were low, around 1 case per 100,000 people. The first outbreak was registered in 2010. The new incidence increase happened in 2012, and again in 2014 when it was the highest. These incidence changes were registered mainly in men, where the frequency of syphilis was much higher than in women. In 2014, primary syphilis was diagnosed in 20 cases, secondary syphilis in 42, and early latent syphilis in 9 patients. Fifty-seven were MSM, 10 were heterosexual men and 4 were women. Twenty-four cases, all MSM were co-infected with HIV. Majority of patients acquired infection in Belgrade, while in 42/71 cases oral sex was the only risk factor. In comparison with HIV negative, HIV positive syphilis patients were older, more frequently unemployed and MSM. They also more frequently had sex with unknown partners and were diagnosed in the secondary stage of infection. Study results underline the need for coordinated and expeditious surveillance, partner services, enhanced screening of population at risk, health education, as well as early diagnosis and treatment. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  6. Syphilis epidemiology in Norway, 1992-2008: resurgence among men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Øivind


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the number of syphilis cases has stabilised in many countries of Western Europe, however several countries have reported increases among men who have sex with men (MSM. The aim of this article was to describe the epidemiology of early syphilis in Norway in 1992-2008. Methods Cases of early syphilis and congenital syphilis reported to the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS 1992-2008 were described by route of transmission, gender, age, birthplace, stage of disease, HIV co-infection, source partner and place of infection. Results The incidence of reported syphilis ranged from 0.05 (1992 to 1.50 (2002 per 100 000 person-years. Of 562 cases reported to MSIS during the study period, 62% were men infected by another man. The proportion of those, infected homosexually increased from 0 (1992-1994 to 77% (2008. Most of them were Norwegians (83%. The proportion of HIV co-infection among homosexually infected increased over time and reached 39% in 2008. The majority reported being infected by a casual partner (73% and in the municipality of Oslo (72%. Of 152 heterosexually infected men 64% were Norwegians; 51% were infected by casual contacts and 20% by commercial sex workers; 73% were infected abroad. Among 56 women, 57% were Norwegians, 57% were infected by a steady partner and 40% were infected abroad. Almost half (46% were diagnosed in the early latent stage. Four cases had congenital syphilis, two of whom were adopted from abroad. Conclusions Syphilis is rare in Norway, but MSM represent almost two thirds of cases. The increase of HIV co-infected cases among MSM may enhance transmission of both infections. We recommend sexually active MSM to be tested for syphilis 2-4 times a year. Due to its variable clinical course, syphilis might be difficult to recognise at an early stage among women in a low-prevalence population. We estimate current practice of prenatal screening in Norway as

  7. Inferences on the hydrothermal system beneath the resurgent dome in Long Valley Caldera, east-central California, USA, from recent pumping tests and geochemical sampling (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Sorey, Michael L.; Roeloffs, Evelyn; Galloway, Devin L.; Howle, James F.; Jacobson, Ronald


    Quaternary volcanic unrest has provided heat for episodic hydrothermal circulation in the Long Valley caldera, including the present-day hydrothermal system, which has been active over the past 40 kyr. The most recent period of crustal unrest in this region of east-central California began around 1980 and has included periods of intense seismicity and ground deformation. Uplift totaling more than 0.7 m has been centered on the caldera's resurgent dome, and is best modeled by a near-vertical ellipsoidal source centered at depths of 6-7 km. Modeling of both deformation and microgravity data now suggests that (1) there are two inflation sources beneath the caldera, a shallower source 7-10 km beneath the resurgent dome and a deeper source ˜15 km beneath the caldera's south moat and (2) the shallower source may contain components of magmatic brine and gas. The Long Valley Exploration Well (LVEW), completed in 1998 on the resurgent dome, penetrates to a depth of 3 km directly above this shallower source, but bottoms in a zone of 100°C fluid with zero vertical thermal gradient. Although these results preclude extrapolations of temperatures at depths below 3 km, other information obtained from flow tests and fluid sampling at this well indicates the presence of magmatic volatiles and fault-related permeability within the metamorphic basement rocks underlying the volcanic fill. In this paper, we present recently acquired data from LVEW and compare them with information from other drill holes and thermal springs in Long Valley to delineate the likely flow paths and fluid system properties under the resurgent dome. Additional information from mineralogical assemblages in core obtained from fracture zones in LVEW documents a previous period of more vigorous and energetic fluid circulation beneath the resurgent dome. Although this system apparently died off as a result of mineral deposition and cooling (and/or deepening) of magmatic heat sources, flow testing and tidal

  8. Cushing's syndrome and fetal features resurgence in adrenal cortex-specific Prkar1a knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Sahut-Barnola


    Full Text Available Carney complex (CNC is an inherited neoplasia syndrome with endocrine overactivity. Its most frequent endocrine manifestation is primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, a bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia causing pituitary-independent Cushing's syndrome. Inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A, a gene encoding the type 1 alpha-regulatory subunit (R1alpha of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA have been found in 80% of CNC patients with Cushing's syndrome. To demonstrate the implication of R1alpha loss in the initiation and development of PPNAD, we generated mice lacking Prkar1a specifically in the adrenal cortex (AdKO. AdKO mice develop pituitary-independent Cushing's syndrome with increased PKA activity. This leads to autonomous steroidogenic genes expression and deregulated adreno-cortical cells differentiation, increased proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. Unexpectedly, R1alpha loss results in improper maintenance and centrifugal expansion of cortisol-producing fetal adrenocortical cells with concomitant regression of adult cortex. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence that loss of R1alpha is sufficient to induce autonomous adrenal hyper-activity and bilateral hyperplasia, both observed in human PPNAD. Furthermore, this model demonstrates that deregulated PKA activity favors the emergence of a new cell population potentially arising from the fetal adrenal, giving new insight into the mechanisms leading to PPNAD.

  9. [Severe nutritional rickets in young children: Resurgence of an old disease]. (United States)

    Estrade, S; Majorel, C; Tahhan, N; Dulac, Y; Baunin, C; Gennero, I; Chaix, Y; Salles, J-P; Edouard, T


    Nutritional rickets remains a significant public health issue for children worldwide. Although it has almost disappeared in industrialized countries following routine vitamin D supplementation, recent evidence suggests an increasing incidence, especially in young children. In addition to the classical clinical consequences on bone and the growth plate, rickets may also be associated with life-threatening neurological and cardiac complications in the most severe forms. Consequently, early screening and treatment are required. Here, we report the case of a 2-year-old child who presented with severe nutritional rickets associated with seizure and cardiomyopathy. Family screening revealed rickets in all the siblings. This case report emphasizes the importance of being aware of this disease, notably in population with sociocultural risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Rabid epidemiologies: the emergence and resurgence of rabies in twentieth century South Africa. (United States)

    Brown, Karen


    This article discusses the history of rabies in South Africa since the early twentieth century. It argues that rabies is a zoonotic disease that traverses rural and urban spaces, that transfers itself between wild and domestic animals and remains a potential threat to human life in the region. Scientists discovered an indigenous form of rabies, found primarily in the yellow mongoose, after the first biomedically confirmed human fatalities in 1928. Since the 1950s canine rabies, presumed to have moved southwards from across the Zambezi River, has become endemic also. South Africa is home to a comparatively large number of rabies strains and animal carriers, making it a particularly interesting case study. Environmental changes during the colonial and apartheid periods have helped to explain the increase in rabies cases since the mid-twentieth century. Moreover, developments in the biological and ecological sciences have provided insights into why the rabies virus has become endemic in certain wildlife species.

  11. The resurgence of nuclear energy. An option for the climatic change and for the emergent countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos A, L.; Nieva G, R.; Mulas, P.; Velez, C.; Ortiz M, J. R.; Thomas, S.; Finon, D.; Woodman, B.; Mez, L.


    The modern society is organized in mistaken form. A tremendous inability of the juridical, political, social and cultural system exists to interrelate the ecosystem (the resources that allow the life and the human activity) with the economic way of production, that is to say with the manner like the human beings appropriate of the nature and they transform it to satisfy the reproduction necessities of the capital and the population. Today we are already paying the consequences of this error. Of continuing with this tendency the next six years, a global increase of five centigrade grades is expected in the temperature, with effects like the increase of the sea level, floods, droughts, among other global problems, for what the gases of greenhouse effect are and they will continue being the main environmental challenge of the X XI century because they not represent alone a threat for the development but also for the humanity survival. The world conscience has wakened up, and in most of the countries where is stopped the construction of new nuclear power plants the plans are reconsidered to return the use of this source, being the two main reasons for reconsideration: the concern for the climatic change and the new world perception about the limits of fossil fuel reserves. The world return of the interest for the nuclear energy, it force to take in consideration the energy politics of Mexico whose structure is too much dependent of hydrocarbons and the import of liquefied natural gas and other energies, subject to the prices volatility and in a frame that lacks long term vision. Here the whole problem of the nuclear industry is exposed, the experiences, the risks, the costs, the future of the energy production for the populations that every time has a bigger consumption, the reader will have, this way, a wide panorama of diverse topics and interests that affect to generation of nuclear energy. (Author)

  12. Resurgent beaver ponds in the northeastern United States: implications for greenhouse gas emissions. (United States)

    Lazar, Julia G; Addy, Kelly; Welsh, Molly K; Gold, Arthur J; Groffman, Peter M


    Beaver ponds, a wetland type of increasing density in the northeastern United States, vary spatially and temporally, creating high uncertainty in their impact to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We used floating static gas chambers to assess diffusive fluxes of methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (NO) from the air-water interface of three beaver ponds (0.05-8 ha) in Rhode Island from fall 2012 to summer 2013. Gas flux was based on linear changes of gas concentrations in chambers over 1 h. Our results show that these beaver ponds generated considerable CH and CO emissions. Methane flux (18-556 mg m d) showed no significant seasonal differences, but the shallowest pond generated significantly higher CH flux than the other ponds. Carbon dioxide flux (0.5-22.0 g m d) was not significantly different between sites, but it was significantly higher in the fall, possibly due to the degradation of fresh leaves. Nitrous oxide flux was low (0-2.4 mg m d). Overall, CH and CO comprised most of the global warming potential, 61 and 38%, respectively. The shallowness of the beaver ponds may have limited the time needed for CH oxidation to CO before CH escaped to the atmosphere. Beaver dams also increase the aerial extent of hydric soils, which may transform riparian areas from upland GHG sinks to wetland GHG sources thereby changing the net global warming potential. Further studies tracking the pattern and conditions of beaver pond creation and abandonment will be essential to understanding their role as GHG sources. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Job creation due to nuclear power resurgence in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenley, C.R.; Klingler, R.D.; Plowman, C.M.; Soto, R.; Turk, R.J.; Baker, R.L.; Close, S.A.; McDonnell, V.L.; Paul, S.W.; Rabideau, L.R.; Rao, S.S.; Reilly, B.P.


    The recent revival of global interest in the next generation of nuclear power reactors is causing a re-examination of the role of nuclear power in the United States. This renewed interest has led to questions regarding the capability and capacity of current US industries to support a renewal of nuclear power plant deployment. Key among the many questions currently being asked is what potential exists for the creation of new jobs as a result of developing and operating these new plants? Idaho National Laboratory and Bechtel Power Corporation collaborated to perform a Department of Energy-sponsored study that evaluated the potential for job creation in the United States should these new next generation nuclear power plants be built. The study focused primarily on providing an initial estimate of the numbers of new manufacturing jobs that could be created, including those that could be repatriated from overseas, resulting from the construction of these new reactors. In addition to the growth in the manufacturing sector, the study attempted to estimate the potential increase in construction trades necessary to accomplish the new construction. (author)

  14. [Catatonia: resurgence of a concept. A review of the international literature]. (United States)

    Pommepuy, N; Januel, D


    Catatonia was first described in 1874 by Kahlbaum as being a cyclic disease mixing motor features and mood variations. Because most cases ended in dementia, Kraepelin recognized catatonia as a form of dementia praecox and Bleuler included it within his wide group of schizophrenias. This view influenced the psychiatric practice for more than 70 years. But catatonia was recently reconsidered and this because of the definition of more precise diagnosis criteria, the discovery of a striking association with mood disorders, and the emphasis on effective therapeutics. Peralta et al empirically developed a performant diagnostic instrument with the 11 most discriminant signs among catatonic features. Diagnostic threshold is three or more signs with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99%. These signs are: immobility/stupor (extreme passivity, marked hypokinesia); mutism (includes inaudible whisper); negativism (resistance to instructions, contrary comportment to whose asked); oppositionism, other called gegenhalten (resistance to passive movement which increases with the force exerted); posturing (patient adopts spontaneously odd postures); catalepsy (patient retains limb positions passively imposed during examination; waxy flexibility); automatic obedience (exaggerated co-operation to instructed movements); echo phenomena (movements, mimic and speech of the examiner are copied with modification and amplifications); rigidity (increased muscular tone); verbigeration (continuous and directionless repetition of single words or phrases); withdrawal/refusal to eat or drink (turning away from examiner, no eye contact, refusal to take food or drink when offered). Using this diagnostic tool, prevalence of catatonic syndrome appears to be close to 8% of psychiatric admissions. Other signs are also common but less specific: staring, ambitendance, iterations, stereotypes, mannerism, overactivity/excitement, impulsivity, combativeness. Some authors complete this description by

  15. Radiation safety and the resurgence of nuclear power in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrall, Tom P. Jr.


    , and to promote industry excellence in radiation protection. The NEI/INPO/EPRI Radiation Protection Strategic Plan (RP2020) has a stated mission of reshaping radiological protection at U.S. nuclear plants to achieve significant improvements in radiological protection and cost-effectiveness. RP2020 focuses on the following: more efficient refueling outages; increased reliance on remote monitoring technology; process standardization; source term reduction methodologies; shutdown chemistry controls; human performance improvement opportunities; low level waste treatment and disposal options; and emerging changes in U.S. radiological protection standards.To meet current and future challenges the Duke Energy Radiation Protection organization is fully engaged in the RP2020 initiative. This paper will address some of the strategies that have been implemented, and others that are needed, to address staff attrition, as well as staffing for new plants, reduction of collective and individual radiation exposures, source term reduction, and disposal options for low level radioactive waste. (author)

  16. Necrobacillosis - A resurgence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Andrea C.Y.; Argent, Julie D.


    Necrobacillosis is a rare life threatening illness caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum. It usually affects previously healthy adolescents and presents as symptomatic pharyngeal infection followed by bacteraemia and metastatic abscesses. A high degree of clinical suspicion is needed because there is often a delay between the presentation of sore throat and the development of systemic illness. The clinical and radiological features of four cases of necrobacillosis are reported and a review of the spectrum of manifestations of metastatic infection presented. Liu, A.C.Y. and Argent, J.D. (2002)

  17. Structure and evolution of an active resurgent dome evidenced by geophysical investigations: The Yenkahe dome-Yasur volcano system (Siwi caldera, Vanuatu) (United States)

    Brothelande, E.; Lénat, J.-F.; Chaput, M.; Gailler, L.; Finizola, A.; Dumont, S.; Peltier, A.; Bachèlery, P.; Barde-Cabusson, S.; Byrdina, S.; Menny, P.; Colonge, J.; Douillet, G. A.; Letort, J.; Letourneur, L.; Merle, O.; Di Gangi, F.; Nakedau, D.; Garaebiti, E.


    In this contribution, we focus on one of the most active resurgences on Earth, that of the Yenkahe dome in the Siwi caldera (Tanna Island, Vanuatu), which is associated with the persistently active Yasur volcano. Gravity and magnetic surveys have been carried out over the past few years in the area, as well as electrical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), time domain electro-magnetics (TDEM) and self-potential (SP). These investigations were completed by thermometry, CO2 soil gas measurements, field observations and sampling. This multi-method approach allows geological structures within the caldera to be identified, as well as associated hydrothermal features. The global structure of the caldera is deduced from gravity data, which shows the caldera rim as a high density structure. Large lava fields, emplaced before and after the onset of resurgence, are evidenced by combined gravity, magnetic and resistivity signals. In the middle of the caldera, the Yenkahe dome apparently results from a combination of volcanic and tectonic events, showing that lava extrusion and resurgence have been operating simultaneously or alternately during the Siwi caldera post-collapse history. There is a clear distinction between the western and eastern parts of the dome. The western part is older and records the growth of an initial volcanic cone and the formation of a small caldera. This small caldera (paleo-Yasur caldera), partially filled with lava flows, is the present-day focus of volcanic activity and associated fluid circulation and alteration. The eastern part of the dome is presumably younger, and is characterized by intense, extensive hydrothermal alteration and activity. Its northern part is covered by lava flow piles and exhibits a shallow hydrothermal zone in ERT. The southern part has hydrothermal alteration and activity extending at least down to the base of the resurgent dome. This part of the dome is built up of low cohesion rock and is thus

  18. An ignimbrite caldera from the bottom up: Exhumed floor and fill of the resurgent Bonanza caldera, Southern Rocky Mountain volcanic field, Colorado (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.; Zimmerer, Matthew J.; McIntosh, William C.


    Among large ignimbrites, the Bonanza Tuff and its source caldera in the Southern Rocky Mountain volcanic field display diverse depositional and structural features that provide special insights concerning eruptive processes and caldera development. In contrast to the nested loci for successive ignimbrite eruptions at many large multicyclic calderas elsewhere, Bonanza caldera is an areally isolated structure that formed in response to a single ignimbrite eruption. The adjacent Marshall caldera, the nonresurgent lava-filled source for the 33.9-Ma Thorn Ranch Tuff, is the immediate precursor for Bonanza, but projected structural boundaries of two calderas are largely or entirely separate even though the western topographic rim of Bonanza impinges on the older caldera. Bonanza, source of a compositionally complex regional ignimbrite sheet erupted at 33.12 ± 0.03 Ma, is a much larger caldera system than previously recognized. It is a subequant structure ∼20 km in diameter that subsided at least 3.5 km during explosive eruption of ∼1000 km3 of magma, then resurgently domed its floor a similar distance vertically. Among its features: (1) varied exposure levels of an intact caldera due to rugged present-day topography—from Paleozoic and Precambrian basement rocks that are intruded by resurgent plutons, upward through precaldera volcanic floor, to a single thickly ponded intracaldera ignimbrite (Bonanza Tuff), interleaved landslide breccia, and overlying postcollapse lavas; (2) large compositional gradients in the Bonanza ignimbrite (silicic andesite to rhyolite ignimbrite; 60%–76% SiO2); (3) multiple alternations of mafic and silicic zones within a single ignimbrite, rather than simple upward gradation to more mafic compositions; (4) compositional contrasts between outflow sectors of the ignimbrite (mainly crystal-poor rhyolite to east, crystal-rich dacite to west); (5) similarly large compositional diversity among postcollapse caldera-fill lavas and resurgent

  19. Gravitational slope-deformation of a resurgent caldera: New insights from the mechanical behaviour of Mt. Nuovo tuffs (Ischia Island, Italy) (United States)

    Marmoni, G. M.; Martino, S.; Heap, M. J.; Reuschlé, T.


    Ischia Island (Italy) is an impressive example of the rare phenomenon of caldera resurgence. The emplacement and replenishment of magmas at shallow depth resulted in a vertical uplift of about 900 m, concentrated in the western portion of Mt. Epomeo (789 m a.s.l.). As a consequence of this uplift, the island has experienced several slope instabilities at different scales since the Holocene, from shallow mass movements to large rock and debris avalanches. These mass wasting events, which mobilised large volumes of greenish alkali-trachytic tuff (the Mt. Epomeo Green Tuff, MEGT), were strictly related to volcano-tectonic activity and the interaction between the volcanic slopes and the hydrothermal system beneath the island. Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) at Mt. Nuovo, located adjacent to densely populated coastal villages, is an ongoing process that covers an area of 1.6 km2. The Mt. Nuovo DSGSD involves a rock mass volume of 190 Mm3 and is accommodated by a main shear zone and a series of sub-vertical fault zones associated with high-angle joint sets. To improve our understanding of this gravity-induced process, we performed a physical (porosity and permeability) and mechanical (uniaxial and triaxial deformation experiments) characterisation of two ignimbrite deposits - both from the MEGT - that form a significant component of the NW sector of Mt. Epomeo. The main conclusions drawn from our experiments are twofold. First, the presence of water dramatically reduces the strength of the tuffs, suggesting that the movement of fluids within the hydrothermal system could greatly impact slope stability. Second, the transition from brittle (dilatant) to ductile (compactant) behaviour in the tuffs of the MEGT occurs at a very low effective pressure, analogous to a depth of a couple of hundred metres, and that this transition is likely moved closer to the surface in the presence of water. We hypothesise that compactant (porosity decreasing) behaviour at

  20. Reconstruction of caldera collapse and resurgence processes in the offshore sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) (United States)

    Steinmann, Lena; Spiess, Volkhard; Sacchi, Marco


    Large collapse calderas are associated with exceptionally explosive volcanic eruptions, which are capable of triggering a global catastrophe second only to that from a giant meteorite impact. Therefore, active calderas have attracted significant attention in both scientific communities and governmental institutions worldwide. One prime example of a large collapse caldera can be found in southern Italy, more precisely in the northern Bay of Naples within the Campi Flegrei Volcanic Area. The Campi Flegrei caldera covers an area of approximately 200 km² defined by a quasi-circular depression, half onland, half offshore. It is still under debate whether the caldera formation was related to only one ignimbritic eruption namely the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) eruption at 15 ka or if it is a nested-caldera system related to the NYT and the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption at 39 ka. During the last 40 years, the Campi Flegrei caldera has experienced episodes of unrest involving significant ground deformation and seismicity, which have nevertheless not yet led to an eruption. Besides these short-term episodes of unrest, long-term ground deformation with rates of several tens of meters within a few thousand years can be observed in the central part of the caldera. The source of both short-term and long-term deformation is still under debate and possibly related to a shallow hydrothermal system and caldera resurgence attributed to a deeper magma chamber, respectively. Understanding the mechanisms for unrest and eruptions is of paramount importance as a future eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera would expose more than 500,000 people to the risk of pyroclastic flows. This study is based on a dense grid (semi-3D) of high-resolution multi-channel seismic profiles acquired in the offshore sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The seismic lines show evidence for the escape of fluids and/or gases along weak zones such as faults, thereby supporting the existence of a hydrothermal

  1. The channelopathies: An overview | Blanckenberg | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Included in this diverse array of diseases are malignant hyperthermia, long QT syndrome, myotonia congenita, Eaton Lambert syndrome, certain forms of migraine and epilepsy, as well as cystic fibrosis.1 The common pathophysiology in all these diseases is an inherited abnormality of the amino acid sequence of the ...

  2. Cardiac channelopathies and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Grunnet, Morten


    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is always a devastating and unexpected occurrence. SIDS is the leading cause of death in the first 6 months after birth in the industrialized world. Since the discovery in 1998 of long QT syndrome as an underlying substrate for SIDS, around 10-20% of SIDS cases...

  3. Decline in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Among Non-Injecting Heroin and Cocaine Users in New York City, 2005 to 2014: Prospects for Avoiding a Resurgence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus. (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C; Arasteh, Kamyar; Feelemyer, Jonathan; McKnight, Courtney; Tross, Susan; Perlman, David C; Campbell, Aimee N C; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah L F


    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases both susceptibility to and transmissibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and HSV-2 and HIV are often strongly associated in HIV epidemics. We assessed trends in HSV-2 prevalence among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) when HIV prevalence declined from 16% to 8% among NIDUs in New York City. Subjects were current non-injecting users of heroin and/or cocaine and who had never injected illicit drugs. Three thousand one hundred fifty-seven NIDU subjects were recruited between 2005 and 2014 among persons entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel substance use treatment programs. Structured interviews, HIV, and HSV-2 testing were administered. Change over time was assessed by comparing 2005 to 2010 with 2011 to 2014 periods. Herpes simplex virus type 2 incidence was estimated among persons who participated in multiple years. Herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence was strongly associated with HIV prevalence (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.9-5.1) from 2005 to 2014. Herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence declined from 60% to 56% (P = 0.01). The percentage of NIDUs with neither HSV-2 nor HIV infection increased from 37% to 43%, (P < 0.001); the percentage with HSV-2/HIV coinfection declined from 13% to 6% (P < 0.001). Estimated HSV-2 incidence was 1 to 2/100 person-years at risk. There were parallel declines in HIV and HSV-2 among NIDUs in New York City from 2005 to 2014. The increase in the percentage of NIDUs with neither HSV-2 nor HIV infection, the decrease in the percentage with HSV-2/HIV coinfection, and the low to moderate HSV-2 incidence suggest some population-level protection against resurgence of HIV. Prevention efforts should be strengthened to end the combined HIV/HSV-2 epidemic among NIDUs in New York City.

  4. Resurgence of measles in a country of elimination: interim assessment and current control measures in the Republic of Korea in early 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Un Yang


    Full Text Available Since the beginning of 2014, the Republic of Korea has experienced a resurgence of measles cases. Among the 220 cases confirmed as measles during epidemiological weeks 1–20 (December 29, 2013 to May 17, 2014, 10 imported cases were identified. The predominant genotype was B3, which reflects the circulating measles virus in adjacent countries. Even with the verification of measles elimination in March 2014 by the World Health Organization, recent importation has been related to international travel. Targeted control measures have been implemented in addition to proper isolation and patient care. A vigilant surveillance system and high levels of vaccine coverage should be maintained to sustain the measles elimination status.

  5. Status of the U.S. nuclear option, conditions leading to its resurgence, and current licensing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidi, J.


    The projected increase in electricity demand, increased concern over emissions along with more stringent emission requirements, volatility of the gas and oil supplies and prices, and the convergence of favourable conditions and legislation make nuclear power a practical option for meeting future electricity base-load demands. (author)

  6. Viruses, bacteria, and parasites - oh my! a resurgence of interest in microbial-based therapy for cancer. (United States)

    Zloza, Andrew


    As infections and cancer are two of the most common maladies affecting human beings, a concerted effort is needed to better understand their potential interactions and to further explore their use in microbial-based cancer treatments. Studies focusing on the interaction between pathogens and cancer began over 4000 years ago, but therapeutic application of pathogens has often been bypassed as other cancer therapies have gained wider interest. To many, the field of microbial-based cancer treatment may feel antiquated and already sufficiently explored. However, closer examination reveals that our current knowledge is but a series of dim reflections amongst many yet-unexplored shadows. Particularly, with our increased understanding of pathogen entry, replication, and senescence, coupled with our quickly increasing knowledge regarding cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis, and capped by our realization of the complexity and plasticity of the immune response, we are just now beginning to realize the vastness of the undiscovered area encompassing this field. At the same time, we are now uniquely poised with gained knowledge and discovered tools to join together across disciplines, uncover new positive and negative interactions between pathogens and cancer, and make important progress toward saving cancer patient lives.

  7. A resurgence in field research is essential to better understand the diversity, ecology, and evolution of microbial eukaryotes. (United States)

    Heger, Thierry J; Edgcomb, Virginia P; Kim, Eunsoo; Lukeš, Julius; Leander, Brian S; Yubuki, Naoji


    The discovery and characterization of protist communities from diverse environments are crucial for understanding the overall evolutionary history of life on earth. However, major questions about the diversity, ecology, and evolutionary history of protists remain unanswered, notably because data obtained from natural protist communities, especially of heterotrophic species, remain limited. In this review, we discuss the challenges associated with "field protistology", defined here as the exploration, characterization, and interpretation of microbial eukaryotic diversity within the context of natural environments or field experiments, and provide suggestions to help fill this important gap in knowledge. We also argue that increased efforts in field studies that combine molecular and microscopical methods offer the most promising path toward (1) the discovery of new lineages that expand the tree of eukaryotes; (2) the recognition of novel evolutionary patterns and processes; (3) the untangling of ecological interactions and functions, and their roles in larger ecosystem processes; and (4) the evaluation of protist adaptations to a changing climate. © 2013 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2013 International Society of Protistologists.

  8. The Resurgence of Shale Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie


    This study addresses the resilience factors of the American production of light tight oil, in particular regarding the evolution of the financial model, and the regulatory changes with the authorisation of exports for crude oil. The paper also evaluates the development perspectives of the production on the medium and long term. US production of light tight oil (LTO, commonly known as 'shale oil') experienced a spectacular expansion between 2010 and 2014, becoming the largest source of growth in world oil production. At the start of 2015, however, the sustainability of its business model became questionable. Oil prices had collapsed and uncertainty about future US production was at its height. The sharp drop in the number of drill holes as of January 2015 raised fears of a rapid fall in US petroleum output. The LTO business model, based largely on the use of debt, reinforced this projection. Independent producers were heavily indebted, and were no longer able to invest in new wells. LTO production would therefore run out of steam. Two years later, LTO has passed its first test successfully. While output of shale gas has clearly fallen, cuts have been modest and much less than had been feared, given the falls in capital spending (CAPEX) and the number of drill holes. Productivity improvements as well as cost reductions have permitted a halving of the LTO equilibrium price. Independent producers have refocused their activities on the most productive basins and sites. The essential role played by the Permian Basin should be stressed at this point. In two years, it has become a new El dorado. Despite the fall in drill holes through to May 2016, production has continued to rise and now amounts to a quarter of American oil output. Furthermore, independents have drawn extra value from their well inventories, which include drilled, but also uncompleted wells. Lastly, the impressive number of drilled wells prior to price cuts has allowed producers to maintain their output levels

  9. Transactions en eaux troubles : résurgences de la voix shakespearienne dans Moby-Dick Defamiliarising the Bard: The Resurgence of Shakespeare in Moby-Dick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Ludot-Vlasak


    Full Text Available This article explores the way Herman Melville appropriates William Shakespeare’s work in Moby-Dick. Its argument is that by defamiliarising some of Shakespeare’s lines—a corpus that was both alien and familiar to nineteenth-century writers— Melville turns them into his own idiom. This resurgence of the Shakespearean voice is double: although the dramatic element in the novel is often associated with the figure of Ahab, Ishmael also incorporates Shakespearean lines into his narrative. What characterises these (intertextual transactions is that instead of quoting directly from Shakespeare’s plays, Melville often blurs references in order to appropriate the works of his predecessor. More than the mere imitation of a model, this complex process reveals Shakespeare’s seminal role in Moby-Dick as well as Melville’s poetics of reinvention. Ultimately, it enables the author to explore the dark forces lying beneath the surface of things.

  10. Unexplained Drownings and the Cardiac Channelopathies: A Molecular Autopsy Series (United States)

    Tester, David J.; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Will, Melissa L.; Ackerman, Michael J.


    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and spectrum of mutations associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS) and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) in a seemingly unexplained drowning cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From September 1, 1998, through October 31, 2010, 35 unexplained drowning victims (23 male and 12 female; mean ± SD age, 17±12 years [range, 4-69 years]) were referred for a cardiac channel molecular autopsy. Of these, 28 (20 male and 8 female) drowned while swimming, and 7 (3 male and 4 female) were bathtub submersions. Polymerase chain reaction, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, and DNA sequencing were used for a comprehensive mutational analysis of the 3 major LQTS-susceptibility genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A), and a targeted analysis of the CPVT1-associated, RYR2-encoded cardiac ryanodine receptor was conducted. RESULTS: Of the 28 victims of swimming-related drowning, 8 (28.6%) were mutation positive, including 2 with KCNQ1 mutations (L273F, AAPdel71-73 plus V524G) and 6 with RYR2 mutations (R414C, I419F, R1013Q, V2321A, R2401H, and V2475F). None of the bathtub victims were mutation positive. Of the 28 victims who drowned while swimming, women were more likely to be mutation positive than men (5/8 [62.5%] vs 3/20 [15%]; P=.02). Although none of the mutation-positive, swimming-related drowning victims had a premortem diagnosis of LQTS or CPVT, a family history of cardiac arrest, family history of prior drowning, or QT prolongation was present in 50%. CONCLUSION: Nearly 30% of the victims of swimming-related drowning hosted a cardiac channel mutation. Genetic testing should be considered in the postmortem evaluation of an unexplained drowning, especially if a positive personal or family history is elicited. PMID:21964171

  11. Diseases of the nervous system associated with calcium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, Boyan Bogdanov


    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate how abnormal CaV2.1 channel function can cause disease, in particular motor coordination dysfunction. The chapters illustrate how various neuronal cell types in the periphery (peripheral nervous system) and the central nervous system

  12. Ion channelopathies of the kidney and adrenal gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, B. B.; Wollnik, B.; Koemhoff, M.


    Genetic kidney diseases represent a significant proportion of kidney diseases manifesting in childhood and adolescence, but are also gaining importance in slowly progressive or late-onset adult diseases. A significant portion of kidney diseases particularly in childhood are associated with end stage

  13. Channelopathies - emerging trends in the management of inherited arrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, Priya; Mizusawa, Yuka; Wilde, Arthur A. M.


    In spite of their relative rarity, inheritable arrhythmias have come to the forefront as a group of potentially fatal but preventable cause of sudden cardiac death in children and (young) adults. Comprehensive management of inherited arrhythmias includes diagnosing and treating the proband and

  14. Channelopathies - Emerging Trends in The Management of Inherited Arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Chockalingam, MBBS, MRCPCH, PhD


    Full Text Available In spite of their relative rarity, inheritable arrhythmias have come to the forefront as a group of potentially fatal but preventable cause of sudden cardiac death in children and (young adults. Comprehensive management of inherited arrhythmias includes diagnosing and treating the proband and identifying and protecting affected family members. This has been made possible by the vast advances in the field of molecular biology enabling better understanding of the genetic underpinnings of some of these disease groups, namely congenital long QT syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and Brugada syndrome. The ensuing knowledge of the genotype-phenotype correlations enables us to risk-stratify, prognosticate and treat based on the genetic test results. The various diagnostic modalities currently available to us, including clinical tools and genetic technologies, have to be applied judiciously in order to promptly identify those affected and to spare the emotional burden of a potentially lethal disease in the unaffected individuals. The therapeutic armamentarium of inherited arrhythmias includes pharmacological agents, device therapies and surgical interventions. A treatment strategy keeping in mind the risk profile of the patients, the local availability of drugs and the expertise of the treating personnel is proving effective. While opportunities for research are numerous in this expanding field of medicine, there is also tremendous scope for incorporating the emerging trends in managing patients and families with inherited arrhythmias in the Indian subcontinent.

  15. Back to the Future: The Resurgence of Community in American Society, and Community Journalism in the Newspaper Industry and Higher Education. (United States)

    Lauterer, Jock

    America is in the midst of the age of the emergent and enlightened community. Citizens increasingly demand from their newspapers high-quality, explanatory coverage of local issues. Newspapers large and small are responding. Community newspapers are growing, and many big city media outlets are rethinking their news coverage philosophy in terms of…

  16. Advanced Propeller Flow Control for Increased Propulsive Efficiency, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important mission for NASA is the development of revolutionary flight concepts and technology. The development of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs), the resurgence of...

  17. Penning-trap mass measurements of the neutron-rich K and Ca isotopes: Resurgence of the N=28 shell strength (United States)

    Lapierre, A.; Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Ettenauer, S.; Finlay, P.; Gallant, A. T.; Simon, V. V.; Delheij, P.; Lunney, D.; Ringle, R.; Savajols, H.; Dilling, J.


    We present Penning-trap mass measurements of neutron-rich 44,47-50K and 49,50Ca isotopes carried out at the TITAN facility at TRIUMF-ISAC. The 44K mass measurement was performed with a charge-bred 4+ ion utilizing the TITAN electron beam ion trap and agrees with the literature. The mass excesses obtained for 47K and 49,50Ca are more precise and agree with the values published in the 2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME’03). The 48,49,50K mass excesses are more precise than the AME’03 values by more than 1 order of magnitude. For 48,49K, we find deviations of 7σ and 10σ, respectively. The new 49K mass excess lowers significantly the two-neutron separation energy at the neutron number N=30 compared with the separation energy calculated from the AME’03 mass-excess values and thus increases the N=28 neutron-shell gap energy at Z=19 by approximately 1 MeV.

  18. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia


    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  19. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia


    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  20. First record of the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and its possible role in the resurgence of malaria in Djibouti, Horn of Africa. (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Khaireh, Bouh A


    Anopheles stephensi is an important vector of urban malaria in India and the Persian Gulf area. Its previously known geographical range includes southern Asia and the Arab Peninsula. For the first time, we report A. stephensi from the African continent, based on collections made in Djibouti, on the Horn of Africa, where this species' occurrence was linked to an unusual urban outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, with 1228 cases reported from February to May 2013, and a second, more severe epidemic that emerged in November 2013 and resulted in 2017 reported malaria cases between January and February 2014. Anopheles stephensi was initially identified using morphological identification keys, followed by sequencing of the Barcode cytochrome c-oxidase I (COI) gene and the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2). Positive tests for P. falciparum circumsporozoite antigen in two of six female A. stephensi trapped in homes of malaria patients in March 2013 are evidence that autochthonous urban malaria transmission by A. stephensi has occurred. Concurrent with the second malaria outbreak, P. falciparum-positive A. stephensi females were detected in Djibouti City starting in November 2013. In sub-Saharan Africa, newly present A. stephensi may pose a significant future health threat because of this species' high susceptibility to P. falciparum infection and its tolerance of urban habitats. This may lead to increased malaria outbreaks in African cities. Rapid interruption of the urban malaria transmission cycle, based on integrated vector surveillance and control programs aimed at the complete eradication of A. stephensi from the African continent, is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Block grants and the resurgence of federalism. (United States)

    Brandt, E N


    In an address, this past summer, to the National Convention of State Legislatures, President Reagan captured to essence of the block grant proposal in a sentence. "Our task," the President said, "is to restore the constitutional symmetry between the Central Government and the States and to re-establish the freedom and variety of federalism." Consolidating the current profusion of complex and often overlapping Federal health grants into four State-administered packages will greatly reduce administrative costs and allow us to make wise use of scarce health dollars in a time of economic trial. At the same time, these changes will give States the managerial and policy flexibility that they need, but have lacked, to respond to their own most pressing needs. Of perhaps most importance in the long run, this system of grants will return a just portion of responsibility for the preservation and improvement of our health care system to the States, their communities, and the people. It is precisely this kind of equilibrium, this symmetry, that the President had in mind and that, for too many years, the Federal-State-Private partnership in health has been without. The restoration of this equilibrium, it should be noted by all, is underway. PMID:7302102

  2. The resurgence of selective contracting restrictions. (United States)

    Marsteller, J A; Bovbjerg, R R; Nichols, L M; Verrilli, D K


    As managed care has spread, so has legislation to force plans to contract with any willing provider (AWP) and give patients freedom of choice (FOC). Managed care organizations' selective networks and provider integration reduce patient access to providers, along with provider access to paying patients, so many providers have lobbied for AWP-FOC laws. In opposition are managed care organizations (MCOs), which want full freedom to contract selectively to control prices and utilization. This article comprehensively describes laws in all fifty-one jurisdictions, classifies their relative strength, and assesses the implications of the laws. Most are relatively weak forms and all are limited in application by ERISA and the federal HMO Act. The article also uses an associative multivariate analysis to relate the selective contracting environments to HMO penetration rates, rural population, physician density, and other variables. States with weak laws also have higher HMO penetration and higher physician density, but smaller rural populations. We conclude that the strongest laws overly restrict the management of care, to the likely detriment of cost control. But where market power is rapidly concentrating, not restricting selective contracting could diminish long-term competition and patient access to care. In the face of uncertainty about the impact of these laws, an intermediate approach may be better than all or nothing. States should consider mandating that plans offer point-of-service options, for a separate premium. This option expands patient choice of plans at the time of enrollment and of providers at the time of care, yet maintains plans' ability to control core providers.

  3. Segregation, urban space and the resurgent city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.


    Currently, many major Western cities aim to be attractive to new and economically successful high-tech industries, financial and business services, cultural industries and consumer services industries. Most of these new activities are dependent upon well-skilled creative workers, which will be

  4. Qualitative research: resurgence, institutionalisation and application


    Fielding, NG


    The way that the social sciences developed in respect of methodological preferences, and differences between European and North American approaches, helps us to understand why secondary analysis has until recently been a limited practice in qualitative research. To unravel the developments that explain the differing circumstances of secondary analysis in quantitative and qualitative research, we will initially consider the early days of qualitative method, and comment on its location in the f...

  5. Dingle’s self-resurgence formula (United States)

    Berry, M. V.


    If a nonlinear function F(S) depends on a function S(x) that is represented by a factorially divergent asymptotic power series in a small parameter x, each late coefficient of the power series for F(S(x)) can be represented explicitly as an asymptotic series whose terms involve balanced combinations of the late and early coefficients of the series for S(x). The formula for the late terms was first described by R B Dingle but not published by him. Numerics for a variety of functions F(S) demonstrate this ‘self-resurgence’ and the accuracy of the representation. Dedicated to the memory of R B Dingle, FRSE.

  6. Resurgence of nuclear energy in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iaccarino, F.


    In order to shed light on recent developments, as well as on future steps, this paper will first analyse the history of nuclear power production in Italy and the reasons for the decision to re-embark upon a nuclear power programme. It will briefly describe the legislation which governed nuclear activities before this decision, introduce the latest legislative changes and legislative projects and, finally, aim to demonstrate what else is necessary to realize this ambitious project in the near future. This analysis will be particularly focused on the current italian legislation following the recent approval of Act No. 99 of 23. july 2009, which lays down milestones for the new national nuclear legal framework. The implementation of a nuclear power programme is an enormous challenge. however, it can be successful if appropriate and timely steps are taken in the months and years to come. the national nuclear framework will play a key role in managing and regulating the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in a consistent and rational manner. It is therefore crucial that the foundation for this framework is set accurately so that it provides a sound basis for activities related to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Italy. (N.C.)

  7. Albumin, in the Presence of Calcium, Elicits a Massive Increase in Extracellular Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin. (United States)

    Gonyar, Laura A; Gray, Mary C; Christianson, Gregory J; Mehrad, Borna; Hewlett, Erik L


    Pertussis (whooping cough), caused by Bordetella pertussis , is resurging in the United States and worldwide. Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is a critical factor in establishing infection with B. pertussis and acts by specifically inhibiting the response of myeloid leukocytes to the pathogen. We report here that serum components, as discovered during growth in fetal bovine serum (FBS), elicit a robust increase in the amount of ACT, and ≥90% of this ACT is localized to the supernatant, unlike growth without FBS, in which ≥90% is associated with the bacterium. We have found that albumin, in the presence of physiological concentrations of calcium, acts specifically to enhance the amount of ACT and its localization to the supernatant. Respiratory secretions, which contain albumin, promote an increase in amount and localization of active ACT that is comparable to that elicited by serum and albumin. The response to albumin is not mediated through regulation of ACT at the transcriptional level or activation of the Bvg two-component system. As further illustration of the specificity of this phenomenon, serum collected from mice that lack albumin does not stimulate an increase in ACT. These data, demonstrating that albumin and calcium act synergistically in the host environment to increase production and release of ACT, strongly suggest that this phenomenon reflects a novel host-pathogen interaction that is central to infection with B. pertussis and other Bordetella species. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Increased SRP reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAfee, I.M.


    Major changes in the current reactor hydraulic systems could be made to achieve a total of about 1500 MW increase of reactor power for P, K, and C reactors. The changes would be to install new, larger heat exchangers in the reactor buildings to increase heat transfer area about 24%, to increase H 2 O flow about 30% per reactor, to increase D 2 O flow 15 to 18% per reactor, and increase reactor blanket gas pressure from 5 psig to 10 psig. The increased reactor power is possible because of reduced inlet temperature of reactor coolant, increased heat removal capacity, and increased operating pressure (larger margin from boiling). The 23% reactor power increase, after adjustment for increased off-line time for reactor reloading, will provide a 15% increase of production from P, K, and C reactors. Restart of L Reactor would increase SRP production 33%

  9. The resurgence of nuclear energy. An option for the climatic change and for the emergent countries?; El resurgimiento de la energia nuclear. Una opcion para el cambio climatico y para los paises emergentes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos A, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Circuito Mario de la Cueva, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Nieva G, R.; Mulas, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Velez, C. [Electricite de France, Comite Cientifico Asesor, 22-30 avenue de Wagram, 75382 Paris (France); Ortiz M, J. R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52759 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Thomas, S. [University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom); Finon, D. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environment et le Developpement, CNRS, Campus du Jardin Tropical 45 bis, avenue de la Belle Gabrielle 94736, Nogent-sur-Marne Cedex (France); Woodman, B. [University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 8UW (United Kingdom); Mez, L. [Freie Universitat Berlin, Environmental Policy Research Centre, Thielallee 47, 14195 Berlin (Germany)


    The modern society is organized in mistaken form. A tremendous inability of the juridical, political, social and cultural system exists to interrelate the ecosystem (the resources that allow the life and the human activity) with the economic way of production, that is to say with the manner like the human beings appropriate of the nature and they transform it to satisfy the reproduction necessities of the capital and the population. Today we are already paying the consequences of this error. Of continuing with this tendency the next six years, a global increase of five centigrade grades is expected in the temperature, with effects like the increase of the sea level, floods, droughts, among other global problems, for what the gases of greenhouse effect are and they will continue being the main environmental challenge of the X XI century because they not represent alone a threat for the development but also for the humanity survival. The world conscience has wakened up, and in most of the countries where is stopped the construction of new nuclear power plants the plans are reconsidered to return the use of this source, being the two main reasons for reconsideration: the concern for the climatic change and the new world perception about the limits of fossil fuel reserves. The world return of the interest for the nuclear energy, it force to take in consideration the energy politics of Mexico whose structure is too much dependent of hydrocarbons and the import of liquefied natural gas and other energies, subject to the prices volatility and in a frame that lacks long term vision. Here the whole problem of the nuclear industry is exposed, the experiences, the risks, the costs, the future of the energy production for the populations that every time has a bigger consumption, the reader will have, this way, a wide panorama of diverse topics and interests that affect to generation of nuclear energy. (Author)

  10. O Ressurgimento do Movimento Cooperativista de Trabalho no BrasilThe resurgence of the Cooperative Movement of Labor in BrazilEl Resurgimiento del Movimiento Cooperativista de Trabajo en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTOFOLI, Fulvio


    Full Text Available RESUMOA face mais visível da crise recente, foi o incremento observado na taxa de desemprego, tema que domina o debate social brasileiro nos últimos anos. Assistimos hoje as transformações importantes no mundo do trabalho. Novas formas de organização aparecem e a natureza se modifica. O desaparecimento de empregos permanentes; e simultaneamente, aparecem novas tecnologias e formas inovadoras de trabalho. Ao mesmo tempo em que milhares de pessoas sofrem pela falta de uma vaga, outras sofrem pelo fato de terem que trabalhar excessivamente. Rapidamente surgem e mudam as formas de trabalhar neste processo de transformações, convivem desde o trabalho mais simples, como o que exige unicamente o esforço físico, manual, até o trabalho mais complexo que utiliza energia cerebral, conhecimentos como a programação ou cálculos matemáticos. O lugar onde se realiza o trabalho também se transforma, funções surgem e desaparecem com velocidade, muitas vezes, não gerando nenhuma identidade profissional. O movimento cooperativista de trabalho, diante deste cenário, representa um modelo de comportamento alternativo entre o mercado e os trabalhadores, trazendo a estes através da cooperativa o seu instrumento jurídico de viabilização eficiente do trabalho, principalmente eliminando a intermediação. Isto permite a distribuição de maior renda ao trabalhador, uma vez que o excedente antes apropriado pela intermediação, agora é redistribuído entre os cooperados associados, efetivamente os executores do trabalho.ABSTRACTThe most visible aspect of the recent crisis is observed in the increase of the tax of unemployment. In the last few years the theme of unemployment dominates the Brazilian social debate. Nowadays we notice in the world important evolution referring to work. New types of organizations appear and modify nature. Permanent jobs begin to disappear and new forms of technologies appear to innovate the way of working. While millions

  11. Resurgent Military Political Adventurism in West Africa: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    military intervention in the politics of some West African states and this calls for ... experienced military coup leading to military rule in most cases. ... study, we shall examine the closely knit nature of inter-state relationships in West ... It is instructive to note that the military juntas did not fare better in office. ..... Sweden: SIPRI.

  12. A resurgence of the nuclear threat in Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin


    The first months of the Ukraine crisis were observed without any real consideration of the nuclear aspect of what will undoubtedly go down as an historical event. Several recent pieces of evidence mean that can no longer be the case. Firstly, nuclear weapons are now an integral part of Russian discourse in the framework of this crisis. Speaking at the end of August at the Seliger 2014 10. National Youth Forum, President Putin said, 'Let me remind you that Russia is one of the world's biggest nuclear powers. These are not just words - this is the reality. What's more, we are strengthening our nuclear deterrent capability and developing our armed forces. They have become more compact and effective and are becoming more modern in terms of the weapons at their disposal. We are continuing to work to build up our potential and will keep doing so (...)'. Certain Russian generals have alluded to the option of a limited use of nuclear weapons, even the option of preemptive use. The latest NATO summit in Newport reaffirmed the centrality of nuclear deterrence in the Alliance's security configuration. Moreover, the Ukraine crisis is continuing whereas bilateral nuclear arms control is at a standstill; over the summer, the United States accused Russian of violating its obligations under the Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, and Russian diplomats are no longer concealing the country's desire to suspend its disarmament efforts. Finally, the modernisation of Russian forces is continuing while Russia's doctrinal re-evaluation is scheduled for the end of this year. The use of nuclear weapons in Europe is difficult to envisage. However, whether we like it or not, events over the past few months have confirmed that nuclear defence is still one of the factors of international relations on the continent. Have we been appearing to forget this fact in recent years, as the number of warheads and delivery systems in nuclear arsenals has declined, as has the role of nu-clear weapons in the military doctrines of nuclear-weapon States? This is not a case of rejoicing in this observation, like those who see in it an un-hoped-for opportunity to once again give the Atlantic Alliance a 'raison d'etre'. Nor is it a matter of being alarmed by it, as are those for whom the end of the Cold War was supposed to abolish the strategic nature of inter-State relations. It is instead a case of recalling the fact that international relations are power-based, and that nuclear weapons are the favoured means of this power, as is the development of offensive and defensive conventional forces by the most developed States. The Ukraine crisis readily evokes the idea of a discouraging return to the international relations that characterised the Cold War. Yet, the argument for this kind of regression is unsatisfactory. In reality, within this context is being played out what is still the beginning of a strategic realignment that is unprecedented in many respects. In this respect, Russia is an emerging power, as are also today, on Europe's borders, Turkey and Iran. The same phenomenon is at work in other regions around the world. For the time being, the slippage in Europe remains under control. It one of the paradoxical characteristics of nuclear weapons to be able to facilitate, in certain conditions, low-intensity conflicts while simultaneously restricting them. Strategic analysis enjoys nothing better than celebrating this kind of paradox. It is unlikely that the 'conventional' dismemberment of Ukraine - should this prove to be the case - under the cover of the nuclear umbrella of a nuclear weapon State will prove to be to the taste of other non-nuclear weapon States, both in Europe and elsewhere. (author)

  13. Exploring the Resurgence of Ethno-Cultural Identity in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 29, 2015 ... 2, 2014 people who conceive of themselves as being of a kind, united by emotional .... influence is the role of the elites or the ruling class to construct an ideological .... certain affinities which they claim to make demands upon other groups (Varma ..... He enlisted two of his friends, Chief Moshood Kolawale.

  14. Burial and resurgence of projective identification in French psychoanalysis. (United States)

    Widlöcher, Daniel


    Curiously enough, the concept of projective identification was ignored, and even rejected in France for at least two decades after the publication of the founding texts of Melanie Klein and Herbert Rosenfeld. This rejection was due to a critique from child psychoanalysts close to Anna Freud and also from the teaching of Lacan: the first took the real mother-child relation extensively into account, while the latter only saw the internal object as a signifier. The fact that during this period the countertransference was a concept reduced to its negative content no doubt explains this deliberate ignorance. With the dissemination of a broader and more positive conception of the countertransference, a renewal of interest could be observed in the 1980s with references to empathic listening and to the effects of thought-induction. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  15. Implicating roles of animal reservoir hosts in the resurgence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gambian trypanosomosis (Sleeping Sickness) is a complex and debilitating disease of man. For many years the disease has been ravaging in several parts of sub-saharan Africa despite decades of therapeutic control. Although animal reservoir hosts are believed to be associated with the disease, not much evidences have ...

  16. Recent resurgence of mumps in the United States. (United States)

    Dayan, Gustavo H; Quinlisk, M Patricia; Parker, Amy A; Barskey, Albert E; Harris, Meghan L; Schwartz, Jennifer M Hill; Hunt, Kae; Finley, Carol G; Leschinsky, Dennis P; O'Keefe, Anne L; Clayton, Joshua; Kightlinger, Lon K; Dietle, Eden G; Berg, Jeffrey; Kenyon, Cynthia L; Goldstein, Susan T; Stokley, Shannon K; Redd, Susan B; Rota, Paul A; Rota, Jennifer; Bi, Daoling; Roush, Sandra W; Bridges, Carolyn B; Santibanez, Tammy A; Parashar, Umesh; Bellini, William J; Seward, Jane F


    The widespread use of a second dose of mumps vaccine among U.S. schoolchildren beginning in 1990 was followed by historically low reports of mumps cases. A 2010 elimination goal was established, but in 2006 the largest mumps outbreak in two decades occurred in the United States. We examined national data on mumps cases reported during 2006, detailed case data from the most highly affected states, and vaccination-coverage data from three nationwide surveys. A total of 6584 cases of mumps were reported in 2006, with 76% occurring between March and May. There were 85 hospitalizations, but no deaths were reported; 85% of patients lived in eight contiguous midwestern states. The national incidence of mumps was 2.2 per 100,000, with the highest incidence among persons 18 to 24 years of age (an incidence 3.7 times that of all other age groups combined). In a subgroup analysis, 83% of these patients reported current college attendance. Among patients in eight highly affected states with known vaccination status, 63% overall and 84% between the ages of 18 and 24 years had received two doses of mumps vaccine. For the 12 years preceding the outbreak, national coverage of one-dose mumps vaccination among preschoolers was 89% or more nationwide and 86% or more in highly affected states. In 2006, the national two-dose coverage among adolescents was 87%, the highest in U.S. history. Despite a high coverage rate with two doses of mumps-containing vaccine, a large mumps outbreak occurred, characterized by two-dose vaccine failure, particularly among midwestern college-age adults who probably received the second dose as schoolchildren. A more effective mumps vaccine or changes in vaccine policy may be needed to avert future outbreaks and achieve the elimination of mumps. Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  17. Zika virus infection: The resurgence of a neglected disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kambale


    Full Text Available "Zika virus" (ZIKV is an enveloped, icosahedral virus and has a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome approximately 11 kb in length. Genetic studies have revealed three ZIKV lineages: East African, West African, and Asian. Serologic studies and virus isolations have demonstrated that the virus has a wide geographic distribution, spanning East and West Africa, the Americas, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. ZIKV can cause complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and myelitis. During pregnancy ZIKV infection can lead to miscarriages and microcephaly, cerebral calcifications, macular neuroretinal atrophy, and loss of foveal reflex in the fetus. A clinically suspected case of infection with dengue negative result should be further tested for Flavivirus, including Zika. Immunofluorescence or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is used to detect specific IgM or IgG antibodies against ZIKV. In cases of positive ZIKV infection, symptomatic treatment should be given after excluding other condition such as dengue, malaria, and bacterial infections.

  18. Quantum geometry of resurgent perturbative/nonperturbative relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basar, Gökçe [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Dunne, Gerald V. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States); Ünsal, Mithat [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)


    For a wide variety of quantum potentials, including the textbook ‘instanton’ examples of the periodic cosine and symmetric double-well potentials, the perturbative data coming from fluctuations about the vacuum saddle encodes all non-perturbative data in all higher non-perturbative sectors. Here we unify these examples in geometric terms, arguing that the all-orders quantum action determines the all-orders quantum dual action for quantum spectral problems associated with a classical genus one elliptic curve. Furthermore, for a special class of genus one potentials this relation is particularly simple: this class includes the cubic oscillator, symmetric double-well, symmetric degenerate triple-well, and periodic cosine potential. These are related to the Chebyshev potentials, which are in turn related to certain N=2 supersymmetric quantum field theories, to mirror maps for hypersurfaces in projective spaces, and also to topological c=3 Landau-Ginzburg models and ‘special geometry’. These systems inherit a natural modular structure corresponding to Ramanujan’s theory of elliptic functions in alternative bases, which is especially important for the quantization. Insights from supersymmetric quantum field theory suggest similar structures for more complicated potentials, corresponding to higher genus. Our approach is very elementary, using basic classical geometry combined with all-orders WKB.

  19. Restart: The Resurgence of Computer Science in UK Schools (United States)

    Brown, Neil C. C.; Sentance, Sue; Crick, Tom; Humphreys, Simon


    Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a remarkable transformation. While the changes are not consistent across each of the four devolved nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), there are developments in each that are moving the subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5 onwards. In this article, we…

  20. Resurgence of functional neurosurgery for Parkinson's disease: a historical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, J. D.; Bosch, D. A.


    The history of functional neurosurgery for the treatment of Parkinson's disease is reviewed. Two major stages may be distinguished: (1) open functional neurosurgery, which started in 1921 with bilateral cervical rhizotomy by Leriche. In 1937 Bucy performed the first motor cortectomy in a tremor

  1. Resurgent Ethnicity among Asian Americans: Ethnic Neighborhood Context and Health (United States)

    Walton, Emily


    In this study I investigate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic and social environments with the health of Asian Americans living in both Asian ethnic neighborhoods and non-Asian neighborhoods. I use a sample of 1962 Asian Americans from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS, 2003-04). Three key findings emerge. First,…

  2. Resurgence and hydrodynamic attractors in Gauss-Bonnet holography (United States)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Gushterov, Nikola I.; Meiring, Ben


    We study the convergence of the hydrodynamic series in the gravity dual of Gauss-Bonnet gravity in five dimensions with negative cosmological constant via holography. By imposing boost invariance symmetry, we find a solution to the Gauss-Bonnet equation of motion in inverse powers of the proper time, from which we can extract high order corrections to Bjorken flow for different values of the Gauss-Bonnet parameter λGB. As in all other known examples the gradient expansion is, at most, an asymptotic series which can be understood through applying the techniques of Borel-Padé summation. As expected from the behaviour of the quasi-normal modes in the theory, we observe that the singularities in the Borel plane of this series show qualitative features that interpolate between the infinitely strong coupling limit of N=4 Super Yang Mills theory and the expectation from kinetic theory. We further perform the Borel resummation to constrain the behaviour of hydrodynamic attractors beyond leading order in the hydrodynamic expansion. We find that for all values of λGB considered, the convergence of different initial conditions to the resummation and its hydrodynamization occur at large and comparable values of the pressure anisotropy.

  3. The Resurgence of Al-Qaeda in Syria and Iraq (United States)


    56 According to Chris Looney, writing for Syria Comment: Its hostility towards minority groups, draconian legal system, and brutal repression of...Council on Foreign Relations, Washington, DC. Higgins , Eliot. Brown Moses blog, Institute for the Study of War, Washington...syrian-war/. 57. See gy-raqqa- chris -looney/. 58. Norman Benotman and Roisin Blake, Jabat al-Nusra

  4. The Resurgence of Naxalism: How Great a Threat to India? (United States)


    dislocations occasioned by India’s economic opening and the forces of globalization, these pronouncements doubtless find a receptive audience . A...ideology has historically struggled to find an audience 268 Jeremy Page, “Indian Slum Population...United States. As American investment in India grows, other corporations may, like Pepsi , become symbolically charged outlets for this hatred. Should

  5. The resurgence of botulinum toxin injection for strabismus in children. (United States)

    Mahan, Marielle; Engel, J Mark


    The present review discusses recent advances in the use of botulinum toxin for the management of strabismus in children. Botulinum toxin injection produces similar results compared to surgery for certain subtypes of strabismus, especially acute onset esotropia. It may be more effective in many subtypes of esotropia where surgery has been less reliable, including partially accommodative esotropia, esotropia associated with cerebral palsy, and thyroid eye disease. Small retrospective studies have demonstrated the efficacy of botulinum toxin in the treatment of many types of pediatric strabismus, providing some guidance for clinicians to determine which patients would benefit most from this intervention. Although administration of botulinum toxin is generally accepted as a reasonable option in select cases, many strabismus surgeons have not fully embraced the treatment, in part because of perceived disadvantages compared to surgery and difficulty in identifying subsets with the highest potential for therapeutic success. A recent study compared the administration of botulinum toxin in children with acute-onset esotropia to surgical correction and found botulinum toxin had a statistically equal success rate, but with the advantage of significantly less time under general anesthesia. In addition, botulinum toxin has been recently tried in patients with partially accommodative esotropia, esotropia associated with cerebral palsy, cyclic esotropia, and in patients with thyroid eye disease. The present review will discuss current clinical recommendations based on recent studies on the use of botulinum toxin in children with strabismus.

  6. Why manufacturing resurgence will mean more services, not less


    Serafica, Ramonette B.


    Services are critical inputs in manufacturing production, and this is likely to intensify with the advent of new technologies. Based on the trade in value-added data of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the share of services embodied in Philippine manufacturing exports is among the lowest in the region. Moreover, value added from "ICT services" and "Other business services" seem inadequate compared to patterns observed in other countries, while the share of "Wholesal...

  7. Increasing Public Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Ben Zaed


    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze and interpret the phenomenon of increased public expenditures and test explanatory theories as well as to analyze Abstract the relationship between public spending and GDP in the short and long term where you see the Wagner hypothesis that causal heading of GDP to government spending while there is a causal relationship analysis positive trending of government spending to GDP according to the Keynesian hypothesis in this study will be used descriptive analytical method to validate these hypotheses. Results in the short and long term made it clear that there is a difference in the outcome of Applied Studies where we find that each supports a relationship Wagner in the sense that the causal trending of real GDP to government spending and more precisely to increase the economic growth lead to increased aggregate demand which leads in turn increasing the need to increase government spending and to increase the resources available to the government sector to finance the increase in spending by the additional resources resulting from the economic growth while others opines opposes the existence of the relationship.

  8. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  9. Meeting increased demand. (United States)

    Blair, Andrew


    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  10. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T


    , impaired left ventricular function and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes (17 patients with normal UOER and 24 with increased UOER) with no history of cardiovascular disease and 21 healthy...

  11. Integrated engineering increases flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ray


    Integrated Engineering (IE) can be used to describe the best use of increasingly rare good engineering talent in an increasingly competive world. A number of organisations are now moving towards IE without any general agreement on a precise definition. The engineering division of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) is one such organisation. This feature covers the reasoning behind the decision, and our experience to date. BNFL engineering division is responsible primarily for the provision of major facilities on BNFL operational sites. This provision includes feasibility, front end and detailed design, procurement, installation and commissioning. Task force working has been used for some of the large projects. But the future workload is expected to comprise many more smaller projects. At the same time, equipment is becoming more complex and the need for mutual understanding and appreciation between disciplines is increasing. To meet this increasing need for flexibility, BNFL has decided to move to the matrix structure of project management and functional departments described in the article. (Author)

  12. High population increase rates. (United States)


    In addition to its economic and ethnic difficulties, the USSR faces several pressing demographic problems, including high population increase rates in several of its constituent republics. It has now become clear that although the country's rigid centralized planning succeeded in covering the basic needs of people, it did not lead to welfare growth. Since the 1970s, the Soviet economy has remained sluggish, which as led to increase in the death and birth rates. Furthermore, the ideology that held that demography could be entirely controlled by the country's political and economic system is contradicted by current Soviet reality, which shows that religion and ethnicity also play a significant role in demographic dynamics. Currently, Soviet republics fall under 2 categories--areas with high or low natural population increase rates. Republics with low rates consist of Christian populations (Armenia, Moldavia, Georgia, Byelorussia, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine), while republics with high rates are Muslim (Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgizia, Azerbaijan Kazakhstan). The later group has natural increase rates as high as 3.3%. Although the USSR as a whole is not considered a developing country, the later group of republics fit the description of the UNFPA's priority list. Another serious demographic issue facing the USSR is its extremely high rate of abortion. This is especially true in the republics of low birth rates, where up to 60% of all pregnancies are terminated by induced abortions. Up to 1/5 of the USSR's annual health care budget is spent on clinical abortions -- money which could be better spent on the production of contraceptives. Along with the recent political and economic changes, the USSR is now eager to deal with its demographic problems.

  13. Global Increases in Individualism. (United States)

    Santos, Henri C; Varnum, Michael E W; Grossmann, Igor


    Individualism appears to have increased over the past several decades, yet most research documenting this shift has been limited to the study of a handful of highly developed countries. Is the world becoming more individualist as a whole? If so, why? To answer these questions, we examined 51 years of data on individualist practices and values across 78 countries. Our findings suggest that individualism is indeed rising in most of the societies we tested. Despite dramatic shifts toward greater individualism around the world, however, cultural differences remain sizable. Moreover, cultural differences are primarily linked to changes in socioeconomic development, and to a lesser extent to shifts in pathogen prevalence and disaster frequency.

  14. ORIC Beam Energy Increase

    CERN Document Server

    Mallory, Merrit L; Dowling, Darryl; Hudson, Ed; Lord, Dick; Tatum, Alan


    The detection of and solution to a beam interference problem in the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) extraction system has yielded a 20% increase in the proton beam energy. The beam from ORIC was designed to be extracted before the nu r equal one resonance. Most cyclotrons extract after the nu r equal one resonance, thus getting more usage of the magnetic field for energy acceleration. We have now determined that the electrostatic deflector septum interferes with the last accelerated orbit in ORIC, with the highest extraction efficiency obtained near the maximum nu r value. This nu r provides a rotation in the betatron oscillation amplitude that is about the same length as the electrostatic septum thus allowing the beam to jump over the interference problem with the septum. With a thinned septum we were able to tune the beam through the nu r equal one resonance and achieve a 20% increase in beam energy. This nu r greater than one extraction method may be desirable for very high field cyclotrons since it...

  15. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.


    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  16. Increasing paternal responsibility. (United States)

    Cutright, P


    Increasing numbers of fathers of children born out of wedlock are not contributing to these children's economic support. In 1981, a tiny minority (14%) of the 1.7 million never-married mothers living with a child with an absent father had a child-support award, and of these, just 112,000 actually received some payment in 1981. The high rates of noncompliance, and the low level of legal efforts to enforce child support, are the result of attempts to collect payments through inefficient traditional methods, not the inability of fathers to pay, a Wisconsin study has shown. A basic problem with collecting child support under the present system is that it relies on fathers to control their expenditures and voluntarily to send the payment on a weekly, biweekly or monthly basis, year after year. As a Wisconsin study shows, full compliance with court-ordered payments dropped from 38% in the 1st year to below 20% by the 5th year among 163 ex-husbands tracked. A proposal by researchers at the University of Wisconsin's Institute for Research on Poverty calls for an "absent-parent tax." The Wisconsin Plan, as it is known, is simply a withholding tax based on the father's gross income and the number of his absent children. If his income falls below a certain level, payments will stop automatically, but will resume if and when it rises above the cutoff point. The Wisconsin plan removes all judicial discretion and lawyer's skill as factors in child-support awards, thus eliminating erratic awards. It also insures that support payments will be maintained during periods of conflict between the father and mother. However, before the Wisconsin Plan can effectively protect children both out of wedlock, a feature needs to be added that will establish paternity at birth. Imposing a real child-support obligation on fathers of children born outside of marriage will introduce a potentially powerful economic incentive for responsible male reproductive and parental behavior.

  17. Larval abundances of rockfishes that were historically targeted by fishing increased over 16 years in association with a large marine protected area. (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew R; Chen, Dustin C; Guo, Lian W; Hyde, John R; Watson, William


    Marine protected areas (MPAs) can facilitate recovery of diminished stocks by protecting reproductive adults. To effectively augment fisheries, however, reproductive output must increase within the bounds of MPAs so that larvae can be exported to surrounding areas and seed the region. In response to dramatic declines of rockfishes ( Sebastes spp.) in southern California by the late 1990s two large MPAs, the Cowcod Conservation Areas (CCAs), were established in 2001. To evaluate whether the CCAs affected rockfish productivity we evaluated the dynamics of 8 species that were, and 7 that were not, historically targeted by fishing. Abundances of 6/8 targeted and 4/7 non-targeted species increased regionally from 1998 to 2013. These upturns were probably affected by environmental conditions in addition to changes in fishing pressure as the presence of most species correlated negatively with temperature, and temperature was lower than the historic average in 11/15 years. Seventy-five per cent of the targeted, but none of the non-targeted species increased at a greater rate inside than outside the CCAs while controlling for environmental factors. Results indicate that management actions, coupled with favourable environmental conditions, facilitated the resurgence of multiple rockfish species that were targeted by intense fishing effort for decades.

  18. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.


    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  19. Increasing instruction time in school does increase learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Humlum, Maria; Nandrup, Anne Brink


    Increasing instruction time in school is a central element in the attempts of many governments to improve student learning, but prior research—mainly based on observational data—disputes the effect of this approach and points out the potential negative effects on student behavior. Based on a large......-scale, cluster-randomized trial, we find that increasing instruction time increases student learning and that a general increase in instruction time is at least as efficient as an expert-developed, detailed teaching program that increases instruction with the same amount of time. These findings support the value...... of increased instruction time....

  20. Strong increase of solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.; Janssen, S.


    The number of installed solar panels in 2011 has increased again. 40 megawatt of new panels have been installed. This increase is twice as high as the year before. The production of solar power increased to 90 million kWh in 2011 as a result of this expansion. However, the share of solar power in total energy use is still very limited. [nl

  1. Na(v)1.8 channelopathy in mutant mice deficient for myelin protein zero is detrimental to motor axons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Alvarez Herrero, Susana; Pinchenko, Volodymyr


    Myelin protein zero mutations were found to produce Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease phenotypes with various degrees of myelin impairment and axonal loss, ranging from the mild 'demyelinating' adult form to severe and early onset forms. Protein zero deficient homozygous mice ( ) show a severe and prog......Myelin protein zero mutations were found to produce Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease phenotypes with various degrees of myelin impairment and axonal loss, ranging from the mild 'demyelinating' adult form to severe and early onset forms. Protein zero deficient homozygous mice ( ) show a severe...... and progressive dysmyelinating neuropathy from birth with compromised myelin compaction, hypomyelination and distal axonal degeneration. A previous study using immunofluorescence showed that motor nerves deficient of myelin protein zero upregulate the Na(V)1.8 voltage gated sodium channel isoform, which...... is normally present only in restricted populations of sensory axons. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of motor axons in protein zero-deficient mice with particular emphasis on ectopic Na(V)1.8 voltage gated sodium channel. We combined 'threshold tracking' excitability studies...

  2. Increasing tobacco taxes : A cheap tool to increase public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baal, Pieter H. M.; Brouwer, Werner B. F.; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; Feenstra, Talitha L.

    Introduction: Several studies have estimated health effects resulting from tobacco tax increases. However, studies on the cost effectiveness of tobacco taxes are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of tobacco tax increases from a health care perspective, explicitly

  3. Increasing diversity in radiologic technology. (United States)

    Carwile, Laura


    Diversity is increasingly important in the radiologic technology workplace. For significant changes to occur in work force diversity, educators must first recruit and retain students from a wide variety of backgrounds. This article examines personality, race and gender as factors affecting career choice and how educators can use these factors to increase diversity in their programs. An overview of the ASRT's efforts to improve diversity within the profession is presented, along with suggestions for developing effective recruitment and retention plans to increase diversity.

  4. Increasing Access to Special Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Erway


    Full Text Available In an environment where we increasingly have access to a collective collection of digitized books, special collections will become increasingly invisible if they are not accessible online. In an era of increasing expectations and decreasing budgets, finding ways to streamline some of our processes is the best way to enable us to do more with less. This report details a number of investigations into how access to special collections can be increased. It includes guidance running the gamut from digitization and rights management to policies and procedures.

  5. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.


    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  6. Employee benefits or wage increase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda


    Full Text Available The paper comes from a survey done during the years 2007–2009. It focused on employee satisfaction with the provision of employee benefits. The research included 21 companies, 7 companies were from the engineering sector, 7 companies from the food industry, 3 companies represented the budgetary sphere, 3 companies the services sector and one company operates in pharmaceutical industry.The questionnaire survey consisted of 14 questions, including 5 identification-questions. The paper presents results of the questions on dealing with employees’ awareness of employee benefits and on choosing between employees’ preferences of wage increase or increase in value of benefits provided.Employees are informed about all options of providing employee benefits. Only in 3 cases employees stated dissatisfaction with information. This answer was related with the responses to the second monitored question. Employees of these companies preferred pay increases before benefits’ increases. There was no effect of gender of the respondents, neither the influence of the sector of operation, in the preference of increases in wages or in benefits. Exceptions were the employees of companies operating in the financial sector, who preferred employee benefits before a wage increase. It was found that employees of companies who participated in research in 2009, preferred wage increases before the extension of employee benefits, although the value of the net wage increase is lower than the monetary value of benefits increase.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan MSM 6215648904 The Czech economy in the process of integration and globalization, and the development of agricultural sector and the sector of services under the new conditions of the integrated European market.

  7. Increasing sales by reducing procrastination


    Gjedrem, William Gilje


    Master's thesis in Finance In this paper I analyze whether an intervention program increases productivity and sales, by reducing potential procrastination problems that employees face at work. The intervention was introduced to stores in a large retail chain in Norway, and contained different tools that could lead to lower perceived costs of higher effort. In a difference-in-differences analysis I find that the intervention increases sales after a 14 weeks long implementation period. Fu...

  8. Increased Materialistic Trends Among Youth


    Shama Mazahir, Afsheen Masood, Rubab Musarrat


    The goal of this qualitative research is to investigate the increased sense of materialism among youth. The main research question is to identify the factors which are causing materialism among youth. The sample of this research included 25 people, age group 18-25 years obtained from students that are enrolled in universities. The interpretive phenomenological approach was taken which was based on semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that materialistic trends are increasing among...

  9. Increased Materialistic Trends among Youth


    Afsheen Masood; Rubab Musarrat; Shama Mazahir


    The goal of this qualitative research is to investigate the increased sense of materialism among youth. The main research question is to identify the factors which are causing materialism among youth. The sample of this research included 25 people, age group 18-25 years obtained from students that are enrolled in universities. The interpretive phenomenological approach was taken which was based on semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that materialistic trends are increasing among...

  10. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G


    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....

  11. Requests for body computed tomography: increasing workload, increasing indications and increasing age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toms, A.P.; Cash, C.J.C.; Dixon, A.K.; Linton, S.J.


    Increasing numbers of increasingly elderly patients were being examined in our Body CT department. At the same time, some of our clinical colleagues perceived that their patients might be discriminated against on the basis of their age when allocating CT time. We therefore studied the population trends in our department over a 10-year period. The ages of patients attending the Body CT department were collected from the hospital's computer information system from 1995 to 2000 and from handwritten logbooks for the months of September 1988 and 1998. Comparison was made with population trends within the hospital and local demographic data. There has been an average increase of 11% per annum in the number of examinations performed in the Body CT unit. The average age of patients examined increased from 52.7 years in 1988 to 58.9 years in 1998. The largest increase occurred in the over 75-year population (18% rise per annum). Hospital and local demographic population profiles changed little during the same period. We are performing increasing numbers of body CT examinations on increasingly elderly patients. This is probably due to an increased willingness to investigate and treat elderly patients, rather than changes in the local population. There is no evidence of a general discriminatory policy on the basis of age. (orig.)

  12. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction. (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J


    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  13. Food allergy: is prevalence increasing? (United States)

    Tang, Mimi L K; Mullins, Raymond J


    It is generally accepted that the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing in recent decades, particularly in westernised countries, yet high-quality evidence that is based on challenge confirmed diagnosis of food allergy to support this assumption is lacking because of the high cost and potential risks associated with conducting food challenges in large populations. Accepting this caveat, the use of surrogate markers for diagnosis of food allergy (such as nationwide data on hospital admissions for food anaphylaxis or clinical history in combination with allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) measurement in population-based cohorts) has provided consistent evidence for increasing prevalence of food allergy at least in western countries, such as the UK, United States and Australia. Recent reports that children of East Asian or African ethnicity who are raised in a western environment (Australia and United States respectively) have an increased risk of developing food allergy compared with resident Caucasian children suggest that food allergy might also increase across Asian and African countries as their economies grow and populations adopt a more westernised lifestyle. Given that many cases of food allergy persist, mathematical principles would predict a continued increase in food allergy prevalence in the short to medium term until such time as an effective treatment is identified to allow the rate of disease resolution to be equal to or greater than the rate of new cases. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  14. Increased chromosome radiosensitivity during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricoul, Michelle; Sabatier, Laure; Dutrillaux, Bernard


    It was necessary to consider the risks of exposure of pregnant women, not only in relation to the child, but also in relation to their own hypersensitivity. We have demonstrated that pregnancy increases radiosensitivity of chromosome in the mouse at the end of gestation. This is of importance since it may have implications on radioprotection of pregnant women and give experimental guidelines to the problems of hypersensitivity to drugs and cancer aggravation during pregnancy. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was exposed to ionizing radiations. By comparison to non-pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakage was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes, after short-term culture in the presence of the serum of the same donor. Immediately after delivery, this increase in radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase in radiosensitivity. Pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy. This study provides the first evidence in human that radiosensitivity may vary in relation to physiological conditions

  15. Increasing work-time influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Aust, Birgit


    This quasi-experimental study investigated how an intervention aiming at increasing eldercare workers' influence on their working hours affected the flexibility, variability, regularity and predictability of the working hours. We used baseline (n = 296) and follow-up (n = 274) questionnaire data......), or discussion of working hours (subgroup C). Only computerised self-scheduling changed the working hours and the way they were planned. These changes implied more flexible but less regular working hours and an experience of less predictability and less continuity in the care of clients and in the co...... that while increasing the individual flexibility, increasing work-time influence may also result in decreased regularity of the working hours and less continuity in the care of clients and co-operation with colleagues....

  16. Increased Materialistic Trends among Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Masood


    Full Text Available The goal of this qualitative research is to investigate the increased sense of materialism among youth. The main research question is to identify the factors which are causing materialism among youth. The sample of this research included 25 people, age group 18-25 years obtained from students that are enrolled in universities. The interpretive phenomenological approach was taken which was based on semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that materialistic trends are increasing among youth nowadays. Because thought patterns of youth and societal demands have changed totally. Factors that are increasing materialism include social media, brand consciousness; self-centeredness; fake personality development and desire to be socially accepted. The implications indicate that materialistic trend should stop by controlling the social media possession among youth which is the primary source of enhancing materialism among youth.

  17. Increased burnup of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlf, J.


    The specialists' group for fuel elements of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft e.V. held a meeting on ''Increased Burnup of Fuel Elements'' on 9th and 10th of November 1982 at the GKSS Research Center Geesthacht. Most papers dealt with the problems of burnup increase of fuel elements for light water reactors with respect to fuel manufacturing, power plant operation and reprocessing. Review papers were given on the burnup limits for high temperature gas cooled reactors and sodium fast breeder reactors. The meeting ended with a presentation of the technical equipment of the hot laboratory of the GKSS and the programs which are in progress there. (orig.) [de

  18. Increasing the Overall Quality and the Number of Women and Hispanic Geoscientists for the Workforce: Rebuilding an Undergraduate Program (United States)

    Ford, M. T.; McGehee, T. L.


    Over the past ten years, the Geosciences Program at Texas A&M University-Kingsville has increased the number of Geology majors 400%, and in the past five years we have graduated 62 students, an increase of 800%. Of these graduates, 37% were Hispanic or African-American and 26% were women. Our graduates are high-achievers with 13% also graduating from the Honor's College (campus-wide rate is less than 1.5%) and that included three women and two Hispanic graduates. Two of these recent graduates are doctoral candidates and eleven are master's candidates at major universities. Of these, three master's candidates are Hispanic, including two women, and one doctoral candidate is a Hispanic woman. The recent productivity and quality changes in this program are attributed to our shift toward an undergraduate, student-centered focus. The increases in productivity resulted from the development of strong relationships with community colleges across the state and significant efforts in recruitment and retention. The major changes in quality included implementation of a strong field-oriented focus with full faculty participation, a strong undergraduate research program, a well-developed recruitment and retention plan, a GIS Certification incorporated into the geology degree, and a culture change to further student professional development. We have maintained over 50 majors in our program for the past three years through increased faculty presentations at high-schools and community colleges, a good University recruiting staff, and quarterly newsletters, focused on student achievements, sent to all prospective students and parents inquiring about the geology major. The resurgence of the oil and gas industry and the retirement of geoscientists have provided a steady stream of job opportunities for our graduates. The 79% that are not pursuing a graduate education accepted jobs after graduation. These include oil and gas entry level jobs, mining jobs, teaching jobs, and geospatial

  19. Big increase in US ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    US ethanol capacity is expected to reach 600 million US gal/year by the end of 1982, according to a report from the AIChE. Although this is a six-fold increase over capacity installed in 1979 it is still less than 1% of US domestic motor fuel supply.

  20. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyun Li


    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.

  1. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, J.; Flinn, P.A.; Maloney, T.J.


    An early resistance change measurement set-up, using an AC bridge technique, has been developed, and measurements have been performed. Large sample-to-sample variations occur. The characteristic time for the resistance change curve is shorter for resistance increase (under current stress) than for

  2. Effects of increased biofuel utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, J.; Blad, B.; Hillring, B.


    This report is a compilation of present knowledge regarding the effects of an increased use of biomass fuels. Main areas treated are: Availability of raw materials; Effects on forestry and agriculture; Transportation; Areas of use; Cost and price formation; Emission to the atmosphere, and effect on the climate; and Effect on employment and regional aspects. 29 tabs



    Kashuba, Oleh Ivanovych; Skliarov, L I; Skliarov, A L


    The problems of improving reliability of an electric blasting method using electric detonators with nichrome filament bridges. It was revealed that in the calculation of the total resistance of the explosive network it is necessary to increase to 24% of the nominal value

  4. Carbohydrase and protease supplementation increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was conducted to evaluate whether the addition of commercial enzyme preparations containing carbohydrases and a protease would increase the available metabolizable energy (ME) of maize-soya-based broiler diets. Seven thousand five hundred and sixty (7560) day-old Ross 788 chicks were randomly allocated ...

  5. How To Increase Advertising Revenue. (United States)

    Mitchell, Carmen


    Describes advertising sales strategies to help faculty advisers of community college newspapers increase revenues. Argues that sales representatives should know their product well and maintain demographic information on the paper's readership. Includes strategies for organizing advertising staff, searching for potential clients, and taking charge…

  6. Increased NMDA receptor inhibition at an increased Sevoflurane MAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosnan Robert J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sevoflurane potently enhances glycine receptor currents and more modestly decreases NMDA receptor currents, each of which may contribute to immobility. This modest NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC could be reciprocally related to large potentiation of other inhibitory ion channels. If so, then reduced glycine receptor potency should increase NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. Methods Indwelling lumbar subarachnoid catheters were surgically placed in 14 anesthetized rats. Rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane the next day, and a pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was measured in duplicate using a tail clamp method. Artificial CSF (aCSF containing either 0 or 4 mg/mL strychnine was then infused intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-infusion baseline sevoflurane MAC was measured. Finally, aCSF containing strychnine (either 0 or 4 mg/mL plus 0.4 mg/mL dizocilpine (MK-801 was administered intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-dizocilpine sevoflurane MAC was measured. Results Pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was 2.26%. Intrathecal aCSF alone did not affect MAC, but intrathecal strychnine significantly increased sevoflurane requirement. Addition of dizocilpine significantly decreased MAC in all rats, but this decrease was two times larger in rats without intrathecal strychnine compared to rats with intrathecal strychnine, a statistically significant (P  Conclusions Glycine receptor antagonism increases NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. The magnitude of anesthetic effects on a given ion channel may therefore depend on the magnitude of its effects on other receptors that modulate neuronal excitability.

  7. Economic inequality increases risk taking. (United States)

    Payne, B Keith; Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Hannay, Jason W


    Rising income inequality is a global trend. Increased income inequality has been associated with higher rates of crime, greater consumer debt, and poorer health outcomes. The mechanisms linking inequality to poor outcomes among individuals are poorly understood. This research tested a behavioral account linking inequality to individual decision making. In three experiments ( n = 811), we found that higher inequality in the outcomes of an economic game led participants to take greater risks to try to achieve higher outcomes. This effect of unequal distributions on risk taking was driven by upward social comparisons. Next, we estimated economic risk taking in daily life using large-scale data from internet searches. Risk taking was higher in states with greater income inequality, an effect driven by inequality at the upper end of the income distribution. Results suggest that inequality may promote poor outcomes, in part, by increasing risky behavior.

  8. Heavier smoking increases coffee consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørngaard, Johan H; Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Taylor, Amy E


    Background: There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake. Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK...... Biobank ( N  = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study ( N  = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) ( N  = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS....... Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies. Results: Each additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per...

  9. Price Increases from Online Privacy


    Ward, Michael R.; Chen, Yu-Ching


    Consumers value keeping some information about them private from potential marketers. E-commerce dramatically increases the potential for marketers to accumulate otherwise private information about potential customers. Online marketers claim that this information enables them to better market their products. Policy makers are currently drafting rules to regulate the way in which these marketers can collect, store, and share this information. However, there is little evidence yet either of con...

  10. Increase Productivity Through Knowledge Management


    Gavrikova, Nadezhda Aleksandrovna; Dolgikh, Irina Nikolaevna; Dyrina, E. N.


    Increase in competition level requires companies to improve the efficiency of work force use characterized by labor productivity. Professional knowledge of staff and its experience play the key role in it. The results of Extrusion Line operator's working time analysis are performed in this article. The analysis revealed that the reasons of working time ineffective use connected with inadequate information exchange and knowledge management in the company. Authors suggest the way to solve this ...

  11. Mod increases AGR boiler output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.K.C.; Rider, G.; Taylor, D.E.


    During the commissioning runs of the first reactor units at Heysham I and Hartlepool Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGRs), non-uniform temperature distributions were observed across individual boiler units which were more severe than those predicted from the design analysis. This article describes the re-orificing (referruling) of the boilers to overcome this problem. The referruling has reduced boiler sensitivity and resulted in an increase of load of 7 or 8%. (U.K.)

  12. Is surgical workforce diversity increasing? (United States)

    Andriole, Dorothy A; Jeffe, Donna B; Schechtman, Kenneth B


    We sought to determine the extent to which recent increases in levels of gender and racial diversity in the overall resident-physician workforce were evident among core-surgical specialty resident workforces. Chi-square tests for trend assessed the importance of changes from 1996 to 2004 in proportions of women and African Americans in the surgery-resident workforce. Surgery-resident trends were compared with overall resident workforce trends using two-tailed t-tests to compare regression slopes that quantified rates of change over time. Chi-square tests assessed differences between proportions of women and African Americans in the current overall board-certified workforce and their proportions in the surgery board-certified workforce. From 1996 to 2004, proportions of women increased in all seven surgical specialties studied. Compared with the overall trend toward increasing proportions of women in the resident workforce, the trend in one surgical specialty was larger (obstetrics/gynecology, p 0.05), and two were smaller (each p 0.05). Proportions of African Americans decreased in three specialties (each p workforce, except obstetrics/gynecology, remained lower than in the overall board-certified workforce (each p workforces have persisted since 1996 and will likely perpetuate ongoing surgery board-certified workforce disparities.

  13. High Heels Increase Women's Attractiveness. (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas


    Research has found that the appearance of women's apparel helps increase their attractiveness as rated by men and that men care more about physical features in potential opposite-sex mates. However, the effect of sartorial appearance has received little interest from scientists. In a series of studies, the length of women's shoe heels was examined. A woman confederate wearing black shoes with 0, 5, or 9 cm heels asked men for help in various circumstances. In Study 1, she asked men to respond to a short survey on gender equality. In Study 2, the confederate asked men and women to participate in a survey on local food habit consumption. In Study 3, men and women in the street were observed while walking in back of the female confederate who dropped a glove apparently unaware of her loss. It was found that men's helping behavior increased as soon as heel length increased. However, heel length had no effect on women's helping behavior. It was also found that men spontaneously approached women more quickly when they wore high-heeled shoes (Study 4). Change in gait, foot-size judgment, and misattribution of sexiness and sexual intent were used as possible explanations.

  14. Does milk increase mucus production? (United States)

    Bartley, Jim; McGlashan, Susan Read


    Excessive milk consumption has a long association with increased respiratory tract mucus production and asthma. Such an association cannot be explained using a conventional allergic paradigm and there is limited medical evidence showing causality. In the human colon, beta-casomorphin-7 (beta-CM-7), an exorphin derived from the breakdown of A1 milk, stimulates mucus production from gut MUC5AC glands. In the presence of inflammation similar mucus overproduction from respiratory tract MUC5AC glands characterises many respiratory tract diseases. beta-CM-7 from the blood stream could stimulate the production and secretion of mucus production from these respiratory glands. Such a hypothesis could be tested in vitro using quantitative RT-PCR to show that the addition of beta-CM-7 into an incubation medium of respiratory goblet cells elicits an increase in MUC5AC mRNA and by identifying beta-CM-7 in the blood of asthmatic patients. This association may not necessarily be simply cause and effect as the person has to be consuming A1 milk, beta-CM-7 must pass into the systemic circulation and the tissues have to be actively inflamed. These prerequisites could explain why only a subgroup of the population, who have increased respiratory tract mucus production, find that many of their symptoms, including asthma, improve on a dairy elimination diet. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrated outages increase Surry's availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, S.R.; Downs, J.L.


    This article describes how, through Virginia Power's and Westinghouse's goal-oriented planning philosophy, teamwork and commitment, average outage duration has decreased significantly. During the past 10 years Virginia Power and its nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) services vendor, Westinghouse Electric Corp., have developed a working partnership with one goal in mind: increasing the availability and capacity factors of the North Anna and Surry nuclear power stations while driving down the operating costs of the plants. The outage integration program, steam generator maintenance agreement (SGMA), and integrated radiological services program form the core of this relationship and helped Virginia Power complete one of the most successful outages in Surry Power Station's operating history

  16. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  17. Social Power Increases Interoceptive Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrad Moeini-Jazani


    Full Text Available Building on recent psychological research showing that power increases self-focused attention, we propose that having power increases accuracy in perception of bodily signals, a phenomenon known as interoceptive accuracy. Consistent with our proposition, participants in a high-power experimental condition outperformed those in the control and low-power conditions in the Schandry heartbeat-detection task. We demonstrate that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is not explained by participants’ physiological arousal, affective state, or general intention for accuracy. Rather, consistent with our reasoning that experiencing power shifts attentional resources inward, we show that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is dependent on individuals’ chronic tendency to focus on their internal sensations. Moreover, we demonstrate that individuals’ chronic sense of power also predicts interoceptive accuracy similar to, and independent of, how their situationally induced feeling of power does. We therefore provide further support on the relation between power and enhanced perception of bodily signals. Our findings offer a novel perspective–a psychophysiological account–on how power might affect judgments and behavior. We highlight and discuss some of these intriguing possibilities for future research.

  18. Ego involvement increases doping likelihood. (United States)

    Ring, Christopher; Kavussanu, Maria


    Achievement goal theory provides a framework to help understand how individuals behave in achievement contexts, such as sport. Evidence concerning the role of motivation in the decision to use banned performance enhancing substances (i.e., doping) is equivocal on this issue. The extant literature shows that dispositional goal orientation has been weakly and inconsistently associated with doping intention and use. It is possible that goal involvement, which describes the situational motivational state, is a stronger determinant of doping intention. Accordingly, the current study used an experimental design to examine the effects of goal involvement, manipulated using direct instructions and reflective writing, on doping likelihood in hypothetical situations in college athletes. The ego-involving goal increased doping likelihood compared to no goal and a task-involving goal. The present findings provide the first evidence that ego involvement can sway the decision to use doping to improve athletic performance.

  19. Propofol directly increases tau phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Whittington


    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD and other tauopathies, the microtubule-associated protein tau can undergo aberrant hyperphosphorylation potentially leading to the development of neurofibrillary pathology. Anesthetics have been previously shown to induce tau hyperphosphorylation through a mechanism involving hypothermia-induced inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A activity. However, the effects of propofol, a common clinically used intravenous anesthetic, on tau phosphorylation under normothermic conditions are unknown. We investigated the effects of a general anesthetic dose of propofol on levels of phosphorylated tau in the mouse hippocampus and cortex under normothermic conditions. Thirty min following the administration of propofol 250 mg/kg i.p., significant increases in tau phosphorylation were observed at the AT8, CP13, and PHF-1 phosphoepitopes in the hippocampus, as well as at AT8, PHF-1, MC6, pS262, and pS422 epitopes in the cortex. However, we did not detect somatodendritic relocalization of tau. In both brain regions, tau hyperphosphorylation persisted at the AT8 epitope 2 h following propofol, although the sedative effects of the drug were no longer evident at this time point. By 6 h following propofol, levels of phosphorylated tau at AT8 returned to control levels. An initial decrease in the activity and expression of PP2A were observed, suggesting that PP2A inhibition is at least partly responsible for the hyperphosphorylation of tau at multiple sites following 30 min of propofol exposure. We also examined tau phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells transfected to overexpress human tau. A 1 h exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of propofol in vitro was also associated with tau hyperphosphorylation. These findings suggest that propofol increases tau phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro under normothermic conditions, and further studies are warranted to determine the impact of this anesthetic on the acceleration of

  20. Dividing Attention Increases Operational Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink


    Full Text Available When adding or subtracting two quantities, adults often compute an estimated outcome that is larger or smaller, respectively, than the actual outcome, a bias referred to as “operational momentum”. The effects of attention on operational momentum were investigated. Participants viewed a display in which two arrays of objects were added, or one array was subtracted from another array, and judged whether a subsequent outcome (probe array contained the correct or incorrect number of objects. In a baseline condition, only the arrays to be added or subtracted were viewed. In divided attention conditions, participants simultaneously viewed a sequence of colors or shapes, and judged which color (a non-spatial judgment or shape (a spatial judgment was repeated. Operational momentum occurred in all conditions, but was higher in divided attention conditions than in the baseline condition, primarily for addition problems. This pattern suggests that dividing attention, rather than decreasing operational momentum by decreasing attentional shifts, actually increased operational momentum. These results are consistent with a heightened use of arithmetic heuristics under conditions of divided attention.

  1. Job stress and productivity increase. (United States)

    Adaramola, Samson Sunday


    This paper examines mental and physical pressures that workers bear at work. The authors discuss how on the-job stress affects a person's capabilities and productivity, and how such pressures lend to higher incidences of accidents at work. The paper also discuss methods of reducing job-related stress and increasing productivity. An intervention was conducted amongst workers in a private firm. It shows mental and emotional pressure can affect performance and productivity of a worker on the job. One of the biggest influences of today's worker is on the-job stress. Job stress occurs when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. This consequently affects how a person would normally deal with customer service problems, grievances, violence, conflict, and decisions on the job. Stress is an inevitable part of everyday life, and is therefore a distinct part of a person's job. To properly control the outcome of stress, there are certain precautions and methods that should be taken that will boost productivity.

  2. Increasing Possibilities of Nano suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutradhar, K.B.; Khatun, S.; Luna, I.P.


    Nowadays, a very large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water insoluble and thus poorly bioavailable. To avoid this problem, nano technology for drug delivery has gained much interest as a way to improve the solubility problems. Nano refers to particles size range of 1-1000 nm. The reduction of drug particles into the submicron range leads to a significant increase in the dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. Nanosuspensions are part of nano technology. This interacts with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular) scales with a high degree of specificity and can be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications designed to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. Production of drugs as nanosuspensions can be developed for drug delivery systems as an oral formulation and no noral administration. Here, this review describes the methods of pharmaceutical nano suspension production including advantages and disadvantages, potential benefits, characterization tests, and pharmaceutical applications in drug delivery

  3. Turkey's Increasing Role in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Eksi


    Full Text Available This paper is briefly dealing with the current situation in Afghanistan within the context of Turkey’s increasing role in Afghanistan. Turkish-Afghani relations are examined in terms of politics and economy while Turkish foreign policies towards Afghanistan and the Turkish-Pakistani-Afghani triple summit attempts are analyzed. Additionally, Turkey’s security and socio-economic contributions in Afghanistan are emphasized. Turkey’s unwillingness to send troops to Afghanistanfor operational purposes that is frequently debated in national and international circles has been evaluated by stating the advantages and disadvantages of such decision. Turkey’s quiet approach between 2001 and 2004 towards Afghanistan, which have been energizing since 2005 and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu’s visit to Afghanistan on June 2009 have been dealt as well. By considering Davutoglu’s policies, aiming to introduce Turkey as a global actor and as the term President of the UNSC (the UN Security Council, it seems that Turkey is preparing to play a more active role in Afghanistan.

  4. Scientific progress as increasing verisimilitude. (United States)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka


    According to the foundationalist picture, shared by many rationalists and positivist empiricists, science makes cognitive progress by accumulating justified truths. Fallibilists, who point out that complete certainty cannot be achieved in empirical science, can still argue that even successions of false theories may progress toward the truth. This proposal was supported by Karl Popper with his notion of truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Popper's own technical definition failed, but the idea that scientific progress means increasing truthlikeness can be expressed by defining degrees of truthlikeness in terms of similarities between states of affairs. This paper defends the verisimilitude approach against Alexander Bird who argues that the "semantic" definition (in terms of truth or truthlikeness alone) is not sufficient to define progress, but the "epistemic" definition referring to justification and knowledge is more adequate. Here Bird ignores the crucial distinction between real progress and estimated progress, explicated by the difference between absolute (and usually unknown) degrees of truthlikeness and their evidence-relative expected values. Further, it is argued that Bird's idea of returning to the cumulative model of growth requires an implausible trick of transforming past false theories into true ones.

  5. Laboratory facilities increased by gifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    As a result of gifts from two Member States facilities at the Agency's research centre at Seibersdorf, Austria, have been increased. New equipment has been provided by France and Romania. The French equipment is a coincidence counter to be operated in conjunction with a computer and is valued at $35 000. It can give automatically an exact measurement of radioactivity in a chemical solution containing radioisotopes. This means that a sample of the solution can be sent to another laboratory to be used for calibrating instruments and checking results of research work. Since 1963 nearly 8 000 radioactive solutions to be used as standards have been sent from Seibersdorf to research laboratories and hospitals in 56 countries. The demand continues to grow, and in order to meet it the equipment was developed by the Saclay Research Centre of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique in collaboration with Seibersdorf. From Romania have come six electronic measuring instruments worth $6 000 to assist nuclear research, surveying and prospecting. Three are electronic scalers for experimental work involving the counting of radioactive emissions, and three are survey meters for detecting the presence of radioactivity in geological samples. (author)

  6. Genetic investigation of 100 heart genes in sudden unexplained death victims in a forensic setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie Lindgren; Hertz, Christin Løth; Ferrero, Laura


    indicate that broad genetic investigation of SUD victims increases the diagnostic outcome, and the investigation should comprise genes involved in both cardiomyopathies and cardiac channelopathies.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 21 September 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.118....

  7. Global market integration increases likelihood that a future African Green Revolution could increase crop land use and CO2 emissions. (United States)

    Hertel, Thomas W; Ramankutty, Navin; Baldos, Uris Lantz C


    There has been a resurgence of interest in the impacts of agricultural productivity on land use and the environment. At the center of this debate is the assertion that agricultural innovation is land sparing. However, numerous case studies and global empirical studies have found little evidence of higher yields being accompanied by reduced area. We find that these studies overlook two crucial factors: estimation of a true counterfactual scenario and a tendency to adopt a regional, rather than a global, perspective. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing the impacts of regional and global innovation on long run crop output, prices, land rents, land use, and associated CO2 emissions. In so doing, it facilitates a reconciliation of the apparently conflicting views of the impacts of agricultural productivity growth on global land use and environmental quality. Our historical analysis demonstrates that the Green Revolution in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East was unambiguously land and emissions sparing, compared with a counterfactual world without these innovations. In contrast, we find that the environmental impacts of a prospective African Green Revolution are potentially ambiguous. We trace these divergent outcomes to relative differences between the innovating region and the rest of the world in yields, emissions efficiencies, cropland supply response, and intensification potential. Globalization of agriculture raises the potential for adverse environmental consequences. However, if sustained for several decades, an African Green Revolution will eventually become land sparing.

  8. Global market integration increases likelihood that a future African Green Revolution could increase crop land use and CO2 emissions (United States)

    Hertel, Thomas W.; Ramankutty, Navin; Baldos, Uris Lantz C.


    There has been a resurgence of interest in the impacts of agricultural productivity on land use and the environment. At the center of this debate is the assertion that agricultural innovation is land sparing. However, numerous case studies and global empirical studies have found little evidence of higher yields being accompanied by reduced area. We find that these studies overlook two crucial factors: estimation of a true counterfactual scenario and a tendency to adopt a regional, rather than a global, perspective. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing the impacts of regional and global innovation on long run crop output, prices, land rents, land use, and associated CO2 emissions. In so doing, it facilitates a reconciliation of the apparently conflicting views of the impacts of agricultural productivity growth on global land use and environmental quality. Our historical analysis demonstrates that the Green Revolution in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East was unambiguously land and emissions sparing, compared with a counterfactual world without these innovations. In contrast, we find that the environmental impacts of a prospective African Green Revolution are potentially ambiguous. We trace these divergent outcomes to relative differences between the innovating region and the rest of the world in yields, emissions efficiencies, cropland supply response, and intensification potential. Globalization of agriculture raises the potential for adverse environmental consequences. However, if sustained for several decades, an African Green Revolution will eventually become land sparing. PMID:25201962

  9. The increasing burden of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine J-P


    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  10. Increased VLDL in nephrotic patients results from a decreased catabolism while increased LDL results from increased synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sain-van der Velden, M; Kaysen, GA; Barrett, HA; Stellaard, F; Gadellaa, MM; Voorbij, HA; Reijngoud, DJ; Rabelink, TJ

    Increased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in nephrotic patients results from a decreased catabolism while increased low density lipoprotein (LDL) results from increased synthesis. Hyperlipidemias a hallmark of nephrotic syndrome that has been associated with increased risk for ischemic heart

  11. The Resurgence of Ideology in Bernard Shaw’s Mrs Warren’s Profession (1893)


    Guy, Stéphane


    In the last of his Plays Unpleasant, Shaw delves into the economic roots of prostitution, deconstructing the woman-with-a-past sham and its underlying conservative ideology. The socialist playwright and theorist seeks to lay the blame on the capitalist system and on a middle-class public all too eager to ascribe prostitution to merely individual villainy. Echoing the standpoint of Victorian social reformers, Mrs Warren’s Profession explodes the well-made play pattern to shatter commonplaces a...

  12. The resurgence of DSM and the role of branding in power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrels, Adriaan [Goverment Inst. of Economic Research, VATT, Helsinki (Finland); Lewis, Philip [Univ. of Vaasa (FI). Nordic Centre for Expertise in Energy and Utilities Marketing (VaasaEmg)


    The liberalisation of electric power markets to date implies market strategies in which the attainment of sufficiently high profitability levels is combined with bulk-good characterisation of electricity and accompanying price competition. These inherently conflicting points of departure result in a reluctance to invest in new capacity, a drive towards the exploitation of economies of scale, and other cost reduction strategies. There is also evidence of the exploitation of other market imperfections, including price discrimination at the expense of apathetic and ill informed customers. This paper argues that further regulatory completion of the electric power markets within a sound social-economic and sustainability setting requires steps that incite the introduction of capacity scarcity signals in the retail pricing structure reflecting actual price levels in the wholesale markets. This implies for instance the (re)introduction of time-of-day (ToD) pricing signals. However, to warrant a broader and more lasting effectiveness this needs to be embedded in a wider DSM setting. One issue in this wider setting is the development of the notion of branding of electricity in relation to its qualities and sources of origin. It would provide the customers more choice and improves the possibilities for electricity companies to better exploit the multi-facetted added-value potential of electric power. It requires a regulator that is willing to ensure that further development of added-value is strongly inspired by sustainability objectives. Furthermore, the challenge for the electricity company is to find a branding approach that appeals to customers and is meaningful from a sustainability point of view. Keywords Branding, demand side management, electricity markets, electricity marketing, energy labelling, product differentiation, green energy, green prices, business ethics, Nordic and European power markets.

  13. Fighting a Resurgent Hyper-Positivism in Education Is Music to My Ears (United States)

    Williams, Hakim M. A.


    In this article, I argue that one of the gifts of the Age of Enlightenment, the ability to measure, to experiment, to predict--turned rancid by hyper-positivism--is reasserting itself globally in the field of education (including music education). I see a neoliberal, neocolonial connection--in terms of the ideologies that fuel them--between some…

  14. Chronicle of a Resurgent Event: A Kaleidoscope of Censorship in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marques de Melo


    Full Text Available Alfredo de Carvalho (1870-1916 has been placed in the Brazilian historiography among the critics of the obscurantism practiced by the Portuguese colonizers 1. His reasoning was that by imposing on Brazil a “regime of systematic reclusion”, Portugal created diffi culties for the sedimentation “of our current nationality” and retarded “the synchronic evolution of many of its cultural elements”2. For this very reason he became the harbinger of preservation of the memory of the press, an indispensable source for the comprehension of our civilizing process. Reiterating Carvalho, many others have declared that, since the arrival of Cabral on Brazil´s northeastern shore in 1500, the “gag syndrome” was projected over our territory. Consequently, it has impeded economic development, made political autonomy impractical and inhibited the fl ourishing of culture.

  15. Emergence and resurgence of the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (Novirhabdovirus, Rhabdoviridae, Mononegavirales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kim


    Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV is one of the most serious pathogens of finfish worldwide in terms of its wide host-range, pathogenicity, disease course, and mortality rates. The disease was first documented in the 1930s in Europe in association with heavy losses in rainbow. Data collected over 50 years show that VHSV is a virus of marine origin: its ability to alternate between marine and freshwater environments remains an enigma which requires further investigation. In 2003, VHSV invaded the Laurentian Great Lakes basin causing devastating losses. VHSV is believed to have negative impacts on a number of important Atlantic, Pacific, and Great Lakes fish species. Phylogenetic analysis has offered clues into the geographic and host range of the virus, but sporadic outbreaks of the disease in uncommon locations have imparted unforeseen challenges in delineating the virus’ regional distribution. The virus’ ability to gain access to aquaculture farms has also positioned it as a disease of utmost priority once detected in these settings. Current diagnostic methods, while greatly improved, are hampered by the variability of disease course among susceptible species. In general, VHSV causes severe degeneration in the hematopoietic tissues of affected fish. Based on historical and current data, it is feared that VHSV will continue to mutate, expand to other geographic areas, and infect new host species. As a result, immediate international attention and coordination of efforts are needed. The objective of this review article is to provide an updated synopsis on the current status of VHSV epizootiology and pathogenicity.

  16. Learning for Life: How One School District Created a Resurgence in the Love of Teaching. (United States)

    Ball, Peter; Robertson, Brad


    Interest by a few principals in brain-based learning led to several workshops on best educational practices and the application of neuroscience to teaching methods. Consequently, their entire Ontario school district became energized to learn about new teaching strategies. Presents nine tips, based on the principals' experiences, for facilitating…

  17. A Resurgence of United Kingdom Nuclear Power Research (2011 EFRC Forum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, Robin W.


    Robin W. Grimes, Professor at Imperial College, London, was the third speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, 'Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research.' In his presentation, Professor Grimes discussed recent research endeavors in advanced nuclear energy systems being pursued in the UK. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  18. Resurgence of Diphtheria in North Kerala, India, 2016: Laboratory Supported Case-Based Surveillance Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Sangal


    Full Text Available IntroductionAs part of national program, laboratory supported vaccine preventable diseases surveillance was initiated in Kerala in 2015. Mechanisms have been strengthened for case investigation, reporting, and data management. Specimens collected and sent to state and reference laboratories for confirmation and molecular surveillance. The major objective of this study is to understand the epidemiological information generated through surveillance system and its utilization for action.MethodsSurveillance data captured from reporting register, case investigation forms, and laboratory reports was analyzed. Cases were allotted unique ID and no personal identifying information was used for analysis. Throat swabs were collected from investigated cases as part of surveillance system. All Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates were confirmed with standard biochemical tests, ELEK’s test, and real-time PCR. Isolates were characterized using whole genome-based multi locus sequence typing method. Case investigation forms and laboratory results were recorded electronically. Public health response by government was also reviewed.ResultsA total of 533 cases were identified in 11 districts of Kerala in 2016, of which 92% occurred in 3 districts of north Kerala; Malappuram, Kozhikode, and Kannur. Almost 79% cases occurred in >10 years age group. In <18 years age group, 62% were male while in ≥18 years, 69% were females. In <10 years age group, 31% children had received three doses of diphtheria vaccine, whereas in ≥10 years, 3% cases had received all doses. Fifteen toxigenic C. diphtheriae isolates represented 6 novel sequence types (STs (ST-405, ST-408, ST-466, ST-468, ST-469, and ST-470. Other STs observed are ST-50, ST-295, and ST-377.ConclusionDiphtheria being an emerging pathogen, establishing quality surveillance for providing real-time information on disease occurrence and mortality is imperative. The epidemiological data thus generated was used for targeted interventions and to formulate vaccine policies. The data on molecular surveillance have given an insight on strain variation and transmission patterns.

  19. Primary pulmonary tuberculosis in infancy: A resurgent disease in the urban United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amodio, J.; Abramson, S.; Berdon, W.


    Primary pulmonary tuberculosis in infancy still exists in the urban United States, reflecting new immigrations from less developed areas. The clinical diagnosis may be difficult and routine chest radiographs may be confusing. We found magnification high KV filtered radiography to be very useful in delineating the primary complex and its effect on the tracheobronchial tree. Twelve infants and small children with primary pulmonary tuberculosis were seen in the years 1978-1984. (orig.)

  20. Resurgence of canine parvovirus 2a strain in the domestic dog population from Argentina. (United States)

    Calderón, Marina Gallo; Romanutti, Carina; Wilda, Maximiliano; D' Antuono, Alejandra; Keller, Leticia; Giacomodonato, Mónica N; Mattion, Nora; La Torre, José


    Ninety-three rectal swab samples were taken, from dogs suspected of canine parvovirus (CPV) infection and analyzed by PCR. A fragment of the VP2 gene, was amplified in 41 (44%) of them, resulting CPV positive samples. Sequencing analysis of these PCR products showed that 37 samples (90.2%) belonged to the CPV2c type, whereas four samples (9.8%) were identified as CPV2a, which has not been found since 2008. It was also found that 24 out of 37 CPV2c samples (65%), carried the mutation Thr440Ala, whereas this mutation was absent in the four CPV2a strains reported herein. Using phylogenetic analysis of the full length VP2 gene, which was amplified by PCR in six local samples, it was seen that CPV2a Argentine strains reported in this study, were genetically closer to a previous local CPV2a isolate (year 2003) and to a South African CPV2a strain, than to any of the recently reported Uruguayan CPV2a strains. The results obtained in this work, together with those reported previously in Uruguay strongly suggest that, in spite of the geographical proximity, wild type CPV strains undergo different evolutive pathways in each country, resulting in the prevalence of different strains in related dog populations. Further extensive epidemiological studies are needed in order to improve the understanding of CPV evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Deterrence and Engagement: A Blended Strategic Approach to a Resurgent Russia (United States)


    Expansionism “If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles.” – Sun Tzu , The Art of War. An analysis...55 Bibliography ...the U.S. and its European allies, could achieve greater stability and security for Europe. 57 Bibliography Adamsky, Dmitry. “If War Comes

  2. Strategic Landpower and a Resurgent Russia: An Operational Approach to Deterrence (United States)


    Nicholas Burns, Dan Byman, James Jay Carafano, Phillip Carter, Wendy Chamberlin, Michael Cher- toff, Frank Cilluffo, James Clad, Richard Clarke...U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, PA, April 8, 2015. 112 46. Ibid. 47. Michelle Tan , “Army looks to rotating and reserve forc- es for Europe

  3. The industrial resurgence of Southern California? Advanced ground transportation equipment manufacturing and local economic develoment


    A J Scott; D Bergman


    Southern California is in a deeply rooted process of economic restructuring. Much of the region's manufacturing base is made up of two groups of industries: a declining aerospace - defense sector, and a low-wage, low-skill sweatshop sector. What are the prospects for creating a growing manufacturing base focused on high-wage, high-skill industries? In this paper we examine the opportunities presented by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority's S183 billion thirty-year ca...

  4. The Tenants' Movement: the domestication and resurgence of a social movement in English housing policy


    Bradley, Q


    The launch of a National Tenants Voice for the English social housing sector rekindles a contentious debate among housing scholars over the role played by class and material interest in the mobilisation of collective action. The clear suggestion in the declaration of a National Tenants Voice is that tenants in the fragmented and residualised social housing sector share certain common interests that can be mobilised around, represented and promoted and that there exists a tenants’ movement tha...

  5. Duterte’s Resurgent Nationalism in the Philippines: A Discursive Institutionalist Analysis


    Julio C. Teehankee


    Early in his administration, Rodrigo Duterte, the controversial sixteenth president of the Philippines, did what no other Filipino president has done before - announce a separation from the geopolitical interests of its former colonial master, the United States of America. Beyond the personal slights caused by the US criticism of his anti-drug campaign lies a deeper sense of historical grievance that has been ingrained in Duterte's generation and his identity as a Mindanaoan. Not only does he...

  6. Resurgence of the dressing phase for AdS5 × S5 (United States)

    Arutyunov, Gleb; Dorigoni, Daniele; Savin, Sergei


    We discuss the resummation of the strong coupling asymptotic expansion of the dressing phase of the AdS5 × S5 superstring. The dressing phase proposed by Beisert, Eden and Staudacher can be recovered from a modified Borel-Ecalle resummation of this asymptotic expansion only by completing it with new, non-perturbative and exponentially suppressed terms that can be organized into different sectors labelled by an instanton-like number. We compute the contribution to the dressing phase coming from the sum over all the instanton sectors and show that it satisfies the homogeneous crossing symmetry equation. We comment on the semiclassical origin of the non-perturbative terms from the world-sheet theory point of view even though their precise explanation remains still quite mysterious.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ignatyuk


    Full Text Available This article is analyzed the basic tools of the expansionary monetary policy and its impact on investment growth. It is proposed transformation of monetary policy to activate the innovation processes, in particular by introducing macro-prudential limitations of investment alternatives for the population and strengthening the role of banks with state capital. In article is suggested the methods of National bank, together with the Government to stimulate investment by the use of the allocation of funds through the instruments of monetary expansion.

  8. Pussy Provocations: Feminist Protest and Anti-Feminist Resurgence in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mason


    Full Text Available The Russian feminist punk-art group Pussy Riot sparked a remarkable series of responses with their provocative “punk prayer” in a Moscow cathedral in 2012. This article analyzes the social, political, and cultural dynamics of provocation (provokatsiya by examining everyday conversations, speeches, articles and other linguistic acts through which Russian Orthodox, feminist, and left-leaning and liberal participants in the anti-Putin opposition made sense of Pussy Riot. A provocation violates norms in ways that compel observers to name and defend those norms. This process simultaneously invigorates norms and helps people shore up their own senses of self amid uncertainty. Yet what observers identify as the provocation — what norms are perceived to be violated — shapes what values they reinforce. Responding to Pussy Riot, Russian Orthodox activists asserted themselves as defenders of tradition against the forces of Western cultural imperialism, including feminism and LGBT rights. Yet most responses from the anti-Putin opposition focused on norms related to speech and protest rights, while Russian feminists were often reluctant even to claim Pussy Riot as feminist at all. Due to this asymmetry, Pussy Riot’s feminist protest revitalized anti-feminism in Russia without a concomitant strengthening of feminist values among supporters.

  9. Super Bugs, Resurgent and Emerging Diseases, and Pandemics: A National Security Perspective (United States)


    capability, whether state or sub-state in nature, by implementing robust biosafety and biosecurity measures, engaging scientists of the other diseases, (thus complicating diagnoses) and took a heavy toll of health workers (doctors, nurses , hospital staff). It had a high morbidity... nurses stay the course in the face of incredible risk? What about antivirals? Some of these are excellent, but resistance may develop almost

  10. Beaver Ponds: Resurgent Nitrogen Sinks for Rural Watersheds in the Northeastern United States. (United States)

    Lazar, Julia G; Addy, Kelly; Gold, Arthur J; Groffman, Peter M; McKinney, Richard A; Kellogg, Dorothy Q


    Beaver-created ponds and dams, on the rise in the northeastern United States, reshape headwater stream networks from extensive, free-flowing reaches to complexes of ponds, wetlands, and connecting streams. We examined seasonal and annual rates of nitrate transformations in three beaver ponds in Rhode Island under enriched nitrate-nitrogen (N) conditions through the use of N mass balance techniques on soil core mesocosm incubations. We recovered approximately 93% of the nitrate N from our mesocosm incubations. Of the added nitrate N, 22 to 39% was transformed during the course of the incubation. Denitrification had the highest rates of transformation (97-236 mg N m d), followed by assimilation into the organic soil N pool (41-93 mg N m d) and ammonium generation (11-14 mg N m d). Our denitrification rates exceeded those in several studies of freshwater ponds and wetlands; however, rates in those ecosystems may have been limited by low concentrations of nitrate. Assuming a density of 0.7 beaver ponds km of catchment area, we estimated that in nitrate-enriched watersheds, beaver pond denitrification can remove approximately 50 to 450 kg nitrate N km catchment area. In rural watersheds of southern New England with high N loading (i.e., 1000 kg km), denitrification from beaver ponds may remove 5 to 45% of watershed nitrate N loading. Beaver ponds represent a relatively new and substantial sink for watershed N if current beaver populations persist. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Resurgence of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Auckland, New Zealand: a 7-year review of presentation and outcomes. (United States)

    Patel, Dipika V; Rayner, Sandra; McGhee, Charles N J


    To investigate the presentation, clinical characteristics and outcomes of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in Auckland, New Zealand over a 7-year period. Retrospective analysis of all cases of AK treated by the tertiary corneal service at Auckland City Hospital/ University of Auckland Department of Ophthalmology (August 2001 to May 2008). Data were collected regarding age, gender, contact lens history, presenting signs and symptoms, diagnosis at first presentation, time to final diagnosis, identifiable risk factors, presenting and final visual acuity, results of microbiological testing, medical treatment, surgical interventions, recurrence of disease and length of follow up. All photographs and in vivo confocal microscopy images were reviewed. Twenty-five eyes of 25 patients were identified with a diagnosis of AK (mean age 40 +/- 13 years). Ninety-six per cent were contact lens wearers. Mean time to diagnosis was 41 +/- 49 days (range 0-181 days, median 21 days). Fourteen patients (56%) had been treated with topical corticosteroids prior to the diagnosis. Early diagnosis of AK (New Zealand in the current decade. This study highlights the fundamental importance of early diagnosis and appropriate management in ensuring favourable outcomes. Practitioners should maintain a clinical suspicion of AK, especially as 96% of the subjects in this study were contact lens wearers.

  12. Obsolete or resurgent? The International Energy Agency in a changing global landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Graaf, Thijs


    Founded in response to the 1973 oil shock, the International Energy Agency (IEA) is arguably still the most important multilateral organization for energy-importing countries. Yet, the global geopolitical landscape has changed considerably since the IEA's creation. The rise of new energy consumers, new energy-related challenges and new international energy forums prompt a rethink of the agency's current role and institutional design. This article seeks to contribute to the recent debate on the future role of the IEA by examining specific drivers, avenues and constraints for institutional reform. The method used is SWOT analysis, which allows to summarize the key factors emanating from an assessment of an organization's internal characteristics (strengths and weaknesses) and its external environment (opportunities and threats). Building on this SWOT analysis, the article formulates a strategy for the IEA to remain the focal point in global energy governance. Key elements of this strategy include: stronger engagement with new consumers, rapprochement with OPEC, becoming a leading voice in the energy transition, and changing the agency's internal governance practices. - Highlights: ► The IEA is challenged by the rise of new consumers, threats and organizations. ► Assessment of the agency’s internal characteristics and external environment. ► The IEA needs to step up its outreach policy and fully embrace sustainable energy.

  13. Resurgence of the dressing phase for AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, Gleb [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Zentrum für Mathematische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 55, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Dorigoni, Daniele [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Lower Mountjoy Stockton Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Savin, Sergei [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Zentrum für Mathematische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 55, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)


    We discuss the resummation of the strong coupling asymptotic expansion of the dressing phase of the AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} superstring. The dressing phase proposed by Beisert, Eden and Staudacher can be recovered from a modified Borel-Ecalle resummation of this asymptotic expansion only by completing it with new, non-perturbative and exponentially suppressed terms that can be organized into different sectors labelled by an instanton-like number. We compute the contribution to the dressing phase coming from the sum over all the instanton sectors and show that it satisfies the homogeneous crossing symmetry equation. We comment on the semiclassical origin of the non-perturbative terms from the world-sheet theory point of view even though their precise explanation remains still quite mysterious.

  14. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godar, D. E.


    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290-320 nm) exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321-400 nm) passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to∼ 50 degree N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  15. 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions (United States)

    ... Search English Español 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions KidsHealth / For Teens / 3 Ways to Increase Positive ... to give yourself a boost. Track Your Positive Emotions Name the positive emotions you're already familiar ...

  16. Increasing millet production in South Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asia, which has put the emphasis on cash crops and cereals ... aims to increase production and consumption of minor ... practices. They will then develop sustainable agriculture tool kits to help farmers to increase millet production in these.

  17. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara


    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  18. Increased muscle glucose uptake during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik; Richter, Erik


    We reinvestigated the prevailing concept that muscle contractions only elicit increased muscle glucose uptake in the presence of a so-called "permissive" concentration of insulin (Berger et al., Biochem. J. 146: 231-238, 1975; Vranic and Berger, Diabetes 28: 147-163, 1979). Hindquarters from rats...... in severe ketoacidosis were perfused with a perfusate containing insulin antiserum. After 60 min perfusion, electrical stimulation increased glucose uptake of the contracting muscles fivefold. Also, subsequent contractions increased glucose uptake in hindquarters from nondiabetic rats perfused for 1.5 h......-methylglucose uptake increased during contractions and glucose uptake was negative at rest and zero during contractions. An increase in muscle transport and uptake of glucose during contractions does not require the presence of insulin. Furthermore, glucose transport in contracting muscle may only increase if glycogen...

  19. Increase of internal energy due to measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daboul, J.


    We argue that the internal energy E=(H) of a macroscopic system in thermal equilibrium must increase, if we measure an observable A which does not commute with the Hamiltonian H. We derive an expression for calculating a lower bound for this increase in E. We then generalize the above result, and show that under certain conditions the expectation value (C) of an observable C should increase by the measurement of another observable A, if A and C do not commute. (author)

  20. Charcot's osteoarthropathy: An increased awareness of this ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charcot's osteoarthropathy: An increased awareness of this condition may help in enabling an earlier diagnosis, instituting appropriate treatment, and preventing severe deformity and disability. T Johnson ...

  1. The increased importance of sector switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg


    Sector switching is an important phenomenon that casts light on public–private differences. Yet our knowledge about its prevalence and trends is limited. We study sector switching using unique Danish register-based employer–employee data covering more than 25 years. We find that sector switching...... constitutes 18.5% of all job-to-job mobility, and the trend is increasing both from public to private and from private to public. Sector switching is also generally increasing for middle managers, but for administrative professionals only the flows from private to public increase and for top managers only...... the flows from public to private increase....

  2. Medicaid prospective payment: Case-mix increase (United States)

    Baker, Samuel L.; Kronenfeld, Jennie J.


    South Carolina Medicaid implemented prospective payment by diagnosis-related group (DRG) for inpatient care. The rate of complications among newborns and deliveries doubled immediately. The case-mix index for newborns increased 66.6 percent, which increased the total Medicaid hospital expenditure 5.5 percent. Outlier payments increased total expenditure further. DRG distribution change among newborns has a large impact on spending because newborn complication DRGs have high weights. States adopting a DRG-based payment system for Medicaid should anticipate a greater increase in case mix than Medicare experienced. PMID:10113463

  3. Environmental effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, W.; Baliunas, S.L.; Robinson, A.B.; Robinson, Z.W.


    A review of the literature concerning the environmental consequences of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide leads to the conclusion that increases during the 20th century have produced no deleterious effects upon global climate or temperature. Increased carbon dioxide has, however, markedly increased plant growth rates as inferred from numerous laboratory and field experiments. There is no clear evidence, nor unique attribution, of the global effects of anthropogenic CO 2 on climate. Meaningful integrated assessments of the environmental impacts of anthropogenic CO 2 are not yet possible because model estimates of global and regional climate changes on interannual, decadal and centennial timescales remain highly uncertain.(author)

  4. Increase nuclear safety of WWER-440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nochev, T.; Sabinov, S.


    A complete program for increasing nuclear safety has been made at NPP Kozloduy with the participation of German, French, Russian and American specialists. This effort cost greater than 100 mil $. This report includes the methods of increasing nuclear safety. The style of management in NPP Kozloduy has been changed for the last seven years. (authors)

  5. A Work Schedule to Increase Productivity. (United States)

    Atwood, Caleb S.


    Outlines a technique for making a tight economy and energy shortages more palatable by supplementing employee wage increases with benefits such as alternative three and four day "weekends" without loss of regular pay and by enabling business to increase profits. (Author/IRT)

  6. Effect of increasing truck weight on bridges. (United States)


    Legislation has been proposed that will allow a 17,000 lb increase in the maximum gross vehicle : weight on the Interstate Highway System. This projects main goal is quantify the effect of this : increase on the internal forces to which typical sl...

  7. Increased greenhouse effect substantiated through measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skartveit, Arvid


    The article presents studies on the greenhouse effect which substantiates the results from satellite measurements during the period 1970 - 1997. These show an increased effect due to increase in the concentration of the climatic gases CO 2 , methane, CFC-11 and CFC-12 in the atmosphere

  8. increases in cross-sectional samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 27, 1971 ... TABLE Ill. PERCE 'TAGE INCREASES IN BODY M EASU REM ENTS .... population means (polynomials) for calculating total per- ... with age in males, except for very small increases in Bantu. ..... this applies at high levels of energy expenditure is another .... available for adults of all 4 populations studied.

  9. Dihydrotestostenone increase the gene expression of androgen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HNTEP cells were grown in basal medium and treated with DHT in different conditions. HNTEP cells under treatment with DHT (10-13 M) induced an increase in FHL-2 expression. In turn, high DHT concentrations (10-8 M) induced an increase in the expression SHP-1. The present data suggest that the SHP-1 and FHL-2 ...

  10. Effective Strategies for Increasing Citation Frequency (United States)

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Tanha, Farid Habibi; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Motahar, Seyed Mohammad; Ordi, Ali


    Due to the effect of citation impact on The Higher Education (THE) world university ranking system, most of the researchers are looking for some helpful techniques to increase their citation record. This paper by reviewing the relevant articles extracts 33 different ways for increasing the citations possibilities. The results show that the article…

  11. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne E. Godar


    Full Text Available The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290–320 nm exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321–400 nm passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to ~50°N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  12. Reading Instruction That Increases Thinking Abilities. (United States)

    Collins, Cathy


    Analyzes the effects of eight reading and writing lessons designed to increase adolescent thinking ability. Finds that the lessons increased thinking abilities and scholastic achievement of middle school students. Notes that the lessons positively affect students' self-esteem and communication skills. (RS)

  13. Cyberbullying: An Increasing Challenge for Schools (United States)

    von Marees, Nandoli; Petermann, Franz


    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) has not only brought advantages to mankind. One downside is the emergence and increase of cyberbullying in schools. Affecting students of all ages, teachers, parents, and other educators, this special form of bullying is an increasing challenge for schools. This article offers an overview…

  14. Exercising self-control increases approach motivation. (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Harmon-Jones, Eddie


    The present research tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control causes an increase in approach motivation. Study 1 found that exercising (vs. not exercising) self-control increases self-reported approach motivation. Study 2a identified a behavior--betting on low-stakes gambles--that is correlated with approach motivation but is relatively uncorrelated with self-control, and Study 2b observed that exercising self-control temporarily increases this behavior. Last, Study 3 found that exercising self-control facilitates the perception of a reward-relevant symbol (i.e., a dollar sign) but not a reward-irrelevant symbol (i.e., a percent sign). Altogether, these results support the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation. Failures of self-control that follow from prior efforts at self-control (i.e., ego depletion) may be explained in part by increased approach motivation.

  15. Nuclear programs see a qualified increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This March 1995 Nuclear News article is a review of the proposed DOE budget for nuclear energy activities. This proposed budget increases spending by 32.7% and includes increases in nearly every individual program except civilian reactor development. Isotope production and distribution receive the largest increase, followed by termination costs for certain federal reactor projects. There is a 61.9% proposed increase (to $199M) for waste management activities, but with funding from other Departments, the actual budget would be $612M. The majority of this money would go toward Yucca Mountain activities. Except for the cancellation of the Advanced Neutron Source, the Science and Technology portion of the budget shows an overall small increase

  16. Are increases in cigarette taxation regressive? (United States)

    Borren, P; Sutton, M


    Using the latest published data from Tobacco Advisory Council surveys, this paper re-evaluates the question of whether or not increases in cigarette taxation are regressive in the United Kingdom. The extended data set shows no evidence of increasing price-elasticity by social class as found in a major previous study. To the contrary, there appears to be no clear pattern in the price responsiveness of smoking behaviour across different social classes. Increases in cigarette taxation, while reducing smoking levels in all groups, fall most heavily on men and women in the lowest social class. Men and women in social class five can expect to pay eight and eleven times more of a tax increase respectively, than their social class one counterparts. Taken as a proportion of relative incomes, the regressive nature of increases in cigarette taxation is even more pronounced.

  17. Employee responses to health insurance premium increases. (United States)

    Goldman, Dana P; Leibowitz, Arleen A; Robalino, David A


    To determine the sensitivity of employees' health insurance decisions--including the decision to not choose health maintenance organization or fee-for-service coverage--during periods of rapidly escalating healthcare costs. A retrospective cohort study of employee plan choices at a single large firm with a "cafeteria-style" benefits plan wherein employees paid all the additional cost of purchasing more generous insurance. We modeled the probability that an employee would drop coverage or switch plans in response to employee premium increases using data from a single large US company with employees across 47 states during the 3-year period of 1989 through 1991, a time of large premium increases within and across plans. Premium increases induced substantial plan switching. Single employees were more likely to respond to premium increases by dropping coverage, whereas families tended to switch to another plan. Premium increases of 10% induced 7% of single employees to drop or severely cut back on coverage; 13% to switch to another plan; and 80% to remain in their existing plan. Similar figures for those with family coverage were 11%, 12%, and 77%, respectively. Simulation results that control for known covariates show similar increases. When faced with a dramatic increase in premiums--on the order of 20%--nearly one fifth of the single employees dropped coverage compared with 10% of those with family coverage. Employee coverage decisions are sensitive to rapidly increasing premiums, and single employees may be likely to drop coverage. This finding suggests that sustained premium increases could induce substantial increases in the number of uninsured individuals.

  18. Clinical utility of neuronal cells directly converted from fibroblasts of patients for neuropsychiatric disorders: studies of lysosomal storage diseases and channelopathy (United States)

    Kano, Shin-ichi; Yuan, Ming; Cardarelli, Ross A.; Maegawa, Gustavo; Higurashi, Norimichi; Gaval-Cruz, Meriem; Wilson, Ashley M.; Tristan, Carlos; Kondo, Mari A.; Chen, Yian; Koga, Minori; Obie, Cassandra; Ishizuka, Koko; Seshadri, Saurav; Srivastava, Rupali; Kato, Takahiro A.; Horiuchi, Yasue; Sedlak, Thomas W.; Lee, Yohan; Rapoport, Judith L.; Hirose, Shinichi; Okano, Hideyuki; Valle, David; O'Donnell, Patricio; Sawa, Akira; Kai, Mihoko


    Methodologies for generating functional neuronal cells directly from human fibroblasts [induced neuronal (iN) cells] have been recently developed, but the research so far has only focused on technical refinements or recapitulation of known pathological phenotypes. A critical question is whether this novel technology will contribute to elucidation of novel disease mechanisms or evaluation of therapeutic strategies. Here we have addressed this question by studying Tay-Sachs disease, a representative lysosomal storage disease, and Dravet syndrome, a form of severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy, using human iN cells with feature of immature postmitotic glutamatergic neuronal cells. In Tay-Sachs disease, we have successfully characterized canonical neuronal pathology, massive accumulation of GM2 ganglioside, and demonstrated the suitability of this novel cell culture for future drug screening. In Dravet syndrome, we have identified a novel functional phenotype that was not suggested by studies of classical mouse models and human autopsied brains. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that human iN cells are useful for translational neuroscience research to explore novel disease mechanisms and evaluate therapeutic compounds. In the future, research using human iN cells with well-characterized genomic landscape can be integrated into multidisciplinary patient-oriented research on neuropsychiatric disorders to address novel disease mechanisms and evaluate therapeutic strategies. PMID:25732146

  19. Atrial natriuretic factor increases vascular permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockette, W.; Brennaman, B.


    An increase in central blood volume in microgravity may result in increased plasma levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Since elevations in plasma ANF are found in clinical syndromes associated with edema, and since space motion sickness induced by microgravity is associated with an increase in central blood volume and facial edema, we determined whether ANF increases capillary permeability to plasma protein. Conscious, bilaterally nephrectomized male rats were infused with either saline, ANF + saline, or hexamethonium + saline over 2 h following bolus injections of 125I-albumin and 14C-dextran of similar molecular size. Blood pressure was monitored and serial determinations of hematocrits were made. Animals infused with 1.0 ANF had significantly higher hematocrits than animals infused with saline vehicle. Infusion of ANF increased the extravasation of 125I-albumin, but not 14C-dextran from the intravascular compartment. ANF also induced a depressor response in rats, but the change in blood pressure did not account for changes in capillary permeability to albumin; similar depressor responses induced by hexamethonium were not accompanied by increased extravasation of albumin from the intravascular compartment. ANF may decrease plasma volume by increasing permeability to albumin, and this effect of ANF may account for some of the signs and symptoms of space motion sickness

  20. Increasing trends of herpes zoster in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina MacIntyre

    Full Text Available Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation.Australian data on general practice (GP encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013 were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period.All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods. Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time.The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly.

  1. Idaho Power's reverses decline with employee increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Following several years of decline, the number of full-time Idaho Power employees increased to 1,528 at the end of 1989, up from 1,500 in 1988. The increase reversed a steady decline that began in 1984 when the company had a peak employment of 1,725. Last year's increase in the work force in part reflects recent additions in customers served and the electric demands of an expanding economy in the service area, as well as new regulatory requirements, the company said


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    In this paper we discuss the possibility of increasing the energy of beams in RHIC by as much as 30% with a modest trade-off in luminosity. The arc dipoles and quadrupoles were designed with considerable margin. For higher energies (>100 GeV/nucleon) the minimum β* may be required to increase as the interaction region triplets saturate. The separator magnets (DX) have the least margin for increased field, so we consider three scenarios: allowing for a small crossing angle with the present DX magnets, upgrading the DX magnets to higher strength, and permitting a crossing angle of ∼1degree by removing the DX magnets altogether

  3. Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, J G


    The effects of increasing CO/sub 2/ concentrations in the atmosphere are estimated using general circulation models (GCMs), which have the ability to portray many of the nonlinear feedback processes which serve to regulate atmospheric (and hence climatic) changes. GCMs predict that a doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ would result in a 2-3 k increase of globally averaged surface air temperature. The largest warming will occur in the winter in high latitudes. Detection studies are now being directed towards isolating those parts of observed climate fluctuations that are attributable to increasing atmospheric CO/sub 2/. (KRM)

  4. The Aging Kidney: Increased Susceptibility to Nephrotoxicity (United States)

    Wang, Xinhui; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Parrish, Alan R.


    Three decades have passed since a series of studies indicated that the aging kidney was characterized by increased susceptibility to nephrotoxic injury. Data from these experimental models is strengthened by clinical data demonstrating that the aging population has an increased incidence and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). Since then a number of studies have focused on age-dependent alterations in pathways that predispose the kidney to acute insult. This review will focus on the mechanisms that are altered by aging in the kidney that may increase susceptibility to injury, including hemodynamics, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation and decreased repair. PMID:25257519

  5. Who Benefits from a Minimum Wage Increase?


    John W. Lopresti; Kevin J. Mumford


    This paper addresses the question of how a minimum wage increase affects the wages of low-wage workers. Most studies assume that there is a simple mechanical increase in the wage for workers earning a wage between the old and the new minimum wage, with some studies allowing for spillovers to workers with wages just above this range. Rather than assume that the wages of these workers would have remained constant, this paper estimates how a minimum wage increase impacts a low-wage worker's wage...

  6. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche


    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  7. Worldwide trends show oropharyngeal cancer rates increasing (United States)

    NCI scientists report that the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer significantly increased during the period 1983-2002 among people in countries that are economically developed. Oropharyngeal cancer occurs primarily in the middle part of the throat behind t

  8. Ethanologenic bacteria with increased resistance to furfural (United States)

    Miller, Elliot Norman; Jarboe, Laura R.; Yomano, Lorraine P.; York, Sean W.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal


    The invention relates to bacterium that have increased resistance to furfural and methods of preparation. The invention also relates to methods of producing ethanol using the bacterium and corresponding kits.

  9. Determination of hormonal combination for increased multiplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    production; such methods include tissue culture and ... NAA and Vitamins has been reported to increase the ... is a new technique in seed potato production ... Napthalene acetic acid (NAA) were ... to analysis of variance (ANOVA), using.

  10. Big increase in Spanish reseach funding

    CERN Document Server

    Bosch, X


    The Spanish government plans to increase spending on civilian science research and development by between 8 and 10 per cent. The exact figure is unclear since it has been included in the budget along with military research projects (1 page).

  11. Aged mice have increased inflammatory monocyte concentration ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    monocytes from old as compared with those from young mice. The increased classic .... several instances where the isotype control antibodies stained in a similar position but at a ..... responses in young and older adults. J. Infect. Dis. 195.

  12. Increased backcrossing has reduced the usefulness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased backcrossing has reduced the usefulness of morphological and allozyme data for identifying Oreochromis niloticus , O. mossambicus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) and their hybrids in the Pafuri reach of the Luvuvhu River in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

  13. Writing autobiographical narratives increases political conservatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Proulx, T.


    Two experiments show that writing chronological autobiographical narratives increases political conservatism, defined as an ideology of resistance to social change. When writing chronological autobiographical narratives, we hypothesized that people would re-experience the events of their life in a

  14. The ways of SOFC systems efficiency increasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demin, A.K.; Timofeyeva, N.


    The efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is described. This paper considers methods to lift the fuel utilization and/or the average cell voltage with the goal of increasing the cell efficiency by improved cell designs.

  15. Does Movie Violence Increase Violent Crime?


    Gordon Dahl; Stefano DellaVigna


    Laboratory experiments in psychology find that media violence increases aggression in the short run. We analyze whether media violence affects violent crime in the field. We exploit variation in the violence of blockbuster movies from 1995 to 2004, and study the effect on same-day assaults. We find that violent crime decreases on days with larger theater audiences for violent movies. The effect is partly due to voluntary incapacitation: between 6PM and 12AM, a one million increase in the audi...

  16. Calming Meditation Increases Altruism, Decreases Parochialism


    Frost, Karl


    It has been proposed that cultivating calm will increase altruism and decrease parochialism, where altruism is defined as self-sacrifice in support of others, regardless of group affiliation or identity, and parochialism is defined as prosocial self-sacrifice restricted to fellow members of a group. Such could be the case with a calming meditation practice. An alternate hypothesis, coming from the study of ritual, proposes that shared practices lead to bonding, increasing parochialism, but no...

  17. Increase of hydroelectric power plant operation reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshumbaev, M.B.


    The new design of the turbine of hydroelectric power plant (HPP) is executed in the form of a pipe with plates. Proposed solution allows increasing the hydroelectric power plant capacity at existing head and water flow. At that time the HPP turbine reliability is increase, its operation performances are improving. Design efficiency is effective mostly for small-scale and micro-HPP due to reliable operation, low-end technology, and harmless ecological application. (author)

  18. Increased ionization rate in laser enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, G.S.; Pike, G.T.


    A system employing multiple, upper excitation levels in a technique for isotopically selective ionization to improve the ionization efficiency is described. Laser radiation is employed to excite particles with isotopic selectivity. Excitation is produced to a plurality of excited states below the ionization level with the result of increasing the number of available excited particles for ionization and thereby increasing the ionization cross section for improved system efficiency

  19. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller


    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  20. Islamic Caring Model on Increase Patient Satisfaction


    Abdurrouf, Muh; Nursalam, Nursalam; Purwaningsih, Purwaningsih


    Introduction: Patient satisfaction was important aspect that must be considered by health service providers, patients who were not satisfied will leave the hospital and be a competitor's customers so be able caused a decrease in sales of products/services and in turn could reduce and even loss of profit, therefore, the hospital must provided the best service so that it could increase patient satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to exams the effect of Islamic caring model on increase pa...

  1. Tourism: a Soft Touch for Increased Taxation


    McMahon, Frank


    This paper reviews the changes which are taking place internationally in the taxation of the tourism industry and the reasons why tourism is especially susceptible to increased taxation. It compares VAT rates in European countries and assesses the relationship between those rates and increases in international tourism receipts, concluding that there is not the direct, negative relationship which hotel associations frequently cited in their submissions to government. The canons of taxation, fi...

  2. Do childcare policies increase maternal employment?


    Vuri, Daniela


    Women’s labor force participation has rapidly increased in most countries, but mothers still struggle to achieve a satisfactory work−life balance. Childcare allows the primary caregiver, usually the mother, to take time away from childrearing for employment. Family policies that subsidize childcare and increase its availability have different effects on female labor supply across countries. For policymakers to determine how well these policies work, they should consider that policy effectiven...

  3. Increasing the Brightness of Light Sources


    Fu, Ling


    In modern illumination systems, compact size and high brightness are important features. Light recycling allows an increase of the spectral radiance (brightness) emitted by a light source for the price of reducing the total radiant power. Light recycling means returning part of the emitted light to the source where part of it will escape absorption. As a result, the output brightness can be increased in a restricted phase space, ...

  4. Increased bone radiotracer uptake in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Graaf, P.; Schicht, I.M.; de Graeff, J.; te Velde, J.; Kleiverda, K.; Pauwels, E.K.J.


    Bone radiotracer uptake in renal osteodystrophy was investigated in 35 dialysis patients by correlating the results of quantitative bone scintigraphy with those of biochemical and bone morphometric studies. There were highly significant correlations (P < 0.001) between the total skeletal activity and the biochemical (iPTH and alkaline phosphatase), and histologic parameters of hyperparathyroidism. These clinical results strongly suggest that increased bone turnover i.e. hyperparathyroidism, rather than osteomalacia is the major cause of increased skeletal uptake in renal osteodystrophy.

  5. Energy in China: Coping with increasing demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandklef, Kristina


    Sustaining the increasing energy consumption is crucial to future economic growth in China. This report focuses on the current and future situation of energy production and consumption in China and how China is coping with its increasing domestic energy demand. Today, coal is the most important energy resource, followed by oil and hydropower. Most energy resources are located in the inland, whereas the main demand for energy is in the coastal areas, which makes transportation and transmission of energy vital. The industrial sector is the main driver of the energy consumption in China, but the transport sector and the residential sector will increase their share of consumption in China, but the transport sector and the residential sector will increase their share of consumption by 2020. China's energy intensity decreased during the 1990s, but it is still high in a global comparison. China is projected to increase its energy consumption at least two times between 2000 and 2025. The government has an equal focus on energy conservation and to develop the current energy resources. Coal will continue to be the most important fuel, but the demand for oil, hydropower, natural gas and nuclear power will also increase. The main future challenges are transportation of energy resources within China and securing oil supply, both domestic and imports

  6. Increasing nursing treatment for pediatric procedural pain. (United States)

    Bice, April A; Gunther, Mary; Wyatt, Tami


    Procedural pain management is an underused practice in children. Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, many nurses do not provide adequate analgesia for painful interventions. Complementary therapies and nonpharmacologic interventions are additionally essential to managing pain. Owing to the increasing awareness of inadequate nursing utilization of pharmacologic measures for procedural pain, this paper focuses only on analgesic treatments. The aim of this review was to examine how varying degrees of quality improvement affect nursing utilization of treatments for routine pediatric procedural pain. A comprehensive search of databases including Cinahl, Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Psycinfo, and Cochrane Library was performed. Sixty-two peer-reviewed research articles were examined. Ten articles focusing on quality improvement in pediatric pain management published in English from 2001 to 2011 were included. Three themes emerged: 1) increasing nursing knowledge; 2) nursing empowerment; and 3) protocol implementation. Research critique was completed with the use of guidelines and recommendations from Creswell (2009) and Garrard (2011). The literature reveals that nurses still think that pediatric pain management is essential. Quality improvement increases nursing utilization of procedural pain treatments. Although increasing nursing knowledge improves pediatric pain management, it appears that nursing empowerment and protocol implementation increase nursing compliance more than just education alone. Nurses providing pain management can enhance their individual practice with quality improvement measures that may increase nursing adherence to institutional and nationally recommended pediatric procedural pain management guidelines. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Isoflurane increases cardiorespiratory coordination in rats (United States)

    Kabir, Muammar M.; Beig, Mirza I.; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Abbott, Derek; Baumert, Mathias


    Anesthetics such as isoflurane adversely affect heart rate. In this study we analysed the interaction between heart rhythm and respiration at different concentrations of isoflurane and ventilation rates. In two rats, the electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiratory signals were recorded under the influence of isoflurane. For the assessment of cardiorespiratory coordination, we analysed the phase locking between heart rate, computed from the R-R intervals of body surface ECG, and respiratory rate, computed from impedance changes, using Hilbert transform. The changes in heart rate, percentage of synchronization and duration of synchronized epochs at different isoflurane concentrations and ventilation rates were assessed using linear regression model. From this study it appears that the amount of phase locking between cardiac and respiratory rates increases with the increase in concentration of isoflurane. Heart rate and duration of synchronized epochs increased significantly with the increase in the level of isoflurane concentration while respiratory rate was not significantly affected. Cardiorespiratory coordination also showed a considerable increase at the ventilation rates of 50- 55 cpm in both the rats, suggesting that the phase-locking between the cardiac and respiratory oscillators can be increased by breathing at a particular respiratory frequency.

  8. Precipitation variability increases in a warmer climate. (United States)

    Pendergrass, Angeline G; Knutti, Reto; Lehner, Flavio; Deser, Clara; Sanderson, Benjamin M


    Understanding changes in precipitation variability is essential for a complete explanation of the hydrologic cycle's response to warming and its impacts. While changes in mean and extreme precipitation have been studied intensively, precipitation variability has received less attention, despite its theoretical and practical importance. Here, we show that precipitation variability in most climate models increases over a majority of global land area in response to warming (66% of land has a robust increase in variability of seasonal-mean precipitation). Comparing recent decades to RCP8.5 projections for the end of the 21 st century, we find that in the global, multi-model mean, precipitation variability increases 3-4% K -1 globally, 4-5% K -1 over land and 2-4% K -1 over ocean, and is remarkably robust on a range of timescales from daily to decadal. Precipitation variability increases by at least as much as mean precipitation and less than moisture and extreme precipitation for most models, regions, and timescales. We interpret this as being related to an increase in moisture which is partially mitigated by weakening circulation. We show that changes in observed daily variability in station data are consistent with increased variability.

  9. Insulin Increases Ceramide Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Hansen


    Full Text Available Aims. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of insulin on ceramide metabolism in skeletal muscle. Methods. Skeletal muscle cells were treated with insulin with or without palmitate for various time periods. Lipids (ceramides and TAG were isolated and gene expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes were quantified. Additionally, adult male mice received daily insulin injections for 14 days, followed by muscle ceramide analysis. Results. In muscle cells, insulin elicited an increase in ceramides comparable to palmitate alone. This is likely partly due to an insulin-induced increase in expression of multiple enzymes, particularly SPT2, which, when knocked down, prevented the increase in ceramides. In mice, 14 days of insulin injection resulted in increased soleus ceramides, but not TAG. However, insulin injections did significantly increase hepatic TAG compared with vehicle-injected animals. Conclusions. This study suggests that insulin elicits an anabolic effect on sphingolipid metabolism in skeletal muscle, resulting in increased ceramide accumulation. These findings reveal a potential mechanism of the deleterious consequences of the hyperinsulinemia that accompanies insulin resistance and suggest a possible novel therapeutic target to mitigate its effects.

  10. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency. (United States)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani


    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes. © 2015 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Analysis of sharpness increase by image noise (United States)

    Kurihara, Takehito; Aoki, Naokazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki


    Motivated by the reported increase in sharpness by image noise, we investigated how noise affects sharpness perception. We first used natural images of tree bark with different amounts of noise to see whether noise enhances sharpness. Although the result showed sharpness decreased as noise amount increased, some observers seemed to perceive more sharpness with increasing noise, while the others did not. We next used 1D and 2D uni-frequency patterns as stimuli in an attempt to reduce such variability in the judgment. The result showed, for higher frequency stimuli, sharpness decreased as the noise amount increased, while sharpness of the lower frequency stimuli increased at a certain noise level. From this result, we thought image noise might reduce sharpness at edges, but be able to improve sharpness of lower frequency component or texture in image. To prove this prediction, we experimented again with the natural image used in the first experiment. Stimuli were made by applying noise separately to edge or to texture part of the image. The result showed noise, when added to edge region, only decreased sharpness, whereas when added to texture, could improve sharpness. We think it is the interaction between noise and texture that sharpens image.

  12. Smoking prevalence increases following Canterbury earthquakes. (United States)

    Erskine, Nick; Daley, Vivien; Stevenson, Sue; Rhodes, Bronwen; Beckert, Lutz


    A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents' living, working, and social conditions. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41%) participants had never smoked, 273 (27%) were currently smoking, and 316 (32%) were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24%) of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1%) had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4%) had not changed, and 86 (31.5%) had decreased their consumption. 53 (57%) of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers.

  13. Import of electric power increased by 19 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The import of electric power increased by 19% in 1999. Due to the decrease in the electric power export the net import of electric power increased even more. Electric power import from Sweden was 6000 GWh, import from Russia 5200 GWh and import from Norway 100 GWh. The electric power export in 1999 was only 200 GWh. The generation of nuclear power increased 5% and the consumption of wood-based fuels by 3%. The increase in nuclear power generation is based on increment of the power output capacities of the power plants. The consumption of peat decreased by 12% and the production of hydroelectric power by 15%. The decrement of the peat consumption is based on the changes in energy taxation. The production of hydroelectric power decreased to the normal level after the rainy year 1998. Oil consumption remained nearly the same as in 1998 even though the national product increased in 1999 by 3.5%. The wind power generation was doubled in 1999. The share of it is still only about 0.01% of the total energy consumption. Carbon dioxide emissions from coal and peat, decreased by 1.0 million tons, down to 56 million tons. The present emissions are now only about 2 million tons higher than during the reference year 1990. The emissions have decreased by 5 million tons since 1996 when they were at their highest

  14. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.


    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish.

  15. Antibiotic resistance increases with local temperature (United States)

    MacFadden, Derek R.; McGough, Sarah F.; Fisman, David; Santillana, Mauricio; Brownstein, John S.


    Bacteria that cause infections in humans can develop or acquire resistance to antibiotics commonly used against them1,2. Antimicrobial resistance (in bacteria and other microbes) causes significant morbidity worldwide, and some estimates indicate the attributable mortality could reach up to 10 million by 20502-4. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is believed to develop largely under the selective pressure of antibiotic use; however, other factors may contribute to population level increases in antibiotic resistance1,2. We explored the role of climate (temperature) and additional factors on the distribution of antibiotic resistance across the United States, and here we show that increasing local temperature as well as population density are associated with increasing antibiotic resistance (percent resistant) in common pathogens. We found that an increase in temperature of 10 °C across regions was associated with an increases in antibiotic resistance of 4.2%, 2.2%, and 2.7% for the common pathogens Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. The associations between temperature and antibiotic resistance in this ecological study are consistent across most classes of antibiotics and pathogens and may be strengthening over time. These findings suggest that current forecasts of the burden of antibiotic resistance could be significant underestimates in the face of a growing population and climate change4.

  16. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.


    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish

  17. Increasing vaccine production using pulsed ultrasound waves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jida Xing

    Full Text Available Vaccination is a safe and effective approach to prevent deadly diseases. To increase vaccine production, we propose that a mechanical stimulation can enhance protein production. In order to prove this hypothesis, Sf9 insect cells were used to evaluate the increase in the expression of a fusion protein from hepatitis B virus (HBV S1/S2. We discovered that the ultrasound stimulation at a frequency of 1.5 MHz, intensity of 60 mW/cm2, for a duration of 10 minutes per day increased HBV S1/S2 by 27%. We further derived a model for transport through a cell membrane under the effect of ultrasound waves, tested the key assumptions of the model through a molecular dynamics simulation package, NAMD (Nanoscale Molecular Dynamics program and utilized CHARMM force field in a steered molecular dynamics environment. The results show that ultrasound waves can increase cell permeability, which, in turn, can enhance nutrient / waste exchange thus leading to enhanced vaccine production. This finding is very meaningful in either shortening vaccine production time, or increasing the yield of proteins for use as vaccines.

  18. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh


    Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...... for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30...

  19. Is Eurasian October snow cover extent increasing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R D; Derksen, C


    A number of recent studies present evidence of an increasing trend in Eurasian snow cover extent (SCE) in the October snow onset period based on analysis of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) historical satellite record. These increases are inconsistent with fall season surface temperature warming trends across the region. Using four independent snow cover data sources (surface observations, two reanalyses, satellite passive microwave retrievals) we show that the increasing SCE is attributable to an internal trend in the NOAA CDR dataset to chart relatively more October snow cover extent over the dataset overlap period (1982–2005). Adjusting the series for this shift results in closer agreement with other independent datasets, stronger correlation with continentally-averaged air temperature anomalies, and a decrease in SCE over 1982–2011 consistent with surface air temperature warming trends over the same period. (letter)

  20. Increased transvascular lipoprotein transport in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Borch-Johnsen, Knut


    CONTEXT: Diabetes is associated with a highly increased risk of atherosclerosis, especially if hypertension or albuminuria is present. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the increased transvascular lipoprotein transport in diabetes may be further accelerated if hypertension or albuminuria is present...... of transvascular transport. RESULTS: Transvascular LDL transport was 1.8 (1.6-2.0), 2.3 (2.0-2.6), and 2.6 (1.3-4.0)%/[h x (liter/m2)] in healthy controls, diabetic controls, and diabetes patients with systolic hypertension or albuminuria, respectively (P = 0.013; F = 4.5; df =2; ANOVA). These differences most...... likely were not caused by altered hepatic LDL receptor expression, glycosylation of LDL, small LDL size, or medicine use. CONCLUSIONS: Transvascular LDL transport is increased in patients with diabetes mellitus, especially if systolic hypertension or albuminuria is present. Accordingly, lipoprotein flux...

  1. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases Pigmentation. (United States)

    Uysal, Cagri A; Ertas, Nilgun Markal


    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous solution of plasma containing 4 to 7 times the baseline concentration of human platelets. Platelet-rich plasma has been widely popular in facial rejuvenation to attenuate wrinkles and has been practically used. The authors have been encountering various patients of increased hiperpigmentation following PRP applications that were performed to attenuate the postinflammatory hiperpigmentation especially after laser treatment. The authors have been using PRP for facial rejuvenation in selected patients and in 1 patient the authors have encountered increased pigmentation over the pigmented skin lesions that were present before the application. The authors recommend that the PRP might increase pigmentation especially in the face region and precautions might be taken before and after the application. Platelet-rich plasma should not be used for the treatment of post inflammatory hiperpigmentation.

  2. Poor Semen Quality Predicts Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Bostofte, Erik; Jacobsen, Rune

    Objective: Over recent decades a possible decrease in semen quality and an increase in the incidence of testicular cancer have been reported. In addition, men with poor semen quality have been reported to be at increased risk of developing testicular cancer whereas the risk of other cancers...... is not increased. The long-term survival of men with poor semen quality is, however, unknown. We therefore studied the associations between semen characteristics and subsequent mortality. Back to Top Material and Methods: The Copenhagen Sperm Analysis Laboratory is one of several public semen analysis laboratories...... in Denmark and examines semen samples mostly from men in the area of Copenhagen. Men are referred to the clinic by general practitioners and urologists, and the investigations are paid for through the public health system. A total of 34.442 men had a semen analysis done at the laboratory during 1963 to 1995...

  3. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth


    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity....... Skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist Prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague Dawley rats (n=33) while 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-week Prazosin treatment, which ensured...... that Prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-Glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole...

  4. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob


    comprised internationallyadopted children (n = 6,820), adopted between 1994 and2005, and all non-adopted children (n = 492,374) who couldbe matched with the adopted children on sex, age, municipalityand family constellation at the time of adoption. Results: International adoption increased the use......Introduction: Several studies have documented thatinternational adoptees have an increased occurrence ofhealth problems and contacts to the health-care systemafter arriving to their new country of residence. This maybe explained by pre-adoption adversities, especially for theperiod immediately...... after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...

  5. Nutrient enrichment increases mortality of mangroves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pacheco


    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to point a set of practical strategies that can be adopted to increase the capacity of constraints resources on production systems, when the constraint is inside the factory and not is in the market. To serve this purpose will be presented strategies based on best practices of the Theory of Constraints, Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This article also presents the mains tools for the deployment of these methodologies. The survey results have provided an objective set of practical strategy that can be used to increase the capacity and productivity of production systems according to the needs of each manufacturing system.

  7. Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....

  8. Licensing process for the power increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez P, R.; Mamani A, Y.R.; Salgado G, J.R.


    The licensing process for the power increase of a nuclear power station is presented, this includes the description of the effective normative framework, the attributions of the one Mexican regulator organism in nuclear matter, the definition and importance of the power level of a nuclear reactor for the safety studies. Also, the types of power increase according to its magnitude, and the regulator process that it includes the scope and the detail of the required information that it should be evaluated by the one regulator organism are discussed. Finally it offers a summary of the experience that one has in Mexico for this type of processes. (Author)

  9. Alanine increases blood pressure during hypotension (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Maher, T. J.; Wurtman, R. J.


    The effect of L-alanine administration on blood pressure (BP) during haemorrhagic shock was investigated using anesthetized rats whose left carotid arteries were cannulated for BP measurement, blood removal, and drug administration. It was found that L-alanine, in doses of 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, increased the systolic BP of hypotensive rats by 38 to 80 percent (while 100 mg/kg pyruvate increased BP by only 9.4 mmhg, not significantly different from saline). The results suggest that L-alanine might influence cardiovascular function.

  10. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.


    Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package

  11. Using Mobile Phones to Increase Classroom Interaction (United States)

    Cobb, Stephanie; Heaney, Rose; Corcoran, Olivia; Henderson-Begg, Stephanie


    This study examines the possible benefits of using mobile phones to increase interaction and promote active learning in large classroom settings. First year undergraduate students studying Cellular Processes at the University of East London took part in a trial of a new text-based classroom interaction system and evaluated their experience by…

  12. Increasing security in inter-chip communication (United States)

    Edwards, Nathan J; Hamlet, Jason; Bauer, Todd; Helinski, Ryan


    An apparatus for increasing security in inter-chip communication includes a sending control module, a communication bus, and a receiving control module. The communication bus is coupled between the sending control module and the receiving control module. The sending control module operates to send data on the communication bus, disable the communication bus when threats are detected, or both.

  13. SIRTF thermal design modifications to increase lifetime (United States)

    Petrick, S. W.


    An effort was made to increase the predicted lifetime of the SIRTF dewar by lowering the exterior shell temperature, increasing the radiated energy from the vapor cooled shields and reconfiguring the vapor cooled shields. The lifetime increases can be used to increase the scientific return from the mission and as a trade-off against mass and cost. This paper describes the configurations studied, the steady state thermal model used, the analytical methods and the results of the analysis. Much of the heat input to the outside dewar shell is radiative heat transfer from the solar panel. To lower the shell temperature, radiative cooled shields were placed between the solar panel and the dewar shell and between the bus and the dewar shell. Analysis showed that placing a radiator on the outer vapor cooled shield had a significant effect on lifetime. Lengthening the distance between the outer shell and the point where the vapor cooled shields are attached to the support straps also improved lifetime.

  14. Increased cooperation through immediate post contractual negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, Stephan; Doree, Andries G.; Boes, Johan


    Traditional contracting has been largely shown to cause adversarial relationships between client and contractor in the construction sector. This leads to claims during construction by contractors, which increase transaction costs for both parties in the form of policing and enforcement costs. In

  15. Increasing Influenza Vaccine Uptake. A Comprehensive Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijmans - van den Akker, I.


    General introduction: To prevent influenza virus infection, immunization against influenza has been recommended for individuals with increased risk of complications. These groups comprise individuals of 60 years and older, individuals with risk-elevating co-morbid conditions, residents of nursing

  16. SHORT COMMUNICATION Challenges to increased Snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commercial production of snails has not kept pace with the demand for it in Ibarapa Local Government Areas (ILGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria. A study was carried out to characterize the snail farmers, identify challenges to an increased snail production and suggest measures for sustainable snail production. Structured ...

  17. Island Species Richness Increases with Habitat Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortal, J.; Triantis, K.A.; Meiri, S.; Thebault, E.M.C.; Sfenthourakis, S.


    Species richness is commonly thought to increase with habitat diversity. However, a recent theoretical model aiming to unify niche and island biogeography theories predicted a hump-shaped relationship between richness and habitat diversity. Given the contradiction between model results and previous

  18. Hypospadias and increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders


    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Lichtenstein, Paul; Landén, Mikael; Nordenvall, Anna; Nordenström, Anna; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Frisén, Louise


    BACKGROUND: Hypospadias (aberrant opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis) occurs in 1 per 300 newborn boys. It has been previously unknown whether this common malformation is associated with increased psychiatric morbidity later in life. Studies of individuals with hypospadias also provide an opportunity to examine whether difference in androgen signaling is related to neurodevelopmental disorders. To elucidate the mechanisms behind ...

  19. Goal Setting to Increase Student Academic Performance (United States)

    Dotson, Ronnie


    Over the past two years, the teachers and students in Carter County, Kentucky have been utilizing goal setting. As a result, the district has shown tremendous growth on not only state assessments, but also on local assessments. Additionally, the number of students meeting benchmarks for college and career readiness has increased significantly. The…

  20. Motivating Students by Increasing Student Choice (United States)

    Birdsell, Becky S.; Ream, Sarah M.; Seyller, Ann M.; Zobott, Pam L.


    The purpose of this study was to increase motivation in 7th grade students. Four teacher researchers examined the change in motivational levels as a result of choice strategies. They gathered data from four different classes, 101 students in all, to track levels of motivation. They monitored their levels of observable behavioral patterns with a…

  1. Increasing Access and Relevance in Distance Education (United States)

    Mendenhall, Robert W.


    Access to higher education is subject to many factors including affordability, time and geography. Distance education can deliver education to those that live far from a campus. Some of that distance education may be synchronous, or live, requiring students to be available at certain times. Flexibility and access are increased when the instruction…

  2. Sex Equity: Increasing Girls' Use of Computers. (United States)

    Lockheed, Marlaine E.; Frakt, Steven B.


    Indicates that although computer science has been free of male domination, the stereotype of computers as male machines is emerging with increasing growth in microcomputer use by children. Factors that account for this development and some strategies teachers can adopt to equalize computer use by boys and girls are presented. (MBR)

  3. Age Increases Monocyte Adhesion on Collagen (United States)

    Khalaji, Samira; Zondler, Lisa; Kleinjan, Fenneke; Nolte, Ulla; Mulaw, Medhanie A.; Danzer, Karin M.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Gottschalk, Kay-E.


    Adhesion of monocytes to micro-injuries on arterial walls is an important early step in the occurrence and development of degenerative atherosclerotic lesions. At these injuries, collagen is exposed to the blood stream. We are interested whether age influences monocyte adhesion to collagen under flow, and hence influences the susceptibility to arteriosclerotic lesions. Therefore, we studied adhesion and rolling of human peripheral blood monocytes from old and young individuals on collagen type I coated surface under shear flow. We find that firm adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is elevated in old individuals. Pre-stimulation by lipopolysaccharide increases the firm adhesion of monocytes homogeneously in older individuals, but heterogeneously in young individuals. Blocking integrin αx showed that adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is specific to the main collagen binding integrin αxβ2. Surprisingly, we find no significant age-dependent difference in gene expression of integrin αx or integrin β2. However, if all integrins are activated from the outside, no differences exist between the age groups. Altered integrin activation therefore causes the increased adhesion. Our results show that the basal increase in integrin activation in monocytes from old individuals increases monocyte adhesion to collagen and therefore the risk for arteriosclerotic plaques.

  4. Increasing Sales by Developing Production Consortiums. (United States)

    Smith, Christopher A.; Russo, Robert

    Intended to help rehabilitation facility administrators increase organizational income from manufacturing and/or contracted service sources, this document provides a decision-making model for the development of a production consortium. The document consists of five chapters and two appendices. Chapter 1 defines the consortium concept, explains…

  5. Pharmacovigilance: Tiens Slimming Tea Causes Increased Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possible link between the constituents of the slimming tea and increased blood pressure and also provide evidence of other possible harmful effects that may occur with the use of the slimming tea. Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, hypertension, slimming tea. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research Vol.

  6. GERD: Can Certain Medications Increase Severity? (United States)

    ... increase severity? I've heard that some medications can aggravate the symptoms of GERD. Can you tell me more? Answers from Michael F. Picco, M.D. Certain medications and dietary supplements can irritate the lining of your esophagus, causing heartburn ...

  7. Increasing Household Protein Consumption Through Minilivestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mini-livestock production can be a major contributor of a more balanced diet for both rural and urban settlements. The attributes of mini-livestock gives it the potential of increasing household protein consumption as well as being a source of income. Mini-livestock production can be practiced in rural and urban settlements ...

  8. ICT in higher education: increased student engagement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Maas, J.


    Purpose – In general, active participation increases learning outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to explore how: information and communication technologies (ICT) can be used to improve the participation of students during lectures and the effect of ICT on the learning outcomes of students.

  9. FORUM Models for increasing the health workforce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stewardship of the anticipated growth of private education and services ... The Global Health Workforce Alliance3 recognises the importance of increasing ... Action 2010 - 2014 to advance economic growth and development, to be realised by ... of the private higher education sector must be better understood and supported.

  10. Power Curve Measurements, quantify the production increase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The purpose of this report is to quantify the production increase on a given turbine with respect to another given turbine. The used methodology is the “side by side” comparison method, provided by the client. This method involves the use of two neighboring turbines and it is based...

  11. Robotic Bipedal Running : Increasing disturbance rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssen, J.G.D.


    The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to increase the understanding of the human running gait. The understanding of the human running gait is essential for the development of devices, such as prostheses and orthoses, that enable disabled people to run or that enable able people to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simina FULGA


    Full Text Available The present paper is devoted to analyze the appropriate recommendations to increase the effectiveness of technology transfer organizations (centers from ReNITT, by using the specific instruments of Business Model Canvas, associated to the technological transfer value chain for the value added services addressed to their clients and according to a continuously improved competitive strategy over competition analysis.

  13. Does trade liberalization increase global pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beladi, Hamid; Oladi, Reza


    In this paper we consider a simple duopoly market in which a home firm and a foreign firm use labor to produce an identical product and supply it to the home market. Firms emit pollution as a by-product of production. We show conditions under which international trade liberalization decreases (increases) the global pollution. (author)

  14. Increasing the lifetime of fuel cell catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latsuzbaia, R.


    In this thesis, I discuss a novel idea of fuel cell catalyst regeneration to increase lifetime of the PEM fuel cell electrode/catalyst operation and, therefore, reduce the catalyst costs. As many of the catalyst degradation mechanisms are difficult to avoid, the regeneration is alternative option to

  15. Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Thyrotoxicosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, R. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Hansen, D.


    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine in a Danish nationwide study whether the incidence rate (IR) of thyrotoxicosis in children below 15 years of age has increased between 1998 and 2012 and to compare the results with previously published national data from 1982 to 1988. Furthermore, we...

  16. Increased thyrotropin binding in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. (United States)

    Müller-Gärtner, H W; Schneider, C; Bay, V; Tadt, A; Rehpenning, W; de Heer, K; Jessel, M


    The object of this study was to investigate TSH receptors in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HFN). In HFN, obtained from seven patients, 125-I-TSH binding as determined by equilibrium binding analysis on particulate membrane preparations, was found to be significantly increased as compared with normal thyroid tissues (five patients; P less than 0.001). Scatchard analysis of TSH-binding revealed two kinds of binding sites for both normal thyroid tissue and HFN, and displayed significantly increased association constants of high- and low-affinity binding sites in HFN (Ka = 11.75 +/- 6.8 10(9) M-1, P less than 0.001 and Ka = 2.1 +/- 1.0 10(7) M-1, P less than 0.025; x +/- SEM) as compared with normal thyroid tissue (Ka = 0.25 +/- 0.06 10(9) M-1, Ka = 0.14 +/- 0.03 10(7) M-1; x +/- SEM). The capacity of the high-affinity binding sites in HFN was found to be decreased (1.8 +/- 1.1 pmol/mg protein, x +/- SEM) in comparison with normal thyroid tissue (4.26 +/- 1.27 pmol/mg protein; x +/- SEM). TSH-receptor autoradiography applied to cryostatic tissue sections confirmed increased TSH binding of the follicular epithelium in HFN. These data suggest that an increased affinity of TSH-receptor sites in HFN in iodine deficient areas may be an important event in thyroid autonomy.

  17. Precritical increase of particle collision rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenchow, L.


    In quantum kinetics the collision integral follows from the imaginary part of the mass operator. Using this connection it is shown that the coupling of single particle motion to precritical density fluctuations causes a strong increase of the collision integral near the point of phase instability. 13 refs

  18. Thalidomide increases human keratinocyte migration and proliferation. (United States)

    Nasca, M R; O'Toole, E A; Palicharla, P; West, D P; Woodley, D T


    Thalidomide is reported to have therapeutic utility in the treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum, Behçet's disease, aphthous ulcers, and skin wounds. We investigated the effect of thalidomide on human keratinocyte proliferation and migration, two early and critical events in the re-epithelialization of skin wounds. Thalidomide at concentrations less than 1 microM did not affect keratinocyte viability. Using a thymidine incorporation assay, we found that thalidomide, at therapeutic concentrations, induced more than a 2. 5-fold increase in the proliferative potential of the cells. Keratinocyte migration was assessed by two independent motility assays: a colloidal gold assay and an in vitro scratch assay. At optimal concentrations, thalidomide increased keratinocyte migration on a collagen matrix more than 2-fold in the colloidal gold assay and more than 3-fold in the scratch assay over control. Although pro-migratory, thalidomide did not alter the level of metalloproteinase-9 secreted into culture medium. Thalidomide did, however, induce a 2-4-fold increase in keratinocyte-derived interleukin-8, a pro-migratory cellular autocrine factor. Human keratinocyte migration and proliferation are essential for re-epithelialization of skin wounds. Interleukin-8 increases human keratinocyte migration and proliferation and is chemotactic for keratinocytes. Therefore, thalidomide may modulate keratinocyte proliferation and motility by a chemokine-dependent pathway.

  19. Optimal diversity: Increasing returns versus recombinant innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Zeppini Rossi, P.


    Choices regarding diversity play an important role in economics and innovation management, but often remain implicit. Once made explicit, the objectives of efficiency and diversity are usually posed as in conflict, as efficiency relates positively and diversity negatively to various increasing

  20. Potential transgenic routes to increase tree biomass. (United States)

    Dubouzet, Joseph G; Strabala, Timothy J; Wagner, Armin


    Biomass is a prime target for genetic engineering in forestry because increased biomass yield will benefit most downstream applications such as timber, fiber, pulp, paper, and bioenergy production. Transgenesis can increase biomass by improving resource acquisition and product utilization and by enhancing competitive ability for solar energy, water, and mineral nutrients. Transgenes that affect juvenility, winter dormancy, and flowering have been shown to influence biomass as well. Transgenic approaches have increased yield potential by mitigating the adverse effects of prevailing stress factors in the environment. Simultaneous introduction of multiple genes for resistance to various stress factors into trees may help forest trees cope with multiple or changing environments. We propose multi-trait engineering for tree crops, simultaneously deploying multiple independent genes to address a set of genetically uncorrelated traits that are important for crop improvement. This strategy increases the probability of unpredictable (synergistic or detrimental) interactions that may substantially affect the overall phenotype and its long-term performance. The very limited ability to predict the physiological processes that may be impacted by such a strategy requires vigilance and care during implementation. Hence, we recommend close monitoring of the resultant transgenic genotypes in multi-year, multi-location field trials. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Increasing Student Engagement through Paired Technologies (United States)

    Basko, Lynn; Hartman, Jillian


    This article highlights efficient ways to combine tech tools, such as Remind and video conferencing, to increase student engagement and faculty/student communication. Using Remind is a great way to provide information to students outside of LoudCloud, and video conferencing is a tool for having synchronous meetings and conferences with students.…

  2. Towards an increase of respiratory allergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    An increase in the prevalence and severity of asthma and pollinoses is one of the predictable health consequences of climate change, as this article, based on data from numerous scientific reports, unambiguously demonstrates. It is one more reason for the health field to enlist in the fight against global warming, while its scale and speed can still be controlled. (author)

  3. Profit sharing for increased training investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.


    This article investigates whether paying a profit-related wage stimulates training investments. The results point to increased worker effort and wage flexibility as two channels through which profit sharing enhances investments in training. While both effects are found for young workers, for older

  4. Integrated engineering increases flexibility. [At BNFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ray [British Nuclear Fuels plc, London (UK)


    Integrated Engineering (IE) can be used to describe the best use of increasingly rare good engineering talent in an increasingly competive world. A number of organisations are now moving towards IE without any general agreement on a precise definition. The engineering division of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) is one such organisation. This feature covers the reasoning behind the decision, and our experience to date. BNFL engineering division is responsible primarily for the provision of major facilities on BNFL operational sites. This provision includes feasibility, front end and detailed design, procurement, installation and commissioning. Task force working has been used for some of the large projects. But the future workload is expected to comprise many more smaller projects. At the same time, equipment is becoming more complex and the need for mutual understanding and appreciation between disciplines is increasing. To meet this increasing need for flexibility, BNFL has decided to move to the matrix structure of project management and functional departments described in the article. (Author).

  5. Increased heart rate variability during nondirective meditation. (United States)

    Nesvold, Anders; Fagerland, Morten W; Davanger, Svend; Ellingsen, Øyvind; Solberg, Erik E; Holen, Are; Sevre, Knut; Atar, Dan


    Meditation practices are in use for relaxation and stress reduction. Some studies indicate beneficial cardiovascular health effects of meditation. The effects on the autonomous nervous system seem to vary among techniques. The purpose of the present study was to identify autonomic nerve activity changes during nondirective meditation. Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability (BPV), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were monitored in 27 middle-aged healthy participants of both genders, first during 20 min regular rest with eyes closed, thereafter practising Acem meditation for 20 min. Haemodynamic and autonomic data were collected continuously (beat-to-beat) and non-invasively. HRV and BPV parameters were estimated by power spectral analyses, computed by an autoregressive model. Spontaneous activity of baroreceptors were determined by the sequence method. Primary outcomes were changes in HRV, BPV, and BRS between rest and meditation. HRV increased in the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) bands during meditation, compared with rest (p = 0.014, 0.013, respectively). Power spectral density of the RR-intervals increased as well (p = 0.012). LF/HF ratio decreased non-significantly, and a reduction of LF-BPV power was observed during meditation (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in BRS. Respiration and heart rates remained unchanged. Blood pressure increased slightly during meditation. There is an increased parasympathetic and reduced sympathetic nerve activity and increased overall HRV, while practising the technique. Hence, nondirective meditation by the middle aged may contribute towards a reduction of cardiovascular risk.

  6. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reetz

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours, and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  7. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients. (United States)

    Reetz, Kathrin; Abbas, Zaheer; Costa, Ana Sofia; Gras, Vincent; Tiffin-Richards, Frances; Mirzazade, Shahram; Holschbach, Bernhard; Frank, Rolf Dario; Vassiliadou, Athina; Krüger, Thilo; Eitner, Frank; Gross, Theresa; Schulz, Jörg Bernhard; Floege, Jürgen; Shah, Nadim Jon


    Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD) on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours), and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  8. Increasing Vaccination: Putting Psychological Science Into Action. (United States)

    Brewer, Noel T; Chapman, Gretchen B; Rothman, Alexander J; Leask, Julie; Kempe, Allison


    Vaccination is one of the great achievements of the 20th century, yet persistent public-health problems include inadequate, delayed, and unstable vaccination uptake. Psychology offers three general propositions for understanding and intervening to increase uptake where vaccines are available and affordable. The first proposition is that thoughts and feelings can motivate getting vaccinated. Hundreds of studies have shown that risk beliefs and anticipated regret about infectious disease correlate reliably with getting vaccinated; low confidence in vaccine effectiveness and concern about safety correlate reliably with not getting vaccinated. We were surprised to find that few randomized trials have successfully changed what people think and feel about vaccines, and those few that succeeded were minimally effective in increasing uptake. The second proposition is that social processes can motivate getting vaccinated. Substantial research has shown that social norms are associated with vaccination, but few interventions examined whether normative messages increase vaccination uptake. Many experimental studies have relied on hypothetical scenarios to demonstrate that altruism and free riding (i.e., taking advantage of the protection provided by others) can affect intended behavior, but few randomized trials have tested strategies to change social processes to increase vaccination uptake. The third proposition is that interventions can facilitate vaccination directly by leveraging, but not trying to change, what people think and feel. These interventions are by far the most plentiful and effective in the literature. To increase vaccine uptake, these interventions build on existing favorable intentions by facilitating action (through reminders, prompts, and primes) and reducing barriers (through logistics and healthy defaults); these interventions also shape behavior (through incentives, sanctions, and requirements). Although identification of principles for changing

  9. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice. (United States)

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning


    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin R. Payne


    Conclusions: Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets.

  11. Exercise increases human skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity via coordinated increases in microvascular perfusion and molecular signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøberg, Kim Anker; Frøsig, Christian; Kjøbsted, Rasmus


    and increased similarly in both legs during the clamp and L-NMMA had no effect on these insulin-stimulated signaling pathways. Therefore, acute exercise increases insulin sensitivity of muscle by a coordinated increase in insulin-stimulated microvascular perfusion and molecular signaling at the level of TBC1D4...... and glycogen synthase in muscle. This secures improved glucose delivery on the one hand and increased ability to take up and dispose of the delivered glucose on the other hand....

  12. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice


    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  13. Aminophylline increases seizure length during electroconvulsive therapy. (United States)

    Stern, L; Dannon, P N; Hirschmann, S; Schriber, S; Amytal, D; Dolberg, O T; Grunhaus, L


    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for patients with major depression and persistent psychosis. Seizure characteristics probably determine the therapeutic effect of ECT; as a consequence, short seizures are accepted as one of the factors of poor outcome. During most ECT courses seizure threshold increases and seizure duration decreases. Methylxanthine preparations, caffeine, and theophylline have been used to prolong seizure duration. The use of aminophylline, more readily available than caffeine, has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to test the effects of aminophylline on seizure length. Fourteen drug-free patients with diagnoses of affective disorder or psychotic episode receiving ECT participated in this study. Seizure length was assessed clinically and per EEG. Statistical comparisons were done using paired t tests. A significant increase (p < 0.04) in seizure length was achieved and maintained on three subsequent treatments with aminophylline. No adverse events were noted from the addition of aminophylline.

  14. Leptospirosis: a globally increasing zoonotic disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rock, Clare


    A 27-year-old previously healthy man was admitted to the intensive care unit with severe jaundice, dyspnoea with haemoptysis, anaemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal injury. He had no recent history of foreign travel but had been building a shed in his back garden in Cork, Ireland, for the preceding week. The patient\\'s history, clinical observations, haematological and radiological results were all consistent with icteric leptospirosis or Weil\\'s disease. This was confirmed on serological testing. He completed 7 days intravenous ceftriaxone and made a complete recovery. While endemic in tropical climates, leptospirosis incidence is increasing in temperate climates. Recent cases seen in temperate climates can be severe, particularly with pulmonary manifestations. The report of this case serves to increase awareness of this re-emerging potentially fatal infectious disease.

  15. Rfq With An Increased Energy Gain

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, Valery


    The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linacs are widely used in the initial part of ion accelerators. For industrial and medical applications, the size of RFQ linac as well as the construction and operation costs are important. Therefore, there is a interest to design a compact RFQ linac. In this paper, RFQ linac is studied with the aim of increasing the energy gain. Parameters of a conventional RFQ linac are usually chosen to ensure beam acceleration and stability, providing the autophasing and strong quadrupole focusing in the longitudinal and transverse directions simultaneously. As results, the accelerating efficiency of RFQ is limited by the transverse defocusing effect, and its value is below of a maximum value, which can be provided by RFQ electrodes. To facilitate these limitations, the well-known idea of alternating phase focusing (APF) is utilized. The APF effects boost transverse focusing, allowing to increase an accelerating efficiency, electrode voltage and decreasing average value of the synchron...

  16. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias. (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias


    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed.

  17. The technology and the limits of increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.


    The future world needs a suitable living standard, above all, for the people in the poor countries. This means an increasing use of raw materials, energy and a stricter environmental technology. The technology can make its own contribution. Beside methods of recycling and substitution of material the increasing raw material use requires more energy and stricter avoiding of environmental damage. The today's fossil energy resources are running down and, due to environmental damage, they only can be used restrictedly. For the future there remains solar energy and nuclear energy. Both types of energy are needed. The tasks are to diminish the expense for the solar energy considerably and to introduce a catastrophe-free nuclear technology. For environmental protection a technology in closed cycles has to be applied. It is not necessary that the future of mankind will lead to a dead end. The future task is to solve these problems with caution, discipline and intelligence. (orig.) [de

  18. Three proposals to increase Australia's organ supply. (United States)

    Isdale, William; Savulescu, Julian


    In 2008 the Australian Government introduced a national reform agenda to increase organ and tissue donation. Australia continues to perform poorly by international standards on measures of organ procurement, however. This paper outlines three proposals to improve donation rates and considers the empirical evidence available for each. A number of ethical objections frequently given to resist such proposals are also addressed. Firstly, it is recommended that Australia implement an 'opt-out' system of organ donation. Secondly, the existing veto rules should be changed to better protect the wishes of those who wish to donate. Finally, a numer of incentives should be offered to increase donation rates; these could include incentives of financial value, but also non-financial incentives such as prioritisation for the receipt of organs for previous donors.

  19. How retailer coupons increase attitudinal loyalty –

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierich, Ralf; Zielke, Stephan


    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate how different design elements of retailer coupons increase the attitudinal loyalty towards retailers. Design/methodology/approach – Three design elements are manipulated in a 2x2x2 experimental design. Data is analysed using structural equation...... and the minimum purchase amount require at least some cognitive processing to have a loyalty impact. Research limitations/implications – Future studies can use the developed framework to test the impact of other design elements, promotion types or loyalty schemes. Practical implications – The results underline...... that personalization offers opportunities for increasing loyalty without the necessity of large investments. As these effects can occur without redemption, coupon promotions should not be evaluated based on redemption rates only. Originality/value – The study extends existing research by focusing on retailer coupons...

  20. [Electrical acupoint stimulation increases athletes' rapid strength]. (United States)

    Yang, Hua-yuan; Liu, Tang-yi; Kuai, Le; Gao, Ming


    To search for a stimulation method for increasing athletes' performance. One hundred and fifty athletes were randomly divided into a trial group and a control group, 75 athletes in each group. Acupoints were stimulated with audio frequency pulse modulated wave and multi-blind method were used to investigate effects of the electric stimulation of acupoints on 30-meter running, standing long jumping and Cybex isokinetic testing index. The acupoint electric stimulation method could significantly increase athlete's performance (P < 0.05), and the biomechanical indexes, maximal peak moment of force (P < 0.05), force moment accelerating energy (P < 0.05) and average power (P < 0.05). Electrical acupoint stimulation can enhance athlete's rapid strength.


    Neubrander, Judy; Metcalfe, Sharon E


    This article will review one school's quest to address the multi-level social, historical, environmental and structural determinants faced by under-represented ethnic minorities (UREM) and disadvantaged background (DB) students as they seek entrance into a nursing program. Nursing Network Careers and Technology (NN-CAT) provides a nursing career network for underrepresented and disadvantaged students in western North Carolina and has increased the number of underrepresented and disadvantaged students who are admitted, retained and graduate with a bachelor's degree in nursing from Western Carolina University. Initial data from this NN-CAT program have demonstrated that addressing social determinants and eliminating barriers can increase the number of UREM and educationally disadvantaged students who successfully matriculate in our schools of Nursing and subsequently graduate. These nurses then enter the workforce and provide culturally meaningful care in their local communities.

  2. Increased precuneus connectivity during propofol sedation. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hudetz, Anthony G


    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in human participants, we show that sedation by propofol to the point of lost overt responsiveness during the performance of an auditory verbal memory task unexpectedly increases functional connectivity of the precuneus with cortical regions, particularly the dorsal prefrontal and visual cortices. After recovery of consciousness, functional connectivity returns to a pattern similar to that observed during the wakeful baseline. In the context of a recent proposal that highlights the uncoupling of consciousness, connectedness, and responsiveness in general anesthesia, the increased precuneus functional connectivity under propofol sedation may reflect disconnected endogenous mentation or dreaming that continues at a reduced level of metabolic activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Caffeine Increases Hippocampal Sharp Waves in Vitro. (United States)

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Ikegaya, Yuji


    Caffeine promotes memory consolidation. Memory consolidation is thought to depend at least in part on hippocampal sharp waves (SWs). In the present study, we investigated the effect of bath-application of caffeine in spontaneously occurring SWs in mouse acute hippocampal slices. Caffeine induced an about 100% increase in the event frequency of SWs at concentrations of 60 and 200 µM. The effect of caffeine was reversible after washout of caffeine and was mimicked by an adenosine A 1 receptor antagonist, but not by an A 2A receptor antagonist. Caffeine increased SWs even in dentate-CA3 mini-slices without the CA2 regions, in which adenosine A 1 receptors are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus. Thus, caffeine facilitates SWs by inhibiting adenosine A 1 receptors in the hippocampal CA3 region or the dentate gyrus.

  4. The commercial impact of burnup increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenzlein, C.; Schricker, W.


    Deregulation has a dramatic effect on competition in the electricity markets. This will lead to a continued pressure on the prices in virtually all areas of the nuclear fuel cycle and will encourage further optimization, technical and technological progress and innovations with respect to further cost reductions of power production. The permission of direct disposal, in Germany legally granted in 1994 as an alternative to the reprocessing path, made possible cost savings and has consequently resulted in a decline of reprocessing prices. In addition, suppliers as well as operators are making considerable efforts to reduce the disposal costs fraction by optimizing disposal technologies and concepts. The increase of discharge has essentially contributed to the reduction the disposal cost fraction. Compared to former scenarios, the economic potential of burn-up increase is decreasing

  5. Increasing the efficiency of solar thermal panels (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Latinović, T.; Dobrnjac, S.; Živković, P.


    The popularity of solar heating systems is increasing for several reasons. These systems are reliable, adaptable and pollution-free, because the renewable solar energy is used. There are many variants of solar systems in the market mainly constructed with copper pipes and absorbers with different quality of absorption surface. Taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing solutions, in order to increase efficiency and improve the design of solar panel, the innovative solution has been done. This new solar panel presents connection of an attractive design and the use of constructive appropriate materials with special geometric shapes. Hydraulic and thermotechnical tests that have been performed on this panel showed high hydraulic and structural stability. Further development of the solar panel will be done in the future in order to improve some noticed disadvantages.

  6. A short proof of increased parabolic regularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pankavich


    Full Text Available We present a short proof of the increased regularity obtained by solutions to uniformly parabolic partial differential equations. Though this setting is fairly introductory, our new method of proof, which uses a priori estimates and an inductive method, can be extended to prove analogous results for problems with time-dependent coefficients, advection-diffusion or reaction diffusion equations, and nonlinear PDEs even when other tools, such as semigroup methods or the use of explicit fundamental solutions, are unavailable.

  7. Increasing Efficiency by Maximizing Electrical Output (United States)


    to electricity technology in a few limited areas, one being a geothermal flash plant at Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake. But, there are few...portable generators to reduce fuel needs. d) Bottom cycling on a geothermal flash plant like the one at Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake...generation c) Increasing the efficiency of portable generators to reduce fuel needs. d) Bottom cycling on a geothermal flash plant like the one at Naval

  8. Gamma- irradiation to increase crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomai, Matongo


    Brief background information on past research activities on the use of Co-60 Gamma Irraditor in production of medical products such as sterilised biological tissue grafts and surgical Gloves and in food preservation.The general results of the application of Radiation Mutation Breeding is discussed from the current research activities involving Beans,Pumpkins,Cotton Seeds,Finger Millet,Wheat,Groundnuts and Rice.The focus is to demonstrate the great potential of the technique in increasing food security

  9. Increasing the biological value of dietary cutlets




    Relevance of work: meat products are the main source of the proteins, necessary for activity of the person. In this article is determined the biological value of the cutlets with dietary properties. The purpose of this work is development of the production technology of dietary cutlets in branches of public catering and determination of their biological value. As a result of work dietary cutlets with the increased biological value due to addition of oatmeal are received.

  10. Increased complexity in aesthetic field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraskin, M.; Ring, B.


    The program of looking for increased complexity within aesthetic field theory is continued. We study a solution with five planar maxima and minima. Another solution in which one counted 19 planar maxima and minima is also studied. This latter solution was obtained by modifying previous principles by allowing for an arbitrariness associated with the integration path in conjunction with the equation GAMMA/sub jk;1//sup i/ = 0

  11. Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?


    Seo-Young Cho; Axel Dreher; Eric Neumayer


    This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...

  12. Africa: rapid population increase retards development. (United States)


    The Organization of African Unity (OAU), the African Development Bank (ADB) and the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) have criticized African governments for not taking the problem of unchecked population growth seriously enough. "Until recently most African governments did not view rapid population growth as a matter for concern," said the OAU assistant secretary-general for political affairs, Machivenyika Mapuranga, at a seminar on 'population and development'. The OAU estimates that an annual average population increase of 3.1% far outstrips Africa's economic growth, which in 1992 was less than 1%. Mapuranga acknowledged that cutting the population increase is an uphill struggle, especially among rural communities. African agriculture is largely labor intensive, sustained by smallholders, which encourages farmers to have more children. Like other wage earners, African farmers look to support from their family when they grow old and, for that reason, the number of children also counts. But with agricultural production growing at an average annual rate of 2.5%, self-sufficiency in food remains an elusive goal. Cities in sub-Saharan Africa are growing much faster than the overall rate of population increase of 3.1% per year. Between 1980 and 1988 the region's urban population increased at the rate of 6.9% a year. Urban areas now account for nearly 30% of the sub-Saharan Africa population, currently put at 680 million. By 2025, approximately 700 million people are expected to live in urban areas. Despite migration to towns, the rural population is expected to rise more than 68%, reaching over 590 million. full text

  13. Increase of Organization in Complex Systems


    Georgiev, Georgi Yordanov; Daly, Michael; Gombos, Erin; Vinod, Amrit; Hoonjan, Gajinder


    Measures of complexity and entropy have not converged to a single quantitative description of levels of organization of complex systems. The need for such a measure is increasingly necessary in all disciplines studying complex systems. To address this problem, starting from the most fundamental principle in Physics, here a new measure for quantity of organization and rate of self-organization in complex systems based on the principle of least (stationary) action is applied to a model system -...

  14. Increased Incidence of Critical Illness in Psoriasis. (United States)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Bernstein, Charles N; Peschken, Christine A; Hitchon, Carol A; Chen, Hui; Garland, Allan

    Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of comorbid disease. Despite the recognition of increased morbidity in psoriasis, the effects on health care utilisation remain incompletely understood. Little is known about the risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission in persons with psoriasis. To compare the incidence of ICU admission and post-ICU mortality rates in a psoriasis population compared with a matched population without psoriasis. Using population-based administrative data from Manitoba, Canada, we identified 40 930 prevalent cases of psoriasis and an age-, sex-, and geographically matched cohort from the general population (n = 150 210). We compared the incidence of ICU admission between populations using incidence rates and Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and comorbidity and compared mortality after ICU admission. Among incident psoriasis cases (n = 30 150), the cumulative 10-year incidence of ICU admission was 5.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3%-5.8%), 21% higher than in the matched cohort (incidence rate ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15-1.27). In the prevalent psoriasis cohort, crude mortality in the ICU was 11.5% (95% CI, 9.9%-13.0%), 32% higher than observed in the matched population admitted to the ICU (8.7%; 95% CI, 8.3%-9.1%). Mortality rates after ICU admission remained elevated at all time points in the psoriasis cohort compared with the matched cohort. Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk for ICU admission and with an increased risk of mortality post-ICU admission.

  15. Sensors Increase Productivity in Harsh Environments (United States)


    California's San Juan Capistrano-based Endevco Corporation licensed three patents covering high-temperature, harsh-environment silicon carbide (Si-C) pressure sensors from Glenn Research Center. The company is exploring their use in government markets, as well as in commercial markets, including commercial jet testing, deep well drilling applications where pressure and temperature increase with drilling depth, and in automobile combustion chambers.

  16. Increase of the density of commercial graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, H.; Meyerstein, D.


    The increase of the density of commercial graphite of the type ATJ by polymerization of an impregnated monomer, followed by pyrolysis, is described. The monomer which was either styrene or acrylonitrile, was irradiated by a 60 Co source and pyrolized in a standard vacuum system. The irradiation dose for the polymerization of the monomer was determined. Suggestions for the establishment of the optimum conditions are offered

  17. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E.; Bharathi, Sivakama S.; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B.; Goetzman, Eric S.


    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. - Highlights: • Aspirin increases mitochondrial—but inhibits peroxisomal—fatty acid oxidation. • Aspirin acetylates mitochondrial proteins including fatty acid oxidation enzymes. • SIRT3 does not influence the effect of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. • Increased fatty acid oxidation is likely due to altered mitochondrial morphology and respiration.

  18. Ivastimul used to increase radioresistance of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotkovska, D.; Vacek, A.; Bartonickova, A.


    A study was made of the effect of ivastimul (IS), an aqueous extract from unicellular Chlorella algae, on the radioresistance and some haemopoiesis parameters of mice exposed to 60 Co-γ-radiation. With median and absolutely lethal radiation doses, IS was shown to produce a pronounced protective effect displayed by the increased survival rate. With sublethal doses, IS elevated the postirradiation formation of endogenous colonies and restoration of bone marrow and spleen cellularity and spleen mass

  19. Increased plasma zonulin in patients with sepsis. (United States)

    Klaus, Daniel A; Motal, Michael C; Burger-Klepp, Ursula; Marschalek, Corinna; Schmidt, Elisabeth M; Lebherz-Eichinger, Diana; Krenn, Claus G; Roth, Georg A


    Zonulin is a eukaryotic protein structurally similar to Vibrio cholerae's zonula occludens toxin. It plays an important role in the opening of small intestine tight junctions. The loss of gut wall integrity during sepsis might be pivotal and has been described in various experimental as well as human studies. Increased levels of zonulin could be demonstrated in diseases associated with increased intestinal inflammation, such as celiac disease and type 1 diabetes. We therefore investigated the role of plasma levels of zonulin in patients with sepsis as a non-invasive marker of gut wall integrity. Plasma level of zonulin was measured in 25 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock according to ACCP/SCCM criteria at the first day of diagnosed sepsis. 18 non-septic post-surgical ICU-patients and 20 healthy volunteers served as control. Plasma levels were determined by using commercially available ELISA kit. Data are given as median and interquartile range (IQR). Significantly higher plasma concentration of zonulin were found in the sepsis group: 6.61 ng/mL (IQR 3.51-9.46), as compared to the to the post-surgical control group: 3.40 ng/mL (IQR 2.14-5.70) (P = 0.025), as well as to the healthy group: 3.55 ng/mL (IQR 3.14-4.14) (P = 0.008). We were able demonstrate elevated levels of plasma zonulin, a potential marker of intestinal permeability in septic patients. Increased zonulin may serve as an additional mechanism for the observed increased intestinal permeability during sepsis and SIRS.

  20. Ezetimibe Increases Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion in Humans. (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Ostlund, Richard E


    Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/d or placebo. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol with cholesterol-d 5 and sitostanol-d 4 solubilized in oil. Plasma and stool samples collected during a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Ezetimibe reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption efficiency 30±4.3% (SE, P <0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 19.8±1.9% ( P =0.0001). Body cholesterol pool size was unchanged, but fecal endogenous cholesterol excretion increased 66.6±12.2% ( P <0.0001) and percent cholesterol excretion from body pools into the stool increased 74.7±14.3% ( P <0.0001), whereas plasma cholesterol turnover rose 26.2±3.6% ( P =0.0096). Fecal bile acids were unchanged. Ezetimibe increased the efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport from rapidly mixing plasma and tissue pools into the stool. Further work is needed to examine the potential relation of reverse cholesterol transport and whole body cholesterol metabolism to coronary events and the treatment of atherosclerosis. URL: Unique identifier: NCT01603758. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Increased intracranial pressure: evaluation by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightfoote, W.E.; Pressman, B.D.


    Computerized tomography is clearly very useful in the evaluation of patients with increased intracranial pressure and suspected pseudotumor cerebri. It provides an index of ventricular size and configuration and has the capability of demonstrating intracranial lesions. Moreover, this new technique is rapid and non-invasive, and is without attendant risks. Examinations may be performed serially as the clinical process evolves, thereby giving roentgenographic correlation to the clinical features. (U.S.)

  2. Increasing socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity


    Frederick, Carl B.; Snellman, Kaisa; Putnam, Robert D.


    Childhood and youth obesity represent significant US public health challenges. Recent findings that the childhood obesity ‘‘epidemic’’ may have slightly abated have been met with relief from health professionals and popular media. However, we document that the overall trend in youth obesity rates masks a significant and growing class gap between youth from upper and lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Until 2002, obesity rates increased at similar rates for all adolescents, but sinc...

  3. Aridity under conditions of increased CO2 (United States)

    Greve, Peter; Roderick, Micheal L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.


    A string of recent of studies led to the wide-held assumption that aridity will increase under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and associated global warming. Such results generally build upon analyses of changes in the 'aridity index' (the ratio of potential evaporation to precipitation) and can be described as a direct thermodynamic effect on atmospheric water demand due to increasing temperatures. However, there is widespread evidence that contradicts the 'warmer is more arid' interpretation, leading to the 'global aridity paradox' (Roderick et al. 2015, WRR). Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of modeled changes in a broad set of dryness metrics (primarily based on a range of measures of water availability) over a large range of realistic atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We use an ensemble of simulations from of state-of-the-art climate models to analyse both equilibrium climate experiments and transient historical simulations and future projections. Our results show that dryness is, under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and related global warming, generally decreasing at global scales. At regional scales we do, however, identify areas that undergo changes towards drier conditions, located primarily in subtropical climate regions and the Amazon Basin. Nonetheless, the majority of regions, especially in tropical and mid- to northern high latitudes areas, display wetting conditions in a warming world. Our results contradict previous findings and highlight the need to comprehensively assess all aspects of changes in hydroclimatological conditions at the land surface. Roderick, M. L., P. Greve, and G. D. Farquhar (2015), On the assessment of aridity with changes in atmospheric CO2, Water Resour. Res., 51, 5450-5463

  4. Study of possibility of increasing the catchment's retention capacity by groundwater accumulation increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranovicova, L.


    In this presentation author deals with the possibility of increasing the catechumen's retention capacity by groundwater accumulation increase. This presentation solves possibilities of increasing of the retention capacity of ground waters on the dependence of surface water outflow on upper parts of Podluzianka River (Hron River Basin) and Predmieranka River (Kysuce River basin)

  5. Amphetamine increases errors during episodic memory retrieval. (United States)

    Ballard, Michael Edward; Gallo, David A; de Wit, Harriet


    Moderate doses of stimulant drugs are known to enhance memory encoding and consolidation, but their effects on memory retrieval have not been explored in depth. In laboratory animals, stimulants seem to improve retrieval of emotional memories, but comparable studies have not been carried out in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of dextroamphetamine (AMP) on retrieval of emotional and unemotional stimuli in healthy young adults, using doses that enhanced memory formation when administered before encoding in our previous study. During 3 sessions, healthy volunteers (n = 31) received 2 doses of AMP (10 and 20 mg) and placebo in counterbalanced order under double-blind conditions. During each session, they first viewed emotional and unemotional pictures and words in a drug-free state, and then 2 days later their memory was tested, 1 hour after AMP or placebo administration. Dextroamphetamine did not affect the number of emotional or unemotional stimuli remembered, but both doses increased recall intrusions and false recognition. Dextroamphetamine (20 mg) also increased the number of positively rated picture descriptions and words generated during free recall. These data provide the first evidence that therapeutic range doses of stimulant drugs can increase memory retrieval errors. The ability of AMP to positively bias recollection of prior events could contribute to its potential for abuse.

  6. Clusters - Tourism Activity Increase Competitiveness Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen IORDACHE


    Full Text Available Tourism represents one of those areas with the greatest potential of global expansion. Tourism development strategy in terms of maximizing its positive effects on regional economic increase and implicitly on the national one starts from the premise that in global economy value is created in regions which are defined as particular geographical entities, separated by geographical reasons and not as political-administrative structures, and economic increase is centrally cumulated and valued according to the economic policy and the national legal system.Regional economic system approach based on “cluster” concept is explained by the fact that the regional activities portfolio is based on an inter and intra-industry networking grouped by cluster, in which is created the value that increases as the activity results are leading to the final consumers.This type of communication aims to highlight the tourism role as a factor in regional development, the clustering process significance in obtaining some competitiveness advantages, clusters development in tourism beginnings, and also the identification methodology used to select one touristic area to create the cluster.

  7. Does soil compaction increase floods? A review (United States)

    Alaoui, Abdallah; Rogger, Magdalena; Peth, Stephan; Blöschl, Günter


    Europe has experienced a series of major floods in the past years which suggests that flood magnitudes may have increased. Land degradation due to soil compaction from crop farming or grazing intensification is one of the potential drivers of this increase. A literature review suggests that most of the experimental evidence was generated at plot and hillslope scales. At larger scales, most studies are based on models. There are three ways in which soil compaction affects floods at the catchment scale: (i) through an increase in the area affected by soil compaction; (ii) by exacerbating the effects of changes in rainfall, especially for highly degraded soils; and (iii) when soil compaction coincides with soils characterized by a fine texture and a low infiltration capacity. We suggest that future research should focus on better synthesising past research on soil compaction and runoff, tailored field experiments to obtain a mechanistic understanding of the coupled mechanical and hydraulic processes, new mapping methods of soil compaction that combine mechanical and remote sensing approaches, and an effort to bridge all disciplines relevant to soil compaction effects on floods.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov


    Full Text Available Summary. Technology for producing milk candies on molasses with increased shelf-life, molded by "extrusion" with a vacuum syringe of continuous action used in the meat industry, into metallized film like "flow-pack" is considered. Rheological characteristics of candy mass: strength, toughness, organoleptic, physical and chemical quality are determined. While increasing the temperature of milk mass the colour, texture, mass fraction of reducing substances and solids change. It was found out that molasses based milk mass is easily molded at a moisture content of 10-11 % and temperature of 60 ºС. The advantages of the new method of forming products are: manufactured products have individual package, which increases the shelf life and improves the quality of products, extend the range of use, the technological equipment has a high productivity, it is compact and reliable. According to the consumer qualities the product surpasses all known analogs. Possibility of using a single-piece product while gathering dinners and breakfasts in public catering, establishments and transport. The technological process is simplified. Energy value of products on molasses in comparison with the control samples on sugar is calculated. It is 51 kcal less than in the control sample on sugar. Thus, the technology of functional milk candies with reduced sugar content is developed. The products will be useful for anyone who leads a healthy lifestyle.

  9. Polyploidization increases meiotic recombination frequency in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehmsmeier Marc


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidization is the multiplication of the whole chromosome complement and has occurred frequently in vascular plants. Maintenance of stable polyploid state over generations requires special mechanisms to control pairing and distribution of more than two homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Since a minimal number of crossover events is essential for correct chromosome segregation, we investigated whether polyploidy has an influence on the frequency of meiotic recombination. Results Using two genetically linked transgenes providing seed-specific fluorescence, we compared a high number of progeny from diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis plants. We show that rates of meiotic recombination in reciprocal crosses of genetically identical diploid and autotetraploid Arabidopsis plants were significantly higher in tetraploids compared to diploids. Although male and female gametogenesis differ substantially in meiotic recombination frequency, both rates were equally increased in tetraploids. To investigate whether multivalent formation in autotetraploids was responsible for the increased recombination rates, we also performed corresponding experiments with allotetraploid plants showing strict bivalent pairing. We found similarly increased rates in auto- and allotetraploids, suggesting that the ploidy effect is independent of chromosome pairing configurations. Conclusions The evolutionary success of polyploid plants in nature and under domestication has been attributed to buffering of mutations and sub- and neo-functionalization of duplicated genes. Should the data described here be representative for polyploid plants, enhanced meiotic recombination, and the resulting rapid creation of genetic diversity, could have also contributed to their prevalence.

  10. Laguna Verde after the extended power increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera C, M. N.; Castaneda G, M. A.; Cardenas J, J. B.; Garcia de la C, F. M.


    The project of extended power increase that was implemented in both units of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde beginning with the stage feasibility evaluation in nuclear side of the facilities, that is to say the affectation of the power increase in the equipment s, systems and components of the nuclear power plant; besides the feasibility evaluation a study cost-benefit for the rehabilitated and modernization of the equipment s, systems and components of Plant Balance was realized. Once considered technical and economically feasible the project began the engineering evaluations required to carry out the licensing of the new operation conditions, as well as beginning to the elaboration of the technical specifications purchase of the equipment s, systems and components of the Plant Balance. While on one hand was carried out the administration of the licensing of the extended power increase for other was carried out the necessary engineering to make the physical changes in the conventional side of the nuclear power plant. Once concluded the constructive stage beginning the final stage of the project, the starting-up tests, operation and performance of the Units under the new operation conditions. This work describes this last stage that contains the technical base, the realized tests and the obtained results. (Author)

  11. Increased intensity performance of the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raka, E.; Ahrens, L.; Frey, W.; Gill, E.; Glenn, J.W.; Sanders, R.; Weng, W.


    With the advent of H - injection into the Brookhaven AGS, circulating beams of up to 3 x 10 13 protons at 200 MeV have been obtained. Rf capture of 2.2 x 10 13 and acceleration of 1.73 x 10 13 up to the transition energy (approx. = 8 GeV) and 1.64 x 10 13 to full energy (approx. = 29 GeV) has been achieved. This represents a 50% increase over the best performance obtained with H + injection. The increase in circulation beam current is obtained without filling the horizontal aperture. This allows the rf capture process to utilize a larger longitudinal phase space area (approx. = 1 eV sec/bunch vs less than or equal to 0.6 eV sec with H + operation). The resulting reduction in relative longitudinal density partially offsets the increase in space charge effects at higher currents. In order to make the capture process independent of injected beam current, a dynamic beam loading compensation loop was installed on the AGS rf system. This is the only addition to the synchrotron itself that was required to reach the new intensity records. A discussion of injection, the rf capture process, and space charge effects is presented. 9 refs., 5 figs

  12. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase? (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc


    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  13. Fuel-consumption reflects increasing export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Fuel consumption in Slovakia has been substantially rising during the first three months of this year. During January and February about 6 percent more petrol and 15 percent more diesel fuel were sold compared to last year. Retail sales were growing even faster, informed president of Slovak Association of Petroleum Industry and Trade (SAPPO), Karoly Robak. He considers this an evidence of a substantial economic growth. The export is executed in form of freight transport (lorries), as this, together with agriculture, is the largest diesel fuel consumer. K. Robak, who at the same time is the Deputy General Manager For Retail at Slovnaft, a.s., Bratislava, expects the sales of fuel to grow by about 8 percent this year. Low prices due to a weaker US dollar should only support these tendencies. Last year the sales grew by 8,3 percent and in retail business the increase exceeded 10 percent. At the moment there are about 700 petrol stations in Slovakia (SAPPO) and over 330 out of them are owned by Slovnaft. The sale of fuel is now moving more to the retail business - to petrol stations as the price difference between retail and wholesale is decreasing. Last year for instance the wholesale recorded an increase in sales of diesel by 6,5 percent whereas retail sales grew by 17 percent. With petrol the situation was similar - 6,4 increase in retail sales and 2,5 percent in wholesale. (Author)

  14. An increased 18F radionuclide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panico, M.; Salvadore, M.; Randazzo, G.; Roma, R.; Green, A.; Calicchio, G.F.


    In the 18 F daily preparation a diminished yield of radioisotopic production is often found. This fact, most times, is connected to the altered internal surface of the PEE and teflon lines for the 18 F transferring to the hot cells because of radiations. This anomaly is due to an H 2 18 O insufficient filling into the target. In fact a target foils bombardment causing the release of radioactive Ag+ ions sets in. These ions passing through the transferring line damage it. This problem has been solved by an increased H 2 18 O filling, from 0.7 to 1.3 mL. A further steady increasing in the 18 F production is due to the features of the new target: back plane : integrated in the silver flange; water cooling surface: enlarged with fins; target connections: high pressure fittings. In conclusion a careful filling of the new target has increased the fluorine-18 average daily production from 7.4 GBq to 18.5 GBq, using recovered water (time: thirty minutes; beam: 15 mA) and allows to replace teflon lines every year instead of every three months. (authors)

  15. Increasing cardiac interventions among the aged.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, J D


    Ireland\\'s over 65 year population is growing. As incidence of coronary events rises with age, there is a growing population of elderly patients with cardiac disease. The changing age profile of patients treated by a tertiary hospital\\'s Cardiology service was quantified using Hospital Inpatient Enquiry data. 53% of CCU admissions were aged > or = 65 years, with admissions aged > or = 85 years in 2008 four times greater than in 2002. Percentages of patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions in 1997 aged > or = 70 years were 19% and 18% respectively. By 2007, these percentages had risen to 31% and 34% respectively--greatest increases were in the very elderly age categories. The proportion of ICD recipients aged > 70 years increased from 8% in 2003 to 25% by 2008. The proportion of elderly patients receiving advanced cardiac care is increasing. This trend will continue and has clear resource implications. Outcomes of interventions in the very old need further investigation, since the \\'old old\\' are under-represented in clinical trials.

  16. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli. (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R


    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Alcoholic Cirrhosis Increases Risk for Autoimmune Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Lisbet; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Deleuran, Bent


    IRR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.26-1.92), celiac disease (aIRR, 5.12; 95% CI, 2.58-10.16), pernicious anemia (aIRR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.50-3.68), and psoriasis (aIRR, 4.06; 95% CI, 3.32-4.97). There was no increase in the incidence rate for rheumatoid arthritis (aIRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.69-1.15); the incidence rate......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcoholic cirrhosis is associated with hyperactivation and dysregulation of the immune system. In addition to its ability to increase risk for infections, it also may increase the risk for autoimmune diseases. We studied the incidence of autoimmune diseases among patients...... (controls) of the same sex and age. The incidence rates of various autoimmune diseases were compared between patients with cirrhosis and controls and adjusted for the number of hospitalizations in the previous year (a marker for the frequency of clinical examination). RESULTS: Of the 24,679 patients...

  18. The increased risk of predation enhances cooperation (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Bērziņš, Arnis; Krama, Tatjana; Wheatcroft, David; Igaune, Kristīne; Rantala, Markus J.


    Theory predicts that animals in adverse conditions can decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits by cooperating with neighbours. However, some empirical studies suggest that animals often focus on short-term benefits, which can reduce the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. In this experimental study, we tested between these two alternatives by evaluating whether increased predation risk (as a correlate of environmental adversity) enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behaviour, among breeding pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. We tested whether birds would join their mobbing neighbours more often and harass a stuffed predator placed near their neighbours' nests more intensely in areas with a higher perceived risk of predation. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbours more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. In such high-risk areas, birds also were more often involved in between-pair cooperation. This study demonstrates the positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation. PMID:19846454

  19. D-serine increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eSultan


    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis results in the continuous formation of new neurons and is a process of brain plasticity involved in learning and memory. The neurogenic niche regulates the stem cell proliferation and the differentiation and survival of new neurons and a major contributor to the neurogenic niche are astrocytes. Among the molecules secreted by astrocytes, D-serine is an important gliotransmitter and is a co-agonist of the glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor. D-serine has been shown to enhance the proliferation of neural stem cells in vitro, but its effect on adult neurogenesis in vivo is unknown. Here, we tested the effect of exogenous administration of D-serine on adult neurogenesis in the mouse dentate gyrus. We found that 1 week of treatment with D-serine increased cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro and increased the density of neural stem cells and transit amplifying progenitors. Furthermore, D-serine increased the survival of newborn neurons. Together, these results indicate that D-serine treatment resulted in the improvement of several steps of adult neurogenesis in vivo.

  20. Increased Science Instrumentation Funding Strengthens Mars Program (United States)

    Graham, Lee D.; Graff, T. G.


    As the strategic knowledge gaps mature for the exploration of Mars, Mars sample return (MSR), and Phobos/Deimos missions, one approach that becomes more probable involves smaller science instrumentation and integrated science suites. Recent technological advances provide the foundation for a significant evolution of instrumentation; however, the funding support is currently too small to fully utilize these advances. We propose that an increase in funding for instrumentation development occur in the near-term so that these foundational technologies can be applied. These instruments would directly address the significant knowledge gaps for humans to Mars orbit, humans to the Martian surface, and humans to Phobos/ Deimos. They would also address the topics covered by the Decadal Survey and the Mars scientific goals, objectives, investigations and priorities as stated by the MEPAG. We argue that an increase of science instrumentation funding would be of great benefit to the Mars program as well as the potential for human exploration of the Mars system. If the total non-Earth-related planetary science instrumentation budget were increased 100% it would not add an appreciable amount to the overall NASA budget and would provide the real potential for future breakthroughs. If such an approach were implemented in the near-term, NASA would benefit greatly in terms of science knowledge of the Mars, Phobos/Deimos system, exploration risk mitigation, technology development, and public interest.

  1. Exercise increases circulating GDF15 in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Kleinert


    Full Text Available Objective: The growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15 is a stress-sensitive circulating factor that regulates systemic energy balance. Since exercise is a transient physiological stress that has pleiotropic effects on whole-body energy metabolism, we herein explored the effect of exercise on a circulating GDF15 levels and b GDF15 release from skeletal muscle in humans. Methods: Seven healthy males either rested or exercised at 67% of their VO2max for 1 h and blood was sampled from the femoral artery and femoral vein before, during, and after exercise. Plasma GDF15 concentrations were determined in these samples. Results: Plasma GDF15 levels increased 34% with exercise (p < 0.001 and further increased to 64% above resting values at 120 min (p < 0.001 after the cessation of exercise. There was no difference between the arterial and venous GDF15 concentration before, during, and after exercise. During a resting control trial, GDF15 levels measured in the same subjects were unaltered. Conclusions: Vigorous submaximal exercise increases circulating GDF15 levels in humans, but skeletal muscle tissue does not appear to be the source. Keywords: Skeletal muscle, Growth differentiation factor 15, Recovery, Physical activity

  2. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Major


    Full Text Available A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73 and rainfall (r2 0.39, >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25 or rainy days (r2 0.38. Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%, pulmonary (76.7%, hepatic (26.0%, and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%, leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%. Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3. Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species.

  3. Online Mathematics Homework Increases Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Roschelle


    Full Text Available In a randomized field trial with 2,850 seventh-grade mathematics students, we evaluated whether an educational technology intervention increased mathematics learning. Assigning homework is common yet sometimes controversial. Building on prior research on formative assessment and adaptive teaching, we predicted that combining an online homework tool with teacher training could increase learning. The online tool ASSISTments (a provides timely feedback and hints to students as they do homework and (b gives teachers timely, organized information about students’ work. To test this prediction, we analyzed data from 43 schools that participated in a random assignment experiment in Maine, a state that provides every seventh-grade student with a laptop to take home. Results showed that the intervention significantly increased student scores on an end-of-the-year standardized mathematics assessment as compared with a control group that continued with existing homework practices. Students with low prior mathematics achievement benefited most. The intervention has potential for wider adoption.

  4. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad


    Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not

  5. Increasing transmission capacity : case studies and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisdorff, R.A. [Laminated Wood Systems, NE (United States)


    Many companies are stretching the capacities of their mature transmission lines as a result of deregulation in the electric utility industry. Since electric utilities are no longer in control of new generation locations or capacities, their mission has changed from supplying electricity to regional customers to that of the movement of power over their grid. There will also be even more pressure to maximize the thermal capacity of existing transmission lines once the regional transmission operators (RTOs) are in place. Various methods including conductor replacement or increasing structure height are available options to accomplish this. This paper discussed the available methods to increase ground clearance, including structure changeouts; pole top extensions; nip and tuck conductor; adding mid-span structures; and raising structures. Because the actual cost of line outages for maintenance of rebuild work will make many present day work procedures obsolete, the industry is changing to methods of safely increasing the existing structure heights without removing the line from service. The paper also presented the Phaiseraiser product which is a patented system, consisting of double steel members that are either single or multiple piece units which are used to support the raised structure. The paper discussed the product development of the Phaiseraiser product, with reference to wood stubs; pier foundation; pole enforcer methodology; testing; designs; and ordering requirements. Last, the paper discussed a custom designed installation tool package developed by Laminated Wood Systems (LWS); LWS structural analysis; estimated cost for Phaiseraiser installation on an h-frame; labor resources and training; maintenance considerations; completed Phaiseraiser projects; and a case study on the Omaha Public Power District. figs.

  6. Sadness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli. (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia P; Parmentier, Fabrice B R


    Research shows that attention is ineluctably captured away from a focal visual task by rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards). The fundamental cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect have been the object of an increasing number of studies but their sensitivity to mood and emotions remains relatively unexplored despite suggestion of greater distractibility in negative emotional contexts. In this study, we examined the effect of sadness, a widespread form of emotional distress and a symptom of many disorders, on distraction by deviant sounds. Participants received either a sadness induction or a neutral mood induction by means of a mixed procedure based on music and autobiographical recall prior to taking part in an auditory-visual oddball task in which they categorized visual digits while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. The results showed that although all participants exhibited significantly longer response times in the visual categorization task following the presentation of rare and unexpected deviant sounds relative to that of the standard sound, this distraction effect was significantly greater in participants who had received the sadness induction (a twofold increase). The residual distraction on the subsequent trial (postdeviance distraction) was equivalent in both groups, suggesting that sadness interfered with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound and back toward the target stimulus. We propose that this disengagement impairment reflected the monopolization of cognitive resources by sadness and/or associated ruminations. Our findings suggest that sadness can increase distraction even when distractors are emotionally neutral. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Cryptorchidism and increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. (United States)

    Chen, Jianping; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Miao, Maohua; Liang, Hong; Ehrenstein, Vera; Wang, Ziliang; Yuan, Wei; Li, Jiong


    Male congenital malformations as cryptorchidism may contribute to the development of neurodevelopmental disorders directly or via shared familial genetic and/or environmental factors, but the evidence is sparse. Using population-based health registries, we conducted a cohort study of all liveborn singleton boys in Denmark during 1979-2008. Boys with a diagnosis of cryptorchidism were categorized into the exposed cohort and the other boys into the unexposed comparison cohort. The outcomes were diagnoses of any neurodevelopmental disorders and their subtypes. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to compute hazard ratios (HRs), taking into consideration several potential confounders. Among 884,083 male infants, 27,505 received a diagnosis of cryptorchidism during follow-up. Boys with cryptorchidism were more likely to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (HR = 1.77; 95%confidence interval [CI]:1.59,1.97), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (HR = 1.24; 95% CI:1.13,1.35), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.08,1.26), anxiety (HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01,1.17), and other behavioral/emotional disorders (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.08,1.26) compared to boys without cryptorchidism. The observed risks of intellectual disability, ASD, and ADHD were increased further in boys with bilateral cryptorchidism. Except for anxiety, cryptorchid boys had higher risks of neurodevelopmental disorders than their non-cryptorchid full brothers. The observed increased risks were similar among boys who underwent orchiopexy, as well as among those with shorter waiting times for this surgery. Cryptorchidism may be associated with increased risks of intellectual disability, ASD, ADHD, and other behavioral/emotional disorders. Cryptorchidism and neurodevelopmental disorders may have shared genetic or in-utero/early postnatal risk factors, which need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrian, Mariano E. [Cinvestav-IPN, Seccion de Toxicologia, Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Manuel [Cinvestav-IPN, Departamento de Biologia Celular (Mexico)


    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16{alpha}-OHT but higher 6{beta}-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7{alpha}-OHT and AD but higher 6{beta}-OHT and 6{alpha}-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6{beta}-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6{alpha}-/15{alpha}-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16{alpha}-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats. (orig.)

  9. Training Modalities to Increase Sensorimotor Adaptability (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Cohen, H. S.


    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform required mission tasks. The goal of our current series of studies is develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project has conducted a series of studies investigating the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges (incongruent visual input, support surface instability) designed to increase adaptability. SA training using a treadmill combined with exposure to altered visual input was effective in producing increased adaptability in a more complex over-ground ambulatory task on an obstacle course. This confirms that for a complex task like walking, treadmill training contains enough of the critical features of overground walking to be an effective training modality. SA training can be optimized by using a periodized training schedule. Test sessions that each contain short-duration exposures to multiple perturbation stimuli allows subjects to acquire a greater ability to rapidly reorganize appropriate response strategies when encountering a novel sensory environment. Using a treadmill mounted on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform we investigated locomotor training responses produced by subjects introduced to a dynamic walking surface combined with alterations in visual flow. Subjects who received this training had improved locomotor performance and faster reaction times when exposed to the novel sensory stimuli compared to control subjects. Results also demonstrate that individual sensory biases (i.e. increased visual dependency) can predict adaptive responses to novel sensory environments suggesting that individual training prescription can be developed to enhance adaptability. These data indicate that SA

  10. Interventions for increasing uptake in screening programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droste, Sigrid


    Full Text Available Introduction: Opportunities for the early detection of disease are not sufficiently being taken advantage of. Specific interventions could increase the uptake of prevention programmes. A comprehensive analysis of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions with reference to Germany is still needed. Objectives: This report aimed to describe and assess interventions to increase uptake in primary and secondary prevention and to explore the assessment of their cost-effectiveness. Methods: 29 scientific databases were systematically searched in a wide strategy. Additional references were located from bibliographies. All published systematic reviews and primary studies were assessed for inclusion without language restrictions. Teams of two reviewers identified the literature, extracted data and assessed the quality of the publications independently. Results: Four HTA reports and 22 systematic reviews were identified for the medical evaluation covering a variety of interventions. The economic evaluation was based on two HTA-reports, one meta-analysis and 15 studies. The evidence was consistent for the effectiveness of invitations and reminders aimed at users, and for prompts aimed at health care professionals. These interventions were the most commonly analysed. (Financial Incentives for users and professionals were identified in a small number of studies. Limited evidence was available for cost-effectiveness showing incremental costs for follow-up reminders and invitations by telephone. Evidence for ethical, social and legal aspects pointed to needs in vulnerable populations. Discussion: The material was heterogeneous regarding interventions used, study populations and settings. The majority of references originated from the United States and focused on secondary prevention. Approaching all target groups by invitations and reminders was recommended to increase uptake in prevention programmes in general. Conclusions: Further research

  11. Increased endometrial thickness in women with hypertension. (United States)

    Bornstein, J; Auslender, R; Goldstein, S; Kohan, R; Stolar, Z; Abramovici, H


    We noticed an increase in endometrial thickness in women with hypertension who were treated with a combination of medications, including beta-blockers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the endometrium of hypertensive women is thicker than that of healthy women and to determine whether endometrial thickening in hypertensive women is directly related to the antihypertensive beta-blocker treatment. We compared 3 groups of postmenopausal patients as follows: (1) women with a history of essential hypertension treated with a combination of medications, including beta-blockers; (2) women with a history of hypertension treated with a combination of medications that did not include beta-blockers; and (3) healthy women without hypertension. All patients were interviewed and examined, blood tests were performed, and endometrial thickness in the anterior-posterior diameter was measured by vaginal ultrasonography. Among the exclusion criteria were diabetes or an abnormal fasting blood glucose level, obesity, hormonal medication or replacement hormonal therapy during the previous 6 months, and a history of hormonal disturbances, infertility, or polycystic ovary syndrome. Of 45 hypertensive women enrolled in the study, 22 were treated with a beta-blocker combination medication and 23 were treated with other antihypertensive medications. They were compared with 25 healthy women. There was no statistically significant difference in endometrial thickness between women treated with medications, including beta-blockers, and those who were treated with other hypotensive agents. Twenty percent of women with hypertension and none of the healthy women had endometrium >5 mm thick (P infinity). Twenty percent of hypertensive postmenopausal women were found to have increased endometrial thickness. However, we were unable to substantiate an association between the type of treatment administered, whether beta-blockers were included, and the increase in endometrial thickness.

  12. Strong economic growth driving increased electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiusanen, P.


    The Finnish economy is growing faster today than anyone dared hope only a few years ago. Growth estimates for 2000 have already had to be raised. This strong level of economic growth has been reflected in electricity consumption, which has continued to increase, despite the exceptionally warm winter. A major part of this increased electricity usage has so far been met through imports. The continued growth in electricity imports has largely been a result of the fact that the good water level situation in Sweden and Norway, together with the mild winter, has kept electricity prices exceptionally low on the Nordic electricity exchange. The short period of low temperatures seen at the end of January showed, however, that this type of temperature fluctuation, combined with the restrictions that exist in regard to transfer capacity, can serve to push Nordic exchange electricity prices to record levels. This increase in price also highlights the fact that we are approaching a situation in which capacity will be insufficient to meet demand. A truly tough winter has not been seen since the Nordic region's electricity markets were deregulated. The lesson that needs to be learnt is that Finland needs sufficient capacity of her own to meet demand even during particularly cold winters. Finland used 77.9 billion kWh of electricity last year, up 1.6% or 1.3 billion kWh on 1998. This growth was relatively evenly distributed among different user groups. This year, electricity consumption is forecast to grow by 2-3%

  13. Homocysteine increases the risk associated with hyperlipidaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Caroline


    The European Concerted Action Project \\'Homocysteine and Vascular Disease\\' showed that an elevated homocysteine is associated with a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and particularly when combined with other factors such as smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential interactions between homocysteine and individual lipid subfractions. In addition, it was hypothesized that HDL cholesterol may protect against hyperhomocysteinaemia because HDL cholesterol is associated with the enzyme paroxonase, which reduces oxidization of homocysteine to the harmful metabolite, homocysteine thiolactonase.

  14. Infection increases mortality in necrotizing pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werge, Mikkel; Novovic, Srdjan; Schmidt, Palle N


    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of infection on mortality in necrotizing pancreatitis. METHODS: Eligible prospective and retrospective studies were identified through manual and electronic searches (August 2015). The risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Meta...... sterile necrosis and organ failure was associated with a mortality of 19.8%. If the patients had infected necrosis without organ failure the mortality was 1.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with necrotizing pancreatitis are more than twice as likely to die if the necrosis becomes infected. Both organ failure...... and infected necrosis increase mortality in necrotizing pancreatitis....

  15. Increasing the availability of national mapping products. (United States)

    Roney, J.I.; Ogilvie, B.C.


    A discussion of the means employed by the US Geological Survey to facilitate map usage, covering aspects of project Map Accessibility Program including special rolled and folded map packaging, new market testing, parks and campgrounds program, expanded map dealer program, new booklet-type State sales index and catalog and new USGS map reference code. The USGS is seen as the producer of a tremendous nation-wide inventory of topographic and related map products available in unprecedented types, formats and scales, and as endeavouring to increase access to its products. The new USGS map reference code is appended. -J.C.Stone

  16. Reracking to increase spent fuel storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Many utilities have already increased their spent fuel pool storage capacity by replacing aluminum racks having storage densities as low as 0.2 MTU/ft 2 with stainless steel racks which can more than double storage densities. Use of boron-stainless steel racks or thin stainless steel cans containing reassembled fuel rods allows even higher fuel storage densities (up to approximately 1.25 MTU/ft 2 ). This report evaluates the economics of smaller storage gains that occur if pools, already converted to high density storage, are further reracked

  17. Greenhouse effect increase and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, J.F.; Mahfouf, J.F.


    Observations on the evolution of the atmospheric composition concerning trace gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , NO 2 , CFC) are first described. Then the fundamental role played by these gases in the radiative equilibrium of the earth through the greenhouse effect is examined. Numerical models have been developed to forecast the consequences of an increase of the greenhouse effect. The importance of the feedback mechanism, where the oceans and the clouds have the central part, but not well estimated by the models, is explained. Climatic changes generally accepted are reviewed. In conclusion the need to improve our knowledge of the global climatic system to forecast future modifications is underlined

  18. Hypospadias and increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. (United States)

    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Lichtenstein, Paul; Landén, Mikael; Nordenvall, Anna S; Nordenström, Anna; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Frisén, Louise


    Hypospadias (aberrant opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis) occurs in 1 per 300 newborn boys. It has been previously unknown whether this common malformation is associated with increased psychiatric morbidity later in life. Studies of individuals with hypospadias also provide an opportunity to examine whether difference in androgen signaling is related to neurodevelopmental disorders. To elucidate the mechanisms behind a possible association, we also studied psychiatric outcomes among brothers of the hypospadias patients. Registry study within a national cohort of all 9,262 males with hypospadias and their 4,936 healthy brothers born in Sweden between 1973 and 2009. Patients with hypospadias and their brothers were matched with controls by year of birth and county. The following outcomes were evaluated (1) any psychiatric (2) psychotic, (3) mood, (4) anxiety, (5) eating, and (6) personality disorders, (7) substance misuse, (8) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (9) autism spectrum disorders (ASD), (10) intellectual disability, and (11) other behavioral/emotional disorders with onset in childhood. Patients with hypospadias were more likely to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.8-3.8), ASD (1.4; 1.2-1.7), ADHD (1.5; 1.3-1.9), and behavioral/emotional disorders (1.4; 1.2-1.6) compared with the controls. Brothers of patients with hypospadias had an increased risk of ASD (1.6; 1.3-2.1) and other behavioral/emotional disorders with onset in childhood (1.2; 0.9-1.5) in comparison to siblings of healthy individuals. A slightly higher, although not statistically significant, risk was found for intellectual disability (1.3; 1.0-1.9). No relation between other psychiatric diagnosis and hypospadias was found. This is the first study to identify an increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in patients with hypospadias, as well as an increased risk for ASD in their brothers, suggesting a common familial (genetic and

  19. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp. (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan


    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  20. Increasing efficiency through integrated energy data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, M.


    This article discusses how improved management of energy data can bring about the increase in efficiency that is necessary for an electricity enterprise operating in a liberalised electricity market. The relevant technical and business processes involved for a typical power distribution utility are described. The present situation is reviewed and the various physical, data-logistics and commercial 'domains' involved are examined. Possible solutions for energy data logistics and integrated data management are discussed from the points of view of the operating utility, the power supplier and those responsible for balancing out supply and demand

  1. Increased intracranial volume in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Katja; Karlsborg, Merete; Hansen, Andreas


    segmentation and outlining of regions in order to identify regional volume changes that might be useful in the diagnosis of the two diseases. RESULTS: Patients with PD had significantly larger intracranial volumes (ICVs) and significantly smaller putaminal and sustantia nigra volumes than controls. MSA...... patients had significantly smaller substantia nigra and caudate volumes than controls but normal intracranial volume. In both patient groups there was a further trend towards smaller amygdala volumes. DISCUSSION: Increased ICV in PD patients is a new finding that may be explained by genetic factors...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Abdurrouf


    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient satisfaction was important aspect that must be considered by health service providers, patients who were not satisfied will leave the hospital and be a competitor's customers so be able caused a decrease in sales of products/services and in turn could reduce and even loss of profit, therefore, the hospital must provided the best service so that it could increase patient satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to exams the effect of Islamic caring model on increase patient satisfaction.. Method: This study was used pre-experimental design, the respondents were 31 patients in the treatment group assigned Islamic caring and 31 patients with a kontrol group that were not given Islamic caring Inpatient Surgical Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital Semarang by using consecutive sampling techniques, patient satisfaction data collected through questionnaires and analyzed with Mann-Whitney test, as for finding out the Islamic caring for patient satisfaction were analyzed with spearmen's rho test. Result: The results showed that there was a significant influence of Islamic caring for perceived disconfirmation (p=0,000 there was a perceived disconfirmation influence on patient satisfaction significantly (p=0,000, there was a significant influence of Islamic caring for patient satisfaction in the treatment group with a kontrol group (p=0.001. Discussion: Discussion of this study was Islamic caring model effect on the increase perceived disconfirmation and patient satisfaction, Perceived disconfirmation effect on patient satisfaction, patient satisfaction who given Islamic caring was increase, patients given Islamic caring had higher satisfaction levels than patients who not given Islamic caring. Suggestions put forward based on the results of the study of Islamic caring model could be applied in Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital as a model of nursing care, Islamic caring behavior can be learned and improved through training and commitment and

  3. Increased Observability in Electric Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prostejovsky, Alexander Maria

    infrastructure in distribution grids. Strong emphasis is placed on experimental verifications of the investigated concepts wherever applicable. Electric grids are changing, and so are the roles of system operators. The interest in sustainable energy and the rapidly increasing number of Distributed Energy...... that DSO areas are not necessarily self-sufficient. Missing power is covered by neighbouring areas to confine problems in a small region, which is demonstrated in SYSLAB on a two-area, grid-connected setup. The results highlight the advantages of harnessing the information obtained directly from...

  4. Ultrasonic Ranging System With Increased Resolution (United States)

    Meyer, William E.; Johnson, William G.


    Master-oscillator frequency increased. Ultrasonic range-measuring system with 0.1-in. resolution provides continuous digital display of four distance readings, each updated four times per second. Four rangefinder modules in system are modified versions of rangefinder used for automatic focusing in commercial series of cameras. Ultrasonic pulses emitted by system innocuous to both people and equipment. Provides economical solutions to such distance-measurement problems as posed by boats approaching docks, truck backing toward loading platform, runway-clearance readout for tail of airplane with high angle attack, or burglar alarm.

  5. Does getting a dog increase recreational walking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuiman Matthew W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines changes in socio-demographic, environmental and intrapersonal factors associated with dog acquisition in non-dog owners at baseline to 12-months follow-up and the effect of dog acquisition on minutes per week of recreational walking. Methods RESIDE study participants completed self-administered questionnaires (baseline and 12-months follow-up measuring physical activity, dog ownership, dog walking behavior as well as environmental, intrapersonal and socio-demographic factors. Analysis was restricted to 'Continuing non-owners' (i.e., non-owners at both baseline and follow-up; n = 681 and 'New dog owners' (i.e., non-owners who acquired a dog by follow-up; n = 92. Results Overall, 12% of baseline non-owners had acquired a dog at follow-up. Dog acquisition was associated with working and having children at home. Those who changed from single to couple marital status were also more likely to acquire a dog. The increase in minutes of walking for recreation within the neighborhood from baseline to follow-up was 48 minutes/week for new dog owners compared with 12 minutes/week for continuing non-owners (p p p > 0.05 after further adjustment for change in baseline to follow-up variables. Increase in intention to walk was the main factor contributing to attenuation of the effect of dog acquisition on recreational walking. Conclusion This study used a large representative sample of non-owners to examine the relationship between dog acquisition and recreational walking and provides evidence to suggest that dog acquisition leads to an increase in walking. The most likely mechanism through which dog acquisition facilitates increased physical activity is through behavioral intention via the dog's positive effect on owner's cognitive beliefs about walking, and through the provision of motivation and social support for walking. The results suggest that behavioral intention mediates the relationship between dog acquisition

  6. Increasing alcohol yield in sugar fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P


    The yield of alcohol from yeast fermentations of sugar solutions is increased 1.5 to 5% by the addition of 0.1 to 0.5 parts by volume of a monohydric saturated aliphatic alcohol of at least 6 C atoms in a straight chain such as hexanol or heptanol, or branched chain, such as 2-ethylbutanol or 2-ethylhexanol, or a mixture consisting mostly of C/sub 7/, C/sub 8/, C/sub 9/, or C/sub 10/ alcohols.

  7. Final Technical Report: Increasing Prediction Accuracy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    PV performance models are used to quantify the value of PV plants in a given location. They combine the performance characteristics of the system, the measured or predicted irradiance and weather at a site, and the system configuration and design into a prediction of the amount of energy that will be produced by a PV system. These predictions must be as accurate as possible in order for finance charges to be minimized. Higher accuracy equals lower project risk. The Increasing Prediction Accuracy project at Sandia focuses on quantifying and reducing uncertainties in PV system performance models.

  8. Increase in beta limit in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Yutaka


    This paper reviews recent studies of tokamak MHD stability towards the achievement of a high beta steady-state, where the profile control of current, pressure, and rotation, and the optimization of the plasma shape play fundamental roles. The key instabilities include the neoclassical tearing mode, the resistive wall mode, the edge localized mode, etc. In order to demonstrate an economically attractive tokamak reactor, it is necessary to increase the beta value simultaneously with a sufficiently high integrated plasma performance. Towards this goal, studies of stability control in self-regulating plasma systems are essential. (author)

  9. Spatial Patterns of Excitation at Tissue and Whole Organ Level Due to Early Afterdepolarizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Vandersickel


    Full Text Available Early after depolarizations (EAD occur in many pathological conditions, such as congenital or acquired channelopathies, drug induced arrhythmias, and several other situations that are associated with increased arrhythmogenicity. In this paper we present an overview of the relevant computational studies on spatial EAD dynamics in 1D, 2D, and in 3D anatomical models and discuss the relation of EADs to cardiac arrhythmias. We also discuss unsolved problems and highlight new lines of research in this area.

  10. Seizing an opportunity: increasing use of cessation services following a tobacco tax increase. (United States)

    Keller, Paula A; Greenseid, Lija O; Christenson, Matthew; Boyle, Raymond G; Schillo, Barbara A


    Tobacco tax increases are associated with increases in quitline calls and reductions in smoking prevalence. In 2013, ClearWay Minnesota(SM) conducted a six-week media campaign promoting QUITPLAN® Services (QUITPLAN Helpline and to leverage the state's tax increase. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the association of the tax increase and media campaign on call volumes, web visits, and enrollments in QUITPLAN Services. In this observational study, call volume, web visits, enrollments, and participant characteristics were analyzed for the periods June-August 2012 and June-August 2013. Enrollment data and information about media campaigns were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis to determine the association of the tax increase on QUITPLAN Services while controlling for media. There was a 160% increase in total combined calls and web visits, and an 81% increase in enrollments in QUITPLAN Services. Helpline call volumes and enrollments declined back to prior year levels approximately six weeks after the tax increase. Visits to and enrollments in also declined, but increased again in mid-August. The tax increase and media explained over 70% of variation in enrollments in the QUITPLAN Helpline, with media explaining 34% of the variance and the tax increase explaining an additional 36.1% of this variance. However, media explained 64% of the variance in enrollments, and the tax increase explained an additional 7.6% of this variance. Since tax increases occur infrequently, these policy changes must be fully leveraged as quickly as possible to help reduce prevalence.

  11. Impacts of increasing ozone on Indian plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksanen, E.; Pandey, V.; Pandey, A.K.; Keski-Saari, S.; Kontunen-Soppela, S.; Sharma, C.


    Increasing anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of precursor compounds have led to high tropospheric ozone concentrations in India particularly in Indo-Gangetic Plains, which is the most fertile and cultivated area of this rapidly developing country. Current ozone risk models, based on European and North American data, provide inaccurate estimations for crop losses in India. During the past decade, several ozone experiments have been conducted with the most important Indian crop species (e.g. wheat, rice, mustard, mung bean). Experimental work started in natural field conditions around Varanasi area in early 2000's, and the use of open top chambers and EDU (ethylene diurea) applications has now facilitated more advanced studies e.g. for intra-species sensitivity screening and mechanisms of tolerance. In this review, we identify and discuss the most important gaps of knowledge and future needs of action, e.g. more systematic nationwide monitoring for precursor and ozone formation over Indian region. -- Tropospheric ozone is an increasing threat to food production in India

  12. Increased nutritional value in food crops. (United States)

    Goicoechea, Nieves; Antolín, M Carmen


    Modern agriculture and horticulture must combine two objectives that seem to be almost mutually exclusive: to satisfy the nutritional needs of an increasing human population and to minimize the negative impact on the environment. These two objectives are included in the Goal 2 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of the United Nations: 'End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture'. Enhancing the nutritional levels of vegetables would improve nutrient intake without requiring an increase in consumption. In this context, the use of beneficial rhizospheric microorganisms for improving, not only growth and yield, but also the nutrient quality of crops represents a promising tool that may respond to the challenges for modern agriculture and horticulture and represents an alternative to the genetic engineering of crops. This paper summarizes the state of the art, the current difficulties associated to the use of rhizospheric microorganisms as enhancers of the nutritional quality of food crops as well as the future prospects. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Startup program after SGR and power increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajnc, B.; Dudas, M.; Spiler, J.; Novsak, M.


    NPP Krsko replaced steam generators during the outage 2000. Parallel with the steam generator replacement all required systems modifications to accommodate new steam generators into the existing plant (upper feed,..) and support plant power increase of 6.3%, have been implemented. During the years 1997 - 2000 all the required licensing, technical analyses and systems verifications to support such plant changes have been completed. One of the activities within this effort was also the preparation of a detailed Plant Startup Program, which was subject of licensing review and approval process. An integrated plant startup program was then developed based on the plant startup test program, performed regularly during plant startup after refueling and above-mentioned Plant Startup Program. These additional tests defined by the Startup Test Program have been required due to new steam generators, steam generator replacement and related modifications, and power increase from previous 1882 MWt to 2000 MWt. During the preparation period, a startup team was established and procedures were written. All procedures sensitive to the operation were validated on the plant specific simulator. This paper presents more about the Startup Test Program, analysis of its implementation, the results of some key tests as well as the lessons learned. (author)

  14. Thermodynamic equipartition for increased second law efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, Gregory P.; McGovern, Ronan K.; Zubair, Syed M.; Lienhard V, John H.


    Highlights: • Efficiency gains from equipartition to minimize entropy generation are quantified. • The equipartition factor (Ξ) quantifies the variance of thermodynamic affinities. • Systems with low (Ξ) and low efficiency gain most when redesigned for equipartition. • For lumped capacitance systems long normalized charging times correlate with low (Ξ). - Abstract: In this work, a clear distinction is drawn between irreversibility associated with a finite mean driving force in a transport process and irreversibility associated with variance in the spatial and/or temporal distribution of this driving force. The portion of irreversibility associated with driving force variance is quantified via a newly defined dimensionless quantity, the equipartition factor. This equipartition factor, related to the variance in dimensionless driving force throughout the system, is employed to formulate an expression for second law efficiency. Consequently, the equipartition factor may be employed to identify the improvement in efficiency achievable via system redesign for a reduction in driving force variance, while holding fixed the system output for fixed system dimensions in time and space. It is shown that systems with low second law efficiency and low equipartition factor will have the greatest benefit from a redesign to obtain equipartition. The utility of the equipartition factor in identifying situations where efficiency can be increased without requiring a spatial or temporal increase in system size is illustrated through its application to several simple systems

  15. Incidental fear cues increase monetary loss aversion. (United States)

    Schulreich, Stefan; Gerhardt, Holger; Heekeren, Hauke R


    In many everyday decisions, people exhibit loss aversion-a greater sensitivity to losses relative to gains of equal size. Loss aversion is thought to be (at least partly) mediated by emotional--in particular, fear-related--processes. Decision research has shown that even incidental emotions, which are unrelated to the decision at hand, can influence decision making. The effect of incidental fear on loss aversion, however, is thus far unclear. In two studies, we experimentally investigated how incidental fear cues, presented during (Study 1) or before (Study 2) choices to accept or reject mixed gambles over real monetary stakes, influence monetary loss aversion. We find that the presentation of fearful faces, relative to the presentation of neutral faces, increased risk aversion-an effect that could be attributed to increased loss aversion. The size of this effect was moderated by psychopathic personality: Fearless dominance, in particular its interpersonal facet, but not self-centered impulsivity, attenuated the effect of incidental fear cues on loss aversion, consistent with reduced fear reactivity. Together, these results highlight the sensitivity of loss aversion to the affective context. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Investment opportunities in an increasingly competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Martin


    Four topic areas are considered: (1) The global context for energy investments, (2) Strategic investments in the gas chain, (3) Conventional and changing approaches to investing in gas and power, (4) New areas of opportunity. The presentation considers the challenging global context for investments and the current oil price outlook and more specifically the backdrop to the growth in demand for gas and its increasing availability and the implications of factors such as energy market liberalization. It notes the regional nature of gas and power markets and considers the issue of stranded supply and demand. It identifies an increasing trend towards investments up and down the gas chain by both traditional and new players and explores BP Amoco's own corporate response. The presentation then briefly reviews four major gas investments which BP Amoco has either already taken or is considering. It then discusses investments in gas to power and the growing environmental agenda, which is bringing a range of new and non-traditional investment opportunities

  17. Periodontitis and increase in circulating oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Tomofuji


    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are products of normal cellular metabolism. However, excessive production of ROS oxidizes DNA, lipids and proteins, inducing tissue damage. Studies have shown that periodontitis induces excessive ROS production in periodontal tissue. When periodontitis develops, ROS produced in the periodontal lesion diffuse into the blood stream, resulting in the oxidation of blood molecules (circulating oxidative stress. Such oxidation may be detrimental to systemic health. For instance, previous animal studies suggested that experimental periodontitis induces oxidative damage of the liver and descending aorta by increasing circulating oxidative stress. In addition, it has been revealed that clinical parameters in chronic periodontitis patients showed a significant improvement 2 months after periodontal treatment, which was accompanied by a significant reduction of reactive oxygen metabolites in plasma. Improvement of periodontitis by periodontal treatment could reduce the occurrence of circulating oxidative stress. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that the increase in circulating oxidative stress following diabetes mellitus and inappropriate nutrition damages periodontal tissues. In such cases, therapeutic approaches to systemic oxidative stress might be necessary to improve periodontal health.

  18. Increasing pandemic vaccination rates with effective communication. (United States)

    Henrich, Natalie J


    Communicating effectively with the public about the importance of vaccination during a pandemic poses a challenge to health communicators. The public's concerns about the safety, effectiveness and necessity of vaccines lead many people to refuse vaccination and the current communication strategies are often unsuccessful at overcoming the public's resistance to vaccinate. Convincing the public to receive a vaccination, especially during a pandemic when there can be so much uncertainty about the vaccine and the disease, requires a revised communication approach. This revised approach should integrate into messages information that the public identifies as important, as well as presenting messages in a way that is consistent with our evolved social learning biases. These biases will impact both the content of the message and who delivers the message to different target populations. Additionally, an improved understanding between media and health communicators about the role each plays during a crisis may increase the effectiveness of messages disseminated to the public. Lastly, given that the public is increasingly seeking health information from on-line and other electronic sources, health communication needs to continue to find ways to integrate new technologies into communication strategies.

  19. Increased cancer risk in patients with periodontitis. (United States)

    Dizdar, Omer; Hayran, Mutlu; Guven, Deniz Can; Yılmaz, Tolga Birtan; Taheri, Sahand; Akman, Abdullah C; Bilgin, Emre; Hüseyin, Beril; Berker, Ezel


    Previous studies have noted a possible association between periodontal diseases and the risk of various cancers. We assessed cancer risk in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe periodontitis. Patients diagnosed with moderate to severe periodontitis by a periodontist between 2001 and 2010 were identified from the hospital registry. Patients younger than 35 years of age or with a prior cancer diagnosis were excluded. The age- and gender-standardized incidence rates (SIR) were calculated by dividing the number of observed cases by the number of expected cases from Turkish National Cancer Registry 2013 data. A total of 280 patients were included (median age 49.6, 54% female). Median follow-up was 12 years. Twenty-five new cancer cases were observed. Patients with periodontitis had 77% increased risk of cancer (SIR 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.58, p = .004). Women with periodontitis had significantly higher risk of breast cancer (SIR 2.40, 95% CI 0.88-5.33) and men with periodontitis had significantly higher risk of prostate cancer (SIR 3.75, 95% CI 0.95-10.21) and hematological cancers (SIR 6.97, 95% CI 1.77-18.98). Although showing a causal association necessitates further investigation, our results support the idea that periodontitis might be associated with increased cancer risk, particularly with hematological, breast and prostate cancers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih


    Full Text Available Introduction: A hospital is an institution for health care providing treatment by specialized staff and equipment, more often but not always providing for longer-term patient stays. Today, hospitals are very complex institution, not only survive in dynamic environment but also make a profit based on their services. The aimed of this research was to know marketing mix concept (product, price, place, promotion, people, process and provision of customer service in formulating marketing strategy to increased Bed Occupancy Rate of Obstetric Gynecology Ward 2. Method: The population are health care personnel including midwife, midwife associate, administrator and also client or consumer. The variable were product, price, place, promotion, people, process and provision of customer service. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire. Result: The result showed that product (type of services, infrastructure and facility, relative price, comfortable and safe place, targeted promotion, trained human resources, standard process and provision of customer service are an important aspect to implement strategy marketing to increase Bed Occupancy Rate. Analysis: The result of this study has enlightened the importance of strategy marketing in health care services based on seven principle of marketing mix. Discussion: Implementation of marketing mix in obstetric gynecology ward 2 need to be considered.

  1. The increasing value of education to health. (United States)

    Goldman, Dana; Smith, James P


    This paper assesses how the relationship between health and educational attainment has changed over the last three decades. We examine trends in disease prevalence and self-reported health using the US National Health Interview Survey for five chronic conditions-arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and lung diseases. The sample is limited to non-Hispanic Whites ages 40-64 to focus on the value of education and not changing representation of minority populations. We find that health benefits associated with additional schooling rose over time by more than ten percentage points as measured by self-reported health status. This can be attributed to both a growing disparity by education in the probability of having major chronic diseases during middle age, and better health outcomes for those with each disease. The value of education in achieving better health has increased over the last 25 years; both in protecting against onset of disease and promoting better health outcomes amongst those with a disease. Besides better access to health insurance, the more educated increasingly adapted better health behaviors, particularly not smoking and engaging in vigorous exercise, and reaped the benefits of improving medical technology. Rising health disparities by education are an important social concern which may require targeted interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing the thermal efficiency of boiler plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyanchinov Evgeniy


    Full Text Available The thermal efficiency increase of boiler plant is actual task of scientific and technical researches. The optimization of boiler operating conditions is task complex, which determine by most probable average load of boiler, operating time and characteristics of the auxiliary equipment. The work purpose – the determination of thermodynamic efficiency increase ways for boiler plant with a gas-tube boiler. The tasks, solved at the research are the calculation of heat and fuel demand, the exergetic analysis of boilerhouse and heat network equipment, the determination of hydraulic losses and exergy losses due to restriction. The calculation was shown that the exergy destruction can be reduced by 2.39% due to excess air reducing to 10%; in addition the oxygen enrichment of air can be used that leads to reducing of the exergy destruction rate. The processes of carbon deposition from the side of flame and processes of scale formation on the water side leads to about 4.58% losses of fuel energy at gas-tube boiler. It was shown that the exergy losses may be reduced by 2.31% due to stack gases temperature reducing to 148 °C.

  3. Intrahippocampal administration of anandamide increases REM sleep. (United States)

    Rueda-Orozco, Pavel Ernesto; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Montes-Rodríguez, Corinne Jennifer; Pérez-Morales, Marcel; Prospéro-García, Oscar


    A nascent literature has postulated endocannabinoids (eCBs) as strong sleep-inducing lipids, particularly rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMs), nevertheless the exact mechanisms behind this effect remain to be determined. Anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol, two of the most important eCBS, are synthesized in the hippocampus. This structure also expresses a high concentration of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). Recent extensive literature supports eCBs as important regulators of hippocampal activity. It has also been shown that these molecules vary their expression on the hippocampus depending on the light-dark cycle. In this context we decided to analyze the effect of intrahippocampal administration of the eCB anandamide (ANA) on the sleep-waking cycle at two points of the light-dark cycle. Our data indicate that the administration of ANA directly into the hippocampus increases REMs in a dose dependent manner during the dark but not during the light phase of the cycle. The increase of REMs was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM251. This effect was specific for the hippocampus since ANA administrations in the surrounding cortex did not elicit any change in REMs. These results support the idea of a direct relationship between hippocampal activity and sleep mechanisms by means of eCBs. The data presented here show, for the first time that eCBs administered into the hippocampus trigger REMs and support previous studies where chemical stimulation of limbic areas triggered sleep.

  4. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela]. (United States)

    Ryder, Elena


    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers.

  5. K0 finding efficiencies in increasing luminosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassard, J.F.; Margetides S.


    In early LHC running it is anticipated that experiments will obtain luminosities of 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 , during which typically only one interaction per event will be obtained. But at higher luminosities, necessary for any Higgs and myriad other searches, experiments will have to deal with up to 50 distinct primary processes. Most will be minimum bias, and easily distinguished in terms of trigger. They can still, of course, confuse analysis of high P T events. When it comes to B events, the confusion even from minimum bias events becomes more acute, since B events are not open-quotes high P T close quotes in this environment. The need for vertex discrimination, particularly in z, is well understood; however, a collateral effect - the increasing difficulty in finding tracks at all - has received little attention. The authors show the distribution of the K 0 in the Pythia process B → J/ψK 0 in the space γ vs. η. Confusion in reconstructing the K 0 is acute for many reasons, not the least of which is the way their pions are boosted forward, and even out of acceptance. Extra luminosity merely increases the problems in finding K 0 's, so it must not be assumed that 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 is ten times better than 10 32 cm -2 sec -1

  6. Extensive Atrophic Gastritis Increases Intraduodenal Hydrogen Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Urita


    Full Text Available Objective. Gastric acid plays an important part in the prevention of bacterial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. If these bacteria have an ability of hydrogen (H2 fermentation, intraluminal H2 gas might be detected. We attempted to measure the intraluminal H2 concentrations to determine the bacterial overgrowth in the gastrointestinal tract. Patients and methods. Studies were performed in 647 consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy. At the time of endoscopic examination, we intubated the stomach and the descending part of the duodenum without inflation by air, and 20 mL of intraluminal gas samples of both sites was collected through the biopsy channel. Intraluminal H2 concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. Results. Intragastric and intraduodenal H2 gas was detected in 566 (87.5% and 524 (81.0% patients, respectively. The mean values of intragastric and intraduodenal H2 gas were 8.5±15.9 and 13.2±58.0 ppm, respectively. The intraduodenal H2 level was increased with the progression of atrophic gastritis, whereas the intragastric H2 level was the highest in patients without atrophic gastritis. Conclusions. The intraduodenal hydrogen levels were increased with the progression of atrophic gastritis. It is likely that the influence of hypochlorhydria on bacterial overgrowth in the proximal small intestine is more pronounced, compared to that in the stomach.

  7. [Increase of Hantavirus infections in France, 2003]. (United States)

    Mailles, A; Vaillant, V; Haeghebaert, S; Fradet, M R; Capek, I; Zeller, H


    Hantaviral infections causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome are endemic in North Eastern France. Humans are contaminated by the inhalation of aerosols contaminated by rodent faeces. In February 2003, the National reference centre (NRC) for hemorrhagic fevers detected an increased number of cases. An investigation was carried out to confirm the outbreak and take appropriate control measures. Cases were collected by the NRC. A case was defined as a person living in France with symptoms compatible with hantaviral infection and a positive blood test both for specific Puumala IgM, and IgG. Clinical information and at-risk exposures during the 2 weeks before onset were recorded. In 2003, 128 cases were diagnosed (61 in 2002). The median age of patients was 38, 77% were men and 82% were hospitalized. Patients were living in North-Eastern France. Clusters were detected in the Ardennes and Oise districts. Occupation (35%) (in agriculture, forestry, and construction work), manipulation of firewood (35%), gardening (29%), and outdoors leisure (14%) were identified as at-risk exposures in these cases. An increased number of positive diagnoses of hantaviral infections was confirmed. The location and at-risk exposures of the cases were identical in previous investigations. Exclusion and prevention of rodents' access to houses and avoiding the inhalation of contaminated dust are the only possible prevention measures of hantaviral infections. Information about the disease and its prevention needs to be made widely available to both healthcare professionals and the general population living in endemic areas.

  8. Interstitial adenosine concentration is increased by dipyridamole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, M.W.; Wangler, R.D.; DeWitt, D.F.; Wang, C.Y.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Sparks, H.V.


    The authors used the multiple indicator dilution technique to observe the capillary transport of adenosine (ADO) in isolated guinea pig hearts. Radiolabelled albumin, sucrose and ADO were injected on the arterial side and measured in venous samples collected during the following 20 seconds. Transport parameters calculated from these data include permeability-surface area products (PS) for transendothelial diffusion, endothelial cell (EC) uptake at the lumenal and ablumenal membranes, and EC metabolism. With simultaneous measurements of arterial and venous ADO concentrations and flow, the authors calculated the steady-state interstitial fluid (ISF) ADO concentration. Under control conditions the venous ADO concentration was 7.1 +/- 2.8 nM. The calculated ISF concentration depends on whether they assume the venous ADO comes from the ISF, or directly from ECs. These ISF concentrations are 25 +/- 12 nM and 9.8 +/- 4.0 nM, respectively. During dipyridamole infusion (10 uM) the EC transport parameters became nearly zero. Venous and ISF ADO concentrations increased to 33 +/- 8.9 nM and 169 +/- 42 nM, respectively. The authors conclude that the ISF ADO concentration is 1.5-4 fold higher than the venous concentration at rest, and the ISF concentration increases greatly with dipyridamole

  9. Investment opportunities in an increasingly competitive environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Martin


    Four topic areas are considered: (1) The global context for energy investments, (2) Strategic investments in the gas chain, (3) Conventional and changing approaches to investing in gas and power, (4) New areas of opportunity. The presentation considers the challenging global context for investments and the current oil price outlook and more specifically the backdrop to the growth in demand for gas and its increasing availability and the implications of factors such as energy market liberalization. It notes the regional nature of gas and power markets and considers the issue of stranded supply and demand. It identifies an increasing trend towards investments up and down the gas chain by both traditional and new players and explores BP Amoco's own corporate response. The presentation then briefly reviews four major gas investments which BP Amoco has either already taken or is considering. It then discusses investments in gas to power and the growing environmental agenda, which is bringing a range of new and non-traditional investment opportunities.

  10. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))


    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  11. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)


    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  12. Hyperthyroidism increases brown fat metabolism in humans. (United States)

    Lahesmaa, Minna; Orava, Janne; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Soinio, Minna; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Noponen, Tommi; Kirjavainen, Anna; Iida, Hidehiro; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Enerbäck, Sven; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo


    Thyroid hormones are important regulators of brown adipose tissue (BAT) development and function. In rodents, BAT metabolism is up-regulated by thyroid hormones. The purpose of this article was to investigate the impact of hyperthyroidism on BAT metabolism in humans. This was a follow-up study using positron emission tomography imaging. Glucose uptake (GU) and perfusion of BAT, white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and thyroid gland were measured using [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [15O]H2O and positron emission tomography in 10 patients with overt hyperthyroidism and in 8 healthy participants. Five of the hyperthyroid patients were restudied after restoration of euthyroidism. Supraclavicular BAT was quantified with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and energy expenditure (EE) with indirect calorimetry. Compared with healthy participants, hyperthyroid participants had 3-fold higher BAT GU (2.7±2.3 vs 0.9±0.1 μmol/100 g/min, P=.0013), 90% higher skeletal muscle GU (Phyperthyroidism, serum free T4 and free T3 were strongly associated with EE and lipid oxidation rates (Pmetabolism (PHyperthyroidism had no effect on BAT perfusion, whereas it stimulated skeletal muscle perfusion (P=.04). Thyroid gland GU did not differ between hyperthyroid and euthyroid study subjects. Hyperthyroidism increases GU in BAT independently of BAT perfusion. Hyperthyroid patients are characterized by increased skeletal muscle metabolism and lipid oxidation rates.

  13. Does respiratory muscle training increase physical performance? (United States)

    Sperlich, Billy; Fricke, Hannes; de Marées, Markus; Linville, John W; Mester, Joachim


    Special force units and military personnel undergo demanding physical exercise and might benefit from high-intensity respiratory muscle training (RMT) by increasing their endurance performance. This study examined the effects of a 6-week high-intensity RMT on running performance and oxygen uptake (VO2max) in a group of German Special Force Squad members. 17 participants were randomly assigned to a training or control group. Baseline and post-testing included a ramp test, as well as an incremental test on a treadmill, performed to physical exhaustion. VO2, respiratory exchange ratio, and heart rate were measured breath by breath. Furthermore, maximum running speed (V(max)), 4 mmol x 1(-1) lactate threshold (V4) and perception of respiratory effort were determined. During pulmonary testing, sustained maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure (PI(max) and PE(max)) were obtained. RMT was performed daily at approximately 90% PI(max) for 6 weeks with 2 x 30 breath cycles using an Ultrabreathe lung trainer. No statistical differences were detected between the groups for any parameter after RMT. High-intensity RMT did not show any benefits on VO2max and endurance performance and are unlikely to be of benefit to military or paramilitary training programs for an increase in endurance performance.

  14. The Non-Proliferation Treaty increases security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahiluoto, K.


    Extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty indefinitely was a historic decision. The Treaty is the most extensive international agreement on security policy to date; now its obligations have become a permanent part of international justice. Moreover, the NPT represents a political and moral obligation. Through the NPT, the international community has made a permanent commitment to restrict the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Increasing pressures will be applied to the few countries still outside the NPT, making it more likely that these countries will eventually change their views. The likelihood of regional bans on nuclear weapons in the Middle East and in Asia, too, will increase. The Treaty promotes the establishment of new nuclear-free zones. The nuclear-free zone in Latin America - the countries covered by the Tlatelolco Treaty - is already very close to its full implementation. Finland is firmly committed to the obligations of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The NPT Conference of 1995 was among the first international meetings in which Finland participated, and took an active role, as a Member State of the European Union. (orig.)

  15. Similarity increases altruistic punishment in humans. (United States)

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Ockenfels, Axel


    Humans are attracted to similar others. As a consequence, social networks are homogeneous in sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and other characteristics--a principle called homophily. Despite abundant evidence showing the importance of interpersonal similarity and homophily for human relationships, their behavioral correlates and cognitive foundations are poorly understood. Here, we show that perceived similarity substantially increases altruistic punishment, a key mechanism underlying human cooperation. We induced (dis)similarity perception by manipulating basic cognitive mechanisms in an economic cooperation game that included a punishment phase. We found that similarity-focused participants were more willing to punish others' uncooperative behavior. This influence of similarity is not explained by group identity, which has the opposite effect on altruistic punishment. Our findings demonstrate that pure similarity promotes reciprocity in ways known to encourage cooperation. At the same time, the increased willingness to punish norm violations among similarity-focused participants provides a rationale for why similar people are more likely to build stable social relationships. Finally, our findings show that altruistic punishment is differentially involved in encouraging cooperation under pure similarity vs. in-group conditions.

  16. Increasing women in leadership in global health. (United States)

    Downs, Jennifer A; Reif, Lindsey K; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W


    Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women's health. In this Perspective, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path.

  17. Effects of Increasing Drag on Conjunction Assessment (United States)

    Frigm, Ryan Clayton; McKinley, David P.


    Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis relies heavily on the computation of the Probability of Collision (Pc) and the understanding of the sensitivity of this calculation to the position errors as defined by the covariance. In Low Earth Orbit (LEO), covariance is predominantly driven by perturbations due to atmospheric drag. This paper describes the effects of increasing atmospheric drag through Solar Cycle 24 on Pc calculations. The process of determining these effects is found through analyzing solar flux predictions on Energy Dissipation Rate (EDR), historical relationship between EDR and covariance, and the sensitivity of Pc to covariance. It is discovered that while all LEO satellites will be affected by the increase in solar activity, the relative effect is more significant in the LEO regime around 700 kilometers in altitude compared to 400 kilometers. Furthermore, it is shown that higher Pc values can be expected at larger close approach miss distances. Understanding these counter-intuitive results is important to setting Owner/Operator expectations concerning conjunctions as solar maximum approaches.

  18. Increasing Product Confidence-Shifting Paradigms. (United States)

    Phillips, Marla; Kashyap, Vishal; Cheung, Mee-Shew


    Leaders in the pharmaceutical, medical device, and food industries expressed a unilateral concern over product confidence throughout the total product lifecycle, an unsettling fact for these leaders to manage given that their products affect the lives of millions of people each year. Fueled by the heparin incident of intentional adulteration in 2008, initial efforts for increasing product confidence were focused on improving the confidence of incoming materials, with a belief that supplier performance must be the root cause. As in the heparin case, concern over supplier performance extended deep into the supply chain to include suppliers of the suppliers-which is often a blind spot for pharmaceutical, device, and food manufacturers. Resolved to address the perceived lack of supplier performance, these U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated industries began to adopt the supplier relationship management strategy, developed by the automotive industry, that emphasizes "management" of suppliers for the betterment of the manufacturers. Current product and supplier management strategies, however, have not led to a significant improvement in product confidence. As a result of the enduring concern by industry leaders over the lack of product confidence, Xavier University launched the Integrity of Supply Initiative in 2012 with a team of industry leaders and FDA officials. Through a methodical research approach, data generated by the pharmaceutical, medical device, and food manufacturers surprisingly pointed to themselves as a source of the lack of product confidence, and revealed that manufacturers either unknowingly increase the potential for error or can control/prevent many aspects of product confidence failure. It is only through this paradigm shift that manufacturers can work collaboratively with their suppliers as equal partners, instead of viewing their suppliers as "lesser" entities needing to be controlled. The basis of this shift provides manufacturers

  19. Increased neural responses to empathy for pain might explain how acute stress increases prosociality


    Tomova, L.; Majdand?i?, J.; Hummer, A.; Windischberger, C.; Heinrichs, M.; Lamm, C.


    Abstract Recent behavioral investigations suggest that acute stress can increase prosocial behavior. Here, we investigated whether increased empathy represents a potential mechanism for this finding. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed the effects of acute stress on neural responses related to automatic and regulatory components of empathy for pain as well as subsequent prosocial behavior. Stress increased activation in brain areas associated with the automatic sharing of...

  20. Adaptation responses to increasing drought frequency (United States)

    Loch, A. J.; Adamson, D. C.; Schwabe, K.


    Using state contingent analysis we discuss how and why irrigators adapt to alternative water supply signals. This analysis approach helps to illustrate how and why producers currently use state-general and state-allocable inputs to adapt and respond to known and possible future climatic alternative natures. Focusing on the timing of water allocations, we explore inherent differences in the demand for water by two key irrigation sectors: annual and perennial producers which in Australia have allowed a significant degree of risk-minimisation during droughts. In the absence of land constraints, producers also had a capacity to respond to positive state outcomes and achieve super-normal profits. In the future, however, the probability of positive state outcomes is uncertain; production systems may need to adapt to minimise losses and/or achieve positive returns under altered water supply conditions that may arise as a consequence of more frequent drought states. As such, producers must assess whether altering current input/output choice sets in response to possible future climate states will enhance their long-run competitive advantage for both expected new normal and extreme water supply outcomes. Further, policy supporting agricultural sector climate change resilience must avoid poorly-designed strategies that increase producer vulnerability in the face of drought. Our analysis explores the reliability of alternative water property right bundles and how reduced allocations across time influence alternative responses by producers. We then extend our analysis to explore how management strategies could adapt to two possible future drier state types: i) where an average reduction in water supply is experienced; and ii) where the frequency of droughts increase. The combination of these findings are subsequently used to discuss the role water reform policy has to deal with current and future climate scenarios. We argue current policy strategies could drive producers to

  1. CPAP increases bronchial reactivity in OSAS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Korczyski


    Full Text Available Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP is a well known and safe method of treatment patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS. The effects of CPAP administration on the upper respiratory tract are known. However its effects on the lower respiratory tract still needs to be determined. Studies on bronchial hyperreactivity in patients treated by CPAP are contradictory. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of a 3-week CPAP treatment in patients with OSAS and to evaluate associations between changes in bronchial reactivity and clinical features of OSAS and lung function tests (LFT. Patients with newly diagnosed OSAS and lack of infection or chronic illness of the respiratory tract or other conditions which could influence bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR were included. Investigations were performed in 101 patients. There were 88 males and 13 females, mean age 51.5±11.2 years and BMI 32.6±5.4 kg·m–2. Qualified patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: 76 patients to CPAP treatment group, 25 control group. Both groups did not differ in anthropometrics features, severity of OSAS and LFT. Metacholine challenge test (MchCT was performed at baseline and repeated after 3 weeks. Analysis of the individual results showed that in 11 patients the MchCT was positive (6 in the CPAP and 5 in the control groups. After 3 weeks in the group of CPAP treated patients an increase of BHR was noted. Log PC20M decreased from 1.38±0.3 to 1.26±0.5 (p<0.05. The number of patients with a positive result in the MchCT increased from 6 to 16 patients. There was no significant change in BHR in the control group. It was found that CPAP treated patients with BHR were older, had less severe OSAS and lower FEV1 (p<0.05. In none of the patients positive result of BHR did no affect compliance to CPAP treatment. Conclusions: CPAP therapy increases bronchial reactivity, but does not affect compliance to treatment.

  2. Cloud albedo increase from carbonaceous aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Leaitch


    Full Text Available Airborne measurements from two consecutive days, analysed with the aid of an aerosol-adiabatic cloud parcel model, are used to study the effect of carbonaceous aerosol particles on the reflectivity of sunlight by water clouds. The measurements, including aerosol chemistry, aerosol microphysics, cloud microphysics, cloud gust velocities and cloud light extinction, were made below, in and above stratocumulus over the northwest Atlantic Ocean. On the first day, the history of the below-cloud fine particle aerosol was marine and the fine particle sulphate and organic carbon mass concentrations measured at cloud base were 2.4 μg m−3 and 0.9 μg m−3 respectively. On the second day, the below-cloud aerosol was continentally influenced and the fine particle sulphate and organic carbon mass concentrations were 2.3 μg m−3 and 2.6 μg m−3 respectively. Over the range 0.06–0.8 μm diameter, the shapes of the below-cloud size distributions were similar on both days and the number concentrations were approximately a factor of two higher on the second day. The cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC on the second day were approximately three times higher than the CDNC measured on the first day. Using the parcel model to separate the influence of the differences in gust velocities, we estimate from the vertically integrated cloud light scattering measurements a 6% increase in the cloud albedo principally due to the increase in the carbonaceous components on the second day. Assuming no additional absorption by this aerosol, a 6% albedo increase translates to a local daytime radiative cooling of ∼12 W m−2. This result provides observational evidence that the role of anthropogenic carbonaceous components in the cloud albedo effect can be much larger than that of anthropogenic sulphate, as some global simulations have indicated.

  3. Increased P diffusion as an explanation of increased P availability in flooded rice soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, F.T.; Gilliam, J.W.


    Phosphorus supply factors (capacity, kinetic, intensity, and diffusivity) and plant growth were the approaches used to assess P supply of flooded rice soils. Increases in the capacity, intensity and kinetic factors, as measured by E-value, solution P concentration, and soil P release rate to a distilled water 'sink' respectively, were unpronounced and infrequent upon water-saturation of ten soils. However, increases in the diffusivity factor, as measured by 32 P diffusion coefficients, were at least ten-fold as soil moisture increased. The greatest increases in P diffusion occurred as soil moisture increased beyond one-third bar. Using a P-fertilized soil or P treated powdered cellulose as the P source and a minus P nutrient solution to nourish a split root system with water and nutrients, data were obtained which suggested that P uptake and rice shoot growth (indicators of P availability) increased with increasing moisture level. Phosphorus uptake and rice-shoot growth were greatest when the soil or P treated cellulose were water-saturated. These data indicate that increased soil P availability upon flooding can be attributed to an increase in the diffusivity factor

  4. All-Round Marketing Increases Hospital Popularity. (United States)

    Ziqi, Tao


    Xuzhou Center Hospital is in a competing medical market in Xuzhou city. This hospital has been dedicating to improve the medical skills and provide professional and individualized service to the patients in order to improve the patient's experience and increase the patient's satisfaction. On the other side, this hospital has provided an all-round marketing campaign to build up the social influence and public reputation through public-praise marketing, web marketing, media marketing, and scholar marketing. Besides, this hospital has been cooperating with foreign medical institutions and inviting foreign medical specialists to academic communication. With the combined effects of improving medical service and all-round marketing, the hospital's economic performance has been enhanced significantly and laid a solid foundation for its ambition to become the first-class hospital in Huaihai Economic Zone.

  5. Back to the future: nostalgia increases optimism. (United States)

    Cheung, Wing-Yee; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Hepper, Erica G; Arndt, Jamie; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M


    This research examined the proposition that nostalgia is not simply a past-oriented emotion, but its scope extends into the future, and, in particular, a positive future. We adopted a convergent validation approach, using multiple methods to assess the relation between nostalgia and optimism. Study 1 tested whether nostalgic narratives entail traces of optimism; indeed, nostalgic (compared with ordinary) narratives contained more expressions of optimism. Study 2 manipulated nostalgia through the recollection of nostalgic (vs. ordinary) events, and showed that nostalgia boosts optimism. Study 3 demonstrated that the effect of nostalgia (induced with nomothetically relevant songs) on optimism is mediated by self-esteem. Finally, Study 4 established that nostalgia (induced with idiographically relevant lyrics) fosters social connectedness, which subsequently increases self-esteem, which then boosts optimism. The nostalgic experience is inherently optimistic and paints a subjectively rosier future.

  6. Exposure to Hedione Increases Reciprocity in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Berger


    Full Text Available Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1 expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity. Applying behavioral economics paradigms, the present research shows that exposure to the ligand causes differentiated behavioral effects in reciprocal punishments (Study 1 as well as rewards (Study 2, two types of behaviors that are frequently regarded as essential for the development and maintenance of cooperation.

  7. Analysis of Increased Information Technology Outsourcing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brcar Franc


    Full Text Available The study explores the field of IT outsourcing. The narrow field of research is to build a model of IT outsourcing based on influential factors. The purpose of this research is to determine the influential factors on IT outsourcing expansion. A survey was conducted with 141 large-sized Slovenian companies. Data were statistically analyzed using binary logistic regression. The final model contains five factors: (1 management’s support; (2 knowledge on IT outsourcing; (3 improvement of efficiency and effectiveness; (4 quality improvement of IT services; and (5 innovation improvement of IT. Managers immediately can use the results of this research in their decision-making. Increased performance of each individual organization is to the benefit of the entire society. The examination of IT outsourcing with the methods used is the first such research in Slovenia.

  8. Hazy increased density in diffuse lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.S.; Webb, W.R.; Gamsu, G.; Warnock, M.; Park, C.K.


    In order to determine the significance of ground glass density on high-resolution CT scans of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other lung disorders, the authors have reviewed 200 high-resolution CT studies and found 50 cases demonstrating areas of hazy increased lung density. Disease entities most often associated with this finding included DIP, UIP, alveolar proteinosis, sarcoidosis, and bronchiolitis obliterans/ organizing pneumonia. Pathologic examination revealed either cellular or fluid material lining terminal air spaces, often associated with alveolar wall infiltration and an absence of fibrosis. Gallium scans and bronchoalveolar lavage in some cases showed active inflammation Follow-up high-resolution CT studies in 10 patients showed either change or resolution of the hazy densities, confirming the presence of a reversible parenchymal lesion

  9. When do fat taxes increase consumer welfare? (United States)

    Lusk, Jayson L; Schroeter, Christiane


    Previous analyses of fat taxes have generally worked within an empirical framework in which it is difficult to determine whether consumers benefit from the policy. This note outlines on simple means to determine whether consumers benefit from a fat tax by comparing the ratio of expenditures on the taxed good to the weight effect of the tax against the individual's willingness to pay for a one-pound weight reduction. Our empirical calculations suggest that an individual would have to be willing to pay about $1500 to reduce weight by one pound for a tax on sugary beverages to be welfare enhancing. The results suggest either that a soda tax is very unlikely to increase individual consumer welfare or that the policy must be justified on some other grounds that abandon standard rationality assumptions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Power increases infidelity among men and women. (United States)

    Lammers, Joris; Stoker, Janka I; Jordan, Jennifer; Pollmann, Monique; Stapel, Diederik A


    Data from a large survey of 1,561 professionals were used to examine the relationship between power and infidelity and the process underlying this relationship. Results showed that elevated power is positively associated with infidelity because power increases confidence in the ability to attract partners. This association was found for both actual infidelity and intentions to engage in infidelity in the future. Gender did not moderate these results: The relationship between power and infidelity was the same for women as for men, and for the same reason. These findings suggest that the common assumption (and often-found effect) that women are less likely than men to engage in infidelity is, at least partially, a reflection of traditional gender-based differences in power that exist in society.

  11. Blind haste: As light decreases, speeding increases. (United States)

    de Bellis, Emanuel; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael; Brucks, Wernher; Herrmann, Andreas; Hertwig, Ralph


    Worldwide, more than one million people die on the roads each year. A third of these fatal accidents are attributed to speeding, with properties of the individual driver and the environment regarded as key contributing factors. We examine real-world speeding behavior and its interaction with illuminance, an environmental property defined as the luminous flux incident on a surface. Drawing on an analysis of 1.2 million vehicle movements, we show that reduced illuminance levels are associated with increased speeding. This relationship persists when we control for factors known to influence speeding (e.g., fluctuations in traffic volume) and consider proxies of illuminance (e.g., sight distance). Our findings add to a long-standing debate about how the quality of visual conditions affects drivers' speed perception and driving speed. Policy makers can intervene by educating drivers about the inverse illuminance‒speeding relationship and by testing how improved vehicle headlights and smart road lighting can attenuate speeding.

  12. Can increased organic consumption mitigate climate changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Christensen, Tove


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evidence for a positive correlation between increased consumption of organic products and potential climate change mitigation via decreased consumption of meat and it is discussed to what extent organic consumption is motivated by climate...... and household heating are perceived as more important strategies. Research limitations/implications – Other food-related mitigation strategies could be investigated. The climate effect of different diets – and how to motivate consumers to pursue them – could be investigated. Individual as opposed to household...... consumers. As some consumers believe that climate change can be mitigated by consuming organic food, the authors propose that this is taken into account in the development of organic farming. Originality/value – The authors propose a shift from analysing the climate-friendliness of production to addressing...

  13. Residual services and power increases for components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, W.


    As part of the moratorium in Switzerland work in nuclear power stations has been concentrating more on increasing capacity, reducing radiation levels to which personnel is exposed and extending the service life of existing plants. This has meant the requalification, repair or replacement of components and systems some of which have been in operation for more than 20 years. In addition to the classic role of manufacturer, the industry which acts as both supplier and manufacturer of these components also has to be the expertise holder, documentation pool and analysts. The examples described in this article show that close cooperation with operators leads to solutions which fully ensure the safe and successful operation of the plants, even in the second section of their service life. 4 refs

  14. The Danish Peregrine Falcon population is increasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Niels Peter; Falk, Knud; Møller, Søren

    peregrine population has gradually increased – most rapidly since 2012 – to 19 known territorial pairs in 2016; some of them breeding on man-made structures (nest boxes at bridges and power plants). In this poster, we present detailed information on the reestablishment of the peregrine falcon in Denmark...... observed breeding in Demark: 3 from Sweden, 4 from Germany and 1 from Poland. Similarly, peregrines banded in Danish eyries have been observed as territorial or breeding in Sweden (2 cases) or at other locations in Denmark (5 cases). The reproduction measured as number of ‘young per successful pair......’ (reaching ringing age) and ‘young per occupied territory’ (“productivity”) is on average 2.2 and 1.3, respectively, for the entire period 2001-2016. The productivity of Danish peregrines is thus well above the critical limit (1.0 according to USFWS), where concerns may be raised. Not much is known about...

  15. Increased muscle glucose uptake after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik


    responsiveness of glucose uptake was noted only in controls. Analysis of intracellular glucose-6-phosphate, glucose, glycogen synthesis, and glucose transport suggested that the exercise effect on responsiveness might be due to enhancement of glucose disposal. After electrical stimulation of diabetic...... of glucose. At maximal insulin concentrations, the enhancing effect of exercise on glucose uptake may involve enhancement of glucose disposal, an effect that is probably less in muscle from diabetic rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......It has recently been shown that insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis is increased after a single exercise session. The present study was designed to determine whether insulin is necessary during exercise for development of these changes found after exercise...

  16. Exercise increases circulating GDF15 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinert, Maximilian; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Sjøberg, Kim Anker


    OBJECTIVE: The growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a stress-sensitive circulating factor that regulates systemic energy balance. Since exercise is a transient physiological stress that has pleiotropic effects on whole-body energy metabolism, we herein explored the effect of exercise on a......) circulating GDF15 levels and b) GDF15 release from skeletal muscle in humans. METHODS: Seven healthy males either rested or exercised at 67% of their VO2max for 1 h and blood was sampled from the femoral artery and femoral vein before, during, and after exercise. Plasma GDF15 concentrations were determined...... in these samples. RESULTS: Plasma GDF15 levels increased 34% with exercise (p exercise. There was no difference between the arterial and venous GDF15 concentration before, during, and after exercise. During...

  17. Has risk associated with smoking increased?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Osler, M; Andersen, P K


    BACKGROUND: Two recent much cited publications have raised the concern that risk associated with cigarette smoking has so far been underestimated. In this study we wish to determine whether excess all-cause mortality associated with smoking has increased during the last 20-30 years in a study...... population representative of the general Danish population and whether any such changes relate to changes in smoking behaviour. METHODS: Pooled data from three prospective population studies conducted in Copenhagen with detailed information on smoking habits. A total of 31,194 subjects, 17,669 males and 13......,525 females, initially examined between 1964 and 1992 with examinations repeated at intervals from 1-10 years, were followed until 1995 for all-cause mortality. Relative mortality risk in smokers versus never-smokers was calculated within periods of five calendar years and compared throughout the study period...

  18. Increasing productivity through Total Reuse Management (TRM) (United States)

    Schuler, M. P.


    Total Reuse Management (TRM) is a new concept currently being promoted by the NASA Langley Software Engineering and Ada Lab (SEAL). It uses concepts similar to those promoted in Total Quality Management (TQM). Both technical and management personnel are continually encouraged to think in terms of reuse. Reuse is not something that is aimed for after a product is completed, but rather it is built into the product from inception through development. Lowering software development costs, reducing risk, and increasing code reliability are the more prominent goals of TRM. Procedures and methods used to adopt and apply TRM are described. Reuse is frequently thought of as only being applicable to code. However, reuse can apply to all products and all phases of the software life cycle. These products include management and quality assurance plans, designs, and testing procedures. Specific examples of successfully reused products are given and future goals are discussed.

  19. Barriers to increased market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren


    and related activities still seem to attract relatively few resources is not answered by supplying another checklist or package of facilitators. Based on published conceptual writings and empirical studies this article makes an account of what the intra-organizational barriers may be to increased market......Most research on market orientation has dealt with assessing how market orientation behaviour is related to business performance. This work has established an intense market-oriented activity as significantly and positively related to business performance under most circumstances. In a maturing......-oriented activity. A framework of six generic domains is suggested: Organizational structure, human resource management, market-oriented activity competence, psychological climate, managers' personality characteristics, and individually held beliefs. A model is suggested inter-relating the domains....

  20. Environmental lead exposure increases micronuclei in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapka, Lucyna; Baumgartner, Adolf; Siwińska, Ewa


    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the contribution of environmental exposures to lead in the development of cytogenetic damage detected as the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in children. The other aim was to apply the MN assay in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization...... age from an unexposed recreational area. Exposure to lead was assessed by determination of lead concentrations in blood (PbB) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas the level of selenium (Se) in serum was detected by using graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. The frequency of MN...... was determined by the cytokinesis-block MN assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization performed using a specific pan-centromeric probe. Environmental exposure to lead resulted in significantly increased levels of PbB (5.29 +/- 2.09 versus 3.45 +/- 1.20 microg/dl in controls), although the average level...

  1. Can a sense of entitlement increase stealing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravert, Christina Annette

    Are people more likely to steal when the payoff they deserve is determined randomly or when it depends on their performance in a difficult task? In this paper I investigate how the probability of stealing is affected by the way in which payoff is earned. After answering a short survey one group...... to take the (undeserved) maximum payoff than the participants in the random payment scheme. In contrast to previous findings in the cheating literature, stealing is an all-or-nothing decision rather than a trade-off between a slightly higher payoff and the desire to keep ones moral values intact....... The results support the theory that unethical behavior is increased by a sense of entitlement, which is more pronounced when wealth depends on performance than on the roll of a die....

  2. Exposure to Hedione Increases Reciprocity in Humans (United States)

    Berger, Sebastian; Hatt, Hanns; Ockenfels, Axel


    Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED) as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1) expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity. Applying behavioral economics paradigms, the present research shows that exposure to the ligand causes differentiated behavioral effects in reciprocal punishments (Study 1) as well as rewards (Study 2), two types of behaviors that are frequently regarded as essential for the development and maintenance of cooperation. PMID:28512400

  3. Increased Elemental Specificity of Positron Annihilation Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Alatalo, M.; Ghosh, V.J.; Kruseman, A.C.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K.G.


    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is a sensitive probe for studying the electronic structure of defects in solids. We show that the high-momentum part of the Doppler-broadened annihilation spectra can be used to distinguish different elements. This is achieved by using a new two-detector coincidence system to examine the line shape variations originating from high-momentum core electrons. Because the core electrons retain their atomic character even when atoms form a solid, these results can be directly compared to simple theoretical predictions. The new approach adds increased elemental specificity to the PAS technique, and is useful in studying the elemental variations around a defect site. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Increased mortality among people with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sandra M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole


    BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders and depression are the most common mental disorders worldwide and have a striking impact on global disease burden. Although depression has consistently been found to increase mortality; the role of anxiety disorders in predicting mortality risk is unclear. AIMS......: To assess mortality risk in people with anxiety disorders. METHOD: We used nationwide Danish register data to conduct a prospective cohort study with over 30 million person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: In total, 1066 (2.1%) people with anxiety disorders died during an average follow-up of 9.7 years....... The risk of death by natural and unnatural causes was significantly higher among individuals with anxiety disorders (natural mortality rate ratio (MRR) = 1.39, 95% CI 1.28-1.51; unnatural MRR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.20-2.73) compared with the general population. Of those who died from unnatural causes, 16.5% had...

  5. Increasing the brightness of light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ling


    In this work the principle of light recycling is applied to artificial light sources in order to achieve brightness enhancement. Firstly, the feasibilities of increasing the brightness of light sources via light recycling are examined theoretically, based on the fundamental laws of thermodynamics including Kirchhoff's law on radiation, Planck's law, Lambert-Beer's law, the etendue conservation and the brightness theorem. From an experimental viewpoint, the radiation properties of three different kinds of light sources including short-arc lamps, incandescent lamps and LEDs characterized by their light-generating mechanisms are investigated. These three types of sources are used in light recycling experiments, for the purpose of 1. validating the intrinsic light recycling effect in light sources, e. g. the intrinsic light recycling effect in incandescent lamps stemming from the coiled filament structure. 2. acquiring the required parameters for establishing physical models, e.g. the emissivity/absorptivity of the short-arc lamps, the intrinsic reflectivity and the external quantum efficiency of LEDs. 3. laying the foundations for designing optics aimed at brightness enhancement according to the characteristics of the sources and applications. Based on the fundamental laws and experiments, two physical models for simulating the radiance distribution of light sources are established, one for thermal filament lamps, the other for luminescent sources, LEDs. As validation of the theoretical and experimental investigation of the light recycling effect, an optical device, the Carambola, is designed for achieving deterministic and multiple light recycling. The Carambola has the function of a concentrator. In order to achieve the maximum possible brightness enhancement with the Carambola, several combinations of sources and Carambolas are modelled in ray-tracing simulations. Sources with different light-emitting mechanisms and different radiation properties

  6. Increased topsoil carbon stock across China's forests. (United States)

    Yang, Yuanhe; Li, Pin; Ding, Jinzhi; Zhao, Xia; Ma, Wenhong; Ji, Chengjun; Fang, Jingyun


    Biomass carbon accumulation in forest ecosystems is a widespread phenomenon at both regional and global scales. However, as coupled carbon-climate models predicted, a positive feedback could be triggered if accelerated soil carbon decomposition offsets enhanced vegetation growth under a warming climate. It is thus crucial to reveal whether and how soil carbon stock in forest ecosystems has changed over recent decades. However, large-scale changes in soil carbon stock across forest ecosystems have not yet been carefully examined at both regional and global scales, which have been widely perceived as a big bottleneck in untangling carbon-climate feedback. Using newly developed database and sophisticated data mining approach, here we evaluated temporal changes in topsoil carbon stock across major forest ecosystem in China and analysed potential drivers in soil carbon dynamics over broad geographical scale. Our results indicated that topsoil carbon stock increased significantly within all of five major forest types during the period of 1980s-2000s, with an overall rate of 20.0 g C m(-2) yr(-1) (95% confidence interval, 14.1-25.5). The magnitude of soil carbon accumulation across coniferous forests and coniferous/broadleaved mixed forests exhibited meaningful increases with both mean annual temperature and precipitation. Moreover, soil carbon dynamics across these forest ecosystems were positively associated with clay content, with a larger amount of SOC accumulation occurring in fine-textured soils. In contrast, changes in soil carbon stock across broadleaved forests were insensitive to either climatic or edaphic variables. Overall, these results suggest that soil carbon accumulation does not counteract vegetation carbon sequestration across China's forest ecosystems. The combination of soil carbon accumulation and vegetation carbon sequestration triggers a negative feedback to climate warming, rather than a positive feedback predicted by coupled carbon-climate models

  7. Rickets: concerns over the worldwide increase. (United States)

    Lowdon, Jacqui


    Rickets is a childhood disease that causes a softening of the bones, potentially leading to fractures and deformity. Eighty years ago it was thought to have largely been eradicated from the U.K. However a recent increase in cases of rickets, not just in Britain but around the world, has proven this isn't the case. Today the disease affects children from all types of socio-economic backgrounds, not just the poorer ones, and it is primarily caused by low levels of vitamin D and certain foods. In January 2011 the government's chief medical officer Dame Sally Davies recommended all children aged six months to five should be given vitamin D supplements, particularly during winter months when natural sunshine is limited. The irony is that the advice in recent years for children to wear a high factor sunscreen and remain covered up while playing outdoors are partly felt to be behind the reason for its re-emergence. Parents and health professionals alike were shocked when it was revealed that a school girl living on the Isle of Wight developed rickets precisely because of her mother's vigilance at following sun safety rules. NICE, in their latest report (Jan 2011) stated that: "Exposure to the sun has a number of benefits. For example, it increases people's sense of wellbeing, allows them to synthesise vitamin D and provides opportunities for physical activity". A tendency for children to stay indoors and watch TV or play on computer games, rather than play outside when the sun is shining, is arguably also another contributing factor.

  8. Increasing Resiliency Through Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [unaffiliated


    This paper describes a methodology to quantify the economic and resiliency benefit provided by renewable energy (RE) in a hybrid RE-storage-diesel microgrid. We present a case study to show how this methodology is applied to a multi-use/ multi-function telecommunications facility in southern California. In the case study, we first identify photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage system (BESS) technologies that minimize the lifecycle cost of energy at the site under normal, grid-connected operation. We then evaluate how those technologies could be incorporated alongside existing diesel generators in a microgrid to increase resiliency at the site, where resiliency is quantified in terms of the amount of time that the microgrid can sustain the critical load during a grid outage. We find that adding PV and BESS to the existing backup diesel generators with a fixed fuel supply extends the amount of time the site could survive an outage by 1.8 days, from 1.7 days for the existing diesel-only backup system to 3.5 days for the PV/diesel/BESS hybrid system. Furthermore, even after diesel fuel supplies are exhausted, the site can continue to operate critical loads during daytime hours using just the PV/BESS when there is sufficient solar resource. We find that the site can save approximately $100,000 in energy costs over the 25-year lifecycle while doubling the amount of time they can survive an outage. The methodology presented here provides a template for increasing resiliency at telecomm sites by implementing renewable energy solutions, which provide additional benefits of carbon emission reduction and energy cost savings.

  9. Thinning increases climatic resilience of red pine (United States)

    Magruder, Matthew; Chhin, Sophan; Palik, Brian; Bradford, John B.


    Forest management techniques such as intermediate stand-tending practices (e.g., thinning) can promote climatic resiliency in forest stands by moderating tree competition. Residual trees gain increased access to environmental resources (i.e., soil moisture, light), which in turn has the potential to buffer trees from stressful climatic conditions. The influences of climate (temperature and precipitation) and forest management (thinning method and intensity) on the productivity of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) in Michigan were examined to assess whether repeated thinning treatments were able to increase climatic resiliency (i.e., maintaining productivity and reduced sensitivity to climatic stress). The cumulative productivity of each thinning treatment was determined, and it was found that thinning from below to a residual basal area of 14 m2·ha−1 produced the largest average tree size but also the second lowest overall biomass per acre. On the other hand, the uncut control and the thinning from above to a residual basal area of 28 m2·ha−1 produced the smallest average tree size but also the greatest overall biomass per acre. Dendrochronological methods were used to quantify sensitivity of annual radial growth to monthly and seasonal climatic factors for each thinning treatment type. Climatic sensitivity was influenced by thinning method (i.e., thinning from below decreased sensitivity to climatic stress more than thinning from above) and by thinning intensity (i.e., more intense thinning led to a lower climatic sensitivity). Overall, thinning from below to a residual basal area of 21 m2·ha−1 represented a potentially beneficial compromise to maximize tree size, biomass per acre, and reduced sensitivity to climatic stress, and, thus, the highest level of climatic resilience.

  10. Regional level approach for increasing energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viholainen, Juha; Luoranen, Mika; Väisänen, Sanni; Niskanen, Antti; Horttanainen, Mika; Soukka, Risto


    Highlights: • Comprehensive snapshot of regional energy system for decision makers. • Connecting regional sustainability targets and energy planning. • Involving local players in energy planning. - Abstract: Actions for increasing the renewable share in the energy supply and improving both production and end-use energy efficiency are often built into the regional level sustainability targets. Because of this, many local stakeholders such as local governments, energy producers and distributors, industry, and public and private sector operators require information on the current state and development aspects of the regional energy efficiency. The drawback is that an overall view on the focal energy system operators, their energy interests, and future energy service needs in the region is often not available for the stakeholders. To support the local energy planning and management of the regional energy services, an approach for increasing the regional energy efficiency is being introduced. The presented approach can be seen as a solid framework for gathering the required data for energy efficiency analysis and also evaluating the energy system development, planned improvement actions, and the required energy services at the region. This study defines the theoretical structure of the energy efficiency approach and the required steps for revealing such energy system improvement actions that support the regional energy plan. To demonstrate the use of the approach, a case study of a Finnish small-town of Lohja is presented. In the case example, possible actions linked to the regional energy targets were evaluated with energy efficiency analysis. The results of the case example are system specific, but the conducted study can be seen as a justified example of generating easily attainable and transparent information on the impacts of different improvement actions on the regional energy system.

  11. Classification Accuracy Increase Using Multisensor Data Fusion (United States)

    Makarau, A.; Palubinskas, G.; Reinartz, P.


    The practical use of very high resolution visible and near-infrared (VNIR) data is still growing (IKONOS, Quickbird, GeoEye-1, etc.) but for classification purposes the number of bands is limited in comparison to full spectral imaging. These limitations may lead to the confusion of materials such as different roofs, pavements, roads, etc. and therefore may provide wrong interpretation and use of classification products. Employment of hyperspectral data is another solution, but their low spatial resolution (comparing to multispectral data) restrict their usage for many applications. Another improvement can be achieved by fusion approaches of multisensory data since this may increase the quality of scene classification. Integration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and optical data is widely performed for automatic classification, interpretation, and change detection. In this paper we present an approach for very high resolution SAR and multispectral data fusion for automatic classification in urban areas. Single polarization TerraSAR-X (SpotLight mode) and multispectral data are integrated using the INFOFUSE framework, consisting of feature extraction (information fission), unsupervised clustering (data representation on a finite domain and dimensionality reduction), and data aggregation (Bayesian or neural network). This framework allows a relevant way of multisource data combination following consensus theory. The classification is not influenced by the limitations of dimensionality, and the calculation complexity primarily depends on the step of dimensionality reduction. Fusion of single polarization TerraSAR-X, WorldView-2 (VNIR or full set), and Digital Surface Model (DSM) data allow for different types of urban objects to be classified into predefined classes of interest with increased accuracy. The comparison to classification results of WorldView-2 multispectral data (8 spectral bands) is provided and the numerical evaluation of the method in comparison to

  12. Drosophila increase exploration after visually detecting predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel de la Flor

    Full Text Available Novel stimuli elicit behaviors that are collectively known as specific exploration. These behaviors allow the animal to become more familiar with the novel objects within its environment. Specific exploration is frequently suppressed by defensive reactions to predator cues. Herein, we examine if this suppression occurs in Drosophila melanogaster by measuring the response of these flies to wild harvested predators. The flies used in our experiments have been cultured and had not lived under predator threat for multiple decades. In a circular arena with centrally-caged predators, wild type Drosophila actively avoided the pantropical jumping spider, Plexippus paykulli, and the Texas unicorn mantis, Phyllovates chlorophaena, indicating an innate defensive reaction to these predators. Interestingly, wild type Drosophila males also avoided a centrally-caged mock spider, and the avoidance of the mock spider became exaggerated when it was made to move within the cage. Visually impaired Drosophila failed to detect and avoid the Plexippus paykulli and the moving mock spider, while the broadly anosmic orco2 mutants were fully capable of detecting and avoiding Plexippus paykulli, indicating that these flies principally relied upon vison to perceive the predator stimuli. During early exploration of the arena, exploratory activity increased in the presence of Plexippus paykulli and the moving mock spider. The elevated activity induced by Plexippus paykulli disappeared after the fly had finished exploring, suggesting the flies were capable of habituating the predator cues. Taken together, these results indicate that despite being isolated from predators for decades Drosophila will visually detect these predators, retain innate defensive behaviors, respond by increasing exploratory activity in the arena rather than suppressing activity, and may habituate to normal predator cues.

  13. Caudate Microstimulation Increases Value of Specific Choices. (United States)

    Santacruz, Samantha R; Rich, Erin L; Wallis, Joni D; Carmena, Jose M


    Value-based decision-making involves an assessment of the value of items available and the actions required to obtain them. The basal ganglia are highly implicated in action selection and goal-directed behavior [1-4], and the striatum in particular plays a critical role in arbitrating between competing choices [5-9]. Previous work has demonstrated that neural activity in the caudate nucleus is modulated by task-relevant action values [6, 8]. Nonetheless, how value is represented and maintained in the striatum remains unclear since decision-making in these tasks relied on spatially lateralized responses, confounding the ability to generalize to a more abstract choice task [6, 8, 9]. Here, we investigate striatal value representations by applying caudate electrical stimulation in macaque monkeys (n = 3) to bias decision-making in a task that divorces the value of a stimulus from motor action. Electrical microstimulation is known to induce neural plasticity [10, 11], and caudate microstimulation in primates has been shown to accelerate associative learning [12, 13]. Our results indicate that stimulation paired with a particular stimulus increases selection of that stimulus, and this effect was stimulus dependent and action independent. The modulation of choice behavior using microstimulation was best modeled as resulting from changes in stimulus value. Caudate neural recordings (n = 1) show that changes in value-coding neuron activity are stimulus value dependent. We argue that caudate microstimulation can differentially increase stimulus values independent of action, and unilateral manipulations of value are sufficient to mediate choice behavior. These results support potential future applications of microstimulation to correct maladaptive plasticity underlying dysfunctional decision-making related to neuropsychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuing increase in mesothelioma mortality in Britain. (United States)

    Peto, J; Hodgson, J T; Matthews, F E; Jones, J R


    Mesothelioma is closely related to exposure to asbestos, and mesothelioma mortality can be taken as an index of past exposure to asbestos in the population. We analysed mesothelioma mortality since 1968 to assess the current state of the mesothelioma epidemic, and to predict its future course. We found that rates of mesothelioma in men formed a clear pattern defined by age and date of birth. Rates rose steeply with age showing a very similar pattern in all five-year birth cohorts. By date of birth, rates increased from mid-1893 to mid-1948, and then fell. Relative to the 1943-48 cohort, the risk for the 1948-53 cohort is 0.79 and for the 1953-58 cohort 0.48. Despite these falls, if the age profile of rates for these cohorts follows the pattern of past cohorts, their predicted lifetime mesothelioma risks will be 1.3%, 1.0%, and 0.6%. Combining projections for all cohorts results in a peak of annual male mesothelioma deaths in about the year 2020 of between 2700 and 3300 deaths. If diagnostic trend is responsible for a 20% growth in recorded cases every 5 years--an extreme but arguable case--and if this trend has now ceased, the peak of annual male deaths will be reduced to 1300, reached around the year 2010. Analysis of occupations recorded on death certificates indicate that building workers, especially plumbers and gas fitters, carpenters and electricians are the largest high-risk group. These data indicate that mesothelioma deaths will continue to increase for at least 15 and more likely 25 years. For the worst affected cohorts--men born in the 1940s--mesothelioma may account for around 1% of all deaths. Asbestos exposure at work in construction and building maintenance will account for a large proportion of these deaths, and it is important that such workers should be aware of the risks and take appropriate precautions.

  15. Workplace pedometer interventions for increasing physical activity. (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne L A; Cumpston, Miranda; Peeters, Anna; Clemes, Stacy A


    The World Health Organization and the World Economic Forum have recommended further research to strengthen current knowledge of workplace health programmes, particularly on effectiveness and using simple instruments. A pedometer is one such simple instrument that can be incorporated in workplace interventions. To assess the effectiveness of pedometer interventions in the workplace for increasing physical activity and improving subsequent health outcomes. Electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (671 potential papers), MEDLINE (1001), Embase (965), CINAHL (1262), OSH UPDATE databases (75) and Web of Science (1154) from the earliest record to between 30th January and 6th February 2012 yielded 3248 unique records. Reference lists of articles yielded an additional 34 papers. Contact with individuals and organisations did not produce any further records. We included individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials of workplace health promotion interventions with a pedometer component in employed adults. The primary outcome was physical activity and was part of the eligibility criteria. We considered subsequent health outcomes, including adverse effects, as secondary outcomes. Two review authors undertook the screening of titles and abstracts and the full-text papers independently. Two review authors (RFP and MC) independently completed data extraction and risk of bias assessment. We contacted authors to obtain additional data and clarification. We found four relevant studies providing data for 1809 employees, 60% of whom were allocated to the intervention group. All studies assessed outcomes immediately after the intervention had finished and the intervention duration varied between three to six months. All studies had usual treatment control conditions; however one study's usual treatment was an alternative physical activity programme while the other three had minimally active controls. In general, there was high risk of bias mainly

  16. Increasing muscle extensibility: a matter of increasing length or modifying sensation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weppler, Cynthia Holzman; Magnusson, S Peter; Weppler, Cynthia Holzman


    in muscle extensibility are due to a modification of sensation only. Studies that evaluated the biomechanical effect of stretching showed that muscle length does increase during stretch application due to the viscoelastic properties of muscle. However, this length increase is transient, its magnitude...

  17. Increasing tsunami risk awareness via mobile application (United States)

    Leelawat, N.; Suppasri, A.; Latcharote, P.; Imamura, F.; Abe, Y.; Sugiyasu, K.


    In the information and communication technology era, smartphones have become a necessity. With the capacity and availability of smart technologies, a number of benefits are possible. As a result, designing a mobile application to increase tsunami awareness has been proposed, and a prototype has been designed and developed. The application uses data from the 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami. Based on the current location determined by a GPS function matched with the nearest point extracted from the detailed mesh data of that earlier disaster, the application generates the inundation depth at the user’s location. Thus, not only local people but also tourists visiting the affected areas can understand the risks involved. Application testing has been conducted in an evacuation experiment involving both Japanese and foreign students. The proposed application can be used as a supplementary information tool in tsunami evacuation drills. It also supports the idea of smart tourism: when people realize their risks, they possess risk awareness and hence can reduce their risks. This application can also be considered a contribution to disaster knowledge and technology, as well as to the lessons learned from the practical outcome.

  18. Increased condom use needed to fight AIDS. (United States)

    Worldwide, at least 33 million people are infected with HIV, another 14 million have died, and approximately 16,000 people are newly infected each day, 60% of whom are women. An estimated 6-9 billion condoms are currently used throughout the world each year. However, a report from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health has determined that the level of condom use must be increased to 24 billion units annually in order to check the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. An estimated 71% of total condom need is among sexually active unmarried men, while the rest of the need is among married men who have extramarital affairs and by married couples. Condoms should be made accessible to all at subsidized prices and provided not only through health clinics and retail shops, but also in hotels, bars, grocery stores, and vending machines. New efforts are needed to make condoms more accessible, including lowering their cost, effectively promoting their use, and overcoming the many social and personal obstacles to their use, especially in developing countries where the impact of AIDS is the most severe. Special programs should target specific groups, including youth, unmarried men, and prostitutes, while condom promotion should also aim to improve the image of condoms by portraying them as fun, reliable, and important. Finally, political and religious leaders should speak out in favor of condom use, while the mass media should openly discuss condoms.

  19. Nanostructured magnesium increases bone cell density. (United States)

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J


    Magnesium has attracted some attention in orthopedics due to its biodegradability and mechanical properties. Since magnesium is an essential natural mineral for bone growth, it can be expected that as a biomaterial, it would support bone formation. However, upon degradation in the body, magnesium releases OH(-) which results in an alkaline pH that can be detrimental to cell density (for example, osteoblasts or bone forming cells). For this reason, modification of magnesium may be necessary to compensate for such detrimental effects to cells. This study created biologically inspired nanoscale surface features on magnesium by soaking magnesium in various concentrations of NaOH (from 1 to 10 N) and for various periods of time (from 10 to 30 min). The results provided the first evidence of increased roughness, surface energy, and consequently greater osteoblast adhesion, after 4 h as well as density up to 7 days on magnesium treated with any concentration of NaOH for any length of time compared to untreated controls. For these reasons, this study suggests that soaking magnesium in NaOH could be an inexpensive, simple and effective manner to promote osteoblast functions for numerous orthopedic applications and, thus, should be further studied.

  20. Nanostructured magnesium increases bone cell density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J


    Magnesium has attracted some attention in orthopedics due to its biodegradability and mechanical properties. Since magnesium is an essential natural mineral for bone growth, it can be expected that as a biomaterial, it would support bone formation. However, upon degradation in the body, magnesium releases OH − which results in an alkaline pH that can be detrimental to cell density (for example, osteoblasts or bone forming cells). For this reason, modification of magnesium may be necessary to compensate for such detrimental effects to cells. This study created biologically inspired nanoscale surface features on magnesium by soaking magnesium in various concentrations of NaOH (from 1 to 10 N) and for various periods of time (from 10 to 30 min). The results provided the first evidence of increased roughness, surface energy, and consequently greater osteoblast adhesion, after 4 h as well as density up to 7 days on magnesium treated with any concentration of NaOH for any length of time compared to untreated controls. For these reasons, this study suggests that soaking magnesium in NaOH could be an inexpensive, simple and effective manner to promote osteoblast functions for numerous orthopedic applications and, thus, should be further studied. (paper)