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Sample records for channelopathies increase resurgent

  1. Channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, June-Bum

    2014-01-01

    Channelopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from the dysfunction of ion channels located in the membranes of all cells and many cellular organelles. These include diseases of the nervous system (e.g., generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, familial hemiplegic migraine, episodic ataxia, and hyperkalemic and hypokalemic periodic paralysis), the cardiovascular system (e.g., long QT syndrome, short QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia), the respiratory system (e.g., cystic fibrosis), the endocrine system (e.g., neonatal diabetes mellitus, familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis, and familial hyperaldosteronism), the urinary system (e.g., Bartter syndrome, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, and hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia), and the immune system (e.g., myasthenia gravis, neuromyelitis optica, Isaac syndrome, and anti-NMDA [N-methyl-D-aspartate] receptor encephalitis). The field of channelopathies is expanding rapidly, as is the utility of molecular-genetic and electrophysiological studies. This review provides a brief overview and update of channelopathies, with a focus on recent advances in the pathophysiological mechanisms that may help clinicians better understand, diagnose, and develop treatments for these diseases. PMID:24578711

  2. Mumps resurgence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    St-Martin, Gry; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause; Engsig, Frederik Neess;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The past decade has witnessed a resurgence of parotitisvirus (mumps) in several countries where seemingly good mumps control otherwise had been achieved through vaccination. Recently detection of mumps has increased in Denmark. OBJECTIVES: To describe the age-specific changes and time...

  3. Behavioral momentum and resurgence: Effects of time in extinction and repeated resurgence tests

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Mary M.; Shahan, Timothy A

    2013-01-01

    Resurgence is an increase in a previously extinguished operant response that occurs if an alternative reinforcement introduced during extinction is removed. Shahan and Sweeney (2011) developed a quantitative model of resurgence based on behavioral momentum theory that captures existing data well and predicts that resurgence should decrease as time in extinction and exposure to the alternative reinforcement increases. Two experiments tested this prediction. The data from Experiment 1 suggested...

  4. Hydrodynamics, resurgence, and transasymptotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başar, Gökçe; Dunne, Gerald V.

    2015-12-01

    The second order hydrodynamical description of a homogeneous conformal plasma that undergoes a boost-invariant expansion is given by a single nonlinear ordinary differential equation, whose resurgent asymptotic properties we study, developing further the recent work of Heller and Spalinski [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 072501 (2015)]. Resurgence clearly identifies the nonhydrodynamic modes that are exponentially suppressed at late times, analogous to the quasinormal modes in gravitational language, organizing these modes in terms of a trans-series expansion. These modes are analogs of instantons in semiclassical expansions, where the damping rate plays the role of the instanton action. We show that this system displays the generic features of resurgence, with explicit quantitative relations between the fluctuations about different orders of these nonhydrodynamic modes. The imaginary part of the trans-series parameter is identified with the Stokes constant, and the real part with the freedom associated with initial conditions.

  5. Action potential broadening in a presynaptic channelopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Rahima; Bakiri, Yamina; Volynski, Kirill E.; Kullmann, Dimitri M.

    2016-07-01

    Brain development and interictal function are unaffected in many paroxysmal neurological channelopathies, possibly explained by homoeostatic plasticity of synaptic transmission. Episodic ataxia type 1 is caused by missense mutations of the potassium channel Kv1.1, which is abundantly expressed in the terminals of cerebellar basket cells. Presynaptic action potentials of small inhibitory terminals have not been characterized, and it is not known whether developmental plasticity compensates for the effects of Kv1.1 dysfunction. Here we use visually targeted patch-clamp recordings from basket cell terminals of mice harbouring an ataxia-associated mutation and their wild-type littermates. Presynaptic spikes are followed by a pronounced afterdepolarization, and are broadened by pharmacological blockade of Kv1.1 or by a dominant ataxia-associated mutation. Somatic recordings fail to detect such changes. Spike broadening leads to increased Ca2+ influx and GABA release, and decreased spontaneous Purkinje cell firing. We find no evidence for developmental compensation for inherited Kv1.1 dysfunction.

  6. Therapeutic Approaches to Genetic Ion Channelopathies and Perspectives in Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrici, Paola; Liantonio, Antonella; Camerino, Giulia M.; De Bellis, Michela; Camerino, Claudia; Mele, Antonietta; Giustino, Arcangela; Pierno, Sabata; De Luca, Annamaria; Tricarico, Domenico; Desaphy, Jean-Francois; Conte, Diana

    2016-01-01

    In the human genome more than 400 genes encode ion channels, which are transmembrane proteins mediating ion fluxes across membranes. Being expressed in all cell types, they are involved in almost all physiological processes, including sense perception, neurotransmission, muscle contraction, secretion, immune response, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Due to the widespread tissue distribution of ion channels and their physiological functions, mutations in genes encoding ion channel subunits, or their interacting proteins, are responsible for inherited ion channelopathies. These diseases can range from common to very rare disorders and their severity can be mild, disabling, or life-threatening. In spite of this, ion channels are the primary target of only about 5% of the marketed drugs suggesting their potential in drug discovery. The current review summarizes the therapeutic management of the principal ion channelopathies of central and peripheral nervous system, heart, kidney, bone, skeletal muscle and pancreas, resulting from mutations in calcium, sodium, potassium, and chloride ion channels. For most channelopathies the therapy is mainly empirical and symptomatic, often limited by lack of efficacy and tolerability for a significant number of patients. Other channelopathies can exploit ion channel targeted drugs, such as marketed sodium channel blockers. Developing new and more specific therapeutic approaches is therefore required. To this aim, a major advancement in the pharmacotherapy of channelopathies has been the discovery that ion channel mutations lead to change in biophysics that can in turn specifically modify the sensitivity to drugs: this opens the way to a pharmacogenetics strategy, allowing the development of a personalized therapy with increased efficacy and reduced side effects. In addition, the identification of disease modifiers in ion channelopathies appears an alternative strategy to discover novel druggable targets.

  7. Resurgence in extended hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Aniceto, Inês

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been understood that the hydrodynamic series generated by the M\\"uller-Israel-Stewart theory is divergent, and that this large order behaviour is consistent with the theory of resurgence. Furthermore, it was observed, that the physical origin of this is the presence of a purely damped nonhydrodynamic mode. It is very interesting to ask whether this picture persists in cases where the spectrum of nonhydrodynamic modes is richer. We take the first step in this direction by considering the simplest hydrodynamic theory which, instead of the purely damped mode, contains a pair of nonhydrodynamic modes of complex conjugate frequencies. This mimics the pattern of black brane quasinormal modes which appear on the gravity side of the AdS/CFT description of \\symm\\ plasma. We find that the resulting hydrodynamic series is divergent in a way consistent with resurgence and precisely encodes information about the nonhydrodynamic modes of the theory.

  8. Resurgence in extended hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniceto, Inês; Spaliński, Michał

    2016-04-01

    It has recently been understood that the hydrodynamic series generated by the Müller-Israel-Stewart theory is divergent and that this large-order behavior is consistent with the theory of resurgence. Furthermore, it was observed that the physical origin of this is the presence of a purely damped nonhydrodynamic mode. It is very interesting to ask whether this picture persists in cases where the spectrum of nonhydrodynamic modes is richer. We take the first step in this direction by considering the simplest hydrodynamic theory which, instead of the purely damped mode, contains a pair of nonhydrodynamic modes of complex conjugate frequencies. This mimics the pattern of black brane quasinormal modes which appear on the gravity side of the AdS/CFT description of N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma. We find that the resulting hydrodynamic series is divergent in a way consistent with resurgence and precisely encodes information about the nonhydrodynamic modes of the theory.

  9. Autoimmune AQP4 channelopathies and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Shannon R; Lennon, Vanda A; Pittock, Sean J

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders (SD) represent an evolving group of central nervous system (CNS)-inflammatory autoimmune demyelinating diseases unified by a pathogenic autoantibody specific for the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel. It was historically misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis (MS), which lacks a distinguishing biomarker. The discovery of AQP4-IgG moved the focus of CNS demyelinating disease research from emphasis on the oligodendrocyte and myelin to the astrocyte. NMO is recognized today as a relapsing disease, extending beyond the optic nerves and spinal cord to include brain (especially in children) and skeletal muscle. Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, identifiable in 60% of patients at the second attack, are consistent with MS in 10% of cases. NMOSD-typical lesions (another 10%) occur in AQP4-enriched regions: circumventricular organs (causing intractable nausea and vomiting) and the diencephalon (causing sleep disorders, endocrinopathies, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis). Advances in understanding the immunobiology of AQP4 autoimmunity have necessitated continuing revision of NMOSD clinical diagnostic criteria. Assays that selectively detect pathogenic AQP4-IgG targeting extracellular epitopes of AQP4 are promising prognostically. When referring to AQP4 autoimmunity, we suggest substituting the term "autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy" for the term "NMO spectrum disorders." Randomized clinical trials are currently assessing the efficacy and safety of newer immunotherapies. Increasing therapeutic options based on understanding the molecular pathogenesis is anticipated to improve the outcome for patients with AQP4 channelopathy. PMID:27112688

  10. Resurgent India: An Economic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Basutkar, Tirupati

    2015-01-01

    Resurgent India is a multi – dimensional concept. Economic interpretation is just one aspect of its multi – dimensionality. This paper seeks to analyze the concept of resurgence in the context of India’s economic growth and try to understand the source thereof.

  11. Channelopathy Pathogenesis in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina eSchmunk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting body of evidence implies a role of various ion channel gene defects (channelopathies in the pathogenesis of autism. Indeed, recent genome-wide association, and whole exome- and whole- genome resequencing studies linked polymorphisms and rare variants in calcium, sodium and potassium channels and their subunits with susceptibility to ASD, much as they do with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and animal models with these genetic variations recapitulate endophenotypes considered to be correlates of autistic behavior seen in patients. An ion flux across the membrane regulates a variety of cell functions, from generation of action potentials to gene expression and cell morphology, thus it is not surprising that channelopathies have profound effects on brain functions. In the present work, we summarize existing evidence for the role of ion channel gene defects in the pathogenesis of autism with a focus on calcium signaling and its downstream effects.

  12. Divergent series, summability and resurgence I monodromy and resurgence

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschi, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Providing an elementary introduction to analytic continuation and monodromy, the first part of this volume applies these notions to the local and global study of complex linear differential equations, their formal solutions at singular points, their monodromy and their differential Galois groups. The Riemann-Hilbert problem is discussed from Bolibrukh’s point of view. The second part expounds 1-summability and Ecalle’s theory of resurgence under fairly general conditions. It contains numerous examples and presents an analysis of the singularities in the Borel plane via “alien calculus”, which provides a full description of the Stokes phenomenon for linear or non-linear differential or difference equations. The first of a series of three, entitled Divergent Series, Summability and Resurgence, this volume is aimed at graduate students, mathematicians and theoretical physicists interested in geometric, algebraic or local analytic properties of dynamical systems. It includes useful exercises with solution...

  13. The resurgence of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, C; Davies, P D

    1996-01-01

    A lack of reliable statistics makes tuberculosis (TB) trends in developing countries difficult to estimate. Nonetheless, the World Health Organization and the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease estimated in 1990 that one-third of the world's population was infected with the tubercle bacillus and that there were 7-8 million new cases of TB annually. 95% of the new cases occurred in the developing world, with more than 5 million in Asia and the Western Pacific and more than 1 million in sub-Saharan Africa. Almost 80% of TB cases in developing countries occur among those under age 50 years. The global annual mortality was estimated at 2.5 million, with 98% of deaths occurring in developing countries. Worldwide, TB is believed to be responsible for 25% of avoidable deaths in young adults. There has been no significant decline in the average annual risk of infection in most developing countries due to incomplete coverage by control programs and inadequate cure rates. The interaction of HIV infection with TB is another factor which contributes to the deteriorating TB situation in many developing countries. Countries with a high population growth rate and little decline in the annual risk of infection should expect either a static or increasing level of TB disease. Immigration from developing countries, HIV infection, poverty, unemployment, homelessness, overcrowding, and population aging contribute to the spread of TB in developed countries. Drug resistance thwarts the control of TB worldwide. PMID:8972116

  14. Ion channelopathy and hyperphosphorylation contributing to cardiac arrhythmias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-zai DAI; Feng YU

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias is related to the abnormality of ion channels not only in sarcolemma but also in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which regulates the process of calcium release and up-take intracellularly. Patterns of ion channelopathy in the sarcolemma can be divided into single channel disorder from gene mutations and multiple channels disorder in a diseased hypertrophied heart. Abnormal RyR2, FKBP12.6, SERCA2a, and PLB are also involved in the initiation of cardiac arrhythmias. Maladjustment by hyperphosphorylation on the ion channels in the sarcolemma and RyR2-FKBP12.6 and SERCA2a-PLB is discussed. Hyperphosphorylation, which is the main abnormality upstream to ion channels, can be targeted for suppressing the deterioration of ion channelopathy in terms of new drug discovery in the treatment and prevention of malignant cardiac arrhythmias.

  15. Pathophysiological role of omega pore current in channelopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eJurkat-Rott

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In voltage-gated cation channels, a recurrent pattern for mutations is the neutralization of positively charged residues in the voltage-sensing S4 transmembrane segments. These mutations cause dominant ion channelopathies affecting many tissues such as brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. Recent studies suggest that the pathogenesis of associated phenotypes is not limited to alterations in the gating of the ion-conducting alpha pore. Instead, aberrant so-called omega currents facilitated by the movement of the S4 segments during activation and during recovery are thought to cause symptoms. Surprisingly, these omega currents display uni- or bi-directionality and conduct cations with varying ion selectivity. Additionally, the voltage-sensitivity enables the channels to conduct different omega currents in the various voltage ranges. This review gives an overview of voltage sensor channelopathies in general and focuses on pathogenesis of skeletal muscle S4 disorders for which current knowledge is most advanced.

  16. Malaria resurgence: a systematic review and assessment of its causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Justin M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable declines in malaria have accompanied increased funding for control since the year 2000, but historical failures to maintain gains against the disease underscore the fragility of these successes. Although malaria transmission can be suppressed by effective control measures, in the absence of active intervention malaria will return to an intrinsic equilibrium determined by factors related to ecology, efficiency of mosquito vectors, and socioeconomic characteristics. Understanding where and why resurgence has occurred historically can help current and future malaria control programmes avoid the mistakes of the past. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify historical malaria resurgence events. All suggested causes of these events were categorized according to whether they were related to weakened malaria control programmes, increased potential for malaria transmission, or technical obstacles like resistance. Results The review identified 75 resurgence events in 61 countries, occurring from the 1930s through the 2000s. Almost all resurgence events (68/75 = 91% were attributed at least in part to the weakening of malaria control programmes for a variety of reasons, of which resource constraints were the most common (39/68 = 57%. Over half of the events (44/75 = 59% were attributed in part to increases in the intrinsic potential for malaria transmission, while only 24/75 (32% were attributed to vector or drug resistance. Conclusions Given that most malaria resurgences have been linked to weakening of control programmes, there is an urgent need to develop practical solutions to the financial and operational threats to effectively sustaining today’s successful malaria control programmes.

  17. WKB and Resurgence in the Mathieu Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Dunne, Gerald V

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, based on lectures by the authors at the May 2015 workshop {\\it Resurgence, Physics and Numbers}, at the Centro di Ricerca Matematica Ennio De Giorgio of the Scuola Normale Superiore in Pisa, we explain the origin of resurgent trans-series in the Mathieu equation spectral problem, using uniform WKB and all-orders (exact) WKB. Exact quantization conditions naturally arise, and their expansion in the weak coupling regime produces resurgent trans-series expressions which exhibit precise relations between different instanton sectors. Indeed, the perturbative expansion encodes all orders of the multi-instanton expansion, an explicit realization of the general concept of "resurgence". We also discuss the transition from weak to strong coupling, an explicit realization of "instanton condensation".

  18. Divergent series, summability and resurgence III resurgent methods and the first Painlevé equation

    CERN Document Server

    Delabaere, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this volume is two-fold. First, to show how the resurgent methods introduced in volume 1 can be applied efficiently in a non-linear setting; to this end further properties of the resurgence theory must be developed. Second, to analyze the fundamental example of the First Painlevé equation. The resurgent analysis of singularities is pushed all the way up to the so-called “bridge equation”, which concentrates all information about the non-linear Stokes phenomenon at infinity of the First Painlevé equation. The third in a series of three, entitled Divergent Series, Summability and Resurgence, this volume is aimed at graduate students, mathematicians and theoretical physicists who are interested in divergent power series and related problems, such as the Stokes phenomenon. The prerequisites are a working knowledge of complex analysis at the first-year graduate level and of the theory of resurgence, as presented in volume 1. .

  19. Hydrodynamics, resurgence and trans-asymptotics

    CERN Document Server

    Basar, Gokce

    2015-01-01

    The second-order hydrodynamical description of a homogeneous conformal plasma that undergoes a boost- invariant expansion is given by a single nonlinear ordinary differential equation, whose resurgent asymptotic properties we study, developing further the recent work of Heller and Spalinski [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 072501 (2015)]. Resurgence clearly identifies the non-hydrodynamic modes that are exponentially suppressed at late times, analogous to the quasi-normal-modes in gravitational language, organizing these modes in terms of a trans-series expansion. These modes are analogs of instantons in semi-classical expansions, where the damping rate plays the role of the instanton action. We show that this system displays the generic features of resurgence, with explicit quantitative relations between the fluctuations about different orders of these non-hydrodynamic modes. The imaginary part of the trans-series parameter is identified with the Stokes constant, and the real part with the freedom associated with init...

  20. Gender Egalitarianism and the Resurgent Family

    OpenAIRE

    Esping-Andersen, G.

    2014-01-01

    The essay argues that the multiple signs of a steady erosion of thefamily represent not a long-term linear trend, but rather a transition phase. The key driver behind both the decline and the subsequent resurgence lies in the revolution of women's roles. Applying a multiple equilibrium framework, I hypothesize that falling marriage rates, greater couple instability and declining fertility all represent a state of normative uncertainty following the erosion of the traditional family model. As ...

  1. Resurgence and transseries in quantum theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a step towards a non-perturbative continuum definition of quantum field theory (QFT), beginning with asymptotically free two dimensional non-linear sigma-models, using recent ideas from mathematics and QFT. The ideas from mathematics are resurgence theory, the trans-series framework, and Borel-Ecalle resummation. The ideas from QFT use continuity on R1 x S1L, i.e, the absence of any phase transition as N → to infinity, or rapid-crossovers for finite-N, and the small-L weak coupling limit to render the semi-classical sector well-defined and calculable. We classify semi-classical configurations with actions 1/N (kink-instantons), 2/N (bions and bi-kinks), in units where the 2d instanton action is normalized to one. Perturbation theory possesses the IR-renormalon ambiguity that arises due to non-Borel summability of the large-orders perturbation series (of Gevrey-1 type), for which a microscopic cancellation mechanism was unknown. This divergence must be present because the corresponding expansion is on a singular Stokes ray in the complexified coupling constant plane, and the sum exhibits the Stokes phenomenon crossing the ray. We show that there is also a non-perturbative ambiguity inherent to certain neutral topological molecules (neutral bions and bion-anti-bions) in the semiclassical expansion. We find a set of 'confluence equations' that encode the exact cancellation of the two different type of ambiguities. We show that a new notion of 'graded resurgence triangle' is necessary to capture the path integral approach to resurgence, and that graded resurgence underlies a potentially rigorous definition of general QFTs. The mass gap and the Theta angle dependence of vacuum energy are calculated from first principles, and are in accord with large-N and lattice results. (author)

  2. Bordetella pertussis epidemiology and evolution in the light of pertussis resurgence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, Katie L; Belcher, Thomas; Preston, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Whooping cough, or pertussis, is resurgent in many countries world-wide. This is linked to switching from the use of whole cell vaccines to acellular vaccines in developed countries. Current evidence suggests that this has resulted in the earlier waning of vaccine-induced immunity, an increase in asymptomatic infection with concomitant increases in transmission and increased selection pressure for Bordetellapertussis variants that are better able to evade vaccine-mediated immunity than older isolates. This review discusses recent findings in B. pertussis epidemiology and evolution in the light of pertussis resurgence, and highlights the important role for genomics-based studies in monitoring B. pertussis adaptation. PMID:26932577

  3. Beyond membrane channelopathies: alternative mechanisms underlying complex human disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantinos Dean BOUDOULAS; Peter J MOHLER

    2011-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying human disease has flourished in large part due to the discovery of gene mutations linked with membrane ion channels and transporters. In fact, ion channel defects ("channelopathies" - the focus of this review series) have been associated with a spectrum of serious human disease phenotypes including cystic fibrosis, cardiac arrhythmia, diabetes, skeletal muscle defects, and neurological disorders. However, we now know that human disease, particularly excitable cell disease, may be caused by defects in non-ion channel polypeptides including in cellular components residing well beneath the plasma membrane. For example, over the past few years, a new class of potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias has been linked with cytoplasmic proteins that include sub-membrane adapters such as ankyrin-B (ANK2),ankyrin-G (ANK3), and alpha-1 syntrophin, membrane coat proteins including caveolin-3 (CAV3), signaling platforms including yotiao (AKAPg), and cardiac enzymes (GPD1L). The focus of this review is to detail the exciting role of lamins, yet another class of gene products that have provided elegant new insight into human disease.

  4. Resurgence in complex Chern-Simons theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gukov, Sergei; Putrov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    We study resurgence properties of partition function of SU(2) Chern-Simons theory (WRT invariant) on closed three-manifolds. We check explicitly that in various examples Borel transforms of asymptotic expansions posses expected analytic properties. In examples that we study we observe that contribution of irreducible flat connections to the path integral can be recovered from asymptotic expansions around abelian flat connections. We also discuss connection to Floer instanton moduli spaces, disk instantons in 2d sigma models, and length spectra of "complex geodesics" on the A-polynomial curve.

  5. Neural network modelling of the influence of channelopathies on reflex visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravier, Alexandre; Quek, Chai; Duch, Włodzisław; Wahab, Abdul; Gravier-Rymaszewska, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    This paper introduces a model of Emergent Visual Attention in presence of calcium channelopathy (EVAC). By modelling channelopathy, EVAC constitutes an effort towards identifying the possible causes of autism. The network structure embodies the dual pathways model of cortical processing of visual input, with reflex attention as an emergent property of neural interactions. EVAC extends existing work by introducing attention shift in a larger-scale network and applying a phenomenological model of channelopathy. In presence of a distractor, the channelopathic network's rate of failure to shift attention is lower than the control network's, but overall, the control network exhibits a lower classification error rate. The simulation results also show differences in task-relative reaction times between control and channelopathic networks. The attention shift timings inferred from the model are consistent with studies of attention shift in autistic children. PMID:26834861

  6. A Model of Resurgence Based on Behavioral Momentum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shahan, Timothy A; Sweeney, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Resurgence is the reappearance of an extinguished behavior when an alternative behavior reinforced during extinction is subsequently placed on extinction. Resurgence is of particular interest because it may be a source of relapse to problem behavior following treatments involving alternative reinforcement. In this article we develop a quantitative model of resurgence based on the augmented model of extinction provided by behavioral momentum theory. The model suggests that alternative reinforc...

  7. The Resurgence of Religion in the Age of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhrajit Chatterjee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The history of mankind shows that religion is one of the deepest and most intimate urges of mankind which, in one way or another, is found everywhere. There was a widespread assumption that the trends toward industrialization, urbanization, secularization and globalization which world had pioneered in the twenty-first century had led to the complete displacement of religion from any central role in public life. Experts once predicted that as the world grew more modern, religion would decline. Precisely the opposite has proven true. The so-called "information age" is gradually spreading its influence to the realm of religion. The twenty-first century is witnessing a resurgence and globalization of religion. Around the world, religion has become an increasingly more vital and pervasive force in both personal and public life. So this article will focus on the globalization of religion. It connects today's religions to their classical beliefs and practices but also shows how they have been transformed by globalization and by their contact with one another. To highlight, in what way globalization has contributed to the revival and resurgence of religion, is the major theme of this article.

  8. Resurgent transseries $\\&$ Dyson-Schwinger equations

    CERN Document Server

    Klaczynski, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    We employ resurgent transseries as algebraic tools to investigate two self-consistent Dyson-Schwinger equations, one in Yukawa theory and one in quantum electrodynamics. After a brief but pedagogical review, we derive fixed point equations for the associated anomalous dimensions and insert a moderately generic log-free transseries ansatz to study the possible strictures imposed. While proceeding in various stages, we develop an algebraic method to keep track of the transseries' coefficients. We explore what conditions must be violated in order to stay clear of fixed point theorems to eschew a unique solution, if so desired, as we explain. An interesting find is that the flow of data between the different sectors of the transseries shows a pattern typical of resurgence, ie the phenomenon that the perturbative sector of the transseries talks to the nonperturbative ones in a one-way fashion. However, our ansatz is not exotic enough as it leads to trivial solutions with vanishing nonperturbative sectors, even whe...

  9. A Model of Resurgence Based on Behavioral Momentum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Sweeney, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Resurgence is the reappearance of an extinguished behavior when an alternative behavior reinforced during extinction is subsequently placed on extinction. Resurgence is of particular interest because it may be a source of relapse to problem behavior following treatments involving alternative reinforcement. In this article we develop a quantitative…

  10. Fosfomycin: Resurgence of an old companion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Sangeeta; Doi, Yohei

    2016-05-01

    Fosfomycin was discovered over four decades ago, yet has drawn renewed interest as an agent active against a range of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) pathogens. Its unique mechanism of action and broad spectrum of activity makes it a promising candidate in the treatment of various MDR/XDR infections. There has been a surge of in vitro data on its activity against MDR/XDR organisms, both when used as a single agent and in combination with other agents. In the United States, fosfomycin is only approved in an oral formulation for the treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs), whereas in some countries both oral and intravenous formulations are available for various indications. Fosfomycin has minimal interactions with other medications and has a relatively favorable safety profile, with diarrhea being the most common adverse reaction. Fosfomycin has low protein binding and is excreted primarily unchanged in the urine. The clinical outcomes of patients treated with fosfomycin are favorable for uncomplicated UTIs, but data are limited for use in other conditions. Fosfomycin maintains activity against most Enterobacteriaceae including Escherichia coli, but plasmid-mediated resistance due to inactivation have appeared in recent years, which has the potential to compromise its use in the future. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of this resurgent agent and its role in our antimicrobial armamentarium. PMID:26923259

  11. An Introduction to Resurgence, Trans-Series and Alien Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Dorigoni, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    In these notes we give an overview of different topics in resurgence theory from a physics point of view, but with particular mathematical flavour. After a short review of the standard Borel method for the resummation of asymptotic series, we introduce the class of simple resurgent functions, explaining their importance in physical problems. We define the Stokes automorphism and the alien derivative and discuss these objects in concrete examples using the notion of trans-series expansion. With all the tools introduced, we see how resurgence and alien calculus allow us to extract non-perturbative physics from perturbation theory. To conclude, we apply Morse theory to a toy model path integral to understand why physical observables should be resurgent functions.

  12. Muscle biopsy and cell cultures: potential diagnostic tools in hereditary skeletal muscle channelopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Meola

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary muscle channelopathies are caused by dominant mutations in the genes encoding for subunits of muscle voltage- gated ion channels. Point mutations on the human skeletal muscle Na+ channel (Nav1.4 give rise to hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, potassium aggravated myotonia, paramyotonia congenita and hypokalemic periodic paralysis type 2. Point mutations on the human skeletal muscle Ca2+ channel give rise to hypokalemic periodic paralysis and malignant hyperthermia. Point mutations in the human skeletal chloride channel ClC-1 give rise to myotonia congenita. Point mutations in the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir2.1 give rise to a syndrome characterized by periodic paralysis, severe cardiac arrhythmias and skeletal alterations (Andersen’s syndrome. Involvement of the same ion channel can thus give rise to different phenotypes. In addition, the same mutation can lead to different phenotypes or similar phenotypes can be caused by different mutations on the same or on different channel subtypes. Bearing in mind, the complexity of this field, the growing number of potential channelopathies (such as the myotonic dystrophies, and the time and cost of the genetic procedures, before a biomolecular approach is addressed, it is mandatory to apply strict diagnostic protocols to screen the patients. In this study we propose a protocol to be applied in the diagnosis of the hereditary muscle channelopathies and we demonstrate that muscle biopsy studies and muscle cell cultures may significantly contribute towards the correct diagnosis of the channel involved. DNAbased diagnosis is now a reality for many of the channelopathies. This has obvious genetic counselling, prognostic and therapeutic implications.

  13. Resurgence of leptospirosis in dogs in Ontario: recent findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, John F; McEwen, Beverly; Taylor, Judith; Woods, J Paul; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony; Wilcock, Brian

    2002-12-01

    A marked increase in leptospirosis in dogs was observed in 2000, part of an increasing trend observed in previous years in Ontario. The highest frequency of seropositive cases occurred from September to December 2000, with the peak in November. Large breed dogs were particularly affected. Clinical and clinicopathological data for 31 dogs admitted between 1998 and 2000 to the Ontario Veterinary College Veterinary Teaching Hospital were analyzed. Major clinical presenting features were acute onset of anorexia, depression, fever, and vomiting. Ninety percent of dogs, on admission, showed biochemical evidence of injury to several organs, notably combinations in the order of kidney, muscle, pancreas, and liver. Almost all dogs showed increased serum urea and creatinine levels, and the majority had increased total creatine kinase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and leukocytosis with neutrophilia. One-third were thrombocytopenic. Of dogs with liver-related abnormalities, most had evidence of cholestasis, with or without hepatocellular damage. Based on serologic studies, in the year 2000, the major serovar involved was autumnalis, but bratislava, grippotyphosa, and pomona were also implicated. The microscopic agglutination test often gave a confusing pattern of reactivities to the serovars that were tested. The high reactivity to serovar autumnalis may represent an erroneous or "paradoxical" reaction typical of early leptospiral serology. The year 2000 was the warmest in Ontario in each of the 4 fall months (September-December) of the previous decade, as well as being the third wettest in the fall period in the last decade. The increase in canine leptospirosis, therefore, may, in part, reflect climate change. The number of positive cases declined in 2001 by about one-third of those in 2000, but the number of submissions of sera for diagnosis increased markedly over previous years. Further work is required to isolate and to identify definitively serovars involved in

  14. Resurgence and Holomorphy: From Weak to Strong Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Cherman, Aleksey; Ünsal, Mithat

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the resurgence properties of finite-dimensional exponential integrals which are prototypes for partition functions in quantum field theories. In these simple examples, we demonstrate that perturbation theory, even at arbitrarily weak coupling, fails as the argument of the coupling constant is varied. It is well-known that perturbation theory also fails at stronger coupling. We show that these two failures are actually intimately related. The formalism of resurgent transseries, which takes into account global analytic continuation properties, fixes both problems, and provides an arbitrarily accurate description of exact result for any value of coupling. This means that strong coupling results can be deduced by using merely weak coupling data. Finally, we give another perspective on resurgence theory by showing that the monodromy properties of the weak coupling results are in precise agreement with the monodromy properties of the strong-coupling expansions, obtained using analysis of the holomorphy s...

  15. Resurgence and holomorphy: From weak to strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherman, Aleksey, E-mail: acherman@umn.edu [Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Koroteev, Peter, E-mail: pkoroteev@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L2Y5 (Canada); Ünsal, Mithat, E-mail: unsal.mithat@gmail.com [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We analyze the resurgence properties of finite-dimensional exponential integrals which are prototypes for partition functions in quantum field theories. In these simple examples, we demonstrate that perturbation theory, even at arbitrarily weak coupling, fails as the argument of the coupling constant is varied. It is well-known that perturbation theory also fails at stronger coupling. We show that these two failures are actually intimately related. The formalism of resurgent transseries, which takes into account global analytic continuation properties, fixes both problems and provides an arbitrarily accurate description of exact result for any value of coupling. This means that strong coupling results can be deduced by using merely weak coupling data. Finally, we give another perspective on resurgence theory by showing that the monodromy properties of the weak coupling results are in precise agreement with the monodromy properties of the strong-coupling expansions, obtained using analysis of the holomorphy structure of Picard-Fuchs equations.

  16. A resurgent HIV-1 epidemic among men who have sex with men in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bezemer; F. de Wolf; M.C. Boerlijst; A. van Sighem; T.D. Hollingsworth; M. Prins; R.B. Geskus; L. Gras; R.A. Coutinho; C. Fraser

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Reducing viral load, highly active antiretroviral therapy has the potential to limit onwards transmission of HIV-1 and thus help contain epidemic spread. However, increases in risk behaviour and resurgent epidemics have been widely reported post-highly active antiretroviral therapy. The a

  17. On the stability under convolution of resurgent functions

    CERN Document Server

    Sauzin, David

    2012-01-01

    This article contains a self-contained proof of the stability under convolution of the class of resurgent functions associated with a closed discrete subset of the complex plane (the set of possible singularities), under the assumption that this set be stable under addition.

  18. Molecular basis of inherited calcium Channelopathies: role of mutations in pore-forming subunits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lynn MCKEOWN; Philip ROBINSON; Owen T JONES

    2006-01-01

    The pore-forming alpha subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels contain the essential biophysical machinery that underlies calcium influx in response to cell depolarization.In combination with requisite auxiliary subunits,these pore subunits form calcium channel complexes that are pivotal to the physiology and pharmacology of diverse cells ranging from sperm to neurons.Not surprisingly,mutations in the pore subunits generate diverse pathologies,termed channelopathies,that range from failures in excitation-contraction coupling to night blindness.Over the last decade, major insights into the mechanisms of pathogenesis have been derived from animals showing spontaneous or induced mutations.In parallel,there has been considerable growth in our understanding of the workings of voltage-gated ion channels from a structure-function,regulation and cell biology perspective.Here we document our current understanding of the mutations underlying channelopathies involving the voltage-gated calcium channel alpha subunits in humans and other species.

  19. HCN channelopathies: pathophysiology in genetic epilepsy and therapeutic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Christopher A.; Phillips, A. Marie; Petrou, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCN) can act as pacemakers in the brain making them strong candidates for driving aberrant hypersynchronous network activity seen in epilepsy. Transcriptional changes in HCN channels occur in several animal models of epilepsy. However, only recently have genetic studies demonstrated sequence variation in HCN1 and HCN2 genes associated with human epilepsy. These include a triple proline deletion in HCN2 that increases channel functi...

  20. Channelopathies and drug discovery in the postgenomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dayue Darrel DUAN; Tong-hui MA

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ion channels are a diverse group of pore-forming proteins that provide selective pathways for the movement of ions (Na+, K+,Ca2+, C1-,etc) across the lipid membrane barrier.Aquaporins facilitate water movement across cell membranes in response to osmotic gradients.There is an increasing body of information on the molecular structure and functional roles of ion and water channels in health and disease, linking channel function at the molecular level to organ physiology.

  1. Resurgent Analysis of Localizable Observables in Supersymmetric Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Aniceto, Inês; Schiappa, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Localization methods have recently led to a plethora of new exact results in supersymmetric gauge theories, as certain observables may be computed in terms of matrix integrals. These can then be evaluated by making use of standard large N techniques, or else via perturbative expansions in the gauge coupling. Either approximation often leads to observables given in terms of asymptotic series, which need to be properly defined in order to obtain nonperturbative results. At the same time, resurgent analysis has recently been successfully applied to several problems, e.g., in quantum, field and string theories, precisely to overcome this issue and construct nonperturbative answers out of asymptotic perturbative expansions. The present work uses exact results from supersymmetric localization to address the resurgent structure of the free energy and partition function of Chern-Simons and ABJM gauge theories in three dimensions, and of N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in four dimensions. For each case, the com...

  2. A resurgence analysis for cubic and quartic anharmonic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gahramanov, Ilmar

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explicitly show resurgence relations between perturbative and one instanton sectors of the resonance energy levels for cubic and quartic anharmonic potentials in one-dimensional quantum mechanics. Both systems satisfy the Dunne-Unsal relation and hence we are able to derive one-instanton non-perturbative contributions with the fluctuation terms to the energy merely from the perturbative data. We confirm our results with previous results obtained by Zinn-Justin et al.

  3. Resurgent vector-borne diseases as a global health problem.

    OpenAIRE

    Gubler, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Vector-borne infectious diseases are emerging or resurging as a result of changes in public health policy, insecticide and drug resistance, shift in emphasis from prevention to emergency response, demographic and societal changes, and genetic changes in pathogens. Effective prevention strategies can reverse this trend. Research on vaccines, environmentally safe insecticides, alternative approaches to vector control, and training programs for health-care workers are needed.

  4. Sudden infant death syndrome and cardiac channelopathies: from mechanisms to prevention of avoidable tragedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Insolia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS, with the load of mystery surrounding its causes and with the devastating impact on the affected families, remains the greatest contributor to post-neonatal mortality during the first year of life. Following a succinct review of the non-cardiac genetic factors, which have been associated with SIDS, we focus on the cardiac hypothesis for SIDS and specifically on those diseases produced by cardiac ion channel mutations, the so-called channelopathies. Special attention is devoted to the fact that these causes of SIDS, and especially the long QT syndrome, are preventable if diagnosed in time. This highlights the importance of neonatal ECG screening and carries a number of practical implications, including medico-legal considerations.

  5. Autism-associated SHANK3 haploinsufficiency causes Ih channelopathy in human neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fei; Danko, Tamas; Botelho, Salome Calado; Patzke, Christopher; Pak, ChangHui; Wernig, Marius; Südhof, Thomas C

    2016-05-01

    Heterozygous SHANK3 mutations are associated with idiopathic autism and Phelan-McDermid syndrome. SHANK3 is a ubiquitously expressed scaffolding protein that is enriched in postsynaptic excitatory synapses. Here, we used engineered conditional mutations in human neurons and found that heterozygous and homozygous SHANK3 mutations severely and specifically impaired hyperpolarization-activated cation (Ih) channels. SHANK3 mutations caused alterations in neuronal morphology and synaptic connectivity; chronic pharmacological blockage of Ih channels reproduced these phenotypes, suggesting that they may be secondary to Ih-channel impairment. Moreover, mouse Shank3-deficient neurons also exhibited severe decreases in Ih currents. SHANK3 protein interacted with hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel proteins (HCN proteins) that form Ih channels, indicating that SHANK3 functions to organize HCN channels. Our data suggest that SHANK3 mutations predispose to autism, at least partially, by inducing an Ih channelopathy that may be amenable to pharmacological intervention. PMID:26966193

  6. MLC1 protein: a likely link between leukodystrophies and brain channelopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignone, Maria S.; Lanciotti, Angela; Camerini, Serena; De Nuccio, Chiara; Petrucci, Tamara C.; Visentin, Sergio; Ambrosini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLCs) disease is a rare inherited, autosomal recessive form of childhood-onset spongiform leukodystrophy characterized by macrocephaly, deterioration of motor functions, epileptic seizures and mental decline. Brain edema, subcortical fluid cysts, myelin and astrocyte vacuolation are the histopathological hallmarks of MLC. Mutations in either the MLC1 gene (>75% of patients) or the GlialCAM gene (<20% of patients) are responsible for the disease. Recently, the GlialCAM adhesion protein was found essential for the membrane expression and function of the chloride channel ClC-2 indicating MLC disease caused by mutation in GlialCAM as the first channelopathy among leukodystrophies. On the contrary, the function of MLC1 protein, which binds GlialCAM, its functional relationship with ClC-2 and the molecular mechanisms underlying MLC1 mutation-induced functional defects are not fully understood yet. The human MLC1 gene encodes a 377-amino acid membrane protein with eight predicted transmembrane domains which shows very low homology with voltage-dependent potassium (K+) channel subunits. The high expression of MLC1 in brain astrocytes contacting blood vessels and meninges and brain alterations observed in MLC patients have led to hypothesize a role for MLC1 in the regulation of ion and water homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that MLC1 establishes structural and/or functional interactions with several ion/water channels and transporters and ion channel accessory proteins, and that these interactions are affected by MLC1 mutations causing MLC. Here, we review data on MLC1 functional properties obtained in in vitro and in vivo models and discuss evidence linking the effects of MLC1 mutations to brain channelopathies. PMID:25883547

  7. Metal-metalloporphyrin frameworks: a resurging class of functional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Chrzanowski, Matthew; Ma, Shengqian

    2014-08-21

    This review presents comprehensively recent progress in metal-metalloporphyrin frameworks (MMPFs) with an emphasis on versatile functionalities. Following a brief introduction of basic concepts and the potential virtues of MMPFs, we give a snapshot of the historical perspective of MMPFs since 1991. We then summarize four effective strategies implemented frequently to construct prototypal MMPFs. MMPFs represent a resurging class of promising functional materials, highlighted with diverse applications including guest-molecule adsorption and separation, catalysis, nano-thin films and light-harvesting. PMID:24676096

  8. Hydrodynamics Beyond the Gradient Expansion: Resurgence and Resummation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Michal P; Spaliński, Michał

    2015-08-14

    Consistent formulations of relativistic viscous hydrodynamics involve short-lived modes, leading to asymptotic rather than convergent gradient expansions. In this Letter we consider the Müller-Israel-Stewart theory applied to a longitudinally expanding quark-gluon plasma system and identify hydrodynamics as a universal attractor without invoking the gradient expansion. We give strong evidence for the existence of this attractor and then show that it can be recovered from the divergent gradient expansion by Borel summation. This requires careful accounting for the short-lived modes which leads to an intricate mathematical structure known from the theory of resurgence. PMID:26317715

  9. Resurgence of emerald shiners Notropis atherinoides in Lake Huron's main basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, J.S.; Warner, D.M.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    Emerald shiners Notropis atherinoides were formerly common in Lakes Huron and Michigan, but declined during the 1960s as the exotic alewife Alosa pseudoharengus proliferated. The Lake Huron emerald shiner population was chronically depressed through 2004; however, we detected resurgence in emerald shiner density and biomass in Lake Huron during acoustic and midwater trawl surveys conducted during 2004-2006. Emerald shiners were not found during 2004, but by 2006 main basin density exceeded 500 fish/ha, biomass estimates exceeded 0.5 kg/ha, and emerald shiners contributed more to pelagic biomass than alewives or rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax. Length frequency distributions suggested that increased density was the result of two consecutive strong year classes in 2005 and 2006. Emerald shiner distributions also expanded from a focus in western Lake Huron in 2005 to a lakewide distribution in 2006. Emerald shiners occurred offshore, but were nearly always associated with epilimnetic surface waters warmer than 19??C. Resurgence of emerald shiners was likely a consequence of reduced alewife abundance, as they declined concurrently with alewife proliferation during the early 1960s. Return of this species may benefit native nearshore piscivores; however, benefits to Pacific salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. are uncertain because emerald shiners are smaller and still less abundant than historically important prey species, and they may be thermally segregated from salmonines.

  10. Resurgence of Sucrose and Cocaine Seeking in Free-Feeding Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Craig, Andrew R.; Sweeney, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    Resurgence is relapse of an extinguished operant response following the removal of alternative reinforcement. In animal models of resurgence to date, rats have been food deprived and food is used as the source of alternative reinforcement. Thus, when the alternative reinforcer is removed, the only remaining source of food during experimental sessions is no longer available. Acute food deprivation is known to produce reinstatement of drug seeking, thus such deprivation has been suggested a potential mechanism of resurgence. The present experiments examined whether resurgence of sucrose and cocaine seeking could be obtained with rats that were not food deprived. Free feeding rats were trained to press a lever for either sucrose (Exp 1) or cocaine infusions (Exp 2). Next, lever pressing was extinguished and an alternative response (nose poking) was reinforced with sucrose. When nose poking was also placed on extinction, resurgence of both sucrose and cocaine seeking were observed. Thus, resurgence of both sucrose and cocaine seeking can be obtained in rats that are not food restricted and it appears unlikely that an acute hunger state is responsible for resurgence. In addition, the present procedures for studying resurgence in the absence of interpretive complexities introduced by the use of food-deprivation may prove useful for further investigations of the neurobiological mechanisms of resurgence. PMID:25446761

  11. Crisis in the resurgent city? The rise of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Thor; Winther, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Copenhagen today appears to be a resurgent city and city region. It came back to life in the mid-1990s and, until recently, has shown marked growth in key variables such as jobs, income and inhabitants, primarily as a result of the rise and spatial dynamics of its service- and knowledge-based eco......Copenhagen today appears to be a resurgent city and city region. It came back to life in the mid-1990s and, until recently, has shown marked growth in key variables such as jobs, income and inhabitants, primarily as a result of the rise and spatial dynamics of its service- and knowledge......-city development was characterized by a set of eroding processes that included de-industrialization, suburbanization, high unemployment rates, high welfare costs, an outdated housing market, strong segregation and various other factors. Copenhagen city and its city region have now been revitalized and today are a...... strong national centre of economic growth. Although one can catch glimpses of the crisis in key variables, urban turn remains strong; for instance, up to now, rising unemployment has been seen mainly outside the large urban areas in Denmark. However, the housing-market bubble has burst and other signs of...

  12. Resurgence in $\\eta$-deformed Principal Chiral Models

    CERN Document Server

    Demulder, Saskia; Thompson, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    We study the $SU(2)$ Principal Chiral Model (PCM) in the presence of an integrable $\\eta$-deformation. We put the theory on $\\mathbb{R}\\times S^1$ with twisted boundary conditions and then reduce the circle to obtain an effective quantum mechanics associated with the Whittaker-Hill equation. Using resurgent analysis we study the large order behaviour of perturbation theory and recover the fracton events responsible for IR renormalons. The fractons are modified from the standard PCM due to the presence of this $\\eta$-deformation but they are still the constituents of uniton-like solutions in the deformed quantum field theory. We also find novel $SL(2,\\mathbb{C})$ saddles, thus strengthening the conjecture that the semi-classical expansion of the path integral gives rise to a resurgent transseries once written as a sum over Lefschetz thimbles living in a complexification of the field space. We conclude by connecting our quantum mechanics to a massive deformation of the $\\mathcal{N}=2~$ $4$-d gauge theory with g...

  13. Higher rate alternative non-drug reinforcement produces faster suppression of cocaine seeking but more resurgence when removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Andrew R; Nall, Rusty W; Madden, Gregory J; Shahan, Timothy A

    2016-06-01

    Relapse following removal of an alternative source of reinforcement introduced during extinction of a target behavior is called resurgence. This form of relapse may be related to relapse of drug taking following loss of alternative non-drug reinforcement in human populations. Laboratory investigations of factors mediating resurgence with food-maintained behavior suggest higher rates of alternative reinforcement produce faster suppression of target behavior but paradoxically generate more relapse when alternative reinforcement is discontinued. At present, it is unknown if a similar effect occurs when target behavior is maintained by drug reinforcement and the alternative is a non-drug reinforcer. In the present experiment three groups of rats were trained to lever press for infusions of cocaine during baseline. Next, during treatment, cocaine reinforcement was suspended and an alternative response was reinforced with either high-rate, low-rate, or no alternative food reinforcement. Finally, all reinforcement was suspended to test for relapse of cocaine seeking. Higher rate alternative reinforcement produced faster elimination of cocaine seeking than lower rates or extinction alone, but when treatment was suspended resurgence of cocaine seeking occurred following only high-rate alternative reinforcement. Thus, although higher rate alternative reinforcement appears to more effectively suppress drug seeking, should it become unavailable, it can have the unfortunate effect of increasing relapse. PMID:26988268

  14. Divergent series, summability and resurgence II simple and multiple summability

    CERN Document Server

    Loday-Richaud, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the question how to “sum” a power series in one variable when it diverges, that is, how to attach to it analytic functions, the volume gives answers by presenting and comparing the various theories of k-summability and multisummability. These theories apply in particular to all solutions of ordinary differential equations. The volume includes applications, examples and revisits, from a cohomological point of view, the group of tangent-to-identity germs of diffeomorphisms of C studied in volume 1. With a view to applying the theories to solutions of differential equations, a detailed survey of linear ordinary differential equations is provided which includes Gevrey asymptotic expansions, Newton polygons, index theorems and Sibuya’s proof of the meromorphic classification theorem that characterizes the Stokes phenomenon for linear differential equations. This volume is the second of a series of three entitled Divergent Series, Summability and Resurgence. It is aimed at graduate students and res...

  15. Effects of reinforcer distribution during response elimination on resurgence of an instrumental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Scott T; Bouton, Mark E

    2015-04-01

    Resurgence has commonly been viewed as the recovery of an extinguished instrumental behavior that occurs when an alternative behavior that has replaced it is also extinguished. Three experiments with rat subjects examined the effects on resurgence of the temporal distribution of reinforcement for the alternative behavior that is presented while the first response is being eliminated. Experiments 1 and 2 examined resurgence when rich rates of reinforcement at the onset of response elimination became leaner over sessions (i.e., forward thinning) and when lean rates became richer (i.e., reverse thinning). Both procedures weakened resurgence compared with that in a group that received the richest rate during all sessions. However, forward thinning was more effective than reverse thinning at reducing the resurgence effect. Experiment 3 found that final resurgence was eliminated when the alternative behavior was reinforced and extinguished in alternating response elimination sessions. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that reinforcer delivery during response elimination provides a contextual stimulus for the extinction of the original behavior; its removal during resurgence testing causes ABC renewal to occur. The results are less consistent with an alternative account that emphasizes the removal of response disruption caused by alternative reinforcement (Shahan & Sweeney, 2011). Other theoretical and applied implications are discussed. PMID:25798714

  16. Canine CNGA3 Gene Mutations Provide Novel Insights into Human Achromatopsia-Associated Channelopathies and Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Tanaka

    Full Text Available Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG ion channels are key mediators underlying signal transduction in retinal and olfactory receptors. Genetic defects in CNGA3 and CNGB3, encoding two structurally related subunits of cone CNG channels, lead to achromatopsia (ACHM. ACHM is a congenital, autosomal recessive retinal disorder that manifests by cone photoreceptor dysfunction, severely reduced visual acuity, impaired or complete color blindness and photophobia. Here, we report the first canine models for CNGA3-associated channelopathy caused by R424W or V644del mutations in the canine CNGA3 ortholog that accurately mimic the clinical and molecular features of human CNGA3-associated ACHM. These two spontaneous mutations exposed CNGA3 residues essential for the preservation of channel function and biogenesis. The CNGA3-R424W results in complete loss of cone function in vivo and channel activity confirmed by in vitro electrophysiology. Structural modeling and molecular dynamics (MD simulations revealed R424-E306 salt bridge formation and its disruption with the R424W mutant. Reversal of charges in a CNGA3-R424E-E306R double mutant channel rescued cGMP-activated currents uncovering new insights into channel gating. The CNGA3-V644del affects the C-terminal leucine zipper (CLZ domain destabilizing intersubunit interactions of the coiled-coil complex in the MD simulations; the in vitro experiments showed incompetent trimeric CNGA3 subunit assembly consistent with abnormal biogenesis of in vivo channels. These newly characterized large animal models not only provide a valuable system for studying cone-specific CNG channel function in health and disease, but also represent prime candidates for proof-of-concept studies of CNGA3 gene replacement therapy for ACHM patients.

  17. Sea-anemone toxin ATX-II elicits A-fiber-dependent pain and enhances resurgent and persistent sodium currents in large sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinger Alexandra B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gain-of-function mutations of the nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 lead to inherited pain syndromes, such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD. One characteristic of these mutations is slowed fast-inactivation kinetics, which may give rise to resurgent sodium currents. It is long known that toxins from Anemonia sulcata, such as ATX-II, slow fast inactivation and skin contact for example during diving leads to various symptoms such as pain and itch. Here, we investigated if ATX-II induces resurgent currents in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRGs and how this may translate into human sensations. Results In large A-fiber related DRGs ATX-II (5 nM enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents, but failed to do so in small C-fiber linked DRGs when investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Resurgent currents are thought to depend on the presence of the sodium channel β4-subunit. Using RT-qPCR experiments, we show that small DRGs express significantly less β4 mRNA than large sensory neurons. With the β4-C-terminus peptide in the pipette solution, it was possible to evoke resurgent currents in small DRGs and in Nav1.7 or Nav1.6 expressing HEK293/N1E115 cells, which were enhanced by the presence of extracellular ATX-II. When injected into the skin of healthy volunteers, ATX-II induces painful and itch-like sensations which were abolished by mechanical nerve block. Increase in superficial blood flow of the skin, measured by Laser doppler imaging is limited to the injection site, so no axon reflex erythema as a correlate for C-fiber activation was detected. Conclusion ATX-II enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents in large diameter DRGs, whereas small DRGs depend on the addition of β4-peptide to the pipette recording solution for ATX-II to affect resurgent currents. Mechanical A-fiber blockade abolishes all ATX-II effects in human skin (e.g. painful and itch

  18. Ideology: Its Resurgence in Social, Personality, and Political Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T; Nosek, Brian A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2008-03-01

    We trace the rise, fall, and resurgence of political ideology as a topic of research in social, personality, and political psychology. For over 200 years, political belief systems have been classified usefully according to a single left-right (or liberal-conservative) dimension that, we believe, possesses two core aspects: (a) advocating versus resisting social change and (b) rejecting versus accepting inequality. There have been many skeptics of the notion that most people are ideologically inclined, but recent psychological evidence suggests that left-right differences are pronounced in many life domains. Implicit as well as explicit preferences for tradition, conformity, order, stability, traditional values, and hierarchy-versus those for progress, rebelliousness, chaos, flexibility, feminism, and equality-are associated with conservatism and liberalism, respectively. Conservatives score consistently higher than liberals on measures of system justification. Furthermore, there are personality and lifestyle differences between liberals and conservatives as well as situational variables that induce either liberal or conservative shifts in political opinions. Our thesis is that ideological belief systems may be structured according to a left-right dimension for largely psychological reasons linked to variability in the needs to reduce uncertainty and threat. PMID:26158879

  19. Refining in the 1990's: Restructuring and resurgence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After two years of uncertainty in dealing with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments coupled with the shutdown of 5% of total US refining capacity, the industry is now positioning itself for continued operations throughout the remainder of the decade. However, refineries are experiencing a shift in the mode of operations to a period of more restructuring (closings, ventures, alliances, etc.) followed by a resurgence in financial performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current industry and highlight the reasons for industry's current plans. The authors also speculate about the strategies companies will choose to better their financial performance. Fundamentally, the characteristics of a mature domestic business remain the driving force that shape decision making. In responding to the maturing of refining, the authors suggest that refiners will change the way they conduct business over the next few years. Building on the theme of the 1993 NPRA paper, strategies will target the domestic side of the business while simultaneously shifting to a global perspective

  20. A Diversification of Ownership Structure and its Effect on Corporate Performance: Unwinding and resurgence of cross-shareholdings and the role of surging foreign investors (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MIYAJIMA Hideaki; NITTA Keisuke

    2011-01-01

    The ownership structure of Japanese corporations has changed dramatically since the banking crisis in 1997, from an insider-dominated structure to an outsider-dominated structure. In this paper, we address the causes and effects of the dramatic change in the ownership structure, focusing on cross-shareholdings among listed firms and the increasing role of foreign investors. First, we show that a resurgence of cross-shareholdings in the middle 2000s was not a recurrence of reciprocal sharehold...

  1. Resurgence and persistence of Dorymyrmex flavus after reduction of Solenopsis invicta buren with a broadcast bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Alejandro A; Harris, Marvin K; Barr, Charles

    2007-06-01

    The effects of bait treatment(s) on population dynamics of Solenopsis invicta and Dorymyrmex flavus were studied, and various factors underlying the resurgence and persistence of D. flavus to reinvasion by S. invicta were studied in more detail. Pitfall traps, bait vials, transect sampling, and direct inspections were used to monitor densities of these two species, and inspections of D. flavus midden contents, video monitoring of D. flavus colonies, and studies of the fate of marked S. invicta were used to further clarify interactions of these two species, D. flavus abundance increased after the reduction of S. invicta with baits. D. flavus was also observed to sustain higher densities for an extended period (2 yr) after cessation of bait treatment and to exhibit antagonistic behaviors toward S. invicta, showing an ability to resist reinvasion of the treated area by S. invicta. Given these findings, D. flavus may retard domination of the ant assemblage by S. invicta. Additional studies are justified regarding how to enhance the role of this species in affected ecosystems. PMID:17540063

  2. Recent Trends in Intergovernmental Relations: The Resurgence of Local Actors in Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Julie A.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, the authors explore trends in intergovernmental relations (IGR) by analyzing recent education policies--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards, and local empowerment policies. Identifying a resurgent role for local actors in education policy, the authors argue that recent federal efforts to exert more control have in…

  3. Mechanisms of Resurgence II: Response-Contingent Reinforcers Can Reinstate a Second Extinguished Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbauer, Neil E.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments with rat subjects examined resurgence of an extinguished instrumental response using the procedure introduced by Epstein (1983) with pigeons. There were three phases: (1) initial acquisition of pressing on a lever (L1) for pellet reward, (2) extinction of L1, and (3) a test session in which a second lever (L2) was inserted,…

  4. The Lebanese Brevet Professionnel: Resurgence of a Lower Secondary Vocational Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaardingerbroek, Barend; Jaber, Lama Ziad; El-Masri, Yasmine Hachem

    2008-01-01

    The Lebanese Brevet Professionnel (BP) is an occupationally-specific vocational qualification at lower secondary level. Despite being on the margins of Lebanese education, the BP has been showing signs of a resurgence over the past few years. This paper discusses the structure and role of the BP in the context of the Lebanese education system and…

  5. On Asymptotics and Resurgent Structures of Enumerative Gromov-Witten Invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Couso-Santamaría, Ricardo; Vaz, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Making use of large-order techniques in asymptotics and resurgent analysis, this work addresses the growth of enumerative Gromov-Witten invariants---in their dependence upon genus and degree of the embedded curve---for several different threefold Calabi-Yau toric-varieties. In particular, while the leading asymptotics of these invariants at large genus or at large degree is exponential, at combined large genus and degree it turns out to be factorial. This factorial growth has a resurgent nature, originating via mirror symmetry from the resurgent-transseries description of the B-model free energy. This implies the existence of nonperturbative sectors controlling the asymptotics of the Gromov-Witten invariants, which could themselves have an enumerative-geometry interpretation. The examples addressed include: the resolved conifold; the local surfaces local P^2 and local P^1 x P^1; the local curves and Hurwitz theory; and the compact quintic. All examples suggest very rich interplays between resurgent asymptotic...

  6. Resurgence of pertussis at the age of vaccination: clinical, epidemiological, and molecular aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela S.L.A. Torres

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Report the incidence, epidemiology, clinical features, death, and vaccination status of patients with whooping cough and perform genotypic characterization of isolates of B. pertussis identified in the state of Paraná, during January 2007 to December 2013.METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 1,209 patients with pertussis. Data were obtained through the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN and molecular epidemiology was performed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR; DiversiLab(r, bioMerieux, France.RESULTS: The incidence of pertussis in the state of Paraná increased sharply from 0.15-0.76 per 100,000 habitants between 2007-2010 to 1.7-4.28 per 100,000 between 2011-2013. Patients with less than 1 year of age were more stricken (67.5%. Fifty-nine children (5% developed pertussis even after receiving three doses and two diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP boosters vaccine. The most common complications were pneumonia (14.5%, otitis (0.9%, and encephalopathy (0.7%. Isolates of B. pertussis were grouped into two groups (G1 and G2 and eight distinct patterns (G1: P1-P5 and G2: P6-P8.CONCLUSION: The resurgence of pertussis should stimulate new research to develop vaccines with greater capacity of protection against current clones and also encourage implementation of new strategies for vaccination in order to reduce the risk of disease in infants.

  7. Digital Data Management as Indigenous Resurgence in Kahnawà:ke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob McMahon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples are addressing the ongoing impacts of settler colonialism through a variety of expressions of community resurgence. Among these initiatives are those leveraging digital technologies. In the emergent network society, digital infrastructures, and information and communication technologies are powerful tools that can support self-government. In this context, we document the development of digital data management in the Mohawk community of Kahnawà:ke. Data is the digital information generated by a community, encompassing areas like research, education, finance, health, membership, housing, lands, and resources. As self-determining political entities, each First Nation determines how this data is interpreted and used, supported by tools like data management platforms and information-sharing protocols. In this article, we show how local practices regarding the collection, use, and sharing of digital data in Kahnawà:ke provides a clear example of Indigenous resurgence.

  8. What is QFT? Resurgent trans-series, Lefschetz thimbles, and new exact saddles

    CERN Document Server

    Dunne, Gerald V

    2015-01-01

    This is an introductory level review of recent applications of resurgent trans-series and Picard-Lefschetz theory to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Resurgence connects local perturbative data with global topological structure. In quantum mechanical systems, this program provides a constructive relation between different saddles. For example, in certain cases it has been shown that all information around the instanton saddle is encoded in perturbation theory around the perturbative saddle. In quantum field theory, such as sigma models compactified on a circle, neutral bions provide a semi-classical interpretation of the elusive IR-renormalon, and fractional kink instantons lead to the non-perturbatively induced gap, of order of the strong scale. In the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, saddles must be found by solving the holomorphic Newton's equation in the inverted (holomorphized) potential. Some saddles are complex, multi-valued, and even singular, but of finite action, and their ...

  9. Epidemic resurgence of dengue fever in Singapore in 2013-2014: A virological and entomological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige Chanditha; Koo, Carmen; Rajarethinam, Jayanthi; Chong, Chee-Seng; Lin, Cui; Yap, Grace; Liu, Lilac; Lai, Yee-Ling; Ooi, Peng Lim; Cutter, Jeffery; Ng, Lee-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue resurged in Singapore during 2013-14, causing an outbreak with unprecedented number of cases in the country. In the present study, we summarise the epidemiological, virological and entomological findings gathered through the dengue surveillance programme and highlight the drivers of the epidemic. We also describe how the surveillance system facilitated the preparedness to moderate epidemic transmission of dengue in the country. Methods The case surveillance was based on a ma...

  10. The resurgence of lymphatic filariasis in the Nile delta.

    OpenAIRE

    Harb, M.; Faris, R; Gad, A. M.; Hafez, O. N.; Ramzy, R.; Buck, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    A study of 325,000 residents of 314 villages in six governorates of the Nile delta area of Egypt revealed that the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis increased from 20% in 1991, especially in the governorates of Qalyubiya, Monufiya, Dakhaliya, and Giza. The distribution of the communites with endemic filariasis is focal. Clusters of villages with high prevalences are surrounded by others in which the disease is absent, although their environmental, social, and agricultural f...

  11. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  12. A Quantitative Analysis of Response Elimination and Resurgence Using Rich, Lean, and Thinning Schedules of Alternative Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Mary M.

    2012-01-01

    A common approach to the treatment of instrumental problem behavior is the introduction of an acceptable alternative source of reinforcement. However, when alternative reinforcement is removed or reduced, the target behavior tends to relapse. The relapse of a target response following the removal of alternative reinforcement has been termed resurgence. Shahan and Sweeney developed a quantitative model of resurgence based on behavioral momentum theory that captures both the disruptive and stre...

  13. The Role of Ceramics in a Resurgent Nuclear Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J

    2006-02-28

    With fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs and worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, there is growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Ceramic materials have long played a very important part in the commercial nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, ceramic materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, ceramic processes are also being applied to fuel reprocessing operations. Ceramic materials continue to provide a vital contribution in ''closing the fuel cycle'' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable grout, ceramics, and glass. In the next five years, programs that are currently in the conceptual phase will begin laboratory- and engineering-scale demonstrations. This will require production-scale demonstrations of several ceramic technologies from fuel form development to advanced stabilization methods. Within the next five to ten years, these demonstrations will move to even larger scales and will also include radioactive demonstrations of these advanced technologies. These radioactive demonstrations are critical to program success and will require advances in ceramic materials associated with nuclear energy applications.

  14. The paradox of Indigenous resurgence at the end of empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Waziyatawin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the twenty-first century, we are facing the unprecedented convergence of human-created crises. Climate chaos, fossil-fuel resource depletion, overpopulation, and the ongoing destruction of ecosystems threaten the very foundation of colonial empire, both creating emancipatory potential for Indigenous societies struggling against colonial subjugation and wreaking devastating havoc on the lands, waters, and ecosystems upon which our people must survive.  While the vulnerability and unsustainability of empire is clearly exposed, Indigenous people must wrestle with the continued cooptation of our people into civilization’s fallacies and destructive habits as well as the increasing threats to our homelands that jeopardize our capacity for a land-based existence. Thus, just when liberation may be within our grasp, the ecological destruction may be so complete that Indigenous lifeways may be impossible to practice. In this context there is a simultaneous and urgent need for both the restoration of sustainable Indigenous practices and a serious defense of Indigenous homelands.

  15. Radiation safety needs for the resurgent uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: After many years in the economic doldrums the world's uranium industry is undergoing a renaissance. The recent rapid price increase for the product and the anticipated market shortfalls in supply of yellowcake have are responsible for this. There is now a rush of new activity: abandoned mines from a previous era are being re-examined for their potential to be re-opened; planning for exploitation of known but undeveloped uranium deposits is proceeding at a rapid pace in many countries new to uranium mining; and finally worldwide exploration activity for uranium is expanding at a great rate with more than 400 companies now claiming to be involved in the uranium mining market. All of there activities have significant implications the radiation protection profession. At every stage of the uranium production cycle, from exploration to mining and processing through to remediation there are requirements for proper radiation protection procedures and regulation. The long period of reduced activity in uranium mining has meant that few young people have been joining the industry over the past 20 years. There is now a shortage of trained and experienced radiation protection professionals associated with the mining industry that cannot be overcome overnight. The paper discusses the development of this situation and the various strategies that are being put in place around the world to improve the situation. In particular the International Atomic Energy Agency has been working with radiation protection authorities and uranium mining industry representatives from around the world to address the issue. The latest developments in this project will be described and the future plans described. (author)

  16. Beyond adiabatic approximation in Big Bang Cosmology: hydrodynamics, resurgence and entropy production in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex; Noronha, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We use holography for the ab-initio determination of the non-equilibrium behavior of matter in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker Universe. We focus on matter without scale invariance and develop an expansion for the corresponding entropy production in terms of the derivatives of the cosmological scale factor. We show that the resulting series is asymptotic and we discuss its resurgent properties. Finally, we compute the resummed entropy production rate in de Sitter Universe at late times and show that the leading order approximation given by bulk viscosity effects can strongly overestimate/underestimate the rate depending on the microscopic parameters.

  17. Public Islam in Southeast Asia: Late Modernity, Resurgent Religion, and Muslim Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanto Al Qurtuby

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the study of public Islam in Southeast Asia, the world’s most populous Islamic region. More specifically, it examines “late modernity” and its relation to the unprecedented growth of Islam, the Islamic resurgence, and Muslim politics in the public domains of modern Southeast Asia, particularly in Indonesia and the Philippines. It also examines the history of Islam’s resurgence, the underlying factors driving the region’s Islamic boom, and the implications of the aforementioned phenomena on democracy, civil co-existence, and social relations among ethno-religious groups in these areas. Using Southeast Asia as a case of public Islam, the article’s main purpose is to revisit the strength of classic modernization and secularization theories that forecasted the decline, or even the death, of religion from global politics and public spheres. Finally, the article also aims to provide insights on the local dynamics and plurality of public Islam in Southeast Asia.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v20i3.511

  18. Resurgence theory, ghost-instantons, and analytic continuation of path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Basar, Gokce; Unsal, Mithat

    2013-01-01

    A general quantum mechanical or quantum field theoretical system in the path integral formulation has both real and complex saddles (instantons and ghost-instantons). Resurgent asymptotic analysis implies that both types of saddles contribute to physical observables, even if the complex saddles are not on the integration path i.e., the associated Stokes multipliers are zero. We show explicitly that instanton-anti-instanton and ghost--anti-ghost saddles both affect the expansion around the perturbative vacuum. We study a self-dual model in which the analytic continuation of the partition function to negative values of coupling constant gives a pathological exponential growth, but a homotopically independent combination of integration cycles (Lefschetz thimbles) results in a sensible theory. These two choices of the integration cycles are tied with a quantum phase transition. The general set of ideas in our construction may provide new insights into non-perturbative QFT, string theory, quantum gravity, and the ...

  19. Neutral bions in the CP^{N-1} model for resurgence

    CERN Document Server

    Misumi, Tatsuhiro; Sakai, Norisuke

    2014-01-01

    Classical configurations in the CP^{N-1} model on R^1 x S^1 is studied with twisted boundary conditions. Starting from fractional instantons with the Z_N twisted boundary conditions, we review briefly the relevance of our study to resurgence phenomenon in field theory. We consider primarily configurations composed of multiple fractional instantons, called "neutral bions", which are identified as "perturbative infrared renormalons". We construct an explicit ansatz corresponding to topologically trivial configurations containing one fractional instanton (nu=1/N) and one fractional anti-instanton (nu=-1/N), which is guaranteed to become a solution of field equations asymptotically for large separations. The attractive interactions between the instanton constituents from small to large separations are found to be consistent with the standard separated-instanton calculus. Our results suggest that the ansatz enables us to study bions and the related physics for a wide range of separations. This talk is mainly based...

  20. The resurgence of cultural borders in international finance during the financial crisis: Evidence from Eurozone cross-border depositing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleimeier, S.; Sander, H.; Heuchemer, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that cultural borders in international finance resurge during financial crises. To investigate the role of cultural borders during both tranquil and crisis periods, we employ a unique data set that focuses on Eurozone cross-border depositing in a gravity-model framework

  1. Fluid flow in the resurgent dome of Long Valley Caldera: Implications from thermal data and deep electrical sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribnow, D.F.C.; Schutze, C.; Hurter, S.J.; Flechsig, C.; Sass, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Temperatures of 100??C are measured at 3 km depth in a well located on the resurgent dome in the center of Long Valley Caldera, California, despite an assumed >800??C magma chamber at 6-8 km depth. Local downflow of cold meteoric water as a process for cooling the resurgent dome is ruled out by a Pecle??t-number analysis of temperature logs. These analyses reveal zones with fluid circulation at the upper and lower boundaries of the Bishop Tuff, and an upflow zone in the metasedimentary rocks. Vertical Darcy velocities range from 10 to 70 cm a-1. A 21-km-long geoelectrical profile across the caldera provides resistivity values to the order of 100 to >103 ??m down to a depth of 6 km, as well as variations of self-potential. Interpretation of the electrical data with respect to hydrothermal fluid movement confirms that there is no downflow beneath the resurgent dome. To explain the unexpectedly low temperatures in the resurgent dome, we challenge the common view that the caldera as a whole is a regime of high temperatures and the resurgent dome is a local cold anomaly. Instead, we suggest that the caldera was cooled to normal thermal conditions by vigorous hydrothermal activity in the past, and that a present-day hot water flow system is responsible for local hot anomalies, such as Hot Creek and the area of the Casa Diablo geothermal power plant. The source of hot water has been associated with recent shallow intrusions into the West Moat. The focus of planning for future power plants should be to locate this present-day flow system instead of relying on heat from the old magma chamber. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The spatio-temporal dynamics of a post-vaccination resurgence of rabies in foxes and emergency vaccination planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulke, H H; Tischendorf, L; Staubach, C; Selhorst, T; Jeltsch, F; Müller, T; Schlüter, H; Wissel, C

    1999-10-19

    We used a simulation model to study the spatio-temporal dynamics of a potential rabies outbreak in an immunized fox population after the termination of a long-term, large-scale vaccination program with two campaigns per year one in spring and one in autumn. The 'worst-case' scenario of rabies resurgence occurs if rabies has persisted at a low prevalence despite control and has remained undetected by a customary surveillance program or if infected individuals invade to the control area. Even if the termination of a vaccination program entails such a risk of a subsequent new outbreak, prolonged vaccination of a wild host population is expensive and the declining cost-benefit ratio over time eventually makes it uneconomic. Based on the knowledge of the spatio-temporal dynamics of a potential new outbreak gained from our modelling study, we suggest "terminating but observing" to be an appropriate strategy. Simulating the decline of population immunity without revaccination, we found that a new outbreak of rabies should be detected by customary surveillance programs within two years after the termination of the control. The time until detection does not depend on whether vaccination was terminated within the fourth, fifth or sixth years of repeated biannual campaigns. But it is faster if the program was completed with an autumn campaign (because next-year dispersal then occurs after a noticeable decrease in population immunity). Finally, if a rabid fox is detected after terminating vaccination, we determine a rule for defining a circular hazard area based on the simulated spatial spread of rabies. The radius of this area should be increased with the time since the last vaccination campaign. The trade-off between the number of foxes potentially missed by the emergency treatment and the cost for the emergency measures in an enlarged hazard area was found. PMID:11018731

  3. New Trends of Islamic Resurgence in Contemporary Malaysia: Sufi-Revivalism, Messianism, and Economic Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fauzi A. Hamid

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on research entitled  "Islamic Resurgence in the Periphery: A Study of Political Islam  in Contemporary Malaysia with Special Reference  to the Darul Arqam Movement 1968-1996" (University of Newcastle upon Tyne,  1998, draws upon the systematic, full-blown  government repression of Darul Arqam, a sufi revivalist movement, in 1994. The "Darul Arqam challenge"  casts a significant  light on the various  tactics, methods and strategies  pursued  by Islamic movements in their  route  to power. This paper recognizes  that an analysis of the "Darul Arqam  challenge" is incomplete without a consideration  of long-term  structural  processes putting the 1994 events within a broader historical and ideological perspective. Of particular importance is the gradual concoction of a specific organizational and sociopolitical doctrine, concomitant with the execution of a dynamic economic  enterprise. It is argued that the elegant combination between theory and practice, in implementing Islam in as comprehensive  a manner as possible, serves as the main distinction between Darul Arqam and other contemporary Islamic movements not only in Malaysia but also throughout the ummah.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v6i3.722

  4. A Reevaluation of the Question: Is the Pubertal Resurgence in Pulsatile GnRH Release in the Male Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta) Associated With a Gonad-Independent Augmentation of GH Secretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, M; Trujillo, M Vargas; Plant, T M

    2015-10-01

    A somatic signal has been posited to trigger the pubertal resurgence in pulsatile GnRH secretion that initiates puberty in highly evolved primates. That GH might provide such a signal emerged in 2000 as a result of a study reporting that circulating nocturnal GH concentrations in castrated juvenile male monkeys increased in a 3-week period immediately preceding the pubertal resurgence of LH secretion. The present study was conducted to reexamine this intriguing relationship, again in an agonadal model. Four castrated juvenile male monkeys were implanted with indwelling jugular catheters, housed in remote sampling cages, and subjected to 24 hours of sequential blood sampling (every 30 min) every 2 weeks from 19.5 to 22 months of age. Twenty-four-hour profiles of circulating GH concentrations were analyzed using the pulse detection algorithm, PULSAR, and developmental changes in pulsatile GH release with respect to the initiation of the pubertal rise of LH secretion (week 0; observed between 22.5 and 32 mo of age) were examined for significance by a repeated-measures ANOVA. Changes in the parameters of pulsatile GH secretion, including mean 24-hour GH concentration and GH pulse frequency and pulse amplitude for 3 (n = 4) and 6 (n = 3) months before week 0 were unremarkable and nonsignificant. These findings fail to confirm those of the earlier study and lead us to conclude that the timing of the pubertal resurgence of GnRH release in the male monkey is not dictated by GH. Reasons for the discrepancy between the two studies are unclear. PMID:26181107

  5. Mumps resurgences in the United States: A historical perspective on unexpected elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barskey, Albert E; Glasser, John W; LeBaron, Charles W

    2009-10-19

    In 2006 the United States experienced the largest nationwide mumps epidemic in 20 years, primarily affecting college dormitory residents. Unexpected elements of the outbreak included very abrupt time course (75% of cases occurred within 90 days), geographic focality (85% of cases occurred in eight rural Midwestern states), rapid upward and downward shift in peak age-specific attack rate (5-9-year olds to 18-24-year olds, then back), and two-dose vaccine failure (63% of case-patients had received two doses). To construct a historical context in which to understand the recent outbreak, we reviewed US mumps surveillance data, vaccination coverage estimates, and relevant peer-reviewed literature for the period 1917-2008. Many of the unexpected features of the 2006 mumps outbreak had been reported several times previously in the US, e.g., the 1986-1987 mumps resurgence had extremely abrupt onset, rural geographic focality, and an upward-then-downward age shift. Evidence suggested recurrent mumps outbreak patterns were attributable to accumulation of susceptibles in dispersed situations where the risk of endemic disease exposure was low and were triggered when this susceptible population was brought together in crowded living conditions. The 2006 epidemic followed this pattern, with two unique variations: it was preceded by a period of very high vaccination rates and very low disease incidence and was characterized by two-dose failure rates among adults vaccinated in childhood. Data from the past 80 years suggest that preventing future mumps epidemics will depend on innovative measures to detect and eliminate build-up of susceptibles among highly vaccinated populations. PMID:19815120

  6. Resurgence of persisting non-cultivable Borrelia burgdorferi following antibiotic treatment in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Hodzic

    Full Text Available The agent of Lyme borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi, evades host immunity and establishes persistent infections in its varied mammalian hosts. This persistent biology may pose challenges to effective antibiotic treatment. Experimental studies in dogs, mice, and non-human primates have found persistence of B. burgdorferi DNA following treatment with a variety of antibiotics, but persisting spirochetes are non-cultivable. Persistence of B. burgdorferi DNA has been documented in humans following treatment, but the significance remains unknown. The present study utilized a ceftriaxone treatment regimen in the C3H mouse model that resulted in persistence of non-cultivable B. burgdorferi in order to determine their long-term fate, and to examine their effects on the host. Results confirmed previous studies, in which B. burgdorferi could not be cultured from tissues, but low copy numbers of B. burgdorferi flaB DNA were detectable in tissues at 2, 4 and 8 months after completion of treatment, and the rate of PCR-positive tissues appeared to progressively decline over time. However, there was resurgence of spirochete flaB DNA in multiple tissues at 12 months, with flaB DNA copy levels nearly equivalent to those found in saline-treated mice. Despite the continued non-cultivable state, RNA transcription of multiple B. burgdorferi genes was detected in host tissues, flaB DNA was acquired by xenodiagnostic ticks, and spirochetal forms could be visualized within ticks and mouse tissues by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. A number of host cytokines were up- or down-regulated in tissues of both saline- and antibiotic-treated mice in the absence of histopathology, indicating host response to the presence of non-cultivable, despite the lack of inflammation in tissues.

  7. Ecological preference of the diving bell spider Argyroneta aquatica in a resurgence of the Po plain (Northern Italy (Araneae: Cybaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mammola

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The diving bell spider Argyroneta aquatica is the only known spider to conduct a wholly aquatic life. For this reason, it has been the object of an array of studies concerning different aspects of its peculiar biology such as reproductive behavior and sexual dimorphism, physiology, genetic and silk. On the other hand, besides some empirical observations, the autoecology of this spider is widely understudied. We conducted an ecological study in a resurgence located in the Po Plain (Northern Italy, Province of Vercelli hosting a relatively rich population of Argyroneta aquatica, aiming at identifying the ecological factors driving its presence at the micro-habitat level. By means of a specific sampling methodology, we acquired distributional data of the spiders in the study area and monitored physical-chemical and habitat structure parameters at each plot. We analyzed the data through Bernoulli Generalized Linear Models (GLM. Results pointed out a significant positive effect of the presence of aquatic vegetation in the plot. In addition, the presence of A. aquatica was significantly associated with areas of the resurgence characterized at the same time by high prey availability and low density of predators. Considering the ecological importance and rarity of this species, we update and revise the data on the distribution of A. aquatica in Italy.

  8. Muscle channelopathies and electrophysiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian Ajith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic syndromes and periodic paralyses are rare disorders of skeletal muscle characterized mainly by muscle stiffness or episodic attacks of weakness. Familial forms are caused by mutation in genes coding for skeletal muscle voltage ionic channels. Familial periodic paralysis and nondystrophic myotonias are disorders of skeletal muscle excitability caused by mutations in genes coding for voltage-gated ion channels. These diseases are characterized by episodic failure of motor activity due to muscle weakness (paralysis or stiffness (myotonia. Clinical studies have identified two forms of periodic paralyses: hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (hyperKPP, based on changes in serum potassium levels during the attacks, and three distinct forms of myotonias: paramyotonia congenita (PC, potassium-aggravated myotonia (PAM, and myotonia congenita (MC. PC and PAM have been linked to missense mutations in the SCN4A gene, which encodes α subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, whereas MC is caused by mutations in the chloride channel gene (CLCN1. Exercise is known to trigger, aggravate, or relieve symptoms. Therefore, exercise can be used as a functional test in electromyography to improve the diagnosis of these muscle disorders. Abnormal changes in the compound muscle action potential can be disclosed using different exercise tests. Five electromyographic (EMG patterns (I-V that may be used in clinical practice as guides for molecular diagnosis are discussed.

  9. Determining the foraging range and origin of resurgence after treatment of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, S Y; Rust, M K

    2003-06-01

    The foraging range and distribution of Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), colonies in urban areas of southern California extended at least 61 m (200 feet) from feeding stations and structures. Ants were fed at 25% sucrose feeding stations containing 0.01% fluorescent brighter (FB28). Within 14 d, from 77-90% of the ants sampled next to the feeding stations were positive for FB28. The percentage of ants with FB28 declined gradually to approximately 55% 61 m away from the feeding station. The percentage of marked ants in the controls didn't change over the 4-wk-test period. There were approximately 290,000 ants visiting the monitored stations each night before treatments. The 0.0001% fipronil baits and 0.06% fipronil SC sprays provided significant reductions in at least 4 wk. The percentage of ants marked with FB28 decreased significantly in both bait and spray treatments over 4 wk suggesting that the resurgence of ants in treated areas were because of immigration from untreated areas. It is likely that much larger areas will need to be treated to control Argentine ants in urban settings, especially if baits are being used. PMID:12852625

  10. Outwitting dengue threat and epidemics resurgence in Asia-Pacific countries: strengthening integrated dengue surveillance, monitoring and response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Chen, Jun-Hu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Khater, Emad I M

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is still a substantial vector-borne viral disease threat and burden of public health importance worldwide. This situation is complicated by dengue virus unprecedented resurgence and persistence of varied serotypes in endemic-prone areas, and man-made and natural activities consequences that promote vector emergence, transmission dynamics and spread across the Asia-Pacific region. There is an urgent need to strengthen operational and contextual surveillance-response research in improving early detection of active reservoir detection, novel drug in case management and quality evidence-based response including the deployment of dengue mass vaccination. Moreover, sustained mapping and watching of dengue risk factors or determinants, performance and outcome indicators of control or elimination programs effectiveness in defining minimum effective data towards community knowledge-based decision-making policy and effective response packages is imperative. Moreover, implementation of a robust, integrated dengue early warning surveillance, monitoring and response systems metrics is required for evidence-based, timely and cost-effective contextual mitigation strategies, and innovative interventions. PMID:27233238

  11. Resurgence and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili Limit: Connecting Weak and Strong Coupling in the Mathieu and Lam'e Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Basar, Gokce

    2015-01-01

    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit for the low-energy behavior of N=2 and N=2* supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theories is encoded in the spectrum of the Mathieu and Lam'e equations, respectively. This correspondence is usually expressed via an all-orders Bohr-Sommerfeld relation, but this neglects non-perturbative effects, the nature of which is very different in the electric, magnetic and dyonic regions. In the gauge theory dyonic region the spectral expansions are divergent, and indeed are not Borel-summable, so they are more properly described by resurgent trans-series in which perturbative and non-perturbative effects are deeply entwined. In the gauge theory electric region the spectral expansions are convergent, but nevertheless there are non-perturbative effects due to poles in the expansion coefficients, and which we associate with worldline instantons. This provides a concrete analog of a phenomenon found recently by Drukker, Marino and Putrov in the large N expansion of the ABJM matrix model, in which non-pe...

  12. Resurgence of anorexic symptoms during smoking cessation in patients with a history of anorexia nervosa: An unseen problem?--Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Nicolas; Cottencin, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    This report describes a resurgence of anorexic symptoms during a smoking cessation program in two patients with a history of anorexia nervosa. These two events were identified among patients lost to follow-up by using a strategy implemented to limit early drop out. In both cases, the resurgence of anorexic symptoms occurred rapidly after having reached abstinence from tobacco and was described as a response to the weight gain they had experienced just after the start of smoking cessation. The smoking cessation process itself was considered as the most plausible explanation for these two events. Given the potential serious consequences, further research is needed to determine whether such events are frequent during smoking cessation but being unseen because of being hidden in the loss to follow-up. This report also suggests that systematic screening for both binge eating and anorexic behaviors during smoking cessation is warranted. PMID:26016609

  13. Resurgence of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Switzerland: mathematical modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ard van Sighem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New HIV infections in men who have sex with men (MSM have increased in Switzerland since 2000 despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. The objectives of this mathematical modelling study were: to describe the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in MSM in Switzerland using national data; to explore the effects of hypothetical prevention scenarios; and to conduct a multivariate sensitivity analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The model describes HIV transmission, progression and the effects of cART using differential equations. The model was fitted to Swiss HIV and AIDS surveillance data and twelve unknown parameters were estimated. Predicted numbers of diagnosed HIV infections and AIDS cases fitted the observed data well. By the end of 2010, an estimated 13.5% (95% CI 12.5, 14.6% of all HIV-infected MSM were undiagnosed and accounted for 81.8% (95% CI 81.1, 82.4% of new HIV infections. The transmission rate was at its lowest from 1995-1999, with a nadir of 46 incident HIV infections in 1999, but increased from 2000. The estimated number of new infections continued to increase to more than 250 in 2010, although the reproduction number was still below the epidemic threshold. Prevention scenarios included temporary reductions in risk behaviour, annual test and treat, and reduction in risk behaviour to levels observed earlier in the epidemic. These led to predicted reductions in new infections from 2 to 26% by 2020. Parameters related to disease progression and relative infectiousness at different HIV stages had the greatest influence on estimates of the net transmission rate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The model outputs suggest that the increase in HIV transmission amongst MSM in Switzerland is the result of continuing risky sexual behaviour, particularly by those unaware of their infection status. Long term reductions in the incidence of HIV infection in MSM in Switzerland will require increased and sustained uptake of effective

  14. Consumer Identity Renaissance: The Resurgence of Identity-Inspired Consumption in Retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Hope Jensen Schau; Gilly, Mary C; Mary Wolfinbarger

    2009-01-01

    Using multimethod data, we investigate retirement as a life stage centered on consumption, where cultural scripts are particularly contested and in flux and where we witness an increase in breadth and depth of identity-related consumption, which we term consumer identity renaissance. While prior research on older consumers focuses on corporeal and cognitive decline and its impact on individual decision-making situations, our attention is drawn to the competency and growth potential of those w...

  15. Hand-held cow horn: Resurgence of an old arm or a potential terrorist weapon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawal Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23 year old man presented with intestinal evisceration from stab injury to the left side of the abdomen with a hand-held cow horn at a local night party. He complained of severe abdominal pain and bleeding at the site of injury. He was hemodynamically stable. At emergency exploration, the eviscerated bowel was viable with no adjacent mesenteric tear. Other intra abdominal organs were normal. The eviscerated bowel was lavaged and reduced into the abdomen through the 7cm anterior abdominal wall laceration. The laceration was repaired and abdomen closed in layers. Post operative recovery was uneventful. The hand-held cow horn can easily be concealed and may pass through security checks undetected. It should be added to the ever increasing list of weapons of small scale terror.

  16. The resurgence of nuclear energy. An option for the climatic change and for the emergent countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern society is organized in mistaken form. A tremendous inability of the juridical, political, social and cultural system exists to interrelate the ecosystem (the resources that allow the life and the human activity) with the economic way of production, that is to say with the manner like the human beings appropriate of the nature and they transform it to satisfy the reproduction necessities of the capital and the population. Today we are already paying the consequences of this error. Of continuing with this tendency the next six years, a global increase of five centigrade grades is expected in the temperature, with effects like the increase of the sea level, floods, droughts, among other global problems, for what the gases of greenhouse effect are and they will continue being the main environmental challenge of the X XI century because they not represent alone a threat for the development but also for the humanity survival. The world conscience has wakened up, and in most of the countries where is stopped the construction of new nuclear power plants the plans are reconsidered to return the use of this source, being the two main reasons for reconsideration: the concern for the climatic change and the new world perception about the limits of fossil fuel reserves. The world return of the interest for the nuclear energy, it force to take in consideration the energy politics of Mexico whose structure is too much dependent of hydrocarbons and the import of liquefied natural gas and other energies, subject to the prices volatility and in a frame that lacks long term vision. Here the whole problem of the nuclear industry is exposed, the experiences, the risks, the costs, the future of the energy production for the populations that every time has a bigger consumption, the reader will have, this way, a wide panorama of diverse topics and interests that affect to generation of nuclear energy. (Author)

  17. Probabilistic safety analyses developments resurgence in Bulgaria-Kozloduy nuclear power plant example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, Bozhana, E-mail: Bozhana.Marinova@riskeng.b [Risk engineering Plc, Sofia (Bulgaria); Groudev, Pavlin, E-mail: pavlinpg@inrne.bas.b [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Papazov, Valentin, E-mail: valentin.papazov@worleyparsons.co [Kozloduy NPP Plc, Kozloduy (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents some of the main technical features and insights of the Kozloduy nuclear power plant (NPP) units 5 and 6 probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) level 1. Probabilistic analyses and their applications in Bulgaria were given further impetus in recent years. More than 17 years after the first PSA study in Bulgaria in 1992 today probabilistic analyses receive increasing attention and application than ever before. The Bulgarian regulatory body (BNRA) is also interested in expanding their capability of reviewing and using PSA in plant safety assessments. In November 2008 within the framework of the program financed by European Union (PHARE), a project for assisting the BNRA in establishing the regulatory requirements on the base of PSA was completed. One of the objectives of this project was performance of the independent review of Kozloduy NPP units 5 and 6 PSA. This review was a new impulse for the authors to present in more details of Kozloduy NPP probabilistic assessment studies in the present paper.

  18. Radiation safety and the resurgence of nuclear power in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , and to promote industry excellence in radiation protection. The NEI/INPO/EPRI Radiation Protection Strategic Plan (RP2020) has a stated mission of reshaping radiological protection at U.S. nuclear plants to achieve significant improvements in radiological protection and cost-effectiveness. RP2020 focuses on the following: more efficient refueling outages; increased reliance on remote monitoring technology; process standardization; source term reduction methodologies; shutdown chemistry controls; human performance improvement opportunities; low level waste treatment and disposal options; and emerging changes in U.S. radiological protection standards.To meet current and future challenges the Duke Energy Radiation Protection organization is fully engaged in the RP2020 initiative. This paper will address some of the strategies that have been implemented, and others that are needed, to address staff attrition, as well as staffing for new plants, reduction of collective and individual radiation exposures, source term reduction, and disposal options for low level radioactive waste. (author)

  19. Sea-anemone toxin ATX-II elicits A-fiber-dependent pain and enhances resurgent and persistent sodium currents in large sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Klinger Alexandra B; Eberhardt Mirjam; Link Andrea S; Namer Barbara; Kutsche Lisa K; Schuy E; Sittl Ruth; Hoffmann Tali; Alzheimer Christian; Huth Tobias; Carr Richard W; Lampert Angelika

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Gain-of-function mutations of the nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 lead to inherited pain syndromes, such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD). One characteristic of these mutations is slowed fast-inactivation kinetics, which may give rise to resurgent sodium currents. It is long known that toxins from Anemonia sulcata, such as ATX-II, slow fast inactivation and skin contact for example during diving leads to various symptoms such as pain and itch. Her...

  20. High resurgence of dengue vector populations after space spraying in an endemic urban area of Thailand:A cluster randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Napadol Sudsom; Kuaanan Techato; Suwich Thammapalo; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong; Theerakamol Pengsakul

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To examine the resurgence rate, house density index (HDI) and parous rate of the Aedes aegypti vector after space spraying carried out by the routine spraying team, and compare with the rates after standard indoor ultra low volume (SID-ULV) spraying carried out by the trained research spraying team. Methods:Between March and September 2014, a cluster randomized controlled trial including 12 clusters (6 regular ULV, 6 SID-ULV) with totally 4 341 households was conducted, and around 20–31 houses in each cluster were selected for assessment. The parous rate and HDI of collected mosquitoes 2 days before and 1, 2 and 6 days after spraying were obtained and compared. Results:The HDI dropped significantly from the baseline 1 and 2 days after spraying to a non-zero value in the SID-ULV treated locations but not in the regular ULV group locations. However, by 6 days after spraying, the HDI of both groups had returned to the base value measured 2 days before spraying. There were no statistically significant differences in the parous rate between groups. Conclusions: SID-ULV is more effective in reducing Aedes aegypti populations. However, rapid resurgence of dengue vector after spraying in urban areas was observed in both groups.

  1. High resurgence of dengue vector populations after space spraying in an endemic urban area of Thailand:A cluster randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Napadol; Sudsom; Kuaanan; Techato; Suwich; Thammapalo; Virasakdi; Chongsuvivatwong; Theerakamol; Pengsakul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the resurgence rate, house density index(HDI) and parous rate of the Aedes aegypti vector after space spraying carried out by the routine spraying team,and compare with the rates after standard indoor ultra low volume(SID-ULV) spraying carried out by the trained research spraying team.Methods: Between March and September 2014, a cluster randomized controlled trial including 12 clusters(6 regular ULV, 6 SID-ULV) with totally 4 341 households was conducted, and around 20–31 houses in each cluster were selected for assessment. The parous rate and HDI of collected mosquitoes 2 days before and 1, 2 and 6 days after spraying were obtained and compared.Results: The HDI dropped significantly from the baseline 1 and 2 days after spraying to a non-zero value in the SID-ULV treated locations but not in the regular ULV group locations. However, by 6 days after spraying, the HDI of both groups had returned to the base value measured 2 days before spraying. There were no statistically significant differences in the parous rate between groups.Conclusions: SID-ULV is more effective in reducing Aedes aegypti populations.However, rapid resurgence of dengue vector after spraying in urban areas was observed in both groups.

  2. Reconstruction of caldera collapse and resurgence processes in the offshore sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Lena; Spiess, Volkhard; Sacchi, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Large collapse calderas are associated with exceptionally explosive volcanic eruptions, which are capable of triggering a global catastrophe second only to that from a giant meteorite impact. Therefore, active calderas have attracted significant attention in both scientific communities and governmental institutions worldwide. One prime example of a large collapse caldera can be found in southern Italy, more precisely in the northern Bay of Naples within the Campi Flegrei Volcanic Area. The Campi Flegrei caldera covers an area of approximately 200 km² defined by a quasi-circular depression, half onland, half offshore. It is still under debate whether the caldera formation was related to only one ignimbritic eruption namely the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) eruption at 15 ka or if it is a nested-caldera system related to the NYT and the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption at 39 ka. During the last 40 years, the Campi Flegrei caldera has experienced episodes of unrest involving significant ground deformation and seismicity, which have nevertheless not yet led to an eruption. Besides these short-term episodes of unrest, long-term ground deformation with rates of several tens of meters within a few thousand years can be observed in the central part of the caldera. The source of both short-term and long-term deformation is still under debate and possibly related to a shallow hydrothermal system and caldera resurgence attributed to a deeper magma chamber, respectively. Understanding the mechanisms for unrest and eruptions is of paramount importance as a future eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera would expose more than 500,000 people to the risk of pyroclastic flows. This study is based on a dense grid (semi-3D) of high-resolution multi-channel seismic profiles acquired in the offshore sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The seismic lines show evidence for the escape of fluids and/or gases along weak zones such as faults, thereby supporting the existence of a hydrothermal

  3. Resurgence of measles in a country of elimination: interim assessment and current control measures in the Republic of Korea in early 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Un Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of 2014, the Republic of Korea has experienced a resurgence of measles cases. Among the 220 cases confirmed as measles during epidemiological weeks 1–20 (December 29, 2013 to May 17, 2014, 10 imported cases were identified. The predominant genotype was B3, which reflects the circulating measles virus in adjacent countries. Even with the verification of measles elimination in March 2014 by the World Health Organization, recent importation has been related to international travel. Targeted control measures have been implemented in addition to proper isolation and patient care. A vigilant surveillance system and high levels of vaccine coverage should be maintained to sustain the measles elimination status.

  4. Bladder stones – red herring for resurgence of spasticity in a spinal cord injury patient with implantation of Medtronic Synchromed pump for intrathecal delivery of baclofen – a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul M; Oo, Tun; Hughes, Peter L; Singh, Gurpreet; Watt, John WH; Sett, Pradipkumar

    2003-01-01

    Background Increased spasms in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, whose spasticity was previously well controlled with intrathecal baclofen therapy, are due to (in order of frequency) drug tolerance, increased stimulus, low reservoir volume, catheter malfunction, disease progression, human error, and pump mechanical failure. We present a SCI patient, in whom bladder calculi acted as red herring for increased spasticity whereas the real cause was spontaneous extrusion of catheter from intrathecal space. Case Presentation A 44-year-old male sustained a fracture of C5/6 and incomplete tetraplegia at C-8 level. Medtronic Synchromed pump for intrathecal baclofen therapy was implanted 13 months later to control severe spasticity. The tip of catheter was placed at T-10 level. The initial dose of baclofen was 300 micrograms/day of baclofen, administered by a simple continuous infusion. During a nine-month period, he required increasing doses of baclofen (875 micrograms/day) to control spasticity. X-ray of abdomen showed multiple radio opaque shadows in the region of urinary bladder. No malfunction of the pump was detected. Therefore, increased spasticity was attributed to bladder stones. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy of bladder stones was carried out successfully. Even after removal of bladder stones, this patient required further increases in the dose of intrathecal baclofen (950, 1050, 1200 and then 1300 micrograms/day). Careful evaluation of pump-catheter system revealed that the catheter had extruded spontaneously and was lying in the paraspinal space at L-4, where the catheter had been anchored before it entered the subarachnoid space. A new catheter was passed into the subarachnoid space and the tip of catheter was located at T-8 level. The dose of intrathecal baclofen was decreased to 300 micrograms/day. Conclusion Vesical calculi acted as red herring for resurgence of spasticity. The real cause for increased spasms was spontaneous extrusion of whole length of

  5. Bladder stones – red herring for resurgence of spasticity in a spinal cord injury patient with implantation of Medtronic Synchromed pump for intrathecal delivery of baclofen – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurpreet

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased spasms in spinal cord injury (SCI patients, whose spasticity was previously well controlled with intrathecal baclofen therapy, are due to (in order of frequency drug tolerance, increased stimulus, low reservoir volume, catheter malfunction, disease progression, human error, and pump mechanical failure. We present a SCI patient, in whom bladder calculi acted as red herring for increased spasticity whereas the real cause was spontaneous extrusion of catheter from intrathecal space. Case Presentation A 44-year-old male sustained a fracture of C5/6 and incomplete tetraplegia at C-8 level. Medtronic Synchromed pump for intrathecal baclofen therapy was implanted 13 months later to control severe spasticity. The tip of catheter was placed at T-10 level. The initial dose of baclofen was 300 micrograms/day of baclofen, administered by a simple continuous infusion. During a nine-month period, he required increasing doses of baclofen (875 micrograms/day to control spasticity. X-ray of abdomen showed multiple radio opaque shadows in the region of urinary bladder. No malfunction of the pump was detected. Therefore, increased spasticity was attributed to bladder stones. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy of bladder stones was carried out successfully. Even after removal of bladder stones, this patient required further increases in the dose of intrathecal baclofen (950, 1050, 1200 and then 1300 micrograms/day. Careful evaluation of pump-catheter system revealed that the catheter had extruded spontaneously and was lying in the paraspinal space at L-4, where the catheter had been anchored before it entered the subarachnoid space. A new catheter was passed into the subarachnoid space and the tip of catheter was located at T-8 level. The dose of intrathecal baclofen was decreased to 300 micrograms/day. Conclusion Vesical calculi acted as red herring for resurgence of spasticity. The real cause for increased spasms was spontaneous extrusion

  6. Food price volatility in Africa: Has it really increased?:

    OpenAIRE

    Minot, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The food price crisis of 2007–2008 and recent resurgence of food prices have focused increasing attention on the causes and consequences of food price volatility in international food markets and the developing world, particularly in Africa south of the Sahara. In this paper, we examine the patterns and trends in food price volatility using an unusually rich database of African staple food prices. We find that international grain prices have become more volatile in recent years (2007–2010...

  7. Status of the U.S. nuclear option, conditions leading to its resurgence, and current licensing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The projected increase in electricity demand, increased concern over emissions along with more stringent emission requirements, volatility of the gas and oil supplies and prices, and the convergence of favourable conditions and legislation make nuclear power a practical option for meeting future electricity base-load demands. (author)

  8. Channelopathy Pathogenesis in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Galina eSchmunk; J. Jay eGargus

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting bod...

  9. Channelopathy pathogenesis in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Schmunk, Galina; Gargus, J. Jay

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting bod...

  10. Cardiac channelopathies and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Grunnet, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is always a devastating and unexpected occurrence. SIDS is the leading cause of death in the first 6 months after birth in the industrialized world. Since the discovery in 1998 of long QT syndrome as an underlying substrate for SIDS, around 10-20% of SIDS cases...

  11. Otters Increasing - Threats Increasing

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Kranz

    1994-01-01

    In some parts of Central Europe populations of otters are apparently increasing. Until recently, no research was being conducted on the ecology of otters in mainly artificial habitats like fish farms. Otters are not only a new source of conflict requiring species management, but appear once again threatened by illegal hunting. Austria is dealing with this problem using compensation for otter damage, electric fencing and translocation of problem otters. Despite a rise in illegal killing, Austr...

  12. Monitoring CO2 emissions in tree kill areas near the resurgent dome at Long Valley Caldera, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, D.; Evans, William C.

    2011-01-01

    We report results of yearly measurements of the diffuse CO2 flux and shallow soil temperatures collected since 2006 across two sets of tree-kill areas at Long Valley Caldera, California. These data provide background information about CO2 discharge during a period with moderate seismicity, but little to no deformation. The tree kills are located at long-recognized areas of weak thermal fluid upflow, but have expanded in recent years, possibly in response to geothermal fluid production at Casa Diablo. The amount of CO2 discharged from the older kill area at Basalt Canyon is fairly constant and is around 3-5 tonnes of CO2 per day from an area of about 15,000 m2. The presence of isobutane in gas samples from sites in and around Basalt Canyon suggests that geothermal fluid production directly effects fluid upflow in the region close to the power plant. The average fluxes at Shady Rest are lower than average fluxes at Basalt Canyon, but the area affected by fluid upflow is larger. Total CO2 discharged from the central portion of the kill area at Shady Rest has been variable, ranging from 6 to11 tonnes per day across 61,000 m2. Gas collected at Shady Rest contains no detectable isobutane to link emissions chemically to geothermal fluid production, but two samples from 2009-10 have detectable H2S and suggest an increasing geothermal character of emitted gas. The appearance of this gas at the surface may signal increased drawdown of water levels near the geothermal productions wells.

  13. Governing factors in resurgence of prostitution and whoring and legal countermeasures%浅议卖淫嫖娼沉渣泛起的主要因素及法律对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹育明

    1997-01-01

    In the early period after liberation,prostitution and whoring in China were condemned and brougt under control by the Party and government,and vanished eventually.Recently,however,owing to various complicate causes,the activities of prostitution and whoring have revived and spread quickly over vast regions,Corrupting public morals and inducing svevere problems of public security.The rigorous suppression and sanction by the government yield limited results.This paper deals with the governing factors in resurgence of prostitution and whoring and the relevant legal problems so as to arouse the concern and stimulate the study by the legal circles.

  14. Transactions en eaux troubles : résurgences de la voix shakespearienne dans Moby-Dick Defamiliarising the Bard: The Resurgence of Shakespeare in Moby-Dick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Ludot-Vlasak

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the way Herman Melville appropriates William Shakespeare’s work in Moby-Dick. Its argument is that by defamiliarising some of Shakespeare’s lines—a corpus that was both alien and familiar to nineteenth-century writers— Melville turns them into his own idiom. This resurgence of the Shakespearean voice is double: although the dramatic element in the novel is often associated with the figure of Ahab, Ishmael also incorporates Shakespearean lines into his narrative. What characterises these (intertextual transactions is that instead of quoting directly from Shakespeare’s plays, Melville often blurs references in order to appropriate the works of his predecessor. More than the mere imitation of a model, this complex process reveals Shakespeare’s seminal role in Moby-Dick as well as Melville’s poetics of reinvention. Ultimately, it enables the author to explore the dark forces lying beneath the surface of things.

  15. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  16. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  17. Advanced Propeller Flow Control for Increased Propulsive Efficiency Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important mission for NASA is the development of revolutionary flight concepts and technology. The development of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs), the resurgence of...

  18. Increasing numbers of migrants challenge policymakers worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P

    1996-05-01

    International migration has increased greatly in the 1990s. In the mid-1990s there were about 125 million migrants (about 2% of the world's population) not living in their country of birth or citizenship. There are 2-4 million new migrants each year. The global migrant population is concentrated in only a few countries. In many Middle Eastern countries, foreign workers make up most of the labor force (60-90%). Africa and western Asia have more than 50% of all 27 million refugees and displaced persons. Germany, France, the UK, the US, Italy, Japan, and Canada have about 33% of the migrant population. Newly arriving immigrants make up a large percentage of annual population growth in industrialized countries with low birth rates (100% in Germany and about 33% in the US). Major migration flows are from Mexico, Central America, and Asia to the US; from North Africa and eastern Europe to western Europe; and from the Philippines and India to the Middle East. Two US legalization programs contributed to a resurgence in immigration in the early 1990s. Many of the world's top economic powers are very concerned about immigration. Economic growth can cut down on economic migration. Many specialists think that freer trade, more foreign investment, and, in some cases, aid can spark economic growth. Many residents of countries receiving migrants want immigration curtailed. Many industrial democracies handle difficult migration issues by making trade-offs, particularly combine stricter immigration controls with more assistance to integrate new immigrants and liberalize trade so countries can export goods instead of people. PMID:12291192

  19. Going Soft: How the Rise of Software Based Innovation Led to the Decline of Japan's IT Industry and the Resurgence of Silicon Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Arora; Branstetter, Lee G.; Matej Drev

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents a shift in the nature of innovation in the information technology (IT) industry. Using comprehensive data on all IT patents granted by the USPTO from 1980-2002, we find strong evidence of a change in IT innovation that is systematic, substantial, and increasingly dependent on software. This change in the nature of IT innovation has had differential effects on the performance of the IT industries in the United States and Japan. Using a broad unbalanced panel of US and Japa...

  20. Novel insights into the pathomechanisms of skeletal muscle channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, James A; Hanna, Michael G

    2012-02-01

    The nondystrophic myotonias and primary periodic paralyses are an important group of genetic muscle diseases characterized by dysfunction of ion channels that regulate membrane excitability. Clinical manifestations vary and include myotonia, hyperkalemic and hypokalemic periodic paralysis, progressive myopathy, and cardiac arrhythmias. The severity of myotonia ranges from severe neonatal presentation causing respiratory compromise through to mild later-onset disease. It remains unclear why the frequency of attacks of paralysis varies greatly or why many patients develop a severe permanent fixed myopathy. Recent detailed characterizations of human genetic mutations in voltage-gated muscle sodium (gene: SCN4A), chloride (gene: CLCN1), calcium (gene: CACNA1S), and inward rectifier potassium (genes: KCNJ2, KCNJ18) channels have resulted in new insights into disease mechanisms, clinical phenotypic variation, and therapeutic options. PMID:22083238

  1. Diseases of the nervous system associated with calcium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, Boyan Bogdanov

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate how abnormal CaV2.1 channel function can cause disease, in particular motor coordination dysfunction. The chapters illustrate how various neuronal cell types in the periphery (peripheral nervous system) and the central nervous system

  2. Qualitative research: resurgence, institutionalisation and application

    OpenAIRE

    Fielding, NG

    2005-01-01

    The way that the social sciences developed in respect of methodological preferences, and differences between European and North American approaches, helps us to understand why secondary analysis has until recently been a limited practice in qualitative research. To unravel the developments that explain the differing circumstances of secondary analysis in quantitative and qualitative research, we will initially consider the early days of qualitative method, and comment on its location in the f...

  3. Resurgence of nuclear energy in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to shed light on recent developments, as well as on future steps, this paper will first analyse the history of nuclear power production in Italy and the reasons for the decision to re-embark upon a nuclear power programme. It will briefly describe the legislation which governed nuclear activities before this decision, introduce the latest legislative changes and legislative projects and, finally, aim to demonstrate what else is necessary to realize this ambitious project in the near future. This analysis will be particularly focused on the current italian legislation following the recent approval of Act No. 99 of 23. july 2009, which lays down milestones for the new national nuclear legal framework. The implementation of a nuclear power programme is an enormous challenge. however, it can be successful if appropriate and timely steps are taken in the months and years to come. the national nuclear framework will play a key role in managing and regulating the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in a consistent and rational manner. It is therefore crucial that the foundation for this framework is set accurately so that it provides a sound basis for activities related to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Italy. (N.C.)

  4. Dolphin Morbillivirus Epizootic Resurgence, Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Raga, Juan-Antonio; Banyard, Ashley; Domingo, Mariano; Corteyn, Mandy; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Fernández, Mercedes; Aznar, Francisco-Javier; Barrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In July 2007, >100 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, were found dead along the coast of the Spanish Mediterranean. Of 10 dolphins tested, 7 were positive for a virus strain closely related to the dolphin morbillivirus that was isolated during a previous epizootic in 1990.

  5. Increases in Problem Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Increases in Problem Drinking Join the Fight Against Superbugs Featured Website: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ... Increases in Problem Drinking Join the Fight Against Superbugs Featured Website: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ...

  6. Bladder stones – red herring for resurgence of spasticity in a spinal cord injury patient with implantation of Medtronic Synchromed pump for intrathecal delivery of baclofen – a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Gurpreet; Hughes Peter L; Oo Tun; Soni Bakul M; Vaidyanathan Subramanian; Watt John WH; Sett Pradipkumar

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Increased spasms in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, whose spasticity was previously well controlled with intrathecal baclofen therapy, are due to (in order of frequency) drug tolerance, increased stimulus, low reservoir volume, catheter malfunction, disease progression, human error, and pump mechanical failure. We present a SCI patient, in whom bladder calculi acted as red herring for increased spasticity whereas the real cause was spontaneous extrusion of catheter from...

  7. Increasing productivity: Another approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, F.J.

    1996-06-10

    An engineering information (EI) and information technology (IT) organization that must improve its productivity should work to further its business goals. This paper explores a comprehensive model for increasing EI/IT productivity by supporting organizational objectives.

  8. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  9. Seismic waves increase permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoury, Jean E; Brodsky, Emily E; Agnew, Duncan C

    2006-06-29

    Earthquakes have been observed to affect hydrological systems in a variety of ways--water well levels can change dramatically, streams can become fuller and spring discharges can increase at the time of earthquakes. Distant earthquakes may even increase the permeability in faults. Most of these hydrological observations can be explained by some form of permeability increase. Here we use the response of water well levels to solid Earth tides to measure permeability over a 20-year period. At the time of each of seven earthquakes in Southern California, we observe transient changes of up to 24 degrees in the phase of the water level response to the dilatational volumetric strain of the semidiurnal tidal components of wells at the Piñon Flat Observatory in Southern California. After the earthquakes, the phase gradually returns to the background value at a rate of less than 0.1 degrees per day. We use a model of axisymmetric flow driven by an imposed head oscillation through a single, laterally extensive, confined, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer to relate the phase response to aquifer properties. We interpret the changes in phase response as due to changes in permeability. At the time of the earthquakes, the permeability at the site increases by a factor as high as three. The permeability increase depends roughly linearly on the amplitude of seismic-wave peak ground velocity in the range of 0.21-2.1 cm s(-1). Such permeability increases are of interest to hydrologists and oil reservoir engineers as they affect fluid flow and might determine long-term evolution of hydrological and oil-bearing systems. They may also be interesting to seismologists, as the resulting pore pressure changes can affect earthquakes by changing normal stresses on faults. PMID:16810253

  10. Increasing mobile radiography productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Edward; Lung, Ngan Tsz; Ng, Kris; Jeor, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Mobile radiography using computed radiography (CR) cassettes is a common equipment combination with a workflow bottleneck limited by location of CR readers. Advent of direct digital radiography (DDR) mobile x-ray machines removes this limitation by immediate image review and quality control. Through the use of key performance indicators (KPIs), the increase in efficiency can be quantified. PMID:23986937

  11. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased UOER is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as inflammation, im...

  12. Does salt increase thirst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Micah

    2015-02-01

    Our diet is believed to be overly rich in sodium, and it is commonly believed that sodium intake increases drinking. Hence the concern of a possible contribution of dietary sodium to beverage intake which in turn may contribute to obesity and ill health. Here we examine whether voluntary, acute intake of a sodium load, as occurs in routine eating and snacking, increases thirst and drinking. We find that after ingesting 3.5 or 4.4 g NaCl (men) and 1.9 or 3.7 g (women) on nuts during 15 minutes, there is no increase in thirst or drinking of freely available water in the following 2 h compared with eating similar amounts of sugared or unflavored nuts. This suggests that routine ingestion of boluses of salt (~30-40% of daily intake for men, ~ 20-40% for women) does not increase drinking. Methodological concerns such as about nuts as vehicle for sodium suggest further research to establish the generalizability of this unexpected result. PMID:25447020

  13. Sources of increased danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present and future facts of absolute liability under specific laws will have to be supplemented by the legislator, and the claims for damages will have to be limited to physical and material damage. The formulation should be about as follows: 'If a person is killed by a source of increased danger or damage done to his/her body or health or material damage done, the owner of that source will be liable for payment of damages'. A standard of this kind has good chances of being realized and applied in German or even European technical and social developments of the future. The general clause of absolute reliability for sources of increased danger depends on the judge's decision and models so far, also of other countries, give no cause to doubt this. (orig./HP)

  14. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks to the...... shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....... skill composition in the market, employee bargaining power and productivity. Further, when our model is subjected to skill-upgrading and changes in employee bargaining power, it is capable of predicting the recent changes observed in the Danish income distribution. In addition, the model emphasizes that...

  15. Condom use increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    Condom use is central to the prevention of AIDS among people at risk for contracting HIV. As such, condom use is increasing dramatically even though many men say that they do not like using them. Condom sales through social marketing campaigns have increased dramatically in some countries, where tens of millions of condoms are sold annually. For example, during the period 1991-96, annual social marketing sales increased about five-fold in Ethiopia to 21 million, and nine-fold in Brazil to 27 million. These sales reflect the success of condom social marketing campaigns in making condoms accessible and largely affordable. There is also a greater general awareness of AIDS than there used to be, and communication campaigns have shown that condoms are an effective solution. More condoms still need to be used in the ongoing struggle against HIV/AIDS. The author discusses the factors which affect the limited acceptance of condoms, condom use outside of marriage, social marketing, and family planning programs. PMID:12293530

  16. The resurgence of nuclear energy. An option for the climatic change and for the emergent countries?; El resurgimiento de la energia nuclear. Una opcion para el cambio climatico y para los paises emergentes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos A, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Circuito Mario de la Cueva, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Nieva G, R.; Mulas, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Velez, C. [Electricite de France, Comite Cientifico Asesor, 22-30 avenue de Wagram, 75382 Paris (France); Ortiz M, J. R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52759 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Thomas, S. [University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom); Finon, D. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environment et le Developpement, CNRS, Campus du Jardin Tropical 45 bis, avenue de la Belle Gabrielle 94736, Nogent-sur-Marne Cedex (France); Woodman, B. [University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 8UW (United Kingdom); Mez, L. [Freie Universitat Berlin, Environmental Policy Research Centre, Thielallee 47, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The modern society is organized in mistaken form. A tremendous inability of the juridical, political, social and cultural system exists to interrelate the ecosystem (the resources that allow the life and the human activity) with the economic way of production, that is to say with the manner like the human beings appropriate of the nature and they transform it to satisfy the reproduction necessities of the capital and the population. Today we are already paying the consequences of this error. Of continuing with this tendency the next six years, a global increase of five centigrade grades is expected in the temperature, with effects like the increase of the sea level, floods, droughts, among other global problems, for what the gases of greenhouse effect are and they will continue being the main environmental challenge of the X XI century because they not represent alone a threat for the development but also for the humanity survival. The world conscience has wakened up, and in most of the countries where is stopped the construction of new nuclear power plants the plans are reconsidered to return the use of this source, being the two main reasons for reconsideration: the concern for the climatic change and the new world perception about the limits of fossil fuel reserves. The world return of the interest for the nuclear energy, it force to take in consideration the energy politics of Mexico whose structure is too much dependent of hydrocarbons and the import of liquefied natural gas and other energies, subject to the prices volatility and in a frame that lacks long term vision. Here the whole problem of the nuclear industry is exposed, the experiences, the risks, the costs, the future of the energy production for the populations that every time has a bigger consumption, the reader will have, this way, a wide panorama of diverse topics and interests that affect to generation of nuclear energy. (Author)

  17. CHINA INCREASED PETROLEUM TAX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Xueping

    2005-01-01

    @@ After half a year's gestation and adjustment, the State Administration of Taxation finally set new tax rate of petroleum resources. Notification issued by the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation said the petroleum resources tax standard would be lifted nationwide, after the tax rate adjustment, tax on crude oil would be increased to RMB 14-30 yuan per ton and that on natural gas to RMB 7-15 yuan per thousand cubic meters. The new tax rate has been effective nationwide since July 1.

  18. Multifocal Ectopic Purkinje-Related Premature Contractions: A New SCN5A-Related Cardiac Channelopathy. : MEPPC: a new SCN5A-related cardiac channelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Amarouch, Mohamed Yassine; Barc, Julien; Bar, Isabelle; Baron, Estelle; Barthez, Olivier; Bertaux, Geraldine; Béziau, Delphine M.; Charpentier, Flavien; Charron, Philippe; Coudière, Yves; Dina, Christian; Faivre, Laurence; Fressart, Véronique; Kyndt, Florence; Laurent, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe a new familial cardiac phenotype and to elucidate the electrophysiological mechanism responsible for the disease. BACKGROUND: Mutations in several genes encoding ion channels, especially SCN5A, have emerged as the basis for a variety of inherited cardiac arrhythmias. METHODS: Three unrelated families comprising 21 individuals affected by multifocal ectopic Purkinje-related premature contractions (MEPPC) characterized by narrow junctional and r...

  19. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  20. Increasing Responsibility towards Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Comanescu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the international climate of the early millennium, the need for reconciliation between economic and social development, on one hand, and the environment, on the other hand, is essential. Therefore, sustainable development must be promoted, because it integrates economic growth, improved quality of life, health, education, social development and environmental protection.Environmental issues are particularly complex as their causes are interdependent. This requires actions at all levels: local, national, regional as well as at the European Union level, each with its own role in increasing responsibility for the environmental protection.It is widely recognized that to obtain successful results an integrated approach has to be used to manage the environment, by adopting long-term strategies and action plans. It requires a detailed analysis of the links between different policies and responsibilities, including the links between different administrative levels.

  1. Increasing Responsibility towards Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela COMĂNESCU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the international climate of the early millennium, the need for reconciliation between economic and social development, on one hand, and the environment, on the other hand, is essential. Therefore, sustainable development must be promoted, because it integrates economic growth, improves quality of life, health, education, social development and environmental protection. Environmental issues are particularly complex as their causes are interdependent. This requires actions at all levels: local, national, regional as well as at the European Union level, each with its own role in increasing responsibility for the environmental protection. It is widely recognized that to obtain successful results an integrated approach has to be used to manage the environment, by adopting long-term strategies and action plans. It requires a detailed analysis of the links between different policies and responsibilities, including the links between different administrative levels.

  2. Increasing immunization coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Lawrence D; Curry, Edward S; Harlor, Allen D; Laughlin, James J; Leeds, Andrea J; Lessin, Herschel R; Rodgers, Chadwick T; Granado-Villar, Deise C; Brown, Jeffrey M; Cotton, William H; Gaines, Beverly Marie Madry; Gambon, Thresia B; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Gorski, Peter A; Kraft, Colleen A; Marino, Ronald Vincent; Paz-Soldan, Gonzalo J; Zind, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    In 1977, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a statement calling for universal immunization of all children for whom vaccines are not contraindicated. In 1995, the policy statement "Implementation of the Immunization Policy" was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, followed in 2003 with publication of the first version of this statement, "Increasing Immunization Coverage." Since 2003, there have continued to be improvements in immunization coverage, with progress toward meeting the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Data from the 2007 National Immunization Survey showed that 90% of children 19 to 35 months of age have received recommended doses of each of the following vaccines: inactivated poliovirus (IPV), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella-zoster virus (VZB), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). For diphtheria and tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, 84.5% have received the recommended 4 doses by 35 months of age. Nevertheless, the Healthy People 2010 goal of at least 80% coverage for the full series (at least 4 doses of DTaP, 3 doses of IPV, 1 dose of MMR, 3 doses of Hib, 3 doses of HBV, and 1 dose of varicella-zoster virus vaccine) has not yet been met, and immunization coverage of adolescents continues to lag behind the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Despite these encouraging data, a vast number of new challenges that threaten continued success toward the goal of universal immunization coverage have emerged. These challenges include an increase in new vaccines and new vaccine combinations as well as a significant number of vaccines currently under development; a dramatic increase in the acquisition cost of vaccines, coupled with a lack of adequate payment to practitioners to buy and administer vaccines; unanticipated manufacturing and delivery problems that have caused significant shortages of various vaccine products; and the rise of a public antivaccination movement that uses the

  3. Foreign aid resurgent: New spirit or old hangover?

    OpenAIRE

    Burnell, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study is premised on the view that reports circulating in the 1990s, claiming foreign aid was in terminal crisis, were premature. Aid’s reviving fortunes are explained in terms both of a growing awareness of the uneven implications of globalization and the after-effects of the terrorist events of 11 September 2001. However these two ‘drivers’ make uneasy partners. Furthermore, aid for democratization, argued in the 1990s to be an instrument for indirectly addressing socioeconomic weaknes...

  4. An Evaluation of Resurgence during Functional Communication Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Morgan, Theresa A.; Berg, Wendy K.; Schieltz, Kelly M.; Lee, John F.; Padilla, Yaniz C.

    2013-01-01

    Three children who displayed destructive behavior maintained by negative reinforcement received functional communication training (FCT). During FCT, the children were required to complete a demand and then to mand (touch a card attached to a microswitch, sign, or vocalize) to receive brief play breaks. Prior to and 1 to 3 times following the…

  5. Resurgence of Selective Industrial Policy: What Turkey Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Gokhan

    2011-01-01

    Three decades of Turkish experience with nonselective industrial policies (consistent with neoliberal policy) clearly demonstrates that structural transformation in Turkish economy could not be achieved. In this paper, we have three motivations. Our first motivation is to discuss overall industrial policy developments in Turkey since 1980s. Secondly, we aim to recommend feasible selective industrial policies for Turkey to support structural transformation. Thirdly, we comment on new Industria...

  6. The Resurgence, Legitimation and Institutionalization of Qualitative Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Fielding, Nigel

    2005-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit dem Stellenwert qualitativer Forschungsmethoden im Universitätscurriculum unter Berücksichtigung sich wandelnder Nutzungsweisen. Hierzu gehören zunächst der Beginn und die Frühzeit qualitativer Methodologie – insbesondere die Chicagoer Schule und die Schöpfungsmythen qualitativer Soziologie – und deren Einordnung in das sozialwissenschaftliche Curriculum. Mit Strukturalismus und Funktionalismus und deren makrosoziologischer und quantitativer Affinität ist es da...

  7. Burial and resurgence of projective identification in French psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widlöcher, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Curiously enough, the concept of projective identification was ignored, and even rejected in France for at least two decades after the publication of the founding texts of Melanie Klein and Herbert Rosenfeld. This rejection was due to a critique from child psychoanalysts close to Anna Freud and also from the teaching of Lacan: the first took the real mother-child relation extensively into account, while the latter only saw the internal object as a signifier. The fact that during this period the countertransference was a concept reduced to its negative content no doubt explains this deliberate ignorance. With the dissemination of a broader and more positive conception of the countertransference, a renewal of interest could be observed in the 1980s with references to empathic listening and to the effects of thought-induction. PMID:25229546

  8. Resurgence of vitamin D: Old wine in new bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishya, Raju; Vijay, Vipul; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Jahangir, Jabed

    2015-09-01

    There are early references of it in ancient text and physicians have discussed its importance and features of its deficiency in the past. Vitamin D has again regained interest with recent dramatic rise in the incidence of deficiency in the developing as well as developing world. In this review article, we discuss the biochemical and role of vitamin D in the skeletal system. We also discuss the recommended dietary requirements and features of skeletal deficiency. Extra-skeletal roles of vitamin D deficiency have been a matter of debate lately and it has also been discussed in detail in this article. In conclusion, it would not be wrong to label vitamin D as one of the most important vitamin involved in the metabolism of the musculoskeletal system and any clinician, especially the orthopaedician, should be well versed with its overall mechanism and roles in the human body. PMID:26155053

  9. The resurgence of thyromimetics as lipid-modifying agents

    OpenAIRE

    Tancevski, I; Eller, P.; Patsch, JR; Ritsch, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive reduction of LDL cholesterol by the use of statins is a cornerstone of preventive cardiovascular care, but additional therapies to prevent atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae are still needed. Thyromimetics selective for the liver or the thyroid hormone receptor isoform β1 constitute a novel approach to treat dyslipidemia. In preclinical studies, selective thyromimetics were clearly shown to reduce plasma cholesterol and to protect from atherosclerosis through the upregulatio...

  10. The Resurgence of Religion in America’s Prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hallett

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the growing prominence of “faith-based” programs in American corrections and the historical context of penal regime change during periods of economic crisis. The article traces areas of overlap and divergence in recent discussions of penal reform in the U.S. The article suggests a new American penitentiary movement is emerging, noting central tenets of faith-based programs have salience for both conservatives and liberals: on the one hand, faith-based programs are largely paid for by church congregations and volunteers, which appeals to conservatives’ desire to shrink government and get taxpayers out of the business of community building; on the other, faith-based programs demonstrate a recommitment to having at least some level of programming in prisons, which satisfies the left’s view that community building and social capital ultimately lower recidivism. The paper documents several prominent faith-based correctional programs while articulating an agenda for research.

  11. Malaria resurgence in Senegal: measuring malaria mortality in Mlomp

    OpenAIRE

    Géraldine Duthé

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is one of the leading causes of child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. With the development of drug-resistant parasites, the fight against malaria has become complex, and because demographic and health data are scarce in the most hard-hit countries, the impact of the disease is difficult to evaluate. Demographic surveillance sites provide a means to measure levels and trends in mortality and causes of death. The data they provide are not exhaustive, however, for malaria in particular....

  12. Restart: The Resurgence of Computer Science in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil C. C.; Sentance, Sue; Crick, Tom; Humphreys, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a remarkable transformation. While the changes are not consistent across each of the four devolved nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), there are developments in each that are moving the subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5 onwards. In this article, we…

  13. Neurological manifestations of oculodentodigital dysplasia: a Cx43 channelopathy of the central nervous system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke eDe Bock

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The coordination of tissue function is mediated by gap junctions (GJs that enable direct cell-cell transfer of metabolic and electric signals. GJs are formed by connexins of which Cx43 is most widespread in the human body. In the brain, Cx43 GJs are mostly found in astroglia where they coordinate the propagation of Ca2+ waves, spatial K+ buffering and distribution of glucose. Beyond its role in direct intercellular communication, Cx43 also forms unapposed, non-junctional hemichannels in the plasma membrane of glial cells. These allow the passage of several neuro- and gliotransmitters that may, combined with downstream paracrine signaling, complement direct GJ communication among glial cells and sustain glial-neuronal signaling. Mutations in the GJA1 gene encoding Cx43 have been identified in a rare, mostly autosomal dominant syndrome called oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD. ODDD patients display a pleiotropic phenotype reflected by eye, hand, teeth and foot abnormalities, as well as craniofacial and bone malformations. Remarkably, neurological symptoms such as dysarthria, neurogenic bladder (manifested as urinary incontinence, spasticity or muscle weakness, ataxia, and epilepsy are other prominent features observed in ODDD patients. Over 10 mutations detected in patients diagnosed with neurological disorders are associated with altered functionality of Cx43 GJs/hemichannels, but the link between ODDD-related abnormal channel activities and neurologic phenotype is still elusive. Here, we present an overview on the nature of the mutants conveying structural and functional changes of Cx43 channels and discuss available evidence for aberrant Cx43 GJ and hemichannel function. In a final step, we examine the possibilities of how channel dysfunction may lead to some of the neurological manifestations of ODDD.

  14. Sodium channel mutation in irritable bowel syndrome: evidence for an ion channelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Yuri A; Strege, Peter R.; Tester, David J.; Locke, G. Richard; Talley, Nicholas J; Bernard, Cheryl E.; Rae, James L.; Makielski, Jonathan C.; Ackerman, Michael J.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2008-01-01

    The SCN5A-encoded Nav1.5 Na+ channel is expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal and smooth muscle in the circular layer of the human intestine. Patients with mutations in SCN5A are more likely to report gastrointestinal symptoms, especially abdominal pain. Twin and family studies of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) suggest a genetic basis for IBS, but no genes have been identified to date. Therefore, our aims were to evaluate SCN5A as a candidate gene involved in the pathogenesis of IBS and to...

  15. Diabetic Dead-in-Bed Syndrome: A Possible Link to a Cardiac Ion Channelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Skinner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden unexpected nocturnal death among patients with diabetes occurs approximately ten times more commonly than in the general population. Malignant ventricular arrhythmia due to Brugada syndrome has been postulated as a cause, since a glucose-insulin bolus can unmask the Brugada electrocardiographic signature in genetically predisposed individuals. In this report we present a 16-year-old male with insulin-dependent diabetes who died suddenly at night. His diabetes had been well controlled, without significant hypoglycaemia. At autopsy, he had a full stomach and a glucose level of 7 mmol/L in vitreous humor, excluding hypoglycaemia. Genetic analysis of autopsy DNA revealed a missense mutation, c.370A>G (p.Ile124Val, in the GPD1L gene. A parent carried the same mutation and has QT prolongation. Mutations in this gene have been linked to Brugada syndrome and sudden infant death. The patient may have died from a ventricular arrhythmia, secondary to occult Brugada syndrome, triggered by a full stomach and insulin. The data suggest that molecular autopsies are warranted to investigate other cases of the diabetic dead-in-bed syndrome.

  16. Screening for, and management of, possible arrhythmogenic syndromes (channelopathies/ion channel diseases)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Geelen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This survey assesses the current management strategies for individuals with electrocardiographic features, suggesting an arrhythmogenic syndrome [including long QT syndrome (LQTS), Brugada syndrome (BS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) or short QT syndrome] or family...

  17. Increasing instruction time in school does increase learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria; Nandrup, Anne Brink; Andersen, Simon Calmar

    2016-01-01

    Increasing instruction time in school is a central element in the attempts of many governments to improve student learning, but prior research—mainly based on observational data—disputes the effect of this approach and points out the potential negative effects on student behavior. Based on a large......-scale, cluster-randomized trial, we find that increasing instruction time increases student learning and that a general increase in instruction time is at least as efficient as an expert-developed, detailed teaching program that increases instruction with the same amount of time. These findings support the value...

  18. Strong increase of solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of installed solar panels in 2011 has increased again. 40 megawatt of new panels have been installed. This increase is twice as high as the year before. The production of solar power increased to 90 million kWh in 2011 as a result of this expansion. However, the share of solar power in total energy use is still very limited.

  19. Korea's 2015 cigarette tax increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2016-03-01

    South Korea increased tobacco taxes in 2015 after a 10-year gap. This commentary suggests two lessons for public finance practitioners. Substantive tax increases are crucial to reducing tobacco use; particularly where prices are demonstrably lower and prevalence higher in comparison to other countries ranked similarly on economic development indicators. Second, as a rule of thumb, governments cannot afford to neglect the annual increases that ensure that tobacco taxes do not lose their efficacy over time. PMID:25673328

  20. NASA budget increases for 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The fiscal year 1994 budget request for NASA is $15.3 billion, an increase of $934.6 million, or 6.5%, above the 1993 appropriation of $14.3 billion. Within this first budget request developed under NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, the emphasis has changed and some details remain unresolved. At the agency's budget briefing, Goldin echoed Clinton's mantra for change and increased investment in new technologies. Saying that NASA was “too much into human space flight,” Goldin has proposed increased funding for technology development at the expense of the space station. He has also made reductions in some existing programs and increased funding for others.

  1. Increasing Access to Special Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Erway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where we increasingly have access to a collective collection of digitized books, special collections will become increasingly invisible if they are not accessible online. In an era of increasing expectations and decreasing budgets, finding ways to streamline some of our processes is the best way to enable us to do more with less. This report details a number of investigations into how access to special collections can be increased. It includes guidance running the gamut from digitization and rights management to policies and procedures.

  2. Increased airway glucose increases airway bacterial load in hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simren K; Hui, Kailyn; Farne, Hugo; Garnett, James P; Baines, Deborah L; Moore, Luke S P; Holmes, Alison H; Filloux, Alain; Tregoning, John S

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased frequency of hospitalization due to bacterial lung infection. We hypothesize that increased airway glucose caused by hyperglycaemia leads to increased bacterial loads. In critical care patients, we observed that respiratory tract bacterial colonisation is significantly more likely when blood glucose is high. We engineered mutants in genes affecting glucose uptake and metabolism (oprB, gltK, gtrS and glk) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strain PAO1. These mutants displayed attenuated growth in minimal medium supplemented with glucose as the sole carbon source. The effect of glucose on growth in vivo was tested using streptozocin-induced, hyperglycaemic mice, which have significantly greater airway glucose. Bacterial burden in hyperglycaemic animals was greater than control animals when infected with wild type but not mutant PAO1. Metformin pre-treatment of hyperglycaemic animals reduced both airway glucose and bacterial load. These data support airway glucose as a critical determinant of increased bacterial load during diabetes. PMID:27273266

  3. Extreme precipitation: Increases all round

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, William

    2016-05-01

    Globally, extreme rainfall is expected to increase with warming, but regional changes over land have been less certain. Now research shows that this intense precipitation has increased across both the wetter and the drier parts of the continents, and will continue to do so as global warming continues.

  4. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  5. Strategies to Increase Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tuso, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    One key intervention to prevent preventable diseases and to make health care more affordable is to increase the percentage of Americans who are physically active. No single intervention will increase activity rates, but a group of interventions working together in synergy may be the stimulus needed to get Americans moving.

  6. Is the Rape Rate Increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Paul; And Others

    While it has been asserted that rape has increased in frequency over the past generation, part of this increase may be due to a greater willingness to report rape to the authorities. A study was conducted to examine the frequency of rape and to describe the characteristics of rape victims. A random questionnaire survey of 4,340 adults in five…

  7. Increasing Learning from TV News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloff, Richard M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment that manipulated two variables, repetition and pausing for viewer "digestion" of information in a news telecast. Concludes that the use of repetition increased viewers' retention of information, but that pauses did not. (FL)

  8. Requests for body computed tomography: increasing workload, increasing indications and increasing age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing numbers of increasingly elderly patients were being examined in our Body CT department. At the same time, some of our clinical colleagues perceived that their patients might be discriminated against on the basis of their age when allocating CT time. We therefore studied the population trends in our department over a 10-year period. The ages of patients attending the Body CT department were collected from the hospital's computer information system from 1995 to 2000 and from handwritten logbooks for the months of September 1988 and 1998. Comparison was made with population trends within the hospital and local demographic data. There has been an average increase of 11% per annum in the number of examinations performed in the Body CT unit. The average age of patients examined increased from 52.7 years in 1988 to 58.9 years in 1998. The largest increase occurred in the over 75-year population (18% rise per annum). Hospital and local demographic population profiles changed little during the same period. We are performing increasing numbers of body CT examinations on increasingly elderly patients. This is probably due to an increased willingness to investigate and treat elderly patients, rather than changes in the local population. There is no evidence of a general discriminatory policy on the basis of age. (orig.)

  9. Research Evaluation to Increase Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Deborah J.

    2003-01-01

    Research evaluation, undertaken throughout the life of the research activity, is an important tool for research managers. When correctly implemented, research evaluation can help to increase the success of existing and future research projects and programs, thereby increasing the social, economic and/or environmental impact of the research. The relationship between the life-cycle of the research project and the type of evaluation determines the appropriate type of evaluation to be undertaken....

  10. INCREASING RETURN TO SMART CITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Lööf, Hans; Nabavi, Pardis

    2012-01-01

    Increased urbanization, global warming and sustainable growth belong to the major contemporary policy challenges. Today cities are home to more than 50% of the world population, the largest 600 urban centers generate about 60% of global GDP, and the agglomerated areas are responsible for 75% of world carbon emissions. The UN estimates that 70% of the world's growing population will live in cities by 2050. At the same time the world population is expected to increase from 7 billion people to 9...

  11. Meclofenamate increases ventilation in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, F A; Savich, R D; Clyman, R I; Kitterman, J A

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, meclofenamate, on postnatal ventilation, we studied 11 unanaesthetised, spontaneously-breathing lambs at an average age of 7.9 +/- 1.1 days (SEM; range 5-14 days) and an average weight of 4.9 +/- 0.5 kg (range 3.0-7.0 kg). After a 30-min control period we infused 4.23 mg/kg meclofenamate over 10 min and then gave 0.23 mg/h per kg for the remainder of the 4 h. Ventilation increased progressively from a control value of 515 +/- 72 ml/min per kg to a maximum of 753 +/- 100 ml/min per kg after 3h of infusion (P less than 0.05) due to an increased breathing rate; the effects were similar during both high- and low-voltage electrocortical activity. There were no significant changes in tidal volume, heart rate, blood pressure, arterial pH or PaCO2, the increased ventilation resulted from either an increase in dead space ventilation or an increase in CO2 production. This study indicates that meclofenamate causes an increase in ventilation in lambs but no changes in pH of PaCO2. The mechanism and site of action remain to be defined. PMID:2507622

  12. Increased chromosome radiosensitivity during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was necessary to consider the risks of exposure of pregnant women, not only in relation to the child, but also in relation to their own hypersensitivity. We have demonstrated that pregnancy increases radiosensitivity of chromosome in the mouse at the end of gestation. This is of importance since it may have implications on radioprotection of pregnant women and give experimental guidelines to the problems of hypersensitivity to drugs and cancer aggravation during pregnancy. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was exposed to ionizing radiations. By comparison to non-pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakage was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes, after short-term culture in the presence of the serum of the same donor. Immediately after delivery, this increase in radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase in radiosensitivity. Pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy. This study provides the first evidence in human that radiosensitivity may vary in relation to physiological conditions

  13. Increased burnup of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specialists' group for fuel elements of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft e.V. held a meeting on ''Increased Burnup of Fuel Elements'' on 9th and 10th of November 1982 at the GKSS Research Center Geesthacht. Most papers dealt with the problems of burnup increase of fuel elements for light water reactors with respect to fuel manufacturing, power plant operation and reprocessing. Review papers were given on the burnup limits for high temperature gas cooled reactors and sodium fast breeder reactors. The meeting ended with a presentation of the technical equipment of the hot laboratory of the GKSS and the programs which are in progress there. (orig.)

  14. Fires increase Amazon forest productivity through increases in diffuse radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rap, A.; Spracklen, D. V.; Mercado, L.; Reddington, C. L.; Haywood, J. M.; Ellis, R. J.; Phillips, O. L.; Artaxo, P.; Bonal, D.; Restrepo Coupe, N.; Butt, N.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol scatters solar radiation increasing the fraction of diffuse radiation and the efficiency of photosynthesis. We quantify the impacts of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) on diffuse radiation and plant photosynthesis across Amazonia during 1998-2007. Evaluation against observed aerosol optical depth allows us to provide lower and upper BBA emissions estimates. BBA increases Amazon basin annual mean diffuse radiation by 3.4-6.8% and net primary production (NPP) by 1.4-2.8%, with quoted ranges driven by uncertainty in BBA emissions. The enhancement of Amazon basin NPP by 78-156 Tg C a-1 is equivalent to 33-65% of the annual regional carbon emissions from biomass burning. This NPP increase occurs during the dry season and acts to counteract some of the observed effect of drought on tropical production. We estimate that 30-60 Tg C a-1 of this NPP enhancement is within woody tissue, accounting for 8-16% of the observed carbon sink across mature Amazonian forests.

  15. Increased Spreading Activation in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul S.; Yung, Raegan C.; Branch, Kaylei K.; Stringer, Kristi; Ferguson, Brad J.; Sullivan, William; Drago, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The dopaminergic system is implicated in depressive disorders and research has also shown that dopamine constricts lexical/semantic networks by reducing spreading activation. Hence, depression, which is linked to reductions of dopamine, may be associated with increased spreading activation. However, research has generally found no effects of…

  16. Increasing work-time influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Aust, Birgit;

    2012-01-01

    (subgroup B), or discussion of working hours (subgroup C). Only computerised self-scheduling changed the working hours and the way they were planned. These changes implied more flexible but less regular working hours and an experience of less predictability and less continuity in the care of clients and in...... and interviews with intervention-group participants (n = 32). The work units in the intervention group designed their own intervention comprising either implementation of computerised self-scheduling (subgroup A), collection of information about the employees' work-time preferences by questionnaires...... intervention study suggested that while increasing the individual flexibility, increasing work-time influence may also result in decreased regularity of the working hours and less continuity in the care of clients and co-operation with colleagues....

  17. How to increase living donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Connie L

    2011-04-01

    Living donation is the key to increasing access to successful solid organ transplantation worldwide. However, the means to expanding the number of living donors on a global scale are not known. Although there have been many suggestions for the best approach, cultural issues may limit the effectiveness of some strategies. Only a few ideas have been studied, and one in particular- outright payment to donors - may raise ethical issues that are difficult to surmount and might negatively alter altruistic behavior. With respect to the present environment, this article will describe some of the approaches that are being discussed to increase the number of living donors, with a particular focus on kidney transplantation. PMID:21210867

  18. Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.

  19. Price Increases from Online Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Michael R; Chen, Yu-Ching

    2001-01-01

    Consumers value keeping some information about them private from potential marketers. E-commerce dramatically increases the potential for marketers to accumulate otherwise private information about potential customers. Online marketers claim that this information enables them to better market their products. Policy makers are currently drafting rules to regulate the way in which these marketers can collect, store, and share this information. However, there is little evidence yet either of con...

  20. Turkey's Increasing Role in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muharrem Eksi

    2010-01-01

    TThis paper is briefly dealing with the current situation in Afghanistan within the context of Turkey’s increasing role in Afghanistan. Turkish-Afghani relations are examined in terms of politics and economy while Turkish foreign policies towards Afghanistan and the Turkish-Pakistani-Afghani triple summit attempts are analyzed. Additionally, Turkey’s security and socio-economic contributions in Afghanistan are emphasized. Turkey’s unwillingness to send troops to Afghanistan for operational pu...

  1. Does nationalization increase stakeholder democracy?

    OpenAIRE

    Simeon Scott

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the theory and practice of stakeholder democracy. After examining the liberal notion of representative democracy, the paper seeks to identify the democratic deficit associated with the shareholder and stakeholder approaches to corporate governance. Investigating stakeholder democracy in nationalized industries in both market- and state-capitalist societies, the argument presented is that neither type of society has significantly increased ...

  2. NSF and NASA budgets increased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Research budgets of several of the federal government agencies were increased significantly over the Reagan administration's requests in the House of Representative's appropriations bill H.R. 4034. These budgets had been removed from the Reagan administration's omnibus reconciliation bill, and thus there were worries expressed that certain research funding could be in jeopardy. The rationale was that because the requests were voted on individually on the floor of the House, many sections of the budgets would be subjected to extra scrutiny, which would lead to more cuts.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request had been cut and reordered by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) by making sharp reductions in programs of the social sciences and in programs of science and engineering education. There were fears that these programs would be reinstated to the original request level, at the expense of the budgets of other research activities. These fears materialized, but only momentarily. Efforts to cut the research activities by the House Appropriations Committee were soundly defeated. The budget was supported, with additional increases to provide for the education programs, by a high margin, which included most Republican and Democratic members of the House of Representatives. The overall NSF budget, as passed, has a total appropriation of $1103.5 million, compared with the Administration's request of $1033.5 million (the Fiscal Year 1981 appropriation for the NSF was $1022.4 million). The House approved budget included increases of $44.9 million in research and $25.1 million in science and engineering education. Included in the research budget increase were recommendations by the House Appropriations Committee for support of the social sciences and for the international affairs programs. Also included in the recommendations was support of interdisciplinary research programs that cut across the directorates of the NSF.

  3. Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success

    OpenAIRE

    Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F. sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F. × bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Cent...

  4. Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success

    OpenAIRE

    Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F.sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F.x bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Centra...

  5. CAN INCOME EQUALITY INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS?

    OpenAIRE

    Fishman, Arthur; Simhon, Avi

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between income distribution, prices, production efficiency and aggregate output in a decentralized search economy. We show that income distribution determines how competitive the market is, and thereby affects production efficiency and aggregate output. It is shown that it is generally possible to engineer a judicious transfer of income from high to low income individuals which simultaneously increases income equality, competitiveness, and aggregate output.

  6. How trade unions increase welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Donado, Alejandro; Klaus WALDE

    2010-01-01

    Historically, worker movements have played a crucial role in making workplaces safer. Firms traditionally oppose better health standards. According to our interpretation, workplace safety is costly for firms but increases the average health of workers and thereby the aggregate labour supply. A laissez-faire approach in which firms set safety standards is suboptimal as workers are not fully informed of health risks associated with jobs. Safety standards set by better-informed trade unions are ...

  7. High Heels Increase Women's Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Research has found that the appearance of women's apparel helps increase their attractiveness as rated by men and that men care more about physical features in potential opposite-sex mates. However, the effect of sartorial appearance has received little interest from scientists. In a series of studies, the length of women's shoe heels was examined. A woman confederate wearing black shoes with 0, 5, or 9 cm heels asked men for help in various circumstances. In Study 1, she asked men to respond to a short survey on gender equality. In Study 2, the confederate asked men and women to participate in a survey on local food habit consumption. In Study 3, men and women in the street were observed while walking in back of the female confederate who dropped a glove apparently unaware of her loss. It was found that men's helping behavior increased as soon as heel length increased. However, heel length had no effect on women's helping behavior. It was also found that men spontaneously approached women more quickly when they wore high-heeled shoes (Study 4). Change in gait, foot-size judgment, and misattribution of sexiness and sexual intent were used as possible explanations. PMID:25408499

  8. [How to increase food production?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahamanyi, L

    1984-12-01

    Pressure of population on cultivable land, serious soil erosion, and low productivity due to scarcity of inputs have hampered efforts to provide an adequate diet for the population of Rwanda. Until the present, production has increased about as rapidly as population, but Rwanda is not totally self-sufficient in food, future climatic conditions may be less favorable than those of the past, technical and resource constraints are likely to increase, and little new land will be available for cultivation. Between 1970-80, hectares devoted to bananas and beans have increased considerably, but the marginal nature of much new land has seriously lowered productivity. Sweet potatoes are more extensively grown but their productivity is limited, and productivity of manioc has stagnated despite efforts to increase it. Peas are less frequently cultivated because the fallow land on they they are grown has almost disappeared due to population pressure. Agriculture in Rwanda has always been associated with herding, but population pressure is eliminating pastureland. Firewood for cooking is also becoming more scarce and reforestation is not proceeding rapidly enough to fill projected demand. Between 1978-80 and the year 2000, preliminary goals are to increase production in tons from 2,005,900 to 3,375,000 for bananas, from 177,400 to 330,000 for beans, from 15,200 to 45,500 for ground nuts, from 4000 to 25,000 for soybeans, from 174,800 to 288,000 for sorghum, from 81,300 to 250,000 for maize, from 3700 to 45,000 for rice, from 837,100 to 2,148,000 for sweet potatoes, from 506,600 to 1,200,000 for manioc, and from 216,000 to 600,000 for potatoes. Reaching these goals will require doubling of overall productivity per hectare. Different strategies will be required for increasing the yields of the principal crops. Priority should be given to developing strains of beans that will grow well in the poor soils, dry or cold regions, and acidic soils where they are usually planted in Rwanda

  9. Do trade missions increase trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Head, Keith; Ries, John

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to stimulate trade, Canada has conducted regular trade missions starting in 1994, often led by the Prime Minister. According to the Canadian government, these missions generated tens of billions of dollars in new business deals. This paper uses bilateral trade data to assess this claim. We find that Canada exports and imports above-normal amounts to the countries to which it sent trade missions. However, the missions do not seem to have caused an increase in trade. In the preferr...

  10. Increase Productivity Through Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrikova, N. A.; Dolgih, I. N.; Dyrina, E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Increase in competition level requires companies to improve the efficiency of work force use characterized by labor productivity. Professional knowledge of staff and its experience play the key role in it. The results of Extrusion Line operator’s working time analysis are performed in this article. The analysis revealed that the reasons of working time ineffective use connected with inadequate information exchange and knowledge management in the company. Authors suggest the way to solve this problem: the main sources of knowledge in engineering enterprise have been defined, the conditions of success and the stages of knowledge management control have been stated.

  11. [Ozone decline and UV increase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, P; Trepte, S

    2004-02-01

    The following results have been obtained from long-term observations on the ozone layer and UV at the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeigenberg:The seasonally varying decline of the ozone layer determines the maximum exposure to UV. Since ozone decline shows the highest rates in the spring months the UV exposure has most strongly increased in this time of the year. This is especially important because in spring the human skin is not adapted to UV exposure. Weather changes from day to day can induce rapid ozone reductions in spring about -30% which in turn is followed by an increase in UV of about 40%. Clouds, especially the transparent cirrus clouds (high clouds consisting of ice particles) have increased in frequency during spring and fall while a decrease is observed in summer. This change in cloudiness reduces the daily UV dose in spring and fall while it is enhanced in summer. With increasing height above sea level UV rises by roughly 10% per 1000 m (rule of thumb). Snow reflects the UV-radiation by up to 80% enhancing the UV-doses at relevant conditions. Strong volcano eruptions destroy ozone in the stratosphere additionally during 1-2 years after the eruption. Therafter the ozone layer recovers. In April 1993, after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (1991), the UV burden was still 40% higher than average. Miniholes and streamers can appear unexpected on a short-time scale and cross over Central Europe within 1-2 days, thus enhancing UV irradiation. The human skin reacts to UV exposure depending on the type of skin. The campaign "Sonne(n) mit Verstand" of the Bavarian Ministries for Environment, for Health and for Education informs about the danger of UV radiation (see www.sonne-mit-ver-stand.de). The German Weather Service informs the public on present developments of the ozone layer and relevant topics byits ozone bulletin, which is also available via internet under (www.dwd.de/deFundE/Observator/MOHp/hp2/ozon/bulletin.htm). PMID:14770335

  12. USA: Organic demand to increase

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2013-01-01

    The demand for organic food will continue to increase driven by health conscious consumers, according to a new survey of 1500 US consumers. The 155 page report by Technomic Inc advises food service executives, operators and suppliers to “consider re-evaluating their product mix to appeal to this no-longer-niche market". A key finding of the Healthy Eating Consumer Trend Report is that "the vast majority [of consumers] say that health is a priority for them and they at least try to eat hea...

  13. Increasing Security in Cloud Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Priyanka; Sanyal, Sugata

    2013-01-01

    The concept of cloud computing was introduced to meet the increase in demand for new application for a project, and to provide a large storage facility whenever or wherever a user needs it. The cloud system facility helped many industries as well as individual users to get authentic software at a very low cost. But with this new system comes the major concern of security, as the connection to the cloud is through the web and the data and application availability need to be handled for each cl...

  14. Increasing situational awareness using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; Williams, Robert L.; Wasser, Edward; Kode, Niranjan

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the United States Armed Services and various law enforcement agencies have shown increasing interest in evaluating the feasibility of using smartphones and hand-held devices as part of the standard gear for its personnel, who are actively engaged on battlefield or in crime-prone areas. The primary motive driving analysis efforts to employ smartphone-based technologies is the prospect of the increased "Situational Awareness" achievable thru a digitally connected network of armed personnel. Personnel would be equipped with customized smart applications that use the device's sensors (GPS, camera, compass, etc...) to sense the hostile environments as well as enabling them to perform collaborative tasks to effectively complete a given mission. In this vein, as part of the Summer At The Edge (SATE) program, a group of student interns under the guidance of mentors from Qbase and AFRL, have employed smartphones and built three smart applications to tackle three real-world scenarios: PinPoint, IStream, and Cooperative GPS. This paper provides implementation details for these prototype applications, along with the supporting visualization and sensor cloud platforms and discusses results obtained from field testing of the same. Further, the paper concludes by providing the implications of the present work and insights into future work.

  15. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  16. [Patients' increasing role in healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Cinzia

    2016-03-01

    Since the late '90s citizens have been increasingly involved in healthcare, thanks to a shift in access to healthcare information, greater patients' and citizens' awareness about their rights and needs, and a change in physicians' attitudes and behavior. At the same time, to ensure the sustainability of the national health services, patients' needs are increasingly being examined in relation to the services and interventions needed, and to foster informed demand by patients and citizens, and appropriate prescriptions by physicians. Nowadays, patients already have a section in an authoritative medical journal. Working with clinicians, they set research priorities and the outcomes to be studied. Especially in UK and USA, they are invited to participate in the design and development of trials and in deciding which trials should be funded. The situation varies widely in different countries, though involving citizens in healthcare decisions is a common mantra. Even when they consult a clinician, the patients' role has evolved. People ask for information more often and want an active part in decisions about their health. Physicians start to pay more attention to the person and the social context, feelings and emotions, and person-centered care has become a reference in the doctor-patient relationship. This article offers an overview of the changing roles of patients and citizens in healthcare. PMID:27030220

  17. Increase of power plant efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of power plant efficiency has always been the aim of power plant manufacturers and operators. Today, after the re-orientation of the worldwide market situation, it is necessary to newly assess the power plant efficiency in the field of competition and environment. The average efficiency of power plants presently ranges worldwide at about 30%, yet the status of available technology in the year 2000 permits efficiencies between 45 an 58% depending on the fuels used. VGB PowerTech has been monitoring the technical development of power generation for 80 years up to now. From our point of view, power plant technology still has a great development potential at its disposal. (orig.)

  18. Increasing of Reliability of Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trebuňa, F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The innovative activities in steel production invoke exploitation of new machines with the higher production capacity and productivity of labor. The paper deals with deformation and stress analysis of carrying parts of converter pedestal on the base of which the proposals and supporting measures were made that had the aim to increase reliability of the converter during steel production. This was achieved by lifespan prolongation of anchor and connecting bolts of converter pedestal, by change of stiffness of connected elements as well as by correction of nuts of bolted connections. The realization of structural changes decreased loading amplitudes and consequently the vibrations of pedestal. Solution was verified by numerical and experimental procedures of mechanics.

  19. Increasing the Overall Quality and the Number of Women and Hispanic Geoscientists for the Workforce: Rebuilding an Undergraduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M. T.; McGehee, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past ten years, the Geosciences Program at Texas A&M University-Kingsville has increased the number of Geology majors 400%, and in the past five years we have graduated 62 students, an increase of 800%. Of these graduates, 37% were Hispanic or African-American and 26% were women. Our graduates are high-achievers with 13% also graduating from the Honor's College (campus-wide rate is less than 1.5%) and that included three women and two Hispanic graduates. Two of these recent graduates are doctoral candidates and eleven are master's candidates at major universities. Of these, three master's candidates are Hispanic, including two women, and one doctoral candidate is a Hispanic woman. The recent productivity and quality changes in this program are attributed to our shift toward an undergraduate, student-centered focus. The increases in productivity resulted from the development of strong relationships with community colleges across the state and significant efforts in recruitment and retention. The major changes in quality included implementation of a strong field-oriented focus with full faculty participation, a strong undergraduate research program, a well-developed recruitment and retention plan, a GIS Certification incorporated into the geology degree, and a culture change to further student professional development. We have maintained over 50 majors in our program for the past three years through increased faculty presentations at high-schools and community colleges, a good University recruiting staff, and quarterly newsletters, focused on student achievements, sent to all prospective students and parents inquiring about the geology major. The resurgence of the oil and gas industry and the retirement of geoscientists have provided a steady stream of job opportunities for our graduates. The 79% that are not pursuing a graduate education accepted jobs after graduation. These include oil and gas entry level jobs, mining jobs, teaching jobs, and geospatial

  20. Propofol directly increases tau phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Whittington

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD and other tauopathies, the microtubule-associated protein tau can undergo aberrant hyperphosphorylation potentially leading to the development of neurofibrillary pathology. Anesthetics have been previously shown to induce tau hyperphosphorylation through a mechanism involving hypothermia-induced inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A activity. However, the effects of propofol, a common clinically used intravenous anesthetic, on tau phosphorylation under normothermic conditions are unknown. We investigated the effects of a general anesthetic dose of propofol on levels of phosphorylated tau in the mouse hippocampus and cortex under normothermic conditions. Thirty min following the administration of propofol 250 mg/kg i.p., significant increases in tau phosphorylation were observed at the AT8, CP13, and PHF-1 phosphoepitopes in the hippocampus, as well as at AT8, PHF-1, MC6, pS262, and pS422 epitopes in the cortex. However, we did not detect somatodendritic relocalization of tau. In both brain regions, tau hyperphosphorylation persisted at the AT8 epitope 2 h following propofol, although the sedative effects of the drug were no longer evident at this time point. By 6 h following propofol, levels of phosphorylated tau at AT8 returned to control levels. An initial decrease in the activity and expression of PP2A were observed, suggesting that PP2A inhibition is at least partly responsible for the hyperphosphorylation of tau at multiple sites following 30 min of propofol exposure. We also examined tau phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells transfected to overexpress human tau. A 1 h exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of propofol in vitro was also associated with tau hyperphosphorylation. These findings suggest that propofol increases tau phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro under normothermic conditions, and further studies are warranted to determine the impact of this anesthetic on the acceleration of

  1. Turkey's Increasing Role in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Eksi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is briefly dealing with the current situation in Afghanistan within the context of Turkey’s increasing role in Afghanistan. Turkish-Afghani relations are examined in terms of politics and economy while Turkish foreign policies towards Afghanistan and the Turkish-Pakistani-Afghani triple summit attempts are analyzed. Additionally, Turkey’s security and socio-economic contributions in Afghanistan are emphasized. Turkey’s unwillingness to send troops to Afghanistanfor operational purposes that is frequently debated in national and international circles has been evaluated by stating the advantages and disadvantages of such decision. Turkey’s quiet approach between 2001 and 2004 towards Afghanistan, which have been energizing since 2005 and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu’s visit to Afghanistan on June 2009 have been dealt as well. By considering Davutoglu’s policies, aiming to introduce Turkey as a global actor and as the term President of the UNSC (the UN Security Council, it seems that Turkey is preparing to play a more active role in Afghanistan.

  2. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception. PMID:20129047

  3. Slow motion increases perceived intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Eugene M; Burns, Zachary C; Converse, Benjamin A

    2016-08-16

    To determine the appropriate punishment for a harmful action, people must often make inferences about the transgressor's intent. In courtrooms and popular media, such inferences increasingly rely on video evidence, which is often played in "slow motion." Four experiments (n = 1,610) involving real surveillance footage from a murder or broadcast replays of violent contact in professional football demonstrate that viewing an action in slow motion, compared with regular speed, can cause viewers to perceive an action as more intentional. This slow motion intentionality bias occurred, in part, because slow motion video caused participants to feel like the actor had more time to act, even when they knew how much clock time had actually elapsed. Four additional experiments (n = 2,737) reveal that allowing viewers to see both regular speed and slow motion replay mitigates the bias, but does not eliminate it. We conclude that an empirical understanding of the effect of slow motion on mental state attribution should inform the life-or-death decisions that are currently based on tacit assumptions about the objectivity of human perception. PMID:27482091

  4. Fewer children equals increased savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Although the precise mechanisms by which population growth affects economic development are very complex, it appears that slower growth is associated with higher savings and investment ratios, as well as income growth. A study prepared for the US's National Research Council revealed that among 70 countries, a shift from a high to a low fertility was associated with a 50& increase in the net national savings rate. In 38 countries with slower population growth during the 1980s, savings ratios averaged 18.5% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1989, compared to savings rations averaging only 12% in 38 countries with higher population growth. At the same time, investment was 18% of GDP in the countries with higher population growth, compared to 21% in countries with slower population growth. from 1965-80, a period favorable to economic growth, 36 countries saw their per capita GDP grow by more than 3% a year. 17 of these countries had population growth rates of 2.5% or under, while 19 had growth rates above 2.5%. During these prosperous years, the average growth rate of incomes between the 2 sets of countries were nearly identical. But with the harsher economic climate of the 1980s, the fortunes of the countries diverged. Among the 19 countries with high growth rates, only 10 achieved any positive income growth in the 1980s -- and only 5 achieved annual income growth above 0.5% By contrast, among the 17 countries with slower population growth rates, 15 achieved positive income growth of a least 0.8% a year during the 1980s. The only 2 countries in this group that experienced declines in per capita income were Nigeria and Trinidad and Tobago, which suffered from declining oil prices. PMID:12285240

  5. The increasing burden of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Briley, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally) have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden. This article is a brief overview of how depression affects the quality of life of the subject and is also a huge burden for both the family of the depressed patient and for society at large. PMID:21750622

  6. The increasing burden of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine J-P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  7. Global market integration increases likelihood that a future African Green Revolution could increase crop land use and CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Thomas W; Ramankutty, Navin; Baldos, Uris Lantz C

    2014-09-23

    There has been a resurgence of interest in the impacts of agricultural productivity on land use and the environment. At the center of this debate is the assertion that agricultural innovation is land sparing. However, numerous case studies and global empirical studies have found little evidence of higher yields being accompanied by reduced area. We find that these studies overlook two crucial factors: estimation of a true counterfactual scenario and a tendency to adopt a regional, rather than a global, perspective. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing the impacts of regional and global innovation on long run crop output, prices, land rents, land use, and associated CO2 emissions. In so doing, it facilitates a reconciliation of the apparently conflicting views of the impacts of agricultural productivity growth on global land use and environmental quality. Our historical analysis demonstrates that the Green Revolution in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East was unambiguously land and emissions sparing, compared with a counterfactual world without these innovations. In contrast, we find that the environmental impacts of a prospective African Green Revolution are potentially ambiguous. We trace these divergent outcomes to relative differences between the innovating region and the rest of the world in yields, emissions efficiencies, cropland supply response, and intensification potential. Globalization of agriculture raises the potential for adverse environmental consequences. However, if sustained for several decades, an African Green Revolution will eventually become land sparing. PMID:25201962

  8. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth;

    2014-01-01

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity. S...

  9. Potassium channelopathy-like defect underlies early-stage cerebrovascular dysfunction in a genetic model of small vessel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabertrand, Fabrice; Krøigaard, Christel; Bonev, Adrian D; Cognat, Emmanuel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Domenga-Denier, Valérie; Hill-Eubanks, David C; Brayden, Joseph E; Joutel, Anne; Nelson, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    ) mice, a genetic model of CADASIL, revealed functional defects in cerebral (pial) arteries on the surface of the brain at an early stage of disease progression. Here, using parenchymal arterioles (PAs) from within the brain, we determined the molecular mechanism underlying the early functional deficits...

  10. Na(v)1.8 channelopathy in mutant mice deficient for myelin protein zero is detrimental to motor axons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez Herrero, Susana; Pinchenko, Volodymyr; Klein, Dennis;

    2011-01-01

    Myelin protein zero mutations were found to produce Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease phenotypes with various degrees of myelin impairment and axonal loss, ranging from the mild 'demyelinating' adult form to severe and early onset forms. Protein zero deficient homozygous mice ( ) show a severe and...... conventional nerve conduction studies, behavioural studies using rotor-rod measurements, and histological measures to assess membrane dysfunction and its progression in protein zero deficient homozygous mutants as compared with age-matched wild-type controls. The involvement of Na(V)1.8 was investigated by...... pharmacologic block using the subtype-selective Na(V)1.8 blocker A-803467 and chronically in Na(V)1.8 knock-outs. We found that in the context of dysmyelination, abnormal potassium ion currents and membrane depolarization, the ectopic Na(V)1.8 channels further impair the motor axon excitability in protein zero...

  11. 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Friend Who Cuts? 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions KidsHealth > For Teens > 3 Ways to Increase Positive ... to give yourself a boost. Track Your Positive Emotions Name the positive emotions you're already familiar ...

  12. Increasing ideological tolerance in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We argue that recognizing current ideological diversity in social psychology and promoting tolerance of minority views is just as important as increasing the number of non-liberal researchers. Increasing tolerance will allow individuals in the minority to express dissenting views, which will improve psychological science by reducing bias. We present four recommendations for increasing tolerance. PMID:26786671

  13. Market overview: Increase in uranium prices continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spot market activity totaled just over 200,000 lbs of U308 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range increased from a high last month of $14.75/lb U308 to a low this month of $15.25/lb U308. There was also an increase in the unrestricted range this month with the upper end of the range increasing by $0.50/lb U308. The lower end of the spot conversion price range increased by R0.35/kg U while the upper end of the separative work price range increased by $2.00/SWU

  14. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  15. Pension Age Increase: Pro et Contra

    OpenAIRE

    Maleva, T.; Sinyavskaya, O.

    2010-01-01

    Population ageing and growing deficit of Russian pension system place on the agenda an issue of increasing pension age. The article reviews international practices of regulating pension ages. Authors critically discuss the pros and cons of increasing pension ages in Russia from perspectives of demographic situation and trends, labor market, pension system and public attitudes toward this issue. They prove necessity of the effective pension age increasing in Russia and present their views on h...

  16. Adolescent impatience decreases with increased frontostriatal connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    van den Bos, Wouter; Rodriguez, Christian A.; Schweitzer, Julie B.; McClure, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    Compared with children and adults, teens and young adults often exhibit greater impulsivity and corresponding increases in emergency room visits, accidents from drug or alcohol use, and increased mortality risk. However, it remains poorly understood how increased impulsivity during adolescence may be explained in terms of brain and cognitive development. We focused on impatience, a central component of impulsiveness. We relate impatient behavior on a decision-making task to changes in connect...

  17. CO2 Increase: Questions Beyond Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, G.; Klopries, B.

    1990-01-01

    The increase of the tropospheric C02 (carbon dioxide) concentration is considered by scientists all over the world to be an alarming signal, as becomes evident from the huge amount of literature on the subject. The so-called greenhouse-gas effect, or, more precisely, its anthropogenic component, is mainly caused by the C02 increase. However, other trace gases have also contributed their share. Far-reaching climatic changes, a temperature increase in the tropospheric air, especially in the po...

  18. Cyberbullying: An Increasing Challenge for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Marees, Nandoli; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) has not only brought advantages to mankind. One downside is the emergence and increase of cyberbullying in schools. Affecting students of all ages, teachers, parents, and other educators, this special form of bullying is an increasing challenge for schools. This article offers an overview…

  19. Increasing turnover through time in tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, O. L; Gentry, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Tree turnover rates were assessed at 40 tropical forest sites. Averaged across inventoried forests, turnover, as measured by tree mortality and recruitment, has increased since the 1950's, with an apparent pantropical acceleration since 1980. Among 22 mature forest sites with two or more inventory periods, forest turnover also increased. The trend in forest dynamics may have profound effects on biological diversity.

  20. Separating Fact from Fiction: Increasing Running Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Carla

    2008-01-01

    From a biomechanical point of view, this article explores the common belief that one must increase stride length and frequency in order to increase running speed. The limb length, explosive power, and anaerobic capacity of the athlete, as well as the type of running (sprinting vs. long distance) must be considered before making such a…

  1. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth Donald R; Bagaitkar Juhi; Scott David A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacteri...

  2. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  3. Does Twitter Increase Perceived Police Legitimacy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan G; Meijer, Albert J

    2015-01-01

    Social media use has become increasingly popular among police forces. The literature suggests that social media use can increase perceived police legitimacy by enabling transparency and participation. Employing data from a large and representative survey of Dutch citizens (N = 4,492), this article t

  4. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne E. Godar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290–320 nm exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321–400 nm passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to ~50°N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  5. Why does human culture increase exponentially?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, M; Ghirlanda, S; Jarrick, A; Wachtmeister, C-A

    2008-08-01

    Historical records show that culture can increase exponentially in time, e.g., in number of poems, musical works, scientific discoveries. We model how human capacities for creativity and cultural transmission may make such an increase possible, suggesting that: (1) creativity played a major role at the origin of human culture and for its accumulation throughout history, because cultural transmission cannot, on its own, generate exponentially increasing amounts of culture; (2) exponential increase in amount of culture can only occur if creativity is positively influenced by culture. The evolution of cultural transmission is often considered the main genetic bottleneck for the origin of culture, because natural selection cannot favor cultural transmission without any culture to transmit. Our models suggest that an increase in individual creativity may have been the first step toward human culture, because in a population of creative individuals there may be enough non-genetic information to favor the evolution of cultural transmission. PMID:18571686

  6. Increased muscle glucose uptake during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, H; Richter, E A

    1984-01-01

    We reinvestigated the prevailing concept that muscle contractions only elicit increased muscle glucose uptake in the presence of a so-called "permissive" concentration of insulin (Berger et al., Biochem. J. 146: 231-238, 1975; Vranic and Berger, Diabetes 28: 147-163, 1979). Hindquarters from rats...... in severe ketoacidosis were perfused with a perfusate containing insulin antiserum. After 60 min perfusion, electrical stimulation increased glucose uptake of the contracting muscles fivefold. Also, subsequent contractions increased glucose uptake in hindquarters from nondiabetic rats perfused for 1...... Berger et al., 3-O-methylglucose uptake increased during contractions and glucose uptake was negative at rest and zero during contractions. An increase in muscle transport and uptake of glucose during contractions does not require the presence of insulin. Furthermore, glucose transport in contracting...

  7. U.S. spending increase planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article summarizes a paper by Salomon Brothers which published its 14th annual survey and analysis of 1996 worldwide oil and gas exploration and production expenditures. The 28-page report analyzing the December 1995 survey of 275 oil and gas companies indicates the industry is planning a worldwide E and P spending increase of 7.7% this year, over 1995 levels. This is somewhat lower than the now-expected 9.0% increase in 1995 from 1994; however, it is the largest planned increase from a year-end survey since December 1990. Results indicate the recovery in international spending that began in 1995 will be sustained at a more-modest 8.6%, compared to the 14.4% increase last year. Deferrals from 1994 are believed to have contributed to strong 1995 international spending. US spending, conversely, is expected to increase a robust 11.8% in 1996, after a 4.7% advance in 1995. US majors are pacing this increase with a planned 13.4% increase, compared to 9.3% for independents. Canadian operators project a 6.4% decline, even greater than the 4.4% drop registered in 1995

  8. NSF to receive 10% funding increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard M.

    Work is almost complete on the fiscal year 1994 funding bill for the National Science Foundation. On October 1, Conference Committee Chairs Louis Stokes (D-Ohio) and Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.) and their colleagues completed work on the final version of HR2491, the VA, HUD, Independent Agencies Appropriations Bill. The House and Senate will soon give their final approval to the conference report for HR2491, after which it will lack only the president's signature. NSF's overall budget increase of 10%, raising total funding to %3,005.3 million, is the highest increase among all departments and agencies. Last year's increase in NSF funding was 6.3%.Funding for research and related activities will increase 7% to $1,986 million, a compromise between the 10% House increase and the 4% Senate figure. Last year's bill cut research funding. Education and human resources funding will increase 17% to $569.6 million. This is $13.5 million above the Clinton administration's request. Last year's increase for education and human resources was 4.7%.

  9. Increased UV exposure in Finland in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exceptionally low total ozone, up to 40% below the normal level, was measured over Northern Europe during winter and spring in 1992 and 1993. In 1993 the depletion persisted up to the end of May, resulting in a significant increase of biologically effective UV radiation. The increases were significantly smaller in 1992 and 1994 than in 1993. The UV exposure of the Finnish population was evaluated through measurements and theoretical calculations. The increase in measured erythemal (International Lighting Commission) UV falling onto horizontal surfaces on clear days was determined relative to model calculations for an average ozone amount. The increase was on average 10% from April to May 1993, and the maximal measured increase was 34%. Theoretical calculations for both erythemal and carcinogenic (Skin Cancer Utrecht-Philadelphia) UV indicated that in 1993 the theoretical annual increase to a vertical (cylinder) surface ranged from 8 to 13% in Finland. The reflection of UV from snow considerably increases facial UV doses in Northern Finland. (author)

  10. Increased UV exposure in Finland in 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, K; Leszczynski, K; Visuri, R; Ylianttila, L

    1995-07-01

    Exceptionally low total ozone, up to 40% below the normal level, was measured over Northern Europe during winter and spring in 1992 and 1993. In 1993 the depletion persisted up to the end of May, resulting in a significant increase of biologically effective UV radiation. The increases were significantly smaller in 1992 and 1993 than in 1993. The UV exposure of the Finnish population was evaluated through measurements and theoretical calculations. The increase in measured erythemal (International Lighting Commission) UV falling onto horizontal surfaces on clear day was determined relative to model calculations for an average ozone amount. The increase was on average 10% from April to May 1993, and the maximal measured increase was 34%. Theoretical calculations for both erythemal and carcinogenic (Skin Cancer Utrecht--Philadelphia) UV indicated that in 1993 the theoretical annual increase to a vertical (cylinder) surface ranged from 8 to 13% in Finland. The reflection of UV from snow considerably increases facial UV doses in Northern Finland. PMID:7638253

  11. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstrom, Thorbjorn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth; Brand, Christian Lehn; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lindqvist, Anna Kaufmann; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-12-15

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. Therefore, we investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle-specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 33), whereas 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-wk prazosin treatment, which ensured that prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole body insulin sensitivity increased by ∼24%, and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose disposal increased by ∼30% concomitant with an ∼20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake was enhanced independent of improvements in skeletal muscle insulin signaling to glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suggesting that the improvement in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake could be due to improved diffusion conditions for glucose in the muscle. The prazosin treatment did not affect the rats on any other parameters measured. We conclude that an increase in skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data point toward the importance of increasing skeletal muscle capillarization for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25352432

  12. Increasing trends of herpes zoster in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina MacIntyre

    Full Text Available Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation.Australian data on general practice (GP encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013 were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period.All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods. Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time.The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly.

  13. Increased rheumatoid factor and deep venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Olesen, Christine L; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    general population. METHODS: We included 54628 participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1981-83) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (2004-12), all with a measured concentration of IgM rheumatoid factor and without autoimmune rheumatic disease or venous thromboembolism. The main outcome......BACKGROUND: The risk of deep venous thrombosis is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We tested the hypothesis that increased concentrations of rheumatoid factor are associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis in individuals without autoimmune rheumatic disease in the...

  14. Who Benefits from a Minimum Wage Increase?

    OpenAIRE

    John W. Lopresti; Mumford, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how a minimum wage increase affects the wages of low-wage workers. Most studies assume that there is a simple mechanical increase in the wage for workers earning a wage between the old and the new minimum wage, with some studies allowing for spillovers to workers with wages just above this range. Rather than assume that the wages of these workers would have remained constant, this paper estimates how a minimum wage increase impacts a low-wage worker's wage...

  15. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demuth Donald R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacterial function of leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, T cells and B cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased infection risk. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted.

  16. Ethanologenic bacteria with increased resistance to furfural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Elliot Norman; Jarboe, Laura R.; Yomano, Lorraine P.; York, Sean W.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O' Neal

    2015-10-06

    The invention relates to bacterium that have increased resistance to furfural and methods of preparation. The invention also relates to methods of producing ethanol using the bacterium and corresponding kits.

  17. Big increase in Spanish reseach funding

    CERN Multimedia

    Bosch, X

    1998-01-01

    The Spanish government plans to increase spending on civilian science research and development by between 8 and 10 per cent. The exact figure is unclear since it has been included in the budget along with military research projects (1 page).

  18. An Innovative Controller to Increase Harvested Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an innovative energy-harvesting controller to increase energy harvested from vibrations. Energy harvesting is a process that removes mechanical energy from a vibrating structure, which necessarily results in damping. The damping associated with piezoelectric energy harvesting suppresses the amplitude of mechanical vibration and reduces the harvested energy. To address this critical problem, we devise an energy-harvesting controller that maintains the vibration amplitude as high as possible to increase the harvested energy. Our proposed switching controller is designed to intentionally stop the switching action intermittently. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed control scheme successfully increases the harvested energy. The piezoelectric voltage with the proposed controller is larger than that with the original synchronized switching harvesting on inductor (SSHI) technique, which increases the harvested energy. The stored energy with our controller is up to 5.7 times greater than that with the conventional SSHI control scheme

  19. The ways of SOFC systems efficiency increasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demin, A.K.; Timofeyeva, N.

    1996-04-01

    The efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is described. This paper considers methods to lift the fuel utilization and/or the average cell voltage with the goal of increasing the cell efficiency by improved cell designs.

  20. Swaddling May Increase Chances of SIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158739.html Swaddling May Increase Chances of SIDS Study found wrapping blanket tightly ... to have a calming influence on babies that helps them sleep. However, swaddling can be risky, the ...

  1. Acute hypoxia increases the cerebral metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mark Bitsch; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    imaging techniques were used to measure global cerebral blood flow and the venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. Global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified from cerebral blood flow and arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference. Concentrations of lactate, glutamate, N......-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine were measured in the visual cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-three young healthy males were scanned for 60 min during normoxia, followed by 40 min of breathing hypoxic air. Inhalation of hypoxic air resulted in an increase in cerebral blood flow of 15.5% (p = 0.......058), and an increase in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen of 8.5% (p = 0.035). Cerebral lactate concentration increased by 180.3% ([Formula: see text]), glutamate increased by 4.7% ([Formula: see text]) and creatine and phosphocreatine decreased by 15.2% (p[Formula: see text]). The N-acetylaspartate concentration...

  2. Does Movie Violence Increase Violent Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon Dahl; Stefano DellaVigna

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory experiments in psychology find that media violence increases aggression in the short run. We analyze whether media violence affects violent crime in the field. We exploit variation in the violence of blockbuster movies from 1995 to 2004, and study the effect on same-day assaults. We find that violent crime decreases on days with larger theater audiences for violent movies. The effect is partly due to voluntary incapacitation: between 6PM and 12AM, a one million increase in the audi...

  3. Leptin increasing sympathetic nerve outflow in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Simonds, Stephanie E.; Cowley, Michael A.; Enriori, Pablo J.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a global problem and effective drug therapy treatment is still unavailable. Obesity develops due to an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure (EE). Understanding what happens to EE in obesity may be the key to developing new treatments for obesity. If EE in obesity can be elevated, it could be a potential therapeutic target. We recently discovered that in baseline conditions obese mice have increased EE, in terms of thermogenesis. However, this increase in EE is not...

  4. Eliciting taxpayer preferences increases tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Lamberton, Cait; Norton, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments show that eliciting taxpayer preferences on government spending—providing taxpayer agency--increases tax compliance. We first create an income and taxation environment in a laboratory setting to test for compliance with a lab tax. Allowing a treatment group to express nonbinding preferences over tax spending priorities, leads to a 16% increase in tax compliance. A followup online study tests this treatment with a simulation of paying US federal taxes. Allowing taxpayers to sig...

  5. Population effects of increased climate variation

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Global circulation models predict and numerous observations confirm that anthropogenic climate change has altered high-frequency climate variability. However, it is not yet well understood how changing patterns of environmental variation will affect wildlife population dynamics and other ecological processes. Theory predicts that a population's long-run growth rate is diminished and the chance of population extinction is increased as environmental variation increases. This results from the fa...

  6. Tourism: a Soft Touch for Increased Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Frank

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the changes which are taking place internationally in the taxation of the tourism industry and the reasons why tourism is especially susceptible to increased taxation. It compares VAT rates in European countries and assesses the relationship between those rates and increases in international tourism receipts, concluding that there is not the direct, negative relationship which hotel associations frequently cited in their submissions to government. The canons of taxation, fi...

  7. Physical activity increases bone mass during growth

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Nordvist, Anders; Karlsson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Background: The incidence of fragility fractures has increased during the last half of the 1900?s. One important determinant of fractures is the bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD), the amount of mineralised bone. If we could increase peak bone mass (the highest value of BMC reached during life) and/or decrease the age-related bone loss, we could possibly improve the skeletal resistance to fracture. Objective: This review evaluates the importance of exercise as a strategy...

  8. Increasing Engagement with the Library via Gamification

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Matthew; Munro, Kay; Hopfgartner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    One of the main challenges faced by providers of interactive information access systems is to engage users in the use their systems. The library sector in particular can benefit significantly from increased user engagement. In this short paper, we present a preliminary analysis of a university library system that aims to trigger users' extrinsic motivation to increase their interaction with the system. Results suggest that different user groups react in different ways to such 'gamified' systems.

  9. Increasing of RFID System Read Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vestenicky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes some computations needed to increase RFID system read range twice without any changes in RFID reader. The increasing of read range is done only by proper selection of RFID marker parameters – coil diameter and number of turns. Another way – generating stronger magnetic field from reader – can not be used because requirements ofsome limitations given by valid standards must be taken into account.

  10. Increasing work efficiency through tax calculation automation

    OpenAIRE

    Pullinen, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    In an environment of ever-increasing price competition organizations need to find ways to renew business models in order to increase their total work efficiency. One way of accomplishing this is to automate certain work tasks. This paper introduces a partial solution to the aforementioned challenges in the form of creating an automated tax calculation tool. Design research in information systems was used as the primary research method and the actual research process was carried out in the...

  11. Minimum wage increases under straightened circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, John T.; Blackburn, McKinley L.; Cotti, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Do apparently large minimum wage increases in an environment of recession produce clearer evidence of disemployment effects than is typically observed in the new minimum wage literature? This paper augments the sparse literature on the most recent increases in the U.S. minimum wage, using three different data sets and the two main estimation strategies for handling geographically-disparate trends. The evidence is generally unsupportive of negative employment effects, still less of a 'recessio...

  12. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Gebara; Florian Udry; Sébastien Sultan; Nicolas Toni

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the d...

  13. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller;

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  14. Social Closeness Increases Salivary Progesterone in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Stephanie L.; Fredrickson, Barbara L; Wirth, Michelle M.; Poulin, Michael J.; Meier, Elizabeth A.; Heaphy, Emily D.; Michael D. Cohen; Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether interpersonal closeness increases salivary progesterone. One hundred and sixty female college students (80 dyads) were randomly assigned to participate in either a closeness task with a partner versus a neutral task with a partner. Those exposed to the closeness induction had higher levels of progesterone relative to those exposed to the neutral task. Across conditions, progesterone increase one week later predicted the willingness to sacrifice for the partner. These resul...

  15. DUAL RANDOM MODEL OF INCREASING ANNUITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeWenjiong; ZhangYi

    2001-01-01

    The dual random models about the life insurance and social pension insurance have received considerable attention in the recent articles on actuarial theory and applications. This paper discusses a general kind of increasing annuity based on its force of interest accumulationfunction as a general random process. The dual random model of the present value of the benefits of the increasing annuity has been set, and their moments have been calculated under certainconditions.

  16. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani

    2016-07-01

    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes. PMID:26714739

  17. Energy in China: Coping with increasing demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustaining the increasing energy consumption is crucial to future economic growth in China. This report focuses on the current and future situation of energy production and consumption in China and how China is coping with its increasing domestic energy demand. Today, coal is the most important energy resource, followed by oil and hydropower. Most energy resources are located in the inland, whereas the main demand for energy is in the coastal areas, which makes transportation and transmission of energy vital. The industrial sector is the main driver of the energy consumption in China, but the transport sector and the residential sector will increase their share of consumption in China, but the transport sector and the residential sector will increase their share of consumption by 2020. China's energy intensity decreased during the 1990s, but it is still high in a global comparison. China is projected to increase its energy consumption at least two times between 2000 and 2025. The government has an equal focus on energy conservation and to develop the current energy resources. Coal will continue to be the most important fuel, but the demand for oil, hydropower, natural gas and nuclear power will also increase. The main future challenges are transportation of energy resources within China and securing oil supply, both domestic and imports

  18. Antioxidants can increase melanoma metastasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Kristell; Ibrahim, Mohamed X; Wiel, Clotilde; Sayin, Volkan I; Akula, Murali K; Karlsson, Christin; Dalin, Martin G; Akyürek, Levent M; Lindahl, Per; Nilsson, Jonas; Bergo, Martin O

    2015-10-01

    Antioxidants in the diet and supplements are widely used to protect against cancer, but clinical trials with antioxidants do not support this concept. Some trials show that antioxidants actually increase cancer risk and a study in mice showed that antioxidants accelerate the progression of primary lung tumors. However, little is known about the impact of antioxidant supplementation on the progression of other types of cancer, including malignant melanoma. We show that administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) increases lymph node metastases in an endogenous mouse model of malignant melanoma but has no impact on the number and size of primary tumors. Similarly, NAC and the soluble vitamin E analog Trolox markedly increased the migration and invasive properties of human malignant melanoma cells but did not affect their proliferation. Both antioxidants increased the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione in melanoma cells and in lymph node metastases, and the increased migration depended on new glutathione synthesis. Furthermore, both NAC and Trolox increased the activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) RHOA, and blocking downstream RHOA signaling abolished antioxidant-induced migration. These results demonstrate that antioxidants and the glutathione system play a previously unappreciated role in malignant melanoma progression. PMID:26446958

  19. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish

  20. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  1. Randomness in Sequence Evolution Increases over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangyu; Sun, Shixiang; Zhang, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics states that entropy, as a measure of randomness in a system, increases over time. Although studies have investigated biological sequence randomness from different aspects, it remains unknown whether sequence randomness changes over time and whether this change consists with the second law of thermodynamics. To capture the dynamics of randomness in molecular sequence evolution, here we detect sequence randomness based on a collection of eight statistical random tests and investigate the randomness variation of coding sequences with an application to Escherichia coli. Given that core/essential genes are more ancient than specific/non-essential genes, our results clearly show that core/essential genes are more random than specific/non-essential genes and accordingly indicate that sequence randomness indeed increases over time, consistent well with the second law of thermodynamics. We further find that an increase in sequence randomness leads to increasing randomness of GC content and longer sequence length. Taken together, our study presents an important finding, for the first time, that sequence randomness increases over time, which may provide profound insights for unveiling the underlying mechanisms of molecular sequence evolution. PMID:27224236

  2. Exploring Increased Productivity Through Employee Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Wayne K., Jr.

    Disengaged employees cost U.S. companies billions of dollars annually in lowered productivity, a cost which has been compounded by the difficult economic situations in the country. The potential for increasing productivity through increased employee engagement was examined in this study. Using personal engagement theory and the theory of planned behavior, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore how the experiences of salaried aerospace employees affected productivity and the financial performance of an organization. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 aerospace employees whose responses were codified and analyzed to identify themes. The analysis indicated that (a) the lived experiences of employees influenced employee engagement, (b) employee engagement affects organizational commitment and performance, and (c) trust and respect and leadership are essential components to keep employees engaged. Eighty percent of the participants indicated that as employee engagement increases so too does organizational performance. The implications for positive social change include new insights for leaders seeking to increase productivity and financial performance, and to support employee engagement for maintaining sustainability, retaining talent, increasing profits, and improving the economy.

  3. Chronicle of a Resurgent Event: A Kaleidoscope of Censorship in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José Marques de Melo

    2011-01-01

    Alfredo de Carvalho (1870-1916) has been placed in the Brazilian historiography among the critics of the obscurantism practiced by the Portuguese colonizers 1. His reasoning was that by imposing on Brazil a “regime of systematic reclusion”, Portugal created diffi culties for the sedimentation “of our current nationality” and retarded “the synchronic evolution of many of its cultural elements”2. For this very reason he became the harbinger of preservation of the memory of the press, an indispens...

  4. Islamic finance and Africa Economic Resurgence: Opportunities and Challenges (Research Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Al Amine, Muhammad Al Bashir

    2014-01-01

    This book is a research study that outlines briefly the different opportunities for Islamic finance in Africa for Islamic finance investors and the financial system in Africa and its economic development. This study treats also the challenges facing the development of Islamic finance in Africa.

  5. Chronicle of a Resurgent Event: A Kaleidoscope of Censorship in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marques de Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfredo de Carvalho (1870-1916 has been placed in the Brazilian historiography among the critics of the obscurantism practiced by the Portuguese colonizers 1. His reasoning was that by imposing on Brazil a “regime of systematic reclusion”, Portugal created diffi culties for the sedimentation “of our current nationality” and retarded “the synchronic evolution of many of its cultural elements”2. For this very reason he became the harbinger of preservation of the memory of the press, an indispensable source for the comprehension of our civilizing process. Reiterating Carvalho, many others have declared that, since the arrival of Cabral on Brazil´s northeastern shore in 1500, the “gag syndrome” was projected over our territory. Consequently, it has impeded economic development, made political autonomy impractical and inhibited the fl ourishing of culture.

  6. Resurgence of $Z'$ from the single electron-muon event at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Kingman; Tseng, Po-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the recent single $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ event at 2.1 TeV invariant mass from the ATLAS at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with 3.2 fb$^{-1}$ luminosity, we propose an explanation using a $Z'$ gauge boson, which possesses lepton-flavor-changing neutral currents originated from non-universal couplings to charged leptons. We assume that the left-handed charged-lepton mixing matrix equals to the PMNS matrix and no mixing in the neutrino sector to make this phenomenological $Z'$ model more predictive. There are indeed some parameter regions, where the $Z'$ can generate a large enough $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ production cross section, while at the same time satisfies various observables from lepton-flavor violation and other constraints from the LHC.

  7. Resurgence of Colistin: A Review of Resistance, Toxicity, Pharmacodynamics, and Dosing

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Lauren M.; Ly, Neang; Anderson, Dana; Yang, Jenny C.; Macander, Laurie; Jarkowski, Anthony; Forrest, Alan; Bulitta, Jurgen B.; Tsuji, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    Colistin is a polymyxin antibiotic that was discovered in the late 1940s for the treatment of gram-negative infections. After several years of clinical use, its popularity diminished because of reports of significant nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Recently, the antibiotic has resurfaced as a last-line treatment option for multidrug-resistant organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The need for antibiotics with coverage of these gram-neg...

  8. New Methods in QFT and QCD: From Large-N Orbifold Equivalence to Bions and Resurgence

    CERN Document Server

    Dunne, Gerald V

    2016-01-01

    We present a broad conceptual introduction to some new ideas in non-perturbative QFT. The large-$N$ orbifold-orientifold equivalence connects a natural large-$N$ limit of QCD to QCD with adjoint fermions. QCD(adj) with periodic boundary conditions and double-trace deformation of Yang-Mills theory satisfy large-$N$ volume independence, a type of orbifold equivalence. Certain QFTs that satisfy volume independence at $N=\\infty$ exhibit adiabatic continuity at finite-$N$, and also become semi-classically calculable on small $\\mathbb R^3 \\times S^1$. We discuss the role of monopole-instantons, and magnetic and neutral bion saddles in connection to mass gap, and center and chiral symmetry realizations. Neutral bions also provide a weak coupling semiclassical realization of infrared-renormalons. These considerations help motivate the necessity of complexification of path integrals (Picard-Lefschetz theory) in semi-classical analysis, and highlights the importance of hidden topological angles. Finally, we briefly rev...

  9. Toward Picard-Lefschetz Theory of Path Integrals, Complex Saddles and Resurgence

    CERN Document Server

    Behtash, Alireza; Schaefer, Thomas; Sulejmanpasic, Tin; Unsal, Mithat

    2015-01-01

    We show that the semi-classical analysis of generic Euclidean path integrals necessarily requires complexification of the action and measure, and consideration of complex saddle solutions. We demonstrate that complex saddle points have a natural interpretation in terms of the Picard-Lefschetz theory. Motivated in part by the semi-classical expansion of QCD with adjoint matter on ${\\mathbb R}^3\\times S^1$, we study quantum-mechanical systems with bosonic and fermionic (Grassmann) degrees of freedom with harmonic degenerate minima, as well as (related) purely bosonic systems with harmonic non-degenerate minima. We find exact finite action non-BPS bounce and bion solutions to the holomorphic Newton equations. We find not only real solutions, but also complex solution with non-trivial monodromy, and finally complex multi-valued and singular solutions. Complex bions are necessary for obtaining the correct non-perturbative structure of these models. In the supersymmetric limit the complex solutions govern the groun...

  10. The Resurgence of Chinese Anti-Americanism in the 1990s: State Policy or Popular Expression?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Shiwei; Samuel Chester

    2008-01-01

    While Western observers typically attribute the population's nationalist anti-Americanism largely to government propaganda or manipulation, they misunderstand the roots of anti-American behavior in China. As depicted by Peter Hay Gries in China's New Nationalism and by Michael H. Hunt in The Genesis of China's Foreign Policy, a more nuanced portrayal is in order. While the two books utilize distinct social-psychological and historical perspectives, an integrative reading of the two suggests that popular expression is in fact largely responsible for China's anti-Americanism. At first this conclusion in favor of popular expression may seem at odds with Hunt's state-centered analysis of the roots of foreign policy. Nevertheless, after a brief summary of each book and a comparative application to the issue of anti-Americanism, the authors demonstrate that applying a comparative historical reappraisal to Hunt's study suggests that both scholarly works support the predominant role of popular expression on contemporary China's nationalist anti-Americanism.

  11. Emergence and resurgence of the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (Novirhabdovirus, Rhabdoviridae, Mononegavirales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV is one of the most serious pathogens of finfish worldwide in terms of its wide host-range, pathogenicity, disease course, and mortality rates. The disease was first documented in the 1930s in Europe in association with heavy losses in rainbow. Data collected over 50 years show that VHSV is a virus of marine origin: its ability to alternate between marine and freshwater environments remains an enigma which requires further investigation. In 2003, VHSV invaded the Laurentian Great Lakes basin causing devastating losses. VHSV is believed to have negative impacts on a number of important Atlantic, Pacific, and Great Lakes fish species. Phylogenetic analysis has offered clues into the geographic and host range of the virus, but sporadic outbreaks of the disease in uncommon locations have imparted unforeseen challenges in delineating the virus’ regional distribution. The virus’ ability to gain access to aquaculture farms has also positioned it as a disease of utmost priority once detected in these settings. Current diagnostic methods, while greatly improved, are hampered by the variability of disease course among susceptible species. In general, VHSV causes severe degeneration in the hematopoietic tissues of affected fish. Based on historical and current data, it is feared that VHSV will continue to mutate, expand to other geographic areas, and infect new host species. As a result, immediate international attention and coordination of efforts are needed. The objective of this review article is to provide an updated synopsis on the current status of VHSV epizootiology and pathogenicity.

  12. Resurgence of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States: Anesthetic and Critical Care Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Grete H; Hanson, Neil A; Sueda, Lila Ann A; Hoaglan, Carli D; Dahl, Aaron B; Ohlson, Brooks B; Schmidt, Brian E; Wang, Chia C; Fagley, R Eliot

    2016-05-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) such as measles and pertussis are becoming more common in the United States. This disturbing trend is driven by several factors, including the antivaccination movement, waning efficacy of certain vaccines, pathogen adaptation, and travel of individuals to and from areas where disease is endemic. The anesthesia-related manifestations of many VPDs involve airway complications, cardiovascular and respiratory compromise, and unusual neurologic and neuromuscular symptoms. In this article, we will review the presentation and management of 9 VPDs most relevant to anesthesiologists, intensivists, and other hospital-based clinicians: measles, mumps, rubella, pertussis, diphtheria, influenza, meningococcal disease, varicella, and poliomyelitis. Because many of the pathogens causing these diseases are spread by respiratory droplets and aerosols, appropriate transmission precautions, personal protective equipment, and immunizations necessary to protect clinicians and prevent nosocomial outbreaks are described. PMID:27088999

  13. The resurgence of neurotransmitter modulation in Parkinson’s disease with safinamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Müller Department of Neurology, St Joseph Hospital Berlin-Weißensee, Berlin, Germany Abstract: The main feature of Parkinson’s disease is slowly ongoing neuronal death. Changes of neurotransmission of biogenic amines, such as dopamine, cause the heterogeneity of motor and non-motor symptoms. Therefore, compounds with a broad spectrum of mechanisms of action are ideal candidates for the treatment of the disease. Safinamide reduces dopamine turnover by reversible monoamine oxidase B inhibition, blockage of voltage-dependent sodium channels, and modulation of calcium channels and of glutamate release. Safinamide requires one-time daily intake within a dose range of 50 and 100 mg. Clinical trials demonstrated that safinamide is well tolerated and safe and ameliorates motor behavior when combined with dopamine agonist only or dopamine agonist and levodopa. Safinamide is a putative, important drug for the therapy of Parkinson’s disease with an efficacy superior to available irreversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitors or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. Keywords: MAO-B inhibition, glutamate release inhibition, dopamine substitution, glutamate

  14. Book review: anti-porn: the resurgence of anti-pornography feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Spoto, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Countering the ongoing ‘pornification’ of Western culture and society, with lads’ mags on the middle shelf and lap-dancing clubs in residential areas, anti-porn movements are re-emerging among a new generation of feminist activists worldwide. This guide to the problems with porn starts with a history of modern pro and anti political stances before examining the ways in which the new arguments and campaigns around pornography are articulated, deployed and received. If you’re looking for a hist...

  15. A Resurgence of United Kingdom Nuclear Power Research (2011 EFRC Forum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin W. Grimes, Professor at Imperial College, London, was the third speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, 'Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research.' In his presentation, Professor Grimes discussed recent research endeavors in advanced nuclear energy systems being pursued in the UK. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  16. Special regulatory T cell review: The resurgence of the concept of contrasuppression in immunoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The original concept of contrasuppression (CS) is evident in many immunoregulatory mechanisms. Inhibition of suppressor activity--CS--may be critical in microbial infection and autoimmunity. The major cellular interactions involved in suppression are the CD25+ FoxP3+ CD4+ T regulatory cells, programmed death-1 (PD-1) : PD-L1/L2 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) : CD80/86 pathways. These cellular functions are affected by dendritic cells (DC) and a complex array of cytokines of which interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, IL-6 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) are especially significant. Inhibition of regulatory cells, suppressor pathways or cytokines, is consistent with CS and can be attributed to IL-6, IL-2, PD-1 or PD-L-1 antibodies, blockade of CTLA-4 : CD80/86 pathway, inhibition of CD40-CD40L pathways, and TGF-beta, IL-10 antibodies. Contrasuppression may regulate innate immunity by Toll-like receptor expressed not only in non-cognate DC, monocytes, natural killer cells and gammadelta T cells but also in adaptive T cells. Furthermore, cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity may be facilitated by contrasuppressor activity. ''What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.'' From Romeo and Juliet (II, 47-8) W. Shakespeare. PMID:18154618

  17. Obsolete or resurgent? The International Energy Agency in a changing global landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Founded in response to the 1973 oil shock, the International Energy Agency (IEA) is arguably still the most important multilateral organization for energy-importing countries. Yet, the global geopolitical landscape has changed considerably since the IEA's creation. The rise of new energy consumers, new energy-related challenges and new international energy forums prompt a rethink of the agency's current role and institutional design. This article seeks to contribute to the recent debate on the future role of the IEA by examining specific drivers, avenues and constraints for institutional reform. The method used is SWOT analysis, which allows to summarize the key factors emanating from an assessment of an organization's internal characteristics (strengths and weaknesses) and its external environment (opportunities and threats). Building on this SWOT analysis, the article formulates a strategy for the IEA to remain the focal point in global energy governance. Key elements of this strategy include: stronger engagement with new consumers, rapprochement with OPEC, becoming a leading voice in the energy transition, and changing the agency's internal governance practices. - Highlights: ► The IEA is challenged by the rise of new consumers, threats and organizations. ► Assessment of the agency’s internal characteristics and external environment. ► The IEA needs to step up its outreach policy and fully embrace sustainable energy.

  18. The resurgence of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Sherif Beniameen

    2009-06-01

    Unexpectedly, swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV, informally known as swine flu) appeared in North America at the very end of the 2008-2009 influenza season and began to spread internationally. As the world mobilizes for a potential pandemic, this article summarizes the developments in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID:19487554

  19. Resurgence of canine parvovirus 2a strain in the domestic dog population from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Marina Gallo; Romanutti, Carina; Wilda, Maximiliano; D' Antuono, Alejandra; Keller, Leticia; Giacomodonato, Mónica N; Mattion, Nora; La Torre, José

    2015-09-15

    Ninety-three rectal swab samples were taken, from dogs suspected of canine parvovirus (CPV) infection and analyzed by PCR. A fragment of the VP2 gene, was amplified in 41 (44%) of them, resulting CPV positive samples. Sequencing analysis of these PCR products showed that 37 samples (90.2%) belonged to the CPV2c type, whereas four samples (9.8%) were identified as CPV2a, which has not been found since 2008. It was also found that 24 out of 37 CPV2c samples (65%), carried the mutation Thr440Ala, whereas this mutation was absent in the four CPV2a strains reported herein. Using phylogenetic analysis of the full length VP2 gene, which was amplified by PCR in six local samples, it was seen that CPV2a Argentine strains reported in this study, were genetically closer to a previous local CPV2a isolate (year 2003) and to a South African CPV2a strain, than to any of the recently reported Uruguayan CPV2a strains. The results obtained in this work, together with those reported previously in Uruguay strongly suggest that, in spite of the geographical proximity, wild type CPV strains undergo different evolutive pathways in each country, resulting in the prevalence of different strains in related dog populations. Further extensive epidemiological studies are needed in order to improve the understanding of CPV evolution. PMID:26115608

  20. Primary pulmonary tuberculosis in infancy: A resurgent disease in the urban United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary pulmonary tuberculosis in infancy still exists in the urban United States, reflecting new immigrations from less developed areas. The clinical diagnosis may be difficult and routine chest radiographs may be confusing. We found magnification high KV filtered radiography to be very useful in delineating the primary complex and its effect on the tracheobronchial tree. Twelve infants and small children with primary pulmonary tuberculosis were seen in the years 1978-1984. (orig.)

  1. Resurgence of the dressing phase for ${\\rm AdS}_5\\times {\\rm S}^5$

    CERN Document Server

    Arutyunov, Gleb; Savin, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the resummation of the strong coupling asymptotic expansion of the dressing phase of the ${\\rm AdS}_5\\times {\\rm S}^5$ superstring. The dressing phase proposed by Beisert, Eden and Staudacher can be recovered from a modified Borel-Ecalle resummation of this asymptotic expansion only by completing it with new, non-perturbative and exponentially suppressed terms that can be organized into different sectors labelled by an instanton-like number. We compute the contribution to the dressing phase coming from the sum over all the instanton sectors and show that it satisfies the homogeneous crossing symmetry equation. We comment on the semiclassical origin of the non-perturbative terms from the world-sheet theory point of view even though their precise explanation remains still quite mysterious.

  2. Resurgence of measles in Serbia 2010-2011 highlights the need for supplementary immunization activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljković, J; Rakić Adrović, S; Tasić, G; Kovačević-Jovanović, V; Lončarević, G; Hübschen, J M; Muller, C P

    2016-04-01

    Between December 2010 and August 2011 an outbreak of measles occurred in Serbia with 363 reported cases. Sera and/or nose/throat swabs were collected from 193 patients and tested for measles-specific IgM antibodies by ELISA and viral RNA by RT-PCR, respectively. Epidemiological data were obtained from the surveillance database of the Institute of Public Health of Serbia. Of the 363 cases involved in the outbreak, 113 were laboratory confirmed. More than one third of the patients were hospitalized (n = 130, 35·8%) and for 15 (4·1% of the reported outbreak cases) the infection was complicated by pneumonia. Mostly pre-school children aged ⩽4 years (37·8%) and adults aged ⩾30 years (27·3%) were affected. The majority of patients belonged to the Roma population with a preponderance of female cases (57·0%). Nearly 94% of the patients were either unvaccinated or of unknown vaccination status. The main outbreak virus was the D4-Hamburg strain. The outbreak in Serbia occurred after several years of very low measles incidence despite a high routine immunization coverage in the general population, suggesting that special efforts to identify and vaccinate susceptible population groups are required even in countries with apparently good disease control. PMID:26449667

  3. The resurgence of DSM and the role of branding in power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrels, Adriaan [Goverment Inst. of Economic Research, VATT, Helsinki (Finland); Lewis, Philip [Univ. of Vaasa (FI). Nordic Centre for Expertise in Energy and Utilities Marketing (VaasaEmg)

    2003-07-01

    The liberalisation of electric power markets to date implies market strategies in which the attainment of sufficiently high profitability levels is combined with bulk-good characterisation of electricity and accompanying price competition. These inherently conflicting points of departure result in a reluctance to invest in new capacity, a drive towards the exploitation of economies of scale, and other cost reduction strategies. There is also evidence of the exploitation of other market imperfections, including price discrimination at the expense of apathetic and ill informed customers. This paper argues that further regulatory completion of the electric power markets within a sound social-economic and sustainability setting requires steps that incite the introduction of capacity scarcity signals in the retail pricing structure reflecting actual price levels in the wholesale markets. This implies for instance the (re)introduction of time-of-day (ToD) pricing signals. However, to warrant a broader and more lasting effectiveness this needs to be embedded in a wider DSM setting. One issue in this wider setting is the development of the notion of branding of electricity in relation to its qualities and sources of origin. It would provide the customers more choice and improves the possibilities for electricity companies to better exploit the multi-facetted added-value potential of electric power. It requires a regulator that is willing to ensure that further development of added-value is strongly inspired by sustainability objectives. Furthermore, the challenge for the electricity company is to find a branding approach that appeals to customers and is meaningful from a sustainability point of view. Keywords Branding, demand side management, electricity markets, electricity marketing, energy labelling, product differentiation, green energy, green prices, business ethics, Nordic and European power markets.

  4. Is Eurasian October snow cover extent increasing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of recent studies present evidence of an increasing trend in Eurasian snow cover extent (SCE) in the October snow onset period based on analysis of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) historical satellite record. These increases are inconsistent with fall season surface temperature warming trends across the region. Using four independent snow cover data sources (surface observations, two reanalyses, satellite passive microwave retrievals) we show that the increasing SCE is attributable to an internal trend in the NOAA CDR dataset to chart relatively more October snow cover extent over the dataset overlap period (1982–2005). Adjusting the series for this shift results in closer agreement with other independent datasets, stronger correlation with continentally-averaged air temperature anomalies, and a decrease in SCE over 1982–2011 consistent with surface air temperature warming trends over the same period. (letter)

  5. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics for...... pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30) or...

  6. Innovative Double Bypass Engine for Increased Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Sanjivan

    Engines continue to grow in size to meet the current thrust requirements of the civil aerospace industry. Large engines pose significant transportation problems and require them to be split in order to be shipped. Thus, large amounts of time have been spent in researching methods to increase thrust capabilities while maintaining a reasonable engine size. Unfortunately, much of this research has been focused on increasing the performance and efficiencies of individual components while limited research has been done on innovative engine configurations. This thesis focuses on an innovative engine configuration, the High Double Bypass Engine, aimed at increasing fuel efficiency and thrust while maintaining a competitive fan diameter and engine length. The 1-D analysis was done in Excel and then compared to the results from Numerical Propulsion Simulation System (NPSS) software and were found to be within 4% error. Flow performance characteristics were also determined and validated against their criteria.

  7. Alcoholic Cirrhosis Increases Risk for Autoimmune Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Lisbet; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Deleuran, Bent;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcoholic cirrhosis is associated with hyperactivation and dysregulation of the immune system. In addition to its ability to increase risk for infections, it also may increase the risk for autoimmune diseases. We studied the incidence of autoimmune diseases among patients with...... alcohol-associated cirrhosis vs controls in Denmark. METHODS: We collected data from nationwide health care registries to identify and follow up all citizens of Denmark diagnosed with alcoholic cirrhosis from 1977 through 2010. Each patient was matched with 5 random individuals from the population...... diagnosed with alcoholic cirrhosis, 532 developed an autoimmune disease, yielding an overall increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.50). The strongest associations were with Addison's disease (aIRR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.04-5.85), inflammatory bowel disease (a...

  8. Nutrient enrichment increases mortality of mangroves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients.

  9. Holographic entropy increases in quadratic curvature gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Wall, Aron C.

    2015-09-01

    Standard methods for calculating the black hole entropy beyond general relativity are ambiguous when the horizon is nonstationary. We fix these ambiguities in all quadratic curvature gravity theories, by demanding that the entropy be increasing at every time, for linear perturbations to a stationary black hole. Our result matches with the entropy formula found previously in holographic entanglement entropy calculations. We explicitly calculate the entropy increase for Vaidya-like solutions in Ricci-tensor gravity to show that (unlike the Wald entropy) the holographic entropy obeys a second law.

  10. Licensing process for the power increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The licensing process for the power increase of a nuclear power station is presented, this includes the description of the effective normative framework, the attributions of the one Mexican regulator organism in nuclear matter, the definition and importance of the power level of a nuclear reactor for the safety studies. Also, the types of power increase according to its magnitude, and the regulator process that it includes the scope and the detail of the required information that it should be evaluated by the one regulator organism are discussed. Finally it offers a summary of the experience that one has in Mexico for this type of processes. (Author)

  11. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Major; Ariane Schweighauser; Thierry Francey

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of ...

  12. Role of biofertilizers in increasing tea productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Nepolean; R Jayanthi; R Vidhya Pallavi; A Balamurugan; T Kuberan; T Beulah; R Premkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To increase the tea productivity using biofertilizers like VAM fungi, phosphobacteria, Azosprillium. Methods: Nitrogen fixing Azospirillum, phosphate solubilising bacteria and VAM fungi were isolated from tea soils of southern India and region specific potential strains were selected based on laboratory, greenhouse, as well as field experiments. A technology for their mass multiplication has been developed. Results: Biofertilizers were showed higher yield at the rate of 5g/seedling and VAM fungi with 15 g of formulation/bush. Conclusions: Multifunctional biofertilizers were used to reduce the chemical fertilizers, diseases and to increase soil fertility in tea.

  13. Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....

  14. Fresh inflation with increasing cosmological parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, M

    2003-01-01

    I study a fresh inflationary model with an increasing F-cosmological parameter. The model provides sufficiently e-folds to solve the flatness/horizon problem and the density fluctuations agree with experimental values. The temperature increases during fresh inflation and reach its maximum value when inflation ends. I find that entropy perturbations always remain below $10^{-4}$ during fresh inflation and become negligible when fresh inflation ends. Hence, the adiabatic fluctuations dominate the primordial spectrum at the end of fresh inflation.

  15. STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to point a set of practical strategies that can be adopted to increase the capacity of constraints resources on production systems, when the constraint is inside the factory and not is in the market. To serve this purpose will be presented strategies based on best practices of the Theory of Constraints, Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This article also presents the mains tools for the deployment of these methodologies. The survey results have provided an objective set of practical strategy that can be used to increase the capacity and productivity of production systems according to the needs of each manufacturing system.

  16. NEPAL AND INDIA MAY INCREASE POWER TRADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nepal and India may increase the quantity of power exchanged between the two nations to meet shortages in bordering areas. Technical paneles from the two countries have recommended that the power exchange be raised from 50MW to 150MW, according to Bholanath Chalise, chief of the state-run Nepal Electricity Authority(NEA).

  17. Towards an increase of respiratory allergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increase in the prevalence and severity of asthma and pollinoses is one of the predictable health consequences of climate change, as this article, based on data from numerous scientific reports, unambiguously demonstrates. It is one more reason for the health field to enlist in the fight against global warming, while its scale and speed can still be controlled. (author)

  18. Voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carra...

  19. Increasing Efficiency: A Process-Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Jerry L.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the need to increase efficiency focuses on a process-oriented approach for systematically identifying and minimizing non-value-adding process steps to analyze and improve tasks, services, and production. Highlights include a historical perspective, a discussion of wasted efforts, and a case study. (Contains 16 references.) (LRW)

  20. Fullerene derivatives with increased dielectric constants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahani, Fatemeh; Torabi, Solmaz; Chiechi, Ryan C; Koster, L Jan Anton; Hummelen, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    The invention of new organic materials with high dielectric constants is of extreme importance for the development of organic-based devices such as organic solar cells. We report on a synthetic way to increase the dielectric constant of fullerene derivatives. It is demonstrated that introducing trie

  1. Increased Gonorrhea Cases - Utah, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joanna; Carlile, Jerry; Dunn, Angela; Evans, Megan; Fratto, Erin; Hartsell, Joel; Meinor, Lynn; Mietchen, Matthew; Nakashima, Allyn

    2016-01-01

    Gonorrhea (caused by infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae) is the second most commonly reported notifiable disease in the United States (1). Left untreated, gonorrhea is associated with serious long-term adverse health effects, including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Infection also facilitates transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (2,3). Effective gonorrhea control relies upon early detection and effective antimicrobial treatment. To assess gonorrhea rate trends in Utah, the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) analyzed Utah National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (UT-NEDSS) data for the state during 2009-2014. After declining during 2009-2011, the statewide gonorrhea rate increased fivefold to 49 cases per 100,000 population in 2014. During 2009-2014, the proportion of cases among women increased from 21% to 39% (decreasing among males from 79% to 61%). Among male patients, the proportion who identified as men who have sex with men (MSM) decreased from 67% to 42%. These demographic changes suggest that increased heterosexual transmission of gonorrhea in Utah might be occurring. Health departments need to work with providers to ensure populations at high risk are being screened and properly treated for gonorrhea. Clinicians need to be aware of increases in the risk for infection among women and non-MSM males when making screening and testing decisions and educate their patients regarding gonorrhea transmission and prevention practices. PMID:27583786

  2. Trust in a Time of Increasing Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine the impact of ethnic diversity in Danish municipalities on citizens’ social trust over the last three decades. During this period, Danish society has grown increasingly ethnically diverse, and this begs the question whether this has influenced trust in others negatively...

  3. Increasing security in inter-chip communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Nathan J; Hamlet, Jason; Bauer, Todd; Helinski, Ryan

    2014-10-28

    An apparatus for increasing security in inter-chip communication includes a sending control module, a communication bus, and a receiving control module. The communication bus is coupled between the sending control module and the receiving control module. The sending control module operates to send data on the communication bus, disable the communication bus when threats are detected, or both.

  4. Explaining Increases in Higher Education Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Robert B. Archibald; David H. Feldman

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence on the conflict between two competing explanations of the increase in college costs, the cost disease theory of William Baumol and William Bowen and the revenue theory of cost of Howard Bowen. Using cross section data, the paper demonstrates that the cost disease explanation dominates.

  5. Increasing Student Participation in Science Fair Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Rhea

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, 22 African American middle school students in eastern North Carolina became participants in the Reach Up program to increase the number of underrepresented students participating in science-, technology-, engineering-, and mathematics-related activities. One of the goals of the program was for these students to participate…

  6. Price of Vitamin B5 Increases Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The export price of vitamin B5 in China has increased constantly in 2007. According to the analysis made by experts, the demand of vitamin B5 has not grown greatly. The main reason for the price rise is the change of the supply mode.

  7. Aspirator increases relief valve poppet stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, M. E.

    1967-01-01

    Addition of an aspirator to a relief valve increases the valve poppet stroke under dynamic flow conditions. The aspirator allows poppet inlet dynamic forces to overcome relief valve spring force. It reduces the fluid pressure in the skirt cavity by providing a low pressure sense probe.

  8. Increased textural complexity in food enhances satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Danaé S; Tang, Jingyuan; Ferguson, Lynnette R; James, Bryony J

    2016-10-01

    For the first time this study has shown a direct effect of food textural complexity on satiation. Independent of oral processing time, increasing the textural complexity of a food significantly decreased food intake. Foods with complex textures stimulate many sensory perceptions during oral processing, with a succession of textures perceived between first bite and swallow. Previously the impact of texture on satiation (commonly tested by increasing viscosities of semi-solids) has been explained by texture's influence on oral processing time; a long oral processing time enhances satiation. The results of the current study show that subjects in a randomised cross-over trial who consumed a "starter" (preload) model food with high textural complexity went on to eat significantly less of a two course ad libitum meal. Subjects who consumed a "starter" model food with low textural complexity, but with the same flavour, energy density and oral processing time, ate significantly more of the same ad libitum meal. The results show that increasing the number of textures perceived during chewing of a solid food triggers the satiation response earlier than when chewing a less texturally complex food. Increasing textural complexity of manufactured foods, to allow for greater sensory stimulation per bite, could potentially be used as a tool to enhance the satiation response and decrease food intake. PMID:27235823

  9. Portfolio Assessment: Increasing Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffee, Dale

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the traditional understanding of reliability as it pertains to writing portfolio assessments. Offers a list of practical actions that can be taken to increase assessment reliability, including explicit definitions of what a portfolio holds, rater training, rater burnout, and consistent rating procedures. (Contains 26 references.) (NB)

  10. Barriers to increased market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    1999-01-01

    related activities still seem to attract relatively few resources is not answered by supplying another checklist or package of facilitators. Based on published conceptual writings and empirical studies this article makes an account of what the intra-organizational barriers may be to increased market...

  11. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package

  12. Increased Bone Marrow Fat in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Misra, Madhusmita; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Rosen, Clifford J; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have severe depletion of body fat, a paradoxical increase in bone marrow fat has been described. Recent data suggest that marrow fat measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) may be more valuable than either parameter alone in detecting bone weakness.

  13. Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Thyrotoxicosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, R. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Hansen, D.

    2015-01-01

    . Additional data were collected on children diagnosed with GD in 2008-2012. Results: In total, 237 patients with juvenile thyrotoxicosis (JT) were identified. The overall IR in 1998-2012 was 1.58/100,000 person-years and has increased significantly from 0.79/100,000 person-years in 1982-1988 (p <0.001). The...

  14. Loss of biodiversity can increase disease transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2010-01-01

    A paper in the Dec. 2 issue of "Nature," co-authored by a Virginia Tech faculty member, provides a review of the scientific literature relating to yet another important impact of biodiversity loss, namely how this loss can result in the increase of the transmission and spread of infectious diseases, such as Lyme disease and West Nile.

  15. Object detectability at increased ambient lighting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under typical dark conditions encountered in diagnostic reading rooms, a reader's pupils will contract and dilate as the visual focus intermittently shifts between the high luminance display and the darker background wall, resulting in increased visual fatigue and the degradation of diagnostic performance. A controlled increase of ambient lighting may, however, reduce the severity of these pupillary adjustments by minimizing the difference between the luminance level to which the eyes adapt while viewing an image (Ladp) and the luminance level of diffusely reflected light from the area surrounding the display (Ls). Although ambient lighting in reading rooms has conventionally been kept at a minimum to maintain the perceived contrast of film images, proper Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) calibration of modern medical-grade liquid crystal displays can compensate for minor lighting increases with very little loss of image contrast. This paper describes two psychophysical studies developed to evaluate and refine optimum reading room ambient lighting conditions through the use of observational tasks intended to simulate real clinical practices. The first study utilized the biologic contrast response of the human visual system to determine a range of representative Ladp values for typical medical images. Readers identified low contrast horizontal objects in circular foregrounds of uniform luminance (5, 12, 20, and 30 cd/m2) embedded within digitized mammograms. The second study examined the effect of increased ambient lighting on the detection of subtle objects embedded in circular foregrounds of uniform luminance (5, 12, and 35 cd/m2) centered within a constant background of 12 cd/m2 luminance. The images were displayed under a dark room condition (1 lux) and an increased ambient lighting level (50 lux) such that the luminance level of the diffusely reflected light from the background wall was approximately equal to the image Ladp value of 12 cd

  16. Increased radiosensitivity of microorganisms by vacuum treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of dehydration by vacuum (down to 10-7 to r) on radiobiological processes was studied on stationary phase cells of Escherichia coli B/r and Bacillus subtilis 168, and on spores of the latter strain. X-rays of 145 kV with a dose-rate of 1 krad/min and ultraviolet irradiation of 254 nm wavelength were applied. When the microorganisms were irradiated during vacuum exposure, their radiation sensitivity had increased, compared with the wet controls, irradiated at 760 torr. For the inactivation of E. coli cells by X-rays, the slope of the dose effect curve was increased by a factor of approximately 4. This supersensitivity to X-rays was not observed in cells which were exposed in multicellular layers or in the presence of salts (PO4-buffer), 5% glucose or nutrient broth. Likewise, the sensitivity to UV-irradiation of vegetative cells and spores was increased when irradiation was applied in vacuo. It was found that specific photoproducts of the DNA, such as DNA-protein, cross-links, 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothyminine-, and trans-syn thymine dimer were formed under vacuum treatment. Since these lesions are not - or only less - repairable by cell-owned enzymatic repair processes, at least one of them may be responsible for the increased UV-sensitivity in vacuo. The formation of trans-syn thymine by UV requires an at least partially denatured DNA. Therefore, it is suggested that vacuum treatment of microorganisms could induce structural changes in their DNA, such as partial denaturation of the polymer. This effect might also be responsible for the increased sensitivity of microorganisms to ionizing radiation. (author)

  17. Increased Radiosensitivity of Microorganisms by Vacuum Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of dehydration by vacuum (down to 10-7 torr) on radiobiological processes was studied on stationary phase cells of Escherichia coli B/r and Bacillus subtilis 168, and on spores of the latter strain. X-rays of 145 kV with a dose-rate of 1 krad/min and ultraviolet irradiation of 254 nm wavelength were applied. When the microorganisms were irradiated, during vacuum exposure, their radiation sensitivity had increased, compared with the wet controls, irradiated at 760 torr. For the inactivation of E. coli cells by X-rays, the slope of the dose effect curve was increased by a factor of approximately 4. This super sensitivity to X-rays was not observed in cells which were exposed in multicellular layers or in the presence of salts (Po4-buffer), 5% glucose or nutrient broth. Likewise, the sensitivity to UV-irradiation of vegetative cells and spores was increased when irradiation was applied in vacuo. It was found that specific photoproducts of the DNA, such as DNA-protein, cross-links, 5-thyminyl-, 5,6-dihydrothyminme-, and trans-syn thymine dimer were formed under vacuum treatment. Since these lesions are not - or only less - repairable by cell-owned enzymatic repair processes, at least one of them may be responsible for the increased UV-sensitivity in vacuo. The formation of trans-syn thymine dimer by UV requires an at least partially denatured DNA. Therefore, it is suggested that vacuum treatment of microorganisms could induce structural changes in their DNA, such as partial denaturation of the polymer. This effect might also be responsible for the increased sensitivity of microorganisms to ionizing radiation. (author)

  18. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reetz

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours, and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  19. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice. PMID:27430421

  20. Increasing pulse wave velocity in a realistic cardiovascular model does not increase pulse pressure with age

    OpenAIRE

    Mohiuddin, Mohammad W.; Rihani, Ryan J.; Laine, Glen A.; Quick, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of the well-documented increase in aortic pulse pressure (PP) with age is disputed. Investigators assuming a classical windkessel model believe that increases in PP arise from decreases in total arterial compliance (Ctot) and increases in total peripheral resistance (Rtot) with age. Investigators assuming a more sophisticated pulse transmission model believe PP rises because increases in pulse wave velocity (cph) make the reflected pressure wave arrive earlier, augmenting systol...

  1. Increasing muscle extensibility: a matter of increasing length or modifying sensation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weppler, Cynthia Holzman; Magnusson, S Peter

    2010-01-01

    Various theories have been proposed to explain increases in muscle extensibility observed after intermittent stretching. Most of these theories advocate a mechanical increase in length of the stretched muscle. More recently, a sensory theory has been proposed suggesting instead that increases in ...

  2. Leptospirosis: a globally increasing zoonotic disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rock, Clare

    2010-01-01

    A 27-year-old previously healthy man was admitted to the intensive care unit with severe jaundice, dyspnoea with haemoptysis, anaemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal injury. He had no recent history of foreign travel but had been building a shed in his back garden in Cork, Ireland, for the preceding week. The patient\\'s history, clinical observations, haematological and radiological results were all consistent with icteric leptospirosis or Weil\\'s disease. This was confirmed on serological testing. He completed 7 days intravenous ceftriaxone and made a complete recovery. While endemic in tropical climates, leptospirosis incidence is increasing in temperate climates. Recent cases seen in temperate climates can be severe, particularly with pulmonary manifestations. The report of this case serves to increase awareness of this re-emerging potentially fatal infectious disease.

  3. Increase of Organization in Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Georgi Yordanov; Gombos, Erin; Vinod, Amrit; Hoonjan, Gajinder

    2013-01-01

    Measures of complexity and entropy have not converged to a single quantitative description of levels of organization of complex systems. The need for such a measure is increasingly necessary in all disciplines studying complex systems. To address this problem, starting from the most fundamental principle in Physics, here a new measure for quantity of organization and rate of self-organization in complex systems based on the principle of least (stationary) action is applied to a model system - the central processing unit (CPU) of computers. The quantity of organization for several generations of CPUs shows a double exponential rate of change of organization with time. The exact functional dependence has a fine, S-shaped structure, revealing some of the mechanisms of self-organization. The principle of least action helps to explain the mechanism of increase of organization through quantity accumulation and constraint and curvature minimization with an attractor, the least average sum of actions of all elements ...

  4. Increasing the Size of Microwave Popcorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoyer, Justin

    2005-03-01

    Each year Americans consume approximately 17 billion quarts of popcorn. Since the 1940s, microwaves have been the heating source of choice for most. By treating the popcorn mechanism as a thermodynamic system, it has been shown mathematically and experimentally that reducing the surrounding pressure of the unpopped kernels, results in an increased volume of the kernels [Quinn et al, http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/cond-mat/0409434 v1 2004]. In this project an alternate method of popping with the microwave was used to further test and confirm this hypothesis. Numerous experimental trials where run to test the validity of the theory. The results show that there is a significant increase in the average kernel size as well as a reduction in the number of unpopped kernels.

  5. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  6. Improving nuclear economics without increasing proliferation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The postponement of recycle systems is an insurance against the premature plunge into widespread commercial use of plutonium, with its potential for increasing proliferation risks. We can afford to postpone the deployment process with little penalty by improving light water reactors in once-through mode (LWROT). This would make nuclear power cheaper without increasing proliferation risk. The deferral is desirable because very valuable information about the feasibility, competitiveness, and resistivity to proliferation of technologies such as advance converters, the once-through fast reactor, and the fusion-fission hybrid reactor will be learned in the next 10 years. There is a distinct possibility that, as far as nuclear energy is concerned, we can rely on LWR(OT)s with evolutionary improvements far into the future. 29 references, 2 tables

  7. INCREASING COMPLIANCE THROUGH EFFICIENT PUBLIC CAMPAIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BANU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts from the assumption that the degree of compliance of the taxpayer increases in direct proportion to the effectiveness of public campaigns carried out by the tax device. Information campaigns with a view to increase voluntary compliance can be carried out in various ways. They can emphasize either the potential benefits that taxpayers would receive if the compliance were full, or the potential losses when the degree of compliance is reduced. In theory, these campaigns are effective when intersecting with the promotion or warning of taxpayers about certain fiscal aspects. Following the presentation of campaigns carried out in other states, we propose the initiation of a campaign in Romania as well. Corporate taxpayers will choose out of several campaigns and in the end we will present the results of the research based on the methods of the questionnaire and of the interview.

  8. Has risk associated with smoking increased?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Osler, M; Andersen, P K;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two recent much cited publications have raised the concern that risk associated with cigarette smoking has so far been underestimated. In this study we wish to determine whether excess all-cause mortality associated with smoking has increased during the last 20-30 years in a study...... population representative of the general Danish population and whether any such changes relate to changes in smoking behaviour. METHODS: Pooled data from three prospective population studies conducted in Copenhagen with detailed information on smoking habits. A total of 31,194 subjects, 17,669 males and 13....... RESULTS: Male smokers' exposure did not change during the study period whereas female smokers' exposure to tobacco increased in terms of age at smoking onset, quantity smoked and depth of inhalation. During follow-up 5744 males and 2900 females died. In males, death rate ratios (comparing continuous...

  9. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed. PMID:24085715

  10. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have documented thatinternational adoptees have an increased occurrence ofhealth problems and contacts to the health-care systemafter arriving to their new country of residence. This maybe explained by pre-adoption adversities, especially for theperiod immediately...... after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...... of internationaladoptees is taken into consideration? Methods: This was a Danish register-based cohort studyexamining health-care utilisation in a multivariable two-partmodel. The prevalence of selected outcomes and the quantityof use were assessed in a late (year three, four and five)post-adoption period. The cohort...

  11. Can increased organic consumption mitigate climate changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Christensen, Tove;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evidence for a positive correlation between increased consumption of organic products and potential climate change mitigation via decreased consumption of meat and it is discussed to what extent organic consumption is motivated by climate...... correlation between increasing organic budget shares and decreasing meat budget shares is found. People include food-related behaviour such as the purchase of organic food and reduced meat consumption as ways to mitigate climate change. However, other behavioural modifications such as reduction of car usage...... household data would supplement the analyses. Practical implications – Demand-side policies aiming at climate-friendly consumption could be a central factor in combating climate change. Already, food-related mitigation strategies such as lowered meat consumption are established practices among a group of...

  12. The commercial impact of burnup increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation has a dramatic effect on competition in the electricity markets. This will lead to a continued pressure on the prices in virtually all areas of the nuclear fuel cycle and will encourage further optimization, technical and technological progress and innovations with respect to further cost reductions of power production. The permission of direct disposal, in Germany legally granted in 1994 as an alternative to the reprocessing path, made possible cost savings and has consequently resulted in a decline of reprocessing prices. In addition, suppliers as well as operators are making considerable efforts to reduce the disposal costs fraction by optimizing disposal technologies and concepts. The increase of discharge has essentially contributed to the reduction the disposal cost fraction. Compared to former scenarios, the economic potential of burn-up increase is decreasing

  13. Minimal Increase Network Coding for Dynamic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoyin; Fan, Xu; Wu, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Because of the mobility, computing power and changeable topology of dynamic networks, it is difficult for random linear network coding (RLNC) in static networks to satisfy the requirements of dynamic networks. To alleviate this problem, a minimal increase network coding (MINC) algorithm is proposed. By identifying the nonzero elements of an encoding vector, it selects blocks to be encoded on the basis of relationship between the nonzero elements that the controls changes in the degrees of the blocks; then, the encoding time is shortened in a dynamic network. The results of simulations show that, compared with existing encoding algorithms, the MINC algorithm provides reduced computational complexity of encoding and an increased probability of delivery. PMID:26867211

  14. Japan increases assistance to UNFPA / IPPF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Government of Japan has announced it will provide US$71 million in aid to UNFPA and IPPF in fiscal year 1995--an increase of $3.9 million from the previous year. Also increased in 1995 will be assistance to nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) active at the grass-roots level. Yet another focus for Japanese aid has been the Global Issues Initiative on Population and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), which will make $3 billion available from 1994-2000. In this project, the Japanese Government is working closely with NGOs on issues such as reproductive health and women's empowerment. These budget allocations occurred at a time when Japan's spending power has been undermined by economic recession and a need for earthquake relief and reconstruction. PMID:12319262

  15. Accounting for the Corporate Cash Increase

    OpenAIRE

    Jake Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Why do U.S. firms hold much more cash now than they did 30 years ago? Prior empirical studies have discovered a statistically significant positive relationship between firm cash holdings and cash flow volatility. Such findings, however, are subject to endogeneity problems. In this paper, I construct a structural model of firm dynamics where cash provides a buffer against cash-flow shortfalls in the presence of costly external finance. My model finds that 63% of the increase in corporate cash ...

  16. Coyote Attacks: An Increasing Suburban Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Timm, Robert M.; Baker, Rex O.; Bennett, Joe R.; Coolahan, Craig C.

    2004-01-01

    Coyote attacks on humans and pets have increased within the past 5 years in California. We discuss documented occurrences of coyote aggression and attacks on people, using data from USDA Wildlife Services, the California Department of Fish & Game, and other sources. Forty-eight such attacks on children and adults were verified from 1998 through 2003, compared to 41 attacks during the period 1988 through 1997; most incidents occurred in Southern California near the suburban-wildland interfac...

  17. Dynamic tabletop interfaces for increasing creativity

    OpenAIRE

    SCHMITT, Lara; Buisine, Stéphanie; Chaboissier, Jonathan; AOUSSAT, Améziane; VERNIER, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    We designed a tabletop brainwriting interface to examine the effects of time pressure and social pressure on the creative performance. After positioning this study with regard to creativity research and human activity in dynamic environments, we present our interface and experiment. Thirty-two participants collaborated (by groups of four) on the tabletop brainwriting task under four conditions of time pressure and two conditions of social pressure. The results show that time pressure increase...

  18. Paliperidone Induced Hypoglycemia by Increasing Insulin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Tsubasa; Riku, Keisen; Fukumoto, Motoyuki; Kanai, Koji; Omura, Yumi; Takada, Hiromune; Matunaga, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old woman with schizophrenia who developed persistent hypoglycemia following paliperidone administration. After discontinuing paliperidone, the hypoglycemia resolved, but symptoms of diabetes emerged. Therefore, it appears that the hypoglycemia induced by paliperidone may mask symptoms of diabetes. Paliperidone may induce hypoglycemia by increasing insulin secretion. This report could help elucidate the relationship between atypical antipsychotics and glucose metabolism. PMID:27478670

  19. Sensors Increase Productivity in Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    California's San Juan Capistrano-based Endevco Corporation licensed three patents covering high-temperature, harsh-environment silicon carbide (Si-C) pressure sensors from Glenn Research Center. The company is exploring their use in government markets, as well as in commercial markets, including commercial jet testing, deep well drilling applications where pressure and temperature increase with drilling depth, and in automobile combustion chambers.

  20. Increasing socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick, Carl B.; Snellman, Kaisa; Robert D. Putnam

    2014-01-01

    Childhood and youth obesity represent significant US public health challenges. Recent findings that the childhood obesity ‘‘epidemic’’ may have slightly abated have been met with relief from health professionals and popular media. However, we document that the overall trend in youth obesity rates masks a significant and growing class gap between youth from upper and lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Until 2002, obesity rates increased at similar rates for all adolescents, but sinc...

  1. Is poverty increasing in the developing world?

    OpenAIRE

    Shaohua Chen; Datt, Gaurav; Ravallion, Martin

    1993-01-01

    The authors assess the developing world's progress in reducing absolute-consumption poverty during 1981-91, using new data on the distribution of household consumption or income per capita for 40 countries (at two points in time for 18 of the countries). They apply dominance tests to the distributions after adjustment to purchasing-power parity. They find that the incidence of aggregate poverty changed little. The number of poor increased at the rate of population growth. The region with the ...

  2. Timeout postponement without increased reinforcement frequency.

    OpenAIRE

    Pietras, C J; Hackenberg, T D

    2000-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine pigeons' postponement of signaled extinction periods (timeouts) from a schedule of food reinforcement when such responding neither decreased overall timeout frequency nor increased the overall frequency of food reinforcement. A discrete-trial procedure was used in which a response during the first 5 s of a trial postponed an otherwise immediate 60-s timeout to a later part of that same trial but had no effect on whether the timeout occurred. During ...

  3. Increased Functionality Porous Optical Fiber Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wooddell, Michael Gary

    2007-01-01

    A novel fiber optic structure, termed stochastic ordered hole fibers, has been developed that contains an ordered array of six hollow tubes surrounding a hollow core, combined with a nanoporous glass creating a unique fully three dimensional pore/fiber configuration. The objective of this study is to increase the functionality of these stochastic ordered hole fibers, as well as porous clad fibers, by integrating electronic device components such as conductors, and semiconductor...

  4. Do fat supplements increase physical performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Di Felice; Felicia Farina; Luigi Rizzuto; Patrizia Catanese; Francesco Carini; Rosario Barone; Filippo Macaluso

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Prelimi...

  5. The increasing complexity of the ubiquitin code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Richard; Rape, Michael

    2016-05-27

    Ubiquitylation is essential for signal transduction as well as cell division and differentiation in all eukaryotes. Substrate modifications range from a single ubiquitin molecule to complex polymeric chains, with different types of ubiquitylation often eliciting distinct outcomes. The recent identification of novel chain topologies has improved our understanding of how ubiquitylation establishes precise communication within cells. Here, we discuss how the increasing complexity of ubiquitylation is employed to ensure robust and faithful signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. PMID:27230526

  6. Have Biotech Seeds Increased Maize Yields?

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zheng; David A. Hennessy; Moschini, GianCarlo

    2010-01-01

    Corn yield is determined by soils, weather, seed used and other technology choices. Global population and per capita income growth trends as well as demand from the energy sector have placed great stress on cropland use. Global cropland acres and/or yield per acre will need to increase. Whether new seed technologies have enhanced corn yield is a controversial issue. We study U.S. county corn yields 1964-2008, controlling for location effects, fertilization technologies and weather. We find ev...

  7. Increase of Organization in Complex Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev, Georgi Yordanov; Daly, Michael; Gombos, Erin; Vinod, Amrit; Hoonjan, Gajinder

    2013-01-01

    Measures of complexity and entropy have not converged to a single quantitative description of levels of organization of complex systems. The need for such a measure is increasingly necessary in all disciplines studying complex systems. To address this problem, starting from the most fundamental principle in Physics, here a new measure for quantity of organization and rate of self-organization in complex systems based on the principle of least (stationary) action is applied to a model system -...

  8. Aridity under conditions of increased CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Peter; Roderick, Micheal L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-04-01

    A string of recent of studies led to the wide-held assumption that aridity will increase under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and associated global warming. Such results generally build upon analyses of changes in the 'aridity index' (the ratio of potential evaporation to precipitation) and can be described as a direct thermodynamic effect on atmospheric water demand due to increasing temperatures. However, there is widespread evidence that contradicts the 'warmer is more arid' interpretation, leading to the 'global aridity paradox' (Roderick et al. 2015, WRR). Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of modeled changes in a broad set of dryness metrics (primarily based on a range of measures of water availability) over a large range of realistic atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We use an ensemble of simulations from of state-of-the-art climate models to analyse both equilibrium climate experiments and transient historical simulations and future projections. Our results show that dryness is, under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and related global warming, generally decreasing at global scales. At regional scales we do, however, identify areas that undergo changes towards drier conditions, located primarily in subtropical climate regions and the Amazon Basin. Nonetheless, the majority of regions, especially in tropical and mid- to northern high latitudes areas, display wetting conditions in a warming world. Our results contradict previous findings and highlight the need to comprehensively assess all aspects of changes in hydroclimatological conditions at the land surface. Roderick, M. L., P. Greve, and G. D. Farquhar (2015), On the assessment of aridity with changes in atmospheric CO2, Water Resour. Res., 51, 5450-5463

  9. Reduce Demand Rather than Increase Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Shoup, Donald C.

    2006-01-01

    The logic behind off-street parking requirements is simple: development increases the demand for parking, so cities require enough off-street spaces to satisfy this new demand. Off-street parking requirements thus ensure that cars will not spill over onto the neighborhood streets. This logic suggests another potential reform within the existing system of off-street parking requirements: if developers reduce parking demand, cities should allow them to provide fewer parking spaces; that is, cit...

  10. Can a sense of entitlement increase stealing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravert, Christina Annette

    to take the (undeserved) maximum payoff than the participants in the random payment scheme. In contrast to previous findings in the cheating literature, stealing is an all-or-nothing decision rather than a trade-off between a slightly higher payoff and the desire to keep ones moral values intact. The...... results support the theory that unethical behavior is increased by a sense of entitlement, which is more pronounced when wealth depends on performance than on the roll of a die....

  11. Does legalized prostitution increase human trafficking?

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Seo-Young; Dreher, Axel; Neumayer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...

  12. (When) Do Stronger Patents Increase Continual Innovation?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yongmin; Pan, Shiyuan; Zhang, Tianle

    2012-01-01

    Under continual innovation, greater patent strength expands innovating firms’ profit against imitation, but also shifts profit from current to past innovators. We show how the impact of patents on innovation, as determined by these two opposing effects, varies with industry characteristics. When the discount factor is sufficiently high, the negative profit division effect is negligible, and innovation monotonically increases in patent strength; otherwise, innovation has an inverted-U relation...

  13. Program increasing of nuclear power plant safeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results achieved within the project of national task 'Program increasing of nuclear power plant safeness' are presented in the document. The project was aimed to extend and deepen activities relating to safety increase of nuclear power units WWER-440 which play significant part in electricity production in the Slovak Republic. The application of advanced foreign calculating programs and calculation of radionuclide spreading in environment and techniques will influence the increase of extent, quality and international acceptance of safety analysis of nuclear power plant blocks WWER-440 and the risk valuation from operating nuclear power plants. Methodic resources for coping in emergency situation in nuclear energetics will be used for support in decision making in real time during radiation emergency on nuclear plant, region and state level. A long-term strategy in dealing with burnt fuel and radioactive substance formatting during nuclear power plant liquidation particularly with waste which is un acceptable in regional dump, has developed into a theoretical and practical preparation of solvable group for operating the converting centre Bohunice and in inactivating the nuclear power plant A-1. The diagnostic activities in nuclear power plants in the Slovak Republic have been elaborated into a project of norm documents in accordance with international norms for diagnostic systems. Presentation of new technologies and materials for repairs and reconstructions of components and nuclear power plant knots qualify increase in their reliability, safety and life. New objective methods and criterions for valuation and monitoring of the residual life and safety of fixed nuclear power plants. Results of problem solving linked with connecting the blocks of nuclear power plants to frequency regulation in electric network in the Slovak Republic are also presented in the document

  14. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    de Lange, Thomas; Mailänder, Peter; Stollwerck, Peter. L.; Stang, Felix H.; Siemers, Frank; Namdar, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the in...

  15. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Namdar, T; Siemers, F; Stollwerck, PL; Stang, FH; Mailänder, P; de Lange, T

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia.Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality?Method: Retrospective study for the i...

  16. Increasing granular flow rate with obstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Murray; Fernando Alonso-Marroquin

    2016-01-01

    We describe a simple experiment involving spheres rolling down an inclined plane towards a bottleneck and through a gap. Results of the experiment indicate that flow rate can be increased by placing an obstruction at optimal positions near the bottleneck. We use the experiment to develop a computer simulation using the PhysX physics engine. Simulations confirm the experimental results and we state several considerations necessary to obtain a model that agrees well with experiment. We demonstr...

  17. Increased hippocampal neurogenesis in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Kunlin; Peel, Alyson L.; Mao, Xiao Ou; Xie, Lin; Cottrell, Barbara A.; Henshall, David C.; Greenberg, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Neurogenesis, which persists in the adult mammalian brain, may provide a basis for neuronal replacement therapy in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurogenesis is increased in certain acute neurological disorders, such as ischemia and epilepsy, but the effect of more chronic neurodegenerations is uncertain, and some animal models of AD show impaired neurogenesis. To determine how neurogenesis is affected in the brains of patients with AD, we investigated the expressi...

  18. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K−1 decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558

  19. Another call to increase STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    As science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education becomes increasingly important, U.S. students are lagging behind other nations on international assessments, according to a recent Trends in International Mathematics and Science study. A 22 June report from the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) calls for increasing the focus on STEM education in the United States. “To make progress in improving STEM education for all students, policy makers at the national, state, and local levels should elevate science to the same level of importance as reading and mathematics,” states the report, “Successful K-12 STEM Education: Identifying Effective Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.” It outlines several goals: expand the number of students who pursue advanced degrees and careers in STEM fields; expand the STEM-capable workforce, while also broadening the participation of women and minorities; and increase STEM literacy for all students, whether or not they pursue STEM-related careers or additional study in those areas.

  20. Paradoxical sleep deprivation increases plasma endothelin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Palma

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelins (ET-1, 2 and 3 constitute a family of 21 amino acid peptides with potent biological activities. ET-1 is one of the most potent endogenous vasoconstrictors so far identified and its increased concentration in plasma appears to be closely related to the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension as well as to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. OSA patients exhibit repetitive episodes of apnea and hypopnea that result in hypoxia and consecutive arousals. These patients are chronically sleep deprived, which may aggravate the hypertensive features, since literature data show that sleep deprivation results in hypertension both in humans and in animals. Based on the reported relationship between ET-1, hypertension and sleep deprivation consequences, the purpose of the present study was to determine plasma ET concentrations in paradoxical sleep-deprived animals. Male Wistar rats, 3 to 4 months old (N = 10 per group, were deprived of sleep for 24 and 96 h by the platform technique and plasma ET-1/2 was measured by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of plasma revealed that 96 h of sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in ET-1/2 release (6.58 fmol/ml compared to control (5.07 fmol/ml. These data show that sleep deprivation altered plasma ET-1/2 concentrations, suggesting that such an increase may participate in the genesis of arterial hypertension and cardiorespiratory changes observed after sleep deprivation.

  1. Increased Science Instrumentation Funding Strengthens Mars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lee D.; Graff, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    As the strategic knowledge gaps mature for the exploration of Mars, Mars sample return (MSR), and Phobos/Deimos missions, one approach that becomes more probable involves smaller science instrumentation and integrated science suites. Recent technological advances provide the foundation for a significant evolution of instrumentation; however, the funding support is currently too small to fully utilize these advances. We propose that an increase in funding for instrumentation development occur in the near-term so that these foundational technologies can be applied. These instruments would directly address the significant knowledge gaps for humans to Mars orbit, humans to the Martian surface, and humans to Phobos/ Deimos. They would also address the topics covered by the Decadal Survey and the Mars scientific goals, objectives, investigations and priorities as stated by the MEPAG. We argue that an increase of science instrumentation funding would be of great benefit to the Mars program as well as the potential for human exploration of the Mars system. If the total non-Earth-related planetary science instrumentation budget were increased 100% it would not add an appreciable amount to the overall NASA budget and would provide the real potential for future breakthroughs. If such an approach were implemented in the near-term, NASA would benefit greatly in terms of science knowledge of the Mars, Phobos/Deimos system, exploration risk mitigation, technology development, and public interest.

  2. Fuel-consumption reflects increasing export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel consumption in Slovakia has been substantially rising during the first three months of this year. During January and February about 6 percent more petrol and 15 percent more diesel fuel were sold compared to last year. Retail sales were growing even faster, informed president of Slovak Association of Petroleum Industry and Trade (SAPPO), Karoly Robak. He considers this an evidence of a substantial economic growth. The export is executed in form of freight transport (lorries), as this, together with agriculture, is the largest diesel fuel consumer. K. Robak, who at the same time is the Deputy General Manager For Retail at Slovnaft, a.s., Bratislava, expects the sales of fuel to grow by about 8 percent this year. Low prices due to a weaker US dollar should only support these tendencies. Last year the sales grew by 8,3 percent and in retail business the increase exceeded 10 percent. At the moment there are about 700 petrol stations in Slovakia (SAPPO) and over 330 out of them are owned by Slovnaft. The sale of fuel is now moving more to the retail business - to petrol stations as the price difference between retail and wholesale is decreasing. Last year for instance the wholesale recorded an increase in sales of diesel by 6,5 percent whereas retail sales grew by 17 percent. With petrol the situation was similar - 6,4 increase in retail sales and 2,5 percent in wholesale. (Author)

  3. D-serine increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eSultan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis results in the continuous formation of new neurons and is a process of brain plasticity involved in learning and memory. The neurogenic niche regulates the stem cell proliferation and the differentiation and survival of new neurons and a major contributor to the neurogenic niche are astrocytes. Among the molecules secreted by astrocytes, D-serine is an important gliotransmitter and is a co-agonist of the glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor. D-serine has been shown to enhance the proliferation of neural stem cells in vitro, but its effect on adult neurogenesis in vivo is unknown. Here, we tested the effect of exogenous administration of D-serine on adult neurogenesis in the mouse dentate gyrus. We found that 1 week of treatment with D-serine increased cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro and increased the density of neural stem cells and transit amplifying progenitors. Furthermore, D-serine increased the survival of newborn neurons. Together, these results indicate that D-serine treatment resulted in the improvement of several steps of adult neurogenesis in vivo.

  4. Clusters - Tourism Activity Increase Competitiveness Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen IORDACHE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism represents one of those areas with the greatest potential of global expansion. Tourism development strategy in terms of maximizing its positive effects on regional economic increase and implicitly on the national one starts from the premise that in global economy value is created in regions which are defined as particular geographical entities, separated by geographical reasons and not as political-administrative structures, and economic increase is centrally cumulated and valued according to the economic policy and the national legal system.Regional economic system approach based on “cluster” concept is explained by the fact that the regional activities portfolio is based on an inter and intra-industry networking grouped by cluster, in which is created the value that increases as the activity results are leading to the final consumers.This type of communication aims to highlight the tourism role as a factor in regional development, the clustering process significance in obtaining some competitiveness advantages, clusters development in tourism beginnings, and also the identification methodology used to select one touristic area to create the cluster.

  5. Increasing incidence of canine leptospirosis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes 90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  6. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Major

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73 and rainfall (r2 0.39, >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25 or rainy days (r2 0.38. Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%, pulmonary (76.7%, hepatic (26.0%, and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%, leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%. Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3. Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species.

  7. Increasing turbine vendor competition in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the wind turbine market in Canada was presented. Canada is now experiencing increased turbine vendor competition. Trends in wind turbine OEM market shares in Canada have increased from 10 per cent in 2000 to over 70 per cent in 2007. Several major companies in Canada have signed large-scale orders for delivery in 2010. It is expected that future wind turbine demands in all areas of Canada will increase. However, projections for Canadian wind growth demonstrate the difficulties provinces are now facing in trying to attract manufacturing investment away from the United States. Growth in wind turbine investment is in the process of creating a more robust North American wind turbine generator chain. However, the majority of new facilities are located in the United States. It is not known if Quebec's wind turbine generators will be viable outside of fulfilling Hydro-Quebec's tendering process. Canada's wind industry must consider equipment transport costs as well as a shortage of operating and maintenance service infrastructure. It was concluded that growth in the United States is expected to have a positive impact on Canadian wind energy customers. tabs., figs

  8. Increasing cardiac interventions among the aged.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, J D

    2010-11-01

    Ireland\\'s over 65 year population is growing. As incidence of coronary events rises with age, there is a growing population of elderly patients with cardiac disease. The changing age profile of patients treated by a tertiary hospital\\'s Cardiology service was quantified using Hospital Inpatient Enquiry data. 53% of CCU admissions were aged > or = 65 years, with admissions aged > or = 85 years in 2008 four times greater than in 2002. Percentages of patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions in 1997 aged > or = 70 years were 19% and 18% respectively. By 2007, these percentages had risen to 31% and 34% respectively--greatest increases were in the very elderly age categories. The proportion of ICD recipients aged > 70 years increased from 8% in 2003 to 25% by 2008. The proportion of elderly patients receiving advanced cardiac care is increasing. This trend will continue and has clear resource implications. Outcomes of interventions in the very old need further investigation, since the \\'old old\\' are under-represented in clinical trials.

  9. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-08-01

    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. PMID:26302716

  10. Symbiosis increases coral tolerance to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, S.; Irie, T.; Inoue, M.; Shinmen, K.; Kawahata, H.; Nakamura, T.; Kato, A.; Nojiri, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Sakai, K.; van Woesik, R.

    2013-04-01

    Increasing the acidity of ocean waters will directly threaten calcifying marine organisms such as reef-building scleractinian corals, and the myriad of species that rely on corals for protection and sustenance. Ocean pH has already decreased by around 0.1 pH units since the beginning of the industrial revolution, and is expected to decrease by another 0.2-0.4 pH units by 2100. This study mimicked the pre-industrial, present, and near-future levels of pCO2 using a precise control system (±5% pCO2), to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the calcification of recently-settled primary polyps of Acropora digitifera, both with and without symbionts, and adult fragments with symbionts. The increase in pCO2 of 100 μatm between the pre-industrial period and the present had more effect on the calcification rate of adult A. digitifera than the anticipated future increases of several hundreds of micro-atmospheres of pCO2. The primary polyps with symbionts showed higher calcification rates than primary polyps without symbionts, suggesting that (i) primary polyps housing symbionts are more tolerant to near-future ocean acidification than organisms without symbionts, and (ii) corals acquiring symbionts from the environment (i.e. broadcasting species) will be more vulnerable to ocean acidification than corals that maternally acquire symbionts.

  11. Symbiosis increases coral tolerance to ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ohki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the acidity of ocean waters will directly threaten calcifying marine organisms such as reef-building scleractinian corals, and the myriad of species that rely on corals for protection and sustenance. Ocean pH has already decreased by around 0.1 pH units since the beginning of the industrial revolution, and is expected to decrease by another 0.2–0.4 pH units by 2100. This study mimicked the pre-industrial, present, and near-future levels of pCO2 using a precise control system (±5% pCO2, to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the calcification of recently-settled primary polyps of Acropora digitifera, both with and without symbionts, and adult fragments with symbionts. The increase in pCO2 of 100 μatm between the pre-industrial period and the present had more effect on the calcification rate of adult A. digitifera than the anticipated future increases of several hundreds of micro-atmospheres of pCO2. The primary polyps with symbionts showed higher calcification rates than primary polyps without symbionts, suggesting that (i primary polyps housing symbionts are more tolerant to near-future ocean acidification than organisms without symbionts, and (ii corals acquiring symbionts from the environment (i.e. broadcasting species will be more vulnerable to ocean acidification than corals that maternally acquire symbionts.

  12. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558

  13. Inhaled histamine increases human lung mucociliary transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histamine, a mediator of airways constriction, alters ciliary beat frequency, bronchial mucus production, and epithelial ion transport; and in dogs, increases mucociliary transport. To evaluate the effect of inhaled histamine on human tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance, the authors measured lung mucociliary clearance (LMC) and tracheal mucociliary transport rate (TMTR) in 5 healthy, nonsmoking subjects in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. The concentration of inhaled histamine which produced a 20% fall in FEV1 was established for each subject. On a separate day the subjects inhaled a 9 μm MMAD /sup 99m/Tc-Fe2O3 aerosol. LMC and TMTR were then measured for 2.5h using a gamma camera and a tracheal multidetector probe. Simultaneously, the subjects were challenged every 26 +/- 4 min with either PBS or histamine in PBS. The Fe2O3 retained after 24h for histamine (14.4 +/- 7.6%) and PBS studies (13.1 +/- 8.6%) indicated no difference in deposition of Fe2O3 (ANOVA). Fe2O3 clearance at 30 min was increased in the histamine studies (61 +/- 21% compared to the PBS studies (44 +/- 29%; p < 0.02, ANOVA)). TMTR was also increased with histamine (7.6 +/- 3.4 mm/min) compared to PBS (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm/min; p < 0.001, ANOVA). Results indicate an acute stimulatory effect of inhaled histamine on mucous transport in humans

  14. Amphetamine increases errors during episodic memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Michael Edward; Gallo, David A; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-02-01

    Moderate doses of stimulant drugs are known to enhance memory encoding and consolidation, but their effects on memory retrieval have not been explored in depth. In laboratory animals, stimulants seem to improve retrieval of emotional memories, but comparable studies have not been carried out in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of dextroamphetamine (AMP) on retrieval of emotional and unemotional stimuli in healthy young adults, using doses that enhanced memory formation when administered before encoding in our previous study. During 3 sessions, healthy volunteers (n = 31) received 2 doses of AMP (10 and 20 mg) and placebo in counterbalanced order under double-blind conditions. During each session, they first viewed emotional and unemotional pictures and words in a drug-free state, and then 2 days later their memory was tested, 1 hour after AMP or placebo administration. Dextroamphetamine did not affect the number of emotional or unemotional stimuli remembered, but both doses increased recall intrusions and false recognition. Dextroamphetamine (20 mg) also increased the number of positively rated picture descriptions and words generated during free recall. These data provide the first evidence that therapeutic range doses of stimulant drugs can increase memory retrieval errors. The ability of AMP to positively bias recollection of prior events could contribute to its potential for abuse. PMID:24135845

  15. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes 90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  16. Femoral lipectomy increases postprandial lipemia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L; Bessesen, Daniel H; Cox-York, Kimberly A; Erickson, Christopher B; Law, Christopher K; Anderson, Molly K; Wang, Hong; Jackman, Matthew R; Van Pelt, Rachael E

    2015-07-01

    Femoral subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) appears to be cardioprotective compared with abdominal SAT, possibly through better triglyceride (TG) sequestration. We hypothesized that removal of femoral SAT would increase postprandial TG through a reduction in dietary fatty acid (FA) storage. Normal-weight (means ± SD; BMI 23.9 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) women (n = 29; age 45 ± 6 yr) were randomized to femoral lipectomy (LIPO) or control (CON) and followed for 1 yr. Regional adiposity was measured by DEXA and CT. A liquid meal labeled with [(14)C]oleic acid was used to trace the appearance of dietary FA in plasma (6-h postprandial TG), breath (24-h oxidation), and SAT (24-h [(14)C]TG storage). Fasting LPL activity was measured in abdominal and femoral SAT. DEXA leg fat mass was reduced after LIPO vs. CON (Δ-1.4 ± 0.7 vs. 0.1 ± 0.5 kg, P fat area (-39.6 ± 36.6 vs. 4.7 ± 14.6 cm(2), P fat mass and CT visceral fat area were unchanged. Postprandial TG increased (5.9 ± 7.7 vs. -0.6 ± 5.3 × 10(3) mg/dl, P fat remained reduced 1 yr following lipectomy and was accompanied by increased postprandial TG and reduced femoral SAT LPL activity. There were no changes in storage of meal-derived FA or visceral fat. Our data support a protective role for femoral adiposity on circulating TG independent of dietary FA storage and visceral adiposity. PMID:25968576

  17. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrian, Mariano E. [Cinvestav-IPN, Seccion de Toxicologia, Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Manuel [Cinvestav-IPN, Departamento de Biologia Celular (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16{alpha}-OHT but higher 6{beta}-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7{alpha}-OHT and AD but higher 6{beta}-OHT and 6{alpha}-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6{beta}-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6{alpha}-/15{alpha}-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16{alpha}-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats. (orig.)

  18. Interventions for increasing uptake in screening programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droste, Sigrid

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Opportunities for the early detection of disease are not sufficiently being taken advantage of. Specific interventions could increase the uptake of prevention programmes. A comprehensive analysis of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions with reference to Germany is still needed. Objectives: This report aimed to describe and assess interventions to increase uptake in primary and secondary prevention and to explore the assessment of their cost-effectiveness. Methods: 29 scientific databases were systematically searched in a wide strategy. Additional references were located from bibliographies. All published systematic reviews and primary studies were assessed for inclusion without language restrictions. Teams of two reviewers identified the literature, extracted data and assessed the quality of the publications independently. Results: Four HTA reports and 22 systematic reviews were identified for the medical evaluation covering a variety of interventions. The economic evaluation was based on two HTA-reports, one meta-analysis and 15 studies. The evidence was consistent for the effectiveness of invitations and reminders aimed at users, and for prompts aimed at health care professionals. These interventions were the most commonly analysed. (Financial Incentives for users and professionals were identified in a small number of studies. Limited evidence was available for cost-effectiveness showing incremental costs for follow-up reminders and invitations by telephone. Evidence for ethical, social and legal aspects pointed to needs in vulnerable populations. Discussion: The material was heterogeneous regarding interventions used, study populations and settings. The majority of references originated from the United States and focused on secondary prevention. Approaching all target groups by invitations and reminders was recommended to increase uptake in prevention programmes in general. Conclusions: Further research

  19. Increased alveolar plasminogen activator in early asbestosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantin, A.; Allard, C.; Begin, R.

    1989-03-01

    Alveolar macrophage-derived plasminogen activator (PA) activity is decreased in some chronic interstitial lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis but increased in experimental models of acute alveolitis. Although asbestos fibers can stimulate alveolar macrophages (AM) to release PA in vitro, the effect of chronic asbestos exposure of the lower respiratory tract on lung PA activity remains unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate PA activity of alveolar macrophages and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in asbestos-exposed sheep and asbestos workers. Forty-three sheep were exposed to either 100 mg UICC chrysotile B asbestos in 100 ml phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or to 100 ml PBS by tracheal infusion every 2 wk for 18 months. At Month 18, chest roentgenograms were analyzed and alveolar macrophage and extracellular fluid PA activity were measured in samples obtained by BAL. Alveolar macrophage PA activity was increased in the asbestos-exposed sheep compared to control sheep (87.2 +/- 17.3 versus 41.1 +/- 7.2 U/10(5) AM-24 h, p less than 0.05) as was the BAL fluid PA activity (674.9 +/- 168.4 versus 81.3 +/- 19.7 U/mg alb-24 h, p less than 0.01). Among the asbestos-exposed sheep, 10 had normal chest roentgenograms (Group SA) and 15 had irregular interstitial opacities (Group SB). Strikingly, whereas Group SA did not differ from the control group in BAL cellularity or PA activity, Group SB had marked increases in alveolar macrophages (p less than 0.005), AM PA activity (p less than 0.02), and BAL PA activity (p less than 0.001) compared to the control group.

  20. Training Modalities to Increase Sensorimotor Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform required mission tasks. The goal of our current series of studies is develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project has conducted a series of studies investigating the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges (incongruent visual input, support surface instability) designed to increase adaptability. SA training using a treadmill combined with exposure to altered visual input was effective in producing increased adaptability in a more complex over-ground ambulatory task on an obstacle course. This confirms that for a complex task like walking, treadmill training contains enough of the critical features of overground walking to be an effective training modality. SA training can be optimized by using a periodized training schedule. Test sessions that each contain short-duration exposures to multiple perturbation stimuli allows subjects to acquire a greater ability to rapidly reorganize appropriate response strategies when encountering a novel sensory environment. Using a treadmill mounted on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform we investigated locomotor training responses produced by subjects introduced to a dynamic walking surface combined with alterations in visual flow. Subjects who received this training had improved locomotor performance and faster reaction times when exposed to the novel sensory stimuli compared to control subjects. Results also demonstrate that individual sensory biases (i.e. increased visual dependency) can predict adaptive responses to novel sensory environments suggesting that individual training prescription can be developed to enhance adaptability. These data indicate that SA

  1. Sadness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia P; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2014-02-01

    Research shows that attention is ineluctably captured away from a focal visual task by rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards). The fundamental cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect have been the object of an increasing number of studies but their sensitivity to mood and emotions remains relatively unexplored despite suggestion of greater distractibility in negative emotional contexts. In this study, we examined the effect of sadness, a widespread form of emotional distress and a symptom of many disorders, on distraction by deviant sounds. Participants received either a sadness induction or a neutral mood induction by means of a mixed procedure based on music and autobiographical recall prior to taking part in an auditory-visual oddball task in which they categorized visual digits while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. The results showed that although all participants exhibited significantly longer response times in the visual categorization task following the presentation of rare and unexpected deviant sounds relative to that of the standard sound, this distraction effect was significantly greater in participants who had received the sadness induction (a twofold increase). The residual distraction on the subsequent trial (postdeviance distraction) was equivalent in both groups, suggesting that sadness interfered with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound and back toward the target stimulus. We propose that this disengagement impairment reflected the monopolization of cognitive resources by sadness and/or associated ruminations. Our findings suggest that sadness can increase distraction even when distractors are emotionally neutral. PMID:24098923

  2. Increased plasma homocysteine in liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, A; Petersen, S; Hinrichsen, H; Czech, N; J Müller, M

    2001-05-01

    Background: Homocysteine (Hcy), is an atherogenic and thrombogenic risk factor which has also been proposed to be involved in hepatic fibrinogenesis. Hcy metabolism, depends on the cofactors folate, vit. B12, and the vit. B6 vitamer pyridoxalphosphate (PLP). Metabolism of these vitamins is frequently disturbed in cirrhotics, but little is known about plasma Hcy levels in these patients. Methods: Plasma levels of Hcy, methionine, serine, cysteine, PLP, vit. B12 and folate, and standard clinical/biochemical parameters of liver disease were measured in 43 postabsorptive patients with biopsy proven cirrhosis of different origin. Results: 74% of the patients had elevated plasma Hcy levels defined as >13.4 µmol/l (mean+2SD of healthy age matched controls). Increased plasma Hcy concentrations were seen in alcoholic as well as in non-alcoholic cirrhosis. Excluding patients with impaired renal function (n=7), Hcy concentrations remained elevated in 69% of the patients. We found a high prevalence of pathological plasma vitamin concentrations of 33% for increased vit. B12 levels and 5% and 80% for decreased folate and vit. B6 levels, respectively. Mean plasma vitamin B12 concentrations increased, folate remained unchanged and PLP concentrations decreased with deteriorating liver function. Hcy concentrations were correlated with levels of creatinine (r=0.44, Pvit. B12 und vit. B6. This was contrary to data obtained in healthy individuals. In a stepwise multiple regression serine and cysteine best explained the variance in Hcy levels. Conclusions: Elevated basal Hcy-plasma levels are frequently seen cirrhotic patients. Variations of Hcy concentration in liver cirrhosis are not explained by plasma levels of cofactors of Hcy metabolism. PMID:11282484

  3. Does getting a dog increase recreational walking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuiman Matthew W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines changes in socio-demographic, environmental and intrapersonal factors associated with dog acquisition in non-dog owners at baseline to 12-months follow-up and the effect of dog acquisition on minutes per week of recreational walking. Methods RESIDE study participants completed self-administered questionnaires (baseline and 12-months follow-up measuring physical activity, dog ownership, dog walking behavior as well as environmental, intrapersonal and socio-demographic factors. Analysis was restricted to 'Continuing non-owners' (i.e., non-owners at both baseline and follow-up; n = 681 and 'New dog owners' (i.e., non-owners who acquired a dog by follow-up; n = 92. Results Overall, 12% of baseline non-owners had acquired a dog at follow-up. Dog acquisition was associated with working and having children at home. Those who changed from single to couple marital status were also more likely to acquire a dog. The increase in minutes of walking for recreation within the neighborhood from baseline to follow-up was 48 minutes/week for new dog owners compared with 12 minutes/week for continuing non-owners (p p p > 0.05 after further adjustment for change in baseline to follow-up variables. Increase in intention to walk was the main factor contributing to attenuation of the effect of dog acquisition on recreational walking. Conclusion This study used a large representative sample of non-owners to examine the relationship between dog acquisition and recreational walking and provides evidence to suggest that dog acquisition leads to an increase in walking. The most likely mechanism through which dog acquisition facilitates increased physical activity is through behavioral intention via the dog's positive effect on owner's cognitive beliefs about walking, and through the provision of motivation and social support for walking. The results suggest that behavioral intention mediates the relationship between dog acquisition

  4. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shao-Xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC conte...

  5. China Onshore Oil Production Increasing Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Xueyi

    1995-01-01

    @@ China onshore oil industry made a considerable achievement in 1994 on the basis of developing successively for many years and oil and gas production increasing year after year. Annual crude production reached 139.44 million tons. In the first half of last year, imported crude and finished product has been out of control and oil product has been unsalable so that some oil wells have to be closed and off production in Xinjiang and Daqing. Crude production reduced by 1.28 million tons in total.

  6. Increased prevalence of autoimmunity in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K H; Cleemann, L; Hjerrild, B E;

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with Turner syndrome (TS) are prone to develop autoimmune conditions such as coeliac disease (CD), thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes (T1DM). The objective of the present study was to examine TS of various karyotypes for autoantibodies and corresponding diseases. This was investigated in a......, but two were classified as having T2DM. One patient had adrenocortical autoantibodies but not adrenal failure. Autoantibodies against intrinsic factor were absent. Anti-GAD-65 was increased in isochromosomal karyotypes (3/23 versus 1/84, P = 0.008) with no other association found between...... clinical symptoms emerge....

  7. Homocysteine increases the risk associated with hyperlipidaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Caroline

    2009-04-01

    The European Concerted Action Project \\'Homocysteine and Vascular Disease\\' showed that an elevated homocysteine is associated with a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and particularly when combined with other factors such as smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential interactions between homocysteine and individual lipid subfractions. In addition, it was hypothesized that HDL cholesterol may protect against hyperhomocysteinaemia because HDL cholesterol is associated with the enzyme paroxonase, which reduces oxidization of homocysteine to the harmful metabolite, homocysteine thiolactonase.

  8. Obesity increases your risk of developing diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    There are an estimated 69,000 adults and 1092 children living with diabetes in Northern Ireland in 2010. The number of adults with diabetes in Northern Ireland has increased by 34% since 2004. Many of these cases are preventable and related to obesity. With this in mind, during Diabetes Week (12 - 18 June 2011) the Public Health Agency is encouraging everyone across Northern Ireland to be aware of how diabetes can be prevented and what the signs and symptoms of diabetes are to ensure early di...

  9. Emerin increase in regenerating muscle fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Squarzoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The fate of emerin during skeletal muscle regeneration was investigated in an animal model by means of crush injury. Immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and mRNA analysis demonstrated that emerin level is increased in regenerating rat muscle fibers with respect to normal mature myofibers. This finding suggests an involvement of emerin during the muscle fiber regeneration process, in analogy with its reported involvement in muscle cell differentiation in vitro. The impairment of skeletal muscle physiological regeneration or reorganization could be a possible pathogenetic mechanism for Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

  10. Increasing jet entrainment, mixing and spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    A free jet of air is disturbed at a frequency that substantially matches natural turbulences in the free jet to increase the entrainment, mixing, and spreading of air by the free jet, for example in a room or other enclosure. The disturbances are created by pulsing the flow of air that creates the free jet at the desired frequency. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct.

  11. Final Technical Report: Increasing Prediction Accuracy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    PV performance models are used to quantify the value of PV plants in a given location. They combine the performance characteristics of the system, the measured or predicted irradiance and weather at a site, and the system configuration and design into a prediction of the amount of energy that will be produced by a PV system. These predictions must be as accurate as possible in order for finance charges to be minimized. Higher accuracy equals lower project risk. The Increasing Prediction Accuracy project at Sandia focuses on quantifying and reducing uncertainties in PV system performance models.

  12. Greenland Ice Sheet: Increased coastal thinning

    OpenAIRE

    Krabill, W.; Hanna, E.; Huybrechts, Philippe; W. Abdalati; Cappelen, J.; Csatho, B.; Frederick, E; Manizade, S; Martin, C; Sonntag, J; Swift, R.; Thomas, R.; Yungel, J.

    2004-01-01

    Repeated laser-altimeter surveys and modelled snowfall/summer melt show average ice loss from Greenland between 1997 and 2003 was 80 ± 12 km3 yr, compared to about 60 km3 yr 1 for 1993/41998/9. Half of the increase was from higher summer melting, with the rest caused by velocities of some glaciers exceeding those needed to balance upstream snow accumulation. Velocities of one large glacier almost doubled between 1997 and 2003, resulting in net loss from its drainage basin by about 20 km of ic...

  13. Increasing efficiency through integrated energy data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses how improved management of energy data can bring about the increase in efficiency that is necessary for an electricity enterprise operating in a liberalised electricity market. The relevant technical and business processes involved for a typical power distribution utility are described. The present situation is reviewed and the various physical, data-logistics and commercial 'domains' involved are examined. Possible solutions for energy data logistics and integrated data management are discussed from the points of view of the operating utility, the power supplier and those responsible for balancing out supply and demand

  14. New strategies for increasing value and profitability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Recent developments in the midstream natural gas sector in North America are reviewed, with emphasis on ways to increase value and profitability. Papers presented included discussion on profitability and return on investment for the midstream industry, the effect of cross-border pipelines on Canada's petrochemical industry, midstream dispositions and acquisitions, value creation through midstream asset rationalization, demand and supply forecasts for natural gas and natural gas liquids, ways to leverage eBusiness in the Midstream, and environmental issues affecting the midstream sector. Only speaking notes are available. There is, however, a Table of Contents, and brief biographical notes of all the presenters.

  15. Does fiscal cooperation increase local tax rates ?

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie Charlot; Sonia Paty; Virginie Piguet

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of fiscal cooperation on local taxation in a decentralized country, using the French experience. We estimate a model of tax setting for local business tax using spatial and dynamic econometric techniques, for the period 1993-2003. We find first that reducing the number of municipalities is likely to limit tax competition and increase local business tax rates as a consequence. Second, we find that tax rates are higher when groups of local...

  16. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    OpenAIRE

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per Kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing.Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K−1 decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol...

  17. Increasing Sales in a Hotel Lobby Shop

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhala, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Small shops and café areas connected to a hotel’s lobby have become increasingly popular within the hospitality industry. The customers have become more accustomed to spending time within the hotel premises and not only in their hotel room. Cumulus Koskikatu hotel, located in the Tampere city center, also opened their own hotel lobby shop hotel lobby area. As the hotel lobby shop is still a relatively new addition to the hotel operations, very little research has been done in the terms of ho...

  18. Investment opportunities in an increasingly competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four topic areas are considered: (1) The global context for energy investments, (2) Strategic investments in the gas chain, (3) Conventional and changing approaches to investing in gas and power, (4) New areas of opportunity. The presentation considers the challenging global context for investments and the current oil price outlook and more specifically the backdrop to the growth in demand for gas and its increasing availability and the implications of factors such as energy market liberalization. It notes the regional nature of gas and power markets and considers the issue of stranded supply and demand. It identifies an increasing trend towards investments up and down the gas chain by both traditional and new players and explores BP Amoco's own corporate response. The presentation then briefly reviews four major gas investments which BP Amoco has either already taken or is considering. It then discusses investments in gas to power and the growing environmental agenda, which is bringing a range of new and non-traditional investment opportunities

  19. Patient falls in hospitals: an increasing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Despite six decades of worldwide efforts that include publishing virtually hundreds of related epidemiological-type studies, there has been an increase (estimated to be 46% per 1000 patient days from 1954-6 to 2006-10) in the number of patient falls in hospitals and other health care facilities. These still occur most frequently near the bedside or in the bathroom, among mentally confused or physically impaired patients, and often involve those with greater comorbidity. The reasons that hospitals during the past half century have demonstrated a significant increase in patient falls per discharge or per patient days are numerous, are not completely surprising, and are certainly interrelated: improved accident reporting systems; on the average older, more impaired, more acutely ill, and more heavily sedated patients; and, less time spent by nursing personnel at the bedside. Most safety committees are not as effective as they should be, since they have difficulty in implementing a long-term, aggressive, facility-wide prevention program. Within that context, it may be worthwhile to discuss the advantages of nursing leadership rather than a representative of the facility's management staff to chair these safety committees. PMID:26304626

  20. Increased Synthesis of Liver Erythropoietin with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Seigneux, Sophie; Lundby, Anne-Kristine Meinild; Berchtold, Lena; Berg, Anders H; Saudan, Patrick; Lundby, Carsten

    2016-08-01

    Anemia of CKD seems to be related to impaired production of renal erythropoietin (Epo). The glycosylation pattern of Epo depends on the synthesizing cell and thus, can indicate its origin. We hypothesized that synthesis of Epo from nonkidney cells increases to compensate for insufficient renal Epo production during CKD. We determined plasma Epo levels and Epo glycosylation patterns in 33 patients with CKD before undergoing dialysis and nine patients with CKD undergoing dialysis. We compared these values with values obtained in healthy volunteers and other controls. Although patients with CKD before undergoing dialysis had median (interquartile range) Epo levels higher than those of healthy controls (13.8 IU/L; interquartile range, 10.0-20.7 IU/L versus 8.4 IU/L; interquartile range, 7.6-9.0 IU/L; PPMI), Epo glycosylation in patients with CKD before undergoing dialysis (PMI=36.1±11.7%) differed from that in healthy controls (PMI=9.2±3.8%; PPMI=53.9±10.6%; P>0.05), which contains mainly liver-derived Epo. Furthermore, glycosylation modification correlated with eGFR loss. These results suggest that patients with CKD maintain persistent Epo synthesis despite declining renal function, and this maintenance may result in part from increased liver Epo synthesis. PMID:26757994

  1. Extensive Atrophic Gastritis Increases Intraduodenal Hydrogen Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumasa Miki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Gastric acid plays an important part in the prevention of bacterial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. If these bacteria have an ability of hydrogen (H2 fermentation, intraluminal H2 gas might be detected. We attempted to measure the intraluminal H2 concentrations to determine the bacterial overgrowth in the gastrointestinal tract. Patients and methods. Studies were performed in 647 consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy. At the time of endoscopic examination, we intubated the stomach and the descending part of the duodenum without inflation by air, and 20 mL of intraluminal gas samples of both sites was collected through the biopsy channel. Intraluminal H2 concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. Results. Intragastric and intraduodenal H2 gas was detected in 566 (87.5% and 524 (81.0% patients, respectively. The mean values of intragastric and intraduodenal H2 gas were 8.5±15.9 and 13.2±58.0 ppm, respectively. The intraduodenal H2 level was increased with the progression of atrophic gastritis, whereas the intragastric H2 level was the highest in patients without atrophic gastritis. Conclusions. The intraduodenal hydrogen levels were increased with the progression of atrophic gastritis. It is likely that the influence of hypochlorhydria on bacterial overgrowth in the proximal small intestine is more pronounced, compared to that in the stomach.

  2. Incidental fear cues increase monetary loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulreich, Stefan; Gerhardt, Holger; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-04-01

    In many everyday decisions, people exhibit loss aversion-a greater sensitivity to losses relative to gains of equal size. Loss aversion is thought to be (at least partly) mediated by emotional-in particular, fear-related-processes. Decision research has shown that even incidental emotions, which are unrelated to the decision at hand, can influence decision making. The effect of incidental fear on loss aversion, however, is thus far unclear. In two studies, we experimentally investigated how incidental fear cues, presented during (Study 1) or before (Study 2) choices to accept or reject mixed gambles over real monetary stakes, influence monetary loss aversion. We find that the presentation of fearful faces, relative to the presentation of neutral faces, increased risk aversion-an effect that could be attributed to increased loss aversion. The size of this effect was moderated by psychopathic personality: Fearless dominance, in particular its interpersonal facet, but not self-centered impulsivity, attenuated the effect of incidental fear cues on loss aversion, consistent with reduced fear reactivity. Together, these results highlight the sensitivity of loss aversion to the affective context. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595436

  3. Impacts of increasing ozone on Indian plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of precursor compounds have led to high tropospheric ozone concentrations in India particularly in Indo-Gangetic Plains, which is the most fertile and cultivated area of this rapidly developing country. Current ozone risk models, based on European and North American data, provide inaccurate estimations for crop losses in India. During the past decade, several ozone experiments have been conducted with the most important Indian crop species (e.g. wheat, rice, mustard, mung bean). Experimental work started in natural field conditions around Varanasi area in early 2000's, and the use of open top chambers and EDU (ethylene diurea) applications has now facilitated more advanced studies e.g. for intra-species sensitivity screening and mechanisms of tolerance. In this review, we identify and discuss the most important gaps of knowledge and future needs of action, e.g. more systematic nationwide monitoring for precursor and ozone formation over Indian region. -- Tropospheric ozone is an increasing threat to food production in India

  4. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  5. Increasing women in leadership in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jennifer A; Reif, Lindsey K; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2014-08-01

    Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women's health. In this Perspective, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path. PMID:24918761

  6. Aerococcus: an increasingly acknowledged human pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M

    2016-01-01

    Aerococci have often been misidentified as streptococci in microbiology laboratories, leading to an underestimation of these bacteria as causes of human infections. An increased awareness of aerococci and the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, has led to an increased isolation of Aerococcus urinae and Aerococcus sanguinicola from human urine and blood. The two species are found in human urine and can cause urinary tract infections (UTI). Aerococcus urinae can, in older males with underlying urinary tract conditions, cause invasive infections such as urosepsis or infective endocarditis. The prognosis of invasive aerococcal infections appears to be relatively favourable despite the old age of patients and their many comorbidities. Though clinical breakpoints are still not in place, aerococci seem to be sensitive to penicillins, carbapenems and vancomycin. There is synergy between penicillin and aminoglycosides against some A. urinae isolates and this combination is often used in aerococcal infective endocarditis. The treatment of complicated aerococcal UTI is not obvious as many isolates are resistant to fluoroquinolones. In addition, A. urinae is resistant to sulphamethoxazole, and there are methodological problems in the determination of trimethoprim sensitivity. In complicated UTI, ampicillin is probably a safe treatment option, whereas nitrofurantoin is probably effective in uncomplicated UTI. Treatment studies in aerococcal infections are needed as is a better understanding of the natural niches for aerococci and the pathogenesis and clinical course of aerococcal infections. PMID:26454061

  7. Addressing childhood obesity through increased physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Andrew P; Okely, Anthony D; Baur, Louise A

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is affecting an increasing proportion of children globally. Despite an appreciation that physical activity is essential for the normal growth and development of children and prevents obesity and obesity-related health problems, too few children are physically active. A concurrent problem is that today's young people spend more time than previous generations did in sedentary pursuits, including watching television and engaging in screen-based games. Active behavior has been displaced by these inactive recreational choices, which has contributed to reductions in activity-related energy expenditure. Implementation of multifactorial solutions considered to offer the best chance of combating these trends is urgently required to redress the energy imbalance that characterizes obesity. The counterproductive 'shame and blame' mentality that apportions responsibility for the childhood obesity problem to sufferers, their parents, teachers or health-care providers needs to be changed. Instead, these groups should offer constant support and encouragement to promote appropriate physical activity in children. Failure to provide activity opportunities will increase the likelihood that the children of today will live less healthy (and possibly shorter) lives than their parents. PMID:20736922

  8. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the incidence of hypernatremia and survival in 40 patients with a totally burned surface area (TBSA >10%. Age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were analyzed. Patients were separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Results: Hypernatremia occurred on day 5±1.4. No significant difference for age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were calculated. In Group A all patients survived, while 3 of the hypernatremic patient in Group B died during ICU-stay (Odds-ratio = 1.25; 95% CI 0.971–1.61; p=0.046. Conclusion: Burned patients with an in-hospital acquired hypernatremia have an increased mortality risk. In case of a hypernatremic state early intervention is obligatory. There is a need of a fluid removal strategy in severely burned patient to avoid water imbalance.

  9. Thermodynamic equipartition for increased second law efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Efficiency gains from equipartition to minimize entropy generation are quantified. • The equipartition factor (Ξ) quantifies the variance of thermodynamic affinities. • Systems with low (Ξ) and low efficiency gain most when redesigned for equipartition. • For lumped capacitance systems long normalized charging times correlate with low (Ξ). - Abstract: In this work, a clear distinction is drawn between irreversibility associated with a finite mean driving force in a transport process and irreversibility associated with variance in the spatial and/or temporal distribution of this driving force. The portion of irreversibility associated with driving force variance is quantified via a newly defined dimensionless quantity, the equipartition factor. This equipartition factor, related to the variance in dimensionless driving force throughout the system, is employed to formulate an expression for second law efficiency. Consequently, the equipartition factor may be employed to identify the improvement in efficiency achievable via system redesign for a reduction in driving force variance, while holding fixed the system output for fixed system dimensions in time and space. It is shown that systems with low second law efficiency and low equipartition factor will have the greatest benefit from a redesign to obtain equipartition. The utility of the equipartition factor in identifying situations where efficiency can be increased without requiring a spatial or temporal increase in system size is illustrated through its application to several simple systems

  10. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  11. Forest fire increases mercury accumulation by fishes via food web restructuring and increased mercury inputs

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Erin N.; Schindler, David W.; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Donald, David B.; Vladicka, Katherine E.

    2006-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that fishes from lakes in partially burned catchments contain greater mercury (Hg) concentrations than fishes from reference catchments. Increased methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations in fishes can result in serious health problems for consumers. Here we show that a forest fire caused a 5-fold increase in whole-body Hg accumulation by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and smaller Hg increases in muscle of several fish species in a mountain lake. The enhanced Hg accumulat...

  12. Increasing pulse wave velocity in a realistic cardiovascular model does not increase pulse pressure with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, Mohammad W; Rihani, Ryan J; Laine, Glen A; Quick, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    The mechanism of the well-documented increase in aortic pulse pressure (PP) with age is disputed. Investigators assuming a classical windkessel model believe that increases in PP arise from decreases in total arterial compliance (C(tot)) and increases in total peripheral resistance (R(tot)) with age. Investigators assuming a more sophisticated pulse transmission model believe PP rises because increases in pulse wave velocity (c(ph)) make the reflected pressure wave arrive earlier, augmenting systolic pressure. It has recently been shown, however, that increases in c(ph) do not have a commensurate effect on the timing of the reflected wave. We therefore used a validated, large-scale, human arterial system model that includes realistic pulse wave transmission to determine whether increases in c(ph) cause increased PP with age. First, we made the realistic arterial system model age dependent by altering cardiac output (CO), R(tot), C(tot), and c(ph) to mimic the reported changes in these parameters from age 30 to 70. Then, c(ph) was theoretically maintained constant, while C(tot), R(tot), and CO were altered. The predicted increase in PP with age was similar to the observed increase in PP. In a complementary approach, C(tot), R(tot), and CO were theoretically maintained constant, and c(ph) was increased. The predicted increase in PP was negligible. We found that increases in c(ph) have a limited effect on the timing of the reflected wave but cause the system to degenerate into a windkessel. Changes in PP can therefore be attributed to a decrease in C(tot). PMID:22561301

  13. Increased P diffusion as an explanation of increased P availability in flooded rice soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorus supply factors (capacity, kinetic, intensity, and diffusivity) and plant growth were the approaches used to assess P supply of flooded rice soils. Increases in the capacity, intensity and kinetic factors, as measured by E-value, solution P concentration, and soil P release rate to a distilled water 'sink' respectively, were unpronounced and infrequent upon water-saturation of ten soils. However, increases in the diffusivity factor, as measured by 32P diffusion coefficients, were at least ten-fold as soil moisture increased. The greatest increases in P diffusion occurred as soil moisture increased beyond one-third bar. Using a P-fertilized soil or P treated powdered cellulose as the P source and a minus P nutrient solution to nourish a split root system with water and nutrients, data were obtained which suggested that P uptake and rice shoot growth (indicators of P availability) increased with increasing moisture level. Phosphorus uptake and rice-shoot growth were greatest when the soil or P treated cellulose were water-saturated. These data indicate that increased soil P availability upon flooding can be attributed to an increase in the diffusivity factor

  14. Ambulation Increases Decompression Sickness in Altitude Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny; Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Wessel, J. H., III; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION - Exercise accelerates inert gas elimination during oxygen breathing prior to decompression (prebreathe), but may also promote bubble formation and increase the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The timing, pattern and intensity of exercise are likely critical to the net effect. The NASA Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) combined oxygen prebreathe and exercise preceding a 4.3 psi exposure in non-ambulatory subjects (a microgravity analog) to produce two protocols now used by astronauts preparing for extravehicular activity (CEVIS and ISLE). Additional work is required to investigate whether exercise normal to 1 G environments increases the risk of DCS over microgravity simulation. METHODS - The CEVIS protocol was replicated with one exception. Our subjects completed controlled ambulation (walking in place with fixed cadence and step height) during both preflight and at 4.3 psi instead of remaining non-ambulatory throughout. Decompression stress was graded with aural Doppler (Spencer 0-IV scale). Two-dimensional echocardiographic imaging was used to look for left heart gas emboli (the presence of which prompted test termination). Venous blood was collected at three points to correlate Doppler measures of decompression stress with microparticle (cell fragment) accumulation. Fisher Exact Tests compared test and control groups. Trial suspension would occur when DCS risk >15% or grade IV venous gas emboli (VGE) risk >20% (at 70% confidence). RESULTS - Eleven person-trials were completed (9 male, 2 female) when DCS prompted suspension. DCS was greater than in CEVIS trials (3/11 [27%] vs. 0/45 [0%], respectively, p=0.03). Statistical significance was not reached for peak grade IV VGE (2/11 [18%] vs. 3/45 [7%], p=0.149) or cumulative grade IV VGE observations per subject-trial (8/128 [6%] vs. 26/630 [4%], p=0.151). Microparticle data were collected for 5/11 trials (3 with DCS outcomes), with widely varying patterns that could not be resolved statistically

  15. Cloud albedo increase from carbonaceous aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Leaitch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Airborne measurements from two consecutive days, analysed with the aid of an aerosol-adiabatic cloud parcel model, are used to study the effect of carbonaceous aerosol particles on the reflectivity of sunlight by water clouds. The measurements, including aerosol chemistry, aerosol microphysics, cloud microphysics, cloud gust velocities and cloud light extinction, were made below, in and above stratocumulus over the northwest Atlantic Ocean. On the first day, the history of the below-cloud fine particle aerosol was marine and the fine particle sulphate and organic carbon mass concentrations measured at cloud base were 2.4 μg m−3 and 0.9 μg m−3 respectively. On the second day, the below-cloud aerosol was continentally influenced and the fine particle sulphate and organic carbon mass concentrations were 2.3 μg m−3 and 2.6 μg m−3 respectively. Over the range 0.06–0.8 μm diameter, the shapes of the below-cloud size distributions were similar on both days and the number concentrations were approximately a factor of two higher on the second day. The cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC on the second day were approximately three times higher than the CDNC measured on the first day. Using the parcel model to separate the influence of the differences in gust velocities, we estimate from the vertically integrated cloud light scattering measurements a 6% increase in the cloud albedo principally due to the increase in the carbonaceous components on the second day. Assuming no additional absorption by this aerosol, a 6% albedo increase translates to a local daytime radiative cooling of ∼12 W m−2. This result provides observational evidence that the role of anthropogenic carbonaceous components in the cloud albedo effect can be much larger than that of anthropogenic sulphate, as some global simulations have indicated.

  16. Topical menthol increases cutaneous blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2016-09-01

    Menthol, the active ingredient in several topically applied analgesics, activates transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) receptors on sensory nerves and on the vasculature inducing a cooling sensation on the skin. Ilex paraguariensis is also a common ingredient in topical analgesics that has potential vasoactive properties and may alter the mechanisms of action of menthol. We sought to characterize the microvascular effects of topical menthol and ilex application and to determine the mechanism(s) through which these compounds may independently and combined alter cutaneous blood flow. We hypothesized that menthol would induce vasoconstriction and that ilex would not alter skin blood flow (SkBF). Three separate protocols were conducted to examine menthol and ilex-mediated changes in SkBF. In protocol 1, placebo, 4% menthol, 0.7% ilex, and combination menthol+ilex gels were applied separately to the skin and red cell flux was continuously measured utilizing laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). In protocol 2, seven concentrations of menthol gel (0.04%, 0.4%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 7%, 8%) were applied to the skin to model the dose-response curve. In protocol 3, placebo, menthol, ilex, and menthol+ilex gels were applied to skin under local thermal control (34°C) both with and without sensory nerve blockage (topical lidocaine 4%). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and local heating (42°C) protocols were conducted to determine the relative contribution of endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs)/sensory nerves and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Red cell flux was normalized to mean arterial pressure expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC: flux·mmHg(-1)) in all protocols. Topical menthol application increased SkBF compared to placebo (3.41±0.33 vs 1.1±0.19CVC: peffect, p<0.05) with an ED50 of 1.0%. Similarly, SkBF was increased after menthol application during PORH (3.62±0.29 vs. 2.50±0.21flux·mmHg(-1); p<0.001), but not local heating

  17. Possibilities for linear waveguide accelerator efficiency increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems connected with increasing the efficiency of an intense electron beam interaction with the accelerating electromagnetic field in linear waveguide accelerators are considered. Here the expression for the accelerating electromagnetic field is written as the sum of fields of the generator and the radiation, obtained in the most general case with regard to the slip between the particle clusters and the wave of the radiation field. Comparison between the obtained theoretical values and experimental data for some operating accelerators allows us to conclude on the possibility for designating the more efficient accelerators. It is shown that the limiting values of current in accelerators with exponential dependence of conductivity along a section can be higher than in those with constant or linear dependence

  18. Environmental lead exposure increases micronuclei in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapka, Lucyna; Baumgartner, Adolf; Siwińska, Ewa;

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the contribution of environmental exposures to lead in the development of cytogenetic damage detected as the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in children. The other aim was to apply the MN assay in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization...... age from an unexposed recreational area. Exposure to lead was assessed by determination of lead concentrations in blood (PbB) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas the level of selenium (Se) in serum was detected by using graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. The frequency of MN...... was determined by the cytokinesis-block MN assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization performed using a specific pan-centromeric probe. Environmental exposure to lead resulted in significantly increased levels of PbB (5.29 +/- 2.09 versus 3.45 +/- 1.20 microg/dl in controls), although the average...

  19. Increasing productivity through Total Reuse Management (TRM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    Total Reuse Management (TRM) is a new concept currently being promoted by the NASA Langley Software Engineering and Ada Lab (SEAL). It uses concepts similar to those promoted in Total Quality Management (TQM). Both technical and management personnel are continually encouraged to think in terms of reuse. Reuse is not something that is aimed for after a product is completed, but rather it is built into the product from inception through development. Lowering software development costs, reducing risk, and increasing code reliability are the more prominent goals of TRM. Procedures and methods used to adopt and apply TRM are described. Reuse is frequently thought of as only being applicable to code. However, reuse can apply to all products and all phases of the software life cycle. These products include management and quality assurance plans, designs, and testing procedures. Specific examples of successfully reused products are given and future goals are discussed.

  20. All-Round Marketing Increases Hospital Popularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziqi, Tao

    2015-06-01

    Xuzhou Center Hospital is in a competing medical market in Xuzhou city. This hospital has been dedicating to improve the medical skills and provide professional and individualized service to the patients in order to improve the patient's experience and increase the patient's satisfaction. On the other side, this hospital has provided an all-round marketing campaign to build up the social influence and public reputation through public-praise marketing, web marketing, media marketing, and scholar marketing. Besides, this hospital has been cooperating with foreign medical institutions and inviting foreign medical specialists to academic communication. With the combined effects of improving medical service and all-round marketing, the hospital's economic performance has been enhanced significantly and laid a solid foundation for its ambition to become the first-class hospital in Huaihai Economic Zone. PMID:25548007

  1. Hollow rhodoliths increase Svalbard's shelf biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    Rhodoliths are coralline red algal assemblages that commonly occur in marine habitats from the tropics to polar latitudes. They form rigid structures of high-magnesium calcite and have a good fossil record. Here I show that rhodoliths are ecosystem engineers in a high Arctic environment that increase local biodiversity by providing habitat. Gouged by boring mussels, originally solid rhodoliths become hollow ecospheres intensely colonised by benthic organisms. In the examined shelf areas, biodiversity in rhodolith-bearing habitats is significantly greater than in habitats without rhodoliths and hollow rhodoliths yield a greater biodiversity than solid ones. This biodiversity, however, is threatened because hollow rhodoliths take a long time to form and are susceptible to global change and anthropogenic impacts such as trawl net fisheries that can destroy hollow rhodoliths. Rhodoliths and other forms of coralline red algae play a key role in a plurality of environments and need improved management and protection plans.

  2. Measures for increasing IAEA safeguards effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards depends not only on the quality of IAEA inspection and independent verification of declared nuclear material and facility use, but also on the perception of and reaction to IAEA safeguards by the nations who make up the international community. Because perceptions and reactions often involve nontechnical as well as technical factors, it has proven difficult to describe IAEA safeguards effectiveness in quantitative technical terms. This study uses a flow diagram to examine how IAEA inspections and the resulting verification statements lead to the main political objectives of IAEA safeguards, assurance and deterrence. Based on this approach, a figure of merit called the IAEA safeguards effectiveness ratio is defined, and measures for increasing IAEA safeguards effectiveness are identified and discussed

  3. Hazy increased density in diffuse lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the significance of ground glass density on high-resolution CT scans of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other lung disorders, the authors have reviewed 200 high-resolution CT studies and found 50 cases demonstrating areas of hazy increased lung density. Disease entities most often associated with this finding included DIP, UIP, alveolar proteinosis, sarcoidosis, and bronchiolitis obliterans/ organizing pneumonia. Pathologic examination revealed either cellular or fluid material lining terminal air spaces, often associated with alveolar wall infiltration and an absence of fibrosis. Gallium scans and bronchoalveolar lavage in some cases showed active inflammation Follow-up high-resolution CT studies in 10 patients showed either change or resolution of the hazy densities, confirming the presence of a reversible parenchymal lesion

  4. How retailer coupons increase attitudinal loyalty –

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierich, Ralf; Zielke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    modeling. Findings – The results demonstrate that addressing customers personally and face value have a positive impact on attitudinal loyalty. Surprisingly, the positive effect of personalization is stronger than that of typical variations in face value. In contrast, a high minimum purchase amount...... minimum purchase amount require at least some cognitive processing to have a loyalty impact. Research limitations/implications – Future studies can use the developed framework to test the impact of other design elements, promotion types or loyalty schemes. Practical implications – The results underline......Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate how different design elements of retailer coupons increase the attitudinal loyalty towards retailers. Design/methodology/approach – Three design elements are manipulated in a 2x2x2 experimental design. Data is analysed using structural equation...

  5. Analysis of Increased Information Technology Outsourcing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brcar Franc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the field of IT outsourcing. The narrow field of research is to build a model of IT outsourcing based on influential factors. The purpose of this research is to determine the influential factors on IT outsourcing expansion. A survey was conducted with 141 large-sized Slovenian companies. Data were statistically analyzed using binary logistic regression. The final model contains five factors: (1 management’s support; (2 knowledge on IT outsourcing; (3 improvement of efficiency and effectiveness; (4 quality improvement of IT services; and (5 innovation improvement of IT. Managers immediately can use the results of this research in their decision-making. Increased performance of each individual organization is to the benefit of the entire society. The examination of IT outsourcing with the methods used is the first such research in Slovenia.

  6. Generalized Nutrient Taxes Can Increase Consumer Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishai, David

    2015-11-01

    Certain nutrients can stimulate appetite making them fattening in a way that is not fully conveyed by the calorie content on the label. For rational eaters, this information gap could be corrected by more labeling. As an alternative, this paper proposes a set of positive and negative taxes on the fattening and slimming nutrients in food rather than on the food itself. There are conditions under which this tax plus subsidy system could increase welfare by stopping unwanted weight gain while leaving the final retail price of food unchanged. A nutrient tax system could improve welfare if fattening nutrients, net of their effect on weight, are inferior goods and the fiscal cost of administering the tax is sufficiently low. More data on the price elasticity of demand for nutrients as well as data on how specific nutrients affect satiety and how total calorie intake would be necessary before one could be sure a nutrient tax would work in practice. PMID:25241653

  7. Variations of images to increase their visibility

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The calculus of variations applied to the image processing requires some numerical models able to perform the variations of images and the extremization of appropriate actions. To produce the variations of images, there are several possibilities based on the brightness maps. Before a numerical model, I propose an experimental approach, based on a tool of Gimp, GNU Image Manipulation Program, in order to visualize how the image variations can be. After the discussion of this tool, which is able to strongly increase the visibility of images, the variations and a possible functional for the visibility are proposed in the framework of a numerical model. The visibility functional is analogous to the fringe visibility of the optical interference.

  8. Increased mortality among people with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sandra M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders and depression are the most common mental disorders worldwide and have a striking impact on global disease burden. Although depression has consistently been found to increase mortality; the role of anxiety disorders in predicting mortality risk is unclear. AIMS: To...... assess mortality risk in people with anxiety disorders. METHOD: We used nationwide Danish register data to conduct a prospective cohort study with over 30 million person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: In total, 1066 (2.1%) people with anxiety disorders died during an average follow-up of 9.7 years. The...... risk of death by natural and unnatural causes was significantly higher among individuals with anxiety disorders (natural mortality rate ratio (MRR) = 1.39, 95% CI 1.28-1.51; unnatural MRR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.20-2.73) compared with the general population. Of those who died from unnatural causes, 16.5% had...

  9. Robust Increased Capacity Image Steganographic Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khurrum Rahim Rashid

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available with the rising tempo of unconventional right to use and hit protection of secret information is of extreme value. With the rising tempo of unconventional right to use and hit, protection of secret information is of extreme value. Steganography is the vital matter in information hiding. Steganography refers to the technology of hiding data into digital media without depiction of any misgiving. Lot of techniques has been projected during past years. In this paper, a new steganography approach for hiding data in digital images is presented with a special feature that it increases the capacity of hiding data in digital images with the least change in images perceptual appearance and statistical properties at too much less level which will be very difficult to detect.

  10. Increasing life expectancy of water resources literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistermann, M.; Francke, T.; Georgi, C.; Bronstert, A.

    2014-06-01

    In a study from 2008, Larivière and colleagues showed, for the field of natural sciences and engineering, that the median age of cited references is increasing over time. This result was considered counterintuitive: with the advent of electronic search engines, online journal issues and open access publications, one could have expected that cited literature is becoming younger. That study has motivated us to take a closer look at the changes in the age distribution of references that have been cited in water resources journals since 1965. Not only could we confirm the findings of Larivière and colleagues. We were also able to show that the aging is mainly happening in the oldest 10-25% of an average reference list. This is consistent with our analysis of top-cited papers in the field of water resources. Rankings based on total citations since 1965 consistently show the dominance of old literature, including text books and research papers in equal shares. For most top-cited old-timers, citations are still growing exponentially. There is strong evidence that most citations are attracted by publications that introduced methods which meanwhile belong to the standard toolset of researchers and practitioners in the field of water resources. Although we think that this trend should not be overinterpreted as a sign of stagnancy, there might be cause for concern regarding how authors select their references. We question the increasing citation of textbook knowledge as it holds the risk that reference lists become overcrowded, and that the readability of papers deteriorates.

  11. Aeromonas dhakensis, an Increasingly Recognized Human Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Lin; Lamy, Brigitte; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas dhakensis was first isolated from children with diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh and described in 2002. In the past decade, increasing evidence indicate this species is widely distributed in the environment and can cause a variety of infections both in human and animals, especially in coastal areas. A. dhakensis is often misidentified as A. hydrophila, A. veronii, or A. caviae by commercial phenotypic tests in the clinical laboratory. Correct identification relies on molecular methods. Increasingly used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) may be able to identify Aeromonas specie rapidly and accurately. A. dhakensis has shown its potent virulence in different animal models and clinical infections. Although several virulence factors had been reported, no single mechanism is conclusive. Characteristically A. dhakensis is the principal species causing soft tissue infection and bacteremia, especially among patients with liver cirrhosis or malignancy. Of note, A. dhakensis bacteremia is more lethal than bacteremia due to other Aeromonas species. The role of this species in gastroenteritis remains controversial. Third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems should be used cautiously in the treatment of severe A. dhakensis infection due to the presence of AmpC ββ-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes, and optimal regimens may be cefepime or fluoroquinolones. Studies of bacterial virulence factors and associated host responses may provide the chance to understand the heterogeneous virulence between species. The hypothesis A. dhakensis with varied geographic prevalence and enhanced virulence that compared to other Aeromonas species warrants more investigations. PMID:27303382

  12. Aeromonas dhakensis, an increasingly recognized human pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Lin eChen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas dhakensis was first isolated from children with diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh and described in 2002. In the past decade, increasing evidence indicate this species is widely distributed in the environment and can cause a variety of infections both in human and animals, especially in coastal areas. A. dhakensis is often misidentified as A. hydrophila, A. veronii or A. caviae by commercial phenotypic tests in the clinical laboratory. Correct identification relies on molecular methods. Increasingly used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS may be able to identify Aeromonas specie rapidly and accurately. A. dhakensis has shown its potent virulence in different animal models and clinical infections. Although several virulence factors had been reported, no single mechanism is conclusive. Characteristically A. dhakensis is the principal species causing soft tissue infection and bacteremia, especially among patients with liver cirrhosis or malignancy. Of note, A. dhakensis bacteremia is more lethal than bacteremia due to other Aeromonas species. The role of this species in gastroenteritis remains controversial. Third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems should be used cautiously in the treatment of severe A. dhakensis infection due to the presence of AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes, and optimal regimens may be cefepime or fluoroquinolones. Studies of bacterial virulence factors and associated host responses may provide the chance to understand the heterogeneous virulence between species. The hypothesis A. dhakensis with varied geographic prevalence and enhanced virulence that compared to other Aeromonas species warrants more investigations.

  13. Increasing the brightness of light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ling

    2006-11-16

    In this work the principle of light recycling is applied to artificial light sources in order to achieve brightness enhancement. Firstly, the feasibilities of increasing the brightness of light sources via light recycling are examined theoretically, based on the fundamental laws of thermodynamics including Kirchhoff's law on radiation, Planck's law, Lambert-Beer's law, the etendue conservation and the brightness theorem. From an experimental viewpoint, the radiation properties of three different kinds of light sources including short-arc lamps, incandescent lamps and LEDs characterized by their light-generating mechanisms are investigated. These three types of sources are used in light recycling experiments, for the purpose of 1. validating the intrinsic light recycling effect in light sources, e. g. the intrinsic light recycling effect in incandescent lamps stemming from the coiled filament structure. 2. acquiring the required parameters for establishing physical models, e.g. the emissivity/absorptivity of the short-arc lamps, the intrinsic reflectivity and the external quantum efficiency of LEDs. 3. laying the foundations for designing optics aimed at brightness enhancement according to the characteristics of the sources and applications. Based on the fundamental laws and experiments, two physical models for simulating the radiance distribution of light sources are established, one for thermal filament lamps, the other for luminescent sources, LEDs. As validation of the theoretical and experimental investigation of the light recycling effect, an optical device, the Carambola, is designed for achieving deterministic and multiple light recycling. The Carambola has the function of a concentrator. In order to achieve the maximum possible brightness enhancement with the Carambola, several combinations of sources and Carambolas are modelled in ray-tracing simulations. Sources with different light-emitting mechanisms and different radiation properties

  14. Is low frequency ocean sound increasing globally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Nichols, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    Low frequency sound has increased in the Northeast Pacific Ocean over the past 60 yr [Ross (1993) Acoust. Bull. 18, 5-8; (2005) IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 30, 257-261; Andrew, Howe, Mercer, and Dzieciuch (2002) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 642-651; McDonald, Hildebrand, and Wiggins (2006) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 711-717; Chapman and Price (2011) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, EL161-EL165] and in the Indian Ocean over the past decade, [Miksis-Olds, Bradley, and Niu (2013) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 3464-3475]. More recently, Andrew, Howe, and Mercer's [(2011) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 642-651] observations in the Northeast Pacific show a level or slightly decreasing trend in low frequency noise. It remains unclear what the low frequency trends are in other regions of the world. In this work, data from the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty Organization International Monitoring System was used to examine the rate and magnitude of change in low frequency sound (5-115 Hz) over the past decade in the South Atlantic and Equatorial Pacific Oceans. The dominant source observed in the South Atlantic was seismic air gun signals, while shipping and biologic sources contributed more to the acoustic environment at the Equatorial Pacific location. Sound levels over the past 5-6 yr in the Equatorial Pacific have decreased. Decreases were also observed in the ambient sound floor in the South Atlantic Ocean. Based on these observations, it does not appear that low frequency sound levels are increasing globally. PMID:26827043

  15. Rickets: concerns over the worldwide increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowdon, Jacqui

    2011-01-01

    Rickets is a childhood disease that causes a softening of the bones, potentially leading to fractures and deformity. Eighty years ago it was thought to have largely been eradicated from the U.K. However a recent increase in cases of rickets, not just in Britain but around the world, has proven this isn't the case. Today the disease affects children from all types of socio-economic backgrounds, not just the poorer ones, and it is primarily caused by low levels of vitamin D and certain foods. In January 2011 the government's chief medical officer Dame Sally Davies recommended all children aged six months to five should be given vitamin D supplements, particularly during winter months when natural sunshine is limited. The irony is that the advice in recent years for children to wear a high factor sunscreen and remain covered up while playing outdoors are partly felt to be behind the reason for its re-emergence. Parents and health professionals alike were shocked when it was revealed that a school girl living on the Isle of Wight developed rickets precisely because of her mother's vigilance at following sun safety rules. NICE, in their latest report (Jan 2011) stated that: "Exposure to the sun has a number of benefits. For example, it increases people's sense of wellbeing, allows them to synthesise vitamin D and provides opportunities for physical activity". A tendency for children to stay indoors and watch TV or play on computer games, rather than play outside when the sun is shining, is arguably also another contributing factor. PMID:21678784

  16. Increased Baseline C-Reactive Protein Concentrations Are Associated with Increased Risk of Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Jeppe; Benfield, Thomas; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne;

    2016-01-01

    CRP tertile (compared with the lowest) had an increased risk of bacterial diseases (hazard ratio 1.7, 95% CI 1.6-1.8), but not viral, mycosis, and parasitic diseases. The increased risk was mainly carried by pneumonia, sepsis, and particularly gram-negative infections. None of the genotype...

  17. Increased Bone Marrow Fat in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Misra, Madhusmita; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Rosen, Clifford J.; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have severe depletion of body fat, a paradoxical increase in bone marrow fat has been described. Recent data suggest that marrow fat measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) may be more valuable than either parameter alone in detecting bone weakness. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of AN on accumulation of marrow fat in spine and femur using 1H-MRS and the relationship between marrow fat, BMD, and body composition in subjects with AN and normal-weight controls. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted at a referral center. Patients: Patients included 10 women with AN (29.8 ± 7.6 yr) and 10 normal-weight age-matched women (29.2 ± 5.2 yr). Interventions: There were no interventions. Main Outcomes Measure: Marrow fat content of the fourth lumbar vertebra and femur measured by 1H-MRS. BMD of spine and hip measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: Subjects with AN had higher marrow fat at the fourth lumbar vertebra and femur compared with controls (P = 0.004–0.01). There was an inverse correlation between marrow fat of L4 and femur and BMD of the spine and hip (r = −0.56 to −0.71, P = 0.01–0.0002) and body mass index and sc adipose tissue of the thigh (r = −0.49 to −0.71, P = 0.03–0.0007). There was an inverse correlation between femur marrow fat and sc and total abdominal adipose tissue (r = −0.53 to −0.67, P = 0.003–0.03). Conclusion: Women with AN have greater lumbar and femoral marrow fat than controls, and marrow fat correlates inversely with BMD. This paradoxical increase in marrow fat at a time when sc and visceral fat are markedly reduced raises important questions about functional consequences of this process. PMID:19318450

  18. Adolescent Vaccination Strategies: Interventions to Increase Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Corinne E; Brady, Rebecca C; Battley, Reuben O; Huggins, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    While vaccines have decreased the burden of disease, many adolescents still remain under-immunized, particularly for human papillomavirus (HPV) and influenza. We review the most current data regarding adolescent immunizations in the United States and discuss proven strategies that work for increasing vaccination rates. Strategies that have been shown to improve rates include provider feedback, immunization information systems (or registries), and enhanced access outside of provider offices, such as school-based immunization programs. Overall, practices may want to consider multimodal quality improvement approaches to enhance practice vaccination rates. The public health and cost benefits of immunizing adolescents are well known, yet recent measles outbreaks in the United States have highlighted issues with state immunization laws and vaccine refusals. Providers should be clear in their advice regarding vaccines and use effective reminder strategies as parents commonly cite not having enough information or knowledge that a vaccine was needed for their adolescent. Additional research is needed regarding adolescent consent for vaccines, as well as adolescent and parental refusal, in order to design systems that will help inform families and allow for widespread vaccine availability. PMID:27146296

  19. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradl, H.B. [Bilfinger + Berger Bauaktiengesellschaft, Mannheim (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed {open_quotes}tailor-made{close_quotes} depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents.

  20. Yankee links computing needs, increases productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankee Atomic Electric Company provides design and consultation services to electric utility companies that operate nuclear power plants. This means bringing together the skills and talents of more than 500 people in many disciplines, including computer-aided design, human resources, financial services, and nuclear engineering. The company was facing a problem familiar to many companies in the nuclear industry.Key corporate data and applications resided on UNIX or other types of computer systems, but most users at Yankee had personal computers on their desks. How could Yankee enable the PC users to share the data, applications, and resources of the larger computing environment such as UNIX, while ensuring they could still use their favorite PC applications? The solution was PC-NFS from Sunsoft, of Chelmsford, Mass., which links PCs to UNIX and other systems. The Yankee computing story is an example of computer downsizing-the trend of moving away from mainframe computers in favor of lower-cost, more flexible client/server computing. Today, Yankee Atomic has more than 350 PCs on desktops throughout the company, using PC-NFS, which enables them t;o use the data, applications, disks, and printers of the FUNIX server systems. This new client/server environment has reduced Yankee's computing costs while increasing its computing power and its ability to respond to customers

  1. Social Media Marketing to Increase Brand Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bîja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks are becoming more and more widespread and they are literally conquering the World Wide Web. Facebook has managed to arrive even in poor and remote territories which apparently have nothing to do with our always on the move modern world. However, only on the African continent there are more than 100 million active Facebook users who represent 50% of the African population having access to Internet. Thus, it would be huge marketing mistake for businesses not to take into consideration this opportunity to get in touch with prospective customers (Neti, 2011. Social media is hot and has turned into a “must” for businesses looking for brand awareness. Therefore, the techniques used to attract customers by means of social networks have gained quite a high degree of sophistry (Neti, 2011. In an age in which the average internet user accesses his/her social network account at least fourteen times a day, companies cannot afford to be absent from this medium. The aim of the present paper is to present the concept and characteristics of social media and how it can be used in order to increase brand awareness.

  2. Increasing Immunization Compliance by Reducing Provisional Admittance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Wendy S; Varni, Susan E; Barry, Sara E; Frankowski, Barbara L; Harder, Valerie S

    2016-08-01

    Students in Vermont with incomplete or undocumented immunization status are provisionally admitted to schools and historically had a calendar year to resolve their immunization status. The process of resolving these students' immunization status was challenging for school nurses. We conducted a school-based quality improvement effort to increase student compliance with Vermont immunization regulations using a collaborative learning approach with public health school liaisons and school nurses from public schools to reduce provisional admittance in 2011-2012. Strategies included using a tracking system, accessing the immunization registry, promoting immunization importance, tracking immunization plans, and working with medical homes to update records. Participating school nurses observed decreases in the number of provisionally admitted students, although this reduction was not significantly different than matched comparison schools. We also found the number of provisionally admitted students fluctuated throughout the year and resolving the immunization status of New Americans and exchange students required special attention. Our approach supports the coordinated school health model and demonstrates the critical role school nurses play in improving population health outcomes. PMID:26699951

  3. Hyperglycemia Increases Susceptibility to Ischemic Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lévigne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients are at risk for spontaneous foot ulcers, chronic wounds, infections, and tissue necrosis. Current theories suggest that the development and progression of diabetic foot ulcers are mainly caused by arteriosclerosis and peripheral neuropathy. Tissue necrosis plays a primordial role in the progression of diabetic foot ulcers but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hyperglycemia per se on the susceptibility of ischemic tissue to necrosis, using a critical ischemic hind limb animal model. We inflicted the same degree of ischemia in both euglycemic and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats by resecting the external iliac, the femoral, and the saphenous arteries. Postoperative laser Doppler flowmetry of the ischemic feet showed the same degree of reduction in skin perfusion in both hyperglycemic and euglycemic animals. Nevertheless, we found a significantly higher rate of limb necrosis in hyperglycemic rats compared to euglycemic rats (71% versus 29%, resp.. In this study, we revealed that hyperglycemia per se increases the susceptibility to limb necrosis in ischemic conditions. Our results may help to better understand the physiopathology of progressive diabetic wounds and underline the importance of strict glycemic control in patients with critical limb ischemia.

  4. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Fernandes Golino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI, waist (WC and hip circumference (HC, and waist hip ratio (WHR using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42, misclassification (.19, and the higher pseudo R2 (.43. This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25, misclassification (.16, and the higher pseudo R2 (.46. This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  5. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-xian WANG; Xiao-jun LI; Xin-qiang LIANG; Qi-xiang LUO; Fang FAN; Ying-xu CHEN; Zu-zhang LI; Huo-xi SUN; Tian-fang DAI; Jun-nan WAN

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC)sequestration.We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China.The experiment included eight treatments:(1) check,(2) PK,(3) NP,(4) NK,(5) NPK,(6) 7F:3M (N,P,K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N),(7) 5F:5M (N,P,K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N),(8) 3F:7M (N,P,K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N).Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment.The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha.The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check.Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers.The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues.Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization.Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC.

  6. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC. PMID:22467369

  7. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed 'tailor-made' depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents

  8. Increased condom use needed to fight AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, at least 33 million people are infected with HIV, another 14 million have died, and approximately 16,000 people are newly infected each day, 60% of whom are women. An estimated 6-9 billion condoms are currently used throughout the world each year. However, a report from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health has determined that the level of condom use must be increased to 24 billion units annually in order to check the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. An estimated 71% of total condom need is among sexually active unmarried men, while the rest of the need is among married men who have extramarital affairs and by married couples. Condoms should be made accessible to all at subsidized prices and provided not only through health clinics and retail shops, but also in hotels, bars, grocery stores, and vending machines. New efforts are needed to make condoms more accessible, including lowering their cost, effectively promoting their use, and overcoming the many social and personal obstacles to their use, especially in developing countries where the impact of AIDS is the most severe. Special programs should target specific groups, including youth, unmarried men, and prostitutes, while condom promotion should also aim to improve the image of condoms by portraying them as fun, reliable, and important. Finally, political and religious leaders should speak out in favor of condom use, while the mass media should openly discuss condoms. PMID:12295207

  9. Optical mapping at increased illumination intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaporis, Giedrius; Martišienė, Irma; Jurevičius, Jonas; Vosyliūtė, Rūta; Navalinskas, Antanas; Treinys, Rimantas; Matiukas, Arvydas; Pertsov, Arkady M.

    2012-09-01

    Voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes have become a major tool in cardiac and neuro-electrophysiology. Achieving high signal-to-noise ratios requires increased illumination intensities, which may cause photobleaching and phototoxicity. The optimal range of illumination intensities varies for different dyes and must be evaluated individually. We evaluate two dyes: di-4-ANBDQBS (excitation 660 nm) and di-4-ANEPPS (excitation 532 nm) in the guinea pig heart. The light intensity varies from 0.1 to 5 mW/mm2, with the upper limit at 5 to 10 times above values reported in the literature. The duration of illumination was 60 s, which in guinea pigs corresponds to 300 beats at a normal heart rate. Within the identified duration and intensity range, neither dye shows significant photobleaching or detectable phototoxic effects. However, light absorption at higher intensities causes noticeable tissue heating, which affects the electrophysiological parameters. The most pronounced effect is a shortening of the action potential duration, which, in the case of 532-nm excitation, can reach ˜30%. At 660-nm excitation, the effect is ˜10%. These findings may have important implications for the design of optical mapping protocols in biomedical applications.

  10. Porins increase copper susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Alexander; Rowland, Jennifer L; Haeili, Mehri; Niederweis, Michael; Wolschendorf, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Copper resistance mechanisms are crucial for many pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, during infection because the innate immune system utilizes copper ions to kill bacterial intruders. Despite several studies detailing responses of mycobacteria to copper, the pathways by which copper ions cross the mycobacterial cell envelope are unknown. Deletion of porin genes in Mycobacterium smegmatis leads to a severe growth defect on trace copper medium but simultaneously increases tolerance for copper at elevated concentrations, indicating that porins mediate copper uptake across the outer membrane. Heterologous expression of the mycobacterial porin gene mspA reduced growth of M. tuberculosis in the presence of 2.5 μM copper by 40% and completely suppressed growth at 15 μM copper, while wild-type M. tuberculosis reached its normal cell density at that copper concentration. Moreover, the polyamine spermine, a known inhibitor of porin activity in Gram-negative bacteria, enhanced tolerance of M. tuberculosis for copper, suggesting that copper ions utilize endogenous outer membrane channel proteins of M. tuberculosis to gain access to interior cellular compartments. In summary, these findings highlight the outer membrane as the first barrier against copper ions and the role of porins in mediating copper uptake in M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis. PMID:24013632

  11. Backcrossing to increase meiotic stability in triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomin, R M; Assis, R; Brammer, S P; Nascimento Junior, A; Da-Silva, P R

    2015-01-01

    Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is an intergeneric hybrid derived from a cross between wheat and rye. As a newly created allopolyploid, the plant shows instabilities during the meiotic process, which may result in the loss of fertility. This genomic instability has hindered the success of triticale-breeding programs. Therefore, strategies should be developed to obtain stable triticale lines for use in breeding. In some species, backcrossing has been effective in increasing the meiotic stability of lineages. To assess whether backcrossing has the same effect in triticale, indices of meiotic abnormalities, meiotic index, and pollen viability were determined in genotypes from multiple generations of triticale (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1a, and BC1b). All analyzed genotypes exhibited instability during meiosis, and their meiotic index values were all lower than normal. However, the backcrosses BC1a and BC1b showed the lowest mean meiotic abnormalities and the highest meiotic indices, demonstrating higher stability. All genotypes showed a high rate of pollen viability, with the backcrosses BC1a and BC1b again exhibiting the best values. Statistical analyses confirmed that backcrossing positively affects the meiotic stability of triticale. Our results show that backcrossing should be considered by breeders aiming to obtain triticale lines with improved genomic stability. PMID:26400358

  12. Increasing granular flow rate with obstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Murray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple experiment involving spheres rolling down an inclined plane towards a bottleneck and through a gap. Results of the experiment indicate that flow rate can be increased by placing an obstruction at optimal positions near the bottleneck. We use the experiment to develop a computer simulation using the PhysX physics engine. Simulations confirm the experimental results and we state several considerations necessary to obtain a model that agrees well with experiment. We demonstrate that the model exhibits clogging, intermittent and continuous flow, and that it can be used as a tool for further investigations in granular flow. Received: 22 November 2015, Accepted: 19 February 2016; Edited by: L. A. Pugnaloni; Reviewed by: C. M. Carlevaro, Instituto de Física de Líquidos y Sistemas Biológicos, La Plata, Argentina; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.080003 Cite as: A Murray, F Alonso-Marroquin, Papers in Physics 8, 080003 (2016

  13. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eChatel-Goldman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration. 14 couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy.

  14. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.

  15. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26950145

  16. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have sugg...

  17. Increase of ecological safety of the pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : For increase of ecological safety of the pipeline, necessary decrease of damage (risk) rendered by the pipeline on surrounding natural environment which depends: on the frequency of damage of the pipeline; on the volume poured oil; on the factor of sensitivity of an environment where flood of oil was. Frequency of damage of the pipeline depends on physico-chemical properties of a material of the pipeline, from its technical characteristics (thickness of a wall, length of a pipe, working pressure), on the seismic area of the district where the pipeline passed and also on the way of lining of the pipeline (underground or overground). The volume poured oil depends on diameter of the received damage, from stability of the pipeline mechanical and other external actions, from an ambient temperature, from capacity of the pipeline, from distance between the latches established in the pipeline, and also from time, necessary for their full closing. The factor of sensitivity of environment depends on geological structure and landscapes of district (mountain, the river, settlements) where passed the pipeline. At designing the pipeline, in report is shown questions of increase of ecological safety of the pipeline are considered at his construction and exploitation. For improvement of ecological safety of the pipeline is necessary to hold the following actions: Ecological education of the public, living near along a line of the oil pipeline; carrying out ecological monitoring; working of the public plan of response to oil spills; For ecological education of the public is necessary: carrying out informing of the public for all (technical, ecological, social and economic and legal) questions connected to an oil pipeline, and also on methods of protection of the rights at participation in acceptance of ecological significant decisions; Creation of public groups for realization of activity on observance of the legislation and to prevention of risks; Exposure of hot

  18. The myokine irisin increases cortical bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaianni, Graziana; Cuscito, Concetta; Mongelli, Teresa; Pignataro, Paolo; Buccoliero, Cinzia; Liu, Peng; Lu, Ping; Sartini, Loris; Di Comite, Mariasevera; Mori, Giorgio; Di Benedetto, Adriana; Brunetti, Giacomina; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Reseland, Janne E.; Colucci, Silvia; New, Maria I.; Zaidi, Mone; Cinti, Saverio; Grano, Maria

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how physical activity stimulates new bone synthesis. We explored whether irisin, a newly discovered myokine released upon physical activity, displays anabolic actions on the skeleton. Young male mice were injected with vehicle or recombinant irisin (r-irisin) at a low cumulative weekly dose of 100 µg kg−1. We observed significant increases in cortical bone mass and strength, notably in cortical tissue mineral density, periosteal circumference, polar moment of inertia, and bending strength. This anabolic action was mediated primarily through the stimulation of bone formation, but with parallel notable reductions in osteoclast numbers. The trabecular compartment of the same bones was spared, as were vertebrae from the same mice. Higher irisin doses (3,500 µg kg−1 per week) cause browning of adipose tissue; this was not seen with low-dose r-irisin. Expectedly, low-dose r-irisin modulated the skeletal genes, Opn and Sost, but not Ucp1 or Pparγ expression in white adipose tissue. In bone marrow stromal cell cultures, r-irisin rapidly phosphorylated Erk, and up-regulated Atf4, Runx2, Osx, Lrp5, β-catenin, Alp, and Col1a1; this is consistent with a direct receptor-mediated action to stimulate osteogenesis. We also noted that, although the irisin precursor Fndc5 was expressed abundantly in skeletal muscle, other sites, such as bone and brain, also expressed Fndc5, albeit at low levels. Furthermore, muscle fibers from r-irisin–injected mice displayed enhanced Fndc5 positivity, and irisin induced Fdnc5 mRNA expression in cultured myoblasts. Our data therefore highlight a previously unknown action of the myokine irisin, which may be the molecular entity responsible for muscle–bone connectivity. PMID:26374841

  19. Areas with increased natural radioactivity. Pt. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When studying possible health effects of environmental radioactivity to man, areas of high natural radiation background are especially valuable. The classical and most investigated areas with this respect in the world are the monazite sand regions on the beaches of the States of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in South-India. Indian scientists from the Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) have investigated possible health effects to man by the high natural background radiation in this area since about thirty years. As a remarkable result of the epidemiological studies, no significant genetical radiation damage effects within a collective of about seventythousand investigated persons could be observed. When studying lung cancer risks as a function of natural radiation exposure in the region of relatively low doses, the central problem is, how to extrapolate from the high doses of uranium miners to zero doses. Since the relative number of lung cancer is too small and does not exceed the statistical noise level, no significant experimental approval could be made until today. Therefore, one has to rely mainly on three different hypothesis, among which one cannot make an experimental decision at the moment. Hypothesis I (linear extrapolation) is the most pessimistic one, which denies the existence of repair mechanisms. Hypethesis II (threshold behaviour) is more realistic and considers repair mechanisms. Hypothesis III (hormesis effect) assumes positive health effects at lower radiation doses because of the proved existence of repair mechanisms in the living human cell and their stimulation by irradiation. In possible agreement with hypothesis III, within the last few years several authors in different areas of the world with higher natural radiation background have observed a significant decrease of lung cancer risk with increasing natural radiation background. The authors of this report are demonstrating this behaviour for India with their sets of data. (orig./MG)

  20. Does Ramadan Fasting Increase duodenal ulcer perforation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulhossein Davoodabadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Ramadan, healthy adult Muslims are obliged to fast. Prolonged fasting increase gastric acid and pepsin levels, which promote the risk of duodenal ulcer perforation (DUP. Effects of Ramadan fasting on DUP have not been thoroughly studied yet, and the limited number of studies investigating the impact of Ramadan fasting on DUP yielded discrepant results. This study aimed to evaluate DUP frequency during Ramadan 2011-2015 and compare it with other months. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 82 patients undergoing surgery due to DUP during July 2011-September 2015. The demographics, history of addiction, use of nonsteroidal and antiinflammatory drugs, previous history of acid peptic disease, as well as complications and outcomes of treatment were recorded and analyzed, and the obtained results were compared between Ramadan and other lunar months. Results: The majority of patients were male (86.6%, 71 patients, with a mean age of 43.9±16.5 years (age range: 20-75 years. Male to female ratio was 6:1. Cases with less than 30 years of age were less frequent (22%, 18 patients. DUP was more frequent during Rajab with nine cases (11%, while during Ramadan, six cases were reported, the difference between Ramadan and other months regarding the incidence of DUP was not significant (P=0.7. Risk factors such as smoking (60% and addiction (44%; especially to crystal and crack were noted. Consumption of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in 20 (24% patients, and use of antacids in 17 (25% patients. Distribution of DUP in different blood types was as follows: O+=41%, A+=28%, B+=23%, AB=5%, and O-=3%; moreover, post-operative Helicobacter pylori antibody was present in 67% of the patients. Conclusion: Ramadan fasting did not escalate DUP incidence, and those with DUP risk factors can fast with the use of antacids.

  1. Interactive effects of pests increase seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagic, Vesna; Riggi, Laura Ga; Ekbom, Barbara; Malsher, Gerard; Rusch, Adrien; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Loss in seed yield and therefore decrease in plant fitness due to simultaneous attacks by multiple herbivores is not necessarily additive, as demonstrated in evolutionary studies on wild plants. However, it is not clear how this transfers to crop plants that grow in very different conditions compared to wild plants. Nevertheless, loss in crop seed yield caused by any single pest is most often studied in isolation although crop plants are attacked by many pests that can cause substantial yield losses. This is especially important for crops able to compensate and even overcompensate for the damage. We investigated the interactive impacts on crop yield of four insect pests attacking different plant parts at different times during the cropping season. In 15 oilseed rape fields in Sweden, we estimated the damage caused by seed and stem weevils, pollen beetles, and pod midges. Pest pressure varied drastically among fields with very low correlation among pests, allowing us to explore interactive impacts on yield from attacks by multiple species. The plant damage caused by each pest species individually had, as expected, either no, or a negative impact on seed yield and the strongest negative effect was caused by pollen beetles. However, seed yield increased when plant damage caused by both seed and stem weevils was high, presumably due to the joint plant compensatory reaction to insect attack leading to overcompensation. Hence, attacks by several pests can change the impact on yield of individual pest species. Economic thresholds based on single species, on which pest management decisions currently rely, may therefore result in economically suboptimal choices being made and unnecessary excessive use of insecticides. PMID:27099712

  2. Increase in radiosensitivity with increase in age of Populus tremuloides seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Populus tremuloides seeds from one tree were irradiated with a 260-Ci 137 Cs gamma source to exposures of 0.47, 0.94, 1.4, 1.8, 3.7, 7.5, 15, 22, 30, 45, and 60 kr at increasing time intervals after seed collection. Two methods of seed storage were used prior to irradiation, refrigerator storage at 50C and freezer storage at -190C with vacuum desiccation. Gamma radiation had no effect upon germination percentage. However, marked decreases in the LD/sub 50-30/ of Populus tremuloides seedlings, grown from seed that was gamma irradiated at increasing time intervals after seed collection, indicated that the seed radiosensitivity increases with increasing age of the seed. Seed storage under vacuum desiccation in a freezer at -190C prolonged the viable storage life of the seed over refrigerator storage

  3. Contribution of Increased Extraction Efficiency to Increased Photo-Luminescence in Strained Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Jui; Chang-Mou Yang, Arnold; Hsu, Jui-Hung; White, Jonathon D.

    2012-02-01

    Potential applications of Luminescent Conjugated Polymers in thin film diodes, solar cells and flat panel displays have been limited by low efficiency. Craze formation in MEH-PPV/polystyrene thin film leads to a factor of 2 or 3 increase in collected photo-luminescence (PL) due to a combination of factors such as MEH-PPV chain conformation and increased extraction efficiency of PL. In order to determine the contribution of the latter effect, we used Monte Carlo based Ray Tracing to analyze the trajectory of photons generated in the thin film under different strain conditions. Our results indicate that increased PL extraction due to the existence of crazes contributes ˜15% of the observed increase in PL, the majority of this being due to light emitted near the craze edges.

  4. Increases in Cognitive and Linguistic Processing Primarily Account for Increases in Speaking Rate with Age

    OpenAIRE

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 (N = 7), 7 (N = 10), 10 (N = 9), 13 (N = 7), 16 (N = 9) years and young adults (N = 11) in speaking tasks varying in task demands. Speaking rate increased with age, with decreases in pauses and articulator displac...

  5. Effectiveness of Increasing Liquidity as a Response to Increased Repayment Risk: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yeager, Elizabeth A.; Banard, Freddie L.

    2014-01-01

    Volatile net farm incomes and potential for higher interest rates has strengthened the importance of managing liquidity. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of increasing liquidity levels as a means of reducing repayment risk for agricultural firms. Using a base case farming operation and three interest rate scenarios, eight potential changes in the operating situation, and two leverage levels, it was found increasing the level of liquidity was an effective means of reducing repayment risk...

  6. Increase of Internal CO2 of Cotton Plants by Methanol Application to Increase Yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment has been conducted to increase internal CO2 and Rubisco activity detected by 14C and to determinate which factors influence this activities. Plant material used was cotton plants which internal CO2 concentrations and Rubisco activity was observed at 35, 50, 65, 80 days after planting (DAP). Treatments applied were methanol with concentrations of 0%, 10%,20% and 30% at available water (AW) at 25-50% AW, 50-75% AW, 75-100% AW. Results obtained showed that application of methanol at concentration of 20% at 75-100% AW, increase internal CO2 from 266.60 ppm to 295.10 ppm (11 % increase) and this will also increase Rubisco activity from 3.81 to 14.28 (μmol. CO2 menit-1 (μmol. Rubisco-1). This increase is expected to push photosynthesis rate and result in increase cotton yield. The use of 14C was satisfactorily detected the amount of carbon. (author)

  7. Eosinophils increase in animals that received biotherapic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto Silva Morais

    2012-12-01

    morphological changes in juveniles and adults ticks parasitizing animals which consumed the biotherapic. This observation suggests a negative interference of the biotherapic in the biological cycle of the tick, decreasing its population and consequently his control’s necessity. Comparing the blood cells counts of the first and the twelfth month, a raise of 23% (P> 0.05 in the eosinophils and 8% (P< 0.05 in the platelets was observed in the T1 animals. No changes in liver enzymes were observed. The increase in eosinophils and platelets found in this experiment suggests that biotherapic ingested by the animals strengthens the defense system and the clotting cascade.Key words: bovinos

  8. Value of timber continues to increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state owned company, Lesy SR (state forests) enjoys great power in the timber industry. It can influence which timber processing companies in Slovakia will be successful and which will not have easy access to the raw material. It manages half of the forests in Slovakia. It is the only seller of timber in this country. Four years ago, the former cabinet appointed banker, Karol Vins, as the director of the company. And he started making changes. He centralized the timber business and thousands of people left the company. The goal was clear -to increase quality and efficiency. The economic performance of the company improved. The company has finally managed to post a profit. Last year, the government changed and so has the director of the company The former banker was replaced by a new head from a forestry research background, Jozef Mindas. He approves of some of the changes introduced by his predecessor and plans to continue implementing them, although there also those he would like to change. The new manager is not concerned regarding the big change from research where he used to work in the past to director of a big company and rejects the allegation that he was nominated by HZDS. I was approached as an expert and I won a tender. I have never been a member of a political party, he stated. He appreciates that his predecessor managed to revitalize the company, which was assisted by the positive effect of out-sourcing. But on the other hand, during transformation forests were not divided up correctly. The division into units did not always take into account the specific requirements of forestry, i.e. some employees in forest units have too much work and some, working in another forest unit, less. We have to make sure that the workload is approximately at the same level everywhere. He is aware of the fact that Lesy SR, which controls two thirds of the timber market, effectively decides which factory will succeed and which one will not. But he adds that Lesy SR do

  9. Radiation inhibits proteasomes and increases ubiquitinated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation results in accumulation of a number of short lived proteins that mediate cell survival/death, proliferation, repair, and differentiation. Expression of most of these proteins, including p53, mdm2, p21, c-jun, IkB-a, bcl-2, bax, cyclins A, B, E, Cdc25A, DNA-PKcs, and caspase-3 is regulated at the post-transcriptional level through ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway. Several previous studies have shown that inhibition of proteasome activity by drugs leads to accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. In this study we show that irradiation can do the same due to its inhibitory effect on 26S, but not 20S, proteasome activity. Two prostate cancer cell lines, murine TRAMP-C1 and human PC3, were used to examine the effect of ionizing radiation on the catalytic activity of the 26S proteasome. Cells were irradiated with different doses ranging from 0.25 to 20 Gy and lysed at different time points after irradiation. Crude extracts of both cell lines showed a rapid 30-50% decrease in chymotryptic activity of the 26S proteasome, as measured by a fluorogenic assay. The same level of inhibition was observed if purified 26S proteasomes were themselves irradiated, indicating that radiation has direct effects on this multicatalytic enzyme complex. Neither direct irradiation of proteasomes or cells had effect on 20S catalytic activity, suggesting that radiation selectively acts on 26S structure. Next, we examined whether this partial inhibition had any effect on ability of 26S proteasome to efficiently remove ubiquitinated proteins. Cells were irradiated with 10Gy and lysed at different time points. Ubiquitinated proteins were precipitated and examined by Western blot. Levels of ubiquitinated conjugates slowly increased over time and peaked at 7h post-irradiation. Accumulation of ubiquitinated conjugates has been shown to lead to formation of protein aggregates which can induce cell death. It has also been shown that monoubiquitination

  10. Ambulation Increases Decompression Sickness in Spacewalk Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Conkin, J.; Wessel, J. H., III; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal activity has the potential to both improve and compromise decompression safety. Exercise enhances inert gas elimination during oxygen breathing prior to decompression (prebreathe), but it may also promote bubble nuclei formation (nucleation), which can lead to gas phase separation and bubble growth and increase the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The timing, pattern and intensity of musculoskeletal activity and the level of tissue supersaturation may be critical to the net effect. Understanding the relationships is important to evaluate exercise prebreathe protocols and quantify decompression risk in gravity and microgravity environments. Data gathered during NASA's Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) studies combined oxygen prebreathe and exercise followed by low pressure (4.3 psi; altitude equivalent of 30,300 ft [9,235 m]) microgravity simulation to produce two protocols used by astronauts preparing for extravehicular activity. Both the Phase II/CEVIS (cycle ergometer vibration isolation system) and ISLE (in-suit light exercise) trials eliminated ambulation to more closely simulate the microgravity environment. The CEVIS results (35 male, 10 female) serve as control data for this NASA/Duke study to investigate the influence of ambulation exercise on bubble formation and the subsequent risk of DCS. METHODS Four experiments will replicate the CEVIS exercise-enhanced oxygen prebreathe protocol, each with a different exception. The first of these is currently underway. Experiment 1 - Subjects complete controlled ambulation (walking in place with fixed cadence and step height) during both preflight and at 4.3 psi instead of remaining nonambulatory throughout. Experiment 2 - Subjects remain non-ambulatory during the preflight period and ambulatory at 4.3 psi. Experiment 3 - Subjects ambulate during the preflight period and remain non-ambulatory at 4.3 psi. Experiment 4 - The order of heavy and light exercise employed in the CEVIS protocol is

  11. ASEAN energy cooperation an increasingly daunting challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East Asia has been the fastest growing region in the world since the early 1980's. Arguably, all countries in the region are set for a period of economic, to some extent demographic, and urban expansion. Since energy is a vital factor in driving economic growth, higher energy consumption can be expected in the coming decades in this part of the world. Although the strong growth is to a large extent due to China, Southeast Asian economies also record stellar economic performances and account for the dramatic rise in energy consumption. The Tokyo-based Asia-Pacific Energy Research Centre (APERC) projects that energy demand in the region (excluding Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar) will double from 252 million tons of oil equivalent (mtoe) to 525 mtoe between 1999 and 2020. How to best meet this demand poses a range of policy challenges for the region's governments not only at the individual but also at the regional level (Symon 2004). In Southeast Asia (SEA), energy sector development has implications for inter-governmental relations for a number of reasons. First, the pursuit of domestic energy goals can affect neighboring countries, as exemplified for instance by the construction of dams for hydropower in shared river systems in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Secondly, domestic gas and power systems are expected to be increasingly supported by pipelines and transmission links with other countries, thus opening the possibilities of system integration to meet demand at lower cost. Lastly, with fossil fuels as the primary source of energy supply, problems of environmental degradation as well as of availability (associated in particular with high oil dependency) are doomed to loom large in this part of the world and could be better met through intra-regional cooperation. A major characteristic of the region is the presence of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), which is the only formal grouping of economic cooperation in Asia. Prima facie energy appears

  12. Systemic change increases model projection uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Judith; Karssenberg, Derek; van der Hilst, Floor; Faaij, André

    2014-05-01

    the neighbourhood doubled, while the influence of slope and potential yield decreased by 75% and 25% respectively. Allowing these systemic changes to occur in our CA in the future (up to 2022) resulted in an increase in model projection uncertainty by a factor two compared to the assumption of a stationary system. This means that the assumption of a constant model structure is not adequate and largely underestimates uncertainty in the projection. References Verstegen, J.A., Karssenberg, D., van der Hilst, F., Faaij, A.P.C., 2014. Identifying a land use change cellular automaton by Bayesian data assimilation. Environmental Modelling & Software 53, 121-136. Verstegen, J.A., Karssenberg, D., van der Hilst, F., Faaij, A.P.C., 2012. Spatio-Temporal Uncertainty in Spatial Decision Support Systems: a Case Study of Changing Land Availability for Bioenergy Crops in Mozambique. Computers , Environment and Urban Systems 36, 30-42. Wald, A., Wolfowitz, J., 1940. On a test whether two samples are from the same population. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics 11, 147-162.

  13. ASEAN energy cooperation an increasingly daunting challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, F.

    2009-07-01

    East Asia has been the fastest growing region in the world since the early 1980's. Arguably, all countries in the region are set for a period of economic, to some extent demographic, and urban expansion. Since energy is a vital factor in driving economic growth, higher energy consumption can be expected in the coming decades in this part of the world. Although the strong growth is to a large extent due to China, Southeast Asian economies also record stellar economic performances and account for the dramatic rise in energy consumption. The Tokyo-based Asia-Pacific Energy Research Centre (APERC) projects that energy demand in the region (excluding Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar) will double from 252 million tons of oil equivalent (mtoe) to 525 mtoe between 1999 and 2020. How to best meet this demand poses a range of policy challenges for the region's governments not only at the individual but also at the regional level (Symon 2004). In Southeast Asia (SEA), energy sector development has implications for inter-governmental relations for a number of reasons. First, the pursuit of domestic energy goals can affect neighboring countries, as exemplified for instance by the construction of dams for hydropower in shared river systems in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Secondly, domestic gas and power systems are expected to be increasingly supported by pipelines and transmission links with other countries, thus opening the possibilities of system integration to meet demand at lower cost. Lastly, with fossil fuels as the primary source of energy supply, problems of environmental degradation as well as of availability (associated in particular with high oil dependency) are doomed to loom large in this part of the world and could be better met through intra-regional cooperation. A major characteristic of the region is the presence of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), which is the only formal grouping of economic cooperation in Asia. Prima facie

  14. Mechanisms for increased soil C storage with increasing temporal and spatial plant diversity in Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, L. K.; Grandy, S.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Atkinson, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    Generally, there are positive relationships between plant species diversity and net primary production and other key ecosystem functions. However, the effects of aboveground diversity on soil microbial communities and ecosystem processes they mediate, such as soil C sequestration, remain unclear. In this study, we used an 11-y cropping diversity study where increases in diversity have increased crop yields. At the experimental site, temporal diversity is altered using combinations of annual crop rotations, while spatial diversity is altered using cover crop species. We used five treatments ranging in diversity from one to five species consisting of continuous corn with no cover crop or one cover crop and corn-soy-wheat rotations with no cover, one cover or two cover crop species. We collected soils from four replicate plots of each treatment and measured the distribution of mega- (>2 mm), macro- (0.25-2 mm), and micro- (0.053-0.25 mm) aggregates. Within each aggregate size class, we also measured total soil C and N, permanganate oxidizable C (POXC), extracellular enzyme activities (EEA), and microbial community structure with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. We use these data to address the impacts of both rotational and cover crop diversity on soil physical structure, associated microbial community structure and activity and soil C storage. As spatial diversity increased, we found concurrent increases in mega-aggregate abundance as well as increasing soil C in the mega- and micro-aggregates but not macro-aggregates. The proportion of total soil C in each aggregate size class that is relatively labile (POXC) was highest in the micro-aggregates, as was enzyme activity associated with labile C acquisition across all levels of diversity. Enzyme activity associated with more recalcitrant forms of soil C was highest in the mega-aggregate class, also across all diversity levels; however, the ratio of labile to recalcitrant EEA increased with increasing diversity

  15. Increasing ‘ease of sliding’ also increases friction: when is a lubricant effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, M. A.; Baldassarri, A.; Dalton, F.; Petri, A.; Pontuale, G.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate experimentally the effective Coulomb friction exerted by a granular medium on a shearing plate, varying the medium depth. The plate is driven by a spring connected to a motor turning at a constant speed and, depending on the system configuration, performs continuous sliding or stick and slip in different proportions. We introduce an order parameter which discriminates between the different regimes expressing the fraction of time spent in slipping. At low driving speed, starting from zero layers of interstitial granular material, the average friction coefficient decreases when a few layers are added, while the order parameter stays close to zero. By further increasing the granular depth, the friction undergoes a sudden increase but the order parameter does not change notably. At an intermediate driving speed, however, both the friction and the order parameter undergo a sudden increase, which for the order parameter amounts to several orders of magnitude, indicating that the plate is more braked but nevertheless keeps sliding more easily. For medium-high driving speeds, full sliding is obtained for only one layer of interstitial matter, where friction has a minimum, and is maintained for all increasing depths while friction increases. These observations show that the ease of slipping is not determined by friction alone, rather by the highly complex interplay between driving velocity, friction, and the depth of the medium.

  16. Sustained adrenergic signaling leads to increased metastasis in ovarian cancer via increased PGE2 synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, A S; Dorniak, P L; Sadaoui, N C; Kang, Y; Lin, T; Armaiz-Pena, G; Wu, S Y; Rupaimoole, R; Allen, J K; Gharpure, K M; Pradeep, S; Zand, B; Previs, R A; Hansen, J M; Ivan, C; Rodriguez-Aguayo, C; Yang, P; Lopez-Berestein, G; Lutgendorf, S K; Cole, S W; Sood, A K

    2016-05-01

    Adrenergic stimulation adversely affects tumor growth and metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we uncovered a novel mechanism by which catecholamines induce inflammation by increasing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in ovarian cancer cells. Metabolic changes in tumors isolated from patients with depression and mice subjected to restraint stress showed elevated PGE2 levels. Increased metabolites, PTGS2 and PTGES protein levels were found in Skov3-ip1 and HeyA8 cells treated with norepinephrine (NE), and these changes were shown to be mediated by ADRB2 receptor signaling. Silencing PTGS2 resulted in significantly decreased migration and invasion in ovarian cancer cells in the presence of NE and decreased tumor burden and metastasis in restraint stress orthotopic models. In human ovarian cancer samples, concurrent increased ADRB2, PTGS2 and PTGES expression was associated with reduced overall and progression-free patient survival. In conclusion, increased adrenergic stimulation results in increased PGE2 synthesis via ADRB2-Nf-kB-PTGS2 axis, which drives tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:26257064

  17. Increasing ‘ease of sliding’ also increases friction: when is a lubricant effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate experimentally the effective Coulomb friction exerted by a granular medium on a shearing plate, varying the medium depth. The plate is driven by a spring connected to a motor turning at a constant speed and, depending on the system configuration, performs continuous sliding or stick and slip in different proportions. We introduce an order parameter which discriminates between the different regimes expressing the fraction of time spent in slipping. At low driving speed, starting from zero layers of interstitial granular material, the average friction coefficient decreases when a few layers are added, while the order parameter stays close to zero. By further increasing the granular depth, the friction undergoes a sudden increase but the order parameter does not change notably. At an intermediate driving speed, however, both the friction and the order parameter undergo a sudden increase, which for the order parameter amounts to several orders of magnitude, indicating that the plate is more braked but nevertheless keeps sliding more easily. For medium-high driving speeds, full sliding is obtained for only one layer of interstitial matter, where friction has a minimum, and is maintained for all increasing depths while friction increases. These observations show that the ease of slipping is not determined by friction alone, rather by the highly complex interplay between driving velocity, friction, and the depth of the medium. (paper)

  18. Does increased local bone resorption secondary to breast and prostate cancer result in increased cartilage degradation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana J; Byrjalsen, Inger; Qvist, Per;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast and prostate cancer patients often develop lesions of locally high bone turnover, when the primary tumor metastasizes to the bone causing an abnormal high bone resorption at this site. The objective of the present study was to determine whether local increased bone turnover in...... breast and prostate cancer patients is associated with an increase in cartilage degradation and to test in vitro whether osteoclasts or cathepsin K alone generate CTXII from human bone. METHODS: The study included 132 breast and prostate cancer patient, where presence of bone metastases was graded...... according to the Soloway score. Total bone resorption (CTXItotal) and cartilage degradation (CTXII) were determined. RESULTS: Breast and prostate cancer patients with bone metastases revealed significant increased levels of CTXItotal at Soloway scores 1 and higher compared to patients without bone...

  19. How increasing CO2 leads to an increased negative greenhouse effect in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithüsen, Holger; Notholt, Justus; König-Langlo, Gert; Lemke, Peter; Jung, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    CO2 is the strongest anthropogenic forcing agent for climate change since preindustrial times. Like other greenhouse gases, CO2 absorbs terrestrial surface radiation and causes emission from the atmosphere to space. As the surface is generally warmer than the atmosphere, the total long-wave emission to space is commonly less than the surface emission. However, this does not hold true for the high elevated areas of central Antarctica. For this region, the emission to space is higher than the surface emission; and the greenhouse effect of CO2 is around zero or even negative, which has not been discussed so far. We investigated this in detail and show that for central Antarctica an increase in CO2 concentration leads to an increased long-wave energy loss to space, which cools the Earth-atmosphere system. These findings for central Antarctica are in contrast to the general warming effect of increasing CO2.

  20. Increase in human brain size a key to increase in body size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lucy, considered to be the ancestor to all humanity was a very short creature about three and a half feet tall, weighing some 60 to 65 pounds and lived around 3.2 million years ago in Ethiopia. Perhaps the growth period among the australopithecines was much shorter than that of the modern day humans and hence simply by this yardstick, there has to be a lot of difference in body size between them. The longer the growth period the larger the body size and this is what seemed to happen to the humans during evolutionary history. Recently Mark Grabowski, a researcher at American Museum of Natural History, New York,observed in his research paper that "Bigger brains led to bigger bodies... as over the last four million years, brain size and body size increased substantially in our human ancestors" (Current Anthropology, Vol. 57, 174-196, April 2016. These observations were not new and were clearly understood by the scientific community earlier also. However, numerous hypotheses put forth had emphasized the role of natural selection on different traits independently. But none of them had gone in the direction of a correlated response to natural selection in favour of enlarging the brain size and the body size together. These viewpoints had concluded that increase in brain size and body size were the products of separate natural selection forces. However, Mark Grabowski states that "some genes cause variation in both brain and body size, with the result that selection on either trait can lead to a correlated response in the unselected trait." This is a new explanation to the problem. It highlights the role of correlated outcomes of the natural selection phenomena occurring to one trait but affecting the other trait even if that is not selected for. It is similar to saying that as the brain size increased from Lucy to Homo erectus so did the body size as if the animal pulled itself up and increased in size proportionately as well to keep pace with the

  1. Soil amendment with biochar increases the competative ability of legumes via increased potassium availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oram, N.J.; Voorde, van de T.F.J.; Ouwehand, G.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, L.; Jeffery, S.L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Soil amendment with biochar is currently proposed as a management strategy to improve soil quality and enhance plant productivity. Relatively little is known about how biochar affects plant competition, although it has been suggested that it can increase the competitive ability of legumes. This stud

  2. Soil amendment with biochar increases the competitive ability of legumes via increased potassium availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oram, N.J.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Ouwehand, G.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, L.; Jeffery, S.; van Groeningen, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Soil amendment with biochar is currently proposed as a management strategy to improve soil quality and enhance plant productivity. Relatively little is known about how biochar affects plant competition, although it has been suggested that it can increase the competitive ability of legumes. This stud

  3. Formative Assessment and Increased Student Involvement Increase Grades in an Upper Secondary School Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granbom, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This study shows that formative methods and increased student participation has a positive influence on learning measured as grades. The study was conducted during the course Biology A in a Swedish Upper Secondary School. The students constructed grade criteria and defined working methods and type of examination within a given topic, Gene…

  4. Cerebellar fMRI Activation Increases with Increasing Working Memory Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küper, M; Kaschani, P; Thürling, M; Stefanescu, M R; Burciu, R G; Göricke, S; Maderwald, S; Ladd, M E; Hautzel, H; Timmann, D

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore cerebellar contributions to the central executive in n-back working memory tasks using 7-T functional magnetic imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized that cerebellar activation increased with increasing working memory demands. Activations of the cerebellar cortex and dentate nuclei were compared between 0-back (serving as a motor control task), 1-back, and 2-back working memory tasks for both verbal and abstract modalities. A block design was used. Data of 27 participants (mean age 26.6 ± 3.8 years, female/male 12:15) were included in group statistical analysis. We observed that cerebellar cortical activations increased with higher central executive demands in n-back tasks independent of task modality. As confirmed by subtraction analyses, additional bilateral activations following higher executive demands were found primarily in four distinct cerebellar areas: (i) the border region of lobule VI and crus I, (ii) inferior parts of the lateral cerebellum (lobules crus II, VIIb, VIII, IX), (iii) posterior parts of the paravermal cerebellar cortex (lobules VI, crus I, crus II), and (iv) the inferior vermis (lobules VI, VIIb, VIII, IX). Dentate activations were observed for both verbal and abstract modalities. Task-related increases were less robust and detected for the verbal n-back tasks only. These results provide further evidence that the cerebellum participates in an amodal bilateral neuronal network representing the central executive during working memory n-back tasks. PMID:26202670

  5. Increasing stability of water-soluble PQQ glucose dehydrogenase by increasing hydrophobic interaction at dimeric interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferri Stefano

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water-soluble quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (PQQGDH-B from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus has a great potential for application as a glucose sensor constituent. Because this enzyme shows no activity in its monomeric form, correct quaternary structure is essential for the formation of active enzyme. We have previously reported on the increasing of the stability of PQQGDH-B by preventing the subunit dissociation. Previous studies were based on decreasing the entropy of quaternary structure dissociation but not on increasing the interaction between the two subunits. We therefore attempted to introduce a hydrophobic interaction in the dimeric interface to increase the stability of PQQGDH-B. Results Amino acid residues Asn340 and Tyr418 face each other at the dimer interface of PQQGDH-B, however no interaction exists between their side chains. We simultaneously substituted Asn340 to Phe and Tyr418 to Phe or Ile, to create the two mutants Asn340Phe/Tyr418Phe and Asn340Phe/Tyr418Ile. Furthermore, residues Leu280, Val282 and Val342 form a hydrophobic region that faces, on the other subunit, residues Thr416 and Thr417, again without any specific interaction. We simultaneously substituted Thr416 and Thr417 to Val, to create the mutant Thr416Val/Thr417Val. The temperatures resulting in lose of half of the initial activity of the constructed mutants were increased by 3–4°C higher over wild type. All mutants showed 2-fold higher thermal stability at 55°C than the wild-type enzyme, without decreasing their catalytic activities. From the 3D models of all the mutant enzymes, the predicted binding energies were found to be significantly greater that in the wild-type enzyme, consistent with the increases in thermal stabilities. Conclusions We have achieved via site-directed mutagenesis the improvement of the thermal stability of PQQGDH-B by increasing the dimer interface interaction. Through rational design based on the quaternary

  6. Interferon-beta increases systemic BAFF levels in multiple sclerosis without increasing autoantibody production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Sellebjerg, Finn; Krakauer, Martin; Hesse, Dan; Bendtzen, Klaus; Nielsen, Claus H

    2011-01-01

    -associated autoantibodies. Objective: To investigate whether BAFF levels are associated with disease severity/activity in untreated MS patients, and to assess the effect of IFN-beta therapy on circulating BAFF and anti-myelin basic protein (MBP) autoantibody levels. Results: Twenty-three patients with relapsing......-remitting MS (RRMS) were followed longitudinally from initiation of IFN-beta therapy. Their blood levels of BAFF correlated positively at baseline with the expanded disability status scale (p <0.009) and MS severity score (p <0.05), but not with disease activity as determined by the number of gadolinium......-enhanced lesions. The patients were followed for up to 26 months, during which the BAFF levels remained elevated without association to increased disease activity. IFN-beta therapy caused an increase in plasma BAFF levels after both 3 and 6 months of therapy (p <0.002). However, an 11% decrease in IgM and a 33...

  7. Human preference and acceptance of increased air velocity to offset warm sensation at increased room temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattarin, Giulio; Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    present climatic chamber study examined energy performance and achievable thermal comfort of traditional and bladeless desk fans. Different effects of mechanical and simulated-natural airflow patterns were also investigated. 32 Scandinavians, performing office activities and wearing light clothes , were...... air velocity under personal control make the indoor environment acceptable at higher air temperatures. This will during summer season and in warmer countries improve thermal comfort without too high energy costs. There was significant individual difference in the preferred air velocities, which......Previous studies have demonstrated that in summertime increased air velocities can compensate for higher room temperatures to achieve comfortable conditions. In order to increase air movement, windows opening, ceiling or desk fans can be used at the expense of relatively low energy consumption. The...

  8. Increased Risk of Postthoracotomy Pain Syndrome in Patients with Prolonged Hospitalization and Increased Postoperative Opioid Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Adam K.; Passe, Melissa A.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Postthoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) is unfortunately very common following thoracotomy and results in decreased quality of life. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine perioperative patient, surgical, and analgesic characteristics associated with the development of PTPS. Methods. Sixty-six patients who presented to the Mayo Clinic Rochester Pain Clinic were diagnosed with PTPS 2 months or more after thoracotomy with postoperative epidural analgesia. These patients were matched with sixty-six control patients who underwent thoracotomy with postoperative epidural analgesia and were never diagnosed with PTPS. Results. Median (IQR) hospital stay was significantly different between control patients (5 days (4, 6)) compared with PTPS patients (6 days (5, 8)), P thoracotomy were at an increased risk of developing PTPS, and this is a novel finding. Patients who utilize higher oral morphine equivalents for the first 3 days were also at increased risk for PTPS.

  9. New School Meal Regulations Increase Fruit Consumption and Do Not Increase Total Plate Waste

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWARTZ, MARLENE B.; Henderson, Kathryn E; Read, Margaret; Danna, Nicole; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The 2010 Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act required the USDA to update the nutrition standards of the National School Lunch Program. New policies were implemented in the 2012–2013 school year. These changes were followed by anecdotal reports of increased food waste. Empirical research is needed to reliably measure student intake and plate waste before and after this policy change. Methods: Food consumption and waste was collected annually from a cohort of middle school studen...

  10. Does the risk of cerebral palsy increase or decrease with increasing gestational age?

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy-Kaulbeck Lynn; Lutfi Samawal; Allen Alexander C; Joseph K S; Vincer Michael J; Wood Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background It is generally accepted that the risk of cerebral palsy decreases with increasing gestational age of live born infants. However, recent studies have shown that cerebral palsy often has prenatal antecedents including congenital malformations, vascular insults and maternal infection. Cerebral palsy is therefore better viewed as occurring among fetuses, rather than among infants. We explored the epidemiologic implications of this change in perspective. Methods We used recent...

  11. Soil amendment with biochar increases the competitive ability of legumes via increased potassium availability

    OpenAIRE

    Oram, N.J.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Ouwehand, G.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, L.; Jeffery, S; van Groeningen, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Soil amendment with biochar is currently proposed as a management strategy to improve soil quality and enhance plant productivity. Relatively little is known about how biochar affects plant competition, although it has been suggested that it can increase the competitive ability of legumes. This study tested the impact of a biochar on the competitive ability of legumes through alterations to soil pH and/or nutrient availability. Biochar was produced from aboveground plant biomass from a specie...

  12. Preconditions that Affect in Increasing Control Effect and Increased Chance for Tax Fraud Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Mentor Gashi; Nexhit Shala

    2016-01-01

    Abstract:In this research we have submitted seven elements in order to identify the most powerful elements that increases the chances of detecting fraud or tax evasion, from retroactive control. Elements that have submitted in the research are:Professionalism of the officer who realizes control or tax audit; Integrity of  Officer  that realizes control or audit; Information from their competitor, with the aim of informing about tax evasion; Information from a dissatisfied employee or former e...

  13. Does the risk of cerebral palsy increase or decrease with increasing gestational age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy-Kaulbeck Lynn

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is generally accepted that the risk of cerebral palsy decreases with increasing gestational age of live born infants. However, recent studies have shown that cerebral palsy often has prenatal antecedents including congenital malformations, vascular insults and maternal infection. Cerebral palsy is therefore better viewed as occurring among fetuses, rather than among infants. We explored the epidemiologic implications of this change in perspective. Methods We used recently published data from Shiga Prefecture, Japan and from North-East England to examine the pattern of gestational age-specific rates of cerebral palsy under these alternative perspectives. We first calculated gestational age-specific rates of cerebral palsy as per convention, by dividing the number of cases of cerebral palsy identified among live births within any gestational age category by the number of live births in that gestational age category. Under the alternative formulation, we calculated gestational age-specific rates of cerebral palsy by dividing the number of cases of cerebral palsy identified among live births within any gestational age category by the number of fetuses who were at risk of being born at that gestation and being afflicted with cerebral palsy. Results Under the conventional formulation, cerebral palsy rates decreased with increasing gestational age from 63.9 per 1,000 live births at Conclusions The fetuses-at-risk approach is the appropriate epidemiologic formulation for calculating the gestational age-specific rate of cerebral palsy from a causal perspective. It shows that the risk of cerebral palsy increases as gestational duration increases. This compelling view of cerebral palsy risk may help refocus research aimed at understanding and preventing cerebral palsy.

  14. Does increased local bone resorption secondary to breast and prostate cancer result in increased cartilage degradation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast and prostate cancer patients often develop lesions of locally high bone turnover, when the primary tumor metastasizes to the bone causing an abnormal high bone resorption at this site. The objective of the present study was to determine whether local increased bone turnover in breast and prostate cancer patients is associated with an increase in cartilage degradation and to test in vitro whether osteoclasts or cathepsin K alone generate CTXII from human bone. The study included 132 breast and prostate cancer patient, where presence of bone metastases was graded according to the Soloway score. Total bone resorption (CTXItotal) and cartilage degradation (CTXII) were determined. Breast and prostate cancer patients with bone metastases revealed significant increased levels of CTXItotal at Soloway scores 1 and higher compared to patients without bone metastases (p < 0.001). CTXII was statistically elevated at score 3 and 4 (p < 0.01). CTXII/CTXItotal significantly decreased at score 3 and 4 (p < 0.001). Levels of CTXItotal, CTXII and CTXII/CTXItotal changed +900%, +130%, and -90%, respectively at Soloway score 4 compared to score 0. The in vitro experiments revealed that osteoclasts released CTXI fragments but not CTXII from bone specimens. The same was observed for cathepsin K. Data suggest that an uncoupling between bone resorption and cartilage degradation occurs in breast and lung cancer patient

  15. Preconditions that Affect in Increasing Control Effect and Increased Chance for Tax Fraud Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentor Gashi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:In this research we have submitted seven elements in order to identify the most powerful elements that increases the chances of detecting fraud or tax evasion, from retroactive control. Elements that have submitted in the research are:Professionalism of the officer who realizes control or tax audit; Integrity of  Officer  that realizes control or audit; Information from their competitor, with the aim of informing about tax evasion; Information from a dissatisfied employee or former employee; Information from freight forwarding; Informatat from accountant; Information from the data exchange with the export country. Elements that we presented, are the most powerful elements that increases the chances of detection of tax evasion, such as: professionalism of the officer who implements control or audit, which follows two other elements, which are: Integrity of official that realizes control or audit and the information are data exchange with the export country, these are the three most powerful elements until four other elements outlined in the survey have less impact compared with the three elements mentioned. The purpose of the paper is to Find the most powerful elements that increase the probability of detecting of tax evasion or tax fraud from retroactive controls. Methodology: Survey was realize through questionnaires, which were distributed 232 questionnaires. Questionnaires were distributed mainly to the importing companies, officers that realize controls to businesses, customs agents, accountants and international transport companie. Key words: probability of detecting, tax evasion, control or audit

  16. Chromosome numbers in three species groups of freshwater flatworms increase with increasing latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Sven; Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Polyploidy in combination with parthenogenesis offers advantages for plasticity and the evolution of a broad ecological tolerance of species. Therefore, a positive correlation between the level of ploidy and increasing latitude as a surrogate for environmental harshness has been suggested. Such a positive correlation is well documented for plants, but examples for animals are still rare. Species of flatworms (Platyhelminthes) are widely distributed, show a remarkably wide range of chromosome numbers, and offer therefore good model systems to study the geographical distribution of chromosome numbers. We analyzed published data on counts of chromosome numbers and geographical information of three flatworm "species" (Phagocata vitta, Polycelis felina and Crenobia alpina) sampled across Europe (220 populations). We used the mean chromosome number across individuals of a population as a proxy for the level of ploidy within populations, and we tested for relationships of this variable with latitude, mode of reproduction (sexual, asexual or both) and environmental variables (annual mean temperature, mean diurnal temperature range, mean precipitation and net primary production). The mean chromosome numbers of all three species increased with latitude and decreased with mean annual temperature. For two species, chromosome number also decreased with mean precipitation and net primary production. Furthermore, high chromosome numbers within species were accompanied with a loss of sexual reproduction. The variation of chromosome numbers within individuals of two of the three species increased with latitude. Our results support the hypothesis that polyploid lineages are able to cope with harsh climatic conditions at high latitudes. Furthermore, we propose that asexual reproduction in populations with high levels of polyploidization stabilizes hybridization events. Chromosomal irregularities within individuals tend to become more frequent at the extreme environments of high

  17. Increased Lipiodol uptake in hepatocellular carcinoma possibly due to increased membrane fluidity by dexamethasone and tamoxifen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Stephanie, E-mail: stephanie.becker@rouen.fnclcc.f [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre E. Marquis, F-35042 Rennes (France); INSERM U 991, Rennes, F-35033 France (France); European University of Brittany, F-35000 Rennes (France); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre H. Becquerel, F-76038 Rouen (France); Ardisson, Valerie; Lepareur, Nicolas [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre E. Marquis, F-35042 Rennes (France); INSERM U 991, Rennes, F-35033 France (France); European University of Brittany, F-35000 Rennes (France); Sergent, Odile [European University of Brittany, F-35000 Rennes (France); UPRES EA SeRAIC, IFR 140, University of Rennes 1, F-35043 Rennes (France); Bayat, Sahar [INSERM U936 Department of Biostatistics, CHRU Pontchaillou, F-35033 Rennes (France); Noiret, Nicolas [European University of Brittany, F-35000 Rennes (France); Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Rennes, UMR CNRS 6226, F-35708 Rennes (France); Gaboriau, Francois; Clement, Bruno [INSERM U 991, Rennes, F-35033 France (France); Boucher, Evelyne [INSERM U 991, Rennes, F-35033 France (France); Department of Medical Oncology, Centre E. Marquis, F-35042 Rennes (France); Raoul, Jean-Luc [INSERM U 991, Rennes, F-35033 France (France); European University of Brittany, F-35000 Rennes (France); Department of Medical Oncology, Centre E. Marquis, F-35042 Rennes (France); Garin, Etienne [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre E. Marquis, F-35042 Rennes (France); INSERM U 991, Rennes, F-35033 France (France); European University of Brittany, F-35000 Rennes (France)

    2010-10-15

    Introduction: Lipiodol is used as a vector for chemoembolization or internal radiotherapy in unresectable hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). The aim of this study is to improve the tumoral uptake of Lipiodol by modulating membrane fluidizing agents to optimize the effectiveness of Lipiodol vectorized therapy. Methods: The effect of dexamethasone and tamoxifen on membrane fluidity was studied in vitro by electron paramagnetic resonance applied to rat hepatocarcinoma cell line N1S1. The tumoral uptake of Lipiodol was studied in vivo on rats with HCC, which had been previously treated by dexamethasone and/or tamoxifen, after intra-arterial administration of {sup 99m}Tc-SSS-Lipiodol. Results: The two molecules studied here exhibit a fluidizing effect in vitro which appears dependent on time and dose, with a maximum fluidity obtained after 1 hr at concentrations of 20 {mu}M for dexamethasone and 200 nM for tamoxifen. In vivo, while the use of dexamethasone or tamoxifen alone tends to lead to increased tumoral uptake of Lipiodol, this effect does not reach levels of significance. On the other hand, there is a significant increase in the tumoral uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-SSS-Lipiodol in rats pretreated by both dexamethasone and tamoxifen, with a tumoral uptake (expressed in % of injected activity per g of tumor) of 13.57{+-}3.65% after treatment, as against 9.45{+-}4.44% without treatment (P<.05). Conclusions: Dexamethasone and tamoxifen fluidify the N1S1 cells membrane, leading to an increase in the tumoral uptake of Lipiodol. These drugs could be combined with chemo-Lipiodol-embolization or radiolabeled Lipiodol, with a view to improving the effectiveness of HCCs therapy.

  18. Increased depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use increases family planning program pharmaceutical supply costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, R; Miller, L

    2001-03-01

    To measure the use rates of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and oral contraceptives and compare the costs between the two methods to see whether these trends had impacted the pharmaceutical acquisition costs for a family planning program, we compared vendor invoice costs over three time periods, 1992, 1994, and 1999. Visit types and client demographic statistics were tabulated from existing encounter record data sources. A local pharmaceutical chain was queried about their acquisition costs for similar products. Since 1992, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use has increased from 3 to 17% while oral contraceptive use has decreased from 45 to 40% of contraceptive clients. The cost to our program for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is $4.75 for 28 days and the average pill package is purchased for $1.35. The cost to our program is 4 times greater for the injection contraceptive user than for the oral contraceptive user. Approximately 80% of our clients have household incomes less than 200% of the poverty level and obtain their services from our program for free. This combination of increasing popularity and the high cost of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate has resulted in a great increase in the pharmacy acquisition cost. The oral contraceptive manufacturers make their products available at large discounts (20-fold reduction), but depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is not provided at a similar discount (2.8-fold reduction). We believe this is because there is no generic or competing product. The high cost of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate could jeopardize our ability to offer this highly effective method of birth control to all women. PMID:11368987

  19. Increased Lipiodol uptake in hepatocellular carcinoma possibly due to increased membrane fluidity by dexamethasone and tamoxifen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Lipiodol is used as a vector for chemoembolization or internal radiotherapy in unresectable hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). The aim of this study is to improve the tumoral uptake of Lipiodol by modulating membrane fluidizing agents to optimize the effectiveness of Lipiodol vectorized therapy. Methods: The effect of dexamethasone and tamoxifen on membrane fluidity was studied in vitro by electron paramagnetic resonance applied to rat hepatocarcinoma cell line N1S1. The tumoral uptake of Lipiodol was studied in vivo on rats with HCC, which had been previously treated by dexamethasone and/or tamoxifen, after intra-arterial administration of 99mTc-SSS-Lipiodol. Results: The two molecules studied here exhibit a fluidizing effect in vitro which appears dependent on time and dose, with a maximum fluidity obtained after 1 hr at concentrations of 20 μM for dexamethasone and 200 nM for tamoxifen. In vivo, while the use of dexamethasone or tamoxifen alone tends to lead to increased tumoral uptake of Lipiodol, this effect does not reach levels of significance. On the other hand, there is a significant increase in the tumoral uptake of 99mTc-SSS-Lipiodol in rats pretreated by both dexamethasone and tamoxifen, with a tumoral uptake (expressed in % of injected activity per g of tumor) of 13.57±3.65% after treatment, as against 9.45±4.44% without treatment (P<.05). Conclusions: Dexamethasone and tamoxifen fluidify the N1S1 cells membrane, leading to an increase in the tumoral uptake of Lipiodol. These drugs could be combined with chemo-Lipiodol-embolization or radiolabeled Lipiodol, with a view to improving the effectiveness of HCCs therapy.

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient mice have increased renal oxidative stress and increased albuminuria

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yizhen; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Hu, Ji; Stillman, Isaac E.; Leopold, Jane A.; Handy, Diane E.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Stanton, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant, and is central to cell survival. Our previous work showed that diabetes and increased aldosterone are acquired forms of G6PD deficiency, leading to decreased G6PD activity and NADPH levels and damage to kidney tissue and endothelial cells. In this study, G6PD-deficient mice were studied to test the hypothesis that decreased G6PD a...