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Sample records for channel protein-4 functions

  1. New insights into potential functions for the protein 4.1superfamily of proteins in kidney epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calinisan, Venice; Gravem, Dana; Chen, Ray Ping-Hsu; Brittin,Sachi; Mohandas, Narla; Lecomte, Marie-Christine; Gascard, Philippe

    2005-06-17

    Members of the protein 4.1 family of adapter proteins are expressed in a broad panel of tissues including various epithelia where they likely play an important role in maintenance of cell architecture and polarity and in control of cell proliferation. We have recently characterized the structure and distribution of three members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1B, 4.1R and 4.1N, in mouse kidney. We describe here binding partners for renal 4.1 proteins, identified through the screening of a rat kidney yeast two-hybrid system cDNA library. The identification of putative protein 4.1-based complexes enables us to envision potential functions for 4.1 proteins in kidney: organization of signaling complexes, response to osmotic stress, protein trafficking, and control of cell proliferation. We discuss the relevance of these protein 4.1-based interactions in kidney physio-pathology in the context of their previously identified functions in other cells and tissues. Specifically, we will focus on renal 4.1 protein interactions with beta amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP), 14-3-3 proteins, and the cell swelling-activated chloride channel pICln. We also discuss the functional relevance of another member of the protein 4.1 superfamily, ezrin, in kidney physiopathology.

  2. Downregulation of Protein 4.1R impairs centrosome function,bipolar spindle organization and anaphase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, Jeffrey R.; Go, Minjoung M.; Bahmanyar, S.; Barth,A.I.M.; Krauss, Sharon Wald

    2006-03-17

    Centrosomes nucleate and organize interphase MTs and areinstrumental in the assembly of the mitotic bipolar spindle. Here wereport that two members of the multifunctional protein 4.1 family havedistinct distributions at centrosomes. Protein 4.1R localizes to maturecentrioles whereas 4.1G is a component of the pericentriolar matrixsurrounding centrioles. To selectively probe 4.1R function, we used RNAinterference-mediated depletion of 4.1R without decreasing 4.1Gexpression. 4.1R downregulation reduces MT anchoring and organization atinterphase and impairs centrosome separation during prometaphase.Metaphase chromosomes fail to properly condense/align and spindleorganization is aberrant. Notably 4.1R depletion causes mislocalizationof its binding partner NuMA (Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus Protein),essential for spindle pole focusing, and disrupts ninein. Duringanaphase/telophase, 4.1R-depleted cells have lagging chromosomes andaberrant MT bridges. Our data provide functional evidence that 4.1R makescrucial contributions to centrosome integrity and to mitotic spindlestructure enabling mitosis and anaphase to proceed with the coordinatedprecision required to avoid pathological events.

  3. Bromodomain-containing Protein 4 Activates Voltage-gated Sodium Channel 1.7 Transcription in Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons to Mediate Thermal Hyperalgesia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Chun; Ho, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Cheng-Yuan; Wang, Hsueh-Hsiao; Lee, An-Sheng; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Chau, Yat-Pang; Peng, Hsien-Yu

    2017-11-01

    Bromodomain-containing protein 4 binds acetylated promoter histones and promotes transcription; however, the role of bromodomain-containing protein 4 in inflammatory hyperalgesia remains unclear. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received hind paw injections of complete Freund's adjuvant to induce hyperalgesia. The dorsal root ganglia were examined to detect changes in bromodomain-containing protein 4 expression and the activation of genes involved in the expression of voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7, which is a key pain-related ion channel. The intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant injections resulted in thermal hyperalgesia (4.0 ± 1.5 s; n = 7). The immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting results demonstrated an increase in the bromodomain-containing protein 4-expressing dorsal root ganglia neurons (3.78 ± 0.38 fold; n = 7) and bromodomain-containing protein 4 protein levels (2.62 ± 0.39 fold; n = 6). After the complete Freund's adjuvant injection, histone H3 protein acetylation was enhanced in the voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 promoter, and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 and phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II were recruited to this area. Furthermore, the voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7-mediated currents were enhanced in neurons of the complete Freund's adjuvant rats (55 ± 11 vs. 19 ± 9 pA/pF; n = 4 to 6 neurons). Using bromodomain-containing protein 4-targeted antisense small interfering RNA to the complete Freund's adjuvant-treated rats, the authors demonstrated a reduction in the expression of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (0.68 ± 0.16 fold; n = 7), a reduction in thermal hyperalgesia (7.5 ± 1.5 s; n = 7), and a reduction in the increased voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 currents (21 ± 4 pA/pF; n = 4 to 6 neurons). Complete Freund's adjuvant triggers enhanced bromodomain-containing protein 4 expression, ultimately leading to the enhanced excitability of nociceptive neurons and thermal hyperalgesia. This effect is

  4. Bone Morphogenic Protein 4-Smad-Induced Upregulation of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor AA Impairs Endothelial Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weining; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Li; Lau, Chi Wai; Xu, Jian; Luo, Jiang-Yun; Gou, Lingshan; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Ronald Ching Wan; Tian, Xiao Yu; Huang, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) is an important mediator of endothelial dysfunction in cardio-metabolic diseases, whereas platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are major angiogenic and proinflammatory mediator, although the functional link between these 2 factors is unknown. The present study investigated whether PDGF mediates BMP4-induced endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. We generated Ad-Bmp4 to overexpress Bmp4 and Ad-Pdgfa-shRNA to knockdown Pdgfa in mice through tail intravenous injection. SMAD4-shRNA lentivirus, SMAD1-shRNA, and SMAD5 shRNA adenovirus were used for knockdown in human and mouse endothelial cells. We found that PDGF-AA impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in aortas and mesenteric resistance arteries. BMP4 upregulated PDGF-AA in human and mouse endothelial cells, which was abolished by BMP4 antagonist noggin or knockdown of SMAD1/5 or SMAD4. BMP4-impared relaxation in mouse aorta was also ameliorated by PDGF-AA neutralizing antibody. Tail injection of Ad-Pdgfa-shRNA ameliorates endothelial dysfunction induced by Bmp4 overexpression (Ad-Bmp4) in vivo. Serum PDGF-AA was elevated in both diabetic patients and diabetic db/db mice compared with nondiabetic controls. Pdgfa-shRNA or Bmp4-shRNA adenovirus reduced serum PDGF-AA concentration in db/db mice. PDGF-AA neutralizing antibody or tail injection with Pdgfa-shRNA adenovirus improved endothelial function in aortas and mesenteric resistance arteries from db/db mice. The effect of PDGF-AA on endothelial function in mouse aorta was also inhibited by Ad-Pdgfra-shRNA to inhibit PDGFRα. The present study provides novel evidences to show that PDGF-AA impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation and PDGF-AA mediates BMP4-induced adverse effect on endothelial cell function through SMAD1/5- and SMAD4-dependent mechanisms. Inhibition of PGDF-AA ameliorates vascular dysfunction in diabetic mice. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. In vivo functional and molecular characterization of the Penicillin-Binding Protein 4 (DacB) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera Rossi, Cristian Gustavo; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Ayala Serrano, Juan Alfonso

    2016-10-06

    Community and nosocomial infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa still create a major therapeutic challenge. The resistance of this opportunist pathogen to β-lactam antibiotics is determined mainly by production of the inactivating enzyme AmpC, a class C cephalosporinase with a regulation system more complex than those found in members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This regulatory system also participates directly in peptidoglycan turnover and recycling. One of the regulatory mechanisms for AmpC expression, recently identified in clinical isolates, is the inactivation of LMM-PBP4 (Low-Molecular-Mass Penicillin-Binding Protein 4), a protein whose catalytic activity on natural substrates has remained uncharacterized until now. We carried out in vivo activity trials for LMM-PBP4 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on macromolecular peptidoglycan of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results showed a decrease in the relative quantity of dimeric, trimeric and anhydrous units, and a smaller reduction in monomer disaccharide pentapeptide (M5) levels, validating the occurrence of D,D-carboxypeptidase and D,D-endopeptidase activities. Under conditions of induction for this protein and cefoxitin treatment, the reduction in M5 is not fully efficient, implying that LMM-PBP4 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa presents better behaviour as a D,D-endopeptidase. Kinetic evaluation of the direct D,D-peptidase activity of this protein on natural muropeptides M5 and D45 confirmed this bifunctionality and the greater affinity of LMM-PBP4 for its dimeric substrate. A three-dimensional model for the monomeric unit of LMM-PBP4 provided structural information which supports its catalytic performance. LMM-PBP4 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bifunctional enzyme presenting both D,D-carboxypeptidase and D,D-endopeptidase activities; the D,D-endopeptidase function is predominant. Our study provides unprecedented functional and structural information which supports the proposal of this protein as a

  6. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0463 TITLE: The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Geoffrey Murphy...NUMBER The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0463 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey Murphy...The overall objective of this Discovery Award was to explore the hypothesis the ketogenic diet (KD) regulates neuronal excitability by influencing

  7. Regulation of Pancreatic α-Cell Function and Proliferation by Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie Sylvest; Christensen, Gitte Lund; Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    Increased expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in several tissues is associated with inflammation and type 2 diabetes mellitus. BMP2 and BMP4 mRNA expression is increased in pancreatic islets from db/db mice and β-cell proliferation and function are inhibited by BMP4. The effect of BM...... maintaining α-cell identity....

  8. Altered fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) expression and function in human and animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kyle J; Austin, R Garland; Nazari, Shayan S; Gersin, Keith S; Iannitti, David A; McKillop, Iain H

    2017-11-24

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Risk factors for developing HCC include viral hepatitis, alcohol, and obesity. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) bind long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) and are expressed in a tissue-specific pattern; FABP1 being the predominant hepatic form, and FABP4 the predominant adipocyte form. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression and function of FABPs1-9 in human and animal models of obesity-related HCC. FABP1-9 expression was determined in a mouse model of obesity-promoted HCC. Based on these data, expression and function of FABP4 was determined in human HCC cells (HepG2 and HuH7) in vitro. Serum from patients with different underlying hepatic pathologies was analyzed for circulating FABP4 levels. Livers from obese mice, independent of tumor status, exhibited increased FABP4 mRNA and protein expression concomitant with elevated serum FABP4. In vitro, FABP4 expression was induced in human HCC cells by free fatty acid treatment, and led to FABP4 release into culture medium. Treatment of HCC cells with exogenous FABP4 significantly increased proliferation and migration of human HCC cells. Patient serum analysis demonstrated significantly increased FABP4 in those with underlying liver disease, particularly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and HCC. These data suggest FABP4, an FABP not normally expressed in the liver, can be synthesized and secreted by hepatocytes and HCC cells, and that FABP4 may play a role in regulating tumor progression in the underlying setting of obesity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) in the formation and function of splenic compartments during embryonic and adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milićević, Novica M; Schmidt, Friederike; Kunz, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    . MFAP4 is most likely produced by fibroblastic reticulum cells and follicular dendritic cells of the spleen but can also be imported via the blood from other tissues. The development of splenic tissue is not disturbed in MFAP4-deficient mice. However, in splenic tissue regenerating under MFAP4-deficient......Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is an extracellular protein belonging to the fibrinogen-related protein superfamily and is recognized as an integrin ligand with suggested functions in pulmonary and vascular tissue homeostasis. MFAP4 expression in the spleen is increased during...... implantation into adult mice in order to obtain information about the role of MFAP4 in the formation of splenic tissue during ontogeny and adult life. The present study shows that MFAP4 is co-localized with laminin in the B- and T-cell zones of the spleen, in addition to capsular and trabecular expression...

  10. Channel function reconstitution and re-animation: a single-channel strategy in the postcrystal age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiki, Shigetoshi

    2015-01-01

    The most essential properties of ion channels for their physiologically relevant functions are ion-selective permeation and gating. Among the channel species, the potassium channel is primordial and the most ubiquitous in the biological world, and knowledge of this channel underlies the understanding of features of other ion channels. The strategy applied to studying channels changed dramatically after the crystal structure of the potassium channel was resolved. Given the abundant structural information available, we exploited the bacterial KcsA potassium channel as a simple model channel. In the postcrystal age, there are two effective frameworks with which to decipher the functional codes present in the channel structure, namely reconstitution and re-animation. Complex channel proteins are decomposed into essential functional components, and well-examined parts are rebuilt for integrating channel function in the membrane (reconstitution). Permeation and gating are dynamic operations, and one imagines the active channel by breathing life into the ‘frozen’ crystal (re-animation). Capturing the motion of channels at the single-molecule level is necessary to characterize the behaviour of functioning channels. Advanced techniques, including diffracted X-ray tracking, lipid bilayer methods and high-speed atomic force microscopy, have been used. Here, I present dynamic pictures of the KcsA potassium channel from the submolecular conformational changes to the supramolecular collective behaviour of channels in the membrane. These results form an integrated picture of the active channel and offer insights into the processes underlying the physiological function of the channel in the cell membrane. PMID:25833254

  11. Genetic control of sodium channel function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Hanno L.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Smits, Jeroen P. P.; Verkerk, Arie O.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2003-01-01

    Sodium ion (Na) influx through cardiac Na channels triggers the action potential in cells of the working myocardium and the specialized conduction system. Na channels thus act as key molecular determinants of cardiac excitability and impulse propagation. Na channel dysfunction may cause

  12. Functional Expression of Drosophila para Sodium Channels

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    Warmke, Jeffrey W.; Reenan, Robert A.G.; Wang, Peiyi; Qian, Su; Arena, Joseph P.; Wang, Jixin; Wunderler, Denise; Liu, Ken; Kaczorowski, Gregory J.; Ploeg, Lex H.T. Van der; Ganetzky, Barry; Cohen, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    The Drosophila para sodium channel α subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and in combination with tipE, a putative Drosophila sodium channel accessory subunit. Coexpression of tipE with para results in elevated levels of sodium currents and accelerated current decay. Para/TipE sodium channels have biophysical and pharmacological properties similar to those of native channels. However, the pharmacology of these channels differs from that of vertebrate sodium channels: (a) toxin II from Anemonia sulcata, which slows inactivation, binds to Para and some mammalian sodium channels with similar affinity (Kd ≅ 10 nM), but this toxin causes a 100-fold greater decrease in the rate of inactivation of Para/TipE than of mammalian channels; (b) Para sodium channels are >10-fold more sensitive to block by tetrodotoxin; and (c) modification by the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin is >100-fold more potent for Para than for rat brain type IIA sodium channels. Our results suggest that the selective toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides is due at least in part to the greater affinity of pyrethroids for insect sodium channels than for mammalian sodium channels. PMID:9236205

  13. The KCNQ1 potassium channel: from gene to physiological function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2005-01-01

    The voltage-gated KCNQ1 (KvLQT1, Kv7.1) potassium channel plays a crucial role in shaping the cardiac action potential as well as in controlling the water and salt homeostasis in several epithelial tissues. KCNQ1 channels in these tissues are tightly regulated by auxiliary proteins and accessory...... factors, capable of modulating the properties of the channel complexes. This paper reviews the current knowledge about the KCNQ1 channel with a major focus on interacting proteins and physiological functions....

  14. Identification of a third protein 4.1 tumor suppressor, protein 4.1R, in meningioma pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, Victoria A.; Li, Wen; Gascard, Philippe; Perry, Arie; Mohandas, Narla; Gutmann, David H.

    2003-06-11

    Meningiomas are common tumors of the central nervous system, however, the mechanisms under lying their pathogenesis are largely undefined. Two members of the Protein 4.1 super family, the neuro fibromatosis 2 (NF2) gene product (merlin/schwannomin) and Protein 4.1B have been implicated as meningioma tumor suppressors. In this report, we demonstrate that another Protein 4.1 family member, Protein 4.1R, also functions as a meningioma tumor suppressor. Based on the assignment of the Protein 4.1R gene to chromosome 1p32-36, a common region of deletion observed in meningiomas, we analyzed Protein 4.1R expression in meningioma cell lines and surgical tumor specimens. We observed loss of Protein 4.1R protein expression in two meningioma cell lines (IOMM-Lee, CH157-MN) by Western blotting as well as in 6 of 15 sporadic meningioma as by immuno histo chemistry (IHC). Analysis of a subset of these sporadic meningiomas by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a Protein 4.1R specific probe demonstrated 100 percent concordance with the IHC results. In support of a meningioma tumor suppressor function, over expression of Protein 4.1R resulted in suppression of IOMM-Lee and CH157MN cell proliferation. Similar to the Protein 4.1B and merlin meningioma tumor suppressors, Protein 4.1R localization in the membrane fraction increased significantly under conditions of growth arrest in vitro. Lastly, Protein 4.1R interacted with some known merlin/Protein 4.1B interactors such as CD44 and bII-spectrin, but did not associate with the Protein 4.1B interactors 14-3-3 and PRMT3 or the merlin binding proteins SCHIP-1 and HRS. Collectively, these results suggest that Protein 4.1R functions as an important tumor suppressor important in the molecular pathogenesis of meningioma.

  15. Regions of KCNQ K+ Channels Controlling Functional Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eChoveau

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available KCNQ1-5 α-subunits assemble to form K+ channels that play critical roles in the function of numerous tissues. The channels are tetramers of subunits containing six transmembrane domains. Each subunit consists of a pore region (S5-pore-S6 and a voltage sensor domain (S1-S4. Despite similar structures, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 homomers yield small current amplitudes compared to other KCNQ homomers and KCNQ2/3 heteromers. Two major mechanisms have been suggested as governing functional expression. The first involves control of channel trafficking to the plasma membrane by the distal part of the C-terminus, containing two coiled-coiled domains, required for channel trafficking and assembly. The proximal half of the C-terminus is the crucial region for channel modulation by signaling molecules such as calmodulin, which may mediate C- and N-terminal interactions. The N-terminus of KCNQ channels has also been postulated as critical for channel surface expression. The second mechanism suggests networks of interactions between the pore helix and the selectivity filter, and between the pore helix and the S6 domain that govern KCNQ current amplitudes. Here, we summarize the role of these different regions in expression of functional KCNQ channels.

  16. Regulation of sodium channel function by bilayer elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbaek, Jens A; Birn, Pia; Hansen, Anker J

    2004-01-01

    and kinetics of the protein conformational changes therefore will be regulated by the bilayer elasticity, which is determined by the lipid composition. This hydrophobic coupling mechanism has been studied extensively in gramicidin channels, where the channel-bilayer hydrophobic interactions link...... a "conformational" change (the monomerdimer transition) to an elastic bilayer deformation. Gramicidin channels thus are regulated by the lipid bilayer elastic properties (thickness, monolayer equilibrium curvature, and compression and bending moduli). To investigate whether this hydrophobic coupling mechanism could...... be a general mechanism regulating membrane protein function, we examined whether voltage-dependent skeletal-muscle sodium channels, expressed in HEK293 cells, are regulated by bilayer elasticity, as monitored using gramicidin A (gA) channels. Nonphysiological amphiphiles (beta-octyl-glucoside, Genapol X-100...

  17. Microfibrillar-Associated Protein 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sækmose, Susanne Gjørup; Mössner, Belinda; Christensen, Peer Brehm

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A method for assessment of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis without the need for a liver biopsy is desirable. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is a suggested biomarker for identification of high-risk patients with severe fibrosis stages. This study aimed to examine...

  18. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sofie Lock; Roberts, Nassim Bazeghi; Schlosser, Anders

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is a matricellular glycoprotein that co-localises with elastic fibres and is highly expressed in the lungs. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma MFAP4 (pMFAP4) reflects clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmona...

  19. Structures and functions of calcium channel beta subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaumer, L; Qin, N; Olcese, R; Tareilus, E; Platano, D; Costantin, J; Stefani, E

    1998-08-01

    Calcium channel beta subunits have profound effects on how alpha1 subunits perform. In this article we summarize our present knowledge of the primary structures of beta subunits as deduced from cDNAs and illustrate their different properties. Upon co-expression with alpha1 subunits, the effects of beta subunits vary somewhat between L-type and non-L-type channels mostly because the two types of channels have different responses to voltage which are affected by beta subunits, such as long-lasting prepulse facilitation of alpha1C (absent in alpha1E) and inhibition by G protein betagamma dimer of alpha1E, absent in alpha1C. One beta subunit, a brain beta2a splice variant that is palmitoylated, has several effects not seen with any of the others, and these are due to palmitoylation. We also illustrate the finding that functional expression of alpha1 in oocytes requires a beta subunit even if the final channel shows no evidence for its presence. We propose two structural models for Ca2+ channels to account for "alpha1 alone" channels seen in cells with limited beta subunit expression. In one model, beta dissociates from the mature alpha1 after proper folding and membrane insertion. Regulated channels seen upon co-expression of high levels of beta would then have subunit composition alpha1beta. In the other model, the "chaperoning" beta remains associated with the mature channel and "alpha1 alone" channels would in fact be alpha1beta channels. Upon co-expression of high levels of beta the regulated channels would have composition [alpha1beta]beta.

  20. Functional coupling of ion channels in cellular mechanotransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubinskiy-Nadezhdin, Vladislav I; Negulyaev, Yuri A; Morachevskaya, Elena A

    2014-08-29

    The major players in the processes of cellular mechanotransduction are considered to be mechanosensitive (MS) or mechano-gated ion channels. Non-selective Ca(2+)-permeable channels, whose activity is directly controlled by membrane stretch (stretch-activated channels, SACs) are ubiquitously present in mammalian cells of different origin. Ca(2+) entry mediated by SACs presumably has a significant impact on various Ca(2+)-dependent intracellular and membrane processes. It was proposed that SACs could play a crucial role in the different cellular reactions and pathologies, including oncotransformation, increased metastatic activity and invasion of malignant cells. In the present work, coupling of ion channels in transformed fibroblasts in course of stretch activation was explored with the use of patch-clamp technique. The combination of cell-attached and inside-out single-current experiments showed that Ca(2+) influx via SACs triggered the activity of Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels indicating functional compartmentalization of different channel types in plasma membrane. Importantly, the analysis of single channel behavior demonstrated that K(+) currents could be activated by the rise of intracellular calcium but displayed no direct mechanosensitivity. Taken together, our data imply that local changes in Ca(2+) concentration due to SAC activity may provide a functional link between various Ca(2+)-dependent molecules in the processes of cellular mechanotransduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular regulations governing TREK and TRAAK channel functions

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    Sandoz, Guillaume; Lesage, Florian

    2011-01-01

    K+ channels with two-pore domain (K2p) form a large family of hyperpolarizing channels. They produce background currents that oppose membrane depolarization and cell excitability. They are involved in cellular mechanisms of apoptosis, vasodilatation, anesthesia, pain, neuroprotection and depression. This review focuses on TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK channels subfamily and on the mechanisms that contribute to their molecular heterogeneity and functional regulations. Not only the number of genes determines their molecular diversity but also by alternative splicing and alternative initiation of translation. These channels are sensitive to a wide array of biophysical parameters that affect their activity such as unsaturated fatty acids, intra- and extracellular pH, membrane stretch, temperature and intracellular signaling pathways. They interact with partner proteins that influence their activity and their plasma membrane expression. Molecular heterogeneity, regulatory mechanisms and protein partners are all expected to contribute to cell specific functions of TREK currents in many tissues. PMID:21829087

  2. Methodological considerations to understand the sensory function of TRP channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer, Víctor M; Denlinger, Bristol L; Talavera, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential channels are exquisite molecular transducers of multiple physical and chemical stimuli, hence the raising interest to study their relevance to Sensory Biology. Here we discuss a number of aspects of the biophysical and pharmacological properties of TRP channels, which we consider essential for a clear understanding of their sensory function in vivo. By examining concrete examples extracted from recent literature we illustrate that TRP channel research is a field in motion, and that many established dogmas on biophysical properties, drug specificity and physiological role are continuously reshaped, and sometimes even dismantled.

  3. LRRK2 regulates voltage-gated calcium channel function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cade eBedford

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV channels enable Ca2+ influx in response to membrane depolarization. CaV2.1 channels are localized to the presynaptic membrane of many types of neurons where they are involved in triggering neurotransmitter release. Several signaling proteins have been identified as important CaV2.1 regulators including protein kinases, G-proteins and Ca2+ binding proteins. Recently, we discovered that leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2, a protein associated with inherited Parkinson’s disease, interacts with specific synaptic proteins and influences synaptic transmission. Since synaptic proteins functionally interact with CaV2.1 channels and synaptic transmission is triggered by Ca2+ entry via CaV2.1, we investigated whether LRRK2 could impact CaV2.1 channel function. CaV2.1 channel properties were measured using whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology in HEK293 cells transfected with CaV2.1 subunits and various LRRK2 constructs. Our results demonstrate that both wild type LRRK2 and the G2019S LRRK2 mutant caused a significant increase in whole cell Ca2+ current density compared to cells expressing only the CaV2.1 channel complex. In addition, LRRK2 expression caused a significant hyperpolarizing shift in voltage-dependent activation while having no significant effect on inactivation properties. These functional changes in CaV2.1 activity are likely due to a direct action of LRRK2 as we detected a physical interaction between LRRK2 and the β3 CaV channel subunit via coimmunoprecipitation. Furthermore, effects on CaV2.1 channel function are dependent on LRRK2 kinase activity as these could be reversed via treatment with a LRRK2 inhibitor. Interestingly, LRRK2 also augmented endogenous voltage-gated Ca2+ channel function in PC12 cells suggesting other CaV channels could also be regulated by LRRK2. Overall, our findings support a novel physiological role for LRRK2 in regulating CaV2.1 function that could have implications for how

  4. Requirement of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 4 for Development, Maturation, and Function of Sebaceous Glands in a Mouse Model of Ichthyosis Prematurity Syndrome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meei-Hua; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4) is one of a family of six transmembrane proteins that facilitate long- and very long-chain fatty acid uptake. FATP4 is expressed in several tissues, including skin. Mutations in human SLC27A4, which encodes FATP4, cause ichthyosis prematurity syndrome, characterized by a thick desquamating epidermis and premature birth. Mice lacking FATP4, which genetically model the human disease, are born with tight, thick skin and a defective skin barrier; they die neonatally due to dehydration and restricted movements. Both the skin phenotype and the lethality are rescued by transgene expression of FATP4 in suprabasal keratinocytes. Sebaceous glands in Fatp4 null skin grafted onto nude mice were found to be dystrophic and enwrapped by thick layers of epithelial cells. Consistent with these results, transgene-rescued Fatp4 null mice showed a subnormal level of FATP4 expression in sebocytes and exhibited abnormal development of both sebaceous glands and meibomian glands, specialized sebaceous glands of the eyelids. Sebum from these mice contained a reduced level of type II diester wax, a major mouse sebum lipid species, and showed perturbations in mass spectrometric profiles of diester wax and cholesteryl ester species. In addition, these mice showed an impaired ability to repel water and regulate body temperature after water immersion. Taken together, our results suggest that FATP4 plays crucial roles in the development and maturation of both sebaceous and meibomian glands, as well as in the formation and composition of sebum, likely by regulating the trafficking of fatty acids necessary for proper synthesis of sebum lipids. PMID:23271751

  5. Requirement of fatty acid transport protein 4 for development, maturation, and function of sebaceous glands in a mouse model of ichthyosis prematurity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meei-Hua; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2013-02-08

    Fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4) is one of a family of six transmembrane proteins that facilitate long- and very long-chain fatty acid uptake. FATP4 is expressed in several tissues, including skin. Mutations in human SLC27A4, which encodes FATP4, cause ichthyosis prematurity syndrome, characterized by a thick desquamating epidermis and premature birth. Mice lacking FATP4, which genetically model the human disease, are born with tight, thick skin and a defective skin barrier; they die neonatally due to dehydration and restricted movements. Both the skin phenotype and the lethality are rescued by transgene expression of FATP4 in suprabasal keratinocytes. Sebaceous glands in Fatp4 null skin grafted onto nude mice were found to be dystrophic and enwrapped by thick layers of epithelial cells. Consistent with these results, transgene-rescued Fatp4 null mice showed a subnormal level of FATP4 expression in sebocytes and exhibited abnormal development of both sebaceous glands and meibomian glands, specialized sebaceous glands of the eyelids. Sebum from these mice contained a reduced level of type II diester wax, a major mouse sebum lipid species, and showed perturbations in mass spectrometric profiles of diester wax and cholesteryl ester species. In addition, these mice showed an impaired ability to repel water and regulate body temperature after water immersion. Taken together, our results suggest that FATP4 plays crucial roles in the development and maturation of both sebaceous and meibomian glands, as well as in the formation and composition of sebum, likely by regulating the trafficking of fatty acids necessary for proper synthesis of sebum lipids.

  6. Functional ion channels in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells: Voltage-dependent cation channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Amy L; Remillard, Carmelle V; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Fantozzi, Ivana; Ko, Eun A; Yuan, Jason X-J

    2011-01-01

    potential of -100 mV elicits a rapidly inactivating T-type Ca(2+) current, while depolarization from a holding potential of -70 mV elicits a slowly inactivating dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type Ca(2+) current. This review will focus on describing the electrophysiological properties and molecular identities of these voltage-dependent cation channels in PASMC and their contribution to the regulation of pulmonary vascular function and its potential role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease.

  7. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Michael D. [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom); Ahluwalia, Jatinder, E-mail: j.ahluwalia@uel.ac.uk [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-17

    Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.

  8. Regulation of the Human Ether-a-go-go-related Gene (hERG) Channel by Rab4 Protein through Neural Precursor Cell-expressed Developmentally Down-regulated Protein 4-2 (Nedd4-2)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhi; Zhang, Shetuan

    2013-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming α-subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ channel in the heart, which plays a critical role in cardiac action potential repolarization. Dysfunction of IKr causes long QT syndrome, a cardiac electrical disorder that predisposes affected individuals to fatal arrhythmias and sudden death. The homeostasis of hERG channels in the plasma membrane depends on a balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Our recent data indicate that hERG channels undergo enhanced endocytic degradation under low potassium (hypokalemia) conditions. The GTPase Rab4 is known to mediate rapid recycling of various internalized proteins to the plasma membrane. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Rab4 on the expression level of hERG channels. Our data revealed that overexpression of Rab4 decreases the expression level of hERG in the plasma membrane. Rab4 does not affect the expression level of the Kv1.5 or EAG K+ channels. Mechanistically, our data demonstrate that overexpression of Rab4 increases the expression level of endogenous Nedd4-2, a ubiquitin ligase that targets hERG but not Kv1.5 or EAG channels for ubiquitination and degradation. Nedd4-2 undergoes self- ubiquitination and degradation. Rab4 interferes with Nedd4-2 degradation, resulting in an increased expression level of Nedd4-2, which targets hERG. In summary, the present study demonstrates a novel pathway for hERG regulation; Rab4 decreases the hERG density at the plasma membrane by increasing the endogenous Nedd4-2 expression. PMID:23792956

  9. Structural protein 4.1 is located in mammalian centrosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, S.W.; Chasis, J.A.; Rogers, C.; Mohandas, N.; Krockmalnic, G.; Penman, S.

    1997-07-01

    Structural protein 4.1 was first characterized as an important 80-kDa protein in the mature red cell membrane skeleton. It is now known to be a member of a family of protein isoforms detected at diverse intracellular sites in many nucleated mammalian cells. We recently reported that protein 4.1 isoforms are present at interphase in nuclear matrix and are rearranged during the cell cycle. Here we report that protein 4.1 epitopes are present in centrosomes of human and murine cells and are detected by using affinity-purified antibodies specific for 80-kDa red cell 4.1 and for 4.1 peptides. Immunofluorescence, by both conventional and confocal microscopy, showed that protein 4.1 epitopes localized in the pericentriolar region. Protein 4.1 epitopes remained in centrosomes after extraction of cells with detergent, salt, and DNase. Higher resolution electron microscopy of detergent-extracted cell whole mounts showed centrosomal protein 4.1 epitopes distributed along centriolar cylinders and on pericentriolar fibers, at least some of which constitute the filamentous network surrounding each centriole. Double-label electron microscopy showed that protein 4.1 epitopes were predominantly localized in regions also occupied by epitopes for centrosome-specific autoimmune serum 5051 but were not found on microtubules. Our results suggest that protein 4.1 is an integral component of centrosome structure, in which it may play an important role in centrosome function during cell division and organization of cellular architecture.

  10. Regulated RNA editing and functional epistasis in Shaker potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingleby, Lindsey; Maloney, Rachel; Jepson, James; Horn, Richard; Reenan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Regulated point modification by an RNA editing enzyme occurs at four conserved sites in the Drosophila Shaker potassium channel. Single mRNA molecules can potentially represent any of 2(4) = 16 permutations (isoforms) of these natural variants. We generated isoform expression profiles to assess sexually dimorphic, spatial, and temporal differences. Striking tissue-specific expression was seen for particular isoforms. Moreover, isoform distributions showed evidence for coupling (linkage) of editing sites. Genetic manipulations of editing enzyme activity demonstrated that a chief determinant of Shaker editing site choice resides not in the editing enzyme, but rather, in unknown factors intrinsic to cells. Characterizing the biophysical properties of currents in nine isoforms revealed an unprecedented feature, functional epistasis; biophysical phenotypes of isoforms cannot be explained simply by the consequences of individual editing effects at the four sites. Our results unmask allosteric communication across disparate regions of the channel protein and between evolved and regulated amino acid changes introduced by RNA editing.

  11. Basic functions of telecommunication channel elements for successful information transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad S. Markagić

    2011-04-01

    the observed messages. Coder of messages generated by a message source should be transmitted to the recipient. For that purpose, an appropriate communication channel is used, with appropriate electrical signals as material bearers of the message. Definition of the code and the code system The set of combinations of digits that mirrors the elements of the set A is called a code. The established rule considers situations when each symbol from the set A is associated with the combination of elements of the set B. The function f defining this translation must be defined. This replacement is called a code replacement. Signal coder A coder performs signal transformation of coded messages to an electrical signal adapted for transmission via the transmission system. The most common signals are voltage transmission via cable connection or an electromagnetic field in the radio transmission. Modern systems for transferring discrete messages contain codecs and modems. Portable system A portable system is the medium for signal transmission from the source to the point of receipt. It can be wired and wireless. A wired transmission system is used in the stationary elements of communication systems. Wireless signal transmission is used in all conditions and it is more rational, efficient and economical. On their way through the transmission system, signals are subject to a variety of interferences. For a better insight into the interference impact, the source of interference is added to the whole system. Conclusion The model of the telecommunication channel is a complex system of a series of mutually dependent elements. Effectiveness of these elements is evaluated by the performances of the probability that the transfer of information through the channel will be successful. In a thus modeled telecommunication channel, regardless of the technical means used which is either a system or a circuit, the place and role of each element can be considered, which is the basis for consideration

  12. Glutamate Receptor Ion Channels: Structure, Regulation, and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollmuth, Lonnie P.; McBain, Chris J.; Menniti, Frank S.; Vance, Katie M.; Ogden, Kevin K.; Hansen, Kasper B.; Yuan, Hongjie; Myers, Scott J.; Dingledine, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptor family encodes 18 gene products that coassemble to form ligand-gated ion channels containing an agonist recognition site, a transmembrane ion permeation pathway, and gating elements that couple agonist-induced conformational changes to the opening or closing of the permeation pore. Glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and are localized on neuronal and non-neuronal cells. These receptors regulate a broad spectrum of processes in the brain, spinal cord, retina, and peripheral nervous system. Glutamate receptors are postulated to play important roles in numerous neurological diseases and have attracted intense scrutiny. The description of glutamate receptor structure, including its transmembrane elements, reveals a complex assembly of multiple semiautonomous extracellular domains linked to a pore-forming element with striking resemblance to an inverted potassium channel. In this review we discuss International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology glutamate receptor nomenclature, structure, assembly, accessory subunits, interacting proteins, gene expression and translation, post-translational modifications, agonist and antagonist pharmacology, allosteric modulation, mechanisms of gating and permeation, roles in normal physiological function, as well as the potential therapeutic use of pharmacological agents acting at glutamate receptors. PMID:20716669

  13. Protection of Coronary Endothelial Function during Cardiac Surgery: Potential of Targeting Endothelial Ion Channels in Cardioprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelium plays a critical role in the control of blood flow by producing vasoactive factors to regulate vascular tone. Ion channels, in particular, K+ channels and Ca2+-permeable channels in endothelial cells, are essential to the production and function of endothelium-derived vasoactive factors. Impairment of coronary endothelial function occurs in open heart surgery that may result in reduction of coronary blood flow and thus in an inadequate myocardial perfusion. Hyperkalemic exposure and concurrent ischemia-reperfusion during cardioplegic intervention compromise NO and EDHF-mediated function and the impairment involves alterations of K+ channels, that is, KATP and KCa, and Ca2+-permeable TRP channels in endothelial cells. Pharmacological modulation of these channels during ischemia-reperfusion and hyperkalemic exposure show promising results on the preservation of NO and EDHF-mediated endothelial function, which suggests the potential of targeting endothelial K+ and TRP channels for myocardial protection during cardiac surgery.

  14. Function and regulation of the channel-kinase TRPM7 in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, D.; Middelbeek, J.; Leeuwen, F.N. van; Jalink, K.

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels represent a large and diverse family of ion channels that act as important transducers of sensory information. The Melastatin subfamily member TRPM7 has garnered much interest due to its functional kinase domain; a unique feature among ion channels.

  15. Eag1 K+ Channel: Endogenous Regulation and Functions in Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ether-à-go-go1 (Eag1, Kv10.1, KCNH1 K+ channel is a member of the voltage-gated K+ channel family mainly distributed in the central nervous system and cancer cells. Like other types of voltage-gated K+ channels, the EAG1 channels are regulated by a variety of endogenous signals including reactive oxygen species, rendering the EAG1 to be in the redox-regulated ion channel family. The role of EAG1 channels in tumor development and its therapeutic significance have been well established. Meanwhile, the importance of hEAG1 channels in the nervous system is now increasingly appreciated. The present review will focus on the recent progress on the channel regulation by endogenous signals and the potential functions of EAG1 channels in normal neuronal signaling as well as neurological diseases.

  16. Eag1 K+ Channel: Endogenous Regulation and Functions in Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bo; Tokay, Tursonjan; Zhang, Guangming; Sun, Peng; Hou, Shangwei

    2017-01-01

    Ether-à-go-go1 (Eag1, Kv10.1, KCNH1) K+ channel is a member of the voltage-gated K+ channel family mainly distributed in the central nervous system and cancer cells. Like other types of voltage-gated K+ channels, the EAG1 channels are regulated by a variety of endogenous signals including reactive oxygen species, rendering the EAG1 to be in the redox-regulated ion channel family. The role of EAG1 channels in tumor development and its therapeutic significance have been well established. Meanwhile, the importance of hEAG1 channels in the nervous system is now increasingly appreciated. The present review will focus on the recent progress on the channel regulation by endogenous signals and the potential functions of EAG1 channels in normal neuronal signaling as well as neurological diseases.

  17. Role of T-type channels in vasomotor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuo, Ivana Y-T; Howitt, Lauren; Sandow, Shaun L

    2014-01-01

    Low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels play an important role in regulating cellular excitability and are implicated in conditions, such as epilepsy and neuropathic pain. T-type channels, especially Cav3.1 and Cav3.2, are also expressed in the vasculature, although patch clamp studies of i...

  18. Sodium Channel (Dys)Function and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Bezzina, Connie R.

    2010-01-01

    P>Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane proteins located in the cell membrane of cardiomyocytes. Influx of sodium ions through these ion channels is responsible for the initial fast upstroke of the cardiac action potential. This inward sodium current thus triggers the initiation

  19. Functional modifications of acid-sensing ion channels by ligand-gated chloride channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanmao Chen

    Full Text Available Together, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs and epithelial sodium channels (ENaC constitute the majority of voltage-independent sodium channels in mammals. ENaC is regulated by a chloride channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. Here we show that ASICs were reversibly inhibited by activation of GABA(A receptors in murine hippocampal neurons. This inhibition of ASICs required opening of the chloride channels but occurred with both outward and inward GABA(A receptor-mediated currents. Moreover, activation of the GABA(A receptors modified the pharmacological features and kinetic properties of the ASIC currents, including the time course of activation, desensitization and deactivation. Modification of ASICs by open GABA(A receptors was also observed in both nucleated patches and outside-out patches excised from hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, ASICs and GABA(A receptors interacted to regulate synaptic plasticity in CA1 hippocampal slices. The activation of glycine receptors, which are similar to GABA(A receptors, also modified ASICs in spinal neurons. We conclude that GABA(A receptors and glycine receptors modify ASICs in neurons through mechanisms that require the opening of chloride channels.

  20. EAG2 potassium channel with evolutionarily conserved function as a brain tumor target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi; He, Ye; Dubuc, Adrian M.; Hashizume, Rintaro; Zhang, Wei; Reimand, Jüri; Yang, Huanghe; Wang, Tongfei A.; Stehbens, Samantha J.; Younger, Susan; Barshow, Suzanne; Zhu, Sijun; Cooper, Michael K.; Peacock, John; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Garzia, Livia; Wu, Xiaochong; Remke, Marc; Forester, Craig M.; Kim, Charles C.; Weiss, William A.; James, C. David; Shuman, Marc A.; Bader, Gary D.; Mueller, Sabine; Taylor, Michael D.; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Over 20% of the drugs for treating human diseases target ion channels, however, no cancer drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is intended to target an ion channel. Here, we demonstrate the evolutionarily conserved function of EAG2 potassium channel in promoting brain tumor growth and metastasis, delineate downstream pathways and uncover a mechanism for different potassium channels to functionally corporate and regulate mitotic cell volume and tumor progression. We show that EAG2 potassium channel is enriched at the trailing edge of migrating MB cells to regulate local cell volume dynamics, thereby facilitating cell motility. We identify the FDA-approved antipsychotic drug thioridazine as an EAG2 channel blocker that reduces xenografted MB growth and metastasis, and present a case report of repurposing thioridazine for treating a human patient. Our findings thus illustrate the potential of targeting ion channels in cancer treatment. PMID:26258683

  1. The KCNQ1 channel - remarkable flexibility in gating allows for functional versatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liin, Sara I; Barro-Soria, Rene; Larsson, H Peter

    2015-06-15

    The KCNQ1 channel (also called Kv7.1 or KvLQT1) belongs to the superfamily of voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels. KCNQ1 shares several general features with other Kv channels but also displays a fascinating flexibility in terms of the mechanism of channel gating, which allows KCNQ1 to play different physiological roles in different tissues. This flexibility allows KCNQ1 channels to function as voltage-independent channels in epithelial tissues, whereas KCNQ1 function as voltage-activated channels with very slow kinetics in cardiac tissues. This flexibility is in part provided by the association of KCNQ1 with different accessory KCNE β-subunits and different modulators, but also seems like an integral part of KCNQ1 itself. The aim of this review is to describe the main mechanisms underlying KCNQ1 flexibility. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  2. The KCNQ1 channel – remarkable flexibility in gating allows for functional versatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liin, Sara I; Barro-Soria, Rene; Larsson, H Peter

    2015-01-01

    The KCNQ1 channel (also called Kv7.1 or KvLQT1) belongs to the superfamily of voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels. KCNQ1 shares several general features with other Kv channels but also displays a fascinating flexibility in terms of the mechanism of channel gating, which allows KCNQ1 to play different physiological roles in different tissues. This flexibility allows KCNQ1 channels to function as voltage-independent channels in epithelial tissues, whereas KCNQ1 function as voltage-activated channels with very slow kinetics in cardiac tissues. This flexibility is in part provided by the association of KCNQ1 with different accessory KCNE β-subunits and different modulators, but also seems like an integral part of KCNQ1 itself. The aim of this review is to describe the main mechanisms underlying KCNQ1 flexibility. PMID:25653179

  3. Putative Structural and Functional Coupling of the Mitochondrial BKCa Channel to the Respiratory Chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bednarczyk

    Full Text Available Potassium channels have been found in the inner mitochondrial membranes of various cells. These channels regulate the mitochondrial membrane potential, the matrix volume and respiration. The activation of these channels is cytoprotective. In our study, the single-channel activity of a large-conductance Ca(2+-regulated potassium channel (mitoBKCa channel was measured by patch-clamping mitoplasts isolated from the human astrocytoma (glioblastoma U-87 MG cell line. A potassium-selective current was recorded with a mean conductance of 290 pS in symmetrical 150 mM KCl solution. The channel was activated by Ca(2+ at micromolar concentrations and by the potassium channel opener NS1619. The channel was inhibited by paxilline and iberiotoxin, known inhibitors of BKCa channels. Western blot analysis, immuno-gold electron microscopy, high-resolution immunofluorescence assays and polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of the BKCa channel β4 subunit in the inner mitochondrial membrane of the human astrocytoma cells. We showed that substrates of the respiratory chain, such as NADH, succinate, and glutamate/malate, decrease the activity of the channel at positive voltages. This effect was abolished by rotenone, antimycin and cyanide, inhibitors of the respiratory chain. The putative interaction of the β4 subunit of mitoBKCa with cytochrome c oxidase was demonstrated using blue native electrophoresis. Our findings indicate possible structural and functional coupling of the mitoBKCa channel with the mitochondrial respiratory chain in human astrocytoma U-87 MG cells.

  4. Functional Characterization of Cnidarian HCN Channels Points to an Early Evolution of Ih.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Baker

    Full Text Available HCN channels play a unique role in bilaterian physiology as the only hyperpolarization-gated cation channels. Their voltage-gating is regulated by cyclic nucleotides and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2. Activation of HCN channels provides the depolarizing current in response to hyperpolarization that is critical for intrinsic rhythmicity in neurons and the sinoatrial node. Additionally, HCN channels regulate dendritic excitability in a wide variety of neurons. Little is known about the early functional evolution of HCN channels, but the presence of HCN sequences in basal metazoan phyla and choanoflagellates, a protozoan sister group to the metazoans, indicate that the gene family predates metazoan emergence. We functionally characterized two HCN channel orthologs from Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa to determine which properties of HCN channels were established prior to the emergence of bilaterians. We find Nematostella HCN channels share all the major functional features of bilaterian HCNs, including reversed voltage-dependence, activation by cAMP and PIP2, and block by extracellular Cs+. Thus bilaterian-like HCN channels were already present in the common parahoxozoan ancestor of bilaterians and cnidarians, at a time when the functional diversity of voltage-gated K+ channels was rapidly expanding. NvHCN1 and NvHCN2 are expressed broadly in planulae and in both the endoderm and ectoderm of juvenile polyps.

  5. Functional hair cell mechanotransducer channels are required for aminoglycoside ototoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Alharazneh

    Full Text Available Aminoglycosides (AG are commonly prescribed antibiotics with potent bactericidal activities. One main side effect is permanent sensorineural hearing loss, induced by selective inner ear sensory hair cell death. Much work has focused on AG's initiating cell death processes, however, fewer studies exist defining mechanisms of AG uptake by hair cells. The current study investigated two proposed mechanisms of AG transport in mammalian hair cells: mechanotransducer (MET channels and endocytosis. To study these two mechanisms, rat cochlear explants were cultured as whole organs in gentamicin-containing media. Two-photon imaging of Texas Red conjugated gentamicin (GTTR uptake into live hair cells was rapid and selective. Hypocalcemia, which increases the open probability of MET channels, increased AG entry into hair cells. Three blockers of MET channels (curare, quinine, and amiloride significantly reduced GTTR uptake, whereas the endocytosis inhibitor concanavalin A did not. Dynosore quenched the fluorescence of GTTR and could not be tested. Pharmacologic blockade of MET channels with curare or quinine, but not concanavalin A or dynosore, prevented hair cell loss when challenged with gentamicin for up to 96 hours. Taken together, data indicate that the patency of MET channels mediated AG entry into hair cells and its toxicity. Results suggest that limiting permeation of AGs through MET channel or preventing their entry into endolymph are potential therapeutic targets for preventing hair cell death and hearing loss.

  6. The stretch-dependent potassium channel TREK-1 and its function in murine myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Kevin; Baker, Salah A; Dwyer, Laura; Hatton, William C; Sik Park, Kyung; Sanders, Kenton M; Koh, Sang Don

    2011-03-01

    Smooth muscle of the uterus stays remarkably quiescent during normal pregnancy to allow sufficient time for development of the fetus. At present the mechanisms leading to uterine quiescence during pregnancy and how the suppression of activity is relieved at term are poorly understood. Myometrial excitability is governed by ion channels, and a major hypothesis regarding the regulation of contractility during pregnancy has been that expression of certain channels is regulated by hormonal influences. We have explored the expression and function of stretch-dependent K+ (SDK) channels, which are likely to be due to TREK channels, in murine myometrial tissues and myocytes using PCR, Western blots, patch clamp, intracellular microelectrode and isometric force measurements. TREK-1 is more highly expressed than TREK-2 in myometrium, and there was no detectable expression of TRAAK. Expression of TREK-1 transcripts and protein was regulated during pregnancy and delivery. SDK channels were activated in response to negative pressure applied to patches. SDK channels were insensitive to a broad-spectrum of K+ channel blockers, including tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine, and insensitive to intracellular Ca2+. SDK channels were activated by stretch and arachidonic acid and inhibited by reagents that block TREK-1 channels, l-methionine and/or methioninol. Our data suggest that uterine excitability and contractility during pregnancy is regulated by the expression of SDK/TREK-1 channels. Up-regulation of these channels stabilizes membrane potential and controls contraction during pregnancy and down-regulation of these channels induces the onset of delivery.

  7. Super-resolution scanning patch clamp reveals clustering of functional ion channels in adult ventricular myocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Anamika; Lin, Xianming; Novak, Pavel; Mehta, Kinneri; Korchev, Yuri; Delmar, Mario; Gorelik, Julia

    2013-04-12

    Compartmentation of ion channels on the cardiomyocyte surface is important for electric propagation and electromechanical coupling. The specialized T-tubule and costameric structures facilitate spatial coupling of various ion channels and receptors. Existing methods such as immunofluorescence and patch clamp techniques are limited in their ability to localize functional ion channels. As such, a correlation between channel protein location and channel function remains incomplete. To validate a method that permits routine imaging of the topography of a live cardiomyocyte and study clustering of functional ion channels from a specific microdomain. We used scanning ion conductance microscopy and conventional cell-attached patch clamp with a software modification that allows controlled increase of pipette tip diameter. The sharp nanopipette used for topography scan was modified into a larger patch pipette that could be positioned with nanoscale precision to a specific site of interest (crest, groove, or T-tubules of cardiomyocytes) and sealed to the membrane for cell-attached recording of ion channels. Using this method, we significantly increased the probability of detecting activity of L-type calcium channels in the T-tubules of ventricular cardiomyocytes. We also demonstrated that active sodium channels do not distribute homogenously on the sarcolemma instead, they segregate into clusters of various densities, most crowded in the crest region, that are surrounded by areas virtually free of functional sodium channels. Our new method substantially increases the throughput of recording location-specific functional ion channels on the cardiomyocyte sarcolemma, thereby allowing characterization of ion channels in relation to the microdomain where they reside.

  8. Modulation of BK Channel Function by Auxiliary Beta and Gamma Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Yan, J.

    2016-01-01

    The large-conductance, Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channel is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues and displays diverse biophysical or pharmacological characteristics. This diversity is in part conferred by channel modulation with different regulatory auxiliary subunits. To date, two distinct classes of BK channel auxiliary subunits have been identified: β subunits and γ subunits. Modulation of BK channels by the four auxiliary β (β1–β4) subunits has been well established and intensively investigated over the past two decades. The auxiliary γ subunits, however, were identified only very recently, which adds a new dimension to BK channel regulation and improves our understanding of the physiological functions of BK channels in various tissues and cell types. This chapter will review the current understanding of BK channel modulation by auxiliary β and γ subunits, especially the latest findings. PMID:27238261

  9. Functional expression of T-type Ca2+ channels in spinal motoneurons of the adult turtle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Canto-Bustos

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV channels are transmembrane proteins comprising three subfamilies named CaV1, CaV2 and CaV3. The CaV3 channel subfamily groups the low-voltage activated Ca2+ channels (LVA or T-type a significant role in regulating neuronal excitability. CaV3 channel activity may lead to the generation of complex patterns of action potential firing such as the postinhibitory rebound (PIR. In the adult spinal cord, these channels have been found in dorsal horn interneurons where they control physiological events near the resting potential and participate in determining excitability. In motoneurons, CaV3 channels have been found during development, but their functional expression has not yet been reported in adult animals. Here, we show evidence for the presence of CaV3 channel-mediated PIR in motoneurons of the adult turtle spinal cord. Our results indicate that Ni2+ and NNC55-0396, two antagonists of CaV3 channel activity, inhibited PIR in the adult turtle spinal cord. Molecular biology and biochemical assays revealed the expression of the CaV3.1 channel isotype and its localization in motoneurons. Together, these results provide evidence for the expression of CaV3.1 channels in the spinal cord of adult animals and show also that these channels may contribute to determine the excitability of motoneurons.

  10. Mechanisms of mechanosensing - mechanosensitive channels, function and re-engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocer, Armagan

    2015-01-01

    Sensing and responding to mechanical stimuli is an ancient behavior and ubiquitous to all forms of life. One of its players 'mechanosensitive ion channels' are involved in processes from osmosensing in bacteria to pain in humans. However, the mechanism of mechanosensing is yet to be elucidated. This

  11. Differential subcellular distribution of ion channels and the diversity of neuronal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusser, Zoltan

    2012-06-01

    Following the astonishing molecular diversity of voltage-gated ion channels that was revealed in the past few decades, the ion channel repertoire expressed by neurons has been implicated as the major factor governing their functional heterogeneity. Although the molecular structure of ion channels is a key determinant of their biophysical properties, their subcellular distribution and densities on the surface of nerve cells are just as important for fulfilling functional requirements. Recent results obtained with high resolution quantitative localization techniques revealed complex, subcellular compartment-specific distribution patterns of distinct ion channels. Here I suggest that within a given neuron type every ion channel has a unique cell surface distribution pattern, with the functional consequence that this dramatically increases the computational power of nerve cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Localization and function of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Jung; Kristensen, Michael; Hellsten, Ylva

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated the localization of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels in human skeletal muscle and the functional importance of these channels for human muscle K+ distribution at rest and during muscle activity. Membrane fractionation based on the giant vesicle technique...

  13. Functional properties of human neuronal Kv11 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsen, Karoline; Calloe, Kirstine; Grunnet, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Kv11 potassium channels are important for regulation of the membrane potential. Kv11.2 and Kv11.3 are primarily found in the nervous system, where they most likely are involved in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Two isoforms of human Kv11.2 have been published so far. Here, we present...... current characteristics of the isoforms presented in this work may contribute to the regulation of neuronal excitability....

  14. Ion channel expression patterns in glioblastoma stem cells with functional and therapeutic implications for malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Julia; Rai, Karan G; Funk, Cory C; Arora, Sonali; Lee, Eunjee; Zhu, Jun; Price, Nathan D; Paddison, Patrick J; Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Rostomily, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    Ion channels and transporters have increasingly recognized roles in cancer progression through the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and death. Glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) are a source of tumor formation and recurrence in glioblastoma multiforme, a highly aggressive brain cancer, suggesting that ion channel expression may be perturbed in this population. However, little is known about the expression and functional relevance of ion channels that may contribute to GSC malignancy. Using RNA sequencing, we assessed the enrichment of ion channels in GSC isolates and non-tumor neural cell types. We identified a unique set of GSC-enriched ion channels using differential expression analysis that is also associated with distinct gene mutation signatures. In support of potential clinical relevance, expression of selected GSC-enriched ion channels evaluated in human glioblastoma databases of The Cancer Genome Atlas and Ivy Glioblastoma Atlas Project correlated with patient survival times. Finally, genetic knockdown as well as pharmacological inhibition of individual or classes of GSC-enriched ion channels constrained growth of GSCs compared to normal neural stem cells. This first-in-kind global examination characterizes ion channels enriched in GSCs and explores their potential clinical relevance to glioblastoma molecular subtypes, gene mutations, survival outcomes, regional tumor expression, and experimental responses to loss-of-function. Together, the data support the potential biological and therapeutic impact of ion channels on GSC malignancy and provide strong rationale for further examination of their mechanistic and therapeutic importance.

  15. Ion channel expression patterns in glioblastoma stem cells with functional and therapeutic implications for malignancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Pollak

    Full Text Available Ion channels and transporters have increasingly recognized roles in cancer progression through the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and death. Glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs are a source of tumor formation and recurrence in glioblastoma multiforme, a highly aggressive brain cancer, suggesting that ion channel expression may be perturbed in this population. However, little is known about the expression and functional relevance of ion channels that may contribute to GSC malignancy. Using RNA sequencing, we assessed the enrichment of ion channels in GSC isolates and non-tumor neural cell types. We identified a unique set of GSC-enriched ion channels using differential expression analysis that is also associated with distinct gene mutation signatures. In support of potential clinical relevance, expression of selected GSC-enriched ion channels evaluated in human glioblastoma databases of The Cancer Genome Atlas and Ivy Glioblastoma Atlas Project correlated with patient survival times. Finally, genetic knockdown as well as pharmacological inhibition of individual or classes of GSC-enriched ion channels constrained growth of GSCs compared to normal neural stem cells. This first-in-kind global examination characterizes ion channels enriched in GSCs and explores their potential clinical relevance to glioblastoma molecular subtypes, gene mutations, survival outcomes, regional tumor expression, and experimental responses to loss-of-function. Together, the data support the potential biological and therapeutic impact of ion channels on GSC malignancy and provide strong rationale for further examination of their mechanistic and therapeutic importance.

  16. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Connects Cellular Energy Metabolism to KATP Channel Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hidetada; Bao, Li; Kefalogianni, Eirini; Taskin, Eylem; Okorie, Uzoma; Hong, Miyoun; Dhar-Chowdhury, Piyali; Kaneko, Michiyo; Coetzee, William A.

    2011-01-01

    AMPK is an important sensor of cellular energy levels. Objective The aim of these studies was to investigate whether cardiac KATP channels, which couple cellular energy metabolism to membrane excitability, are regulated by AMPK activity. Research Design and Methods We investigated effects of AMPK on rat ventricular KATP channels using electrophysiological and biochemical approaches Results Whole-cell KATP channel current was activated by metabolic inhibition; this occurred more rapidly in the presence of AICAR (an AMPK activator). AICAR had no effects on KATP channel activity recorded in the inside-out patch clamp configuration, but ZMP (the intracellular intermediate of AICAR) strongly activated KATP channels. An AMPK-mediated effect is demonstrated by the finding that ZMP had no effect on KATP channels in the presence of Compound C (an AMPK inhibitor). Recombinant AMPK activated Kir6.2/SUR2A channels in a manner that was dependent on the AMP concentration, whereas heat-inactivated AMPK was without effect. Using mass-spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation approaches, we demonstrate that the AMPK α-subunit physically associates with KATP channel subunits. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the cardiac KATP channel function is directly regulated by AMPK activation. During metabolic stress, a small change in cellular AMP that activates AMPK can be a potential trigger for KATP channel opening. PMID:21888913

  17. Chlorella virus ATCV-1 encodes a functional potassium channel of 82 amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzarrini, Sabrina; Kang, Ming; Abenavoli, Alessandra; Romani, Giulia; Olivari, Claudio; Gaslini, Daniele; Ferrara, Giuseppina; van Etten, James L.; Kreim, Michael; Kast, Stefan M.; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Chlorella virus PBCV-1 (Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1) encodes the smallest protein (94 amino acids, named Kcv) previously known to form a functional K+ channel in heterologous systems. In this paper, we characterize another chlorella virus encoded K+ channel protein (82 amino acids, named ATCV-1 Kcv) that forms a functional channel in Xenopus oocytes and rescues Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants that lack endogenous K+ uptake systems. Compared with the larger PBCV-1 Kcv, ATCV-1 Kcv lacks a cytoplasmic N-terminus and has a reduced number of charged amino acids in its turret domain. Despite these deficiencies, ATCV-1 Kcv accomplishes all the major features of K+ channels: it assembles into a tetramer, is K+ selective and is inhibited by the canonical K+ channel blockers, barium and caesium. Single channel analyses reveal a stochastic gating behavior and a voltage-dependent conductance that resembles the macroscopic I/V relationship. One difference between PBCV-1 and ATCV-1 Kcv is that the latter is more permeable to K+ than Rb+. This difference is partially explained by the presence of a tyrosine residue in the selective filter of ATCV-1 Kcv, whereas PBCV-1 Kcv has a phenylalanine. Hence, ATCV-1 Kcv is the smallest protein to form a K+ channel and it will serve as a model for studying structure–function correlations inside the potassium channel pore. PMID:19267691

  18. A functional tandem between transient receptor potential canonical channels 6 and calcium-dependent chloride channels in human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Johanna; Dannhoffer, Luc; Antigny, Fabrice; Vachel, Laura; Jayle, Christophe; Vandebrouck, Clarisse; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline

    2015-10-15

    TRPC6 plays important human physiological functions, notably in artery and arterioles constriction, in regulation of vascular volume and in bronchial muscle constriction. It is implicated in pulmonary hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and seems to play a role in cancer development. Previously, we identified Guanabenz, an α2-adrenergic agonist used for hypertension treatment (Wytensin®), as an activator of calcium-dependent chloride channels (CaCC) in human Cystic Fibrosis (CF) nasal epithelial cells by transiently increasing [Ca2+]i via an influx of extracellular Ca2+. In this study, using assays to measure chloride channel activity, we show that guanabenz is an activator of CaCC in freshly dissociated human bronchial epithelial cells from three CF patients with various genotypes (F508del/F508del, F508del/R1066C, F508del/H1085R). We further characterised the effect of guanabenz and show that it is independent of α-adrenergic receptors, is inhibited by the TRPC family inhibitor SKF-96365 but not by the TRPV family inhibitor ruthenium red. Using western-blotting, Ca2+ measurements and iodide efflux assay, we found that TRPC1 siRNA has no effect on guanabenz induced responses whereas TRPC6 siRNA prevented the guanabenz-dependent Ca2+ influx and the CaCC-dependent activity stimulated by guanabenz. In conclusion, we show that TRPC6 channel is pivotal for the activation of CaCC by guanabenz through a α2-adrenergic-independent pathway in human airway epithelial cells. We suggest propose a functional coupling between TRPC6 and CaCC and guanabenz as a potential TRPC6 activator for exploring TRPC6 and CaCC channel functions and corresponding channelopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatty acid analogue N-arachidonoyl taurine restores function of IKs channels with diverse long QT mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liin, Sara I; Larsson, Johan E; Barro-Soria, Rene

    2016-01-01

    About 300 loss-of-function mutations in the IKs channel have been identified in patients with Long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia. How specific mutations cause arrhythmia is largely unknown and there are no approved IKs channel activators for treatment of these arrhythmias. We find that several...... Long QT syndrome-associated IKs channel mutations shift channel voltage dependence and accelerate channel closing. Voltage-clamp fluorometry experiments and kinetic modeling suggest that similar mutation-induced alterations in IKs channel currents may be caused by different molecular mechanisms...... prototype compound that may inspire development of future IKs channel activators to treat Long QT syndrome caused by diverse IKs channel mutations....

  20. PERTURBATION OF VOLTAGE-SENSITIVE Ca2+ CHANNEL FUNCTION BY VOLATILE ORGANIC SOLVENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms underlying the acute neurophysiological and behavioral effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) remain to be elucidated. However, the function of neuronal ion channels is perturbed by VOCs. The present study examined effects of toluene (TOL), trichloroethylene ...

  1. Functional-Decode-Forward for the General Discrete Memoryless Two-Way Relay Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Lawrence; Johnson, Sarah J; 10.1109/ICCS.2010.5686490

    2011-01-01

    We consider the general discrete memoryless two-way relay channel, where two users exchange messages via a relay, and propose two functional-decode-forward coding strategies for this channel. Functional-decode-forward involves the relay decoding a function of the users' messages rather than the individual messages themselves. This function is then broadcast back to the users, which can be used in conjunction with the user's own message to decode the other user's message. Via a numerical example, we show that functional-decode-forward with linear codes is capable of achieving strictly larger sum rates than those achievable by other strategies.

  2. Control channels in the brain and their influence on brain executive functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinglei; Choa, Fow-Sen; Hong, Elliot; Wang, Zhiguang; Islam, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    In a computer network there are distinct data channels and control channels where massive amount of visual information are transported through data channels but the information streams are routed and controlled by intelligent algorithm through "control channels". Recent studies on cognition and consciousness have shown that the brain control channels are closely related to the brainwave beta (14-40 Hz) and alpha (7-13 Hz) oscillations. The high-beta wave is used by brain to synchronize local neural activities and the alpha oscillation is for desynchronization. When two sensory inputs are simultaneously presented to a person, the high-beta is used to select one of the inputs and the alpha is used to deselect the other so that only one input will get the attention. In this work we demonstrated that we can scan a person's brain using binaural beats technique and identify the individual's preferred control channels. The identified control channels can then be used to influence the subject's brain executive functions. In the experiment, an EEG measurement system was used to record and identify a subject's control channels. After these channels were identified, the subject was asked to do Stroop tests. Binaural beats was again used to produce these control-channel frequencies on the subject's brain when we recorded the completion time of each test. We found that the high-beta signal indeed speeded up the subject's executive function performance and reduced the time to complete incongruent tests, while the alpha signal didn't seem to be able to slow down the executive function performance.

  3. Oxidation of a potassium channel causes progressive sensory function loss during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shi-Qing; Sesti, Federico

    2009-05-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of neuronal excitability. Here we show that oxidation of the K(+) channel KVS-1 during aging causes sensory function loss in Caenorhabditis elegans and that protection of this channel from oxidation preserves neuronal function. Chemotaxis, a function controlled by KVS-1, was significantly impaired in worms exposed to oxidizing agents, but only moderately affected in worms harboring an oxidation-resistant KVS-1 mutant (C113S). In aging C113S transgenic worms, the effects of free radical accumulation were significantly attenuated compared to those in wild type. Electrophysiological analyses showed that both reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation during aging and acute exposure to oxidizing agents acted primarily to alter the excitability of the neurons that mediate chemotaxis. Together, these findings establish a pivotal role for ROS-mediated oxidation of voltage-gated K(+) channels in sensorial decline during aging in invertebrates.

  4. Correlation of apical fluid-regulating channel proteins with lung function in human COPD lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Runzhen; Liang, Xinrong; Zhao, Meimi; Liu, Shan-Lu; Huang, Yao; Idell, Steven; Li, Xiumin; Ji, Hong-Long

    2014-01-01

    Links between epithelial ion channels and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are emerging through animal model and in vitro studies. However, clinical correlations between fluid-regulating channel proteins and lung function in COPD remain to be elucidated. To quantitatively measure epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and aquaporin 5 (AQP5) proteins in human COPD lungs and to analyze the correlation with declining lung function, quantitative western blots were used. Spearman tests were performed to identify correlations between channel proteins and lung function. The expression of α and β ENaC subunits was augmented and inversely associated with lung function. In contrast, both total and alveolar type I (ATI) and II (ATII)-specific CFTR proteins were reduced. The expression level of CFTR proteins was associated with FEV1 positively. Abundance of AQP5 proteins and extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) was decreased and correlated with spirometry test results and gas exchange positively. Furthermore, these channel proteins were significantly associated with severity of disease. Our study demonstrates that expression of ENaC, AQP5, and CFTR proteins in human COPD lungs is quantitatively associated with lung function and severity of COPD. These apically located fluid-regulating channels may thereby serve as biomarkers and potent druggable targets of COPD.

  5. Correlation of apical fluid-regulating channel proteins with lung function in human COPD lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runzhen Zhao

    Full Text Available Links between epithelial ion channels and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD are emerging through animal model and in vitro studies. However, clinical correlations between fluid-regulating channel proteins and lung function in COPD remain to be elucidated. To quantitatively measure epithelial sodium channels (ENaC, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, and aquaporin 5 (AQP5 proteins in human COPD lungs and to analyze the correlation with declining lung function, quantitative western blots were used. Spearman tests were performed to identify correlations between channel proteins and lung function. The expression of α and β ENaC subunits was augmented and inversely associated with lung function. In contrast, both total and alveolar type I (ATI and II (ATII-specific CFTR proteins were reduced. The expression level of CFTR proteins was associated with FEV1 positively. Abundance of AQP5 proteins and extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3 was decreased and correlated with spirometry test results and gas exchange positively. Furthermore, these channel proteins were significantly associated with severity of disease. Our study demonstrates that expression of ENaC, AQP5, and CFTR proteins in human COPD lungs is quantitatively associated with lung function and severity of COPD. These apically located fluid-regulating channels may thereby serve as biomarkers and potent druggable targets of COPD.

  6. Human odontoblasts express functional thermo-sensitive TRP channels: implications for dentin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Karim, Ikhlas A; Linden, Gerard J; Curtis, Timothy M; About, Imad; McGahon, Mary K; Irwin, Chris R; Lundy, Fionnuala T

    2011-10-01

    Odontoblasts form the outermost cellular layer of the dental pulp where they have been proposed to act as sensory receptor cells. Despite this suggestion, evidence supporting their direct role in mediating thermo-sensation and nociception is lacking. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels directly mediate nociceptive functions, but their functional expression in human odontoblasts has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we have examined the molecular and functional expression of thermo-sensitive TRP channels in cultured odontoblast-like cells and in native human odontoblasts obtained from healthy wisdom teeth. PCR and western blotting confirmed gene and protein expression of TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPM8 channels. Immunohistochemistry revealed that these channels were localised to odontoblast-like cells as determined by double staining with dentin sialoprotein (DSP) antibody. In functional assays, agonists of TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPM8 channels elicited [Ca2+]i transients that could be blocked by relevant antagonists. Application of hot and cold stimuli to the cells also evoked rises in [Ca2+]i which could be blocked by TRP-channel antagonists. Using a gene silencing approached we further confirmed a role for TRPA1 in mediating noxious cold responses in odontoblasts. We conclude that human odontoblasts express functional TRP channels that may play a crucial role in mediating thermal sensation in teeth. Cultured and native human odontoblasts express functional TRP channels that may play a crucial role in mediating thermal sensation in teeth. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Protons stabilize the closed conformation of gain-of-function mutants of the TRPV1 channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukalova, Stepana; Teisinger, Jan; Vlachova, Viktorie

    2013-03-01

    The vanilloid transient receptor potential channel TRPV1 is a molecular integrator of noxious stimuli, including capsaicin, heat and protons. Despite clear similarities between the overall architecture of TRPV1 and voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels, the extent of conservation in the molecular logic for gating is unknown. In Kv channels, a small contact surface between S1 and the pore-helix is required for channel functioning. To explore the function of S1 in TRPV1, we used tryptophan-scanning mutagenesis and characterized the responses to capsaicin and protons. Wild-type-like currents were generated in 9 out of 17 mutants; three mutants (M445W, A452W, R455W) were non-functional. The conservative mutation R455K in the extracellular extent of S1 slowed down capsaicin-induced activation and prevented normal channel closure. This mutant was neither activated nor potentiated by protons, on the contrary, protons promoted a rapid deactivation of its currents. Similar phenotypes were found in two other gain-of-function mutants and also in the pore-helix mutant T633A, known to uncouple proton activation. We propose that the S1 domain contains a functionally important region that may be specifically involved in TRPV1 channel gating, and thus be important for the energetic coupling between S1-S4 sensor activation and gate opening. Analogous to Kv channels, the S1-pore interface might serve to stabilize conformations associated with TRPV1 channel gating. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavioral Deficits Following Withdrawal from Chronic Ethanol Are Influenced by SLO Channel Function in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Luisa L; Davis, Scott J; Yen, Rachel C; Ordemann, Greg J; Nordquist, Sarah K; Bannai, Deepthi; Pierce, Jonathan T

    2017-07-01

    Symptoms of withdrawal from chronic alcohol use are a driving force for relapse in alcohol dependence. Thus, uncovering molecular targets to lessen their severity is key to breaking the cycle of dependence. Using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we tested whether one highly conserved ethanol target, the large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (known as the BK channel or Slo1), modulates ethanol withdrawal. Consistent with a previous report, we found that C. elegans displays withdrawal-related behavioral impairments after cessation of chronic ethanol exposure. We found that the degree of impairment is exacerbated in worms lacking the worm BK channel, SLO-1, and is reduced by selective rescue of this channel in the nervous system. Enhanced SLO-1 function, via gain-of-function mutation or overexpression, also dramatically reduced behavioral impairment during withdrawal. Consistent with these results, we found that chronic ethanol exposure decreased SLO-1 expression in a subset of neurons. In addition, we found that the function of a distinct, conserved Slo family channel, SLO-2, showed an inverse relationship to withdrawal behavior, and this influence depended on SLO-1 function. Together, our findings show that modulation of either Slo family ion channel bidirectionally regulates withdrawal behaviors in worm, supporting further exploration of the Slo family as targets for normalizing behaviors during alcohol withdrawal. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Functional role of voltage gated Ca2+ channels in heart automaticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro eMesirca

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pacemaker activity of automatic cardiac myocytes controls the heartbeat in everyday life. Cardiac automaticity is under the control of several neurotransmitters and hormones and is constantly regulated by the autonomic nervous system to match the physiological needs of the organism. Several classes of ion channels and proteins involved in intracellular Ca2+ dynamics contribute to pacemaker activity. The functional role of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs in heart automaticity and impulse conduction has been matter of debate for 30 years. However, growing evidence shows that VGCCs are important regulators of the pacemaker mechanisms and play also a major role in atrio-ventricular impulse conduction. Incidentally, studies performed in genetically modified mice lacking L-type Cav1.3 (Cav1.3-/- or T-type Cav3.1 (Cav3.1-/- channels show that genetic inactivation of these channels strongly impacts pacemaking. In cardiac pacemaker cells, VGCCs activate at negative voltages at the beginning of the diastolic depolarization and importantly contribute to this phase by supplying inward current. Loss-of-function of these channels also impairs atrio-ventricular conduction. Furthermore, inactivation of Cav1.3 channels promotes also atrial fibrillation and flutter in knockout mice suggesting that these channels can play a role in stabilizing atrial rhythm. Genomic analysis demonstrated that Cav1.3 and Cav3.1 channels are widely expressed in pacemaker tissue of mice, rabbits and humans. Importantly, human diseases of pacemaker activity such as congenital bradycardia and heart block have been attributed to loss-of-function of Cav1.3 and Cav3.1 channels. In this article, we will review the current knowledge on the role of VGCCs in the generation and regulation of heart rate and rhythm. We will discuss also how loss of Ca2+ entry through VGCCs could influence intracellular Ca2+ handling and promote atrial arrhythmias.

  10. Function of Shaker potassium channels produced by cell-free translation upon injection into Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecki, Brian W; Makino, Shin-ichi; Beebe, Emily T; Fox, Brian G; Chanda, Baron

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of membrane proteins that temporally orchestrate the ion flux critical for chemical and electrical signaling in excitable cells. Current methods to investigate the function of these channels rely on heterologous expression in living systems or reconstitution into artificial membranes; however these approaches have inherent drawbacks which limit potential biophysical applications. Here, we describe a new integrated approach combining cell-free translation of membrane proteins and in vivo expression using Xenopus laevis oocytes. In this method, proteoliposomes containing Shaker potassium channels are synthesized in vitro and injected into the oocytes, yielding functional preparations as shown by electrophysiological and fluorescence measurements within few hours. This strategy for studying eukaryotic ion channels is contrasted with existing, laborious procedures that require membrane protein extraction and reconstitution into synthetic lipid systems.

  11. Expanded functional diversity of shaker K(+ channels in cnidarians is driven by gene expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Jegla

    Full Text Available The genome of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis (starlet sea anemone provides a molecular genetic view into the first nervous systems, which appeared in a late common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Nematostella has a surprisingly large and diverse set of neuronal signaling genes including paralogs of most neuronal signaling molecules found in higher metazoans. Several ion channel gene families are highly expanded in the sea anemone, including three subfamilies of the Shaker K(+ channel gene family: Shaker (Kv1, Shaw (Kv3 and Shal (Kv4. In order to better understand the physiological significance of these voltage-gated K(+ channel expansions, we analyzed the function of 18 members of the 20 gene Shaker subfamily in Nematostella. Six of the Nematostella Shaker genes express functional homotetrameric K(+ channels in vitro. These include functional orthologs of bilaterian Shakers and channels with an unusually high threshold for voltage activation. We identified 11 Nematostella Shaker genes with a distinct "silent" or "regulatory" phenotype; these encode subunits that function only in heteromeric channels and serve to further diversify Nematostella Shaker channel gating properties. Subunits with the regulatory phenotype have not previously been found in the Shaker subfamily, but have evolved independently in the Shab (Kv2 family in vertebrates and the Shal family in a cnidarian. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that regulatory subunits were present in ancestral cnidarians, but have continued to diversity at a high rate after the split between anthozoans and hydrozoans. Comparison of Shaker family gene complements from diverse metazoan species reveals frequent, large scale duplication has produced highly unique sets of Shaker channels in the major metazoan lineages.

  12. Expanded functional diversity of shaker K(+) channels in cnidarians is driven by gene expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegla, Timothy; Marlow, Heather Q; Chen, Bihan; Simmons, David K; Jacobo, Sarah M; Martindale, Mark Q

    2012-01-01

    The genome of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis (starlet sea anemone) provides a molecular genetic view into the first nervous systems, which appeared in a late common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Nematostella has a surprisingly large and diverse set of neuronal signaling genes including paralogs of most neuronal signaling molecules found in higher metazoans. Several ion channel gene families are highly expanded in the sea anemone, including three subfamilies of the Shaker K(+) channel gene family: Shaker (Kv1), Shaw (Kv3) and Shal (Kv4). In order to better understand the physiological significance of these voltage-gated K(+) channel expansions, we analyzed the function of 18 members of the 20 gene Shaker subfamily in Nematostella. Six of the Nematostella Shaker genes express functional homotetrameric K(+) channels in vitro. These include functional orthologs of bilaterian Shakers and channels with an unusually high threshold for voltage activation. We identified 11 Nematostella Shaker genes with a distinct "silent" or "regulatory" phenotype; these encode subunits that function only in heteromeric channels and serve to further diversify Nematostella Shaker channel gating properties. Subunits with the regulatory phenotype have not previously been found in the Shaker subfamily, but have evolved independently in the Shab (Kv2) family in vertebrates and the Shal family in a cnidarian. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that regulatory subunits were present in ancestral cnidarians, but have continued to diversity at a high rate after the split between anthozoans and hydrozoans. Comparison of Shaker family gene complements from diverse metazoan species reveals frequent, large scale duplication has produced highly unique sets of Shaker channels in the major metazoan lineages.

  13. Scanning MscL Channels with Targeted Post-Translational Modifications for Functional Alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Christina; Blount, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mechanosensitive channels are present in all living organisms and are thought to underlie the senses of touch and hearing as well as various important physiological functions like osmoregulation and vasoregulation. The mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) from Escherichia coli was the first protein shown to encode mechanosensitive channel activity and serves as a paradigm for how a channel senses and responds to mechanical stimuli. MscL plays a role in osmoprotection in E. coli, acting as an emergency release valve that is activated by membrane tension due to cell swelling after an osmotic down-shock. Using an osmotically fragile strain in an osmotic down-shock assay, channel functionality can be directly determined in vivo. In addition, using thiol reagents and expressed MscL proteins with a single cysteine substitution, we have shown that targeted post-translational modifications can be performed, and that any alterations that lead to dysfunctional proteins can be identified by this in vivo assay. Here, we present the results of such a scan performed on 113 MscL cysteine mutants using five different sulfhydryl-reacting probes to confer different charges or hydrophobicity to each site. We assessed which of these targeted modifications affected channel function and the top candidates were further studied using patch clamp to directly determine how channel activity was affected. This comprehensive screen has identified many residues that are critical for channel function as well as highlighted MscL domains and residues that undergo the most drastic environmental changes upon gating. PMID:26368283

  14. Glycosylation of Eag1 (Kv10.1) potassium channels: intracellular trafficking and functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napp, Joanna; Monje, Francisco; Stühmer, Walter; Pardo, Luis A

    2005-08-19

    N-Linked glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of membrane proteins. Here we report that mature Eag1 potassium channels carry sugar moieties linked to asparagines at positions 388 and 406. Asn-388 seems to undergo only core glycosylation, but complex sugars are bound to Asn-406. Correct complex glycosylation is required for proper trafficking of Eag1 to the plasma membrane but is also crucial for the correct function of channels already inserted in the membrane.

  15. Full velocity-scalar probability density function computation of heated channel flow with wall function approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozorski, Jacek; Wacławczyk, Marta; Minier, Jean-Pierre

    2003-05-01

    A joint velocity-scalar probability density function (PDF) method is presented to model and simulate turbulent flows with passive inert scalars (here temperature). The full PDF approach is applied for wall-bounded flows. In the present work, the boundary conditions are imposed in the logarithmic region and the modeling is therefore performed in the wall-function spirit. The PDF equation is solved by a Monte Carlo method and the whole approach appears as a Lagrangian simulation using stochastic particles. The purpose of the work is to analyze the behavior of classical PDF models in the near-wall region and to develop new particle boundary conditions for the velocity and scalars attached to each particle. First of all, the logarithmic region is described as an equilibrium zone and resulting analytical formulas for second-order temperature-velocity statistics , , are derived. Boundary conditions for scalars are then developed and formulated in terms of instantaneous particle variables. These results are useful to discuss consistency issues between the formulation of scalar mixing models and the statement of boundary conditions. Finally, heated channel flow is simulated with a stand-alone PDF code for two different heat-flux conditions and results are compared with available direct numerical simulation and experimental data.

  16. Functional mutagenesis screens reveal the 'cap structure' formation in disulfide-bridge free TASK channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Matthias; Rinné, Susanne; Kiper, Aytug K; Ramírez, David; Netter, Michael F; Bustos, Daniel; Ortiz-Bonnin, Beatriz; González, Wendy; Decher, Niels

    2016-01-22

    Two-pore-domain potassium (K2P) channels have a large extracellular cap structure formed by two M1-P1 linkers, containing a cysteine for dimerization. However, this cysteine is not present in the TASK-1/3/5 subfamily. The functional role of the cap is poorly understood and it remained unclear whether K2P channels assemble in the domain-swapped orientation or not. Functional alanine-mutagenesis screens of TASK-1 and TRAAK were used to build an in silico model of the TASK-1 cap. According to our data the cap structure of disulfide-bridge free TASK channels is similar to that of other K2P channels and is most likely assembled in the domain-swapped orientation. As the conserved cysteine is not essential for functional expression of all K2P channels tested, we propose that hydrophobic residues at the inner leaflets of the cap domains can interact with each other and that this way of stabilizing the cap is most likely conserved among K2P channels.

  17. Functional Role of Transient Receptor Potential Channels in Immune Cells and Epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalil

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP ion channels are widely expressed in several tissues throughout the mammalian organism. Originally, TRP channel physiology was focusing on its fundamental meaning in sensory neuronal function. Today, it is known that activation of several TRP ion channels in peptidergic neurons does not only result in neuropeptide release and consecutive neurogenic inflammation. Growing evidence demonstrates functional extra-neuronal TRP channel expression in immune and epithelial cells with important implications for mucosal immunology. TRP channels maintain intracellular calcium homeostasis to regulate various functions in the respective cells such as nociception, production and release of inflammatory mediators, phagocytosis, and cell migration. In this review, we provide an overview about TRP-mediated effects in immune and epithelial cells with an emphasis on mucosal immunology of the gut. Crosstalk between neurons, epithelial cells, and immune cells induced by activation of TRP channels orchestrates the immunologic response. Understanding of its molecular mechanisms paves the way to novel clinical approaches for the treatment of various inflammatory disorders including IBD.

  18. A functional nuclear localization sequence in the C. elegans TRPV channel OCR-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith J Ezak

    Full Text Available The ability to modulate gene expression in response to sensory experience is critical to the normal development and function of the nervous system. Calcium is a key activator of the signal transduction cascades that mediate the process of translating a cellular stimulus into transcriptional changes. With the recent discovery that the mammalian Ca(v1.2 calcium channel can be cleaved, enter the nucleus and act as a transcription factor to control neuronal gene expression, a more direct role for the calcium channels themselves in regulating transcription has begun to be appreciated. Here we report the identification of a nuclear localization sequence (NLS in the C. elegans transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV cation channel OCR-2. TRPV channels have previously been implicated in transcriptional regulation of neuronal genes in the nematode, although the precise mechanism remains unclear. We show that the NLS in OCR-2 is functional, being able to direct nuclear accumulation of a synthetic cargo protein as well as the carboxy-terminal cytosolic tail of OCR-2 where it is endogenously found. Furthermore, we discovered that a carboxy-terminal portion of the full-length channel can localize to the nucleus of neuronal cells. These results suggest that the OCR-2 TRPV cation channel may have a direct nuclear function in neuronal cells that was not previously appreciated.

  19. Voltage Gated Ion Channel Function: Gating, Conduction, and the Role of Water and Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariev, Alisher M.; Green, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Ion channels, which are found in every biological cell, regulate the concentration of electrolytes, and are responsible for multiple biological functions, including in particular the propagation of nerve impulses. The channels with the latter function are gated (opened) by a voltage signal, which allows Na+ into the cell and K+ out. These channels have several positively charged amino acids on a transmembrane domain of their voltage sensor, and it is generally considered, based primarily on two lines of experimental evidence, that these charges move with respect to the membrane to open the channel. At least three forms of motion, with greatly differing extents and mechanisms of motion, have been proposed. There is a “gating current”, a capacitative current preceding the channel opening, that corresponds to several charges (for one class of channel typically 12–13) crossing the membrane field, which may not require protein physically crossing a large fraction of the membrane. The coupling to the opening of the channel would in these models depend on the motion. The conduction itself is usually assumed to require the “gate” of the channel to be pulled apart to allow ions to enter as a section of the protein partially crosses the membrane, and a selectivity filter at the opposite end of the channel determines the ion which is allowed to pass through. We will here primarily consider K+ channels, although Na+ channels are similar. We propose that the mechanism of gating differs from that which is generally accepted, in that the positively charged residues need not move (there may be some motion, but not as gating current). Instead, protons may constitute the gating current, causing the gate to open; opening consists of only increasing the diameter at the gate from approximately 6 Å to approximately 12 Å. We propose in addition that the gate oscillates rather than simply opens, and the ion experiences a barrier to its motion across the channel that is tuned

  20. Mouse ERG K+ Channel Clones Reveal Differences in Protein Trafficking and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Eric C.; Moungey, Brooke M.; Lim, Evi; Concannon, Sarah P.; Anderson, Corey L.; Kyle, John W.; Makielski, Jonathan C.; Balijepalli, Sadguna Y.; January, Craig T.

    2014-01-01

    Background The mouse ether‐a‐go‐go‐related gene 1a (mERG1a, mKCNH2) encodes mERG K+ channels in mouse cardiomyocytes. The mERG channels and their human analogue, hERG channels, conduct IKr. Mutations in hERG channels reduce IKr to cause congenital long‐QT syndrome type 2, mostly by decreasing surface membrane expression of trafficking‐deficient channels. Three cDNA sequences were originally reported for mERG channels that differ by 1 to 4 amino acid residues (mERG‐London, mERG‐Waterston, and mERG‐Nie). We characterized these mERG channels to test the postulation that they would differ in their protein trafficking and biophysical function, based on previous findings in long‐QT syndrome type 2. Methods and Results The 3 mERG and hERG channels were expressed in HEK293 cells and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and were studied using Western blot and whole‐cell patch clamp. We then compared our findings with the recent sequencing results in the Welcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genomes Project (WTSIMGP). Conclusions First, the mERG‐London channel with amino acid substitutions in regions of highly ordered structure is trafficking deficient and undergoes temperature‐dependent and pharmacological correction of its trafficking deficiency. Second, the voltage dependence of channel gating would be different for the 3 mERG channels. Third, compared with the WTSIMGP data set, the mERG‐Nie clone is likely to represent the wild‐type mouse sequence and physiology. Fourth, the WTSIMGP analysis suggests that substrain‐specific sequence differences in mERG are a common finding in mice. These findings with mERG channels support previous findings with hERG channel structure–function analyses in long‐QT syndrome type 2, in which sequence changes in regions of highly ordered structure are likely to result in abnormal protein trafficking. PMID:25497881

  1. Accessing gap-junction channel structure-function relationships through molecular modeling and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanelo, F; Escalona, Y; Pareja-Barrueto, C; Garate, J A; Skerrett, I M; Perez-Acle, T

    2017-01-17

    Gap junction channels (GJCs) are massive protein channels connecting the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. These channels allow intercellular transfer of molecules up to ~1 kDa, including water, ions and other metabolites. Unveiling structure-function relationships coded into the molecular architecture of these channels is necessary to gain insight on their vast biological function including electrical synapse, inflammation, development and tissular homeostasis. From early works, computational methods have been critical to analyze and interpret experimental observations. Upon the availability of crystallographic structures, molecular modeling and simulations have become a valuable tool to assess structure-function relationships in GJCs. Modeling different connexin isoforms, simulating the transport process, and exploring molecular variants, have provided new hypotheses and out-of-the-box approaches to the study of these important channels. Here, we review foundational structural studies and recent developments on GJCs using molecular modeling and simulation techniques, highlighting the methods and the cross-talk with experimental evidence. By comparing results obtained by molecular modeling and simulations techniques with structural and functional information obtained from both recent literature and structural databases, we provide a critical assesment of structure-function relationships that can be obtained from the junction between theoretical and experimental evidence.

  2. On Green's function for 3-D wave-body interaction in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu

    1997-01-01

    An analytical and numerical study is presented for efficient evaluation of the Green's function that satisfies the linear free surface condition and the non-penetration condition on the channel bottomand the side walls. the formulation is based on the open-sea green's function and the complete...

  3. An update on the side channel cryptanalysis of MACs based on cryptographic hash functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Okeya, Katsuyuki

    2007-01-01

    is that the implementations of HMAC/NMAC with the Davies-Meyer (DM) compression function based hash functions such as MD5 and SHA-1 are vulnerable to side channel attacks. In this paper, first we show a partial key recovery attack on NMAC/HMAC based on Okeya's two refined PGV schemes by taking practical constraints...

  4. Cloning, localisation and functional expression of the human orthologue of the TREK-1 potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, H J; Benham, C D; Cairns, W; Gloger, I; Jennings, C; Medhurst, A D; Murdock, P; Chapman, C G

    2000-04-01

    We have cloned human TREK-1, one of the newly emerging mammalian family of 2-P domain potassium channels. The channel has 411 amino acids with a 41-amino-acid extension at the C-terminus when compared with the cloned mouse TREK-1 channel. Expression of hTREK-1 produced a substantial hyperpolarising shift in resting membrane potential accompanied by the induction of large, outwardly rectifying, non-inactivating currents which were potassium selective. Pharmacologically, hTREK-1-mediated currents were only blocked to a limited extent by classic potassium channel blockers or open channel pore blockers known to potently inhibit other channels. The channel was reversibly potentiated by arachidonic acid. CNS distribution of hTREK-1 is widespread with higher levels being observed in caudate, putamen, amygdala, thalamus and spinal cord. Only low levels of expression were seen in the majority of peripheral regions. Thus, hTREK-1, although functionally and pharmacologically similar to mouse TREK-1, appears to have a more CNS-specific distribution.

  5. Role of Kv1 potassium channels in regulating dopamine release and presynaptic D2 receptor function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Martel

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA release in the CNS is critical for motor control and motivated behaviors. Dysfunction of its regulation is thought to be implicated in drug abuse and in diseases such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's. Although various potassium channels located in the somatodendritic compartment of DA neurons such as G-protein-gated inward rectifying potassium channels (GIRK have been shown to regulate cell firing and DA release, little is presently known about the role of potassium channels localized in the axon terminals of these neurons. Here we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to study electrically-evoked DA release in rat dorsal striatal brain slices. We find that although G-protein-gated inward rectifying (GIRK and ATP-gated (K(ATP potassium channels play only a minor role, voltage-gated potassium channels of the Kv1 family play a major role in regulating DA release. The use of Kv subtype-selective blockers confirmed a role for Kv1.2, 1.3 and 1.6, but not Kv1.1, 3.1, 3.2, 3.4 and 4.2. Interestingly, Kv1 blockers also reduced the ability of quinpirole, a D2 receptor agonist, to inhibit evoked DA overflow, thus suggesting that Kv1 channels also regulate presynaptic D2 receptor function. Our work identifies Kv1 potassium channels as key regulators of DA release in the striatum.

  6. Small and Intermediate Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel Openers Improve Rat Endothelial and Erectile Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerma-Steffensen, Simon G.; Carvacho, Ingrid; Hedegaard, Elise R.; Simonsen, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Modulation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels has been proposed as an approach to restore endothelial function. The present study investigated whether novel openers of KCa channels with small (KCa2.x) and intermediate (KCa3.1) conductance, NS309 and NS4591, improve endothelium-dependent relaxation and erectile function. Rat corpus cavernosum (CC) strips were mounted for isometric tension recording and processed for immunoblotting. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), intracavernosal pressure (ICP), and electrocardiographic (ECG) measurements were conducted in anesthetized rats. Immunoblotting revealed the presence of KCa2.3 and large KCa conductance (KCa1.1) channels in the corpus cavernosum. NS309 and NS4591 increased current in CC endothelial cells in whole cell patch clamp experiments. Relaxation induced by NS309 (cavernous nerve stimulation with NS309 were unchanged, whereas NS4591 significantly improved erectile function. Administration of NS309 and NS4591 caused small changes in the electrocardiogram, but neither arrhythmic events nor prolongation of the QTc interval were observed. The present study suggests that openers of KCa2.x and KCa3.1 channels improve endothelial and erectile function. The effects of NS309 and NS4591 on heart rate and ECG are small, but will require additional safety studies before evaluating whether activation of KCa2.3 channels has a potential for treatment of erectile dysfunction. PMID:28993731

  7. Modulatory mechanisms and multiple functions of somatodendritic A-type K+ channel auxiliary subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Hungtao Jerng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Auxiliary subunits are non-conducting, modulatory components of the multi-protein ion channel complexes that underlie normal neuronal signaling. They interact with the pore-forming α-subunits to modulate surface distribution, ion conductance, and channel gating properties. For the somatodendritic subthreshold A-type potassium (ISA channel based on Kv4 α-subunits, two types of auxiliary subunits have been extensively studied: Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPLPs. KChIPs are cytoplasmic calcium-binding proteins that interact with intracellular portions of the Kv4 subunits, whereas DPLPs are type II transmembrane proteins that associate with the Kv4 channel core. Both KChIPs and DPLPs genes contain multiple start sites that are used by various neuronal populations to drive the differential expression of functionally distinct N-terminal variants. In turn, these N-terminal variants generate tremendous functional diversity across the nervous system. Here, we focus our review on (1 the molecular mechanism underlying the unique properties of different N-terminal variants, (2 the shaping of native ISA properties by the concerted actions of KChIPs and DPLP variants, and (3 the surprising ways that KChIPs and DPLPs coordinate the activity of multiple channels to fine-tune neuronal excitability. Unlocking the unique contributions of different auxiliary subunit N-terminal variants may provide an important opportunity to develop novel targeted therapeutics to treat numerous neurological disorders.

  8. Structure of functional Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin channels in tethered bilayer lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, Duncan J; Valincius, Gintaras; Heinrich, Frank; Robertson, Joseph W F; Vanderah, David J; Febo-Ayala, Wilma; Ignatjev, Ilja; Lösche, Mathias; Kasianowicz, John J

    2009-02-18

    We demonstrate a method for simultaneous structure and function determination of integral membrane proteins. Electrical impedance spectroscopy shows that Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin channels in membranes tethered to gold have the same properties as those formed in free-standing bilayer lipid membranes. Neutron reflectometry provides high-resolution structural information on the interaction between the channel and the disordered membrane, validating predictions based on the channel's x-ray crystal structure. The robust nature of the membrane enabled the precise localization of the protein within 1.1 A. The channel's extramembranous cap domain affects the lipid headgroup region and the alkyl chains in the outer membrane leaflet and significantly dehydrates the headgroups. The results suggest that this technique could be used to elucidate molecular details of the association of other proteins with membranes and may provide structural information on domain organization and stimuli-responsive reorganization for transmembrane proteins in membrane mimics.

  9. Distribution and function of voltage-gated sodium channels in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ou, Shao-Wu; Wang, Yun-Jie

    2017-09-18

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are the basic ion channels for neuronal excitability, which are crucial for the resting potential and the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons. To date, at least nine distinct sodium channel isoforms have been detected in the nervous system. Recent studies have identified that voltage-gated sodium channels not only play an essential role in the normal electrophysiological activities of neurons but also have a close relationship with neurological diseases. In this study, the latest research findings regarding the structure, type, distribution, and function of VGSCs in the nervous system and their relationship to neurological diseases, such as epilepsy, neuropathic pain, brain tumors, neural trauma, and multiple sclerosis, are reviewed in detail.

  10. Bilayer lipid membranes supported on Teflon filters: a functional environment for ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Thai; Zhang, Yanli; Dunlop, James; Dalziel, Julie

    2011-03-15

    Many ion channel proteins have binding sites for toxins and pharmaceutical drugs and therefore have much promise as the sensing entity in high throughput technologies and biosensor devices. Measurement of ionic conductance changes through ion channels requires a robust biological membrane with sufficient longevity for practical applications. The conventional planar BLM is 100-300 μm in diameter and typically contains fewer than a dozen channels whereas pharmaceutical screening methods in cells use current recordings for many ion channels. We present a new, simple method for the fabrication of a disposable porous-supported bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) ion channel biosensor using hydrated Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE) filter material (pore size 5 μm, filter diameter=1 mm). The lipid layer was monitored for its thickness and mechanical stability by electrical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed membrane capacitances of 1.8±0.2 nF and membrane resistances of 25.9±4.1 GΩ, indicating the formation of lipid bilayers. The current level increased upon addition of the pore-forming peptide gramicidin. Following addition of liposomes containing voltage-gated sodium channels, small macroscopic sodium currents (1-80 pA) could be recorded. By preloading the porous Teflon with sodium channel proteoliposomes, prior to BLM formation, currents of 1-10 nA could be recorded in the presence of the activator veratridine that increased with time, and were inhibited by tetrodotoxin. A lack of rectification suggests that the channels incorporated in both orientations. This work demonstrates that PTFE filters can support BLMs that provide an environment in which ion channels can maintain their functional activity relevant for applications in drug discovery, toxin detection, and odour sensing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Distribution and function of HCN channels in the apical dendritic tuft of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Mark T; Magee, Jeffrey C; Williams, Stephen R

    2015-01-21

    The apical tuft is the most remote area of the dendritic tree of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Despite its distal location, the apical dendritic tuft of layer 5 pyramidal neurons receives substantial excitatory synaptic drive and actively processes corticocortical input during behavior. The properties of the voltage-activated ion channels that regulate synaptic integration in tuft dendrites have, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we use electrophysiological and optical approaches to examine the subcellular distribution and function of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated nonselective cation (HCN) channels in rat layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Outside-out patch recordings demonstrated that the amplitude and properties of ensemble HCN channel activity were uniform in patches excised from distal apical dendritic trunk and tuft sites. Simultaneous apical dendritic tuft and trunk whole-cell current-clamp recordings revealed that the pharmacological blockade of HCN channels decreased voltage compartmentalization and enhanced the generation and spread of apical dendritic tuft and trunk regenerative activity. Furthermore, multisite two-photon glutamate uncaging demonstrated that HCN channels control the amplitude and duration of synaptically evoked regenerative activity in the distal apical dendritic tuft. In contrast, at proximal apical dendritic trunk and somatic recording sites, the blockade of HCN channels decreased excitability. Dynamic-clamp experiments revealed that these compartment-specific actions of HCN channels were heavily influenced by the local and distributed impact of the high density of HCN channels in the distal apical dendritic arbor. The properties and subcellular distribution pattern of HCN channels are therefore tuned to regulate the interaction between integration compartments in layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351024-14$15.00/0.

  12. Sensory functions for degenerin/epithelial sodium channels (DEG/ENaC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2011-01-01

    All animals use a sophisticated array of receptor proteins to sense their external and internal environments. Major advances have been made in recent years in understanding the molecular and genetic bases for sensory transduction in diverse modalities, indicating that both metabotropic and ionotropic pathways are important in sensory functions. Here, I review the historical background and recent advances in understanding the roles of a relatively newly discovered family of receptors, the degenerin/epithelial sodium channels (DEG/ENaC). These animal-specific cation channels show a remarkable sequence and functional diversity in different species and seem to exert their functions in diverse sensory modalities. Functions for DEG/ENaC channels have been implicated in mechanosensation as well as chemosensory transduction pathways. In spite of overall sequence diversity, all family members share a unique protein topology that includes just two transmembrane domains and an unusually large and highly structured extracellular domain, that seem to be essential for both their mechanical and chemical sensory functions. This review will discuss many of the recent discoveries and controversies associated with sensory function of DEG/ENaC channels in both vertebrate and invertebrate model systems, covering the role of family members in taste, mechanosensation, and pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional Consequences of Methionine Oxidation of hERG Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhi; Limberis, James; Martin, Ruth L.; Xu, Rong; Kolbe, Katrin; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori; Cox, Bryan F.; Gintant, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Reactive species oxidatively modify numerous proteins including ion channels. Oxidative sensitivity of ion channels is often conferred by amino acids containing sulfur atoms, such as cysteine and methionine. Functional consequences of oxidative modification of methionine in hERG1 (human ether à go-go related gene 1), which encodes cardiac IKr channels, are unknown. Here we used chloramine-T (ChT), which preferentially oxidizes methionine, to examine the functional consequences of methionine oxidation of hERG channels stably expressed in a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK 293) and native hERG channels in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). ChT (300 µM) significantly decreased whole-cell hERG current in both HEK 293 and SH-SY5Y cells. In HEK 293 cells, the effects of ChT on hERG current were time- and concentration-dependent, and were markedly attenuated in the presence of enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase A that specifically repairs oxidized methionine. After treatment with ChT, the channel deactivation upon repolarization to −60 or −100 mV was significantly accelerated. The effect of ChT on channel activation kinetics was voltage-dependent; activation slowed during depolarization to +30 mV but accelerated during depolarization to 0 or −10 mV. In contrast, the reversal potential, inactivation kinetics, and voltage-dependence of steady-state inactivation remained unaltered. Our results demonstrate that the redox status of methionine is an important modulator of hERG channel. PMID:17624316

  14. Active membrane having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klingler, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

    2012-09-24

    The present invention relates to a physicochemically-active porous membrane for electrochemical cells that purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. One dimension of the pore surface has a macroscopic length (1 nm-1000 .mu.m) and is directed parallel to the direction of an electric field, which is produced between the cathode and the anode electrodes of an electrochemical cell. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  15. Gain-of-function mutation in TASK-4 channels and severe cardiac conduction disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Corinna; Rinné, Susanne; Zumhagen, Sven; Kiper, Aytug K; Silbernagel, Nicole; Netter, Michael F; Stallmeyer, Birgit; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Decher, Niels

    2014-07-01

    Analyzing a patient with progressive and severe cardiac conduction disorder combined with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF), we identified a splice site mutation in the sodium channel gene SCN5A. Due to the severe phenotype, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and identified an additional mutation in the KCNK17 gene encoding the K2P potassium channel TASK-4. The heterozygous change (c.262G>A) resulted in the p.Gly88Arg mutation in the first extracellular pore loop. Mutant TASK-4 channels generated threefold increased currents, while surface expression was unchanged, indicating enhanced conductivity. When co-expressed with wild-type channels, the gain-of-function by G88R was conferred in a dominant-active manner. We demonstrate that KCNK17 is strongly expressed in human Purkinje cells and that overexpression of G88R leads to a hyperpolarization and strong slowing of the upstroke velocity of spontaneously beating HL-1 cells. Thus, we propose that a gain-of-function by TASK-4 in the conduction system might aggravate slowed conductivity by the loss of sodium channel function. Moreover, WES supports a second hit-hypothesis in severe arrhythmia cases and identified KCNK17 as a novel arrhythmia gene. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  16. Gain-of-function mutation in TASK-4 channels and severe cardiac conduction disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Corinna; Rinné, Susanne; Zumhagen, Sven; Kiper, Aytug K; Silbernagel, Nicole; Netter, Michael F; Stallmeyer, Birgit; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Decher, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing a patient with progressive and severe cardiac conduction disorder combined with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF), we identified a splice site mutation in the sodium channel gene SCN5A. Due to the severe phenotype, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and identified an additional mutation in the KCNK17 gene encoding the K2P potassium channel TASK-4. The heterozygous change (c.262G>A) resulted in the p.Gly88Arg mutation in the first extracellular pore loop. Mutant TASK-4 channels generated threefold increased currents, while surface expression was unchanged, indicating enhanced conductivity. When co-expressed with wild-type channels, the gain-of-function by G88R was conferred in a dominant-active manner. We demonstrate that KCNK17 is strongly expressed in human Purkinje cells and that overexpression of G88R leads to a hyperpolarization and strong slowing of the upstroke velocity of spontaneously beating HL-1 cells. Thus, we propose that a gain-of-function by TASK-4 in the conduction system might aggravate slowed conductivity by the loss of sodium channel function. Moreover, WES supports a second hit-hypothesis in severe arrhythmia cases and identified KCNK17 as a novel arrhythmia gene. PMID:24972929

  17. Small and Intermediate Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel Openers Improve Rat Endothelial and Erectile Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon G. Comerma-Steffensen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium (KCa channels has been proposed as an approach to restore endothelial function. The present study investigated whether novel openers of KCa channels with small (KCa2.x and intermediate (KCa3.1 conductance, NS309 and NS4591, improve endothelium-dependent relaxation and erectile function. Rat corpus cavernosum (CC strips were mounted for isometric tension recording and processed for immunoblotting. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, intracavernosal pressure (ICP, and electrocardiographic (ECG measurements were conducted in anesthetized rats. Immunoblotting revealed the presence of KCa2.3 and large KCa conductance (KCa1.1 channels in the corpus cavernosum. NS309 and NS4591 increased current in CC endothelial cells in whole cell patch clamp experiments. Relaxation induced by NS309 (<1 μM was inhibited by endothelial cell removal and high extracellular potassium. An inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO synthase, and blockers of KCa2.x and KCa1.1 channels, apamin and iberiotoxin also inhibited NS309 relaxation. Incubation with NS309 (0.5 μM markedly enhanced acetylcholine relaxation. Basal erectile function (ICP/MAP increased during administration of NS309. Increases in ICP/MAP after cavernous nerve stimulation with NS309 were unchanged, whereas NS4591 significantly improved erectile function. Administration of NS309 and NS4591 caused small changes in the electrocardiogram, but neither arrhythmic events nor prolongation of the QTc interval were observed. The present study suggests that openers of KCa2.x and KCa3.1 channels improve endothelial and erectile function. The effects of NS309 and NS4591 on heart rate and ECG are small, but will require additional safety studies before evaluating whether activation of KCa2.3 channels has a potential for treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  18. A role for two-pore potassium (K2P) channels in endometrial epithelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Suraj K; Jackson, Leigh; Warren, Averil Y; Arya, Pratibha; Shaw, Robert W; Khan, Raheela N

    2013-01-01

    The human endometrial epithelium is pivotal to menstrual cycle progression, implantation and early pregnancy. Endometrial function is directly regulated by local factors that include pH, oxygen tension and ion concentrations to generate an environment conducive to fertilization. A superfamily of potassium channels characterized by two-pore domains (K2P) and encoded by KCNK genes is implicated in the control of the cell resting membrane potential through the generation of leak currents and modulation by various physicochemical stimuli. The aims of the study were to determine the expression and function of K2P channel subtypes in proliferative and secretory phase endometrium obtained from normo-ovulatory women and in an endometrial cancer cell line. Using immunochemical methods, real-time qRT-PCR proliferation assays and electrophysiology. Our results demonstrate mRNA for several K2P channel subtypes in human endometrium with molecular expression of TREK-1 shown to be higher in proliferative than secretory phase endometrium (P TREK-1 channels in proliferation. Tetraethylammonium- and 4-aminopyridine-insensitive outwards currents were inhibited at all voltages by reducing extracellular pH from 7.4 to 6.6. Higher expression of TREK-1 expression in proliferative phase endometrium may, in part, underlie linked to increased cell division. The effects of pH and a lack of effect of non-specific channel blockers of voltage-gated potassium channels imply a role for K2P channels in the regulation of human endometrial function. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  19. Functional validation of Ca2+-binding residues from the crystal structure of the BK ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshatri, Aravind S; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Alberto J; Giraldez, Teresa

    2018-04-01

    BK channels are dually regulated by voltage and Ca 2+ , providing a cellular mechanism to couple electrical and chemical signalling. Intracellular Ca 2+ concentration is sensed by a large cytoplasmic region in the channel known as "gating ring", which is formed by four tandems of regulator of conductance for K + (RCK1 and RCK2) domains. The recent crystal structure of the full-length BK channel from Aplysia californica has provided new information about the residues involved in Ca 2+ coordination at the high-affinity binding sites located in the RCK1 and RCK2 domains, as well as their cooperativity. Some of these residues have not been previously studied in the human BK channel. In this work we have investigated, through site directed mutagenesis and electrophysiology, the effects of these residues on channel activation by voltage and Ca 2+ . Our results demonstrate that the side chains of two non-conserved residues proposed to coordinate Ca 2+ in the A. californica structure (G523 and E591) have no apparent functional role in the human BK Ca 2+ sensing mechanism. Consistent with the crystal structure, our data indicate that in the human channel the conserved residue R514 participates in Ca 2+ coordination in the RCK1 binding site. Additionally, this study provides functional evidence indicating that R514 also interacts with residues E902 and Y904 connected to the Ca 2+ binding site in RCK2. Interestingly, it has been proposed that this interaction may constitute a structural correlate underlying the cooperative interactions between the two high-affinity Ca 2+ binding sites regulating the Ca 2+ dependent gating of the BK channel. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Beyond the Structure-Function Horizon of Membrane Proteins edited by Ute Hellmich, Rupak Doshi and Benjamin McIlwain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Channels Active in the Excitability of Nerves and Skeletal Muscles across the Neuromuscular Junction: Basic Function and Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Barbara E.

    2008-01-01

    Ion channels are essential for the basic physiological function of excitable cells such as nerve, skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells. Mutations in genes that encode ion channels have been identified to cause various diseases and disorders known as channelopathies. An understanding of how individual ion channels are involved in the…

  1. Functional and pharmacological consequences of the distribution of voltage-gated calcium channels in the renal blood vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B L

    2013-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers are widely used to treat hypertension because they inhibit voltage-gated calcium channels that mediate transmembrane calcium influx in, for example, vascular smooth muscle and cardiomyocytes. The calcium channel family consists of several subfamilies, of which the L......-type is usually associated with vascular contractility. However, the L-, T- and P-/Q-types of calcium channels are present in the renal vasculature and are differentially involved in controlling vascular contractility, thereby contributing to regulation of kidney function and blood pressure. In the preglomerular...... vascular bed, all the three channel families are present. However, the T-type channel is the only channel in cortical efferent arterioles which is in contrast to the juxtamedullary efferent arteriole, and that leads to diverse functional effects of L- and T-type channel inhibition. Furthermore...

  2. Functional significance of M-type potassium channels in nociceptive cutaneous sensory endings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle M. Passmore

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available M-channels carry slowly activating potassium currents that regulate excitability in a variety of central and peripheral neurons. Functional M-channels and their Kv7 channel correlates are expressed throughout the somatosensory nervous system where they may play an important role in controlling sensory nerve activity. Here we show that Kv7.2 immunoreactivity is expressed in the peripheral terminals of nociceptive primary afferents. Electrophysiological recordings from single afferents in vitro showed that block of M-channels by 3 µM XE991 sensitised Adelta- but not C-fibres to noxious heat stimulation and induced spontaneous, ongoing activity at 32ºC in many Adelta-fibres. These observations were extended in vivo: intraplantar injection of XE991 selectively enhanced the response of deep dorsal horn neurons to peripheral mid-range mechanical and higher range thermal stimuli, consistent with a selective effect on Adelta-fibre peripheral terminals. These results demonstrate an important physiological role of M-channels in controlling nociceptive Adelta-fibre responses and provide a rationale for the nocifensive behaviours that arise following intraplantar injection of the M-channel blocker XE991.

  3. Functional KV10.1 Channels Localize to the Inner Nuclear Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye; Sánchez, Araceli; Rubio, María E.; Kohl, Tobias; Pardo, Luis A.; Stühmer, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Ectopically expressed human KV10.1 channels are relevant players in tumor biology. However, their function as ion channels at the plasma membrane does not totally explain their crucial role in tumors. Both in native and heterologous systems, it has been observed that a majority of KV10.1 channels remain at intracellular locations. In this study we investigated the localization and possible roles of perinuclear KV10.1. We show that KV10.1 is expressed at the inner nuclear membrane in both human and rat models; it co-purifies with established inner nuclear membrane markers, shows resistance to detergent extraction and restricted mobility, all of them typical features of proteins at the inner nuclear membrane. KV10.1 channels at the inner nuclear membrane are not all transported directly from the ER but rather have been exposed to the extracellular milieu. Patch clamp experiments on nuclei devoid of external nuclear membrane reveal the existence of channel activity compatible with KV10.1. We hypothesize that KV10.1 channels at the nuclear envelope might participate in the homeostasis of nuclear K+, or indirectly interact with heterochromatin, both factors known to affect gene expression. PMID:21559285

  4. Functional importance of T-type voltage-gated calcium channels in the cardiovascular and renal system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B L

    2015-01-01

    to the conclusion that Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 channels have important, but different, functions in mice. T-type Cav3.1 channels affect heart rate, whereas Cav3.2 channels are involved in cardiac hypertrophy. In the vascular system, Cav3.2 activation leads to dilation of blood vessels, whereas Cav3.1 channels are mainly...

  5. Distribution and function of sodium channel subtypes in human atrial myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Susann G; Westenbroek, Ruth E; Maass, Alexander H; Lange, Volkmar; Renner, Andre; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Bonz, Andreas; Muck, Jenny; Ertl, Georg; Catterall, William A; Scheuer, Todd; Maier, Sebastian K G

    2013-08-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels composed of a pore-forming α subunit and auxiliary β subunits are responsible for the upstroke of the action potential in cardiac muscle. However, their localization and expression patterns in human myocardium have not yet been clearly defined. We used immunohistochemical methods to define the level of expression and the subcellular localization of sodium channel α and β subunits in human atrial myocytes. Nav1.2 channels are located in highest density at intercalated disks where β1 and β3 subunits are also expressed. Nav1.4 and the predominant Nav1.5 channels are located in a striated pattern on the cell surface at the z-lines together with β2 subunits. Nav1.1, Nav1.3, and Nav1.6 channels are located in scattered puncta on the cell surface in a pattern similar to β3 and β4 subunits. Nav1.5 comprised approximately 88% of the total sodium channel staining, as assessed by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Functional studies using whole cell patch-clamp recording and measurements of contractility in human atrial cells and tissue showed that TTX-sensitive (non-Nav1.5) α subunit isoforms account for up to 27% of total sodium current in human atrium and are required for maximal contractility. Overall, our results show that multiple sodium channel α and β subunits are differentially localized in subcellular compartments in human atrial myocytes, suggesting that they play distinct roles in initiation and conduction of the action potential and in excitation-contraction coupling. TTX-sensitive sodium channel isoforms, even though expressed at low levels relative to TTX-sensitive Nav1.5, contribute substantially to total cardiac sodium current and are required for normal contractility. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Na(+) Regulation in Cardiac Myocytes". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Positrons vs electrons channeling in silicon crystal: energy levels, wave functions and quantum chaos manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shul'ga, N. F.; Syshchenko, V. V.; Tarnovsky, A. I.; Solovyev, I. I.; Isupov, A. Yu.

    2018-01-01

    The motion of fast electrons through the crystal during axial channeling could be regular and chaotic. The dynamical chaos in quantum systems manifests itself in both statistical properties of energy spectra and morphology of wave functions of the individual stationary states. In this report, we investigate the axial channeling of high and low energy electrons and positrons near [100] direction of a silicon crystal. This case is particularly interesting because of the fact that the chaotic motion domain occupies only a small part of the phase space for the channeling electrons whereas the motion of the channeling positrons is substantially chaotic for the almost all initial conditions. The energy levels of transverse motion, as well as the wave functions of the stationary states, have been computed numerically. The group theory methods had been used for classification of the computed eigenfunctions and identification of the non-degenerate and doubly degenerate energy levels. The channeling radiation spectrum for the low energy electrons has been also computed.

  7. An extensive investigation of work function modulated trapezoidal recessed channel MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenka, Annada Shankar; Mishra, Sikha; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Bhanja, Urmila; Mishra, Guru Prasad

    2017-11-01

    The concept of silicon on insulator (SOI) and grooved gate help to lessen the short channel effects (SCEs). Again the work function modulation along the metal gate gives a better drain current due to the uniform electric field along the channel. So all these concepts are combined and used in the proposed MOSFET structure for more improved performance. In this work, trapezoidal recessed channel silicon on insulator (TRC-SOI) MOSFET and work function modulated trapezoidal recessed channel silicon on insulator (WFM-TRC-SOI) MOSFET are compared with DC and RF parameters and later linearity of both the devices is tested. An analytical model is formulated by using a 2-D Poisson's equation and develops a compact equation for threshold voltage using minimum surface potential. In this work we analyze the effect of negative junction depth and the corner angle on various device parameters such as minimum surface potential, sub-threshold slope (SS), drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and threshold voltage. The analysis interprets that the switching performance of WFM-TRC-SOI MOSFET surpasses TRC-SOI MOSFET in terms of high Ion/Ioff ratio and also the proposed structure can minimize the short channel effects (SCEs) in RF application. The validity of proposed model has been verified with simulation result performed on Sentaurus TCAD device simulator.

  8. Loss-of-Function Sodium Channel Mutations in Infancy A Pattern Unfolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, Priya; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of channelopathies in the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with structurally normal hearts is a rapidly evolving story.(1) Many ion channels are involved, including loss-of-function sodium channelopathies of which the phenotypic spectrum ranges from lethal arrhythmias

  9. The TRPM4 channel is functionally important for the beneficial cardiac remodeling induced by endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueffier, Mélanie; Zintz, Justin; Lambert, Karen; Finan, Amanda; Aimond, Franck; Chakouri, Nourdine; Hédon, Christophe; Granier, Mathieu; Launay, Pierre; Thireau, Jérôme; Richard, Sylvain; Demion, Marie

    2017-02-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy (CH) is an adaptive process that exists in two distinct forms and allows the heart to adequately respond to an organism's needs. The first form of CH is physiological, adaptive and reversible. The second is pathological, irreversible and associated with fibrosis and cardiomyocyte death. CH involves multiple molecular mechanisms that are still not completely defined but it is now accepted that physiological CH is associated more with the PI3-K/Akt pathway while the main signaling cascade activated in pathological CH involves the Calcineurin-NFAT pathway. It was recently demonstrated that the TRPM4 channel may act as a negative regulator of pathological CH by regulating calcium entry and thus the Cn-NFAT pathway. In this study, we examined if the TRPM4 channel is involved in the physiological CH process. We evaluated the effects of 4 weeks endurance training on the hearts of Trpm4 +/+ and Trpm4 -/- mice. We identified an elevated functional expression of the TRPM4 channel in cardiomyocytes after endurance training suggesting a potential role for the channel in physiological CH. We then observed that Trpm4 +/+ mice displayed left ventricular hypertrophy after endurance training associated with enhanced cardiac function. By contrast, Trpm4 -/- mice did not develop these adaptions. While Trpm4 -/- mice did not develop gross cardiac hypertrophy, the cardiomyocyte surface area was larger and associated with an increase of Tunel positive cells. Endurance training in Trpm4 +/+ mice did not increase DNA fragmentation in the heart. Endurance training in Trpm4 +/+ mice was associated with activation of the classical physiological CH Akt pathway while Trpm4 -/- favored the Calcineurin pathway. Calcium studies demonstrated that TRPM4 channel negatively regulates calcium entry providing support for activation of the Cn-NFAT pathway in Trpm4 -/- mice. In conclusion, we provide evidence for the functional expression of TRPM4 channel in response to endurance

  10. Structure of the channeling electrons wave functions under dynamical chaos conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shul’ga, N.F. [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademicheskaya St., Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); V.N. Karazin National University, 4, Svodody Sq., Kharkov 61022 (Ukraine); Syshchenko, V.V., E-mail: syshch@yandex.ru [Belgorod National Research University, 85, Pobedy St., Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation); Tarnovsky, A.I. [Belgorod National Research University, 85, Pobedy St., Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation); Isupov, A.Yu. [Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    The stationary wave functions of fast electrons axially channeling in the silicon crystal near [1 1 0] direction have been found numerically for integrable and non-integrable cases, for which the classical motion is regular and chaotic, respectively. The nodal structure of the wave functions in the quasi-classical region, where the energy levels density is high, is agreed with quantum chaos theory predictions.

  11. Modelling the transfer function in medium bandwidth radio channels during multipath propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvain, M.; Lavergnat, J.

    1985-12-01

    The computation of the effects of a multipath propagation channel on a line-of-sight link requires a statistical model of the channel transfer function. The various steps in the construction and validation of such a model are discussed, and several proposed models are compared from the point of view of their applications. The selection of data for the model is examined, and the results of modelling are considered in terms of a Rummler model, a complex polynomial expansion, and a normalized two-ray model. The use of the complete two-ray model is addressed. Results from the PACEM I experiment are used by way of illustration.

  12. Gradually-varied flow profiles in open channels analytical solutions by using Gaussian hypergeometric function

    CERN Document Server

    Jan, Chyan-Deng

    2014-01-01

    Gradually-varied flow (GVF) is a steady non-uniform flow in an open channel with gradual changes in its water surface elevation. The evaluation of GVF profiles under a specific flow discharge is very important in hydraulic engineering. This book proposes a novel approach to analytically solve the GVF profiles by using the direct integration and Gaussian hypergeometric function. Both normal-depth- and critical-depth-based dimensionless GVF profiles are presented. The novel approach has laid the foundation to compute at one sweep the GVF profiles in a series of sustaining and adverse channels, w

  13. Opposite effects of the S4-S5 linker and PIP2 on voltage-gated channel function: KCNQ1/KCNE1 and other channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank S Choveau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated potassium (Kv channels are tetramers, each subunit presenting six transmembrane segments (S1-S6, with each S1-S4 segments forming a voltage-sensing domain (VSD and the four S5-S6 forming both the conduction pathway and its gate. S4 segments control the opening of the intracellular activation gate in response to changes in membrane potential. Crystal structures of several voltage-gated ion channels in combination with biophysical and mutagenesis studies highlighted the critical role of the S4-S5 linker (S4S5L and of the S6 C-terminal part (S6T in the coupling between the VSD and the activation gate. Several mechanisms have been proposed to describe the coupling at a molecular scale. This review summarizes the mechanisms suggested for various voltage-gated ion channels, including a mechanism that we described for KCNQ1, in which S4S5L is acting like a ligand binding to S6T to stabilize the channel in a closed state. As discussed in this review, this mechanism may explain the reverse response to depolarization in HCN-like channels. As opposed to S4S5L, the phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2, stabilizes KCNQ1 channel in an open state. Many other ion channels (not only voltage-gated require PIP2 to function properly, confirming its crucial importance as an ion channel co-factor. This is highlighted in cases in which an altered regulation of ion channels by PIP2 leads to channelopathies, as observed for KCNQ1. This review summarizes the state of the art on the two regulatory mechanisms that are critical for KCNQ1 and other voltage-gated channels function (PIP2 and S4-S5L, and assesses their potential physiological and pathophysiological roles.

  14. Oxidation of a potassium channel causes progressive sensory function loss during ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shi-Qing; Sesti, Federico

    2009-01-01

    A central question is whether potassium (K+) channels, which are key regulators of neuronal excitability, are targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and whether these interactions have a role in the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. Here, we show that oxidation of K+ channel KVS-1 during ageing causes sensory function loss in Caenorhabditis elegans, and that protection of this channel from oxidation preserves neuronal function. Chemotaxis, a function controlled by KVS-1, was significantly impaired in worms exposed to oxidizing agents, but only moderately affected in worms harboring an oxidation-resistant KVS-1 mutant (C113S). In ageing C113S transgenic worms, the effects of free radical accumulation were significantly attenuated compared to wild type. Electrophysiological analyses showed that both ROS accumulation during ageing, or acute exposure to oxidizing agents, acted primarily to alter the excitability of the neurons that mediate chemotaxis. Together, these findings establish a pivotal role for ROS-mediated oxidation of voltage-gated K+ channels in sensorial decline during ageing in invertebrates. PMID:19330004

  15. K+ Block Is the Mechanism of Functional Asymmetry in Bacterial Na(v Channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Ngo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystal structures of several bacterial Na(v channels have been recently published and molecular dynamics simulations of ion permeation through these channels are consistent with many electrophysiological properties of eukaryotic channels. Bacterial Na(v channels have been characterized as functionally asymmetric, and the mechanism of this asymmetry has not been clearly understood. To address this question, we combined non-equilibrium simulation data with two-dimensional equilibrium unperturbed landscapes generated by umbrella sampling and Weighted Histogram Analysis Methods for multiple ions traversing the selectivity filter of bacterial Na(vAb channel. This approach provided new insight into the mechanism of selective ion permeation in bacterial Na(v channels. The non-equilibrium simulations indicate that two or three extracellular K+ ions can block the entrance to the selectivity filter of Na(vAb in the presence of applied forces in the inward direction, but not in the outward direction. The block state occurs in an unstable local minimum of the equilibrium unperturbed free-energy landscape of two K+ ions that can be 'locked' in place by modest applied forces. In contrast to K+, three Na+ ions move favorably through the selectivity filter together as a unit in a loose "knock-on" mechanism of permeation in both inward and outward directions, and there is no similar local minimum in the two-dimensional free-energy landscape of two Na+ ions for a block state. The useful work predicted by the non-equilibrium simulations that is required to break the K+ block is equivalent to large applied potentials experimentally measured for two bacterial Na(v channels to induce inward currents of K+ ions. These results illustrate how inclusion of non-equilibrium factors in the simulations can provide detailed information about mechanisms of ion selectivity that is missing from mechanisms derived from either crystal structures or equilibrium unperturbed free

  16. Functional characterization of malaria parasites deficient in the K+ channel Kch2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekvist, Peter; Mlambo, Godfree; Kumar, Nirbhay

    2017-01-01

    K+ channels are integral membrane proteins, which contribute to maintain vital parameters such as the cellular membrane potential and cell volume. Malaria parasites encode two K+ channel homologues, Kch1 and Kch2, which are well-conserved among members of the Plasmodium genus. In the rodent malaria...... parasite P. berghei, the functional significance of K+ channel homologue PbKch2 was studied using targeted gene knock-out. The knockout parasites were characterized in a mouse model in terms of growth-kinetics and infectivity in the mosquito vector. Furthermore, using a tracer-uptake technique with 86Rb......+ as a K+ congener, the K+ transporting properties of the knockout parasites were assessed. Results Genetic disruption of Kch2 did not grossly affect the phenotype in terms of asexual replication and pathogenicity in a mouse model. In contrast to Kch1-null parasites, Kch2-null parasites were fully capable...

  17. Analysis of Channel Transfer Functions in Power Line Communication System for Smart Metering and Home Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MLYNEK, P.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with simulations of power line channel transfer functions in Network Simulator version 3. Firstly, an empirical model and calculation of the channel transfer function are given to reflect the necessity of channel transfer function for Power Line Communication system design. The framework for Power Line Communication in Network Simulator version 3 and then the necessary extension implementation are introduced. Other simulators are also mentioned. Secondly, various scenarios were implemented for the analysis and simulation of power line channel transfer functions. New scenarios for large topologies and for different approaches to calculate primary parameters were created. In the simulations, various kinds of topologies are considered for an analysis of the power line transfer function. The simulation part also focuses on the simulation of channel transfer function where the time- and frequency-selective impedances are considered. Finally, the last part focuses on measurements and a comparison of the simulation results with real measurements are given.

  18. Molecular and functional characterization of voltage-gated sodium channels in human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Francisco M; Ravina, Cristina G; Fernández-Sánchez, Manuel; Gallardo-Castro, Manuel; Cejudo-Román, Antonio; Candenas, Luz

    2009-07-16

    We have investigated the expression of voltage-gated sodium channels in human spermatozoa and characterized their role in sperm motility. Freshly ejaculated semen was collected from thirty normozoospermic human donors, with each donor supplying 2 different samples. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence techniques were used to detect the mRNAs and proteins of interest. Sperm motility was measured by a computer-assisted sperm analysis system (CASA). Cytosolic free calcium was determined by fluorimetry in cells loaded with the fluorescent calcium indicator Fura-2. The mRNAs that encode the different Nav alpha subunits (Nav1.1-1.9) were all expressed in capacitated human spermatozoa. The mRNAs of the auxiliary subunits beta1, beta3 and beta4 were also present. Immunofluorescence studies showed that, with the exception of Nav1.1 and Nav1.3, the Nav channel proteins were present in sperm cells and show specific and different sites of localization. Veratridine, a voltage-gated sodium channel activator, caused time- and concentration-dependent increases in progressive sperm motility. In sperm suspensions loaded with Fura-2, veratridine did not modify intracellular free calcium levels. This research shows the presence of voltage-gated sodium channels in human sperm and supports a role for these channels in the regulation of mature sperm function.

  19. Molecular and functional characterization of voltage-gated sodium channels in human sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cejudo-Román Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have investigated the expression of voltage-gated sodium channels in human spermatozoa and characterized their role in sperm motility. Methods Freshly ejaculated semen was collected from thirty normozoospermic human donors, with each donor supplying 2 different samples. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunofluorescence techniques were used to detect the mRNAs and proteins of interest. Sperm motility was measured by a computer-assisted sperm analysis system (CASA. Cytosolic free calcium was determined by fluorimetry in cells loaded with the fluorescent calcium indicator Fura-2. Results The mRNAs that encode the different Nav alpha subunits (Nav1.1-1.9 were all expressed in capacitated human spermatozoa. The mRNAs of the auxiliary subunits beta1, beta3 and beta4 were also present. Immunofluorescence studies showed that, with the exception of Nav1.1 and Nav1.3, the Nav channel proteins were present in sperm cells and show specific and different sites of localization. Veratridine, a voltage-gated sodium channel activator, caused time- and concentration-dependent increases in progressive sperm motility. In sperm suspensions loaded with Fura-2, veratridine did not modify intracellular free calcium levels. Conclusion This research shows the presence of voltage-gated sodium channels in human sperm and supports a role for these channels in the regulation of mature sperm function.

  20. KCNQ channels show conserved ethanol block and function in ethanol behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cavaliere

    Full Text Available In humans, KCNQ2/3 channels form an M-current that regulates neuronal excitability, with mutations in these channels causing benign neonatal familial convulsions. The M-current is important in mechanisms of neural plasticity underlying associative memory and in the response to ethanol, with KCNQ controlling the release of dopamine after ethanol exposure. We show that dKCNQ is broadly expressed in the nervous system, with targeted reduction in neuronal KCNQ increasing neural excitability and KCNQ overexpression decreasing excitability and calcium signalling, consistent with KCNQ regulating the resting membrane potential and neural release as in mammalian neurons. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ has similar electrophysiological properties to neuronal KCNQ2/3, including conserved acute sensitivity to ethanol block, with the fly channel (IC(50 = 19.8 mM being more sensitive than its mammalian ortholog (IC(50 = 42.1 mM. This suggests that the role of KCNQ in alcohol behaviour can be determined for the first time by using Drosophila. We present evidence that loss of KCNQ function in Drosophila increased sensitivity and tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol. Acute activation of dopaminergic neurons by heat-activated TRP channel or KCNQ-RNAi expression produced ethanol hypersensitivity, suggesting that both act via a common mechanism involving membrane depolarisation and increased dopamine signalling leading to ethanol sedation.

  1. Lipid Bilayer – mediated Regulation of Ion Channel Function by Amphiphilic Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbæk, Jens August

    2008-01-01

    that are transforming it into a subject of quantitative science. It is described how the hydrophobic interactions between a membrane protein and the host lipid bilayer provide the basis for a mechanism, whereby protein function is regulated by the bilayer physical properties. The use of gramicidin channels as single-molecule......Drugs that at pico- to nanomolar concentration regulate ion channel function by high-affi nity binding to their cognate receptor often have a “ secondary pharmacology, ” in which the same molecule at low micromolar concentrations regulates a diversity of membrane proteins in an apparently...... nonspecifi c manner. It has long been suspected that this promiscuous regulation of membrane protein function could be due to changes in the physical properties of the host lipid bilayer, but the underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. Given that pharmacological research often involves drug...

  2. KCNJ10 gene mutations causing EAST syndrome (epilepsy, ataxia, sensorineural deafness, and tubulopathy) disrupt channel function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichold, Markus; Zdebik, Anselm A; Lieberer, Evelyn; Rapedius, Markus; Schmidt, Katharina; Bandulik, Sascha; Sterner, Christina; Tegtmeier, Ines; Penton, David; Baukrowitz, Thomas; Hulton, Sally-Anne; Witzgall, Ralph; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Howie, Alexander J; Kleta, Robert; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Warth, Richard

    2010-08-10

    Mutations of the KCNJ10 (Kir4.1) K(+) channel underlie autosomal recessive epilepsy, ataxia, sensorineural deafness, and (a salt-wasting) renal tubulopathy (EAST) syndrome. We investigated the localization of KCNJ10 and the homologous KCNJ16 in kidney and the functional consequences of KCNJ10 mutations found in our patients with EAST syndrome. Kcnj10 and Kcnj16 were found in the basolateral membrane of mouse distal convoluted tubules, connecting tubules, and cortical collecting ducts. In the human kidney, KCNJ10 staining was additionally observed in the basolateral membrane of the cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. EM of distal tubular cells of a patient with EAST syndrome showed reduced basal infoldings in this nephron segment, which likely reflects the morphological consequences of the impaired salt reabsorption capacity. When expressed in CHO and HEK293 cells, the KCNJ10 mutations R65P, G77R, and R175Q caused a marked impairment of channel function. R199X showed complete loss of function. Single-channel analysis revealed a strongly reduced mean open time. Qualitatively similar results were obtained with coexpression of KCNJ10/KCNJ16, suggesting a dominance of KCNJ10 function in native renal KCNJ10/KCNJ16 heteromers. The decrease in the current of R65P and R175Q was mainly caused by a remarkable shift of pH sensitivity to the alkaline range. In summary, EAST mutations of KCNJ10 lead to impaired channel function and structural changes in distal convoluted tubules. Intriguingly, the metabolic alkalosis present in patients carrying the R65P mutation possibly improves residual function of KCNJ10, which shows higher activity at alkaline pH.

  3. Functional expression of TRPM8 and TRPA1 channels in rat odontoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Maki; Sobhan, Ubaidus; Sato, Masaki; Shimada, Miyuki; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Aya; Soya, Manabu; Kuroda, Hidetaka; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Odontoblasts produce dentin during development, throughout life, and in response to pathological conditions by sensing stimulation of exposed dentin. The functional properties and localization patterns of transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin subfamily member 8 (TRPM8) and ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) channels in odontoblasts remain to be clarified. We investigated the localization and the pharmacological, biophysical, and mechano-sensitive properties of TRPM8 and TRPA1 channels in rat odontoblasts. Menthol and icilin increased the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Icilin-, WS3-, or WS12-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases were inhibited by capsazepine or 5-benzyloxytriptamine. The increase in [Ca(2+)]i elicited by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) was inhibited by HC030031. WS12 and AITC exerted a desensitizing effect on [Ca(2+)]i increase. Low-temperature stimuli elicited [Ca(2+)]i increases that are sensitive to both 5-benzyloxytriptamine and HC030031. Hypotonic stimulation-induced membrane stretch increased [Ca(2+)]i; HC030031 but not 5-benzyloxytriptamine inhibited the effect. The results suggest that TRPM8 channels in rat odontoblasts play a role in detecting low-temperature stimulation of the dentin surface and that TRPA1 channels are involved in sensing membrane stretching and low-temperature stimulation. The results also indicate that odontoblasts act as mechanical and thermal receptor cells, detecting the stimulation of exposed dentin to drive multiple cellular functions, such as sensory transduction.

  4. C-terminal domains implicated in the functional surface expression of potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Marc; Sánchez, Araceli; Monje, Francisco; Stühmer, Walter; Weseloh, Rüdiger M.; Pardo, Luis A.

    2003-01-01

    A short C-terminal domain is required for correct tetrameric assembly in some potassium channels. Here, we show that this domain forms a coiled coil that determines not only the stability but also the selectivity of the multimerization. Synthetic peptides comprising the sequence of this domain in Eag1 and other channels are able to form highly stable tetrameric coiled coils and display selective heteromultimeric interactions. We show that loss of function caused by disruption of this domain in Herg1 can be rescued by introducing the equivalent domain from Eag1, and that this chimeric protein can form heteromultimers with Eag1 while wild-type Erg1 cannot. Additionally, a short endoplasmic reticulum retention sequence closely preceding the coiled coil plays a crucial role for surface expression. Both domains appear to co-operate to form fully functional channels on the cell surface and are a frequent finding in ion channels. Many pathological phenotypes may be attributed to mutations affecting one or both domains. PMID:12554641

  5. A functional Kv1.2-hERG chimaeric channel expressed in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Mandeep S.; Cockcroft, Christopher J.; Munsey, Tim; Smith, Kathrine J.; Powell, Andrew J.; Carter, Paul; Wrighton, David C.; Rong, Hong-Lin; Yusaf, Shahnaz P.; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu

    2014-02-01

    Members of the six-transmembrane segment family of ion channels share a common structural design. However, there are sequence differences between the members that confer distinct biophysical properties on individual channels. Currently, we do not have 3D structures for all members of the family to help explain the molecular basis for the differences in their biophysical properties and pharmacology. This is due to low-level expression of many members in native or heterologous systems. One exception is rat Kv1.2 which has been overexpressed in Pichia pastoris and crystallised. Here, we tested chimaeras of rat Kv1.2 with the hERG channel for function in Xenopus oocytes and for overexpression in Pichia. Chimaera containing the S1-S6 transmembrane region of HERG showed functional and pharmacological properties similar to hERG and could be overexpressed and purified from Pichia. Our results demonstrate that rat Kv1.2 could serve as a surrogate to express difficult-to-overexpress members of the six-transmembrane segment channel family.

  6. Functional expression of TRPM8 and TRPA1 channels in rat odontoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Tsumura

    Full Text Available Odontoblasts produce dentin during development, throughout life, and in response to pathological conditions by sensing stimulation of exposed dentin. The functional properties and localization patterns of transient receptor potential (TRP melastatin subfamily member 8 (TRPM8 and ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1 channels in odontoblasts remain to be clarified. We investigated the localization and the pharmacological, biophysical, and mechano-sensitive properties of TRPM8 and TRPA1 channels in rat odontoblasts. Menthol and icilin increased the intracellular free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]i. Icilin-, WS3-, or WS12-induced [Ca(2+]i increases were inhibited by capsazepine or 5-benzyloxytriptamine. The increase in [Ca(2+]i elicited by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC was inhibited by HC030031. WS12 and AITC exerted a desensitizing effect on [Ca(2+]i increase. Low-temperature stimuli elicited [Ca(2+]i increases that are sensitive to both 5-benzyloxytriptamine and HC030031. Hypotonic stimulation-induced membrane stretch increased [Ca(2+]i; HC030031 but not 5-benzyloxytriptamine inhibited the effect. The results suggest that TRPM8 channels in rat odontoblasts play a role in detecting low-temperature stimulation of the dentin surface and that TRPA1 channels are involved in sensing membrane stretching and low-temperature stimulation. The results also indicate that odontoblasts act as mechanical and thermal receptor cells, detecting the stimulation of exposed dentin to drive multiple cellular functions, such as sensory transduction.

  7. Beneficial effect of propofol on arterial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+ channel function impaired by thromboxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Masanori; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Naoyuki; Azma, Toshiharu; Hama-Tomioka, Keiko; Hatakeyama, Noboru; Yamazaki, Mitsuaki; Hatano, Yoshio

    2009-08-01

    It is not known whether thromboxane A2 impairs adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K channel function via increased production of superoxide in blood vessels and whether propofol as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor restores this modification. Rat aortas without endothelium were used for isometric force recording, measurements of membrane potential, and superoxide production and Western immunoblotting. Vasorelaxation to an ATP-sensitive K channel opener levcromakalim was obtained during contraction to phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) or a thromboxane A2 analogue U46619 (3 x 10(-7) M). In some experiments, aortas were incubated with an ATP-sensitive K channel antagonist glibenclamide, a superoxide inhibitor Tiron, a nonselective NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, a hydrogen peroxide scavenger catalase, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol, a thromboxane receptor antagonist SQ29548 or propofol (3 x 10(-7) to 3 x 10(-6) M). Levcromakalim-induced vasorelaxation was abolished by glibenclamide in rings contracted with either vasoconstrictor agent. Tiron, apocynin, and propofol, but not catalase, augmented the vasodilator response as well as the hyperpolarization by levcromakalim in aortas contracted with U46619. Tiron, apocynin, SQ29548, and propofol, but not allopurinol, similarly reduced in situ levels of superoxide within aortic vascular smooth muscle exposed to U46619. Protein expression of a NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox increased in these arteries, and this augmentation was abolished by propofol. Thromboxane receptor activation induces vascular oxidative stress via NADPH oxidase, resulting in the impairment of ATP-sensitive K channel function. Propofol reduces this stress via inhibition of a NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox and, therefore, restores ATP-sensitive K channel function.

  8. Aquaporin-4 independent Kir4.1 K+ channel function in brain glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Verkman, A S

    2008-01-01

    Functional interaction of glial water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 has been suggested from their apparent colocalization and biochemical interaction, and from the slowed glial cell K+ uptake in AQP4-deficient brain. Here, we report multiple lines of evidence against functionally significant AQP4-Kir4.1 interactions. Whole-cell patch-clamp of freshly isolated glial cells from brains of wild-type and AQP4 null mice showed no significant differences in membrane potential, barium-sensitive Kir4.1 K+ current or current-voltage curves. Single-channel patch-clamp showed no differences in Kir4.1 unitary conductance, voltage-dependent open probability or current-voltage relationship. Also, Kir4.1 protein expression and distribution were similar in wild-type and AQP4 null mouse brain and in the freshly isolated glial cells. Functional inhibition of Kir4.1 by barium or RNAi knock-down in primary glial cell cultures from mouse brain did not significantly alter AQP4 water permeability, as assayed by calcein fluorescence quenching following osmotic challenge. These studies provide direct evidence against functionally significant AQP4-Kir4.1 interactions in mouse glial cells, indicating the need to identify new mechanism(s) to account for altered seizure dynamics and extracellular space K+ buffering in AQP4 deficiency.

  9. Functional characterization of neurotransmitter activation and modulation in a nematode model ligand-gated ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Stephanie A; Yoluk, Özge; Klement, Göran; Riederer, Erika A; Lindahl, Erik; Howard, Rebecca J

    2016-07-01

    The superfamily of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels includes neurotransmitter receptors that mediate fast synaptic transmission in vertebrates, and are targets for drugs including alcohols, anesthetics, benzodiazepines, and anticonvulsants. However, the mechanisms of ion channel opening, gating, and modulation in these receptors leave many open questions, despite their pharmacological importance. Subtle conformational changes in both the extracellular and transmembrane domains are likely to influence channel opening, but have been difficult to characterize given the limited structural data available for human membrane proteins. Recent crystal structures of a modified Caenorhabditis elegans glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) in multiple states offer an appealing model system for structure-function studies. However, the pharmacology of the crystallographic GluCl construct is not well established. To establish the functional relevance of this system, we used two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus oocytes to characterize activation of crystallographic and native-like GluCl constructs by L-glutamate and ivermectin. We also tested modulation by ethanol and other anesthetic agents, and used site-directed mutagenesis to explore the role of a region of Loop F which was implicated in ligand gating by molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings indicate that the crystallographic construct functionally models concentration-dependent agonism and allosteric modulation of pharmacologically relevant receptors. Specific substitutions at residue Leu174 in loop F altered direct L-glutamate activation, consistent with computational evidence for this region's role in ligand binding. These insights demonstrate conservation of activation and modulation properties in this receptor family, and establish a framework for GluCl as a model system, including new possibilities for drug discovery. In this study, we elucidate the validity of a modified glutamate

  10. Expression and purification of native and functional influenza A virus matrix 2 proton selective ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desuzinges Mandon, Elodie; Traversier, Aurélien; Champagne, Anne; Benier, Lorraine; Audebert, Stéphane; Balme, Sébastien; Dejean, Emmanuel; Rosa Calatrava, Manuel; Jawhari, Anass

    2017-03-01

    Influenza A virus displays one of the highest infection rates of all human viruses and therefore represents a severe human health threat associated with an important economical challenge. Influenza matrix protein 2 (M2) is a membrane protein of the viral envelope that forms a proton selective ion channel. Here we report the expression and native isolation of full length active M2 without mutations or fusions. The ability of the influenza virus to efficiently infect MDCK cells was used to express native M2 protein. Using a Calixarene detergents/surfactants based approach; we were able to solubilize most of M2 from the plasma membrane and purify it. The tetrameric form of native M2 was maintained during the protein preparation. Mass spectrometry shows that M2 was phosphorylated in its cytoplasmic tail (serine 64) and newly identifies an acetylation of the highly conserved Lysine 60. ELISA shows that solubilized and purified M2 was specifically recognized by M2 antibody MAB65 and was able to displace the antibody from M2 MDCK membranes. Using a bilayer voltage clamp measurement assay, we demonstrate a pH dependent proton selective ion channel activity. The addition of the M2 ion channel blocker amantadine allows a total inhibition of the channel activity, illustrating therefore the specificity of purified M2 activity. Taken together, this work shows the production and isolation of a tetrameric and functional native M2 ion channel that will pave the way to structural and functional characterization of native M2, conformational antibody development, small molecules compounds screening towards vaccine treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunolocalization and distribution of functional temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Ubaidus; Sato, Masaki; Shinomiya, Takashi; Okubo, Migiwa; Tsumura, Maki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mitsuru; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are unique cellular sensors involved in multiple cellular functions. Their role in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. The expression and localization of temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of various TRP channel agonists on carbachol (CCh)-induced salivary secretion in the submandibular gland and on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in a submandibular epithelial cell line were also investigated. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of TRP-melastatin subfamily member 8 (TRPM8) and TRP-ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in the sublingual, submandibular and parotid glands. In addition, TRP-vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), TRPV3 and TRPV4 were also expressed in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in all three types of gland. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results demonstrated the mRNA expression of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1 in acinar and ductal cells in these salivary glands. Perfusion of the entire submandibular gland with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (1 μM) via the submandibular artery significantly increased CCh-induced salivation, whereas perfusion with TRPM8 and TRPA1 agonists (0.5 μM WS12 and 100 μM allyl isothiocyanate) decreased it. Application of agonists for each of the thermosensitive TRP channels increased [Ca(2+)]i in a submandibular epithelial cell line. These results indicate that temperature-sensitive TRP channels are localized and distributed in acinar, ductal and myoepithelial cells in salivary glands and that they play a functional role in the regulation and/or modulation of salivary secretion.

  12. Effect of a chloride channel activator, lubiprostone, on colonic sensory and motor functions in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Sweetser, Seth; Busciglio, Irene A.; Camilleri, Michael; Bharucha, Adil E.; Szarka, Lawrence A.; Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Burton, Duane D.; Eckert, Deborah J.; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    Lubiprostone, a bicyclic fatty acid chloride channel activator, is efficacious in treatment of chronic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. The study aim was to compare effects of lubiprostone and placebo on colonic sensory and motor functions in humans. In double-blind, randomized fashion, 60 healthy adults received three oral doses of placebo or 24 μg lubiprostone per day in a parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial. A barostat-manometry tube was placed in th...

  13. A role for two-pore potassium (K2P) channels in endometrial epithelial function.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, SK; Jackson, L.; Warren, AY; P. Arya; Shaw, RW; Khan, RN

    2013-01-01

    The human endometrial epithelium is pivotal to menstrual cycle progression, implantation and early pregnancy. Endometrial function is directly regulated by local factors that include pH, oxygen tension and ion concentrations to generate an environment conducive to fertilization. A superfamily of potassium channels characterized by two-pore domains (K2P) and encoded by KCNK genes is implicated in the control of the cell resting membrane potential through the generation of leak currents and mod...

  14. Functional and pharmacological consequences of the distribution of voltage-gated calcium channels in the renal blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, P B L

    2013-04-01

    Calcium channel blockers are widely used to treat hypertension because they inhibit voltage-gated calcium channels that mediate transmembrane calcium influx in, for example, vascular smooth muscle and cardiomyocytes. The calcium channel family consists of several subfamilies, of which the L-type is usually associated with vascular contractility. However, the L-, T- and P-/Q-types of calcium channels are present in the renal vasculature and are differentially involved in controlling vascular contractility, thereby contributing to regulation of kidney function and blood pressure. In the preglomerular vascular bed, all the three channel families are present. However, the T-type channel is the only channel in cortical efferent arterioles which is in contrast to the juxtamedullary efferent arteriole, and that leads to diverse functional effects of L- and T-type channel inhibition. Furthermore, by different mechanisms, T-type channels may contribute to both constriction and dilation of the arterioles. Finally, P-/Q-type channels are involved in the regulation of human intrarenal arterial contractility. The calcium blockers used in the clinic affect not only L-type but also P-/Q- and T-type channels. Therefore, the distinct effect obtained by inhibiting a given subtype or set of channels under experimental settings should be considered when choosing a calcium blocker for treatment. T-type channels seem to be crucial for regulating the GFR and the filtration fraction. Use of blockers is expected to lead to preferential efferent vasodilation, reduction of glomerular pressure and proteinuria. Therefore, renovascular T-type channels might provide novel therapeutic targets, and may have superior renoprotective effects compared to conventional calcium blockers. Acta Physiologica © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  15. Innovative polymer nanocomposite electrolytes: nanoscale manipulation of ion channels by functionalized graphenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Hong, Jinkee; Park, Young Chul; Jung, Doo Hwan; Hong, Won Hi; Hammond, Paula T; Park, Hoseok

    2011-06-28

    The chemistry and structure of ion channels within the polymer electrolytes are of prime importance for studying the transport properties of electrolytes as well as for developing high-performance electrochemical devices. Despite intensive efforts on the synthesis of polymer electrolytes, few studies have demonstrated enhanced target ion conduction while suppressing unfavorable ion or mass transport because the undesirable transport occurs through an identical pathway. Herein, we report an innovative, chemical strategy for the synthesis of polymer electrolytes whose ion-conducting channels are physically and chemically modulated by the ionic (not electronic) conductive, functionalized graphenes and for a fundamental understanding of ion and mass transport occurring in nanoscale ionic clusters. The functionalized graphenes controlled the state of water by means of nanoscale manipulation of the physical geometry and chemical functionality of ionic channels. Furthermore, the confinement of bound water within the reorganized nanochannels of composite membranes was confirmed by the enhanced proton conductivity at high temperature and the low activation energy for ionic conduction through a Grotthus-type mechanism. The selectively facilitated transport behavior of composite membranes such as high proton conductivity and low methanol crossover was attributed to the confined bound water, resulting in high-performance fuel cells.

  16. Active Dendrites and Differential Distribution of Calcium Channels Enable Functional Compartmentalization of Golgi Cells.

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    Rudolph, Stephanie; Hull, Court; Regehr, Wade G

    2015-11-25

    Interneurons are essential to controlling excitability, timing, and synaptic integration in neuronal networks. Golgi cells (GoCs) serve these roles at the input layer of the cerebellar cortex by releasing GABA to inhibit granule cells (grcs). GoCs are excited by mossy fibers (MFs) and grcs and provide feedforward and feedback inhibition to grcs. Here we investigate two important aspects of GoC physiology: the properties of GoC dendrites and the role of calcium signaling in regulating GoC spontaneous activity. Although GoC dendrites are extensive, previous studies concluded they are devoid of voltage-gated ion channels. Hence, the current view holds that somatic voltage signals decay passively within GoC dendrites, and grc synapses onto distal dendrites are not amplified and are therefore ineffective at firing GoCs because of strong passive attenuation. Using whole-cell recording and calcium imaging in rat slices, we find that dendritic voltage-gated sodium channels allow somatic action potentials to activate voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) along the entire dendritic length, with R-type and T-type VGCCs preferentially located distally. We show that R- and T-type VGCCs located in the dendrites can boost distal synaptic inputs and promote burst firing. Active dendrites are thus critical to the regulation of GoC activity, and consequently, to the processing of input to the cerebellar cortex. In contrast, we find that N-type channels are preferentially located near the soma, and control the frequency and pattern of spontaneous firing through their close association with calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels. Thus, VGCC types are differentially distributed and serve specialized functions within GoCs. Interneurons are essential to neural processing because they modulate excitability, timing, and synaptic integration within circuits. At the input layer of the cerebellar cortex, a single type of interneuron, the Golgi cell (GoC), carries these functions. The

  17. The G. L. Brown Prize Lecture. Hypoxic regulation of ion channel function and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2002-07-01

    Acute hypoxia regulates the activity of specific ion channels in a rapid and reversible manner. Such effects underlie appropriate cellular responses to hypoxia which are designed to initiate cardiorespiratory reflexes and contribute importantly to other tissue responses, all of which are designed to improve tissue O2 supply. These responses include excitation of chemoreceptors as well as pulmonary vasoconstriction and systemic vasodilatation. However, such responses may also contribute to the adverse responses to hypoxia, such as excitotoxicity in the central nervous system. Whilst numerous ion channel types are known to be modulated by acute hypoxia, the nature of the O2 sensor in most tissues remains to be identified. Prolonged (chronic) hypoxia regulates functional expression of ion channels, and so remodels excitability of various cell types. Whilst this may contribute to adaptive responses such as high-altitude acclimatization, such altered channel expression may also contribute to the onset of pathological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. Indeed, evidence is emerging that production of pathological peptides associated with Alzheimer's disease is increased during prolonged hypoxia. Such effects may account for the known increased incidence of this disease in patients who have previously endured hypoxic episodes, such as congestive heart failure and stroke. Identification of the mechanisms coupling hypoxia to the increased production of these peptides is likely to be of therapeutic benefit.

  18. Lobate geometries as a function of upstream channel hydraulics: experimental results from supercritical alluvial fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, P.; Strom, K. B.; Hoyal, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    Channel and lobe mechanics represent the morphodynamic signature of distributive systems over intermediate time and length scales (mesoscales). Whereas the microscale (e.g., bedforms) is governed by turbulent interaction with the sediment bed and the macroscale (e.g., basin filling) is influenced by shifts in tectonic activity and climate, mesoscale mechanics are governed by non-linear morphodynamic feedbacks between the mobile sediment bed and fluid flow. As an interrelated feedback mechanism, variations in bed morphology drive changes in the fluid mechanics that are propagated solely downstream in the supercritical case. Here, a series of supercritical fan experiments were run to better understand the interaction and relationship between distributive channels and their terminal lobes. Lobe geometries are considered in terms of the maximum length, width, and thickness along with the variation of width and thickness as a function of distance down lobe. Channel hydraulics are measured using the combination of Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) for velocity and an apparent dye-intensity method for depth. Planform lobe dimensions are measured from overhead images and thicknesses are measured from a terrestrial LiDAR unit. From the collected data, lobe geometries are correlated to the upstream distributive channel hydraulics to better understand the autogenic morphodynamic feedback cycle.; lobe dimensions measured from autogenic cylces

  19. What Ion Flow along Ion Channels Can Tell us about Their Functional Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Becucci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The functional activity of channel-forming peptides and proteins is most directly verified by monitoring the flow of physiologically relevant inorganic ions, such as Na+, K+ and Cl−, along the ion channels. Electrical current measurements across bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs interposed between two aqueous solutions have been widely employed to this end and are still extensively used. However, a major drawback of BLMs is their fragility, high sensitivity toward vibrations and mechanical shocks, and low resistance to electric fields. To overcome this problem, metal-supported tethered BLMs (tBLMs have been devised, where the BLM is anchored to the metal via a hydrophilic spacer that replaces and mimics the water phase on the metal side. However, only mercury-supported tBLMs can measure and regulate the flow of the above inorganic ions, thanks to mercury liquid state and high hydrogen overpotential. This review summarizes the main results achieved by BLMs incorporating voltage-gated channel-forming peptides, interpreting them on the basis of a kinetic mechanism of nucleation and growth. Hg-supported tBLMs are then described, and their potential for the investigation of voltage-gated and ohmic channels is illustrated by the use of different electrochemical techniques.

  20. Functional voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in muscle fibers of the platyhelminth Dugesia tigrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett, Peter; Day, Timothy A

    2003-03-01

    The presence and function of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels were examined in individual muscle fibers freshly dispersed from the triclad turbellarian Dugesia tigrina. Individual muscle fibers contracted in response to elevated extracellular K(+) in a concentration-dependent fashion. These depolarization-induced contractions were blocked by extracellular Co(2+) (2.5 mM), suggesting that they were dependent on depolarization-induced Ca(2+) influx across the sarcolemma. A voltage-gated inward current was apparent in whole cell recordings when the outward K(+) current was abolished by replacement of intracellular K(+) by Cs(+). This inward current was amplified with increasing concentration (channels. Further, and supporting the hypothesis that the inward current was mediated by these Ca(2+) channels, the Ba(2+) current was blocked by extracellular Co(2+) (2.5 mM) but not by tetrodotoxin (5 microM). Action potentials were generated by the muscle fibers in the presence of, but not in the absence of, extracellular Ba(2+) (5 mM). These data are the first clear demonstration of a voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel current in platyhelminth muscle, and they demonstrate a role for Ca(2+) influx in depolarization-induced contractions of muscle in these organisms.

  1. Functional Properties and Toxin Pharmacology of a Dorsal Root Ganglion Sodium Channel Viewed through its Voltage Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Frank; Puopolo, Michelino; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Swartz, Kenton J.; Bean, Bruce Palmer

    2011-01-01

    The voltage-activated sodium (Nav) channel Nav1.9 is expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons where it is believed to play an important role in nociception. Progress in revealing the functional properties and pharmacological sensitivities of this non-canonical Nav channel has been slow because attempts to express this channel in a heterologous expression system have been unsuccessful. Here, we use a protein engineering approach to dissect the contributions of the four Nav1.9 voltage se...

  2. Expression and function of K(V)2-containing channels in human urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Kiril L; Chen, Muyan; Afeli, Serge A Y; Cheng, Qiuping; Rovner, Eric S; Petkov, Georgi V

    2012-06-01

    The functional role of the voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels in human detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) is largely unexplored. Here, we provide molecular, electrophysiological, and functional evidence for the expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and the electrically silent K(V)9.3 subunits in human DSM. Stromatoxin-1 (ScTx1), a selective inhibitor of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and K(V)4.2 homotetrameric channels and of K(V)2.1/9.3 heterotetrameric channels, was used to examine the role of these channels in human DSM function. Human DSM tissues were obtained during open bladder surgeries from patients without a history of overactive bladder. Freshly isolated human DSM cells were studied using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, live-cell Ca(2+) imaging, and the perforated whole cell patch-clamp technique. Isometric DSM tension recordings of human DSM isolated strips were conducted using tissue baths. RT-PCR experiments showed mRNA expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and K(V)9.3 (but not K(V)4.2) channel subunits in human isolated DSM cells. K(V)2.1 and K(V)2.2 protein expression was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Perforated whole cell patch-clamp experiments revealed that ScTx1 (100 nM) inhibited the amplitude of the voltage step-induced K(V) current in freshly isolated human DSM cells. ScTx1 (100 nM) significantly increased the intracellular Ca(2+) level in DSM cells. In human DSM isolated strips, ScTx1 (100 nM) increased the spontaneous phasic contraction amplitude and muscle force, and enhanced the amplitude of the electrical field stimulation-induced contractions within the range of 3.5-30 Hz stimulation frequencies. These findings reveal that ScTx1-sensitive K(V)2-containing channels are key regulators of human DSM excitability and contractility and may represent new targets for pharmacological or genetic intervention for bladder dysfunction.

  3. Expression, localization, and functional properties of Bestrophin 3 channel isolated from mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Kate E; Hatton, William J; Burkin, Heather R; Leblanc, Normand; Britton, Fiona C

    2008-12-01

    Bestrophins are a novel family of proteins that encode calcium-activated chloride channels. In this study we establish that Bestrophin transcripts are expressed in the mouse and human heart. Native mBest3 protein expression and localization in heart was demonstrated by using a specific polyclonal mBest3 antibody. Immunostaining of isolated cardiac myocytes indicates that mBest3 is present at the membrane. Using the patch-clamp technique, we characterized the biophysical and pharmacological properties of mBest3 cloned from heart. Whole cell chloride currents were evoked in both HEK293 and COS-7 cells expressing mBest3 by elevation of intracellular calcium. mBest3 currents displayed a K(D) for Ca(2+) of approximately 175 nM. The calcium-activated chloride current was found to be time and voltage independent and displayed slight outward rectification. The anion permeability sequence of the channel was SCN(-)>I(-)>Cl(-), and the current was inhibited by niflumic acid and DIDS in the micromolar range. In addition, we generated a site-specific mutation (F80L) in the putative pore region of mBest3 that significantly altered the ion conduction and pharmacology of this channel. Our functional and mutational studies examining the biophysical properties of mBest3 indicate that it functions as a pore-forming chloride channel that is activated by physiological levels of calcium. This study reports novel findings regarding the molecular expression, tissue localization, and functional properties of mBest3 cloned from heart.

  4. Calmodulin Is a Functional Regulator of Cav1.4 L-type Ca2+ Channels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessmeier, Kristina; Cuny, Hartmut; Rötzer, Katrin; Griesbeck, Oliver; Harz, Hartmann; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Cav1.4 channels are unique among the high voltage-activated Ca2+ channel family because they completely lack Ca2+-dependent inactivation and display very slow voltage-dependent inactivation. Both properties are of crucial importance in ribbon synapses of retinal photoreceptors and bipolar cells, where sustained Ca2+ influx through Cav1.4 channels is required to couple slow graded changes of the membrane potential with tonic glutamate release. Loss of Cav1.4 function causes severe impairment of retinal circuitry function and has been linked to night blindness in humans and mice. Recently, an inhibitory domain (ICDI: inhibitor of Ca2+-dependent inactivation) in the C-terminal tail of Cav1.4 has been discovered that eliminates Ca2+-dependent inactivation by binding to upstream regulatory motifs within the proximal C terminus. The mechanism underlying the action of ICDI is unclear. It was proposed that ICDI competitively displaces the Ca2+ sensor calmodulin. Alternatively, the ICDI domain and calmodulin may bind to different portions of the C terminus and act independently of each other. In the present study, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments with genetically engineered cyan fluorescent protein variants to address this issue. Our data indicate that calmodulin is preassociated with the C terminus of Cav1.4 but may be tethered in a different steric orientation as compared with other Ca2+ channels. We also find that calmodulin is important for Cav1.4 function because it increases current density and slows down voltage-dependent inactivation. Our data show that the ICDI domain selectively abolishes Ca2+-dependent inactivation, whereas it does not interfere with other calmodulin effects. PMID:19717559

  5. Calmodulin is a functional regulator of Cav1.4 L-type Ca2+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessmeier, Kristina; Cuny, Hartmut; Rötzer, Katrin; Griesbeck, Oliver; Harz, Hartmann; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian

    2009-10-23

    Cav1.4 channels are unique among the high voltage-activated Ca2+ channel family because they completely lack Ca2+-dependent inactivation and display very slow voltage-dependent inactivation. Both properties are of crucial importance in ribbon synapses of retinal photoreceptors and bipolar cells, where sustained Ca2+ influx through Cav1.4 channels is required to couple slow graded changes of the membrane potential with tonic glutamate release. Loss of Cav1.4 function causes severe impairment of retinal circuitry function and has been linked to night blindness in humans and mice. Recently, an inhibitory domain (ICDI: inhibitor of Ca2+-dependent inactivation) in the C-terminal tail of Cav1.4 has been discovered that eliminates Ca2+-dependent inactivation by binding to upstream regulatory motifs within the proximal C terminus. The mechanism underlying the action of ICDI is unclear. It was proposed that ICDI competitively displaces the Ca2+ sensor calmodulin. Alternatively, the ICDI domain and calmodulin may bind to different portions of the C terminus and act independently of each other. In the present study, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments with genetically engineered cyan fluorescent protein variants to address this issue. Our data indicate that calmodulin is preassociated with the C terminus of Cav1.4 but may be tethered in a different steric orientation as compared with other Ca2+ channels. We also find that calmodulin is important for Cav1.4 function because it increases current density and slows down voltage-dependent inactivation. Our data show that the ICDI domain selectively abolishes Ca2+-dependent inactivation, whereas it does not interfere with other calmodulin effects.

  6. Advances in transient receptor potential vanilloid-2 channel expression and function in tumor growth and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberati, Sonia; Morelli, Maria B; Amantini, Consuelo; Santoni, Matteo; Nabissi, Massimo; Cardinali, Claudio; Santoni, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this review is to study the role of the TRPV2 channel, a member of the TRPV subfamily of TRP channels, in tumor progression. Physiologically, the triggering of TRPV2 by agonists/activators (e.g., growth factors, hormones and cannabinoids), by inducing TRPV2 translocation from the endosome to the plasmatic membrane, inhibit cell proliferation and induce necrosis and/or apoptosis. Thus, loss or alterations of TRPV2 proliferative and apoptotic signals, results in uncontrolled proliferation and augmented resistance to apoptotic stimuli. For example in prostate cancer cells, the TRPV2 activation following lysophospholipid or adrenomedullin stimulation enhances the invasiveness of cancer cells; furthermore, the increased malignancy of castration-resistant prostate cancer cells was associated with enhanced TRPV2 expression, mainly in metastatic prostate cancer cells. In addition, the TRPV2 cellular functions may also to be related to the presence of TRPV2 variants, able to interfere with the physiological functions of normal TRPV2 channels. In this regard, bladder cancer tumors show loss or reduction of a short TRPV2 variant during cancer progression, with increased malignancy and invasiveness. High expression of TRPV2 was also observed more frequently in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients with advanced pT stage, lymph node metastasis and advanced pathological stage.

  7. Evolution, Expression, and Function of Nonneuronal Ligand-Gated Chloride Channels in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnant, Emily J; Williams, Adam; Lumb, Chris; Yang, Ying Ting; Chan, Janice; Duchêne, Sebastian; Daborn, Phillip J; Batterham, Philip; Perry, Trent

    2016-07-07

    Ligand-gated chloride channels have established roles in inhibitory neurotransmission in the nervous systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. Paradoxically, expression databases in Drosophila melanogaster have revealed that three uncharacterized ligand-gated chloride channel subunits, CG7589, CG6927, and CG11340, are highly expressed in nonneuronal tissues. Furthermore, subunit copy number varies between insects, with some orders containing one ortholog, whereas other lineages exhibit copy number increases. Here, we show that the Dipteran lineage has undergone two gene duplications followed by expression-based functional differentiation. We used promoter-GFP expression analysis, RNA-sequencing, and in situ hybridization to examine cell type and tissue-specific localization of the three D. melanogaster subunits. CG6927 is expressed in the nurse cells of the ovaries. CG7589 is expressed in multiple tissues including the salivary gland, ejaculatory duct, malpighian tubules, and early midgut. CG11340 is found in malpighian tubules and the copper cell region of the midgut. Overexpression of CG11340 increased sensitivity to dietary copper, and RNAi and ends-out knockout of CG11340 resulted in copper tolerance, providing evidence for a specific nonneuronal role for this subunit in D. melanogaster Ligand-gated chloride channels are important insecticide targets and here we highlight copy number and functional divergence in insect lineages, raising the potential that order-specific receptors could be isolated within an effective class of insecticide targets. Copyright © 2016 Remnant et al.

  8. What You Don't Know Won't Hurt Me: Impression Management Functions of Communication Channels in Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Patrick B.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the implications of interpersonal communication technology use for personal relationships. Tests elements of an impression management model, which specifies the processes and outcomes of strategic uses of channel and message for self-presentational goals. Supports a functional perspective that views mediated communication channels as a…

  9. Effects of green tea catechins on gramicidin channel function and inferred changes in bilayer properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I.; Koeppe, Roger E.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2011-01-01

    Green tea's health benefits have been attributed to its major polyphenols, the catechins: (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin (EC). Catechins (especially EGCG) modulate a wide range of biologically important molecules, including many membrane proteins. Yet, little is known about their mechanism(s) of action. We tested the catechins' bilayer-modifying potency using gramicidin A (gA) channels as molecular force probes. All the catechins alter gA channel function and modify bilayer properties, with a 500-fold range in potency (EGCG > ECG >> EGC > EC). Additionally, the gallate group causes current block, as evident by brief downward current transitions (flickers). PMID:21896274

  10. Optimized Signaling Method for High-Speed Transmission Channels with Higher Order Transfer Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčík, Břetislav; Brančík, Lubomír; Kubíček, Michal

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the selected results from testing of optimized CMOS friendly signaling method for high-speed communications over cables and printed circuit boards (PCBs) are presented and discussed. The proposed signaling scheme uses modified concept of pulse width modulated (PWM) signal which enables to better equalize significant channel losses during data high-speed transmission. Thus, the very effective signaling method to overcome losses in transmission channels with higher order transfer function, typical for long cables and multilayer PCBs, is clearly analyzed in the time and frequency domain. Experimental results of the measurements include the performance comparison of conventional PWM scheme and clearly show the great potential of the modified signaling method for use in low power CMOS friendly equalization circuits, commonly considered in modern communication standards as PCI-Express, SATA or in Multi-gigabit SerDes interconnects.

  11. The functional properties and application of gelatin derived from the skin of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Rui; Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Liping; Cui, Wenzhe; Regenstein, Joe M

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this work was to extract gelatin from skin of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and to study its functional properties and application in ice-cream and beer. SDS-PAGE patterns showed that channel catfish gelatin (CCG) had more high molecular weight components (β and γ chains) than had calf bone gelatin (CBG). The viscosity of CCG was 42mPa.s at 10°C, which was three times more than that of CBG. Compared to CBG, CCG presented higher emulsion capacity and stability, as well as higher foaming stability. CCG conferred the ice-cream samples and beer with better mouth feel and clarification effect, respectively. The results indicated that CCG had great potential to be utilized in the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional analysis of metabolic channeling and regulation in lignin biosynthesis: a computational approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lee

    Full Text Available Lignin is a polymer in secondary cell walls of plants that is known to have negative impacts on forage digestibility, pulping efficiency, and sugar release from cellulosic biomass. While targeted modifications of different lignin biosynthetic enzymes have permitted the generation of transgenic plants with desirable traits, such as improved digestibility or reduced recalcitrance to saccharification, some of the engineered plants exhibit monomer compositions that are clearly at odds with the expected outcomes when the biosynthetic pathway is perturbed. In Medicago, such discrepancies were partly reconciled by the recent finding that certain biosynthetic enzymes may be spatially organized into two independent channels for the synthesis of guaiacyl (G and syringyl (S lignin monomers. Nevertheless, the mechanistic details, as well as the biological function of these interactions, remain unclear. To decipher the working principles of this and similar control mechanisms, we propose and employ here a novel computational approach that permits an expedient and exhaustive assessment of hundreds of minimal designs that could arise in vivo. Interestingly, this comparative analysis not only helps distinguish two most parsimonious mechanisms of crosstalk between the two channels by formulating a targeted and readily testable hypothesis, but also suggests that the G lignin-specific channel is more important for proper functioning than the S lignin-specific channel. While the proposed strategy of analysis in this article is tightly focused on lignin synthesis, it is likely to be of similar utility in extracting unbiased information in a variety of situations, where the spatial organization of molecular components is critical for coordinating the flow of cellular information, and where initially various control designs seem equally valid.

  13. Functional analysis of metabolic channeling and regulation in lignin biosynthesis: a computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun; Escamilla-Treviño, Luis; Dixon, Richard A; Voit, Eberhard O

    2012-01-01

    Lignin is a polymer in secondary cell walls of plants that is known to have negative impacts on forage digestibility, pulping efficiency, and sugar release from cellulosic biomass. While targeted modifications of different lignin biosynthetic enzymes have permitted the generation of transgenic plants with desirable traits, such as improved digestibility or reduced recalcitrance to saccharification, some of the engineered plants exhibit monomer compositions that are clearly at odds with the expected outcomes when the biosynthetic pathway is perturbed. In Medicago, such discrepancies were partly reconciled by the recent finding that certain biosynthetic enzymes may be spatially organized into two independent channels for the synthesis of guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) lignin monomers. Nevertheless, the mechanistic details, as well as the biological function of these interactions, remain unclear. To decipher the working principles of this and similar control mechanisms, we propose and employ here a novel computational approach that permits an expedient and exhaustive assessment of hundreds of minimal designs that could arise in vivo. Interestingly, this comparative analysis not only helps distinguish two most parsimonious mechanisms of crosstalk between the two channels by formulating a targeted and readily testable hypothesis, but also suggests that the G lignin-specific channel is more important for proper functioning than the S lignin-specific channel. While the proposed strategy of analysis in this article is tightly focused on lignin synthesis, it is likely to be of similar utility in extracting unbiased information in a variety of situations, where the spatial organization of molecular components is critical for coordinating the flow of cellular information, and where initially various control designs seem equally valid.

  14. Functional characterization of malaria parasites deficient in the K+ channel Kch2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellekvist, Peter; Mlambo, Godfree; Kumar, Nirbhay; Klaerke, Dan A

    2017-11-04

    K+ channels are integral membrane proteins, which contribute to maintain vital parameters such as the cellular membrane potential and cell volume. Malaria parasites encode two K+ channel homologues, Kch1 and Kch2, which are well-conserved among members of the Plasmodium genus. In the rodent malaria parasite P. berghei, the functional significance of K+ channel homologue PbKch2 was studied using targeted gene knock-out. The knockout parasites were characterized in a mouse model in terms of growth-kinetics and infectivity in the mosquito vector. Furthermore, using a tracer-uptake technique with 86Rb+ as a K+ congener, the K+ transporting properties of the knockout parasites were assessed. Genetic disruption of Kch2 did not grossly affect the phenotype in terms of asexual replication and pathogenicity in a mouse model. In contrast to Kch1-null parasites, Kch2-null parasites were fully capable of forming oocysts in female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. 86Rb+ uptake in Kch2-deficient blood-stage P. berghei parasites (Kch2-null) did not differ from that of wild-type (WT) parasites. About two-thirds of the 86Rb+ uptake in WT and in Kch2-null parasites could be inhibited by K+ channel blockers and could be inferred to the presence of functional Kch1 in Kch2 knockout parasites. Kch2 is therefore not required for transport of K+ in P. berghei and is not essential to mosquito-stage sporogonic development of the parasite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 4 in rat inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorodchenko, Alina; Rupprecht, Anne; Fuchs, Julia; Gross, Johann; Pohl, Elena E

    2011-08-01

    The uncoupling protein 4 (UCP4) belongs to the mitochondrial anion transporter family. Protein tissue distribution and functions are still a matter of debate. Using an antibody we have previously shown that UCP4 appears in neurons and to a lesser extent in astrocytes of murine neuronal tissue as early as days 12-14 of embryonic development (Smorodchenko et al., 2009). Here we demonstrated for the first time that neurosensory cells such as hair cells of the inner ear and mechanosensitive Merkel cells in skin also express a significant amount of UCP4. We tested the hypothesis about whether UCP4 contributes to the regulation of oxidative stress using the model of oxygen deprivation. For this we compared the protein expression level in freshly isolated explants of organ of Corti, modiolus and stria vascularis from neonatal rats with explants cultured under hypoxia. Western blot analysis revealed that the UCP4 level was not increased under hypoxic conditions, when compared to the mitochondrial outer membrane protein VDAC or to the anti-oxidative enzyme SOD2. We moreover demonstrated that UCP4 expression is differently regulated during postnatal stages and is region-specific. We hypothesized that UCP4 may play an important role in functional maturation of the rat inner ear. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Offset correction system for 128-channel self-triggering readout chip with in-channel 5-bit energy measurement functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otfinowski, P., E-mail: potfin@agh.edu.pl; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Kasinski, K.

    2015-04-21

    We report on a novel, two-stage 8-bit trimming solution dedicated for multichannel systems with reduced trim DAC area occupancy. The presented design was used for comparator offset correction in a 128-channel particle tracking, self-triggering readout system and manufactured in 180 nm CMOS process. The 8-bit trim DAC has a range of ±165 mV, current consumption of 3.2 µA and occupies an area of 37 µm×17 µm in each channel, which corresponds to a 6-bit conventional current steering DAC with similar linearity.

  17. Aptamer-Conjugated Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for Reducing Diabetes Risk via Retinol Binding Protein 4 Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Raheleh; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Amanlou, Massoud; Pasalar, Parvin

    2017-06-01

    Inhibition of the binding of retinol to its carrier, retinol binding protein 4, is a new strategy for treating type 2 diabetes; for this purpose, we have provided an aptamer-functionalized multishell calcium phosphate nanoparticle. First, calcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized and conjugated to the aptamer. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles releases the process of aptamer from nanoparticles and their inhibition function of binding retinol to retinol binding protein 4. After synthesizing and characterizing the multishell calcium phosphate nanoparticles and observing the noncytotoxicity of conjugate, the optimum time (48 hours) and the pH (7.4) for releasing the aptamer from the nanoparticles was determined. The half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) value for inhibition of retinol binding to retinol binding protein 4 was 210 femtomolar (fmol). The results revealed that the aptamer could prevent connection between retinol and retinol binding protein 4 at a very low IC 50 value (210 fmol) compared to other reported inhibitors. It seems that this aptamer could be used as an efficient candidate not only for decreasing the insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, but also for inhibiting the other retinol binding protein 4-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution, expression and functional effects of small conductance Ca-activated potassium (SK) channels in rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Karen; Floyd, Rachel; Shmygol, Andre; Shmygol, Anatoly; Mobasheri, A; Wray, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Calcium-activated potassium channels are important in a variety of smooth muscles, contributing to excitability and contractility. In the myometrium previous work has focussed on the large conductance channels (BK), and the role of small conductance channels (SK) has received scant attention, despite the finding that over-expression of an SK channel isoform (SK3) results in uterine dysfunction and delayed parturition. This study therefore characterises the expression of the three SK channel isoforms (SK1-3) in rat myometrium throughout pregnancy and investigates their effect on cytosolic [Ca] and force and compares this with that of BK channels. Consistent expression of all SK isoform transcripts and clear immunostaining of SK1-3 was found. Inhibition of SK1-3 channels (apamin, scyllatoxin) significantly inhibited outward current, caused membrane depolarisation and elicited action potentials in previously quiescent cells. Apamin or scyllatoxin increased the amplitude of [Ca] and force in spontaneously contracting myometrial strips throughout gestation. The functional effect of SK inhibition was larger than that of BK channel inhibition. Thus we show for the first time that SK1-3 channels are expressed and translated throughout pregnancy and contribute to outward current, regulate membrane potential and hence Ca signals in pregnant rat myometrium. They contribute more to quiescence that BK channels. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular and functional expression of high conductance Ca 2+ activated K+ channels in the eel intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lionetto, Maria G; Rizzello, Antonia; Giordano, Maria E

    2008-01-01

    Several types of K(+) channels have been identified in epithelial cells. Among them high conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK channels) are of relevant importance for their involvement in regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response following hypotonic stress. The aim of the present work......) by increasing intracellular Ca(2+) concentration with the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin (1 microM). BK(Ca) channels were also activated on both membranes by hypotonic swelling of the epithelium and their inhibition by 100 nM iberiotoxin (specific BK(Ca) inhibitor) abolished the Regulatory Volume Decrease (RVD......) of the intestinal cells after hypotonic swelling. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the molecular and functional expression of high conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels in eel intestine; the physiological role of these channels is mainly related to the RVD response of the epithelial cells following...

  20. Correlation functions with fusion-channel multiplicity in W{sub 3} Toda field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belavin, Vladimir [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky Avenue 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Quantum Physics, Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, 127994 Moscow (Russian Federation); Estienne, Benoit [LPTHE, CNRS and Université Pierre et Marie Curie,Sorbonne Universités, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Foda, Omar [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne,Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Santachiara, Raoul [LPTMS, CNRS (UMR 8626), Université Paris-Saclay,15 rue Georges Clémenceau, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-06-22

    Current studies of W{sub N} Toda field theory focus on correlation functions such that the W{sub N} highest-weight representations in the fusion channels are multiplicity-free. In this work, we study W{sub 3} Toda 4-point functions with multiplicity in the fusion channel. The conformal blocks of these 4-point functions involve matrix elements of a fully-degenerate primary field with a highest-weight in the adjoint representation of sl{sub 3}, and a fully-degenerate primary field with a highest-weight in the fundamental representation of sl{sub 3}. We show that, when the fusion rules do not involve multiplicities, the matrix elements of the fully-degenerate adjoint field, between two arbitrary descendant states, can be computed explicitly, on equal footing with the matrix elements of the semi-degenerate fundamental field. Using null-state conditions, we obtain a fourth-order Fuchsian differential equation for the conformal blocks. Using Okubo theory, we show that, due to the presence of multiplicities, this differential equation belongs to a class of Fuchsian equations that is different from those that have appeared so far in W{sub N} theories. We solve this equation, compute its monodromy group, and construct the monodromy-invariant correlation functions. This computation shows in detail how the ambiguities that are caused by the presence of multiplicities are fixed by requiring monodromy-invariance.

  1. Protein 4.1 and its interaction with other cytoskeletal proteins in Xenopus laevis oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Rosa; Petrucci, Tamara C; Correas, Isabel; Vaccaro, Maria C; De Marco, Nadia; Dale, Brian; Wilding, Martin

    2009-06-01

    In human red blood cells, protein 4.1 (4.1R) is an 80-kDa polypeptide that stabilizes the spectrin-actin network and anchors it to the plasma membrane. In non-erythroid cells there is a great variety of 4.1R isoforms, mainly generated by alternative pre-mRNA splicing, which localize at various intracellular sites, including the nucleus. We studied protein 4.1R distribution in relation to beta-spectrin, actin and cytokeratin during Xenopus oogenesis. Immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that at least two isoforms of protein 4.1R are present in Xenopus laevis oocytes: a 56-kDa form in the cytoplasm and a 37-kDa form in the germinal vesicle (GV). Antibodies to beta-spectrin reveal two bands of 239 and 100 kDa in the cytoplasm. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that both the 37- and 56-kDa isoforms of protein 4.1R associate with the 100-kDa isoform of beta-spectrin. Moreover, the 56-kDa form coimmunoprecipitates with a cytokeratin of the same molecular weight. Confocal immunolocalization shows that protein 4.1R distribution is in the peripheral cytoplasm, in the mitochondrial cloud (MC) and in the GV of previtellogenic oocytes. In the cytoplasm of vitellogenic oocytes, a loose network of fibers stained by the anti-protein 4.1R antibody spreads across the cytoplasm. beta-Spectrin has a similar distribution. Protein 4.1R was found to colocalize with actin in the cortex of oocytes in the form of fluorescent dots. Double immunolocalization of protein 4.1R and cytokeratin depicts two separate networks that overlap throughout the whole cytoplasm. Protein 4.1R filaments partially colocalize with cytokeratin in both the animal and vegetal hemispheres. We hypothesize that protein 4.1R could function as a linker protein between cytokeratin and the actin-based cytoskeleton.

  2. An essential function of phosphatidylinositol phosphates in activation of plant shaker‐type K+ channels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Kun; Li, Legong; Luan, Sheng

    2005-01-01

    ...‐induced activation of the rundown channel. We also identified aluminum block as a common feature of the plant shaker‐type channels and provided evidence that aluminum block of these channels may result from Al interaction with PIPs.

  3. Effects of Dual-Channel Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait Performance in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Springer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES applied to the peroneal nerve and thigh muscles on gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis. Participants were 45 subjects (age 57.8 ± 14.8 years with hemiparesis (5.37 ± 5.43 years since diagnosis demonstrating a foot-drop and impaired knee control. Thigh stimulation was applied either to the quadriceps or hamstrings muscles, depending on the dysfunction most affecting gait. Gait was assessed during a two-minute walk test with/without stimulation and with peroneal stimulation alone. A second assessment was conducted after six weeks of daily use. The addition of thigh muscles stimulation to peroneal stimulation significantly enhanced gait velocity measures at the initial and second evaluation. Gait symmetry was enhanced by the dual-channel stimulation only at the initial evaluation, and single-limb stance percentage only at the second assessment. For example, after six weeks, the two-minute gait speed with peroneal stimulation and with the dual channel was 0.66 ± 0.30 m/sec and 0.70 ± 0.31 m/sec, respectively (. In conclusion, dual-channel FES may enhance gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis more than peroneal FES alone.

  4. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate is required for KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel function but not anterograde trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice A Royal

    Full Text Available The slow delayed-rectifier potassium current (IKs is crucial for human cardiac action potential repolarization. The formation of IKs requires co-assembly of the KCNQ1 α-subunit and KCNE1 β-subunit, and mutations in either of these subunits can lead to hereditary long QT syndrome types 1 and 5, respectively. It is widely recognised that the KCNQ1/KCNE1 (Q1/E1 channel requires phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 binding for function. We previously identified a cluster of basic residues in the proximal C-terminus of KCNQ1 that form a PIP2/phosphoinositide binding site. Upon charge neutralisation of these residues we found that the channel became more retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, which raised the possibility that channel-phosphoinositide interactions could play a role in channel trafficking. To explore this further we used a chemically induced dimerization (CID system to selectively deplete PIP2 and/or phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI(4P at the plasma membrane (PM or Golgi, and we subsequently monitored the effects on both channel trafficking and function. The depletion of PIP2 and/or PI(4P at either the PM or Golgi did not alter channel cell-surface expression levels. However, channel function was extremely sensitive to the depletion of PIP2 at the PM, which is in contrast to the response of other cardiac potassium channels tested (Kir2.1 and Kv11.1. Surprisingly, when using the CID system IKs was dramatically reduced even before dimerization was induced, highlighting limitations regarding the utility of this system when studying processes highly sensitive to PIP2 depletion. In conclusion, we identify that the Q1/E1 channel does not require PIP2 or PI(4P for anterograde trafficking, but is heavily reliant on PIP2 for channel function once at the PM.

  5. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate is required for KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel function but not anterograde trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Alice A; Tinker, Andrew; Harmer, Stephen C

    2017-01-01

    The slow delayed-rectifier potassium current (IKs) is crucial for human cardiac action potential repolarization. The formation of IKs requires co-assembly of the KCNQ1 α-subunit and KCNE1 β-subunit, and mutations in either of these subunits can lead to hereditary long QT syndrome types 1 and 5, respectively. It is widely recognised that the KCNQ1/KCNE1 (Q1/E1) channel requires phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding for function. We previously identified a cluster of basic residues in the proximal C-terminus of KCNQ1 that form a PIP2/phosphoinositide binding site. Upon charge neutralisation of these residues we found that the channel became more retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, which raised the possibility that channel-phosphoinositide interactions could play a role in channel trafficking. To explore this further we used a chemically induced dimerization (CID) system to selectively deplete PIP2 and/or phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI(4)P) at the plasma membrane (PM) or Golgi, and we subsequently monitored the effects on both channel trafficking and function. The depletion of PIP2 and/or PI(4)P at either the PM or Golgi did not alter channel cell-surface expression levels. However, channel function was extremely sensitive to the depletion of PIP2 at the PM, which is in contrast to the response of other cardiac potassium channels tested (Kir2.1 and Kv11.1). Surprisingly, when using the CID system IKs was dramatically reduced even before dimerization was induced, highlighting limitations regarding the utility of this system when studying processes highly sensitive to PIP2 depletion. In conclusion, we identify that the Q1/E1 channel does not require PIP2 or PI(4)P for anterograde trafficking, but is heavily reliant on PIP2 for channel function once at the PM.

  6. Aging-associated changes in motor axon voltage-gated Na(+) channel function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Rosberg, Mette Romer; Alvarez, Susana; Klein, Dennis; Martini, Rudolf; Krarup, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating myelin abnormalities and conduction slowing occur in peripheral nerves during aging. In mice deficient of myelin protein P0, severe peripheral nervous system myelin damage is associated with ectopic expression of Nav1.8 voltage-gated Na(+) channels on motor axons aggravating the functional impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular aging on motor axon function with particular emphasis on Nav1.8. We compared tibial nerve conduction and excitability measures by threshold tracking in 12 months (mature) and 20 months (aged) wild-type (WT) mice. With aging, deviations during threshold electrotonus were attenuated and the resting current-threshold slope and early refractoriness were increased. Modeling indicated that, in addition to changes in passive membrane properties, motor fibers in aged WT mice were depolarized. An increased Nav1.8 isoform expression was found by immunohistochemistry. The depolarizing excitability features were absent in Nav1.8 null mice, and they were counteracted in WT mice by a Nav1.8 blocker. Our data suggest that alteration in voltage-gated Na(+) channel isoform expression contributes to changes in motor axon function during aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Caenorhabditis elegans iodotyrosine deiodinase ortholog SUP-18 functions through a conserved channel SC-box to regulate the muscle two-pore domain potassium channel SUP-9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Perez de la Cruz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans gene sup-18 suppress the defects in muscle contraction conferred by a gain-of-function mutation in SUP-10, a presumptive regulatory subunit of the SUP-9 two-pore domain K(+ channel associated with muscle membranes. We cloned sup-18 and found that it encodes the C. elegans ortholog of mammalian iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD, an NADH oxidase/flavin reductase that functions in iodine recycling and is important for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism. The FMN-binding site of mammalian IYD is conserved in SUP-18, which appears to require catalytic activity to function. Genetic analyses suggest that SUP-10 can function with SUP-18 to activate SUP-9 through a pathway that is independent of the presumptive SUP-9 regulatory subunit UNC-93. We identified a novel evolutionarily conserved serine-cysteine-rich region in the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of SUP-9 required for its specific activation by SUP-10 and SUP-18 but not by UNC-93. Since two-pore domain K(+ channels regulate the resting membrane potentials of numerous cell types, we suggest that the SUP-18 IYD regulates the activity of the SUP-9 channel using NADH as a coenzyme and thus couples the metabolic state of muscle cells to muscle membrane excitability.

  8. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 modulates airway smooth muscle cell phenotype in experimental asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilecki, Bartosz; Schlosser, Anders; Wulf-Johansson, Helle

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, several proteins of the extracellular matrix have been characterised as active contributors to allergic airway disease. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is an extracellular matrix protein abundant in the lung, whose biological functions remain poorly understood. I...

  9. Genetic variants of retinol-binding protein 4 in adolescents are ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic variants of retinol-binding protein 4 in adolescents are associated with liver function and inflammatory markers but not with obesity and insulin resistance. Chin-Jung Lin Nain-Feng Chu Yi-Jen Hung Dee Pei Chien-Hsing Lee Fone-Ching Hsiao Chieh-Hua Lu Chang-Hsun Hsieh. Research Note Volume 94 Issue 3 ...

  10. Calcium and Vitamin D increase mRNA levels for the growth control hIK1 channel in human epidermal keratinocytes but functional channels are not observed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossie Sandra

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermediate-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels (IKs modulate proliferation and differentiation in mesodermal cells by enhancing calcium influx, and they contribute to the physiology of fluid movement in certain epithelia. Previous reports suggest that IK channels stimulate proliferative growth in a keratinocyte cell line; however, because these channels indirectly promote calcium influx, a critically unique component of the keratinocyte differentiation program, an alternative hypothesis is that they would be anti-proliferative and pro-differentiating. This study addresses these hypotheses. Methods Real-time PCR, patch clamp electrophysiology, and proliferation assays were used to determine if human IK1 (hIK1 expression and function are correlated with either proliferation or differentiation in cultured human skin epidermal keratinocytes, and skin biopsies grown in explant culture. Results hIK1 mRNA expression in human keratinocytes and skin was increased in response to anti-proliferative/pro-differentiating stimuli (elevated calcium and Vitamin D. Correspondingly, the hIK1 agonist 1-EBIO inhibited keratinocyte proliferation suggesting that the channel could be anti-proliferative and pro-differentiating. However, this proliferative inhibition by 1-EBIO was not reversed by a panel of hIK1 blockers, calling into question the mechanism of 1-EBIO action. Subsequent patch clamp electrophysiological analysis failed to detect hIK1 channel currents in keratinocytes, even those expressing substantial hIK1 mRNA in response to calcium and Vitamin D induced differentiation. Identical electrophysiological recording conditions were then used to observe robust IK1 currents in fibroblasts which express IK1 mRNA levels comparable to those of keratinocytes. Thus, the absence of observable hIK1 currents in keratinocytes was not a function of the electrophysiological techniques. Conclusion Human keratinocyte differentiation is

  11. Tracking Hillslope and Channel Changes During Development with the Width Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D.; Baker, M. E.; Miller, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Linking watershed geomorphology to observed hydrologic response is a topic of considerable interest in watershed science. For this purpose, the width function remains popular because it is easily obtained from terrain analysis and because it can mimic realistic unit hydrographs while incorporating network topology. Of published studies using this technique, none have analyzed urban or urbanizing landscapes, so its efficacy and utility in modified landscapes remains largely unknown. We applied five sequential LiDAR-derived DEMs spanning the development of two watersheds in Clarksburg, MD to track changes in surface flow pathways and understand differences in the resulting width functions. Both watersheds are within the Clarksburg Special Protection Area and utilize state of the art stormwater management (SWM) techniques to protect local streams; however the purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of development-induced topographic changes prior to consideration of mitigation by SWM. A third, undeveloped forested watershed was also used to assess temporal changes independent of development. Multidirectional flow pathways were determined for each year of LiDAR, explicitly including focused flow along roads and throughput from detention basin drainages. We analyzed patterns of tangential curvature to delineate stream networks, distinguished subsequent hillslope and channel flow distances, and quantified changes in their distributions as development progressed. Velocity-modified width functions generated from distributions of hillslope and channel flow distances were used to assess how idealized watershed response to a unit of rainfall changed during development. As development progressed, modified width functions exhibited a shift towards shorter flowpath lengths, suggesting potential for decreased storm response times. The observed pattern appeared largely driven by artificial increases in drainage density, despite widespread channel burial, as newly

  12. Functional and molecular evidence for Kv7 channel subtypes in human detrusor from patients with and without bladder outflow obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Svalø

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate whether Kv7 channels and their ancillary β-subunits, KCNE, are functionally expressed in the human urinary bladder. Kv7 channels were examined at the molecular level and by functional studies using RT-qPCR and myography, respectively. We found mRNA expression of KCNQ1, KCNQ3-KCNQ5 and KCNE1-5 in the human urinary bladder from patients with normal bladder function (n = 7 and in patients with bladder outflow obstruction (n = 3. Interestingly, a 3.4-fold up-regulation of KCNQ1 was observed in the latter. The Kv7 channel subtype selective modulators, ML277 (activator of Kv7.1 channels, 10 μM and ML213 (activator of Kv7.2, Kv7.4, Kv7.4/7.5 and Kv7.5 channels, 10 μM, reduced the tone of 1 μM carbachol pre-constricted bladder strips. XE991 (blocker of Kv7.1-7.5 channels, 10 μM had opposing effects as it increased contractions achieved with 20 mM KPSS. Furthermore, we investigated if there is interplay between Kv7 channels and β-adrenoceptors. Using cumulative additions of isoprenaline (β-adrenoceptor agonist and forskolin (adenylyl cyclase activator in combination with the Kv7 channel activator and blocker, retigabine and XE991, we did not find interplay between Kv7 channels and β-adrenoceptors in the human urinary bladder. The performed gene expression analysis combined with the organ bath studies imply that compounds that activate Kv7 channels could be useful for treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.

  13. New aspects of HERG K⁺ channel function depending upon cardiac spatial heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pen Zhang

    Full Text Available HERG K(+ channel, the genetic counterpart of rapid delayed rectifier K(+ current in cardiac cells, is responsible for many cases of inherited and drug-induced long QT syndromes. HERG has unusual biophysical properties distinct from those of other K(+ channels. While the conventional pulse protocols in patch-clamp studies have helped us elucidate these properties, their limitations in assessing HERG function have also been progressively noticed. We employed AP-clamp techniques using physiological action potential waveforms recorded from various regions of canine heart to study HERG function in HEK293 cells and identified several novel aspects of HERG function. We showed that under AP-clamp IHERG increased gradually with membrane repolarization, peaked at potentials around 20-30 mV more negative than revealed by pulse protocols and at action potential duration (APD to 60%-70% full repolarization, and fell rapidly at the terminal phase of repolarization. We found that the rising phase of IHERG was conferred by removal of inactivation and the decaying phase resulted from a fall in driving force, which were all determined by the rate of membrane repolarization. We identified regional heterogeneity and transmural gradient of IHERG when quantified with the area covered by IHERG trace. In addition, we observed regional and transmural differences of IHERG in response to dofetilide blockade. Finally, we characterized the influence of HERG function by selective inhibition of other ion currents. Based on our results, we conclude that the distinct biophysical properties of HERG reported by AP-clamp confer its unique function in cardiac repolarization thereby in antiarrhythmia and arrhythmogenesis.

  14. Role of TRPV channels in regulating various pancreatic β-cell functions: Lessons from in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypski, Marek; Billert, Maria; Mergler, Stefan; Khajavi, Noushafarin; Nowak, Krzysztof W; Strowski, Mathias Z

    2017-03-22

    Pancreatic β-cell functions are regulated by a variety of endogenous and exogenous factors. Calcium is one of the most potent triggers of β-cell growth, insulin production and exocytosis. Recently, others and we showed that TRPV channels are expressed in insulin producing cell lines and/or primary β-cells. These channels modulate calcium ions, insulin secretion and cell proliferation. Besides the classical roles of TRPV channels in the sensory system, there are also novel functions described in non-excitable cells such as in insulin-producing β-cells. This review summarises the current knowledge about the expression and the role of TRPV channels in controlling β-cell functions based upon studies performed in isolated primary β-cells as well as permanent β-cell models.

  15. The Segregated Expression of Voltage-Gated Potassium and Sodium Channels in Neuronal Membranes: Functional Implications and Regulatory Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duménieu, Maël; Oulé, Marie; Kreutz, Michael R; Lopez-Rojas, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Neurons are highly polarized cells with apparent functional and morphological differences between dendrites and axon. A critical determinant for the molecular and functional identity of axonal and dendritic segments is the restricted expression of voltage-gated ion channels (VGCs). Several studies show an uneven distribution of ion channels and their differential regulation within dendrites and axons, which is a prerequisite for an appropriate integration of synaptic inputs and the generation of adequate action potential (AP) firing patterns. This review article will focus on the signaling pathways leading to segmented expression of voltage-gated potassium and sodium ion channels at the neuronal plasma membrane and the regulatory mechanisms ensuring segregated functions. We will also discuss the relevance of proper ion channel targeting for neuronal physiology and how alterations in polarized distribution contribute to neuronal pathology.

  16. Alternatively Spliced Human TREK-1 Variants Alter TREK-1 Channel Function and Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Chad L; Wu, Yi-Ying; Barnett, Scott D; Lee, Michael T; Burkin, Heather R; Buxton, Iain L O

    2015-11-01

    TREK-1, an outward-rectifying potassium channel activated by stretch, is found in the myometrium of pregnant women. Decreased expression of TREK-1 near term suggests that TREK-1 may contribute to uterine quiescence during gestation. Five alternatively spliced TREK-1 variants were identified in the myometrium of mothers who delivered spontaneously preterm (TREK-1 variants could interfere with TREK-1 function or expression. To investigate a potential role for these variants, immunofluorescence, cell surface assays, Western blots, and patch clamp were employed to study TREK-1 and TREK-1 variants expressed in HEK293T cells. The results of this study demonstrate that coexpression of TREK-1 with TREK-1 variants alters TREK-1 expression and suppresses channel function. Each variant affected TREK-1 in a disparate manner. In HEK293T cells coexpressing TREK-1 and each variant, TREK-1 membrane expression was diminished with compartmentalization inside the cell. When expressed alone, individual variants displayed channel properties that were significantly decreased compared to full-length TREK-1. In coexpression studies using patch clamp, basal TREK-1 currents were reduced by ∼64% (4.3 vs. 12.0 pA/pF) on average at 0 mV when coexpressed with each variant. TREK-1 currents that were activated by intracellular acidosis were reduced an average of ∼77% (21.4 vs. 94.5 pA/pF) at 0 mV when cells were transfected with TREK-1 and any one of the splice variants. These data correlate the presence of TREK-1 variants to reduced TREK-1 activity, suggesting a pathological role for TREK-1 variants in preterm labor. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  17. Alternatively Spliced Human TREK-1 Variants Alter TREK-1 Channel Function and Localization1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Chad L.; Wu, Yi-Ying; Barnett, Scott D.; Lee, Michael T.; Burkin, Heather R.; Buxton, Iain L.O.

    2015-01-01

    TREK-1, an outward-rectifying potassium channel activated by stretch, is found in the myometrium of pregnant women. Decreased expression of TREK-1 near term suggests that TREK-1 may contribute to uterine quiescence during gestation. Five alternatively spliced TREK-1 variants were identified in the myometrium of mothers who delivered spontaneously preterm (TREK-1 variants could interfere with TREK-1 function or expression. To investigate a potential role for these variants, immunofluorescence, cell surface assays, Western blots, and patch clamp were employed to study TREK-1 and TREK-1 variants expressed in HEK293T cells. The results of this study demonstrate that coexpression of TREK-1 with TREK-1 variants alters TREK-1 expression and suppresses channel function. Each variant affected TREK-1 in a disparate manner. In HEK293T cells coexpressing TREK-1 and each variant, TREK-1 membrane expression was diminished with compartmentalization inside the cell. When expressed alone, individual variants displayed channel properties that were significantly decreased compared to full-length TREK-1. In coexpression studies using patch clamp, basal TREK-1 currents were reduced by ∼64% (4.3 vs. 12.0 pA/pF) on average at 0 mV when coexpressed with each variant. TREK-1 currents that were activated by intracellular acidosis were reduced an average of ∼77% (21.4 vs. 94.5 pA/pF) at 0 mV when cells were transfected with TREK-1 and any one of the splice variants. These data correlate the presence of TREK-1 variants to reduced TREK-1 activity, suggesting a pathological role for TREK-1 variants in preterm labor. PMID:26400398

  18. Redox and Nitric Oxide-Mediated Regulation of Sensory Neuron Ion Channel Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) can intimately control neuronal excitability and synaptic strength by regulating the function of many ion channels. In peripheral sensory neurons, such regulation contributes towards the control of somatosensory processing; therefore, understanding the mechanisms of such regulation is necessary for the development of new therapeutic strategies and for the treatment of sensory dysfunctions, such as chronic pain. Recent Advances: Tremendous progress in deciphering nitric oxide (NO) and ROS signaling in the nervous system has been made in recent decades. This includes the recognition of these molecules as important second messengers and the elucidation of their metabolic pathways and cellular targets. Mounting evidence suggests that these targets include many ion channels which can be directly or indirectly modulated by ROS and NO. However, the mechanisms specific to sensory neurons are still poorly understood. This review will therefore summarize recent findings that highlight the complex nature of the signaling pathways involved in redox/NO regulation of sensory neuron ion channels and excitability; references to redox mechanisms described in other neuron types will be made where necessary. Critical Issues: The complexity and interplay within the redox, NO, and other gasotransmitter modulation of protein function are still largely unresolved. Issues of specificity and intracellular localization of these signaling cascades will also be addressed. Future Directions: Since our understanding of ROS and RNS signaling in sensory neurons is limited, there is a multitude of future directions; one of the most important issues for further study is the establishment of the exact roles that these signaling pathways play in pain processing and the translation of this understanding into new therapeutics. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 486–504. PMID:24735331

  19. Functional properties and toxin pharmacology of a dorsal root ganglion sodium channel viewed through its voltage sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puopolo, Michelino; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Bean, Bruce P.

    2011-01-01

    The voltage-activated sodium (Nav) channel Nav1.9 is expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons where it is believed to play an important role in nociception. Progress in revealing the functional properties and pharmacological sensitivities of this non-canonical Nav channel has been slow because attempts to express this channel in a heterologous expression system have been unsuccessful. Here, we use a protein engineering approach to dissect the contributions of the four Nav1.9 voltage sensors to channel function and pharmacology. We define individual S3b–S4 paddle motifs within each voltage sensor, and show that they can sense changes in membrane voltage and drive voltage sensor activation when transplanted into voltage-activated potassium channels. We also find that the paddle motifs in Nav1.9 are targeted by animal toxins, and that these toxins alter Nav1.9-mediated currents in DRG neurons. Our results demonstrate that slowly activating and inactivating Nav1.9 channels have functional and pharmacological properties in common with canonical Nav channels, but also show distinctive pharmacological sensitivities that can potentially be exploited for developing novel treatments for pain. PMID:21670206

  20. Functional properties and toxin pharmacology of a dorsal root ganglion sodium channel viewed through its voltage sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Frank; Puopolo, Michelino; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Bean, Bruce P; Swartz, Kenton J

    2011-07-01

    The voltage-activated sodium (Nav) channel Nav1.9 is expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons where it is believed to play an important role in nociception. Progress in revealing the functional properties and pharmacological sensitivities of this non-canonical Nav channel has been slow because attempts to express this channel in a heterologous expression system have been unsuccessful. Here, we use a protein engineering approach to dissect the contributions of the four Nav1.9 voltage sensors to channel function and pharmacology. We define individual S3b-S4 paddle motifs within each voltage sensor, and show that they can sense changes in membrane voltage and drive voltage sensor activation when transplanted into voltage-activated potassium channels. We also find that the paddle motifs in Nav1.9 are targeted by animal toxins, and that these toxins alter Nav1.9-mediated currents in DRG neurons. Our results demonstrate that slowly activating and inactivating Nav1.9 channels have functional and pharmacological properties in common with canonical Nav channels, but also show distinctive pharmacological sensitivities that can potentially be exploited for developing novel treatments for pain.

  1. Transient receptor potential channel polymorphisms are associated with the somatosensory function in neuropathic pain patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Binder

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential channels are important mediators of thermal and mechanical stimuli and play an important role in neuropathic pain. The contribution of hereditary variants in the genes of transient receptor potential channels to neuropathic pain is unknown. We investigated the frequency of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1, transient receptor potential melastin 8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and their impact on somatosensory abnormalities in neuropathic pain patients. Within the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (Deutscher Forscbungsverbund Neuropathischer Schmerz 371 neuropathic pain patients were phenotypically characterized using standardized quantitative sensory testing. Pyrosequencing was employed to determine a total of eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms in transient receptor potential channel genes of the neuropathic pain patients and a cohort of 253 German healthy volunteers. Associations of quantitative sensory testing parameters and single nucleotide polymorphisms between and within groups and subgroups, based on sensory phenotypes, were analyzed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms frequencies did not differ between both the cohorts. However, in neuropathic pain patients transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 710G>A (rs920829, E179K was associated with the presence of paradoxical heat sensation (p = 0.03, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1911A>G (rs8065080, I585V with cold hypoalgesia (p = 0.0035. Two main subgroups characterized by preserved (1 and impaired (2 sensory function were identified. In subgroup 1 transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1911A>G led to significantly less heat hyperalgesia, pinprick hyperalgesia and mechanical hypaesthesia (p = 0.006, p = 0.005 and pG (rs222747, M315I to cold hypaesthesia (p = 0.002, but there was absence of associations in subgroup 2. In this study we found no evidence that genetic

  2. The advantage of channeling nucleotides for very processive functions [version 2; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Zala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside triphosphate (NTPs, like ATP (adenosine 5’-triphosphate and GTP (guanosine 5’-triphosphate, have long been considered sufficiently concentrated and diffusible to fuel all cellular ATPases (adenosine triphosphatases and GTPases (guanosine triphosphatases in an energetically healthy cell without becoming limiting for function. However, increasing evidence for the importance of local ATP and GTP pools, synthesised in close proximity to ATP- or GTP-consuming reactions, has fundamentally challenged our view of energy metabolism. It has become evident that cellular energy metabolism occurs in many specialised ‘microcompartments’, where energy in the form of NTPs is transferred preferentially from NTP-generating modules directly to NTP-consuming modules. Such energy channeling occurs when diffusion through the cytosol is limited, where these modules are physically close and, in particular, if the NTP-consuming reaction has a very high turnover, i.e. is very processive. Here, we summarise the evidence for these conclusions and describe new insights into the physiological importance and molecular mechanisms of energy channeling gained from recent studies. In particular, we describe the role of glycolytic enzymes for axonal vesicle transport and nucleoside diphosphate kinases for the functions of dynamins and dynamin-related GTPases.

  3. Liquid Metal as Connecting or Functional Recovery Channel for the Transected Sciatic Nerve

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the liquid metal GaInSn alloy (67% Ga, 20.5% In, and 12.5% Sn by volume) is proposed for the first time to repair the peripheral neurotmesis as connecting or functional recovery channel. Such material owns a group of unique merits in many aspects, such as favorable fluidity, super compliance, high electrical conductivity, which are rather beneficial for conducting the excited signal of nerve during the regeneration process in vivo. It was found that the measured electroneurographic signal from the transected bullfrog sciatic nerve reconnected by the liquid metal after the electrical stimulation was close to that from the intact sciatic nerve. The control experiments through replacement of GaInSn with the conventionally used Riger Solution revealed that Riger Solution could not be competitive with the liquid metal in the performance as functional recovery channel. In addition, through evaluation of the basic electrical property, the material GaInSn works more suitable for the conduction of the...

  4. Regulation of chondrocyte functions by transient receptor potential cation channel V6 in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tengfei; Ma, Jun; Guo, Lei; Yang, Peng; Zhou, Xuhui; Ye, Tianwen

    2017-11-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels function to maintain the dynamic balance of calcium signaling and calcium metabolism in bones. The goal of this study was to determine the potential role of TRPV6 in regulation of chondrocytes. The level of TRPV6 expression was analyzed by western blot in articular cartilage derived from the knee joints of osteoarthritis (OA) rat models and OA patients. Bone structure and osteoarthritic changes in the knee joints of TRPV6 knockout mice were examined using micro-computed and histological analysis at the age of 6 and 12 months old. Furthermore, to investigate the effects of TRPV6 on chondrocyte extracellular matrix secretion, the release of matrix degrading enzymes, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, we decreased and increased TRPV6 expression in chondrocytes with lentiviral constructs encoding shRNA targeting TRPV6 and encoding TRPV6, respectively. The results showed that the level of TRPV6 expression in an OA rat model was markedly down-regulated. TRPV6 knockout mice showed severe osteoarthritis changes, including cartilage fibrillation, eburnation, and loss of proteoglycans. In addition, deficiency of TRPV6 clearly affected chondrocyte function, such as extracellular matrix secretion, the release of matrix degrading enzymes, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Taken together, our results implicated that TRPV6 channel, as a chondro-protective factor, was involved in the pathogenesis of OA. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Downregulate the Functional Expression of TRPV4 Channels in Retinal Microvascular Endothelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Kevin; McNaughten, Jennifer; McGahon, Mary K.; Kelly, Catriona; Kyle, Daniel; Yong, Phaik Har

    2015-01-01

    Retinal endothelial cell dysfunction is believed to play a key role in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Numerous studies have shown that TRPV4 channels are critically involved in maintaining normal endothelial cell function. In the current paper, we demonstrate that TRPV4 is functionally expressed in the endothelium of the retinal microcirculation and that both channel expression and activity is downregulated by hyperglycaemia. Quantitative PCR and immunostaining demonstrated molecular expression of TRPV4 in cultured bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells (RMECs). Functional TRPV4 activity was assessed in cultured RMECs from endothelial Ca2+-responses recorded using fura-2 microfluorimetry and electrophysiological recordings of membrane currents. The TRPV4 agonist 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4-αPDD) increased [Ca2+]i in RMECs and this response was largely abolished using siRNA targeted against TRPV4. These Ca2+-signals were completely inhibited by removal of extracellular Ca2+, confirming their dependence on influx of extracellular Ca2+. The 4-αPDD Ca2+-response recorded in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), which depletes the intracellular stores preventing any signal amplification through store release, was used as a measure of Ca2+-influx across the cell membrane. This response was blocked by HC067047, a TRPV4 antagonist. Under voltage clamp conditions, the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A stimulated a membrane current, which was again inhibited by HC067047. Following incubation with 25mM D-glucose TRPV4 expression was reduced in comparison with RMECs cultured under control conditions, as were 4αPDD-induced Ca2+-responses in the presence of CPA and ion currents evoked by GSK1016790A. Molecular expression of TRPV4 in the retinal vascular endothelium of 3 months’ streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was also reduced in comparison with that in age-matched controls. We conclude that hyperglycaemia and diabetes reduce the

  6. Functional connectivity among multi-channel EEGs when working memory load reaches the capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Huipo; Bai, Wenwen; Tian, Xin

    2016-01-15

    Evidence from behavioral studies has suggested a capacity existed in working memory. As the concept of functional connectivity has been introduced into neuroscience research in the recent years, the aim of this study is to investigate the functional connectivity in the brain when working memory load reaches the capacity. 32-channel electroencephalographs (EEGs) were recorded for 16 healthy subjects, while they performed a visual working memory task with load 1-6. Individual working memory capacity was calculated according to behavioral results. Short-time Fourier transform was used to determine the principal frequency band (theta band) related to working memory. The functional connectivity among EEGs was measured by the directed transform function (DTF) via spectral Granger causal analysis. The capacity was 4 calculated from the behavioral results. The power was focused in the frontal midline region. The strongest connectivity strengths of EEG theta components from load 1 to 6 distributed in the frontal midline region. The curve of DTF values vs load numbers showed that DTF increased from load 1 to 4, peaked at load 4, then decreased after load 4. This study finds that the functional connectivity between EEGs, described quantitatively by DTF, became less strong when working memory load exceeded the capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of Automated Patch Clamp Technique to Investigate CFTR Chloride Channel Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billet, Arnaud; Froux, Lionel; Hanrahan, John W; Becq, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    The chloride (Cl-) channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is defective in cystic fibrosis (CF), and mutation of its encoding gene leads to various defects such as retention of the misfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, reduced stability at the plasma membrane, abnormal channel gating with low open probability, and thermal instability, which leads to inactivation of the channel at physiological temperature. Pharmacotherapy is one major therapeutic approach in the CF field and needs sensible and fast tools to identify promising compounds. The high throughput screening assays available are often fast and sensible techniques but with lack of specificity. Few works used automated patch clamp (APC) for CFTR recording, and none have compared conventional and planar techniques and demonstrated their capabilities for different types of experiments. In this study, we evaluated the use of planar parallel APC technique for pharmacological search of CFTR-trafficking correctors and CFTR function modulators. Using optimized conditions, we recorded both wt- and corrected F508del-CFTR Cl- currents with automated whole-cell patch clamp and compared the data to results obtained with conventional manual whole-cell patch clamp. We found no significant difference in patch clamp parameters such as cell capacitance and series resistance between automated and manual patch clamp. Also, the results showed good similarities of CFTR currents recording between the two methods. We showed that similar stimulation protocols could be used in both manual and automatic techniques allowing precise control of temperature, classic I/V relationship, and monitoring of current stability in time. In conclusion, parallel patch-clamp recording allows rapid and efficient investigation of CFTR currents with a variety of tests available and could be considered as new tool for medium throughput screening in CF pharmacotherapy.

  8. Inflammatory mediator bradykinin increases population of sensory neurons expressing functional T-type Ca(2+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongyang; Liang, Ce; Zhang, Fan; Men, Hongchao; Du, Xiaona; Gamper, Nikita; Zhang, Hailin

    2016-04-29

    T-type Ca(2+) channels are important regulators of peripheral sensory neuron excitability. Accordingly, T-type Ca(2+) currents are often increased in various pathological pain conditions, such as inflammation or nerve injury. Here we investigated effects of inflammation on functional expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels in small-diameter cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We found that overnight treatment of DRG cultures with a cocktail of inflammatory mediators bradykinin (BK), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), norepinephrine (NE) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) strongly increased the population size of the small-diameter neurons displaying low-voltage activated (LVA, T-type) Ca(2+) currents while having no effect on the peak LVA current amplitude. When applied individually, BK and ATP also increased the population size of LVA-positive neurons while NE and PGE2 had no effect. The PLC inhibitor U-73122 and B2 receptor antagonist, Hoe-140, both abolished the increase of the population of LVA-positive DRG neurons. Inflammatory treatment did not affect CaV3.2 mRNA or protein levels in DRG cultures. Furthermore, an ubiquitination inhibitor, MG132, did not increase the population of LVA-positive neurons. Our data suggest that inflammatory mediators BK and ATP increase the abundance of LVA-positive DRG neurons in total neuronal population by stimulating the recruitment of a 'reserve pool' of CaV3.2 channels, particularly in neurons that do not display measurable LVA currents under control conditions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Atom-by-atom engineering of voltage-gated ion channels: Magnified insights into function and pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Kim, Robin Y; Ahern, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Unnatural amino acid incorporation into ion channels has proven to be a valuable approach to interrogate detailed hypotheses arising from atomic resolution structures. In this short review, we provide a brief overview of some of the basic principles and methods for incorporation of unnatural amin...... acids into proteins. We also review insights into the function and pharmacology of voltage-gated ion channels that have emerged from unnatural amino acid mutagenesis approaches....

  10. Stimulation map for control of functional grasp based on multi-channel EMG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović Maneski, Lana; Topalović, Ivan; Jovičić, Nenad; Dedijer, Suzana; Konstantinović, Ljubica; Popović, Dejan B

    2016-11-01

    Transcutaneous activation of muscles with electrical stimulation has limited selectivity in recruiting paralyzed muscles in stroke patients. However, the selectivity could be increased by the application of smaller electrodes and their appropriate positioning on the skin. We developed a method for selecting the appropriate positions of the stimulating electrodes based on electromyography (EMG). The EMG activity maps were estimated from signals recorded with two electrode arrays and two 24-channel wearable amplifiers positioned on the nonparetic and paretic forearms. The areas where the difference between the EMG maps obtained from the nonparetic and paretic arms was significant were identified as the stimulation sites. The stimulation was applied through array electrodes with magnetic holders and two wearable stimulators with four output channels each. The measures of functionality included joint angles measured with goniometers (hand opening) and grasp force measured with a multi-contact dynamometer (grasping). The stimulation protocol comprised co-activation of flexors and extensors to stabilize the wrist joint and prevent pronation/supination. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional mutagenesis screens reveal the ‘cap structure’ formation in disulfide-bridge free TASK channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Matthias; Rinné, Susanne; Kiper, Aytug K.; Ramírez, David; Netter, Michael F.; Bustos, Daniel; Ortiz-Bonnin, Beatriz; González, Wendy; Decher, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Two-pore-domain potassium (K2P) channels have a large extracellular cap structure formed by two M1-P1 linkers, containing a cysteine for dimerization. However, this cysteine is not present in the TASK-1/3/5 subfamily. The functional role of the cap is poorly understood and it remained unclear whether K2P channels assemble in the domain-swapped orientation or not. Functional alanine-mutagenesis screens of TASK-1 and TRAAK were used to build an in silico model of the TASK-1 cap. According to our data the cap structure of disulfide-bridge free TASK channels is similar to that of other K2P channels and is most likely assembled in the domain-swapped orientation. As the conserved cysteine is not essential for functional expression of all K2P channels tested, we propose that hydrophobic residues at the inner leaflets of the cap domains can interact with each other and that this way of stabilizing the cap is most likely conserved among K2P channels. PMID:26794006

  12. Infant sudden death: Mutations responsible for impaired Nav1.5 channel trafficking and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gando, Ivan; Morganstein, Jace; Jana, Kundan; McDonald, Thomas V; Tang, Yingying; Coetzee, William A

    2017-06-01

    Two genetic variants in SCN5A, encoding the Nav1.5 Na+ channel α-subunit, were found in a 5-month-old girl who died suddenly in her sleep. The first variant is a missense mutation, resulting in an amino acid change (Q1832E), which has been described (but not characterized) in a patient with Brugada syndrome. The second is a nonsense mutation that produces a premature stop codon and a C-terminal truncation (R1944Δ). To investigate their functional relevance with patch clamp experiments in transfected HEK-293 cells. The Q1832E mutation drastically reduced Nav1.5 current density. The R1944Δ C-terminal truncation had negligible effects on Nav1.5 current density. Neither of the mutations affected the voltage dependence of steady activation and inactivation or influenced the late Na+ current or the recovery from inactivation. Biochemical and immunofluorescent approaches demonstrated that the Q1832E mutation caused severe trafficking defects. Polymerase chain reaction cloning and sequencing the victim's genomic DNA allowed us to determine that the two variants were in trans. We investigated the functional consequences by coexpressing Nav1.5(Q1832E) and Nav1.5(R1944Δ), which led to a significantly reduced current amplitude relative to wild-type. These sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)-related variants caused a severely dysfunctional Nav1.5 channel, which was mainly due to trafficking defects caused by the Q1832E mutation. The decreased current density is likely to be a major contributing factor to arrhythmogenesis in Brugada syndrome and the sudden death of this SIDS victim. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Functional imaging of muscle oxygenation using a 200-channel cw NIRS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Katsuyuki; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Kohata, Daisuke; Kudo, Nobuki; Hamaoka, Takatumi; Kime, Ryotaro; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2001-06-01

    Functional imaging of muscle oxygenation using NIRS is a promising technique for evaluation of the heterogeneity of muscle function and diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease or muscle injury. We have developed a 200-channel imaging system that can measure the changes in oxygenation and blood volume of muscles and that covers wider area than previously reported systems. Our system consisted of 40 probes, a multiplexer for switching signals to and from the probes, and a personal computer for obtaining images. In each probe, one two-wavelength LED (770 and 830 nm) and five photodiodes were mounted on a flexible substrate. In order to eliminate the influence of a subcutaneous fat layer, a correction method, which we previously developed, was also used in imaging. Thus, quantitative changes in concentrations of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin were obtained. Temporal resolution was 1.5 s and spatial resolution was about 20 mm, depending on probe separations. Exercise tests (isometric contraction of 50% MVC) on the thigh with and without arterial occlusion were conducted, and changes in muscle oxygenation were imaged using the developed system. Results showed that the heterogeneity of deoxygenation and reoxygenation during exercise and recovery periods, respectively, were clearly observed. These results suggest that optical imaging of dynamic change in muscle oxygenation using NIRS would be useful not only for basic physiological studies but also for clinical applications with respect to muscle functions.

  14. Monocyte chemotactic protein-4 (MCP-4/CCL-13) and CC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Monocyte chemotactic protein-4 (MCP-4/CCL-13) is a potent chemoattractant to eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. Objective: We aimed to investigate MCP-4 and its CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) expression on cells of induced sputum during acute asthma exacerbation. Methods: ...

  15. Functional roles of the amino terminal domain in determining biophysical properties of Cx50 gap junction channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eXin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication through gap junction channels is essential for synchronized and coordinated cellular activities. The gap junction channel pore size, its switch control for opening/closing, and the modulations by chemicals can be different depending on the connexin subtypes that compose the channel. Recent structural and functional studies provide compelling evidence that the amino terminal (NT domains of several connexins line the pore of gap junction channels and play an important role in single channel conductance (γj and transjunctional voltage-dependent gating (Vj-gating. This article reviews recent studies conducted on a series of mutations/chimeras in the NT domain of connexin50 (Cx50. Functional examination of the gap junction channels formed by these mutants/chimeras shows the net charge number at the NT domain to be an important factor in γj and in Vj-gating. Furthermore, with an increase in the net negative charge at the NT domain, we observed an increase in the γj, as well as changes in the parameters of the Boltzmann fit of the normalized steady-state conductance and Vj relationship. Our data are consistent with a structural model where the NT domain of Cx50 lines the gap junction pore and plays an important role in sensing Vj and in the subsequent conformational changes leading to gating, as well as in limiting the rate of ion permeation.

  16. Formation of Functional Heterodimers by TREK-1 and TREK-2 Two-pore Domain Potassium Channel Subunits*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Miklós; Czirják, Gábor; Enyedi, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Two-pore domain (K2P) potassium channels are the major molecular correlates of the background (leak) K+ current in a wide variety of cell types. They generally play a key role in setting the resting membrane potential and regulate the response of excitable cells to various stimuli. K2P channels usually function as homodimers, and only a few examples of heteromerization have been previously reported. Expression of the TREK (TWIK-related K+ channel) subfamily members of K2P channels often overlaps in neurons and in other excitable cells. Here, we demonstrate that heterologous coexpression of TREK-1 and TREK-2 subunits results in the formation of functional heterodimers. Taking advantage of a tandem construct (in which the two different subunits were linked together to enforce heterodimerization), we characterized the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the TREK-1/TREK-2 current. The heteromer was inhibited by extracellular acidification and by spadin similarly to TREK-1, and its ruthenium red sensitivity was intermediate between TREK-1 and TREK-2 homodimers. The heterodimer has also been distinguished from the homodimers by its unique single channel conductance. Assembly of the two different subunits was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of epitope-tagged TREK-1 and TREK-2 subunits, coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes. Formation of TREK-1/TREK-2 channels was also demonstrated in native dorsal root ganglion neurons indicating that heterodimerization may provide greater diversity of leak K+ conductances also in native tissues. PMID:27129242

  17. TRPA1 channels in Drosophila and honey bee ectoparasitic mites share heat sensitivity and temperature-related physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangda Peng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1 is conserved between many arthropods, and in some has been shown to function as a chemosensor for noxious compounds. Activation of arthropod TRPA1 channels by temperature fluctuations has been tested in only a few insect species, and all of them were shown to be activated by heat. The recent identification of chemosensitive TRPA1 channels from two honey bee ectoparasitic mite species (VdTRPA1 and TmTRPA1 have provided an opportunity to study the temperature-dependent activation and the temperature-associated physiological functions of TRPA1 channels in non-insect arthropods. We found that both mite TRPA1 channels are heat sensitive and capable of rescuing the temperature-related behavioral defects of a Drosophila melanogaster trpA1 mutant. These results suggest that heat-sensitivity of TRPA1 could be conserved between many arthropods despite its amino acid sequence diversity. Nevertheless, the ankyrin repeats (ARs 6 and 7 are well-conserved between six heat-sensitive arthropod TRPA1 channels and have critical roles for the heat activation of VdTRPA1.

  18. Functional reconstitution into liposomes of purified human RhCG ammonia channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Mouro-Chanteloup

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rh glycoproteins (RhAG, RhBG, RhCG are members of the Amt/Mep/Rh family which facilitate movement of ammonium across plasma membranes. Changes in ammonium transport activity following expression of Rh glycoproteins have been described in different heterologous systems such as yeasts, oocytes and eukaryotic cell lines. However, in these complex systems, a potential contribution of endogenous proteins to this function cannot be excluded. To demonstrate that Rh glycoproteins by themselves transport NH(3, human RhCG was purified to homogeneity and reconstituted into liposomes, giving new insights into its channel functional properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An HA-tag introduced in the second extracellular loop of RhCG was used to purify to homogeneity the HA-tagged RhCG glycoprotein from detergent-solubilized recombinant HEK293E cells. Electron microscopy analysis of negatively stained purified RhCG-HA revealed, after image processing, homogeneous particles of 9 nm diameter with a trimeric protein structure. Reconstitution was performed with sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidic acid lipids in the presence of the C(12E(8 detergent which was subsequently removed by Biobeads. Control of protein incorporation was carried out by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Particle density in liposomes was a function of the Lipid/Protein ratio. When compared to empty liposomes, ammonium permeability was increased two and three fold in RhCG-proteoliposomes, depending on the Lipid/Protein ratio (1/300 and 1/150, respectively. This strong NH(3 transport was reversibly inhibited by mercuric and copper salts and exhibited a low Arrhenius activation energy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study allowed the determination of ammonia permeability per RhCG monomer, showing that the apparent Punit(NH3 (around 1x10(-3 microm(3xs(-1 is close to the permeability measured in HEK293E cells expressing a recombinant human RhCG (1.60x10

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans TRPV channels function in a modality-specific pathway to regulate response to aberrant sensory signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezak, Meredith J; Hong, Elizabeth; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Ferkey, Denise M

    2010-05-01

    Olfaction and some forms of taste (including bitter) are mediated by G protein-coupled signal transduction pathways. Olfactory and gustatory ligands bind to chemosensory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in specialized sensory cells to activate intracellular signal transduction cascades. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are negative regulators of signaling that specifically phosphorylate activated GPCRs to terminate signaling. Although loss of GRK function usually results in enhanced cellular signaling, Caenorhabditis elegans lacking GRK-2 function are not hypersensitive to chemosensory stimuli. Instead, grk-2 mutant animals do not chemotax toward attractive olfactory stimuli or avoid aversive tastes and smells. We show here that loss-of-function mutations in the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels OSM-9 and OCR-2 selectively restore grk-2 behavioral avoidance of bitter tastants, revealing modality-specific mechanisms for TRPV channel function in the regulation of C. elegans chemosensation. Additionally, a single amino acid point mutation in OCR-2 that disrupts TRPV channel-mediated gene expression, but does not decrease channel function in chemosensory primary signal transduction, also restores grk-2 bitter taste avoidance. Thus, loss of GRK-2 function may lead to changes in gene expression, via OSM-9/OCR-2, to selectively alter the levels of signaling components that transduce or regulate bitter taste responses. Our results suggest a novel mechanism and multiple modality-specific pathways that sensory cells employ in response to aberrant signal transduction.

  20. Flow, form, and function: Distinguishing eco-hydraulic controls with relevance beyond the stream reach using synthetic channel morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Belize; Pasternack, Gregory; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel

    2017-04-01

    Rivers are highly complex, dynamic systems that support numerous ecosystem functions including transporting sediment, modulating biogeochemical processes, and regulating habitat availability for native species. The extent and timing of these functions is largely controlled by the interplay of hydrologic dynamics (i.e., flow) and the shape and structure of the river channel (i.e., form). In spite of this, the majority of river restoration studies are limited to the influence of flow on ecosystem function without regard for the role of channel form in modulating eco-hydraulic response. The few studies that have effectively examined the flow-form interface highlight the scientific and management value of such analyses, but are highly resource intensive. This study represents a first attempt to apply synthetic channel design to the evaluation of river flow-form-function linkages, with the aim of improving basic understanding of how the interplay between flow and form affects ecosystem functions across a range of regionally-significant flows and forms with minimal resource requirements. Archetypal Mediterranean-montane channel types were used to guide the design of 3D synthetic morphologies. These morphologies were then used to quantify 2D eco-hydraulic response to different channel configurations under select hydrologic scenarios (distinguished by alteration and water year type). The eco-hydraulic performance of alternative flow-form settings, based on spatiotemporal patterns of depth and velocity, was evaluated with respect to a suite of river ecosystem functions related to geomorphic diversity, aquatic habitat, and riparian habitat. The methods described herein provide a potential design and inventory tool for quantifying river ecosystem functions and management trade-offs of alternative flow-form combinations with minimal resource and data requirements. While addressing specific scientific questions of interest for Mediterranean-montane rivers, the general framework

  1. Utilizing the planarian voltage-gated ion channel transcriptome to resolve a role for a Ca(2+) channel in neuromuscular function and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, John D; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Xiaolong; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Berriman, Matthew; Marchant, Jonathan S

    2017-06-01

    The robust regenerative capacity of planarian flatworms depends on the orchestration of signaling events from early wounding responses through the stem cell enacted differentiative outcomes that restore appropriate tissue types. Acute signaling events in excitable cells play an important role in determining regenerative polarity, rationalized by the discovery that sub-epidermal muscle cells express critical patterning genes known to control regenerative outcomes. These data imply a dual conductive (neuromuscular signaling) and instructive (anterior-posterior patterning) role for Ca(2+) signaling in planarian regeneration. Here, to facilitate study of acute signaling events in the excitable cell niche, we provide a de novo transcriptome assembly from the planarian Dugesia japonica allowing characterization of the diverse ionotropic portfolio of this model organism. We demonstrate the utility of this resource by proceeding to characterize the individual role of each of the planarian voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels during regeneration, and demonstrate that knockdown of a specific voltage operated Ca(2+) channel (Cav1B) that impairs muscle function uniquely creates an environment permissive for anteriorization. Provision of the full transcriptomic dataset should facilitate further investigations of molecules within the planarian voltage-gated channel portfolio to explore the role of excitable cell physiology on regenerative outcomes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: ECS Meeting edited by Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs and Jacques Haiech. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular and functional characterization of Anopheles gambiae inward rectifier potassium (Kir1) channels: a novel role in egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphemot, Rene; Estévez-Lao, Tania Y; Rouhier, Matthew F; Piermarini, Peter M; Denton, Jerod S; Hillyer, Julián F

    2014-08-01

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play essential roles in regulating diverse physiological processes. Although Kir channels are encoded in mosquito genomes, their functions remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified the members of the Anopheles gambiae Kir gene family and began to investigate their function. Notably, we sequenced the A. gambiae Kir1 (AgKir1) gene and showed that it encodes all the canonical features of a Kir channel: an ion pore that is composed of a pore helix and a selectivity filter, two transmembrane domains that flank the ion pore, and the so-called G-loop. Heterologous expression of AgKir1 in Xenopus oocytes revealed that this gene encodes a functional, barium-sensitive Kir channel. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments then showed that relative AgKir1 mRNA levels are highest in the pupal stage, and that AgKir1 mRNA is enriched in the adult ovaries. Gene silencing of AgKir1 by RNA interference did not affect the survival of female mosquitoes following a blood meal, but decreased their egg output. These data provide evidence for a new role of Kir channels in mosquito fecundity, and further validates them as promising molecular targets for the development of a new class of mosquitocides to be used in vector control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Disruption of ATP-sensitive potassium channel function in skeletal muscles promotes production and secretion of musclin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Ana, E-mail: ana-sierra@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Subbotina, Ekaterina, E-mail: ekaterina-subbotina@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Zhu, Zhiyong, E-mail: zhiyong-zhu@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Gao, Zhan, E-mail: zhan-gao@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Koganti, Siva Rama Krishna, E-mail: sivaramakrishna.koganti@ttuhc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Coetzee, William A., E-mail: william.coetzee@nyumc.org [Department of Pediatrics, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Goldhamer, David J., E-mail: david.goldhamer@uconn.edu [Center for Regenerative Biology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Advanced Technology Laboratory, University of Connecticut, 1392 Storrs Road Unit 4243, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M., E-mail: denice-zingman@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Zingman, Leonid V., E-mail: leonid-zingman@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, Medical Center, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium (K{sub ATP}) channels control skeletal muscle energy use through their ability to adjust membrane excitability and related cell functions in accordance with cellular metabolic status. Mice with disrupted skeletal muscle K{sub ATP} channels exhibit reduced adipocyte size and increased fatty acid release into the circulation. As yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying this link between skeletal muscle K{sub ATP} channel function and adipose mobilization have not been established. Here, we demonstrate that skeletal muscle-specific disruption of K{sub ATP} channel function in transgenic (TG) mice promotes production and secretion of musclin. Musclin is a myokine with high homology to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) that enhances ANP signaling by competing for elimination. Augmented musclin production in TG mice is driven by a molecular cascade resulting in enhanced acetylation and nuclear exclusion of the transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) – an inhibitor of transcription of the musclin encoding gene. Musclin production/secretion in TG is paired with increased mobilization of fatty acids and a clear trend toward increased circulating ANP, an activator of lipolysis. These data establish K{sub ATP} channel-dependent musclin production as a potential mechanistic link coupling “local” skeletal muscle energy consumption with mobilization of bodily resources from fat. Understanding such mechanisms is an important step toward designing interventions to manage metabolic disorders including those related to excess body fat and associated co-morbidities. - Highlights: • ATP-sensitive K{sup +} channels regulate musclin production by skeletal muscles. • Lipolytic ANP signaling is promoted by augmented skeletal muscle musclin production. • Skeletal muscle musclin transcription is promoted by a CaMKII/HDAC/FOXO1 pathway. • Musclin links adipose mobilization to energy use in K{sub ATP} channel deficient skeletal muscle.

  4. Effect of a chloride channel activator, lubiprostone, on colonic sensory and motor functions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Seth; Busciglio, Irene A; Camilleri, Michael; Bharucha, Adil E; Szarka, Lawrence A; Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Burton, Duane D; Eckert, Deborah J; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2009-02-01

    Lubiprostone, a bicyclic fatty acid chloride channel activator, is efficacious in treatment of chronic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. The study aim was to compare effects of lubiprostone and placebo on colonic sensory and motor functions in humans. In double-blind, randomized fashion, 60 healthy adults received three oral doses of placebo or 24 microg lubiprostone per day in a parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial. A barostat-manometry tube was placed in the left colon by flexible sigmoidoscopy and fluoroscopy. We measured treatment effects on colonic sensation and motility with validated methods, with the following end points: colonic compliance, fasting and postprandial tone and motility indexes, pain thresholds, and sensory ratings to distensions. Among participants receiving lubiprostone or placebo, 26 of 30 and 28 of 30, respectively, completed the study. There were no overall effects of lubiprostone on compliance, fasting tone, motility indexes, or sensation. However, there was a treatment-by-sex interaction effect for compliance (P = 0.02), with lubiprostone inducing decreased fasting compliance in women (P = 0.06) and an overall decreased colonic tone contraction after a standard meal relative to fasting tone (P = 0.014), with greater effect in women (P lubiprostone 24 microg does not increase colonic motor function. The findings of decreased colonic compliance and decreased postprandial colonic tone in women suggest that motor effects are unlikely to cause accelerated colonic transit with lubiprostone, although they may facilitate laxation. Effects of lubiprostone on sensitivity deserve further study.

  5. The Low-Threshold Calcium Channel Cav3.2 Determines Low-Threshold Mechanoreceptor Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury François

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 emerges as a key regulator of sensory functions, but its expression pattern within primary afferent neurons and its contribution to modality-specific signaling remain obscure. Here, we elucidate this issue using a unique knockin/flox mouse strain wherein Cav3.2 is replaced by a functional Cav3.2-surface-ecliptic GFP fusion. We demonstrate that Cav3.2 is a selective marker of two major low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs, Aδ- and C-LTMRs, innervating the most abundant skin hair follicles. The presence of Cav3.2 along LTMR-fiber trajectories is consistent with critical roles at multiple sites, setting their strong excitability. Strikingly, the C-LTMR-specific knockout uncovers that Cav3.2 regulates light-touch perception and noxious mechanical cold and chemical sensations and is essential to build up that debilitates allodynic symptoms of neuropathic pain, a mechanism thought to be entirely A-LTMR specific. Collectively, our findings support a fundamental role for Cav3.2 in touch/pain pathophysiology, validating their critic pharmacological relevance to relieve mechanical and cold allodynia.

  6. Functional KATP channels in the rat retinal microvasculature: topographical distribution, redox regulation, spermine modulation and diabetic alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Eisuke; Fukumoto, Masanori; Puro, Donald G

    2009-01-01

    The essential task of the circulatory system is to match blood flow to local metabolic demand. However, much remains to be learned about this process. To better understand how local perfusion is regulated, we focused on the functional organization of the retinal microvasculature, which is particularly well adapted for the local control of perfusion. Here, we assessed the distribution and regulation of functional KATP channels whose activation mediates the hyperpolarization induced by adenosine. Using microvascular complexes freshly isolated from the rat retina, we found a topographical heterogeneity in the distribution of functional KATP channels; capillaries generate most of the KATP current. The initiation of KATP-induced responses in the capillaries supports the concept that the regulation of retinal perfusion is highly decentralized. Additional study revealed that microvascular KATP channels are redox sensitive, with oxidants increasing their activity. Furthermore, the oxidant-mediated activation of these channels is driven by the polyamine spermine, whose catabolism produces oxidants. In addition, our observation that spermine-dependent oxidation occurs predominately in the capillaries accounts for why they generate most of the KATP current detected in retinal microvascular complexes. Here, we also analysed retinal microvessels of streptozotocin-injected rats. We found that soon after the onset of diabetes, an increase in spermine-dependent oxidation at proximal microvascular sites boosts their KATP current and thereby virtually eliminates the topographical heterogeneity of functional KATP channels. We conclude that spermine-dependent oxidation is a previously unrecognized mechanism by which this polyamine modulates ion channels; in addition to a physiological role, spermine-dependent oxidation may also contribute to microvascular dysfunction in the diabetic retina. PMID:19289546

  7. Functional K(ATP) channels in the rat retinal microvasculature: topographical distribution, redox regulation, spermine modulation and diabetic alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Eisuke; Fukumoto, Masanori; Puro, Donald G

    2009-05-15

    The essential task of the circulatory system is to match blood flow to local metabolic demand. However, much remains to be learned about this process. To better understand how local perfusion is regulated, we focused on the functional organization of the retinal microvasculature, which is particularly well adapted for the local control of perfusion. Here, we assessed the distribution and regulation of functional K(ATP) channels whose activation mediates the hyperpolarization induced by adenosine. Using microvascular complexes freshly isolated from the rat retina, we found a topographical heterogeneity in the distribution of functional K(ATP) channels; capillaries generate most of the K(ATP) current. The initiation of K(ATP)-induced responses in the capillaries supports the concept that the regulation of retinal perfusion is highly decentralized. Additional study revealed that microvascular K(ATP) channels are redox sensitive, with oxidants increasing their activity. Furthermore, the oxidant-mediated activation of these channels is driven by the polyamine spermine, whose catabolism produces oxidants. In addition, our observation that spermine-dependent oxidation occurs predominately in the capillaries accounts for why they generate most of the K(ATP) current detected in retinal microvascular complexes. Here, we also analysed retinal microvessels of streptozotocin-injected rats. We found that soon after the onset of diabetes, an increase in spermine-dependent oxidation at proximal microvascular sites boosts their K(ATP) current and thereby virtually eliminates the topographical heterogeneity of functional K(ATP) channels. We conclude that spermine-dependent oxidation is a previously unrecognized mechanism by which this polyamine modulates ion channels; in addition to a physiological role, spermine-dependent oxidation may also contribute to microvascular dysfunction in the diabetic retina.

  8. Francisella tularensis Catalase Restricts Immune Function by Impairing TRPM2 Channel Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerley, Nicole L; Chandrasekaran, Akshaya; Trebak, Mohamed; Miller, Barbara A; Melendez, J Andrés

    2016-02-19

    As an innate defense mechanism, macrophages produce reactive oxygen species that weaken pathogens and serve as secondary messengers involved in immune function. The Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis utilizes its antioxidant armature to limit the host immune response, but the mechanism behind this suppression is not defined. Here we establish that F. tularensis limits Ca(2+) entry in macrophages, thereby limiting actin reorganization and IL-6 production in a redox-dependent fashion. Wild type (live vaccine strain) or catalase-deficient F. tularensis (ΔkatG) show distinct profiles in their H2O2 scavenging rates, 1 and 0.015 pm/s, respectively. Murine alveolar macrophages infected with ΔkatG display abnormally high basal intracellular Ca(2+) concentration that did not increase further in response to H2O2. Additionally, ΔkatG-infected macrophages displayed limited Ca(2+) influx in response to ionomycin, as a result of ionophore H2O2 sensitivity. Exogenously added H2O2 or H2O2 generated by ΔkatG likely oxidizes ionomycin and alters its ability to transport Ca(2+). Basal increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) and insensitivity to H2O2-mediated Ca(2+) entry in ΔkatG-infected cells are reversed by the Ca(2+) channel inhibitors 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate and SKF-96365. 2-Aminoethyl diphenylborinate but not SKF-96365 abrogated ΔkatG-dependent increases in macrophage actin remodeling and IL-6 secretion, suggesting a role for H2O2-mediated Ca(2+) entry through the transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channel in macrophages. Indeed, increases in basal Ca(2+), actin polymerization, and IL-6 production are reversed in TRPM2-null macrophages infected with ΔkatG. Together, our findings provide compelling evidence that F. tularensis catalase restricts reactive oxygen species to temper macrophage TRPM2-mediated Ca(2+) signaling and limit host immune function. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Functional studies indicate amantadine binds to the pore of the influenza A virus M2 proton-selective ion channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xianghong; Ma, Chunlong; Ohigashi, Yuki; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.; Pinto, Lawrence H.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses contain proton-selective ion channels, A/M2 and BM2, respectively, and the A/M2 channel activity is inhibited by the drugs amantadine and its methyl derivative rimantadine. The structure of the pore-transmembrane domain has been determined by both x-ray crystallography [Stouffer et al. (2008) Nature 451:596–599] and by NMR methods [Schnell and Chou (2008) Nature 451:591–595]. Whereas the crystal structure indicates a single amantadine molecule in the pore of the channel, the NMR data show four rimantadine molecules bound on the outside of the helices toward the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. Drug binding includes interactions with residues 40–45 with a polar hydrogen bond between rimantadine and aspartic acid residue 44 (D44) that appears to be important. These two distinct drug-binding sites led to two incompatible drug inhibition mechanisms. We mutagenized D44 and R45 to alanine as these mutations are likely to interfere with rimantadine binding and lead to a drug insensitive channel. However, the D44A channel was found to be sensitive to amantadine when measured by electrophysiological recordings in oocytes of Xenopus laevis and in mammalian cells, and when the D44 and R45 mutations were introduced into the influenza virus genome. Furthermore, transplanting A/M2 pore residues 24–36 into BM2, yielded a pH-activated chimeric ion channel that was partially inhibited by amantadine. Thus, taken together our functional data suggest that amantadine/rimantadine binding outside of the channel pore is not the primary site associated with the pharmacological inhibition of the A/M2 ion channel. PMID:18669647

  10. An Epithelial Ca2+-Sensor Protein is an Alternative to Calmodulin to Compose Functional KCNQ1 Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Inanobe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: KCNQ channels transport K+ ions and participate in various cellular functions. The channels directly assemble with auxiliary proteins such as a ubiquitous Ca2+-sensor protein, calmodulin (CaM, to configure the physiological properties in a tissue-specific manner. Although many CaM-like Ca2+-sensor proteins have been identified in eukaryotes, how KCNQ channels selectively interact with CaM and how the homologues modulate the functionality of the channels remain unclear. Methods: We developed protocols to evaluate the interaction between the green fluorescent protein-tagged C-terminus of KCNQ1 (KCNQ1cL and Ca2+-sensors by detecting its fluorescence in size exclusion chromatography and electrophoresed gels. The effects of Ca2+-sensor proteins on KCNQ1 activity was measured by two electrode voltage clamp technique of Xenopus oocytes. Results: When co-expressed CaM and KCNQ1cL, they assemble in a 4:4 stoichiometry, forming a hetero-octamer. Among nine CaM homologues tested, Calml3 was found to form a hetero-octamer with KCNQ1cL and to associate with the full-length KCNQ1 in a competitive manner with CaM. When co-expressed in oocytes, Calml3 rendered KCNQ1 channels resistant to the voltage-dependent depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate by voltage-sensitive phosphatase. Conclusion: Since Calml3 is closely related to CaM and is prominently expressed in epithelial cells, Calml3 may be a constituent of epithelial KCNQ1 channels and underscores the molecular diversity of endogenous KCNQ1 channels.

  11. An Epithelial Ca2+-Sensor Protein is an Alternative to Calmodulin to Compose Functional KCNQ1 Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanobe, Atsushi; Tsuzuki, Chizuru; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    KCNQ channels transport K+ ions and participate in various cellular functions. The channels directly assemble with auxiliary proteins such as a ubiquitous Ca2+- sensor protein, calmodulin (CaM), to configure the physiological properties in a tissue-specific manner. Although many CaM-like Ca2+-sensor proteins have been identified in eukaryotes, how KCNQ channels selectively interact with CaM and how the homologues modulate the functionality of the channels remain unclear. We developed protocols to evaluate the interaction between the green fluorescent protein-tagged C-terminus of KCNQ1 (KCNQ1cL) and Ca2+-sensors by detecting its fluorescence in size exclusion chromatography and electrophoresed gels. The effects of Ca2+-sensor proteins on KCNQ1 activity was measured by two electrode voltage clamp technique of Xenopus oocytes. When co-expressed CaM and KCNQ1cL, they assemble in a 4:4 stoichiometry, forming a hetero-octamer. Among nine CaM homologues tested, Calml3 was found to form a hetero-octamer with KCNQ1cL and to associate with the full-length KCNQ1 in a competitive manner with CaM. When co-expressed in oocytes, Calml3 rendered KCNQ1 channels resistant to the voltage-dependent depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate by voltage-sensitive phosphatase. Since Calml3 is closely related to CaM and is prominently expressed in epithelial cells, Calml3 may be a constituent of epithelial KCNQ1 channels and underscores the molecular diversity of endogenous KCNQ1 channels. Copyright © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Functional and Molecular Evidence for Kv7 Channel Subtypes in Human Detrusor from Patients with and without Bladder Outflow Obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalø, Julie; Sheykhzade, Majid; Nordling, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    of KCNQ1, KCNQ3-KCNQ5 and KCNE1-5 in the human urinary bladder from patients with normal bladder function (n = 7) and in patients with bladder outflow obstruction (n = 3). Interestingly, a 3.4-fold up-regulation of KCNQ1 was observed in the latter. The Kv7 channel subtype selective modulators, ML277...

  13. Differences in ion channel phenotype and function between humans and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Mark R; Beeton, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Ion channels play crucial roles in regulating a broad range of physiological processes. They form a very large family of transmembrane proteins. Their diversity results from not only a large number of different genes encoding for ion channel subunits but also the ability of subunits to assemble into homo- or heteromultimers, the existence of splice variants, and the expression of different regulatory subunits. These characteristics and the existence of very selective modulators make ion channels very attractive targets for therapy in a wide variety of pathologies. Some ion channels are already being targeted in the clinic while many more are being evaluated as novel drug targets in both clinical and preclinical studies. Advancing ion channel modulators from the bench to the clinic requires their assessment for safety and efficacy in animal models. While extrapolating results from one species to another is tempting, doing such without careful evaluation of the ion channels in different species presents a risk as the translation is not always straightforward. Here, we discuss differences between species in terms of ion channels expressed in selected tissues, differing roles of ion channels in some cell types, variable response to pharmacological agents, and human channelopathies that cannot fully be replicated in animal models.

  14. PIP2 mediates functional coupling and pharmacology of neuronal KCNQ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Robin Y; Pless, Stephan A; Kurata, Harley T

    2017-01-01

    Retigabine (RTG) is a first-in-class antiepileptic drug that suppresses neuronal excitability through the activation of voltage-gated KCNQ2-5 potassium channels. Retigabine binds to the pore-forming domain, causing a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of channel activation. To elucid...

  15. Extracellular pH dynamically controls cell surface delivery of functional TRPV5 channels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers, T.T.; Oancea, E.; Groot, T. de; Topala, C.N.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Extracellular pH has long been known to affect the rate and magnitude of ion transport processes among others via regulation of ion channel activity. The Ca(2+)-selective transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5) channel constitutes the apical entry gate in Ca(2+)-transporting cells,

  16. Molecular and functional characterization of Kv7 K+ channel in murine gastrointestinal smooth muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A; Moffatt, James D

    2009-01-01

    Members of the K(v)7 voltage-gated K(+) channel family are important determinants of cardiac and neuronal membrane excitability. Recently, we and others have shown that K(v)7 channels are also crucial regulators of smooth muscle activity. The aim of the present study was to assess the K(v)7 expre...

  17. Functional coupling between heterologously expressed dopamine D(2) receptors and KCNQ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungstrom, Trine; Grunnet, Morten; Jensen, Bo Skaaning

    2003-01-01

    Activation of KCNQ potassium channels by stimulation of co-expressed dopamine D(2) receptors was studied electrophysiologically in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in mammalian cells. To address the specificity of the interaction between D(2)-like receptors and KCNQ channels, combinations of KCNQ1...

  18. Transient receptor potential channel superfamily: Role in lower urinary tract function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Teruyuki; Imamura, Tetsuya; Nakazawa, Masaki; Hiragata, Shiro; Nagai, Takashi; Minagawa, Tomonori; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Masakuni; Domen, Takahisa; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2015-11-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with neurogenic bladder and overactive bladder syndrome are mediated in part by members of the transient receptor potential channel superfamily. The best studied member of this superfamily is the vanilloid receptor. Other transient receptor potential channels, such as the melastatin receptor and the ankyrin receptor, are also active in the pathogenesis of lower urinary tract dysfunction. However, the detailed mechanisms by which the transient receptor potential channels contribute to lower urinary tract symptoms are still not clear, and the therapeutic benefits of modulating transient receptor potential channel activity have not been proved in the clinical setting. In the present review, to better understand the pathophysiology and therapeutic potential for lower urinary tract symptoms, we summarize the presence and role of different members of the transient receptor potential channel superfamily in the lower urinary tract. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. Discovery of functional monoclonal antibodies targeting G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Trevor C I

    2016-06-15

    The development of recombinant antibody therapeutics is a significant area of growth in the pharmaceutical industry with almost 50 approved monoclonal antibodies on the market in the US and Europe. Despite this growth, however, certain classes of important molecular targets have remained intractable to therapeutic antibodies due to complexity of the target molecules. These complex target molecules include G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels which represent a large potential target class for therapeutic intervention with monoclonal antibodies. Although these targets have typically been addressed by small molecule approaches, the exquisite specificity of antibodies provides a significant opportunity to provide selective modulation of these target proteins. Given this opportunity, substantial effort has been applied to address the technical challenges of targeting these complex membrane proteins with monoclonal antibodies. In this review recent progress made in the strategies for discovery of functional monoclonal antibodies for these challenging membrane protein targets is addressed. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. Machinery Fault Diagnosis Using Two-Channel Analysis Method Based on Fictitious System Frequency Response Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing techniques for machinery health monitoring that utilize measured vibration signals usually require measurement points to be as close as possible to the expected fault components of interest. This is particularly important for implementing condition-based maintenance since the incipient fault signal power may be too small to be detected if a sensor is located further away from the fault source. However, a measurement sensor is often not attached to the ideal point due to geometric or environmental restrictions. In such a case, many of the conventional diagnostic techniques may not be successfully applicable. In this paper, a two-channel analysis method is proposed to overcome such difficulty. It uses two vibration signals simultaneously measured at arbitrary points in a machine. The proposed method is described theoretically by introducing a fictitious system frequency response function. It is then verified experimentally for bearing fault detection. The results show that the suggested method may be a good alternative when ideal points for measurement sensors are not readily available.

  1. Measurements and simulation of ionospheric scattering on VHF and UHF radar signals: Channel scattering function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Neil C.; Cannon, Paul S.; Groves, Keith M.

    2009-02-01

    The design and operation of transionospheric VHF and UHF radars requires knowledge of amplitude and phase scintillation due to ionospheric scattering. Phase coherence is of particular importance where long coherent integration periods and large bandwidths are required. A thin phase screen, parabolic equation based, Trans-Ionospheric Radio Propagation Simulator (TIRPS) is described. Modeled channel scattering functions (CSFs) are compared to experimental VHF and UHF data derived from the Advanced Research Projects Agency Long-range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar on Kwajalein Island (9.4°N, 166.8°E). TIRPS quantitatively reproduces the experimental results, including the quasi-parabolic profile observed in the measured CSFs under strong turbulence conditions. Variations in the simulated CSF with ionospheric phase screen parameters are also presented. Under conditions of high integrated strength of turbulence (CkL), a low phase spectral index (p = 1), indicating relatively dense small-scale irregularities, produces pronounced range spreading. Conversely, when the spectral index is high (p = 4), indicative of strong focusing/defocusing by large-scale irregularities, there is increased Doppler spreading and, when the outer scale of irregularities is large, a greater likelihood of asymmetry of the CSF about the zero Doppler axis.

  2. Prefrontal cortex HCN1 channels enable intrinsic persistent neural firing and executive memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuault, Sébastien J; Malleret, Gaël; Constantinople, Christine M; Nicholls, Russell; Chen, Irene; Zhu, Judy; Panteleyev, Andrey; Vronskaya, Svetlana; Nolan, Matthew F; Bruno, Randy; Siegelbaum, Steven A; Kandel, Eric R

    2013-08-21

    In many cortical neurons, HCN1 channels are the major contributors to Ih, the hyperpolarization-activated current, which regulates the intrinsic properties of neurons and shapes their integration of synaptic inputs, paces rhythmic activity, and regulates synaptic plasticity. Here, we examine the physiological role of Ih in deep layer pyramidal neurons in mouse prefrontal cortex (PFC), focusing on persistent activity, a form of sustained firing thought to be important for the behavioral function of the PFC during working memory tasks. We find that HCN1 contributes to the intrinsic persistent firing that is induced by a brief depolarizing current stimulus in the presence of muscarinic agonists. Deletion of HCN1 or acute pharmacological blockade of Ih decreases the fraction of neurons capable of generating persistent firing. The reduction in persistent firing is caused by the membrane hyperpolarization that results from the deletion of HCN1 or Ih blockade, rather than a specific role of the hyperpolarization-activated current in generating persistent activity. In vivo recordings show that deletion of HCN1 has no effect on up states, periods of enhanced synaptic network activity. Parallel behavioral studies demonstrate that HCN1 contributes to the PFC-dependent resolution of proactive interference during working memory. These results thus provide genetic evidence demonstrating the importance of HCN1 to intrinsic persistent firing and the behavioral output of the PFC. The causal role of intrinsic persistent firing in PFC-mediated behavior remains an open question.

  3. Sodium channel current loss of function in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes from a Brugada syndrome patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selga, Elisabet; Sendfeld, Franziska; Martinez-Moreno, Rebecca; Medine, Claire N; Tura-Ceide, Olga; Wilmut, Sir Ian; Pérez, Guillermo J; Scornik, Fabiana S; Brugada, Ramon; Mills, Nicholas L

    2017-10-09

    Brugada syndrome predisposes to sudden death due to disruption of normal cardiac ion channel function, yet our understanding of the underlying cellular mechanisms is incomplete. Commonly used heterologous expression models lack many characteristics of native cardiomyocytes and, in particular, the individual genetic background of a patient. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CM) may uncover cellular phenotypical characteristics not observed in heterologous models. Our objective was to determine the properties of the sodium current in iPS-CM with a mutation in SCN5A associated with Brugada syndrome. Dermal fibroblasts from a Brugada syndrome patient with a mutation in SCN5A (c.1100G>A, leading to Nav1.5_p.R367H) were reprogrammed to iPS cells. Clones were characterized and differentiated to form beating clusters and sheets. Patient and control iPS-CM were structurally indistinguishable. Sodium current properties of patient and control iPS-CM were compared. These results were contrasted with those obtained in tsA201 cells heterologously expressing sodium channels with the same mutation. Patient-derived iPS-CM showed a 33.1-45.5% reduction in INa density, a shift in both activation and inactivation voltage-dependence curves, and faster recovery from inactivation. Co-expression of wild-type and mutant channels in tsA201 cells did not compromise channel trafficking to the membrane, but resulted in a reduction of 49.8% in sodium current density without affecting any other parameters. Cardiomyocytes derived from iPS cells from a Brugada syndrome patient with a mutation in SCN5A recapitulate the loss of function of sodium channel current associated with this syndrome; including pro-arrhythmic changes in channel function not detected using conventional heterologous expression systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Chronic Hypoxia Inhibits Pregnancy-Induced Upregulation of SKCa Channel Expression and Function in Uterine Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ronghui; Hu, Xiang-Qun; Xiao, Daliao; Yang, Shumei; Wilson, Sean M.; Longo, Lawrence D.; Zhang, Lubo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SKCa) channels are crucial in regulating vascular tone and blood pressure. The present study tested the hypothesis that SKCa channels play an important role in uterine vascular adaptation in pregnancy, which is inhibited by chronic hypoxia during gestation. Uterine arteries were isolated from nonpregnant and near-term pregnant sheep maintained at sea level (~300 m) or exposed to high-altitude (3801 m) hypoxia for 110 days. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of SKCa channels type 2 (SK2) and type 3 (SK3) in both smooth muscle and endothelium of uterine arteries. The expression of SK2 and SK3 channels was significantly increased during pregnancy, which was inhibited by chronic hypoxia. In normoxic animals, both SKCa channel opener NS309 and a large-conductance (BKCa) channel opener NS1619 relaxed norepinephrine-contracted uterine arteries in pregnant but not nonpregnant sheep. These relaxations were inhibited by selective SKCa and BKCa channel blockers, respectively. NS309-induced relaxation was largely endothelium-independent. In high altitude hypoxic animals, neither NS1691 nor NS309 produced significant relaxation of uterine arteries in either nonpregnant or pregnant sheep. Similarly, the role of SKCa channels in regulating myogenic reactivity of uterine arteries in pregnant animals was abrogated by chronic hypoxia. Accordingly, the enhanced SKCa channel activity in uterine arterial myocytes of pregnant animals was ablated by chronic hypoxia. The findings suggest a novel mechanism of SKCa channels in regulating myogenic adaptation of uterine arteries in pregnancy, and in the maladaptation of uteroplacental circulation caused by chronic hypoxia during gestation. PMID:23716582

  5. Gain-of-function mutations in sodium channel Na(v)1.9 in painful neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianying; Han, Chongyang; Estacion, Mark; Vasylyev, Dymtro; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Gerrits, Monique M; Tyrrell, Lynda; Lauria, Giuseppe; Faber, Catharina G; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Waxman, Stephen G

    2014-06-01

    Sodium channel Nav1.9 is expressed in peripheral nociceptive neurons, as well as visceral afferents, and has been shown to act as a threshold channel. Painful peripheral neuropathy represents a significant public health challenge and may involve gain-of-function variants in sodium channels that are preferentially expressed in peripheral sensory neurons. Although gain-of-function variants of peripheral sodium channels Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 have recently been found in painful small fibre neuropathy, the aetiology of peripheral neuropathy in many cases remains unknown. We evaluated 459 patients who were referred for possible painful peripheral neuropathy, and confirmed the diagnosis of small fibre neuropathy in a cohort of 393 patients (369 patients with pure small fibre neuropathy, and small fibre neuropathy together with large fibre involvement in an additional 24 patients). From this cohort of 393 patients with peripheral neuropathy, we sequenced SCN11A in 345 patients without mutations in SCN9A and SCN10A, and found eight variants in 12 patients. Functional profiling by electrophysiological recordings showed that these Nav1.9 mutations confer gain-of-function attributes to the channel, depolarize resting membrane potential of dorsal root ganglion neurons, enhance spontaneous firing, and increase evoked firing of these neurons. Our data show, for the first time, missense mutations of Nav1.9 in individuals with painful peripheral neuropathy. These genetic and functional observations identify missense mutations of Nav1.9 as a cause of painful peripheral neuropathy. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The K+ channel opener 1-EBIO potentiates residual function of mutant CFTR in rectal biopsies from cystic fibrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva K Roth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The identification of strategies to improve mutant CFTR function remains a key priority in the development of new treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF. Previous studies demonstrated that the K⁺ channel opener 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolone (1-EBIO potentiates CFTR-mediated Cl⁻ secretion in cultured cells and mouse colon. However, the effects of 1-EBIO on wild-type and mutant CFTR function in native human colonic tissues remain unknown. METHODS: We studied the effects of 1-EBIO on CFTR-mediated Cl⁻ secretion in rectal biopsies from 47 CF patients carrying a wide spectrum of CFTR mutations and 57 age-matched controls. Rectal tissues were mounted in perfused micro-Ussing chambers and the effects of 1-EBIO were compared in control tissues, CF tissues expressing residual CFTR function and CF tissues with no detectable Cl⁻ secretion. RESULTS: Studies in control tissues demonstrate that 1-EBIO activated CFTR-mediated Cl⁻ secretion in the absence of cAMP-mediated stimulation and potentiated cAMP-induced Cl⁻ secretion by 39.2±6.7% (P<0.001 via activation of basolateral Ca²⁺-activated and clotrimazole-sensitive KCNN4 K⁺ channels. In CF specimens, 1-EBIO potentiated cAMP-induced Cl⁻ secretion in tissues with residual CFTR function by 44.4±11.5% (P<0.001, but had no effect on tissues lacking CFTR-mediated Cl⁻ conductance. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 1-EBIO potentiates Cl⁻secretion in native CF tissues expressing CFTR mutants with residual Cl⁻ channel function by activation of basolateral KCNN4 K⁺ channels that increase the driving force for luminal Cl⁻ exit. This mechanism may augment effects of CFTR correctors and potentiators that increase the number and/or activity of mutant CFTR channels at the cell surface and suggests KCNN4 as a therapeutic target for CF.

  7. The role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in cellular function and protection in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Andrew; Aziz, Qadeer; Thomas, Alison

    2014-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) are widely distributed and present in a number of tissues including muscle, pancreatic beta cells and the brain. Their activity is regulated by adenine nucleotides, characteristically being activated by falling ATP and rising ADP levels. Thus, they link cellular metabolism with membrane excitability. Recent studies using genetically modified mice and genomic studies in patients have implicated K(ATP) channels in a number of physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we focus on their role in cellular function and protection particularly in the cardiovascular system. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Distribution and Function of the Bestrophin-1 (Best1) Channel in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Soo-Jin; Lee, C Justin

    2017-06-01

    Bestrophin-1 (Best1) is a calcium-activated anion channel identified from retinal pigment epithelium where human mutations are associated with Best's macular degeneration. Best1 is known to be expressed in a variety of tissues including the brain, and is thought to be involved in many physiological processes. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge on aspects of expression and function of Best1 in the brain. Best1 protein is observed in cortical and hippocampal astrocytes, in cerebellar Bergmann glia and lamellar astrocytes, in thalamic reticular neurons, in meninges and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. The most prominent feature of Best1 is its significant permeability to glutamate and GABA in addition to chloride ions because glutamate and GABA are important transmitters in the brain. Under physiological conditions, both Best1-mediated glutamate release and tonic GABA release from astrocytes modulate neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. Under pathological conditions such as neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, reactive astrocytes phenotypically switch from GABA-negative to GABA-producing and redistribute Best1 from the perisynaptic microdomains to the soma and processes to tonically release GABA via Best1. This implicates that tonic GABA release from reactive astrocyte via redistributed Best1 is a common phenomenon that occur in various pathological conditions with astrogliosis such as traumatic brain injury, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and hypoxic and ischemic insults. These properties of Best1, including the permeation and release of glutamate and GABA and its redistribution in reactive astrocytes, promise us exciting discoveries of novel brain functions to be uncovered in the future.

  9. Functional relationships between vegetation, channel morphology, and flow efficiency in an alluvial (anabranching) river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, John D.; Nanson, Gerald C.

    2010-12-01

    Water and sediment flux interactions are examined in Magela Creek, an alluvial (anabranching) sand bed river in the northern Australian tropics. Dense riparian vegetation stabilizes the channels and floodplains thereby preventing erosional instability at flow depths up to 6.2 times bankfull and discharges up to 15 times bankfull. Narrow anabranching channels characterize >92% of the alluvial reach and transport bed load more efficiently than short reaches of wide single-channels, yet overall 29 ± 12% of the bed load is sequestered and the average vertical accretion rate is 0.41 ± 0.17 mm yr-1 along the 12 km study reach. The most effective discharge for transporting sediment (40-45 m3 s-1) is consistent at all 5 stations (10 channels) examined and is equivalent to the channel-forming discharge. It has an average recurrence interval of 1.01 years, occurs for an exceptionally long portion (13-15%) of the annual flow duration, and averages a remarkable 2.1 times bankfull. The high flow efficiency (i.e., bed load transport rate to stream power ratio) of the anabranches is facilitated by low width/depth channels with banks reinforced by vegetation. Colonnades of bank top trees confine high-velocity flows overbed (i.e., over the channel bed) at stages well above bankfull. At even larger overbank flows, momentum exchange between the channels and forested floodplains restrains overbed velocities, in some cases causing them to decline, thereby limiting erosion. Magela Creek exhibits a complicated set of planform, cross-sectional and vegetative adjustments that boost overbed velocities and enhance bed load yield in multiple channels while restraining velocities and erosion at the largest discharges.

  10. Structural Determinants for Functional Coupling Between the β and α Subunits in the Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Patricio; Torres, Yolima; Rojas, Patricio; Carvacho, Ingrid; Garcia, Maria L.; Toro, Ligia; Valverde, Miguel A.; Latorre, Ramon

    2006-01-01

    High conductance, calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK, MaxiK) channels are widely expressed in mammals. In some tissues, the biophysical properties of BK channels are highly affected by coexpression of regulatory (β) subunits. The most remarkable effects of β1 and β2 subunits are an increase of the calcium sensitivity and the slow down of channel kinetics. However, the detailed characteristics of channels formed by α and β1 or β2 are dissimilar, the most remarkable difference being a reduction of the voltage sensitivity in the presence of β1 but not β2. Here we reveal the molecular regions in these β subunits that determine their differential functional coupling with the pore-forming α-subunit. We made chimeric constructs between β1 and β2 subunits, and BK channels formed by α and chimeric β subunits were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The electrophysiological characteristics of the resulting channels were determined using the patch clamp technique. Chimeric exchange of the different regions of the β1 and β2 subunits demonstrates that the NH3 and COOH termini are the most relevant regions in defining the behavior of either subunit. This strongly suggests that the intracellular domains are crucial for the fine tuning of the effects of these β subunits. Moreover, the intracellular domains of β1 are responsible for the reduction of the BK channel voltage dependence. This agrees with previous studies that suggested the intracellular regions of the α-subunit to be the target of the modulation by the β1-subunit. PMID:16446507

  11. Alcohols potentiate the function of 5-HT3 receptor–channels on NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells by favouring and stabilizing the open channel state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Verdoorn, Todd A; Lovinger, David M

    1998-01-01

    5-HT3 receptor-mediated ion current was recorded from NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Rapid drug superfusion was used to study the mechanism of alcohol potentiation of 5-HT3 receptor function and to analyse effects of alcohols on receptor-channel kinetics in detail.Trichloroethanol (TCEt) increased in a dose-dependent way the initial slope, 20–80 % rise time and measured desensitization rate of the current induced by low concentrations (1–2 μm) of 5-HT. Ethanol (EtOH) and butanol (ButOH) had similar effects on the 5-HT3 receptor-induced current.TCEt and ButOH decreased the measured desensitization rate of current induced by 10 μm 5-HT, a maximally effective concentration of agonist. These alcohols also increased the relative amplitude of steady state to peak current induced by 2 or 10 μm 5-HT, indicating a possible decrease in the intrinsic rate of desensitization.TCEt also decreased the deactivation rate of the current activated by 2 μm 5-HT after a short pulse of agonist application.Current sweeps generated by 1 μm 5-HT in the presence or absence of 10 mm TCEt or 100 mm EtOH were well fitted using a modified standard kinetic model derived from the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. This analysis indicated that potentiation by alcohols could be accounted for by increases in the association rate constant coupled with decreases in the dissociation and desensitization rate constants.This study suggests that alcohols potentiate 5-HT3 receptor-mediated current by both increasing the rate of channel activation and stabilizing the open state by decreasing the rates of channel deactivation and desensitization. PMID:9518697

  12. Alcohols potentiate the function of 5-HT3 receptor-channels on NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells by favouring and stabilizing the open channel state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Verdoorn, T A; Lovinger, D M

    1998-03-01

    1. 5-HT3 receptor-mediated ion current was recorded from NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Rapid drug superfusion was used to study the mechanism of alcohol potentiation of 5-HT3 receptor function and to analyse effects of alcohols on receptor-channel kinetics in detail. 2. Trichloroethanol (TCEt) increased in a dose-dependent way the initial slope, 20-80% rise time and measured desensitization rate of the current induced by low concentrations (1-2 microM) of 5-HT. Ethanol (EtOH) and butanol (ButOH) had similar effects on the 5-HT3 receptor-induced current. 3. TCEt and ButOH decreased the measured desensitization rate of current induced by 10 microM 5-HT, a maximally effective concentration of agonist. These alcohols also increased the relative amplitude of steady state to peak current induced by 2 or 10 microM 5-HT, indicating a possible decrease in the intrinsic rate of desensitization. 4. TCEt also decreased the deactivation rate of the current activated by 2 microM 5-HT after a short pulse of agonist application. 5. Current sweeps generated by 1 microM 5-HT in the presence or absence of 10 mM TCEt or 100 mM EtOH were well fitted using a modified standard kinetic model derived from the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. This analysis indicated that potentiation by alcohols could be accounted for by increases in the association rate constant coupled with decreases in the dissociation and desensitization rate constants. 6. This study suggests that alcohols potentiate 5-HT3 receptor-mediated current by both increasing the rate of channel activation and stabilizing the open state by decreasing the rates of channel deactivation and desensitization.

  13. Relevance of quantum mechanics on some aspects of ion channel function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sisir; Llinás, Rodolfo

    2009-06-01

    Mathematical modeling of ionic diffusion along K ion channels indicates that such diffusion is oscillatory, at the weak non-Markovian limit. This finding leads us to derive a Schrödinger-Langevin equation for this kind of system within the framework of stochastic quantization. The Planck's constant is shown to be relevant to the Lagrangian action at the level of a single ion channel. This sheds new light on the issue of applicability of quantum formalism to ion channel dynamics and to the physical constraints of the selectivity filter.

  14. Protein 4.1B contributes to the organization of peripheral myelinated axons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cifuentes-Diaz

    Full Text Available Neurons are characterized by extremely long axons. This exceptional cell shape is likely to depend on multiple factors including interactions between the cytoskeleton and membrane proteins. In many cell types, members of the protein 4.1 family play an important role in tethering the cortical actin-spectrin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. Protein 4.1B is localized in myelinated axons, enriched in paranodal and juxtaparanodal regions, and also all along the internodes, but not at nodes of Ranvier where are localized the voltage-dependent sodium channels responsible for action potential propagation. To shed light on the role of protein 4.1B in the general organization of myelinated peripheral axons, we studied 4.1B knockout mice. These mice displayed a mildly impaired gait and motility. Whereas nodes were unaffected, the distribution of Caspr/paranodin, which anchors 4.1B to the membrane, was disorganized in paranodal regions and its levels were decreased. In juxtaparanodes, the enrichment of Caspr2, which also interacts with 4.1B, and of the associated TAG-1 and Kv1.1, was absent in mutant mice, whereas their levels were unaltered. Ultrastructural abnormalities were observed both at paranodes and juxtaparanodes. Axon calibers were slightly diminished in phrenic nerves and preterminal motor axons were dysmorphic in skeletal muscle. βII spectrin enrichment was decreased along the axolemma. Electrophysiological recordings at 3 post-natal weeks showed the occurrence of spontaneous and evoked repetitive activity indicating neuronal hyperexcitability, without change in conduction velocity. Thus, our results show that in myelinated axons 4.1B contributes to the stabilization of membrane proteins at paranodes, to the clustering of juxtaparanodal proteins, and to the regulation of the internodal axon caliber.

  15. Protein 4.1B contributes to the organization of peripheral myelinated axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-Diaz, Carmen; Chareyre, Fabrice; Garcia, Marta; Devaux, Jérôme; Carnaud, Michèle; Levasseur, Grégoire; Niwa-Kawakita, Michiko; Harroch, Sheila; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Giovannini, Marco; Goutebroze, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Neurons are characterized by extremely long axons. This exceptional cell shape is likely to depend on multiple factors including interactions between the cytoskeleton and membrane proteins. In many cell types, members of the protein 4.1 family play an important role in tethering the cortical actin-spectrin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. Protein 4.1B is localized in myelinated axons, enriched in paranodal and juxtaparanodal regions, and also all along the internodes, but not at nodes of Ranvier where are localized the voltage-dependent sodium channels responsible for action potential propagation. To shed light on the role of protein 4.1B in the general organization of myelinated peripheral axons, we studied 4.1B knockout mice. These mice displayed a mildly impaired gait and motility. Whereas nodes were unaffected, the distribution of Caspr/paranodin, which anchors 4.1B to the membrane, was disorganized in paranodal regions and its levels were decreased. In juxtaparanodes, the enrichment of Caspr2, which also interacts with 4.1B, and of the associated TAG-1 and Kv1.1, was absent in mutant mice, whereas their levels were unaltered. Ultrastructural abnormalities were observed both at paranodes and juxtaparanodes. Axon calibers were slightly diminished in phrenic nerves and preterminal motor axons were dysmorphic in skeletal muscle. βII spectrin enrichment was decreased along the axolemma. Electrophysiological recordings at 3 post-natal weeks showed the occurrence of spontaneous and evoked repetitive activity indicating neuronal hyperexcitability, without change in conduction velocity. Thus, our results show that in myelinated axons 4.1B contributes to the stabilization of membrane proteins at paranodes, to the clustering of juxtaparanodal proteins, and to the regulation of the internodal axon caliber.

  16. Mice with deficient BK channel function show impaired prepulse inhibition and spatial learning, but normal working and spatial reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Typlt, Marei; Mirkowski, Magdalena; Azzopardi, Erin; Ruettiger, Lukas; Ruth, Peter; Schmid, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variations in the large-conductance, voltage- and calcium activated potassium channels (BK channels) have been recently implicated in mental retardation, autism and schizophrenia which all come along with severe cognitive impairments. In the present study we investigate the effects of functional BK channel deletion on cognition using a genetic mouse model with a knock-out of the gene for the pore forming α-subunit of the channel. We tested the F1 generation of a hybrid SV129/C57BL6 mouse line in which the slo1 gene was deleted in both parent strains. We first evaluated hearing and motor function to establish the suitability of this model for cognitive testing. Auditory brain stem responses to click stimuli showed no threshold differences between knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Despite of muscular tremor, reduced grip force, and impaired gait, knockout mice exhibited normal locomotion. These findings allowed for testing of sensorimotor gating using the acoustic startle reflex, as well as of working memory, spatial learning and memory in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze, respectively. Prepulse inhibition on the first day of testing was normal, but the knockout mice did not improve over the days of testing as their wild-type littermates did. Spontaneous alternation in the y-maze was normal as well, suggesting that the BK channel knock-out does not impair working memory. In the Morris water maze knock-out mice showed significantly slower acquisition of the task, but normal memory once the task was learned. Thus, we propose a crucial role of the BK channels in learning, but not in memory storage or recollection.

  17. Store-operated Ca2+ entry regulates Ca2+-activated chloride channels and eccrine sweat gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, Axel R; Vaeth, Martin; Wagner, Larry E; Eckstein, Miriam; Hecht, Lee; Yang, Jun; Crottes, David; Seidl, Maximilian; Shin, Hyosup P; Weidinger, Carl; Cameron, Scott; Turvey, Stuart E; Issekutz, Thomas; Meyts, Isabelle; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Cuk, Mario; Yule, David I; Feske, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are essential for sweating and thermoregulation in humans. Loss-of-function mutations in the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel genes ORAI1 and STIM1 abolish store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), and patients with these CRAC channel mutations suffer from anhidrosis and hyperthermia at high ambient temperatures. Here we have shown that CRAC channel-deficient patients and mice with ectodermal tissue-specific deletion of Orai1 (Orai1K14Cre) or Stim1 and Stim2 (Stim1/2K14Cre) failed to sweat despite normal sweat gland development. SOCE was absent in agonist-stimulated sweat glands from Orai1K14Cre and Stim1/2K14Cre mice and human sweat gland cells lacking ORAI1 or STIM1 expression. In Orai1K14Cre mice, abolishment of SOCE was associated with impaired chloride secretion by primary murine sweat glands. In human sweat gland cells, SOCE mediated by ORAI1 was necessary for agonist-induced chloride secretion and activation of the Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) anoctamin 1 (ANO1, also known as TMEM16A). By contrast, expression of TMEM16A, the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5), and other regulators of sweat gland function was normal in the absence of SOCE. Our findings demonstrate that Ca2+ influx via store-operated CRAC channels is essential for CaCC activation, chloride secretion, and sweat production in humans and mice.

  18. Mice with deficient BK channel function show impaired prepulse inhibition and spatial learning, but normal working and spatial reference memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marei Typlt

    Full Text Available Genetic variations in the large-conductance, voltage- and calcium activated potassium channels (BK channels have been recently implicated in mental retardation, autism and schizophrenia which all come along with severe cognitive impairments. In the present study we investigate the effects of functional BK channel deletion on cognition using a genetic mouse model with a knock-out of the gene for the pore forming α-subunit of the channel. We tested the F1 generation of a hybrid SV129/C57BL6 mouse line in which the slo1 gene was deleted in both parent strains. We first evaluated hearing and motor function to establish the suitability of this model for cognitive testing. Auditory brain stem responses to click stimuli showed no threshold differences between knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Despite of muscular tremor, reduced grip force, and impaired gait, knockout mice exhibited normal locomotion. These findings allowed for testing of sensorimotor gating using the acoustic startle reflex, as well as of working memory, spatial learning and memory in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze, respectively. Prepulse inhibition on the first day of testing was normal, but the knockout mice did not improve over the days of testing as their wild-type littermates did. Spontaneous alternation in the y-maze was normal as well, suggesting that the BK channel knock-out does not impair working memory. In the Morris water maze knock-out mice showed significantly slower acquisition of the task, but normal memory once the task was learned. Thus, we propose a crucial role of the BK channels in learning, but not in memory storage or recollection.

  19. The potassium channel Ether à go-go is a novel prognostic factor with functional relevance in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Jasmin R; Griesinger, Frank; Stühmer, Walter; Pardo, Luis A

    2010-01-27

    The voltage-gated potassium channel hEag1 (KV10.1) has been related to cancer biology. The physiological expression of the human channel is restricted to the brain but it is frequently and abundantly expressed in many solid tumors, thereby making it a promising target for a specific diagnosis and therapy. Because chronic lymphatic leukemia has been described not to express hEag1, it has been assumed that the channel is not expressed in hematopoietic neoplasms in general. Here we show that this assumption is not correct, because the channel is up-regulated in myelodysplastic syndromes, chronic myeloid leukemia and almost half of the tested acute myeloid leukemias in a subtype-dependent fashion. Most interestingly, channel expression strongly correlated with increasing age, higher relapse rates and a significantly shorter overall survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed hEag1 expression levels in AML as an independent predictive factor for reduced disease-free and overall survival; such an association had not been reported before. As a functional correlate, specific hEag1 blockade inhibited the proliferation and migration of several AML cell lines and primary cultured AML cells in vitro. Our observations implicate hEag1 as novel target for diagnostic, prognostic and/or therapeutic approaches in AML.

  20. High yield purification of full-length functional hERG K+ channels produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molbaek, Karen; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The hERG potassium channel is essential for repolarization of the cardiac action potential. Due to this vital function, absence of unintended and potentially life-threatening interactions with hERG is required for approval of new drugs. The structure of hERG is therefore one of the most sought......-after. To provide purified hERG for structural studies and new hERG biomimetic platforms for detection of undesirable interactions, we have developed a hERG expression platform generating unprecedented amounts of purified and functional hERG channels. Full-length hERG, with or without a C-terminally fused green...... fluorescent protein (GFP) His(8)-tag was produced from a codon-optimized hERG cDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both constructs complemented the high potassium requirement of a knock-out Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, indicating correct tetramer assembly in vivo. Functionality was further demonstrated...

  1. Biophysical and ion channel functional characterization of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in varying detergent-lipid environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar-Rovira, Guillermo A; Asseo-García, Aloysha M; Quesada, Orestes; Hanson, Michael A; Cheng, Anchi; Nogueras, Carlos; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A; Stevens, Raymond C

    2008-05-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo electric rays has been extensively characterized over the last three decades. However, high-resolution structural studies have been hampered by the lack of mechanistic molecular models that describe how detergents influence membrane protein stability and function. Furthermore, elucidation of the dynamic detergent-lipid-protein interactions of solubilized membrane proteins is a largely unexplored research field. This study examines the effects of nine detergents on: (1) nAChR-lipid composition (gas chromatography with flame ionization; GC-FID and/or mass selective detectors; GC-MSD), (2) stability and aggregation state (analytical size exclusion chromatography; A-SEC and electron microscopy; EM) and (3) ion channel function (planar lipid bilayers). Detergent solubilization of nAChR-enriched membranes did not result in significant native lipid depletion or destabilization. Upon purification, native lipid depletion occurred in all detergents, with lipid-analogue detergents CHAPS {(3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate}, FC-12 (n-dodecylphosphocholine) and sodium cholate (3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid) maintaining stability and supporting ion channel function, and non-lipid-analogue detergents Cymal-6 (6-cyclohexyl-1-hexyl-beta-D-maltoside), DDM (n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltopyranoside), LDAO (lauryldimethylamine-N-oxide) and OG (n-octyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside) decreasing stability and significantly reducing or completely suppressing ion channel function. Anapoe-C(12)E(9 )(polyoxyethylene-[9]-dodecyl ether) and BigCHAP (N,N'-bis-[3-d-gluconamidopropyl] cholamide) retained residual amounts of native lipid, maintaining moderate stability and ion channel function compared to lipid-analogue detergents. Therefore, the nAChR can be stable and functional in lipid-analogue detergents or in detergents that retain moderate amounts of residual native lipids, but not in non

  2. Annotation of functional impact of voltage?gated sodium channel mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Hinard, Valérie; Britan, Aurore; Schaeffer, Mathieu; Zahn, Monique; Thomet, Urs; Rougier, Jean-Sébastien; Bairoch, Amos Marc; Abriel, Hugues; Gaudet, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Voltage?gated sodium channels are pore?forming transmembrane proteins that selectively allow sodium ions to flow across the plasma membrane according to the electro?chemical gradient thus mediating the rising phase of action potentials in excitable cells and playing key roles in physiological processes such as neurotransmission, skeletal muscle contraction, heart rhythm, and pain sensation. Genetic variations in the nine human genes encoding these channels are known to cause a large ...

  3. Functional interactions between KCNE1 C-terminus and the KCNQ1 channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerri Chen

    Full Text Available The KCNE1 gene product (minK protein associates with the cardiac KvLQT1 potassium channel (encoded by KCNQ1 to create the cardiac slowly activating delayed rectifier, I(Ks. Mutations throughout both genes are linked to the hereditary cardiac arrhythmias in the Long QT Syndrome (LQTS. KCNE1 exerts its specific regulation of KCNQ1 activation via interactions between membrane-spanning segments of the two proteins. Less detailed attention has been focused on the role of the KCNE1 C-terminus in regulating channel behavior. We analyzed the effects of an LQT5 point mutation (D76N and the truncation of the entire C-terminus (Delta70 on channel regulation, assembly and interaction. Both mutations significantly shifted voltage dependence of activation in the depolarizing direction and decreased I(Ks current density. They also accelerated rates of channel deactivation but notably, did not affect activation kinetics. Truncation of the C-terminus reduced the apparent affinity of KCNE1 for KCNQ1, resulting in impaired channel formation and presentation of KCNQ1/KCNE1 complexes to the surface. Complete saturation of KCNQ1 channels with KCNE1-Delta70 could be achieved by relative over-expression of the KCNE subunit. Rate-dependent facilitation of K(+ conductance, a key property of I(Ks that enables action potential shortening at higher heart rates, was defective for both KCNE1 C-terminal mutations, and may contribute to the clinical phenotype of arrhythmias triggered by heart rate elevations during exercise in LQTS mutations. These results support several roles for KCNE1 C-terminus interaction with KCNQ1: regulation of channel assembly, open-state destabilization, and kinetics of channel deactivation.

  4. Cellular distribution and function of ion channels involved in transport processes in rat tracheal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Anne; Faulhaber, Johannes; Srisawang, Lalita; Stortz, Andreas; Salomon, Johanna J; Mall, Marcus A; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Transport of water and electrolytes in airway epithelia involves chloride-selective ion channels, which are controlled either by cytosolic Ca2+ or by cAMP The contributions of the two pathways to chloride transport differ among vertebrate species. Because rats are becoming more important as animal model for cystic fibrosis, we have examined how Ca2+- dependent and cAMP- dependent Cl- secretion is organized in the rat tracheal epithelium. We examined the expression of the Ca2+-gated Cl- channel anoctamin 1 (ANO1), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel, the epithelial Na+ channel ENaC, and the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in rat tracheal epithelium. The contribution of ANO1 channels to nucleotide-stimulated Cl- secretion was determined using the channel blocker Ani9 in short-circuit current recordings obtained from primary cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells in Ussing chambers. We found that ANO1, CFTR and AQP5 proteins were expressed in nonciliated cells of the tracheal epithelium, whereas ENaC was expressed in ciliated cells. Among nonciliated cells, ANO1 occurred together with CFTR and Muc5b and, in addition, in a different cell type without CFTR and Muc5b. Bioelectrical studies with the ANO1-blocker Ani9 indicated that ANO1 mediated the secretory response to the nucleotide uridine-5'-triphosphate. Our data demonstrate that, in rat tracheal epithelium, Cl- secretion and Na+ absorption are routed through different cell types, and that ANO1 channels form the molecular basis of Ca2+-dependent Cl- secretion in this tissue. These characteristic features of Cl--dependent secretion reveal similarities and distinct differences to secretory processes in human airways. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  5. The sialic acid component of the beta1 subunit modulates voltage-gated sodium channel function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel; Montpetit, Marty L; Stocker, Patrick J; Bennett, Eric S

    2004-10-22

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) are responsible for initiation and propagation of nerve, skeletal muscle, and cardiac action potentials. Nav are composed of a pore-forming alpha subunit and often one to several modulating beta subunits. Previous work showed that terminal sialic acid residues attached to alpha subunits affect channel gating. Here we show that the fully sialylated beta1 subunit induces a uniform, hyperpolarizing shift in steady state and kinetic gating of the cardiac and two neuronal alpha subunit isoforms. Under conditions of reduced sialylation, the beta1-induced gating effect was eliminated. Consistent with this, mutation of beta1 N-glycosylation sites abolished all effects of beta1 on channel gating. Data also suggest an interaction between the cis effect of alpha sialic acids and the trans effect of beta1 sialic acids on channel gating. Thus, beta1 sialic acids had no effect gating on the of the heavily glycosylated skeletal muscle alpha subunit. However, when glycosylation of the skeletal muscle alpha subunit was reduced through chimeragenesis such that alpha sialic acids did not impact gating, beta1 sialic acids caused a significant hyperpolarizing shift in channel gating. Together, the data indicate that beta1 N-linked sialic acids can modulate Nav gating through an apparent saturating electrostatic mechanism. A model is proposed in which a spectrum of differentially sialylated Nav can directly modulate channel gating, thereby impacting cardiac, skeletal muscle, and neuronal excitability.

  6. Evidence for functional diversity between the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 and its closest related protein HVRP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris H Kim

    Full Text Available The Hv1 channel and voltage-sensitive phosphatases share with voltage-gated sodium, potassium, and calcium channels the ability to detect changes in membrane potential through voltage-sensing domains (VSDs. However, they lack the pore domain typical of these other channels. NaV, KV, and CaV proteins can be found in neurons and muscles, where they play important roles in electrical excitability. In contrast, VSD-containing proteins lacking a pore domain are found in non-excitable cells and are not involved in neuronal signaling. Here, we report the identification of HVRP1, a protein related to the Hv1 channel (from which the name Hv1 Related Protein 1 is derived, which we find to be expressed primarily in the central nervous system, and particularly in the cerebellum. Within the cerebellar tissue, HVRP1 is specifically expressed in granule neurons, as determined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Analysis of subcellular distribution via electron microscopy and immunogold labeling reveals that the protein localizes on the post-synaptic side of contacts between glutamatergic mossy fibers and the granule cells. We also find that, despite the similarities in amino acid sequence and structural organization between Hv1 and HVRP1, the two proteins have distinct functional properties. The high conservation of HVRP1 in vertebrates and its cellular and subcellular localizations suggest an important function in the nervous system.

  7. Using the plant vacuole as a biological system to investigate the functional properties of exogenous channels and transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, M; Lagostena, L; Carpaneto, A

    2016-03-01

    Plant cells possess a large intracellular compartment that animal cells do not, the central vacuole, which has been investigated for a long time. The central vacuole can occupy up to 90% of the cellular volume and, differently from intracellular organelles from animal cells such as lysosomes or endosomes, it is easy to isolate. Because of its large dimension (up to 40 μm diameter) it can be successfully studied using the classical patch-clamp technique. Following the idea that the vacuolar membrane could be used as a convenient model to characterize the functional properties of channel-forming peptides, we verified that the phytotoxic lipodepsipeptide Syringopeptin 25A from Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae was able to form ionic pores in sugar beet vacuoles and we performed a detailed biophysical analysis. Recently, we extended the use of plant vacuoles to the expression and functional characterization of animal intracellular transporters, namely rat CLC-7, and channels, i.e. human TPC2. Since endo-lysosomal transporters and channels are still largely unexplored, principally because their intracellular localization renders them difficult to study, we believe that this novel approach will prove to be a powerful system for the investigation of the molecular mechanisms of exogenous transporters and channels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Mauro Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression and function of calcium-activated potassium channels following in-stent restenosis in a porcine coronary artery model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mais F. Absi

    2012-04-01

    Functional analysis using 1-EBIO and Bradykinin produced hyperpolarization of neointimal but not medial myocytes, which indicated the expression of functional endothelial SK3 and IKCa in the former and not in the latter. The expression of IKCa and SK3 within the neointimal layer suggested that some degree of recovery of both endothelial as well as smooth muscle regeneration had occurred. Future development of selective modulators of IKCa and SK3 channels may decrease the progression of ISR and improve coronary vascular function after stent placement, and is an area for future investigation.

  9. Mechanism of preservation of myocardial calcium channel function by pyruvate cardioplegic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, K; Wada, T; Lee, T S; Gondo, N; Hadama, T; Arita, M

    1998-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of adding pyruvate to a cardioplegic solution on the preservation of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium (Ca2+) current responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation in rabbit cardiac myocytes by measurement of single-channel open probability. Single ventricular myocytes were isolated and stored in St. Thomas' solution with or without pyruvate at 4 degrees C for 2, 6, 12, or 24 hours, and cell-attached single Ca2+ channel currents recordings were made at 20 degrees to 22 degrees C after each storage period. When 0.1 micromol/L isoproterenol (ISO) was applied to the cells, the percent mean open probability of the Ca2+ channels tested in freshly isolated cells was 181% +/- 27% (n = 12) of control values. These responses decreased with an increasing duration of the hypothermic storage and were only 112% +/- 22% (n = 5) of control values after 24 hours of storage in the absence of pyruvate. Conversely, the responses were significantly preserved, to as much as 143% +/- 17% (n = 7), in the presence of 10 mmol/L pyruvate in the storage solution. The application of forskolin to stimulate adenylate cyclase or a membrane-permeable cyclic adenosine monophosphate mimicked the effects of ISO when the myocytes were stored with pyruvate. Pyruvate did not alter the open-channel kinetics or single-channel conductance and lacked any apparent direct effect on the Ca2+ channel activity. We suggest that pyruvate added to the hypothermic storage solution preserves the high-energy phosphates in myocytes that are responsible for Ca2+ channel phosphorylation via beta-adrenergic stimulation. (J Lab

  10. Functionalized Fullerene Targeting Human Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel, hNav1.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A; Robinson, Anna; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2017-08-16

    Mutations of hNa v 1.7 that cause its activities to be enhanced contribute to severe neuropathic pain. Only a small number of hNa v 1.7 specific inhibitors have been identified, most of which interact with the voltage-sensing domain of the voltage-activated sodium ion channel. In our previous computational study, we demonstrated that a [Lys 6 ]-C 84 fullerene binds tightly (affinity of 46 nM) to Na v Ab, the voltage-gated sodium channel from the bacterium Arcobacter butzleri. Here, we extend this work and, using molecular dynamics simulations, demonstrate that the same [Lys 6 ]-C 84 fullerene binds strongly (2.7 nM) to the pore of a modeled human sodium ion channel hNa v 1.7. In contrast, the fullerene binds only weakly to a mutated model of hNa v 1.7 (I1399D) (14.5 mM) and a model of the skeletal muscle hNa v 1.4 (3.7 mM). Comparison of one representative sequence from each of the nine human sodium channel isoforms shows that only hNa v 1.7 possesses residues that are critical for binding the fullerene derivative and blocking the channel pore.

  11. Tyrosine phosphatases epsilon and alpha perform specific and overlapping functions in regulation of voltage-gated potassium channels in Schwann cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiran, Zohar; Peretz, Asher; Sines, Tal

    2006-01-01

    + channels and Src were analyzed in vivo in mice lacking either or both PTPs. Lack of either PTP increases Kv channel activity and phosphorylation in Schwann cells, indicating these PTPs inhibit Kv current amplitude in vivo. Open probability and unitary conductance of Kv channels are unchanged, suggesting......Tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) epsilon and alpha are closely related and share several molecular functions, such as regulation of Src family kinases and voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels. Functional interrelationships between PTPepsilon and PTPalpha and the mechanisms by which they regulate K...... an effect on channel number or organization. PTPalpha inhibits Kv channels more strongly than PTPepsilon; this correlates with constitutive association of PTPalpha with Kv2.1, driven by membranal localization of PTPalpha. PTPalpha, but not PTPepsilon, activates Src in sciatic nerve extracts, suggesting Src...

  12. Effect of Functional Nano Channel Structures Different Widths on Injection Molding and Compression Molding Replication Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, M.; Tosello, G.; Garnaes, J.

    The present study investigates the capabilities of the two employed processes, injection molding (IM) and injection compression molding (ICM) on replicating different channel cross sections. Statistical design of experiment was adopted to optimize replication quality of produced polymer parts...... with the two different molding technologies. Focus of the experimental work was the assessment of the IM and ICM processes capabilities to replicate different channels widths (240 nm, 440 nm and 1040 nm) at different positions from the gate based on the deviations of their dimensions from the corresponding...

  13. Regulation of transient receptor potential melastatin 4 channel by sarcoplasmic reticulum inositol trisphosphate receptors: Role in human detrusor smooth muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provence, Aaron; Rovner, Eric S; Petkov, Georgi V

    2017-09-03

    We recently reported key physiologic roles for Ca(2+)-activated transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channels in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM). However, the Ca(2+)-signaling mechanisms governing TRPM4 channel activity in human DSM cells are unexplored. As the TRPM4 channels are activated by Ca(2+), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum represents a potential Ca(2+) source for TRPM4 channel activation. We used clinically-characterized human DSM tissues to investigate the molecular and functional interactions of the IP3Rs and TRPM4 channels. With in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) and perforated patch-clamp electrophysiology, we tested the hypothesis that TRPM4 channels are tightly associated with the IP3Rs and are activated by IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) release in human DSM. With in situ PLA, we demonstrated co-localization of the TRPM4 channels and IP3Rs in human DSM cells. As the TRPM4 channels and IP3Rs must be located within close apposition to functionally interact, these findings support the concept of a potential Ca(2+)-mediated TRPM4-IP3R regulatory mechanism. To investigate IP3R regulation of TRPM4 channel activity, we sought to determine the consequences of IP3R pharmacological inhibition on TRPM4 channel-mediated transient inward cation currents (TICCs). In freshly-isolated human DSM cells, blocking the IP3Rs with the selective IP3R inhibitor xestospongin-C significantly decreased TICCs. The data suggest that IP3Rs have a key role in mediating the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of TRPM4 channels in human DSM. The study provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating TRPM4 channels by revealing that TRPM4 channels and IP3Rs are spatially and functionally coupled in human DSM.

  14. Two separate interfaces between the voltage sensor and pore are required for the function of voltage-dependent K(+ channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Yong Lee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-dependent K(+ (Kv channels gate open in response to the membrane voltage. To further our understanding of how cell membrane voltage regulates the opening of a Kv channel, we have studied the protein interfaces that attach the voltage-sensor domains to the pore. In the crystal structure, three physical interfaces exist. Only two of these consist of amino acids that are co-evolved across the interface between voltage sensor and pore according to statistical coupling analysis of 360 Kv channel sequences. A first co-evolved interface is formed by the S4-S5 linkers (one from each of four voltage sensors, which form a cuff surrounding the S6-lined pore opening at the intracellular surface. The crystal structure and published mutational studies support the hypothesis that the S4-S5 linkers convert voltage-sensor motions directly into gate opening and closing. A second co-evolved interface forms a small contact surface between S1 of the voltage sensor and the pore helix near the extracellular surface. We demonstrate through mutagenesis that this interface is necessary for the function and/or structure of two different Kv channels. This second interface is well positioned to act as a second anchor point between the voltage sensor and the pore, thus allowing efficient transmission of conformational changes to the pore's gate.

  15. L- and T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in human granulosa cells: functional characterization and cholinergic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platano, Daniela; Magli, M Cristina; Ferraretti, Anna Pia; Gianaroli, Luca; Aicardi, Giorgio

    2005-04-01

    Using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique, we have characterized two types of ionic currents through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in human granulosa cells. One is long-lasting, activates at approximately -20 mV, reaches the peak at approximately +20 mV, has an inactivation time constant of 132.5 +/- 5.6 msec at 20 mV, and is sensitive to dihydropyridines. The other is transient, activates at approximately -40 mV, peaks at approximately -10 mV, has an inactivation time constant of 38.8 +/- 1.8 msec at -10 mV, displays a voltage-dependent inactivation, and is sensitive to 100 microm Ni2+, but not to dihydropyridines. Biophysical and pharmacological properties of these currents indicate that they are gated through L- and T-type calcium channels, respectively. The cholinergic receptor agonist carbachol (50 microm) reduces the amplitude of the currents through both L-type (-34.7 +/- 6.4%; n = 10) and T-type (-52.6 +/- 7.4%; n = 8) channels, suggesting a possible role of these channels in the cholinergic regulation of human ovarian functions.

  16. The bacterial-fungal energy channel concept challenged by enormous functional versatility of soil protists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geisen, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protists (=protozoa) are commonly treated as bacterivores that control the bacterial energy channel in soil food webs. This ecologist’s perspective is, however, challenged by taxonomic studies showing that a range of protists feed on fungi, other protists and even nematodes. Recently, it

  17. Channel length scaling and the impact of metal gate work function ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    terest, particularly for the investigation of sub-10 nm field-effect transistors [1–3]. As the channel length is reduced from one transistor generation to the next, there is more and more interest in device behaviour and performance at the ballistic limit. The ballistics MOSFET was first examined by Natori [4]. Later, Harrison et al [5].

  18. eICIC functionality and performance for LTE HetNet co-channel deployments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus Ingemann; Wang, Yuanye; Soret, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Different technical solutions are enabling the move from macro-only scenarios towards heterogeneous networks with a mixture of different base station types. In this paper we focus on multi-layer LTE-Advanced networks, and especially address aspects related to co-channel interference management...

  19. HERG channel (dys)function revealed by dynamic action potential clamp technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berecki, Géza; Zegers, Jan G.; Verkerk, Arie O.; Bhuiyan, Zahurul A.; de Jonge, Berend; Veldkamp, Marieke W.; Wilders, Ronald; van Ginneken, Antoni C. G.

    2005-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) encodes the rapid component of the cardiac delayed recti. er potassium current (I-Kr). Per-Arnt-Sim domain mutations of the HERG channel are linked to type 2 long-QT syndrome. We studied wild-type and/or type 2 long-QT syndrome-associated mutant (R56Q)

  20. Alternatively Spliced Human TREK-1 Variants Alter TREK-1 Channel Function and Localization1

    OpenAIRE

    Cowles, Chad L.; Wu, Yi-Ying; Barnett, Scott D.; Lee, Michael T; Burkin, Heather R.; Buxton, Iain L. O.

    2015-01-01

    TREK-1, an outward-rectifying potassium channel activated by stretch, is found in the myometrium of pregnant women. Decreased expression of TREK-1 near term suggests that TREK-1 may contribute to uterine quiescence during gestation. Five alternatively spliced TREK-1 variants were identified in the myometrium of mothers who delivered spontaneously preterm (

  1. Collision frequency and radial distribution function in particle-laden turbulent channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; Vreman, A.W.

    2016-01-01

    We performed Eulerian–Lagrangian direct numerical simulation of particle-laden channel flow at a frictional Reynolds number of 950. A fully parallelized deterministic particle collision algorithm is applied for elastic collisions between two particles and particles and the walls. A total number of

  2. Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Frameworks for Carbon Dioxide Capture through Channel-Wall Functionalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, N.; Chen, X.; Krishna, R.; Jiang, D.

    2015-01-01

    Ordered open channels found in two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D COFs) could enable them to adsorb carbon dioxide. However, the frameworks' dense layer architecture results in low porosity that has thus far restricted their potential for carbon dioxide adsorption. Here we report a

  3. Distribution and function of sodium channel subtypes in human atrial myocardium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, Susann G.; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Maass, Alexander H.; Lange, Volkmar; Renner, Andre; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Bonz, Andreas; Muck, Jenny; Ertl, Georg; Catterall, William A.; Scheuer, Todd; Maier, Sebastian K. G.

    Voltage-gated sodium channels composed of a pore-forming alpha subunit and auxiliary beta subunits are responsible for the upstroke of the action potential in cardiac muscle. However, their localization and expression patterns in human myocardium have not yet been clearly defined. We used

  4. Function of a recombinant Chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  5. Amphiphile regulation of ion channel function by changes in the bilayer spring constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbæk, Jens August; Koeppe, R.E.; Andersen, Oluf Sten

    2010-01-01

    be predicted from measurements of isolated changes in such properties. Thus, the bilayer contribution to the promiscuous regulation of membrane proteins by drugs and other amphiphiles remains unknown. To overcome this problem, we use gramicidin A (gA) channels as molecular force probes to measure the net...

  6. Permeation rates of penicillins indicate that Escherichia coli porins function principally as nonspecific channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Seiji; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2013-07-09

    Small, hydrophilic compounds such as β-lactams diffuse across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria through porin channels, which were originally thought to be nonspecific channels devoid of any specificity. However, since the discovery of an ampicillin-binding site within the OmpF channel in 2002, much attention has been focused on the potential specificity of the channel, where the binding site was assumed either to facilitate or to retard the penetration of β-lactams. Since the earlier studies on porin permeability were done without the knowledge of the contribution of multidrug efflux pumps in the overall flux process across the cell envelope, in this study we have carefully studied both the porin permeability and active efflux of ampicillin and benzylpenicillin. We found that the influx occurs apparently by a spontaneous passive diffusion without any indication of specific binding within the concentration range relevant to the antibiotic action of these drugs, and that the higher permeability for ampicillin is totally as expected from the gross property of this drug as a zwitterionic compound. The active efflux by AcrAB was more effective for benzylpenicillin due to the stronger affinity and high degree of positive cooperativity. Our data now give a complete quantitative picture of the influx, efflux, and periplasmic degradation (catalyzed by AmpC β-lactamase) of these two compounds, and correlate closely with the susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains used here, thus validating not only our model but also the parameters obtained in this study.

  7. Physical and functional interaction of KV10.1 with Rabaptin-5 impacts ion channel trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninkovic, Milena; Mitkovski, Mišo; Kohl, Tobias; Stühmer, Walter; Pardo, Luis A

    2012-09-21

    K(V)10.1 is a potassium channel expressed in brain and implicated in tumor progression. We have searched for proteins interacting with K(V)10.1 and identified Rabaptin-5, an effector of the Rab5 GTPase. Both proteins co-localize on large early endosomes induced by Rab5 hyperactivity. Silencing of Rabaptin-5 induces down-regulation of recycling of K(V)10.1 channel in transfected cells and reduction of K(V)10.1 current density in cells natively expressing K(V)10.1, indicating a role of Rabaptin-5 in channel trafficking. K(V)10.1 co-localizes, but does not physically interact, with Rab7 and Rab11. Our data highlights the complex control of the amount of K(V)10.1 channels on the cell surface. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional expression of transient receptor potential channels in human endometrial stromal cells during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Katrien; Held, Katharina; Van Bree, Rieta; Meuleman, Christel; Peeraer, Karen; Tomassetti, Carla; Voets, Thomas; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Vriens, Joris

    2015-06-01

    Are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily functionally expressed in the human endometrial stroma? The Ca(2+)-permeable ion channels TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPC6 and TRPM7 are functionally expressed in primary endometrial stromal cells. Intercellular communication between epithelial and stromal endometrial cells is required to initiate decidualization, a prerequisite for successful implantation. TRP channels are possible candidates as signal transducers involved in cell-cell communication, but no fingerprint is available of the functional distribution of TRP channels in the human endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Endometrial biopsy samples (previously frozen) from patients of reproductive age with regular menstrual cycles, who were undergoing diagnostic laparoscopic surgery for pain and/or infertility, were analysed. Samples were obtained from the menstrual (Days 1-5, n = 3), follicular (Days 6-14, n = 6), early luteal (Days 15-20, n = 5) and late luteal (Days 21-28, n = 5) phases. In addition, a total of 13 patient samples taken during the luteal phase were used to set up primary cell cultures for further experiments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), immunocytochemistry, Fura2-based Ca(2+)-microfluorimetry and whole-cell patch clamp experiments were performed to study the functional expression pattern of TRP channels. Specific pharmacological agents, such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, GSK1016790A and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol, were used to functionally assess the expression of TRPV2, TRPV4 and TRPC6, respectively. Expression of TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPC1, TRPC4, TRPC6, TRPM4 and TRPM7 was detected at the mRNA level in endometrial biopsies (n = 19) and in primary endometrial stromal cell cultures obtained from patients during the luteal phase (n = 5) of the menstrual cycle. Messenger RNA levels of TRPV2, TRPC4 and TRPC6 were significantly increased (P endometrial stromal cells. Ca(2+)-microfluorimetry revealed

  9. Functional Expression of TRPV4 Channels in Human Collecting Duct Cells: Implications for Secondary Hypertension in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Hills

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Vanilloid subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRPV ion channels has been widely implicated in detecting osmotic and mechanical stress. In the current study, we examine the functional expression of TRPV4 channels in cell volume regulation in cells of the human collecting duct. Methods. Western blot analysis, siRNA knockdown, and microfluorimetry were used to assess the expression and function of TRPV4 in mediating Ca2+-dependent mechanical stimulation within a novel system of the human collecting duct (HCD. Results. Native and siRNA knockdown of TRPV4 protein expression was confirmed by western blot analysis. Touch was used as a cell-directed surrogate for osmotic stress. Mechanical stimulation of HCD cells evoked a transient increase in [Ca2+]i that was dependent upon thapsigargin-sensitive store release and Ca2+ influx. At 48 hrs, high glucose and mannitol (25 mM reduced TRPV4 expression by 54% and 24%, respectively. Similar treatment doubled SGK1 expression. Touch-evoked changes were negated following TRPV4 knockdown. Conclusion. Our data confirm expression of Ca2+-dependent TRPV4 channels in HCD cells and suggest that a loss of expression in response to high glucose attenuates the ability of the collecting duct to exhibit regulatory volume decreases, an effect that may contribute to the pathology of fluid and electrolyte imbalance as observed in diabetic nephropathy.

  10. KV10.1 K(+)-channel plasma membrane discrete domain partitioning and its functional correlation in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Garduño, Aura M; Mitkovski, Miso; Alexopoulos, Ioannis K; Sánchez, Araceli; Stühmer, Walter; Pardo, Luis A; Ortega, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    KV10.1 potassium channels are implicated in a variety of cellular processes including cell proliferation and tumour progression. Their expression in over 70% of human tumours makes them an attractive diagnostic and therapeutic target. Although their physiological role in the central nervous system is not yet fully understood, advances in their precise cell localization will contribute to the understanding of their interactions and function. We have determined the plasma membrane (PM) distribution of the KV10.1 protein in an enriched mouse brain PM fraction and its association with cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich domains. We show that the KV10.1 channel has two different populations in a 3:2 ratio, one associated to and another excluded from Detergent Resistant Membranes (DRMs). This distribution of KV10.1 in isolated PM is cholesterol- and cytoskeleton-dependent since alteration of those factors changes the relationship to 1:4. In transfected HEK-293 cells with a mutant unable to bind Ca(2+)/CaM to KV10.1 protein, Kv10.1 distribution in DRM/non-DRM is 1:4. Mean current density was doubled in the cholesterol-depleted cells, without any noticeable effects on other parameters. These results demonstrate that recruitment of the KV10.1 channel to the DRM fractions involves its functional regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulatory effects of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. on the function of atopic dermatitis-related calcium channels, Orai1 and TRPV3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hyun Nam

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that T. terrestris extract may have a therapeutic potential for recovery of abnormal skin barrier pathologies in atopic dermatitis through modulating the activities of calcium ion channels, Orai1 and TRPV3. This is the first study to report the modulatory effect of a medicinal plant on the function of ion channels in skin barrier.

  12. OmpW of Caulobacter crescentus Functions as an Outer Membrane Channel for Cations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Benz

    Full Text Available Caulobacter crescentus is an oligotrophic bacterium that lives in dilute organic environments such as soil and freshwater. This bacterium represents an interesting model for cellular differentiation and regulation because daughter cells after division have different forms: one is motile while the other is non-motile and can adhere to surfaces. Interestingly, the known genome of C. crescentus does not contain genes predicted to code for outer membrane porins of the OmpF/C general diffusion type present in enteric bacteria or those coding for specific porins selective for classes of substrates. Instead, genes coding for 67 TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors have been identified, suggesting that active transport of specific nutrients may be the norm. Here, we report that high channel-forming activity was observed with crude outer membrane extracts of C. crescentus in lipid bilayer experiments, indicating that the outer membrane of C. crescentus contained an ion-permeable channel with a single-channel conductance of about 120 pS in 1M KCl. The channel-forming protein with an apparent molecular mass of about 20 kDa was purified to homogeneity. Partial protein sequencing of the protein indicated it was a member of the OmpW family of outer membrane proteins from Gram-negative bacteria. This channel was not observed in reconstitution experiments with crude outer membrane extracts of an OmpW deficient C. crescentus mutant. Biophysical analysis of the C. crescentus OmpW suggested that it has features that are special for general diffusion porins of Gram-negative outer membranes because it was not a wide aqueous channel. Furthermore, OmpW of C. crescentus seems to be different to known OmpW porins and has a preference for ions, in particular cations. A putative model for OmpW of C. crescentus was built on the basis of the known 3D-structures of OmpW of Escherichia coli and OprG of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using homology modeling. A comparison of the two

  13. Calcium Channels: Structure and Function (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Volume 560)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-26

    of the Calcium-Channel Agonist CGP 28392 on Transmitter Release at Mouse Neuromuscular Junctions. By J. BURGES and D . W .-W RAY...for example, CGP 28392 (most likely (S)- CGP 28392, see Refs. 12 and 13), (S)-(+)-202-791, or (- )-Bay K 8644 are always inhibitory." Interestingly...electric organ synapse in an elasmobranch is reversibly blocked by wCgTX," whereas synapses in amphibia, |2 reptiles , and birds (D.Y., unpublished) are

  14. Prefrontal Cortex HCN1 Channels Enable Intrinsic Persistent Neural Firing and Executive Memory Function

    OpenAIRE

    Thuault, Sébastien J.; Malleret, Gaël; Constantinople, Christine M.; Nicholls, Russell; Chen, Irene; Zhu, Judy; Panteleyev, Andrey; Vronskaya, Svetlana; Nolan, Matthew F.; Bruno, Randy; Siegelbaum, Steven A.; Kandel, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    In many cortical neurons, HCN1 channels are the major contributors to I-h, the hyperpolarization-activated current, which regulates the intrinsic properties of neurons and shapes their integration of synaptic inputs, paces rhythmic activity, and regulates synaptic plasticity. Here, we examine the physiological role of I-h in deep layer pyramidal neurons in mouse prefrontal cortex (PFC), focusing on persistent activity, a form of sustained firing thought to be important for the behavioral func...

  15. Structural Basis for the Function and Inhibition of an Influenze Virus Proton Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stouffer,A.; Acharya, R.; Salom, D.; Levine, A.; Di Costanzo, L.; Soto, C.; Tershko, V.; Nanda, V.; Stayrook, S.; DeGrado, W.

    2008-01-01

    The M2 protein from influenza A virus is a pH-activated proton channel that mediates acidification of the interior of viral particles entrapped in endosomes. M2 is the target of the anti-influenza drugs amantadine and rimantadine; recently, resistance to these drugs in humans, birds and pigs has reached more than 90% (ref. 1). Here we describe the crystal structure of the transmembrane-spanning region of the homotetrameric protein in the presence and absence of the channel-blocking drug amantadine. pH-dependent structural changes occur near a set of conserved His and Trp residues that are involved in proton gating2. The drug-binding site is lined by residues that are mutated in amantadine-resistant viruses3, 4. Binding of amantadine physically occludes the pore, and might also perturb the pKa of the critical His residue. The structure provides a starting point for solving the problem of resistance to M2-channel blockers.

  16. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR. PART 7 - FUNCTIONING OF THE DECOMMISSIONING DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to achieve the device functioning steps for the commissioning of the horizontal fuel channels of calandria vessel. The dismantling of the fuel channel is performed by one device which shall provide radiation protection during the stages of decommissioning, ensuring radiation protection of the workers. For the decommissioning operation design shall be taken to ensure all aspects of security, environmental protection during decommissioning operation steps and creating and implementing work procedures resulting from developed decommissioning plan. The fuel channel decommissioning device is designed for dismantling and extraction of the fuel channel and its components. The decommissioning operation consists of following major steps: platform with device positioning to the fuel channel to be dismantled; coupling and locking the device at the fuel channel; unblock, extract and store the channel closure plug; unblock, extract and store the channel shield plug; block and cut the middle and the end of the pressure tube; block, extract and store the end fitting; block, extract and store the half of pressure tube; mounting of the extended closing plug. The operations steps are performed by the Cutting and Extraction Device and by the extraction actuator from the device handling elements assembly. After each step of dismantling is necessary the confirmation its finalization in order to perform the next operation step. The dismantling operation steps of the fuel channel components are repeated for all the 380 channels of the reactor, from the front of calandria side (plane R as well as the rear side (plane R'.

  17. Functional significance of thermosensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channel 8 (TRPM8) expression in immortalized human corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, Stefan; Mertens, Charlotte; Valtink, Monika; Reinach, Peter S; Székely, Violeta Castelo; Slavi, Nefeli; Garreis, Fabian; Abdelmessih, Suzette; Türker, Ersal; Fels, Gabriele; Pleyer, Uwe

    2013-11-01

    Human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) maintain appropriate tissue hydration and transparency by eliciting net ion transport coupled to fluid egress from the stroma into the anterior chamber. Such activity offsets tissue swelling caused by stromal imbibition of fluid. As corneal endothelial (HCE) transport function is modulated by temperature changes, we probed for thermosensitive transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) functional activity in immortalized human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC-12) and freshly isolated human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) as a control. This channel is either activated upon lowering to 28 °C or by menthol, eucalyptol and icilin. RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) verified TRPM8 gene expression. Ca(2+) transients induced by either menthol (500 μmol/l), eucalyptol (3 mmol/l), or icilin (2-60 μmol/l) were identified using cell fluorescence imaging. The TRP channel blocker lanthanum III chloride (La(3+), 100 μmol/l) as well as the TRPM8 blockers BCTC (10 μmol/l) and capsazepine (CPZ, 10 μmol/l) suppressed icilin-induced Ca(2+) increases. In and outward currents induced by application of menthol (500 μmol/l) or icilin (50 μmol/l) were detected using the planar patch-clamp technique. A thermal transition from room temperature to ≈ 18 °C led to Ca(2+) increases that were inhibited by a TRPM8 blocker BCTC (10 μmol/l). Other thermosensitive TRP pathways whose heterogeneous Ca(2+) response patterns are suggestive of other Ca(2+) handling pathways were also detected upon strong cooling (≈10 °C). Taken together, functional TRPM8 expression in HCEC-12 and freshly dissociated HCEC suggests that HCE function can adapt to thermal variations through activation of this channel subtype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High yield purification of full-length functional hERG K+ channels produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molbaek, Karen; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter; Helix-Nielsen, Claus; Klaerke, Dan A; Pedersen, Per Amstrup

    2015-02-07

    The hERG potassium channel is essential for repolarization of the cardiac action potential. Due to this vital function, absence of unintended and potentially life-threatening interactions with hERG is required for approval of new drugs. The structure of hERG is therefore one of the most sought-after. To provide purified hERG for structural studies and new hERG biomimetic platforms for detection of undesirable interactions, we have developed a hERG expression platform generating unprecedented amounts of purified and functional hERG channels. Full-length hERG, with or without a C-terminally fused green fluorescent protein (GFP) His 8-tag was produced from a codon-optimized hERG cDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both constructs complemented the high potassium requirement of a knock-out Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, indicating correct tetramer assembly in vivo. Functionality was further demonstrated by Astemizole binding to membrane embedded hERG-GFP-His 8 with a stoichiometry corresponding to tetramer assembly. The 156 kDa hERG-GFP protein accumulated to a membrane density of 1.6%. Fluorescence size exclusion chromatography of hERG-GFP-His 8 solubilized in Fos-Choline-12 supplemented with cholesteryl-hemisuccinate and Astemizole resulted in a monodisperse elution profile demonstrating a high quality of the hERG channels. hERG-GFP-His 8 purified by Ni-affinity chromatography maintained the ability to bind Astemizole with the correct stoichiometry indicating that the native, tetrameric structure was preserved. To our knowledge this is the first reported high-yield production and purification of full length, tetrameric and functional hERG. This significant breakthrough will be paramount in obtaining hERG crystal structures, and in establishment of new high-throughput hERG drug safety screening assays.

  19. Effect of complete protein 4.1R deficiency on ion transportproperties of murine erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Alicia; De Franceschi, Lucia; Peters, Luanne L.; Gascard,Philippe; Mohandas, Narla; Brugnara, Carlo

    2006-06-02

    Moderate hemolytic anemia, abnormal erythrocyte morphology(spherocytosis), and decreased membrane stability are observed in micewith complete deficiency of all erythroid protein 4.1 protein isoforms(4.1-/-; Shi TS et al., J. Clin. Invest. 103:331,1999). We have examinedthe effects of erythroid protein 4.1 (4.1R) deficiency on erythrocytecation transport and volume regulation. 4.1-/- mice exhibited erythrocytedehydration that was associated with reduced cellular K and increased Nacontent. Increased Na permeability was observed in these mice, mostlymediated by Na/H exchange with normal Na-K pump and Na-K-2Cl cotransportactivities. The Na/H exchange of 4.1-/- erythrocytes was markedlyactivated by exposure to hypertonic conditions (18.2+- 3.2 in 4.1 -/- vs.9.8 +- 1.3 mmol/1013 cell x h in control mice), with an abnormaldependence on osmolarity, (K0.5=417 +- 42 in 4.1 -/- vs. 460 +- 35 mOsmin control mice) suggestive of an up-regulated functional state. Whilethe affinity for internal protons was not altered (K0.5= 489.7 +- 0.7 vs.537.0+- 0.56 nM in control mice), the Vmax of the H-induced Na/H exchangeactivity was markedly elevated in 4.1-/- erythrocytes (Vmax 91.47Moderatehemolytic anemia, abnormal erythrocyte morphology (spherocytosis), anddecreased membrane stability are observed in mice with completedeficiency of all erythroid protein 4.1 protein isoforms (4.1-/-; Shi TSet al., J. Clin. Invest. 103:331,1999). We have examined the effects oferythroid protein 4.1 (4.1R) deficiency on erythrocyte cation transportand volume regulation. 4.1-/- mice exhibited erythrocyte dehydration thatwas associated with reduced cellular K and increased Na content.Increased Na permeability was observed in these mice, mostly mediated byNa/H exchange with normal Na-K pump and Na-K-2Cl cotransport activities.The Na/H exchange of 4.1-/- erythrocytes was markedly activated byexposure to hypertonic conditions (18.2 +- 3.2 in 4.1 -/- vs. 9.8 +- 1.3mmol/1013 cell x h in control mice), with an

  20. Novel regulatory mechanism in human urinary bladder: central role of transient receptor potential melastatin 4 channels in detrusor smooth muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Kiril L; Smith, Amy C; Parajuli, Shankar P; Malysz, John; Rovner, Eric S; Petkov, Georgi V

    2016-04-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channels are Ca(2+)-activated nonselective cation channels that have been recently identified as regulators of detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) function in rodents. However, their expression and function in human DSM remain unexplored. We provide insights into the functional role of TRPM4 channels in human DSM under physiological conditions. We used a multidisciplinary experimental approach, including RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, patch-clamp electrophysiology, and functional studies of DSM contractility. DSM samples were obtained from patients without preoperative overactive bladder symptoms. RT-PCR detected mRNA transcripts for TRPM4 channels in human DSM whole tissue and freshly isolated single cells. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry with confocal microscopy revealed TRPM4 protein expression in human DSM. Immunocytochemistry further detected TRPM4 protein expression in DSM single cells. Patch-clamp experiments showed that 9-phenanthrol, a selective TRPM4 channel inhibitor, significantly decreased the transient inward cation currents and voltage step-induced whole cell currents in freshly isolated human DSM cells. In current-clamp mode, 9-phenanthrol hyperpolarized the human DSM cell membrane potential. Furthermore, 9-phenanthrol attenuated the spontaneous phasic, carbachol-induced and nerve-evoked contractions in human DSM isolated strips. Significant species-related differences in TRPM4 channel activity between human, rat, and guinea pig DSM were revealed, suggesting a more prominent physiological role for the TRPM4 channel in the regulation of DSM function in humans than in rodents. In conclusion, TRPM4 channels regulate human DSM excitability and contractility and are critical determinants of human urinary bladder function. Thus, TRPM4 channels could represent promising novel targets for the pharmacological or genetic control of overactive bladder. Copyright

  1. Peripheral KV7 channels regulate visceral sensory function in mouse and human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, Madusha; Hockley, James Rf; Reed, David E; Smith, Ewan St John; Bulmer, David C; Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic visceral pain is a defining symptom of many gastrointestinal disorders. The KV7 family (KV7.1-KV7.5) of voltage-gated potassium channels mediates the M current that regulates excitability in peripheral sensory nociceptors and central pain pathways. Here, we use a combination of immunohistochemistry, gut-nerve electrophysiological recordings in both mouse and human tissues, and single-cell qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of gut-projecting sensory neurons, to investigate the contribution of peripheral KV7 channels to visceral nociception. Results Immunohistochemical staining of mouse colon revealed labelling of KV7 subtypes (KV7.3 and KV7.5) with CGRP around intrinsic enteric neurons of the myenteric plexuses and within extrinsic sensory fibres along mesenteric blood vessels. Treatment with the KV7 opener retigabine almost completely abolished visceral afferent firing evoked by the algogen bradykinin, in agreement with significant co-expression of mRNA transcripts by single-cell qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for KCNQ subtypes and the B2 bradykinin receptor in retrogradely labelled extrinsic sensory neurons from the colon. Retigabine also attenuated responses to mechanical stimulation of the bowel following noxious distension (0-80 mmHg) in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the KV7 blocker XE991 potentiated such responses. In human bowel tissues, KV7.3 and KV7.5 were expressed in neuronal varicosities co-labelled with synaptophysin and CGRP, and retigabine inhibited bradykinin-induced afferent activation in afferent recordings from human colon. Conclusions We show that KV7 channels contribute to the sensitivity of visceral sensory neurons to noxious chemical and mechanical stimuli in both mouse and human gut tissues. As such, peripherally restricted KV7 openers may represent a viable therapeutic modality for the treatment of gastrointestinal pathologies.

  2. Nuclear actin and protein 4.1: Essential interactions during nuclear assembly in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Sharon Wald; Chen, Cynthia; Penman, Sheldon; Heald, Rebecca

    2003-06-11

    Structural protein 4.1, which has crucial interactions within the spectin-actin lattice of the human red cell membrane skeleton, also is widely distributed at diverse intracellular sites in nucleated cells. We previously showed that 4.1 is essential for assembly of functional nuclei in vitro and that the capacity of 4.1 to bind actin is required. Here we report that 4.1 and actin colocalize in mammalian cell nuclei using fluorescence microscopy and, by higher resolution cell whole mount electron microscopy, are associated on nuclear filaments. We also devised a cell-free assay using Xenopus egg extract containing fluorescent actin to follow actin during nuclear assembly. By directly imaging actin under non-perturbing conditions, the total nuclear actin population is retained and is visualized in situ relative to intact chromatin. We detected actin initially when chromatin and nuclear pores began assembling. As the nuclear lamina assembled, but preceding DNA synthesis, a discrete actin network formed throughout the nucleus. Protein 4.1 epitopes also were detected when actin began to accumulate in nuclei, producing a diffuse coincident pattern. As nuclei matured, actin was detected both coincident with and also independent of 4.1 epitopes. To test whether acquisition of nuclear actin is required for nuclear assembly, the actin inhibitor latrunculin A was added to Xenopus egg extracts during nuclear assembly. Latrunculin A strongly perturbed nuclear assembly and produced distorted nuclear structures containing neither actin nor protein 4.1. Our results suggest that actin as well as 4.1 is necessary for nuclear assembly and that 4.1-actin interactions may be critical.

  3. Evolution of cleared channels in neutron-irradiated pure copper as a function of tensile strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, D.J.; Singh, B.N.

    2004-01-01

    % of the macroscopic yield, at 1.5% and 5% elongation, and near the ultimate tensile strength at 14.5% elongation, with the 5th specimen tested to failure (e(T) = 22%). SEM and TEM characterization of the deformed specimens revealed that the plastic strain was confined primarily to the 'cleared' channels only......Tensile specimens of pure copper were neutron irradiated at similar to323 K to a displacement dose of 0.3 dpa (displacement per atom). Five irradiated specimens were tensile tested at 300 K, but four of the specimens were stopped at specific strains -just before the yield point at similar to90...

  4. Developmental changes in frontal lobe function during a verbal fluency task: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tando, Tomoko; Kaga, Yoshimi; Ishii, Sayaka; Aoyagi, Kakuro; Sano, Fumikazu; Kanemura, Hideaki; Sugita, Kanji; Aihara, Masao

    2014-11-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is commonly used to investigate continuous changes of brain activation and has excellent time resolution. Verbal fluency task (VFT) is widely used as a neuropsychological test of frontal lobe function. The aim of this study was to investigate normal developmental change in frontal lobe function during VFT performance using multi-channel NIRS, specifically focusing on oxygenation hemoglobin (oxyHb) changes. The subjects were 9 adults and 37 childrens who were all healthy right-handed volunteers. Children were divided into four age groups (group A, 6-8 years; group B, 9-11 years; group C, 12-14 years; group D, 15-18 years). The [oxyHb] changes were measured with 22 channels of NIRS during VFT. We defined the frontopolar region as the region of interest for analysis, and calculated the Z-score to compare the data between groups. The task performance changed with age. There were significant differences between group A and other groups. The Z-score of [oxyHb] also significantly increased with age, when comparing adults to groups A and B. The task performances decreased with time in all groups. In contrast, [oxyHb] only continued to increase in the adult group. The verbal retrieval functions begin to mature in early adolescence and continue to grow up to adulthood. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Voltage Gated Cation Channels: Insights on Voltage-Sensor Domain Function and Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie eDelemotte

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the 1950s, the structure and function of voltage gated cation channels (VGCC has been largely understood thanks to results stemming from electrophysiology, pharmacology, spectroscopy and structural biology. Over the past decade, computational methods such as molecular dynamics (MD simulations have also contributed, providing molecular level information that can be tested against experimental results, thereby allowing the validation of the models and protocols. Importantly, MD can shed light on elements of VGCC function that cannot be easily accessed through classical experiments. Here, we review the results of recent MD simulations addressing key questions that pertain to the function and modulation of the VGCC’s voltage sensor domain (VSD highlighting: 1 the movement of the S4-helix basic residues during channel activation, articulating how the electrical driving force acts upon them; 2 the nature of the VSD intermediate states on transitioning between open and closed states of the VGCC; and 3 the molecular level effects on the VSD arising from mutations of specific S4 positively charged residues involved in certain genetic diseases.

  6. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Phosphorylation at Ser571 Regulates Late Current, Arrhythmia, and Cardiac Function In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Patric; Musa, Hassan; Wu, Xiangqiong; Unudurthi, Sathya D; Little, Sean; Qian, Lan; Wright, Patrick J; Radwanski, Przemyslaw B; Gyorke, Sandor; Mohler, Peter J; Hund, Thomas J

    2015-08-18

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) are essential for myocyte membrane excitability and cardiac function. Nav current (INa) is a large-amplitude, short-duration spike generated by rapid channel activation followed immediately by inactivation. However, even under normal conditions, a small late component of INa (INa,L) persists because of incomplete/failed inactivation of a subpopulation of channels. Notably, INa,L is directly linked with both congenital and acquired disease states. The multifunctional Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) has been identified as an important activator of INa,L in disease. Several potential CaMKII phosphorylation sites have been discovered, including Ser571 in the Nav1.5 DI-DII linker, but the molecular mechanism underlying CaMKII-dependent regulation of INa,L in vivo remains unknown. To determine the in vivo role of Ser571, 2 Scn5a knock-in mouse models were generated expressing either: (1) Nav1.5 with a phosphomimetic mutation at Ser571 (S571E), or (2) Nav1.5 with the phosphorylation site ablated (S571A). Electrophysiology studies revealed that Ser571 regulates INa,L but not other channel properties previously linked to CaMKII. Ser571-mediated increases in INa,L promote abnormal repolarization and intracellular Ca(2+) handling and increase susceptibility to arrhythmia at the cellular and animal level. Importantly, Ser571 is required for maladaptive remodeling and arrhythmias in response to pressure overload. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence for the molecular mechanism underlying CaMKII activation of the pathogenic INa,L. Relevant for improved rational design of potential therapies, our findings demonstrate that Ser571-dependent regulation of Nav1.5 specifically tunes INa,L without altering critical physiological components of the current. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Regulation and function of the two-pore-domain (K2P) potassium channel Trek-1 in alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Andreas; Teng, Bin; Ghosh, Manik; West, Alina Nico; Makena, Patrudu; Gorantla, Vijay; Sinclair, Scott E; Waters, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    Hyperoxia can lead to a myriad of deleterious effects in the lung including epithelial damage and diffuse inflammation. The specific mechanisms by which hyperoxia promotes these pathological changes are not completely understood. Activation of ion channels has been proposed as one of the mechanisms required for cell activation and mediator secretion. The two-pore-domain K(+) channel (K2P) Trek-1 has recently been described in lung epithelial cells, but its function remains elusive. In this study we hypothesized that hyperoxia affects expression of Trek-1 in alveolar epithelial cells and that Trek-1 is involved in regulation of cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. We found gene expression of several K2P channels in mouse alveolar epithelial cells (MLE-12), and expression of Trek-1 was significantly downregulated in cultured cells and lungs of mice exposed to hyperoxia. Similarly, proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Cyclin D1 expression were downregulated by exposure to hyperoxia. We developed an MLE-12 cell line deficient in Trek-1 expression using shRNA and found that Trek-1 deficiency resulted in increased cell proliferation and upregulation of PCNA but not Cyclin D1. Furthermore, IL-6 and regulated on activation normal T-expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES) secretion was decreased in Trek-1-deficient cells, whereas release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was increased. Release of KC/IL-8 was not affected by Trek-1 deficiency. Overall, deficiency of Trek-1 had a more pronounced effect on mediator secretion than exposure to hyperoxia. This is the first report suggesting that the K(+) channel Trek-1 could be involved in regulation of alveolar epithelial cell proliferation and cytokine secretion, but a direct association with hyperoxia-induced changes in Trek-1 levels remains elusive.

  8. Presynaptic Localization and Possible Function of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Anoctamin 1 in the Mammalian Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Jeon

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca(2+-activated chloride (Cl(- channels (CaCCs play a role in the modulation of action potentials and synaptic responses in the somatodendritic regions of central neurons. In the vertebrate retina, large Ca(2+-activated Cl(- currents (ICl(Ca regulate synaptic transmission at photoreceptor terminals; however, the molecular identity of CaCCs that mediate ICl(Ca remains unclear. The transmembrane protein, TMEM16A, also called anoctamin 1 (ANO1, has been recently validated as a CaCC and is widely expressed in various secretory epithelia and nervous tissues. Despite the fact that tmem16a was first cloned in the retina, there is little information on its cellular localization and function in the mammalian retina. In this study, we found that ANO1 was abundantly expressed as puncta in 2 synaptic layers. More specifically, ANO1 immunoreactivity was observed in the presynaptic terminals of various retinal neurons, including photoreceptors. ICl(Ca was first detected in dissociated rod bipolar cells expressing ANO1. ICl(Ca was abolished by treatment with the Ca(2+ channel blocker Co(2+, the L-type Ca(2+ channel blocker nifedipine, and the Cl(- channel blockers 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino benzoic acid (NPPB and niflumic acid (NFA. More specifically, a recently discovered ANO1-selective inhibitor, T16Ainh-A01, and a neutralizing antibody against ANO1 inhibited ICl(Ca in rod bipolar cells. Under a current-clamping mode, the suppression of ICl(Ca by using NPPB and T16Ainh-A01 caused a prolonged Ca(2+ spike-like depolarization evoked by current injection in dissociated rod bipolar cells. These results suggest that ANO1 confers ICl(Ca in retinal neurons and acts as an intrinsic regulator of the presynaptic membrane potential during synaptic transmission.

  9. Molecular and functional characterization of Kv 7 channels in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum of healthy and metabolic syndrome rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepps, T A; Olesen, S P; Greenwood, I A

    2016-01-01

    and corpus cavernosum strips isolated from normal and SHHF rats. KEY RESULTS: Transcripts for KCNQ3, KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 were detected in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum. KCNQ1 was only found in corpus cavernosum. Immunofluorescence signals to Kv 7.4 and Kv 7.5 were found in penile arteries, penile veins....... KCNQ3, KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 were down-regulated, and KCNQ1 was up-regulated in corpus cavernosum from SHHF rats. KCNQ1-5 transcripts remained unchanged in penile arteries from SHHF rats. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These data suggest that Kv 7 channels play a role in erectile function and contribute...

  10. Distributed feedback laser amplifiers combining the functions of amplifiers and channel filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Durhuus, T.; Mikkelsen, Benny

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic model for distributed feedback amplifiers, including the mode coupled equations and the carrier rate equation, is established. The presented mode coupled equations have taken into account the interaction between fast changing optical signal and the waveguide with corrugations. By showin...... the possibility of amplifying 100 ps pulses without pulse broadening, we anticipate that a distributed feedback amplifier can be used as a combined amplifier and channel filter in high bit rate transmission systems.......A dynamic model for distributed feedback amplifiers, including the mode coupled equations and the carrier rate equation, is established. The presented mode coupled equations have taken into account the interaction between fast changing optical signal and the waveguide with corrugations. By showing...

  11. Effect of a selective chloride channel activator, lubiprostone, on gastrointestinal transit, gastric sensory, and motor functions in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Bharucha, Adil E; Ueno, Ryuji; Burton, Duane; Thomforde, George M; Baxter, Kari; McKinzie, Sanna; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2006-05-01

    Chloride channels modulate gastrointestinal neuromuscular functions in vitro. Lubiprostone, a selective type 2 chloride channel (ClC-2) activator, induces intestinal secretion and has been shown to relieve constipation in clinical trials; however, the effects of lubiprostone on gastric function and whole gut transit in humans are unclear. Our aim was to compare the effects of the selective ClC-2 activator lubiprostone on maximum tolerated volume (MTV) of a meal, postprandial symptoms, gastric volumes, and gastrointestinal and colonic transit in humans. We performed a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of lubiprostone (24 microg bid) in 30 healthy volunteers. Validated methods were used: scintigraphic gastrointestinal and colonic transit, SPECT to measure gastric volumes, and the nutrient drink ("satiation") test to measure MTV and postprandial symptoms. Lubiprostone accelerated small bowel and colonic transit, increased fasting gastric volume, and retarded gastric emptying. MTV values were reduced compared with placebo; however, the MTV was within the normal range for healthy adults in 13 of 14 participants, and there was no significant change compared with baseline measurements. Lubiprostone had no significant effect on postprandial gastric volume or aggregate symptoms but did decrease fullness 30 min after the fully satiating meal. Thus the ClC-2 activator lubiprostone accelerates small intestinal and colonic transit, which confers potential in the treatment of constipation.

  12. The NCA-1 and NCA-2 Ion Channels Function Downstream of Gq and Rho To Regulate Locomotion in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalidou, Irini; Chen, Pin-An; Cooper, Kirsten; Watanabe, Shigeki; Jorgensen, Erik M; Ailion, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The heterotrimeric G protein Gq positively regulates neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. Previously, the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio was identified as a direct effector of Gq that acts in parallel to the canonical Gq effector phospholipase C. Here, we examine how Trio and Rho act to stimulate neuronal activity downstream of Gq in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Through two forward genetic screens, we identify the cation channels NCA-1 and NCA-2, orthologs of mammalian NALCN, as downstream targets of the Gq-Rho pathway. By performing genetic epistasis analysis using dominant activating mutations and recessive loss-of-function mutations in the members of this pathway, we show that NCA-1 and NCA-2 act downstream of Gq in a linear pathway. Through cell-specific rescue experiments, we show that function of these channels in head acetylcholine neurons is sufficient for normal locomotion in C. elegans Our results suggest that NCA-1 and NCA-2 are physiologically relevant targets of neuronal Gq-Rho signaling in C. elegans. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. Structure and function of splice variants of the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Annett; Walzik, Stefan; Blechschmidt, Steve; Haufe, Volker; Benndorf, Klaus; Zimmer, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels mediate the rapid upstroke of the action potential in excitable tissues. The tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistant isoform Na(v)1.5, encoded by the SCN5A gene, is the predominant isoform in the heart. This channel plays a key role for excitability of atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes and for rapid impulse propagation through the specific conduction system. During recent years, strong evidence has been accumulated in support of the expression of several Na(v)1.5 splice variants in the heart, and in various other tissues and cell lines including brain, dorsal root ganglia, breast cancer cells and neuronal stem cell lines. This review summarizes our knowledge on the structure and putative function of nine Na(v)1.5 splice variants detected so far. Attention will be paid to the distinct biophysical properties of the four functional splice variants, to the pronounced tissue- and species-specific expression, and to the developmental regulation of Na(v)1.5 splicing. The implications of alternative splicing for SCN5A channelopathies, and for a better understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations, are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional validation of virtual screening for novel agents with general anesthetic action at ligand-gated ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Stephanie A; Howard, Rebecca J; Borghese, Cecilia M; Cullins, Madeline A; Broemstrup, Torben; Lee, Ui S; Lindahl, Erik; Carlsson, Jens; Harris, R Adron

    2013-11-01

    GABA(A) receptors play a crucial role in the actions of general anesthetics. The recently published crystal structure of the general anesthetic propofol bound to Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC), a bacterial homolog of GABA(A) receptors, provided an opportunity to explore structure-based ligand discovery for pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs). We used molecular docking of 153,000 commercially available compounds to identify molecules that interact with the propofol binding site in GLIC. In total, 29 compounds were selected for functional testing on recombinant GLIC, and 16 of these compounds modulated GLIC function. Active compounds were also tested on recombinant GABA(A) receptors, and point mutations around the presumed binding pocket were introduced into GLIC and GABA(A) receptors to test for binding specificity. The potency of active compounds was only weakly correlated with properties such as lipophilicity or molecular weight. One compound was found to mimic the actions of propofol on GLIC and GABA(A), and to be sensitive to mutations that reduce the action of propofol in both receptors. Mutant receptors also provided insight about the position of the binding sites and the relevance of the receptor's conformation for anesthetic actions. Overall, the findings support the feasibility of the use of virtual screening to discover allosteric modulators of pLGICs, and suggest that GLIC is a valid model system to identify novel GABA(A) receptor ligands.

  15. Functional crosstalk between the mitochondrial PTP and KATP channels determine arrhythmic vulnerability to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqin eXie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Permeability transition pore (mPTP opening leads to mitochondrial dysfunction & cell death during oxidative stress (OS. However mPTP desensitization with cyclosporine A (CsA has shown variable efficacy in limiting post-ischemic arrhythmias. We hypothesized that feedback between energy dissipating (mPTP and cardioprotective (mKATP channels determine vulnerability to OS.Methods & Results: Guinea pig hearts (N=61 were perfused with H2O2 to elicit mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP depolarization. Optical mapping was used to measure MMP or action potentials (AP. Hearts were treated with CsA under conditions that altered mKATP activity directly or indirectly via its regulation by PKC. CsA blunted OS-induced MMP depolarization and delayed loss of contractility but did not affect arrhythmia propensity. Surprisingly, prevention of mKATP activation with the phosphatase BDM reversed the protective effect of CsA, paradoxically exacerbating OS-induced MMP depolarization and accelerating arrhythmia onset in CsA treated hearts. To elucidate the putative molecular mechanisms, mPTP inhibition by CsA was tested under conditions of selective PKC inhibition, mKATP activation or blockade. Similar to BDM, CHE did not alter OS-induced MMP depolarization. However, it completely abrogated CsA-mediated protection against OS. Pharmacological block of mKATP, a target of PKC signaling, equally abolished the protective effect of CsA on MMP depolarization, whereas channel activation with DZX protected against MMP depolarization. Conditions that prevented mKATP activation led to accelerated MMP depolarization and early onset of VF in response to OS. Investigation of the electrophysiological substrate revealed accelerated APD shortening in response to OS in arrhythmia-prone hearts.Conclusions: Cardioprotection by CsA requires mKATP activation through a PKC-dependent pathway. Increasing mKATP activity during CsA administration is required for limiting OS-induced electrical

  16. Regulation of sodium channel function by bilayer elasticity: the importance of hydrophobic coupling. Effects of Micelle-forming amphiphiles and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbæk, Jens August; Birn, Pia; Hansen, Anker J

    2004-01-01

    and kinetics of the protein conformational changes therefore will be regulated by the bilayer elasticity, which is determined by the lipid composition. This hydrophobic coupling mechanism has been studied extensively in gramicidin channels, where the channel-bilayer hydrophobic interactions link...... a "conformational" change (the monomerdimer transition) to an elastic bilayer deformation. Gramicidin channels thus are regulated by the lipid bilayer elastic properties (thickness, monolayer equilibrium curvature, and compression and bending moduli). To investigate whether this hydrophobic coupling mechanism could...... be a general mechanism regulating membrane protein function, we examined whether voltage-dependent skeletal-muscle sodium channels, expressed in HEK293 cells, are regulated by bilayer elasticity, as monitored using gramicidin A (gA) channels. Nonphysiological amphiphiles (beta-octyl-glucoside, Genapol X-100...

  17. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  18. Evolution of Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel Function: From Molecular Sieve to Governator to Actuator of Ferroptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Lemasters

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC is well known as the pathway for passive diffusion of anionic hydrophilic mitochondrial metabolites across the outer membrane, but a more complex functionality of the three isoforms of VDAC has emerged, as addressed in the Frontiers in Oncology Research Topic on “Uncovering the Function of the Mitochondrial Protein VDAC in Health and Disease: from Structure-Function to Novel Therapeutic Strategies.” VDAC as the single most abundant protein in mitochondrial outer membranes is typically involved in isoform-specific interactions of the mitochondrion with its surroundings as, for example, during mitochondria-dependent pathways of cell death. VDAC closure can also act as an adjustable limiter (governator of global mitochondrial metabolism, as during hepatic ethanol metabolism to promote selective oxidation of membrane-permeant acetaldehyde. In cancer cells, high free tubulin inhibits VDAC1 and VDAC2, contributing to suppression of mitochondrial function in the Warburg phenomenon. Erastin, the canonical inducer of ferroptosis, opens VDAC in the presence of tubulin and hyperpolarizes mitochondria, leading to mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell death. Our understanding of VDAC function continues to evolve.

  19. Functional expression of transgenic α1sDHPR channels in adult mammalian skeletal muscle fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranco, Marino; Tran, Philip; Quiñonez, Marbella; Vergara, Julio L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the effects of the overexpression of two enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged α1sDHPR variants on Ca2+ currents (ICa), charge movements (Q) and SR Ca2+ release of muscle fibres isolated from adult mice. Flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles were transfected by in vivo electroporation with plasmids encoding for EGFP-α1sDHPR-wt and EGFP-α1sDHPR-T935Y (an isradipine-insensitive mutant). Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) was used to study the subcellular localization of transgenic proteins, while ICa, Q and Ca2+ release were studied electrophysiologically and optically under voltage-clamp conditions. TPLSM images demonstrated that most of the transgenic α1sDHPR was correctly targeted to the transverse tubular system (TTS). Immunoblotting analysis of crude extracts of transfected fibres demonstrated the synthesis of bona fide transgenic EGFP-α1sDHPR-wt in quantities comparable to that of native α1sDHPR. Though expression of both transgenic variants of the alpha subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor (α1sDHPR) resulted in ∼50% increase in Q, they surprisingly had no effect on the maximal Ca2+ conductance (gCa) nor the SR Ca2+ release. Nonetheless, fibres expressing EGFP-α1sDHPR-T935Y exhibited up to 70% isradipine-insensitive ICa (ICa-ins) with a right-shifted voltage dependence compared to that in control fibres. Interestingly, Q and SR Ca2+ release also displayed right-shifted voltage dependence in fibres expressing EGFP-α1sDHPR-T935Y. In contrast, the midpoints of the voltage dependence of gCa, Q and Ca2+ release were not different from those in control fibres and in fibres expressing EGFP-α1sDHPR-wt. Overall, our results suggest that transgenic α1sDHPRs are correctly trafficked and inserted in the TTS membrane, and that a substantial fraction of them works as conductive Ca2+ channels capable of physiologically controlling the release of Ca2+ from the SR. A plausible corollary of this work is that the

  20. Molecular and functional characterization of Hv1 proton channel in human granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petheo, Gábor L; Orient, Anna; Baráth, Mónika; Kovács, István; Réthi, Bence; Lányi, Arpád; Rajki, Anikó; Rajnavölgyi, Eva; Geiszt, Miklós

    2010-11-23

    Voltage-gated proton current (I(Hv)) has been characterized in several cell types, but the majority of the data was collected in phagocytes, especially in human granulocytes. The prevailing view about the role of I(Hv) in phagocytes is that it is an essential supporter of the intense and sustained activity of Nox2 (the core enzyme of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex) during respiratory burst. Recently H(v)1, a voltage-gated proton channel, was cloned, and leukocytes from H(v)1 knockout mice display impaired respiratory burst. On the other hand, hardly anything is known about H(v)1 in human granulocytes. Using qPCR and a self made antibody, we detected a significant amount of H(v)1 in human eosinophil and neutrophil granulocytes and in PLB-985 leukemia cells. Using different crosslinking agents and detergents in reducing and non-reducing PAGE, significant expression of H(v)1 homodimers, but not that of higher-order multimers, could be detected in granulocytes. Results of subcellular fractionation and confocal imaging indicate that H(v)1 is resident in both plasmalemmal and granular membrane compartments of resting neutrophils. Furthermore, it is also demonstrated that H(v)1 accumulates in phagosome wall during zymosan engulfment together with, but independently of Nox2. During granulocytic differentiation early and parallel upregulation of H(v)1 and Nox2 expression was observed in PLB-985 cells. The upregulation of H(v)1 or Nox2 expression did not require the normal expression of the other molecule. Using RNA interference, we obtained strong correlation between H(v)1 expression and I(Hv) density in PLB-985 cells. It is also demonstrated that a massive reduction in H(v)1 expression can limit the Nox2 mediated superoxide production of PLB-985 granulocytes. In summary, beside monomers native H(v)1 forms stable proton channel dimer in resting and activated human granulocytes. The expression pattern of H(v)1 in granulocytes is optimized to support intense NADPH

  1. Serine phosphorylation of FcγRI cytoplasmic domain directs lipid raft localization and interaction with protein 4.1G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andrew W; Li, Xinrui; Wu, Jianming; Baskin, Julie G; Raman, Chander; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Kimberly, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    The high-affinity IgG receptor (CD64, FcγRI) has several special capacities, including the receptor-stimulated cleavage of the cell surface B cell-activating factor of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF13B). With the use of the yeast two-hybrid system, we and others have shown that FcγRI interacts with protein 4.1G (EPB41L2). Our mutational analyses identified two required 4.1G-interacting regions in the FcγRI CY and one FcγRI-interacting site in the C-terminus of protein 4.1G. Herein, we explore mechanism(s) that may regulate the interaction between protein 4.1G and FcγRI CY and influence FcγRI membrane mobility and function. We show that FcγRI CY interacts with protein 4.1G in vitro and that FcγRI coimmunoprecipitates protein 4.1G in freshly isolated human PBMC. With the use of immunostaining, we show that FcγRI colocalizes with protein 4.1G in unstimulated U937 cells, in which the FcγRI CY is constitutively serine-phosphorylated, but significant uncoupling occurs following FcγRI cross-linking, suggesting phosphoserine-regulated interaction. In vitro, protein 4.1G interacted preferentially with CK2-phosphorylated FcγRI CY, and compared with WT FcγRI, a nonphosphorylatable FcγRI mutant receptor was excluded from lipid rafts, suggesting a key role for protein 4.1G in targeting phosphorylated FcγRI to rafts. These data are consistent with a phosphoserine-dependent tethering role for protein 4.1G in maintaining FcγRI in lipid rafts and provide insight into the unique phosphoserine-based regulation of receptor signaling by FcγRI CY.

  2. Stimulus-responsive polymers and other functional polymer surfaces as components in glass microfluidic channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieviet, B.D.; Schön, Peter Manfred; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2014-01-01

    The integration of smart stimulus-responsive polymers as functional elements within microfluidic devices has greatly improved the performance capabilities of controlled fluid delivery. For their use as actuators in microfluidic systems, reversible expansion and shrinking are unique mechanisms which

  3. Cytoplasmic Domain of MscS Interacts with Cell Division Protein FtsZ: A Possible Non-Channel Function of the Mechanosensitive Channel in Escherichia Coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Koprowski

    Full Text Available Bacterial mechano-sensitive (MS channels reside in the inner membrane and are considered to act as emergency valves whose role is to lower cell turgor when bacteria enter hypo-osmotic environments. However, there is emerging evidence that members of the Mechano-sensitive channel Small (MscS family play additional roles in bacterial and plant cell physiology. MscS has a large cytoplasmic C-terminal region that changes its shape upon activation and inactivation of the channel. Our pull-down and co-sedimentation assays show that this domain interacts with FtsZ, a bacterial tubulin-like protein. We identify point mutations in the MscS C-terminal domain that reduce binding to FtsZ and show that bacteria expressing these mutants are compromised in growth on sublethal concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics. Our results suggest that interaction between MscS and FtsZ could occur upon inactivation and/or opening of the channel and could be important for the bacterial cell response against sustained stress upon stationary phase and in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics.

  4. Dual-channel in-situ optical imaging system for quantifying lipid uptake and lymphatic pump function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Timothy; Kohan, Alison B.; Weiler, Michael J.; Nipper, Matthew E.; Cornelius, Rachel; Tso, Patrick; Brandon Dixon, J.

    2012-08-01

    Nearly all dietary lipids are transported from the intestine to venous circulation through the lymphatic system, yet the mechanisms that regulate this process remain unclear. Elucidating the mechanisms involved in the functional response of lymphatics to changes in lipid load would provide valuable insight into recent implications of lymphatic dysfunction in lipid related diseases. Therefore, we sought to develop an in situ imaging system to quantify and correlate lymphatic function as it relates to lipid transport. The imaging platform provides the capability of dual-channel imaging of both high-speed bright-field video and fluorescence simultaneously. Utilizing post-acquisition image processing algorithms, we can quantify correlations between vessel pump function, lymph flow, and lipid concentration of mesenteric lymphatic vessels in situ. All image analysis is automated with customized LabVIEW virtual instruments; local flow is measured through lymphocyte velocity tracking, vessel contraction through measurements of the vessel wall displacement, and lipid uptake through fluorescence intensity tracking of an orally administered fluorescently labelled fatty acid analogue, BODIPY FL C16. This system will prove to be an invaluable tool for scientists studying intestinal lymphatic function in health and disease, and those investigating strategies for targeting the lymphatics with orally delivered drugs to avoid first pass metabolism.

  5. Sexual dimorphism and oestrogen regulation of KCNE3 expression modulates the functional properties of KCNQ1 K channels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2012-02-01

    The KCNQ1 potassium channel associates with various KCNE ancillary subunits that drastically affect channel gating and pharmacology. Co-assembly with KCNE3 produces a current with nearly instantaneous activation, some time-dependent activation at very positive potentials, a linear current-voltage relationship and a 10-fold higher sensitivity to chromanol 293B. KCNQ1:KCNE3 channels are expressed in colonic crypts and mediate basolateral K(+) recycling required for Cl(-) secretion. We have previously reported the female-specific anti-secretory effects of oestrogen via KCNQ1:KCNE3 channel inhibition in colonic crypts. This study was designed to determine whether sex and oestrogen regulate the expression and function of KCNQ1 and KCNE3 in rat distal colon. Colonic crypts were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for whole-cell patch-clamp and to extract total RNA and protein. Sheets of epithelium were used for short-circuit current recordings. KCNE1 and KCNE3 mRNA and protein abundance were significantly higher in male than female crypts. No expression of KCNE2 was found and no difference was observed in KCNQ1 expression between male and female (at oestrus) colonic crypts. Male crypts showed a 2.2-fold higher level of association of KCNQ1 and KCNE3 compared to female cells. In female colonic crypts, KCNQ1 and KCNE3 protein expression fluctuated throughout the oestrous cycle and 17beta-oestradiol (E2 10 nM) produced a rapid (<15 min) dissociation of KCNQ1 and KCNE3 in female crypts only. Whole-cell K(+) currents showed a linear current-voltage relationship in male crypts, while K(+) currents in colonic crypts isolated from females displayed voltage-dependent outward rectification. Currents in isolated male crypts and epithelial sheets were 10-fold more sensitive to specific KCNQ1 inhibitors, such as chromanol 293B and HMR-1556, than in female. The effect of E2 on K(+) currents mediated by KCNQ1 with or without different beta-subunits was assayed from current

  6. Sexual dimorphism and oestrogen regulation of KCNE3 expression modulates the functional properties of KCNQ1 K+ channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo; O'Mahony, Fiona; Bustos, Viviana; Rapetti-Mauss, Raphael; Urbach, Valérie; Cid, L Pablo; Sepúlveda, Francisco V; Harvey, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The KCNQ1 potassium channel associates with various KCNE ancillary subunits that drastically affect channel gating and pharmacology. Co-assembly with KCNE3 produces a current with nearly instantaneous activation, some time-dependent activation at very positive potentials, a linear current–voltage relationship and a 10-fold higher sensitivity to chromanol 293B. KCNQ1:KCNE3 channels are expressed in colonic crypts and mediate basolateral K+ recycling required for Cl− secretion. We have previously reported the female-specific anti-secretory effects of oestrogen via KCNQ1:KCNE3 channel inhibition in colonic crypts. This study was designed to determine whether sex and oestrogen regulate the expression and function of KCNQ1 and KCNE3 in rat distal colon. Colonic crypts were isolated from Sprague–Dawley rats and used for whole-cell patch-clamp and to extract total RNA and protein. Sheets of epithelium were used for short-circuit current recordings. KCNE1 and KCNE3 mRNA and protein abundance were significantly higher in male than female crypts. No expression of KCNE2 was found and no difference was observed in KCNQ1 expression between male and female (at oestrus) colonic crypts. Male crypts showed a 2.2-fold higher level of association of KCNQ1 and KCNE3 compared to female cells. In female colonic crypts, KCNQ1 and KCNE3 protein expression fluctuated throughout the oestrous cycle and 17β-oestradiol (E2 10 nm) produced a rapid (KCNQ1 and KCNE3 in female crypts only. Whole-cell K+ currents showed a linear current–voltage relationship in male crypts, while K+ currents in colonic crypts isolated from females displayed voltage-dependent outward rectification. Currents in isolated male crypts and epithelial sheets were 10-fold more sensitive to specific KCNQ1 inhibitors, such as chromanol 293B and HMR-1556, than in female. The effect of E2 on K+ currents mediated by KCNQ1 with or without different β-subunits was assayed from current–voltage relations

  7. Structure-function of proteins interacting with the α1 pore-forming subunit of high-voltage-activated calcium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Alan; Hidalgo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Openings of high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channels lead to a transient increase in calcium concentration that in turn activate a plethora of cellular functions, including muscle contraction, secretion and gene transcription. To coordinate all these responses calcium channels form supramolecular assemblies containing effectors and regulatory proteins that couple calcium influx to the downstream signal cascades and to feedback elements. According to the original biochemical characterization of skeletal muscle Dihydropyridine receptors, HVA calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming subunit (α1) associated with four additional polypeptide chains β, α2, δ, and γ, often referred to as accessory subunits. Twenty-five years after the first purification of a high-voltage calcium channel, the concept of a flexible stoichiometry to expand the repertoire of mechanisms that regulate calcium channel influx has emerged. Several other proteins have been identified that associate directly with the α1-subunit, including calmodulin and multiple members of the small and large GTPase family. Some of these proteins only interact with a subset of α1-subunits and during specific stages of biogenesis. More strikingly, most of the α1-subunit interacting proteins, such as the β-subunit and small GTPases, regulate both gating and trafficking through a variety of mechanisms. Modulation of channel activity covers almost all biophysical properties of the channel. Likewise, regulation of the number of channels in the plasma membrane is performed by altering the release of the α1-subunit from the endoplasmic reticulum, by reducing its degradation or enhancing its recycling back to the cell surface. In this review, we discuss the structural basis, interplay and functional role of selected proteins that interact with the central pore-forming subunit of HVA calcium channels. PMID:24917826

  8. Structure-function of proteins interacting with the alpha1 pore-forming subunit of high voltage-activated calcium channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eNeely

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Openings of high-voltage-activated calcium channels lead to a transient increase in calcium concentration that in turn activate a plethora of cellular functions, including muscle contraction, secretion and gene transcription. To coordinate all these responses calcium channels form supramolecular assemblies containing effectors and regulatory proteins that couple calcium influx to the downstream signal cascades and to feedback elements. According to the original biochemical characterization of skeletal muscle Dihydropyridine receptors, high-voltage-activated calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming subunit (α1 associated with four additional polypeptide chains β, α2, δ and γ, often referred to as accessory subunits. Twenty-five years after the first purification of a high-voltage calcium channel, the concept of a flexible stoichiometry to expand the repertoire of mechanisms that regulate calcium channel influx has emerged. Several other proteins have been identified that associate directly with the α1-subunit, including calmodulin and multiple members of the small and large GTPase family. Some of these proteins only interact with a subset of α1-subunits and during specific stages of biogenesis. More strikingly, most of the α1-subunit interacting proteins, such as the β-subunit and small GTPases, regulate both gating and trafficking through a variety of mechanisms. Modulation of channel activity covers almost all biophysical properties of the channel. Likewise, regulation of the number of channels in the plasma membrane is performed by altering the release of the α1-subunit from the endoplasmic reticulum, by reducing its degradation or enhancing its recycling back to the cell surface. In this review, we discuss the structural basis, interplay and functional role of selected proteins that interact with the central pore-forming subunit of high-voltage-activated calcium channels.

  9. Role of physiological ClC-1 Cl- ion channel regulation for the excitability and function of working skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Riisager, Anders; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    and passive distribution—enable ClC-1 to conduct membrane current that inhibits muscle excitability. This depressing effect of ClC-1 current on muscle excitability has mostly been associated with skeletal muscle hyperexcitability in myotonia congenita, which arises from loss-of-function mutations in the CLCN1......Electrical membrane properties of skeletal muscle fibers have been thoroughly studied over the last five to six decades. This has shown that muscle fibers from a wide range of species, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, are all characterized by high resting membrane...... permeability for Cl- ions. Thus, in resting human muscle, ClC-1 Cl- ion channels account for ∼80% of the membrane conductance, and because active Cl- transport is limited in muscle fibers, the equilibrium potential for Cl- lies close to the resting membrane potential. These conditions—high membrane conductance...

  10. Channel length scaling and the impact of metal gate work function ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Further- more, quantum effects on the performance of DG-MOSFETs are addressed and discussed. We also study the influence of metal gate work function on the performance of nanoscale MOSFETs. We use a self-consistent Poisson–Schrödinger solver in two dimensions over the entire device. A good agreement with ...

  11. Structural Waters Define a Functional Channel Mediating Activation of the GPCR, rhodopsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, T.; Gupta, S; Jastrzebska, B; Palczewski, K; Chance, M

    2009-01-01

    Structural water molecules may act as prosthetic groups indispensable for proper protein function. In the case of allosteric activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), water likely imparts structural plasticity required for agonist-induced signal transmission. Inspection of structures of GPCR superfamily members reveals the presence of conserved embedded water molecules likely important to GPCR function. Coupling radiolytic hydroxyl radical labeling with rapid H2O18 solvent mixing, we observed no exchange of these structural waters with bulk solvent in either ground state or for the Meta II or opsin states. However, the radiolysis approach permitted labeling of selected side chain residues within the transmembrane helices and revealed activation-induced changes in local structural constraints likely mediated by dynamics of both water and protein. These results suggest both a possible general mechanism for water-dependent communication in family A GPCRs based on structural conservation, and a strategy for probing membrane protein structure.

  12. Lipid bilayer regulation of membrane protein function: gramicidin channels as molecular force probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbæk, Jens August; Collingwood, S.A.; Ingolfsson, H.I.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane protein function is regulated by the host lipid bilayer composition. This regulation may depend on specific chemical interactions between proteins and individual molecules in the bilayer, as well as on non-specific interactions between proteins and the bilayer behaving as a physical entity...... with collective physical properties (e.g. thickness, intrinsic monolayer curvature or elastic moduli). Studies in physico-chemical model systems have demonstrated that changes in bilayer physical properties can regulate membrane protein function by altering the energetic cost of the bilayer deformation associated...... with a protein conformational change. This type of regulation is well characterized, and its mechanistic elucidation is an interdisciplinary field bordering on physics, chemistry and biology. Changes in lipid composition that alter bilayer physical properties (including cholesterol, polyunsaturated fatty acids...

  13. Cloning and functional expression of voltage-gated ion channel subunits from cnidocytes of the Portuguese Man O'War Physalia physalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, C; Price, R B; Moneypenny, C G; Thompson, L F; Zillhardt, M; Stalheim, L; Anderson, P A V

    2006-08-01

    Cnidocytes were dissociated from the tentacles of the Portuguese Man O'War Physalia physalis using heat treatment, and purified using density centrifugation. Visual observation confirmed that these cnidocytes contained a nucleus, a cnidocyst and an apical stereocilium, confirming that the cells were intact. A cnidocyte-specific amplified cDNA library was then prepared using RNA isolated from the cnidocytes, and screened for voltage-gated ion channel subunits using conventional molecular cloning techniques. A variety of channel proteins were identified and full-length sequence obtained for two of them, a Ca(2+) channel beta subunit (PpCa(V)beta) and a Shaker-like K(+) channel (PpK(V)1). The location of the transcripts was confirmed by RT-PCR of total RNA isolated from individually selected and rinsed cnidocytes. The functional properties of these two channel proteins were characterized electrophysiologically using heterologous expression. PpCa(V)beta modulates currents carried by both cnidarian and mammalian alpha(1) subunits although the specifics of the modulation differ. PpK(V)1 produces fast transient outward currents that have properties typical of other Shaker channels. The possible role of these channel proteins in the behavior of cnidocytes is discussed.

  14. Swelling-activated ion channels: functional regulation in cell-swelling, proliferation and apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stutzin, A; Hoffmann, E K

    2006-01-01

    Cell volume regulation is one of the most fundamental homeostatic mechanisms and essential for normal cellular function. At the same time, however, many physiological mechanisms are associated with regulatory changes in cell size meaning that the set point for cell volume regulation is under phys...... as key players in the maintenance of normal steady-state cell volume, with particular emphasis on the intracellular signalling pathways responsible for their regulation during hypotonic stress, cell proliferation and apoptosis....

  15. Neurogenic detrusor overactivity is associated with decreased expression and function of the large conductance voltage- and Ca(2+-activated K(+ channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiril L Hristov

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from a variety of neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis often develop neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO, which currently lacks a universally effective therapy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that NDO is associated with changes in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM large conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ (BK channel expression and function. DSM tissue samples from 33 patients were obtained during open bladder surgeries. NDO patients were clinically characterized preoperatively with pressure-flow urodynamics demonstrating detrusor overactivity, in the setting of a clinically relevant neurological condition. Control patients did not have overactive bladder and did not have a clinically relevant neurological disease. We conducted quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR, perforated patch-clamp electrophysiology on freshly-isolated DSM cells, and functional studies on DSM contractility. qPCR experiments revealed that DSM samples from NDO patients showed decreased BK channel mRNA expression in comparison to controls. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated reduced whole cell and transient BK currents (TBKCs in freshly-isolated DSM cells from NDO patients. Functional studies on DSM contractility showed that spontaneous phasic contractions had a decreased sensitivity to iberiotoxin, a selective BK channel inhibitor, in DSM strips isolated from NDO patients. These results reveal the novel finding that NDO is associated with decreased DSM BK channel expression and function leading to increased DSM excitability and contractility. BK channel openers or BK channel gene transfer could be an alternative strategy to control NDO. Future clinical trials are needed to evaluate the value of BK channel opening drugs or gene therapies for NDO treatment and to identify any possible adverse effects.

  16. Effects of environmental changes and human impact on the functioning of mountain river channels, Carpathians, southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzemień Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the northern slope of the Carpathian Mountains and in their foreland, river and stream channels have been significantly transformed by human impact. These transformations result from changing land use in river basins and direct interference with river channels (alluvia extraction, engineering infrastructure, channel straightening. Anthropogenic impacts cause significant changes in the channel system patterns leading to increased impact of erosion. This mainly leads to the channelling of the fluvial system. This article reviews studies of structure and dynamics of Carpathian river channels conducted based on the methodology of collection of data on channel systems, developed in the Department of Geomorphology of the Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Jagiellonian University.

  17. Distinct distribution of specific members of protein 4.1 genefamily in the mouse nephron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramez, Mohamed; Blot-Chabaud, Marcel; Cluzeaud, Francoise; Chanan, Sumita; Patterson, Michael; Walensky, Loren D.; Marfatia, Shirin; Baines, Anthony J.; Chasis, Joel A.; Conboy, John G.; Mohandas, Narla; Gascard, Philippe

    2002-12-11

    Background: Protein 4.1 is an adapter protein which linksthe actin cytoskeleton to various transmembrane proteins. 4.1 proteinsare encoded by four homologous genes, 4.1R, 4.1G, 4.1N, and 4.1B, whichundergo complex alternative splicing. Here we performed a detailedcharacterization of the expression of specific 4.1 proteins in the mousenephron. Methods: Distribution of renal 4.1 proteins was investigated bystaining of paraformaldehyde fixed mouse kidney sections with antibodieshighly specific for each 4.1 protein. Major 4.1 splice forms, amplifiedfrom mouse kidney marathon cDNA, were expressed in transfected COS-7cells in order to assign species of known exon composition to proteinsdetected in kidney. Results: A 105kDa4.1R splice form, initiating atATG-2 translation initiation site and lacking exon 16, but including exon17B, was restricted to thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. A 95kDa 4.1Nspliceform,lacking exons 15 and 17D, was expressed in either descendingor ascending thin limb of Henle'sloop, distal convoluted tubule and allregions of the collecting duct system. A major 108kDa 4.1B spliceform,initiating at a newly characterized ATG translation initiation site, andlacking exons 15, 17B, and 21, was present only in Bowman's capsule andproximal convoluted tubule (PCT). There was no expression of 4.1G inkidney. Conclusion: Distinct distribution of 4.1 proteins along thenephron suggests their involvement in targeting of selected transmembraneproteins in kidney epithelium andtherefore in regulation of specifickidney functions.

  18. Hydraulic analysis of functioning of the drainage channel with increased retention capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochwat Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic overload of networks and its related objects is a problem that is more and more common in drainage systems. The most popular way to prevent it from its occurring is to increase the storage capacity of the system. At present, there are numerous solutions allowing to increase retention in drainage systems, with the selection of the most beneficial one being dependent on numerous factors; it must also be preceded by a technical and financial analysis. Financial analysis is of particular importance here, since due to significant dimensions and complicated structure, these objects require high investment outlays for its construction. As a consequence, it is a priority to undertake actions aimed at developing such solutions that will allow for significant increases of retention in the drainage system, and cost reductions at the same time. One of such solutions is the Underground tank for combined sewage and stormwater that is now patent-pending. The application of this solution allows to multiply retention capacity of the drainage system, without the necessity of modernizing the existing sewer system. This paper presents the application potential of the subject method for increasing sewer retention, along with its hydraulic function analysis. The research carried out and presented was based on the analysis of individual phases of functioning of the subject solution.

  19. Deafness and permanently reduced potassium channel gene expression and function in hypothyroid Pit1dw mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mirna; Fang, Qing; Gong, Tzy-Wen; Dolan, David F.; Raphael, Yehoash; Camper, Sally A.; Duncan, R. Keith

    2012-01-01

    The absence of thyroid hormone (TH) during late gestation and early infancy can cause irreparable deafness in both humans and rodents. A variety of rodent models have been utilized in an effort to identify the underlying molecular mechanism. Here, we characterize a mouse model of secondary hypothyroidism, pituitary transcription factor 1 (Pit1dw), which has profound, congenital deafness that is rescued by oral TH replacement. These mutants have tectorial membrane abnormalities, including a prominent Hensen's stripe, elevated β-tectorin composition, and disrupted striated-sheet matrix. They lack distortion product otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonic responses, and exhibit reduced endocochlear potentials, suggesting defects in outer hair cell function and potassium recycling. Auditory system and hair cell physiology, histology and anatomy studies reveal novel defects of hormone deficiency related to deafness: (1) permanently impaired expression of KCNJ10 in the stria vascularis of Pit1dw mice, which likely contributes to the reduced endocochlear potential, (2) significant outer hair cell loss in the mutants, which may result from cellular stress induced by the lower KCNQ4 expression and current levels in Pit1dw mutant outer hair cells and (3) sensory and strial cell deterioration, which may have implications for thyroid hormone dysregulation in age related hearing impairment. In summary, we suggest that these defects in outer hair cell and strial cell function are important contributors to the hearing impairment in Pit1dw mice. PMID:19176829

  20. Prefrontal Hemodynamic Functions during a Verbal Fluency Task in Blepharospasm Using Multi-Channel NIRS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Shen

    Full Text Available Blepharospasm (BSP has a morbidity of 16 to 133 per million and is characterized by orbicularis oculi spasms. BSP can severely impact daily life. However, to date, its pathophysiology has not been clearly demonstrated. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a portable, non-invasive, and high time resolution apparatus used to measure cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to investigate the hemodynamic response patterns of BSP patients and determine whether BSP alone can be an attributional factor to influence the function of the prefrontal area using a verbal fluency task (VFT and NIRS. Twenty-three BSP patients (10 males and 13 females and 13 healthy controls (HC; five males and eight females matched by gender and education were examined using NIRS. BSP patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of depression and anxiety symptoms. A covariance analysis was conducted to analyze differences between the three groups and reduce the influence of different ages and educational levels. Bonferroni was used to process the post hoc test. The bilateral orbitofrontal area (ch36, 39, and 41; P<0.01 exhibited a lower activation in BSP patients without psychiatric symptoms compared with HC. This study is the first report to identify the prefrontal function in BSP using NIRS. Our findings indicate that BSP alone may cause a hypoactive hemodynamic performance in the prefrontal cortex in the absence of psychiatric symptoms. These findings provide evidence to support novel pathophysiological mechanisms of BSP.

  1. Endothelial calcium dynamics, connexin channels and blood-brain barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Marijke; Wang, Nan; Decrock, Elke; Bol, Mélissa; Gadicherla, Ashish K; Culot, Maxime; Cecchelli, Romeo; Bultynck, Geert; Leybaert, Luc

    2013-09-01

    Situated between the circulation and the brain, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain from circulating toxins while securing a specialized environment for neuro-glial signaling. BBB capillary endothelial cells exhibit low transcytotic activity and a tight, junctional network that, aided by the cytoskeleton, restricts paracellular permeability. The latter is subject of extensive research as it relates to neuropathology, edema and inflammation. A key determinant in regulating paracellular permeability is the endothelial cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) that affects junctional and cytoskeletal proteins. Ca(2+) signals are not one-time events restricted to a single cell but often appear as oscillatory [Ca(2+)]i changes that may propagate between cells as intercellular Ca(2+) waves. The effect of Ca(2+) oscillations/waves on BBB function is largely unknown and we here review current evidence on how [Ca(2+)]i dynamics influence BBB permeability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biliary Pancreatitis. Liver Function Tests and Common Biliopancreatic Channel Kinetics--Biliopancreatic Reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planells Roig, Manuel; Ponce Villar, Úrsula; Peiró Monzó, Fabián; Coret Franco, Alba; Orozco Gil, Natalia; Bañuls Matoses, Ángela; Sanchez Aparisi, Eugenio; Marti Gonzalez, Lidia; Caro Martínez, Federico

    2015-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of biliopancreatic reflux (BPR) in patients with biliary pancreatitis (BP) undergoing elective cholecystectomy with intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) in comparison with a control group of symptomatic cholelithiasis (CG). Retrospective review of 107 consecutive BP cases. BPR was determined by IOC and liver function tests (LFT) were recorded at admission (A), 48hours, and preoperative examination (P). LFT analysis between A and P were analysed between groups with respect to BPR, time interval to cholecystectomy within the same group and by determination of observed value/maximum normal value ratio (OV/MNV). BPR incidence was 38.3% in BP in comparison with 5% in CG (p=0.0001) it was independent from interval time to cholecystectomy, in contrast with Odditis, suggesting an anatomical condition for CCBP and a functional one for Odditis. LFT analysis showed no differences in relation to BPR incidence. LFT excluding AP and GGT returned to normal values with significant differences in OV/MNV when BPR was present which points to an increased cholestasis in BPR group. US dilatation of CBD was noted in 10.3% and was associated to CCBP. BPR in BP increases cholestasis and contributes to confusion in the estimation of common bile duct stones increasing ERCP-EE rates. US and biochemical markers of CBDS show a low specificity due to BPR-CCBP which suggests that MRI-cholangiography is a mandatory exploration before ERCP-EE examination. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Aberrant Splicing Induced by Dysregulated Rbfox2 Produces Enhanced Function of CaV1.2 Calcium Channel and Vascular Myogenic Tone in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Fan, Jia; Zhu, Huayuan; Ji, Li; Fan, Wenyong; Kapoor, Isha; Wang, Yue; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Guoqing; Wang, Juejin

    2017-12-01

    Calcium influx from activated voltage-gated calcium channel Ca V 1.2 in vascular smooth muscle cells is indispensable for maintaining myogenic tone and blood pressure. The function of Ca V 1.2 channel can be optimized by alternative splicing, one of post-transcriptional modification mechanisms. The splicing factor Rbfox2 is known to regulate the Ca V 1.2 pre-mRNA alternative splicing events during neuronal development. However, Rbfox2's roles in modulating the key function of vascular Ca V 1.2 channel and in the pathogenesis of hypertension remain elusive. Here, we report that the proportion of Ca V 1.2 channels with alternative exon 9* is increased by 10.3%, whereas that with alternative exon 33 is decreased by 10.5% in hypertensive arteries. Surprisingly, the expression level of Rbfox2 is increased ≈3-folds, presumably because of the upregulation of a dominant-negative isoform of Rbfox2. In vascular smooth muscle cells, we find that knockdown of Rbfox2 dynamically increases alternative exon 9*, whereas decreases exon 33 inclusion of Ca V 1.2 channels. By patch-clamp studies, we show that diminished Rbfox2-induced alternative splicing shifts the steady-state activation and inactivation curves of vascular Ca V 1.2 calcium channel to hyperpolarization, which makes the window current potential to more negative. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Rbfox2 increases the pressure-induced vascular myogenic tone of rat mesenteric artery. Taken together, our data indicate that Rbfox2 modulates the functions of vascular Ca V 1.2 calcium channel by dynamically regulating the expressions of alternative exons 9* and 33, which in turn affects the vascular myogenic tone. Therefore, our work suggests a key role for Rbfox2 in hypertension, which provides a rational basis for designing antihypertensive therapies. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Synthesis and characterisation of NS13558: a new important tool for addressing KCa1.1 channel function ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Andersen, Rune Wederkinck; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2009-01-01

    to modulate the channel. Here, we address this issue by synthesising a methylated analogue of the tool KCa1.1 channel activator NS11021. The compound (NS13558) is designed as a structurally closely related and biologically inactive analogue of NS11021. NS13558 did not elicit any significant opening of cloned...... derivate of NS11021, i.e., NS13558, did not confer any cardioprotection, demonstrated by an infarct size identical to control hearts. This suggests that NS11021 exerts its primary effect through KCa1.1 channels, which indicates an important role of these channels in protection against ischemia...

  5. Differential distribution and functional impact of BK channel beta1 subunits across mesenteric, coronary, and different cerebral arteries of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntamallappanavar, Guruprasad; Bisen, Shivantika; Bukiya, Anna N; Dopico, Alex M

    2017-02-01

    Large conductance, Ca2+i- and voltage-gated K+ (BK) channels regulate myogenic tone and, thus, arterial diameter. In smooth muscle (SM), BK channels include channel-forming α and auxiliary β1 subunits. BK β1 increases the channel's Ca2+ sensitivity, allowing BK channels to negatively feedback on depolarization-induced Ca2+ entry, oppose SM contraction and favor vasodilation. Thus, endothelial-independent vasodilation can be evoked though targeting of SM BK β1 by endogenous ligands, including lithocholate (LCA). Here, we investigated the expression of BK β1 across arteries of the cerebral and peripheral circulations, and the contribution of such expression to channel function and BK β1-mediated vasodilation. Data demonstrate that endothelium-independent, BK β1-mediated vasodilation by LCA is larger in coronary (CA) and basilar (BA) arteries than in anterior cerebral (ACA), middle cerebral (MCA), posterior cerebral (PCA), and mesenteric (MA) arteries, all arterial segments having a similar diameter. Thus, differential dilation occurs in extracranial arteries which are subjected to similar vascular pressure (CA vs. MA) and in arteries that irrigate different brain regions (BA vs. ACA, MCA, and PCA). SM BK channels from BA and CA displayed increased basal activity and LCA responses, indicating increased BK β1 functional presence. Indeed, in the absence of detectable changes in BK α, BA and CA myocytes showed an increased location of BK β1 in the plasmalemma/subplasmalemma. Moreover, these myocytes distinctly showed increased BK β1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. Supporting a major role of enhanced BK β1 transcripts in artery dilation, LCA-induced dilation of MCA transfected with BK β1 complementary DNA (cDNA) was as high as LCA-induced dilation of untransfected BA or CA.

  6. A Novel KCNJ13 Nonsense Mutation and Loss of Kir7.1 Channel Function Causes Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnaik, Bikash R; Shahi, Pawan K; Marino, Meghan J; Liu, Xinying; York, Nathaniel; Brar, Simran; Chiang, John; Pillers, De-Ann M; Traboulsi, Elias I

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in the KCNJ13 gene that encodes the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir7.1 cause snowflake vitreoretinal degeneration (SVD) and leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Kir7.1 controls the microenvironment between the photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and also contributes to the function of other organs such as uterus and brain. Heterologous expressions of the mutant channel have suggested a dominant-negative loss of Kir7.1 function in SVD, but parallel studies in LCA16 have been lacking. Herein, we report the identification of a novel nonsense mutation in the second exon of the KCNJ13 gene that leads to a premature stop codon in association with LCA16. We have determined that the mutation results in a severe truncation of the Kir7.1 C-terminus, alters protein localization, and disrupts potassium currents. Coexpression of the mutant and wild-type channel has no negative influence on the wild-type channel function, consistent with the normal clinical phenotype of carrier individuals. By suppressing Kir7.1 function in mice, we were able to reproduce the severe LCA electroretinogram phenotype. Thus, we have extended the observation that Kir7.1 mutations are associated with vision disorders to include novel insights into the molecular mechanism of disease pathobiology in LCA16. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  7. Quantification of the functional expression of the Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channel KCa 3.1 on microglia from adult human neocortical tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomster, Linda V; Strøbaek, Dorte; Hougaard, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The KCa 3.1 channel (KCNN4) is an important modulator of microglia responses in rodents, but no information exists on functional expression on microglia from human adults. We isolated and cultured microglia (max 1% astrocytes, no neurons or oligodendrocytes) from neocortex surgically removed from...

  8. Investigations of the Navβ1b sodium channel subunit in human ventricle; functional characterization of the H162P Brugada Syndrome mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Lei; Koivumaki, Jussi; Liang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Brugada Syndrome (BrS) is a rare inherited disease which can give rise to ventricular arrhythmia and ultimately sudden cardiac death. Numerous loss-of-function mutations in the cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5 have been associated with BrS. However, few mutations in the auxiliary Navβ1-4 subunits ha...

  9. [Memory and potassium channels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solntseva, E I; Bukanova, Iu V; Skrebitskiĭ, V G

    2003-01-01

    The K(+)-channels of the surface membrane play a crucial role in the generation of electrical activity of a neuron. There is a large diversity of the K(+)-channels that depends on a great number (over 200) of genes encoding channels proteins. An evolutionary conservation of channel's proteins is determined. The K(+)-channels were found to have a great importance in the memory processes. It was shown on different model systems that K(+)-current of the surface membrane decreases during the learning. The antagonists of K(+)-channels were found to improve the learning and memory. It was revealed in electrophysiological experiments that K(+)-channels antagonists can either themselves induce a long-term synaptic potentiation or intensify the synaptic potentiation induced by a tetanization. The disfunction of K(+)-channels is believed to be an important link in the mechanisms of memory disturbances. In animal mutants with K(+)-channels disfunction, learning and memory are deficient. In behavioral experiments, the use of K(+)-channels openers make the learning worse. Amnesia caused by cerebral ischemia is explained by strong activity of K(+)-channels which not only inhibits neuronal excitement but also causes neurodegeneration. The question on the K(+)-channels involvement into pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease is discussed. Neurotoxic peptide beta-amyloid, which is supposed to be involved into mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease, modulates K(+)-channels function. The effect of beta-amyloid depends on the subtype of K(+)-channels: A-channels are inhibited, and KDR-channels, on the contrary, become stronger. The effect of the cognitive enhancers (vinpocetine, piracetam, tacrine, linopirdine) on K(+)-current also depends on the subtype of K(+)-channels. Slow-inactivating K(+)-currents (IDR, IK(Ca), IM) are inhibited in the presence of these drugs, while fast-in-activating K(+)-current (A-current) remains unchanged or even increases.

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 upregulates expression and function of voltage-gated K+ channels in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, Ivana; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Wong, Ada H; Zhang, Shen; Remillard, Carmelle V; Furtado, Manohar R; Petrauskene, Olga V; Yuan, Jason X-J

    2006-11-01

    Activity of voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) plays an important role in control of apoptosis and proliferation in addition to regulating membrane potential and pulmonary vascular tone. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in normal human PASMC, whereas dysfunctional BMP signaling and downregulated K(V) channels are involved in pulmonary vascular medial hypertrophy associated with pulmonary hypertension. This study evaluated the effect of BMP-2 on K(V) channel function and expression in normal human PASMC. BMP-2 (100 nM for 18-24 h) significantly (>2-fold) upregulated mRNA expression of KCNA5, KCNA7, KCNA10, KCNC3, KCNC4, KCNF1, KCNG3, KCNS1, and KCNS3 but downregulated (at least 2-fold) KCNAB1, KCNA2, KCNG2, and KCNV2. The most dramatic change was the >10-fold downregulation of KCNG2 and KCNV2, two electrically silent gamma-subunits that form heterotetramers with functional K(V) channel alpha-subunits (e.g., KCNB1-2). Furthermore, the amplitude and current density of whole cell K(V) currents were significantly increased in PASMC treated with BMP-2. It has been demonstrated that K(+) currents generated by KCNB1 and KCNG1 (or KCNG2) or KCNB1 and KCNV2 heterotetramers are smaller than those generated by KCNB1 homotetramers, indicating that KCNG2 and KCNV2 (2 subunits that were markedly downregulated by BMP-2) are inhibitors of functional K(V) channels. These results suggest that BMP-2 divergently regulates mRNA expression of various K(V) channel alpha-, beta-, and gamma-subunits and significantly increases whole cell K(V) currents in human PASMC. Finally, we present evidence that attenuation of c-Myc expression by BMP-2 may be involved in BMP-2-mediated increase in K(V) channel activity and regulation of K(V) channel expression. The increased K(V) channel activity may be involved in the proapoptotic and/or antiproliferative effects of BMP-2 on PASMC.

  11. Calmodulin is essential for cardiac IKS channel gating and assembly: impaired function in long-QT mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamgar, Liora; Ma, Lijuan; Schmitt, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    The slow IKS K+ channel plays a major role in repolarizing the cardiac action potential and consists of the assembly of KCNQ1 and KCNE1 subunits. Mutations in either KCNQ1 or KCNE1 genes produce the long-QT syndrome, a life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. Here, we show that long-QT mutations...... located in the KCNQ1 C terminus impair calmodulin (CaM) binding, which affects both channel gating and assembly. The mutations produce a voltage-dependent macroscopic inactivation and dramatically alter channel assembly. KCNE1 forms a ternary complex with wild-type KCNQ1 and Ca(2+)-CaM that prevents...... inactivation, facilitates channel assembly, and mediates a Ca(2+)-sensitive increase of IKS-current, with a considerable Ca(2+)-dependent left-shift of the voltage-dependence of activation. Coexpression of KCNQ1 or IKS channels with a Ca(2+)-insensitive CaM mutant markedly suppresses the currents and produces...

  12. Statistical Epistasis and Functional Brain Imaging Support a Role of Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels in Human Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Angela; Vogler, Christian; Gschwind, Leo; Ackermann, Sandra; Auschra, Bianca; Spalek, Klara; Rasch, Björn; de Quervain, Dominique; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Despite the current progress in high-throughput, dense genome scans, a major portion of complex traits' heritability still remains unexplained, a phenomenon commonly termed “missing heritability.” The negligence of analytical approaches accounting for gene-gene interaction effects, such as statistical epistasis, is probably central to this phenomenon. Here we performed a comprehensive two-way SNP interaction analysis of human episodic memory, which is a heritable complex trait, and focused on 120 genes known to show differential, memory-related expression patterns in rat hippocampus. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was also used to capture genotype-dependent differences in memory-related brain activity. A significant, episodic memory-related interaction between two markers located in potassium channel genes (KCNB2 and KCNH5) was observed (Pnominal combined = 0.000001). The epistatic interaction was robust, as it was significant in a screening (Pnominal = 0.0000012) and in a replication sample (Pnominal = 0.01). Finally, we found genotype-dependent activity differences in the parahippocampal gyrus (Pnominal = 0.001) supporting the behavioral genetics finding. Our results demonstrate the importance of analytical approaches that go beyond single marker statistics of complex traits. PMID:22216252

  13. Statistical epistasis and functional brain imaging support a role of voltage-gated potassium channels in human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Angela; Vogler, Christian; Gschwind, Leo; Ackermann, Sandra; Auschra, Bianca; Spalek, Klara; Rasch, Björn; de Quervain, Dominique; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Despite the current progress in high-throughput, dense genome scans, a major portion of complex traits' heritability still remains unexplained, a phenomenon commonly termed "missing heritability." The negligence of analytical approaches accounting for gene-gene interaction effects, such as statistical epistasis, is probably central to this phenomenon. Here we performed a comprehensive two-way SNP interaction analysis of human episodic memory, which is a heritable complex trait, and focused on 120 genes known to show differential, memory-related expression patterns in rat hippocampus. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was also used to capture genotype-dependent differences in memory-related brain activity. A significant, episodic memory-related interaction between two markers located in potassium channel genes (KCNB2 and KCNH5) was observed (P(nominal combined)=0.000001). The epistatic interaction was robust, as it was significant in a screening (P(nominal)=0.0000012) and in a replication sample (P(nominal)=0.01). Finally, we found genotype-dependent activity differences in the parahippocampal gyrus (P(nominal)=0.001) supporting the behavioral genetics finding. Our results demonstrate the importance of analytical approaches that go beyond single marker statistics of complex traits. © 2011 Heck et al.

  14. Action potential changes associated with impairment of functional properties of sodium channels in hippocampal neurons induced by melamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia-Jia; Yang, Zhuo; Zhang, Tao

    2010-10-05

    Since the melamine-contamination event happened in September 2008, there have been lots of studies about melamine toxicity, but very limited studies focused on central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we investigated the effects of melamine (5x10(-4), 5x10(-5) and 5x10(-6)g/ml) on voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in hippocampal CA1 neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings technique. The results showed that only 5x10(-4)g/ml melamine reduced the amplitude of voltage-gated sodium current (I(Na)). At the concentrations of 5x10(-5) and 5x10(-4)g/ml, melamine produced a hyperpolarizing shift in the steady-state activation curve of I(Na) and also enhanced the steady-state inactivate processing of I(Na). Action potential properties and the pattern of repetitive firing were examined using current-clamp recording, which indicated that peak amplitude and overshoot of the evoked single action potential were decreased. The half-width and the firing rate of repetitive firing were increased in a concentration-dependent manner. The data suggest that melamine alters the action potential of hippocampal CA1 neurons by impairing the functional properties of VGSCs, which may be the underlie mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by melamine. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Statistical epistasis and functional brain imaging support a role of voltage-gated potassium channels in human memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Heck

    Full Text Available Despite the current progress in high-throughput, dense genome scans, a major portion of complex traits' heritability still remains unexplained, a phenomenon commonly termed "missing heritability." The negligence of analytical approaches accounting for gene-gene interaction effects, such as statistical epistasis, is probably central to this phenomenon. Here we performed a comprehensive two-way SNP interaction analysis of human episodic memory, which is a heritable complex trait, and focused on 120 genes known to show differential, memory-related expression patterns in rat hippocampus. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was also used to capture genotype-dependent differences in memory-related brain activity. A significant, episodic memory-related interaction between two markers located in potassium channel genes (KCNB2 and KCNH5 was observed (P(nominal combined=0.000001. The epistatic interaction was robust, as it was significant in a screening (P(nominal=0.0000012 and in a replication sample (P(nominal=0.01. Finally, we found genotype-dependent activity differences in the parahippocampal gyrus (P(nominal=0.001 supporting the behavioral genetics finding. Our results demonstrate the importance of analytical approaches that go beyond single marker statistics of complex traits.

  16. Bioavailability of Mercury to Riverine Food Webs as a Function of Flood-Event Inundation of Channel Boundary Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M. B.; Pellachini, C.; Blum, J. D.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Donovan, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Bioavailability of sediment-adsorbed contaminants to food webs in river corridors is typically controlled by biological, chemical, and physical factors, but understanding of their respective influences is limited due to a dearth of landscape-scale investigations of these biogeochemical links. Studies that account for the dynamics and interactions of hydrology and sediment transport in affecting the reactivity of sediment-adsorbed heavy metals such as mercury (Hg) are particularly lacking. Sequences of flood events generate complex inundation histories with banks, terraces, and floodplains that have the potential to alter local redox conditions and thereby affect the oxidation of elemental Hg0 to inorganic Hg(II), and the microbial conversion of Hg(II) to methylmercury (MeHg), potentially increasing the risk of Hg uptake into aquatic food webs. However, the probability distributions of saturation/inundation frequency and duration are typically unknown for channel boundaries along sediment transport pathways, and landscape-scale characterizations of Hg reactivity are rare along contaminated rivers. This research provides the first links between the dynamics of physical processes and biochemical processing and uptake into food webs in fluvial systems beset by large-scale mining contamination. Here we present new research on Hg-contaminated legacy terraces and banks along the Yuba River anthropogenic fan, produced by 19th C. hydraulic gold mining in Northern California. To assess the changes in Hg(II) availability for methylation and MeHg bioavailability into the food web, we combine numerical modeling of streamflow with geochemical assays of total Hg and Hg reactivity to identify hot spots of toxicity within the river corridor as a function of cycles of wetting/drying. We employ a 3D hydraulic model to route historical streamflow hydrographs from major flood events through the Yuba and Feather Rivers into the Central Valley to assess the frequency and duration of

  17. Conotoxins as Tools to Understand the Physiological Function of Voltage-Gated Calcium (CaV Channels

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    David Ramírez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium (CaV channels are widely expressed and are essential for the completion of multiple physiological processes. Close regulation of their activity by specific inhibitors and agonists become fundamental to understand their role in cellular homeostasis as well as in human tissues and organs. CaV channels are divided into two groups depending on the membrane potential required to activate them: High-voltage activated (HVA, CaV1.1–1.4; CaV2.1–2.3 and Low-voltage activated (LVA, CaV3.1–3.3. HVA channels are highly expressed in brain (neurons, heart, and adrenal medulla (chromaffin cells, among others, and are also classified into subtypes which can be distinguished using pharmacological approaches. Cone snails are marine gastropods that capture their prey by injecting venom, “conopeptides”, which cause paralysis in a few seconds. A subset of conopeptides called conotoxins are relatively small polypeptides, rich in disulfide bonds, that target ion channels, transporters and receptors localized at the neuromuscular system of the animal target. In this review, we describe the structure and properties of conotoxins that selectively block HVA calcium channels. We compare their potency on several HVA channel subtypes, emphasizing neuronal calcium channels. Lastly, we analyze recent advances in the therapeutic use of conotoxins for medical treatments.

  18. Molecular Expression and Pharmacological Evidence for a Functional Role of Kv7 Channel Subtypes in Guinea Pig Urinary Bladder Smooth Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeli, Serge A. Y.; Malysz, John; Petkov, Georgi V.

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated Kv7 (KCNQ) channels are emerging as essential regulators of smooth muscle excitability and contractility. However, their physiological role in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) remains to be elucidated. Here, we explored the molecular expression and function of Kv7 channel subtypes in guinea pig DSM by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, and isometric tension recordings. In whole DSM tissue, mRNAs for all Kv7 channel subtypes were detected in a rank order: Kv7.1~Kv7.2Kv7.3~Kv7.5Kv7.4. In contrast, freshly-isolated DSM cells showed mRNA expression of: Kv7.1~Kv7.2Kv7.5Kv7.3~Kv7.4. Immunohistochemical confocal microscopy analyses of DSM, conducted by using co-labeling of Kv7 channel subtype-specific antibodies and α-smooth muscle actin, detected protein expression for all Kv7 channel subtypes, except for the Kv7.4, in DSM cells. L-364373 (R-L3), a Kv7.1 channel activator, and retigabine, a Kv7.2-7.5 channel activator, inhibited spontaneous phasic contractions and the 10-Hz electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions of DSM isolated strips. Linopiridine and XE991, two pan-Kv7 (effective at Kv7.1-Kv7.5 subtypes) channel inhibitors, had opposite effects increasing DSM spontaneous phasic and 10 Hz EFS-induced contractions. EFS-induced DSM contractions generated by a wide range of stimulation frequencies were decreased by L-364373 (10 µM) or retigabine (10 µM), and increased by XE991 (10 µM). Retigabine (10 µM) induced hyperpolarization and inhibited spontaneous action potentials in freshly-isolated DSM cells. In summary, Kv7 channel subtypes are expressed at mRNA and protein levels in guinea pig DSM cells. Their pharmacological modulation can control DSM contractility and excitability; therefore, Kv7 channel subtypes provide potential novel therapeutic targets for urinary bladder dysfunction. PMID:24073284

  19. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR. PART 9 - CUTTING AND EXTRACTING DEVICE FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin POPESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a constructive solution proposed by the authors in order to achieve of a cutting and extracting device for the decommissioning of the horizontal fuel channels in the CANDU 6 nuclear reactor. The Cutting and Extraction Device (CED performs the dismantling, cutting and extraction of the fuel channel components. It's a flexible and modular device, which is designed to work inside the fuel channel and has the following functions: moving with variable speed, temperature monitoring and video surveillance inside the pipe, unblock and extract the channel closure plug (from End Fitting - EF, unblock and extract the channel shield plug (from Lattice Tube - LT, block and cut the middle of the pressure tube, block and cut the end of the pressure tube, block and extract the half of pressure tube. The Cutting and Extraction Device (CED consists of following modules: guiding-fixing module, traction modules, cutting module, guiding-extracting module and flexible elements for modules connecting. The guiding-fixing module is equipped with elastic guiding rollers and fixing claws in working position, the traction modules are provided with variable pitch rollers for allowing variable travel speed through the fuel channel. The cutting module is positioned in the middle of the device and it is equipped with three knife rolls for pressure tube cutting, using a system for cutting place video surveillance and pyrometers for monitoring cutting place temperature. The Cutting and Extraction Device (CED is fully automated, connected by wires to a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and controlled from a Human Machine Interface (HMI. The design of the Cutting and Extraction Device (CED shall be achieved according to the particular features of the fuel channel components to be dismantled and to ensure radiation protection of workers.

  20. Functional involvement of Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in anethol-induced changes in Ca(2+) dependent excitability of F1 neurons in Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Zahra; Hassanpour-Ezatti, Majid; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Janahmadi, Mahyar

    2011-07-01

    The effects of anethol, the major component of anise oil, on the Ca(2+)-dependent excitability and afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in snail neurons were examined using intracellular recording. Anethol (0.5%) significantly broadened the spike, reduced the firing frequency and enhanced the AHP amplitude. In contrast, anethol (2%) significantly increased the firing frequency and decreased the AHP. Blockade of Ca(2+) channels after anethol application depolarized the membrane potential and significantly reduced the firing rate. Furthermore, in the presence of anethol (0.5%) a significant decrease in the AHP was observed by Ca(2+) channels blockage. Here, anethol-induced functional modification of Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels is suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4 is required for new and reactivated fear memories.

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    Jonathan E Ploski

    Full Text Available The Neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4 is a neuronal activity-dependent immediate early gene that has recently been identified as a transcription factor which regulates the transcription of genes that control inhibitory synapse development and synaptic plasticity. The role Npas4 in learning and memory, however, is currently unknown. Here, we systematically examine the role of Npas4 in auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning, an amygdala-dependent form of emotional learning. In our first series of experiments, we show that Npas4 mRNA and protein are regulated in the rat lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA in a learning-dependent manner. Further, knockdown of Npas4 protein in the LA via adeno-associated viral (AAV mediated gene delivery of RNAi was observed to impair fear memory formation, while innate fear and the expression of fear memory were not affected. In our second series of experiments, we show that Npas4 protein is regulated in the LA by retrieval of an auditory fear memory and that knockdown of Npas4 in the LA impairs retention of a reactivated, but not a non-reactivated, fear memory. Collectively, our findings provide the first comprehensive look at the functional role of Npas4 in learning and memory.

  2. Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    2008-11-07

    In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

  3. LDL-receptor-related protein 4 is crucial for formation of the neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherbee, Scott D; Anderson, Kathryn V; Niswander, Lee A

    2006-12-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (Lrp4) is a member of a family of structurally related, single-pass transmembrane proteins that carry out a variety of functions in development and physiology, including signal transduction and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Lrp4 is expressed in multiple tissues in the mouse, and is important for the proper development and morphogenesis of limbs, ectodermal organs, lungs and kidneys. We show that Lrp4 is also expressed in the post-synaptic endplate region of muscles and is required to form neuromuscular synapses. Lrp4-mutant mice die at birth with defects in both presynaptic and postsynaptic differentiation, including aberrant motor axon growth and branching, a lack of acetylcholine receptor and postsynaptic protein clustering, and a failure to express postsynaptic genes selectively by myofiber synaptic nuclei. Our data show that Lrp4 is required during the earliest events in postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation and suggest that it acts in the early, nerveindependent steps of NMJ assembly. The identification of Lrp4 as a crucial factor for NMJ formation may have implications for human neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia syndromes.

  4. Parkinson disease-related DJ-1 modulates the expression of uncoupling protein 4 against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaoqing; Yang, Xiaodong; Qian, Yiwei; Xiao, Qin

    2018-01-08

    Loss of function mutations of DJ-1 (PARK7) have been linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Antioxidative stress is one of the multi-protective functions of DJ-1, and oxidation of cysteine 106 (Cys106) has been proposed to regulate the protective activity of DJ-1. Uncoupling protein 4 (UCP4) is located in the inner membrane of mitochondria and functions to protect against oxidative stress. In this study, we used neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells and DJ-1 knockout (KO) mice to elucidate whether DJ-1 regulated oxidative stress via modulating the expression of UCP4, and the underlying mechanism. The downstream products of oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cell viability were also investigated. We found that UCP4 was up regulated upon 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + ) stimulation in SH-SY5Y cells, which was enhanced by wild type DJ-1 and alleviated by DJ-1 knockdown. Expression of UCP4 in DJ-1 KO mice was lower compared with wild type mice. In addition, up-regulation of UCP4 was alleviated by inhibition of oxidized DJ-1, and enhanced by increase of oxidized DJ-1 under conditions of oxidative stress using western blot analysis. Moreover, overexpression of UCP4 in DJ-1 knockdown cells partially reversed the decrease of cell viability, ΔΨm, as well as the increase of products of oxidative stress upon MPP + stimulation. Further analysis showed that DJ-1 regulated transcriptional activity of UCP4 partially via Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in the presence of MPP + . Together, our results suggested DJ-1 might regulate the expression of UCP4 by oxidation of DJ-1 and partially via NF-κB pathway in its protective response to oxidative stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. A structural, functional, and computational analysis suggests pore flexibility as the base for the poor selectivity of CNG channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Luisa Maria Rosaria; Bisha, Ina; De March, Matteo; Marchesi, Arin; Arcangeletti, Manuel; Demitri, Nicola; Mazzolini, Monica; Rodriguez, Alex; Magistrato, Alessandra; Onesti, Silvia; Laio, Alessandro; Torre, Vincent

    2015-07-07

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels, despite a significant homology with the highly selective K(+) channels, do not discriminate among monovalent alkali cations and are permeable also to several organic cations. We combined electrophysiology, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and X-ray crystallography to demonstrate that the pore of CNG channels is highly flexible. When a CNG mimic is crystallized in the presence of a variety of monovalent cations, including Na(+), Cs(+), and dimethylammonium (DMA(+)), the side chain of Glu66 in the selectivity filter shows multiple conformations and the diameter of the pore changes significantly. MD simulations indicate that Glu66 and the prolines in the outer vestibule undergo large fluctuations, which are modulated by the ionic species and the voltage. This flexibility underlies the coupling between gating and permeation and the poor ionic selectivity of CNG channels.

  6. A structural, functional, and computational analysis suggests pore flexibility as the base for the poor selectivity of CNG channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Luisa Maria Rosaria; Bisha, Ina; De March, Matteo; Marchesi, Arin; Arcangeletti, Manuel; Demitri, Nicola; Mazzolini, Monica; Rodriguez, Alex; Magistrato, Alessandra; Onesti, Silvia; Laio, Alessandro; Torre, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels, despite a significant homology with the highly selective K+ channels, do not discriminate among monovalent alkali cations and are permeable also to several organic cations. We combined electrophysiology, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and X-ray crystallography to demonstrate that the pore of CNG channels is highly flexible. When a CNG mimic is crystallized in the presence of a variety of monovalent cations, including Na+, Cs+, and dimethylammonium (DMA+), the side chain of Glu66 in the selectivity filter shows multiple conformations and the diameter of the pore changes significantly. MD simulations indicate that Glu66 and the prolines in the outer vestibule undergo large fluctuations, which are modulated by the ionic species and the voltage. This flexibility underlies the coupling between gating and permeation and the poor ionic selectivity of CNG channels. PMID:26100907

  7. TNF Lectin-Like Domain Restores Epithelial Sodium Channel Function in Frameshift Mutants Associated with Pseudohypoaldosteronism Type 1B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Willam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous in vitro studies have indicated that tumor necrosis factor (TNF activates amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC current through its lectin-like (TIP domain, since cyclic peptides mimicking the TIP domain (e.g., solnatide, showed ENaC-activating properties. In the current study, the effects of TNF and solnatide on individual ENaC subunits or ENaC carrying mutated glycosylation sites in the α-ENaC subunit were compared, revealing a similar mode of action for TNF and solnatide and corroborating the previous assumption that the lectin-like domain of TNF is the relevant molecular structure for ENaC activation. Accordingly, TNF enhanced ENaC current by increasing open probability of the glycosylated channel, position N511 in the α-ENaC subunit being identified as the most important glycosylation site. TNF significantly increased Na+ current through ENaC comprising only the pore forming subunits α or δ, was less active in ENaC comprising only β-subunits, and showed no effect on ENaC comprising γ-subunits. TNF did not increase the membrane abundance of ENaC subunits to the extent observed with solnatide. Since the α-subunit is believed to play a prominent role in the ENaC current activating effect of TNF and TIP, we investigated whether TNF and solnatide can enhance αβγ-ENaC current in α-ENaC loss-of-function frameshift mutants. The efficacy of solnatide has been already proven in pathological conditions involving ENaC in phase II clinical trials. The frameshift mutations αI68fs, αT169fs, αP197fs, αE272fs, αF435fs, αR438fs, αY447fs, αR448fs, αS452fs, and αT482fs have been reported to cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1B (PHA1B, a rare, life-threatening, salt-wasting disease, which hitherto has been treated only symptomatically. In a heterologous expression system, all frameshift mutants showed significantly reduced amiloride-sensitive whole-cell current compared to wild type αβγ-ENaC, whereas membrane

  8. TNF Lectin-Like Domain Restores Epithelial Sodium Channel Function in Frameshift Mutants Associated with Pseudohypoaldosteronism Type 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willam, Anita; Aufy, Mohammed; Tzotzos, Susan; El-Malazi, Dina; Poser, Franziska; Wagner, Alina; Unterköfler, Birgit; Gurmani, Didja; Martan, David; Iqbal, Shahid Muhammad; Fischer, Bernhard; Fischer, Hendrik; Pietschmann, Helmut; Czikora, Istvan; Lucas, Rudolf; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa; Shabbir, Waheed

    2017-01-01

    Previous in vitro studies have indicated that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activates amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) current through its lectin-like (TIP) domain, since cyclic peptides mimicking the TIP domain (e.g., solnatide), showed ENaC-activating properties. In the current study, the effects of TNF and solnatide on individual ENaC subunits or ENaC carrying mutated glycosylation sites in the α-ENaC subunit were compared, revealing a similar mode of action for TNF and solnatide and corroborating the previous assumption that the lectin-like domain of TNF is the relevant molecular structure for ENaC activation. Accordingly, TNF enhanced ENaC current by increasing open probability of the glycosylated channel, position N511 in the α-ENaC subunit being identified as the most important glycosylation site. TNF significantly increased Na+ current through ENaC comprising only the pore forming subunits α or δ, was less active in ENaC comprising only β-subunits, and showed no effect on ENaC comprising γ-subunits. TNF did not increase the membrane abundance of ENaC subunits to the extent observed with solnatide. Since the α-subunit is believed to play a prominent role in the ENaC current activating effect of TNF and TIP, we investigated whether TNF and solnatide can enhance αβγ-ENaC current in α-ENaC loss-of-function frameshift mutants. The efficacy of solnatide has been already proven in pathological conditions involving ENaC in phase II clinical trials. The frameshift mutations αI68fs, αT169fs, αP197fs, αE272fs, αF435fs, αR438fs, αY447fs, αR448fs, αS452fs, and αT482fs have been reported to cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1B (PHA1B), a rare, life-threatening, salt-wasting disease, which hitherto has been treated only symptomatically. In a heterologous expression system, all frameshift mutants showed significantly reduced amiloride-sensitive whole-cell current compared to wild type αβγ-ENaC, whereas membrane abundance varied

  9. PREFRONTAL CORTEX ACTIVATION DURING STORY ENCODING/RETRIEVAL: A MULTI-CHANNEL FUNCTIONAL NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eBasso Moro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Encoding, storage and retrieval constitute three fundamental stages in information processing and memory. They allow for the creation of new memory traces, the maintenance and the consolidation of these traces over time, and the access and recover of the stored information from short or long-term memory. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique that measures concentration changes of oxygenated-hemoglobin (O2Hb and deoxygenated-hemoglobin (HHb in cortical microcirculation blood vessels by means of the characteristic absorption spectra of hemoglobin in the near-infrared range. In the present study, we monitored, using a sixteen-channel fNIRS system, the hemodynamic response during the encoding and retrieval processes (EP and RP, respectively over the prefrontal cortex (PFC of thirteen healthy subjects (27.2±2.6 y. while were performing the Logical Memory Test (LMT of the Wechsler Memory Scale. A LMT-related PFC activation was expected; specifically, it was hypothesized a neural dissociation between EP and RP. The results showed a heterogeneous O2Hb/HHb response over the mapped area during the EP and the RP, with a O2Hb progressive and prominent increment in ventrolateral PFC since the beginning of the EP. During the RP a broader activation, including the ventrolateral PFC, the dorsolateral PFC and the frontopolar cortex, was observed. This could be explained by the different contributions of the PFC regions in the EP and the RP. Considering the fNIRS applicability for the hemodynamic monitoring during the LMT performance, this study has demonstrated that fNIRS could be utilized as a valuable clinical diagnostic tool, and that it has the potential to be adopted in patients with cognitive disorders or slight working memory deficits.

  10. Gain-of-function mutations in the K(ATP channel (KCNJ11 impair coordinated hand-eye tracking.

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    James S McTaggart

    Full Text Available Gain-of-function mutations in the ATP-sensitive potassium channel can cause permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM or neonatal diabetes accompanied by a constellation of neurological symptoms (iDEND syndrome. Studies of a mouse model of iDEND syndrome revealed that cerebellar Purkinje cell electrical activity was impaired and that the mice exhibited poor motor coordination. In this study, we probed the hand-eye coordination of PNDM and iDEND patients using visual tracking tasks to see if poor motor coordination is also a feature of the human disease.Control participants (n = 14, patients with iDEND syndrome (n = 6 or 7, and patients with PNDM (n = 7 completed three computer-based tasks in which a moving target was tracked with a joystick-controlled cursor. Patients with PNDM and iDEND were being treated with sulphonylurea drugs at the time of testing.No differences were seen between PNDM patients and controls. Patients with iDEND syndrome were significantly less accurate than controls in two of the three tasks. The greatest differences were seen when iDEND patients tracked blanked targets, i.e. when predictive tracking was required. In this task, iDEND patients incurred more discrepancy errors (p = 0.009 and more velocity errors (p= 0.009 than controls.These results identify impaired hand-eye coordination as a new clinical feature of iDEND. The aetiology of this feature is likely to involve cerebellar dysfunction. The data further suggest that sulphonylurea doses that control the diabetes of these patients may be insufficient to fully correct their neurological symptoms.

  11. Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) family: Phylogeny, structure-function, tissue distribution, and associated inherited diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanukoglu, Israel; Hanukoglu, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is composed of three homologous subunits and allows the flow of Na(+) ions across high resistance epithelia, maintaining body salt and water homeostasis. ENaC dependent reabsorption of Na(+) in the kidney tubules regulates extracellular fluid (ECF) volume and blood pressure by modulating osmolarity. In multi-ciliated cells, ENaC is located in cilia and plays an essential role in the regulation of epithelial surface liquid volume necessary for cilial transport of mucus and gametes in the respiratory and reproductive tracts respectively. The subunits that form ENaC (named as alpha, beta, gamma and delta, encoded by genes SCNN1A, SCNN1B, SCNN1G, and SCNN1D) are members of the ENaC/Degenerin superfamily. The earliest appearance of ENaC orthologs is in the genomes of the most ancient vertebrate taxon, Cyclostomata (jawless vertebrates) including lampreys, followed by earliest representatives of Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates) including cartilaginous sharks. Among Euteleostomi (bony vertebrates), Actinopterygii (ray finned-fishes) branch has lost ENaC genes. Yet, most animals in the Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish) branch including Tetrapoda, amphibians and amniotes (lizards, crocodiles, birds, and mammals), have four ENaC paralogs. We compared the sequences of ENaC orthologs from 20 species and established criteria for the identification of ENaC orthologs and paralogs, and their distinction from other members of the ENaC/Degenerin superfamily, especially ASIC family. Differences between ENaCs and ASICs are summarized in view of their physiological functions and tissue distributions. Structural motifs that are conserved throughout vertebrate ENaCs are highlighted. We also present a comparative overview of the genotype-phenotype relationships in inherited diseases associated with ENaC mutations, including multisystem pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1B), Liddle syndrome, cystic fibrosis-like disease and essential hypertension. Copyright

  12. Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) family: Phylogeny, structure-function, tissue distribution, and associated inherited diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanukoglu, Israel; Hanukoglu, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is composed of three homologous subunits and allows the flow of Na+ ions across high resistance epithelia, maintaining body salt and water homeostasis. ENaC dependent reabsorption of Na+ in the kidney tubules regulates extracellular fluid (ECF) volume and blood pressure by modulating osmolarity. In multi-ciliated cells, ENaC is located in cilia and plays an essential role in the regulation of epithelial surface liquid volume necessary for cilial transport of mucus and gametes in the respiratory and reproductive tracts respectively. The subunits that form ENaC (named as alpha, beta, gamma and delta, encoded by genes SCNN1A, SCNN1B, SCNN1G, and SCNN1D) are members of the ENaC/Degenerin superfamily. The earliest appearance of ENaC orthologs is in the genomes of the most ancient vertebrate taxon, Cyclostomata (jawless vertebrates) including lampreys, followed by earliest representatives of Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates) including cartilaginous sharks. Among Euteleostomi (bony vertebrates), Actinopterygii (ray finned-fishes) branch has lost ENaC genes. Yet, most animals in the Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish) branch including Tetrapoda, amphibians and amniotes (lizards, crocodiles, birds, and mammals), have four ENaC paralogs. We compared the sequences of ENaC orthologs from 20 species and established criteria for the identification of ENaC orthologs and paralogs, and their distinction from other members of the ENaC/Degenerin superfamily, especially ASIC family. Differences between ENaCs and ASICs are summarized in view of their physiological functions and tissue distributions. Structural motifs that are conserved throughout vertebrate ENaCs are highlighted. We also present a comparative overview of the genotype-phenotype relationships in inherited diseases associated with ENaC mutations, including multisystem pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1B), Liddle syndrome, cystic fibrosis-like disease and essential hypertension. PMID:26772908

  13. A dual-channel fluorescent chemosensor for discriminative detection of glutathione based on functionalized carbon quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Jin; Feng, Hui; Zheng, Jieyu; Ma, Hui-Min; Liu, Weidong; Tang, Cong; Ao, Hang; Zhao, Meizhi; Qian, Zhaosheng

    2016-12-15

    A convenient, fluorescent dual-channel chemosensor on the basis of bis(3-pyridylmethyl)amine-functionalized carbon quantum dots (BPMA-CQDs) nanoprobe was constructed, and it can discriminatively detect glutathione from its analogues cysteine and homocysteine based on two distinctive strategies. Two distinct fluorescence responses of BPMA-CQDs probe to Cu(II) and Ag(I) were identified and further employed to achieve selective detection of Cu(II) and Ag(I) respectively. Based on the BPMA-CQDs/Cu(II) conjugate, discriminative detection of GSH was achieved in terms of correlation between the amounts of GSH and fluorescence recovery. The addition of GSH into BPMA-CQDs/Cu(II) system induces the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I), which could efficiently block PET process resulting in the following fluorescence recovery. Based on the BPMA-CQDs/Ag(I) conjugate, GSH assay could also be established on the basis of fluorescence response to GSH. The introduction of GSH into the preceding system triggers the competitive coordination to Ag(I) between BPMA and GSH, and silver ions are finally taken away by GSH from the probe, where the fluorescence is restored to its original weak state. Both of the detection strategies can achieve discriminative detection of GSH from Cys and Hcy. The assays showed good stability and repeatability, and covered a broad linear range of up to 13.3μM with a lowest detection limit of 42.0nM. Moreover, both of them were utilized to monitor GSH level in live cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Central functions of bicarbonate in S-type anion channel activation and OST1 protein kinase in CO 2 signal transduction in guard cell

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Shaowu

    2011-03-18

    Plants respond to elevated CO(2) via carbonic anhydrases that mediate stomatal closing, but little is known about the early signalling mechanisms following the initial CO(2) response. It remains unclear whether CO(2), HCO(3)(-) or a combination activates downstream signalling. Here, we demonstrate that bicarbonate functions as a small-molecule activator of SLAC1 anion channels in guard cells. Elevated intracellular [HCO(3)(-)](i) with low [CO(2)] and [H(+)] activated S-type anion currents, whereas low [HCO(3)(-)](i) at high [CO(2)] and [H(+)] did not. Bicarbonate enhanced the intracellular Ca(2+) sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation in wild-type and ht1-2 kinase mutant guard cells. ht1-2 mutant guard cells exhibited enhanced bicarbonate sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation. The OST1 protein kinase has been reported not to affect CO(2) signalling. Unexpectedly, OST1 loss-of-function alleles showed strongly impaired CO(2)-induced stomatal closing and HCO(3)(-) activation of anion channels. Moreover, PYR/RCAR abscisic acid (ABA) receptor mutants slowed but did not abolish CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) signalling, redefining the convergence point of CO(2) and ABA signalling. A new working model of the sequence of CO(2) signalling events in gas exchange regulation is presented.

  15. Anatomo-Functional Correlation between Head Zones and Acupuncture Channels and Points: A Comparative Analysis from the Perspective of Neural Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán Molano, Martha Liliana; Pinilla Bonilla, Laura Bibiana; Beltrán Dussan, Eduardo Humberto; Vásquez Londoño, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background. Neural therapy and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are part of complementary and alternative medicine in western world. Both of them share characteristics in diagnosis and therapeutics in search of changes in tenderness, pain, and skin stiffness related to visceral disease, as well as therapeutic procedures with specific stimuli on the skin that generate local, segmental, or remote reactions. Head zones explain segmental viscerocutaneous relations in neural therapy; however, interference fields and remote reactions after infiltration of local anesthetic go beyond this segmental distribution. Methods. This descriptive research required review and analysis of texts of Henry Head and traditional Chinese medicine. Results. Anatomical and functional relationships were found between Head zones in body, and head and neck with 14 acupuncture channels and their points. Anatomical areas of strong correlations were found: Head zones of heart and lung with heart and pericardium channels; Head zones of genitals with bladder and kidney channels. Strong functional relations between all Head zones, channels, and acupoints were found when following the pattern of segmental dermatomes; 235 acupuncture points were found in concordance. PMID:25506384

  16. Anatomo-Functional Correlation between Head Zones and Acupuncture Channels and Points: A Comparative Analysis from the Perspective of Neural Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Liliana Beltrán Molano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neural therapy and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM are part of complementary and alternative medicine in western world. Both of them share characteristics in diagnosis and therapeutics in search of changes in tenderness, pain, and skin stiffness related to visceral disease, as well as therapeutic procedures with specific stimuli on the skin that generate local, segmental, or remote reactions. Head zones explain segmental viscerocutaneous relations in neural therapy; however, interference fields and remote reactions after infiltration of local anesthetic go beyond this segmental distribution. Methods. This descriptive research required review and analysis of texts of Henry Head and traditional Chinese medicine. Results. Anatomical and functional relationships were found between Head zones in body, and head and neck with 14 acupuncture channels and their points. Anatomical areas of strong correlations were found: Head zones of heart and lung with heart and pericardium channels; Head zones of genitals with bladder and kidney channels. Strong functional relations between all Head zones, channels, and acupoints were found when following the pattern of segmental dermatomes; 235 acupuncture points were found in concordance.

  17. The modulation of vascular ATP-sensitive K+ channel function via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway activated by phenylephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Masanori; Hatakeyama, Noboru; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Teramae, Hiroki; Azma, Toshiharu; Hatano, Yoshio; Matsuda, Naoyuki

    2010-08-01

    The present study examined the modulator role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway activated by the alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine in ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function in intact vascular smooth muscle. We evaluated the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function and the activity of the PI3K-Akt pathway in the rat thoracic aorta without endothelium. The PI3K inhibitor 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride (LY294002) (10(-5) M) augmented relaxation in response to the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel opener levcromakalim (10(-8) to 3 x 10(-6) M) in aortic rings contracted with phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) but not with 9,11-dideoxy-11alpha,9alpha-epoxy-methanoprostaglandin F(2alpha) (U46619; 3 x 10(-8) M), although those agents induced similar contraction. ATP-sensitive K(+) channel currents induced by levcromakalim (10(-6) M) in the presence of phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) were enhanced by the nonselective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (10(-7) M) and LY294002 (10(-5) M). Levels of the regulatory subunits of PI3K p85-alpha and p55-gamma increased in the membrane fraction from aortas without endothelium treated with phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) but not with U46619 (3 x 10(-8) M). Phenylephrine simultaneously augmented Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308. Therefore, activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway seems to play a role in the impairment of ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function in vascular smooth muscle exposed to alpha-1 adrenergic stimuli.

  18. Ion channel pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Diana Conte; Tricarico, Domenico; Desaphy, Jean-François

    2007-04-01

    Because ion channels are involved in many cellular processes, drugs acting on ion channels have long been used for the treatment of many diseases, especially those affecting electrically excitable tissues. The present review discusses the pharmacology of voltage-gated and neurotransmitter-gated ion channels involved in neurologic diseases, with emphasis on neurologic channelopathies. With the discovery of ion channelopathies, the therapeutic value of many basic drugs targeting ion channels has been confirmed. The understanding of the genotype-phenotype relationship has highlighted possible action mechanisms of other empirically used drugs. Moreover, other ion channels have been pinpointed as potential new drug targets. With regards to therapy of channelopathies, experimental investigations of the intimate drug-channel interactions have demonstrated that channel mutations can either increase or decrease affinity for the drug, modifying its potential therapeutic effect. Together with the discovery of channel gene polymorphisms that may affect drug pharmacodynamics, these findings highlight the need for pharmacogenetic research to allow identification of drugs with more specific effects on channel isoforms or mutants, to increase efficacy and reduce side effects. With a greater understanding of channel genetics, structure, and function, together with the identification of novel primary and secondary channelopathies, the number of ion channel drugs for neurologic channelopathies will increase substantially.

  19. Stapled Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel (CaV) α-Interaction Domain (AID) Peptides Act As Selective Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors of CaV Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Felix; Campiglio, Marta; Jo, Hyunil; Abderemane-Ali, Fayal; Rumpf, Christine H; Pope, Lianne; Rossen, Nathan D; Flucher, Bernhard E; DeGrado, William F; Minor, Daniel L

    2017-06-21

    For many voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs), creation of a properly functioning ion channel requires the formation of specific protein-protein interactions between the transmembrane pore-forming subunits and cystoplasmic accessory subunits. Despite the importance of such protein-protein interactions in VGIC function and assembly, their potential as sites for VGIC modulator development has been largely overlooked. Here, we develop meta-xylyl (m-xylyl) stapled peptides that target a prototypic VGIC high affinity protein-protein interaction, the interaction between the voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV) pore-forming subunit α-interaction domain (AID) and cytoplasmic β-subunit (CaVβ). We show using circular dichroism spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and isothermal titration calorimetry that the m-xylyl staples enhance AID helix formation are structurally compatible with native-like AID:CaVβ interactions and reduce the entropic penalty associated with AID binding to CaVβ. Importantly, electrophysiological studies reveal that stapled AID peptides act as effective inhibitors of the CaVα1:CaVβ interaction that modulate CaV function in an CaVβ isoform-selective manner. Together, our studies provide a proof-of-concept demonstration of the use of protein-protein interaction inhibitors to control VGIC function and point to strategies for improved AID-based CaV modulator design.

  20. HCN4 ion channel function is required for early events that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner

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    Vaibhav P. Pai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning. Recent studies have suggested the existence of multiple parallel pathways regulating organ asymmetry. Here, we show that an isoform of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN family of ion channels (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, HCN4 is important for correct left-right patterning. HCN4 channels are present very early in Xenopus embryos. Blocking HCN channels (Ih currents with pharmacological inhibitors leads to errors in organ situs. This effect is only seen when HCN4 channels are blocked early (pre-stage 10 and not by a later block (post-stage 10. Injections of HCN4-DN (dominant-negative mRNA induce left-right defects only when injected in both blastomeres no later than the 2-cell stage. Analysis of key asymmetric genes' expression showed that the sidedness of Nodal, Lefty, and Pitx2 expression is largely unchanged by HCN4 blockade, despite the randomization of subsequent organ situs, although the area of Pitx2 expression was significantly reduced. Together these data identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels and reveal a new Nodal-Lefty-Pitx2 asymmetric gene expression-independent mechanism upstream of organ positioning during embryonic left-right patterning.

  1. HCN4 ion channel function is required for early events that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vaibhav P; Willocq, Valerie; Pitcairn, Emily J; Lemire, Joan M; Paré, Jean-François; Shi, Nian-Qing; McLaughlin, Kelly A; Levin, Michael

    2017-10-15

    Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning. Recent studies have suggested the existence of multiple parallel pathways regulating organ asymmetry. Here, we show that an isoform of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) family of ion channels (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, HCN4) is important for correct left-right patterning. HCN4 channels are present very early in Xenopus embryos. Blocking HCN channels (Ih currents) with pharmacological inhibitors leads to errors in organ situs. This effect is only seen when HCN4 channels are blocked early (pre-stage 10) and not by a later block (post-stage 10). Injections of HCN4-DN (dominant-negative) mRNA induce left-right defects only when injected in both blastomeres no later than the 2-cell stage. Analysis of key asymmetric genes' expression showed that the sidedness of Nodal, Lefty, and Pitx2 expression is largely unchanged by HCN4 blockade, despite the randomization of subsequent organ situs, although the area of Pitx2 expression was significantly reduced. Together these data identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels and reveal a new Nodal-Lefty-Pitx2 asymmetric gene expression-independent mechanism upstream of organ positioning during embryonic left-right patterning. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. A590T mutation in KCNQ1 C-terminal helix D decreases IKs channel trafficking and function but not Yotiao interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Koshi; Komatsu, Takuto; Nishide, Kohki; Hata, Yukiko; Hisajima, Nozomi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kimoto, Katsuya; Aonuma, Kei; Tsushima, Eikichi; Tabata, Toshihide; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Mori, Hisashi; Nishida, Kunihiro; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Ichida, Fukiko; Fukurotani, Kenkichi; Inoue, Hiroshi; Nishida, Naoki

    2014-07-01

    KCNQ1 encodes the α subunit of the voltage-gated channel that mediates the cardiac slow delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKs). Here, we report a KCNQ1 allele encoding an A590T mutation [KCNQ1(A590T)] found in a 39-year-old female with a mild QT prolongation. A590 is located in the C-terminal α helical region of KCNQ1 that mediates subunit tetramerization, membrane trafficking, and interaction with Yotiao. This interaction is known to be required for the proper modulation of IKs by cAMP. Since previous studies reported that mutations in the vicinity of A590 impair IKs channel surface expression and function, we examined whether and how the A590T mutation affects the IKs channel. Electrophysiological measurements in HEK-293T cells showed that the A590T mutation caused a reduction in IKs density and a right-shift of the current-voltage relation of channel activation. Immunocytochemical and immunoblot analyses showed the reduced cell surface expression of KCNQ1(A590T) subunit and its rescue by coexpression of the wild-type KCNQ1 [KCNQ1(WT)] subunit. Moreover, KCNQ1(A590T) subunit interacted with Yotiao and had a cAMP-responsiveness comparable to that of KCNQ1(WT) subunit. These findings indicate that the A590 of KCNQ1 subunit plays important roles in the maintenance of channel surface expression and function via a novel mechanism independent of interaction with Yotiao. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit: dependence of respiration of secretory cells on activity of ryanodine- and IP3 - sensitive Ca(2+)-channels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velykopols'ka, O Iu; Man'ko, B O; Man'ko, V V

    2012-01-01

    Using Clark oxygen electrode, dependence of mitochondrial functions on Ca(2+)-release channels activity of Chironomus plumosus L. larvae salivary glands suspension was investigated. Cells were ATP-permeabilized in order to enable penetration of exogenous oxidative substrates. Activation of plasmalemmal P2X-receptors (as well as P2Y-receptors) per se does not modify the endogenous respiration of salivary gland suspension. That is, Ca(2+)-influx from extracellular medium does not influence functional activity of mitochondria, although they are located along the basal part of the plasma membrane. Activation of RyRs intensifies endogenous respiration and pyruvate-malate-stimulated respiration, but not succinate-stimulated respiration. Neither activation of IP3Rs (via P2Y-receptors activation), nor their inhibition alters endogenous respiration. Nevertheless, IP3Rs inhibition by 2-APB intensifies succinate-stimulated respiration. All abovementioned facts testify that Ca2+, released from stores via channels, alters functional activity of mitochondria, and undoubtedly confirm the existence of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit in Ch. plumosus larvae salivary glands secretory cells. In steady state of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit the spontaneous activity of IP3Rs is observed; released through IP3Rs, Ca2+ is accumulated in mitochondria via uniporter and modulates oxidative processes. Activation of RyRs induces the transition of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit to the active state, which is required to intensify cell respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. As expected, the transition of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit to inactivated state (i. e. inhibition of Ca(2+)-release channels at excessive [Ca2+]i) limits the duration of signal transduction, has protective nature and prevents apoptosis.

  4. Synergistic actions of olomoucine and bone morphogenetic protein-4 in axonal repair after acute spinal cord contusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Li, Jianjun; Wu, Liang; Yang, Mingliang; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Li

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether olomoucine acts synergistically with bone morphogenetic protein-4 in the treatment of spinal cord injury, we established a rat model of acute spinal cord contusion by impacting the spinal cord at the T8 vertebra. We injected a suspension of astrocytes derived from glial-restricted precursor cells exposed to bone morphogenetic protein-4 (GDAsBMP) into the spinal cord around the site of the injury, and/or olomoucine intraperitoneally. Olomoucine effectively inhibited astrocyte proliferation and the formation of scar tissue at the injury site, but did not prevent proliferation of GDAsBMP or inhibit their effects in reducing the spinal cord lesion cavity. Furthermore, while GDAsBMP and olomoucine independently resulted in small improvements in locomotor function in injured rats, combined administration of both treatments had a significantly greater effect on the restoration of motor function. These data indicate that the combined use of olomoucine and GDAsBMP creates a better environment for nerve regeneration than the use of either treatment alone, and contributes to spinal cord repair after injury. PMID:25422646

  5. Recombinant human erythropoietin pretreatment attenuates acute renal tubular injury against ischemia-reperfusion by restoring transient receptor potential channel-6 expression and function in collecting ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sai'e; Jin, Yi; Li, Weiyan; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Tingting; Xia, Weiliang; Wang, Yingwei; Ma, Ke

    2014-10-01

    Acute renal tubular injury is a serious complication in the postoperative period, which is associated with high mortality and increased ICU stay. We aimed to demonstrate the protective effect of rhEPO against acute tubular injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion and to explore the mechanism of canonical transient receptor potential channel-6. Randomized laboratory animal study. Animal research laboratory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: the sham group, the control group, and the rhEPO group. Experimental acute tubular injury was established in rats by bilateral renal arterial occlusion for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion. Blood samples were obtained for cystatin-C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin measurements by enzyme-linked immunosorbance assays. Seventy-two hours after reperfusion, urine samples were collected for osmolality and fractional excretion of sodium (%) assays on a chemistry analyzer. Kidneys were harvested at 24, 48, and 72 hours after reperfusion. Transient receptor potential channel-6, aquaporin-2, and Na,K-ATPase expression in collecting ducts were studied by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Coimmunoprecipitations were also performed to identify the possible signalplex relation between transient receptor potential channel-6 and aquaporin-2 or Na,K-ATPase channels. RhEPO pretreatment significantly inhibited serum cystatin-C (2 hr: 453 ± 64 μg/L vs 337 ± 28 μg/L, p human erythropoietin greatly improved the ischemia-reperfusion-induced attenuation of transient receptor potential channel-6 expression (48 hr: 42% ± 2% vs 67% ± 2% and 72 hr: 55% ± 2% vs 66% ± 2%), as well as aquaporin-2 and Na,K-ATPase expression in collecting ducts. Transient receptor potential channel-6 functionally interacted with Na,K-ATPase but not aquaporin-2. Recombinant human erythropoietin pretreatment at the dose of 5,000 IU/kg potently prevented ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute tubular injury, which might be

  6. Influence of piers on functional groups of benthic primary producers and consumers in the channel of a subtropical coastal lagoon

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    Paulo Roberto Pagliosa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial habitats have become common in coastal areas worldwide and may influence the structure and functioning of benthic ecosystems. We analyze the influence of piers on the benthic morphofunctional groups of rocky seaweeds and of soft bottom macrofauna in the channel of Conceição Lagoon (southern Brazil. The main impact is a reduction in the luminosity available for photosynthetic activity which is directly related to a decrease in the biomasses of sediment microphytobenthos and of more highly structured macroalgae life-forms. Contrary to expectations, the morphotypes of potentially high biomass productivity, such as articulated coralline, corticated and leathery macroalgae, were in general less abundant and the low biomass foliose and filamentous macroalgae occurred in reference areas but not under the piers. The piers' effects on motile epifauna and infauna functional groups were site-specific and probably related to the general reduction in primary producer organisms in the new habitats. The discretely motile infauna was the only functional group able to thrive under the piers due to their reduced motility and fragile morphological structures, being benefited by the shelter provided by the artificial habitats. Our results showed that the piers might have a negative effect on the base-trophic level organisms responsible for bottom-up controls.Hábitats artificiais têm se tornado comum em áreas costeiras no mundo todo, podendo influenciar a estrutura e funcionamento de ecossistemas bênticos. Nós analisamos a influência de trapiches nos grupos morfofuncionais bênticos de algas associadas a substrato consolidado e de macrofauna em substrato inconsolidado, no canal da Lagoa da Conceição (sul do Brasil. O principal impacto da presença de trapiches é a redução da irradiação disponível para atividade fotossintética, o que está diretamente relacionado com o decréscimo na biomassa microfitobentônica no sedimento e de macroalga

  7. Functional up-regulation of Nav1.8 sodium channel in Aβ afferent fibers subjected to chronic peripheral inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional alterations in the properties of Aβ afferent fibers may account for the increased pain sensitivity observed under peripheral chronic inflammation. Among the voltage-gated sodium channels involved in the pathophysiology of pain, Nav1.8 has been shown to participate in the peripheral sensitization of nociceptors. However, to date, there is no evidence for a role of Nav1.8 in controlling Aβ-fiber excitability following persistent inflammation. Methods Distribution and expression of Nav1.8 in dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerves were qualitatively or quantitatively assessed by immunohistochemical staining and by real time-polymerase chain reaction at different time points following complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) administration. Using a whole-cell patch-clamp configuration, we further determined both total INa and TTX-R Nav1.8 currents in large-soma dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons isolated from sham or CFA-treated rats. Finally, we analyzed the effects of ambroxol, a Nav1.8-preferring blocker on the electrophysiological properties of Nav1.8 currents and on the mechanical sensitivity and inflammation of the hind paw in CFA-treated rats. Results Our findings revealed that Nav1.8 is up-regulated in NF200-positive large sensory neurons and is subsequently anterogradely transported from the DRG cell bodies along the axons toward the periphery after CFA-induced inflammation. We also demonstrated that both total INa and Nav1.8 peak current densities are enhanced in inflamed large myelinated Aβ-fiber neurons. Persistent inflammation leading to nociception also induced time-dependent changes in Aβ-fiber neuron excitability by shifting the voltage-dependent activation of Nav1.8 in the hyperpolarizing direction, thus decreasing the current threshold for triggering action potentials. Finally, we found that ambroxol significantly reduces the potentiation of Nav1.8 currents in Aβ-fiber neurons observed following intraplantar CFA injection and

  8. TRP channels in schistosomes

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    Swarna Bais

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel (PZQ is effectively the only drug currently available for treatment and control of schistosomiasis, a disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Many anthelmintics, likely including PZQ, target ion channels, membrane protein complexes essential for normal functioning of the neuromusculature and other tissues. Despite this fact, only a few classes of parasitic helminth ion channels have been assessed for their pharmacological properties or for their roles in parasite physiology. One such overlooked group of ion channels is the transient receptor potential (TRP channel superfamily. TRP channels share a common core structure, but are widely diverse in their activation mechanisms and ion selectivity. They are critical to transducing sensory signals, responding to a wide range of external stimuli. They are also involved in other functions, such as regulating intracellular calcium and organellar ion homeostasis and trafficking. Here, we review current literature on parasitic helminth TRP channels, focusing on those in schistosomes. We discuss the likely roles of these channels in sensory and locomotor activity, including the possible significance of a class of TRP channels (TRPV that is absent in schistosomes. We also focus on evidence indicating that at least one schistosome TRP channel (SmTRPA has atypical, TRPV1-like pharmacological sensitivities that could potentially be exploited for future therapeutic targeting.

  9. Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4 in Endometrial Epithelium Is Involved in Embryonic Implantation

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    Peng Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To clarify the role of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4 of endometrial epithelial cell in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy and the involvement in the pathogenesis of pregnancy loss. Methods: The expression of FABP4 and uterine receptive factor (LIF, Integrin-β3 and Claudin 4 was determined by Western blotting or quantitative PCR. FABP4 siRNA was used to silence FABP4 while FABP4 inhibitor was used to inhibit the function of FABP4 in endometrial epithelial cell. ICR mice were raised to evaluate the effect of FABP4 silence or inhibition on embryo implantation in vivo after FABP4 siRNA mixture or inhibitor was injected into uterus, and an embryonic adhesion system using trophoblast spheroids mimicking embryos was set up to assess the effect of FABP4 silence or inhibition on embryonic adhesion onto endometrial cell in vitro. Results: The expression of FABP4 mRNA was significantly decreased in the deciduas of women with pregnancy loss compared with that of women with normal pregnancy. FABP4 siRNA significantly reduced the number of embryos implanted and FABP4 expression in ICR mice. FABP4 inhibition also significantly decreased the number of embryos implanted. Either silence or inhibition of FABP4 in endometrial epithelial cell abolished the expression of uterine receptive factors induced by the combination of estrogen and progesterone-induced, and reduced the number of trophoblast spheroids adhered onto endometrial cell. Conclusions: FABP4 regulates embryo implantation via altering uterine receptivity and decreased expression of FABP4 in endometrium may be linked with pregnancy loss, indicating FABP4 has biological role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy and subsequently is involved in pathogenesis of pregnancy loss.

  10. Students' Understanding of External Representations of the Potassium Ion Channel Protein Part II: Structure-Function Relationships and Fragmented Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Research that has focused on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations. This study focuses on students' understanding of three external representations (ribbon diagram, wireframe, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic) of the potassium ion channel protein. Analysis…

  11. Role of inward rectifier potassium channels in salivary gland function and sugar feeding of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arthropod salivary gland is of critical importance for horizontal transmission of pathogens, yet a detailed understanding of the ion conductance pathways responsible for saliva production and excretion is lacking. A superfamily of potassium ion channels, known as inward rectifying potassium (Ki...

  12. Calcium channel blockade limits cardiac remodeling and improves cardiac function in myocardial infarction-induced heart failure in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandmann, S.; Claas, R.; Cleutjens, J. P.; Daemen, M. J.; Unger, T.

    2001-01-01

    Calcium channel antagonists (CCAs) have been proposed to prevent cardiac events after myocardial infarction (MI). However, unwanted effects, such as negative inotropy, limit their use in many cases. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of long-term treatment with the CCAs, mibefradil,

  13. Lack of direct evidence for a functional role of voltage-operated calcium channels in juxtaglomerular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, A; Skott, O; Chegini, S

    1990-01-01

    In this study we have examined the role of voltage-gated calcium channels in the regulation of calcium in juxtaglomerular cells. Using a combination of patch-clamp and single-cell calcium measurement we obtained evidence neither for voltage-operated calcium currents nor for changes of the intrace...

  14. Gain-of-function mutations in potassium channel subunit KCNE2 associated with early-onset lone atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Bille; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Olesen, Morten Salling

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Disturbances in cardiac potassium conductance are considered as one of the disease mechanisms in AF. We aimed to investigate if mutations in potassium-channel β-subunits KCNE2 and KCNE3 are associated with early-onset lone AF. ...

  15. Gain-of-function mutations in the calcium channel CACNA1C (Cav1.2) cause non-syndromic long-QT but not Timothy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemhöner, Konstantin; Friedrich, Corinna; Stallmeyer, Birgit; Coffey, Alison J; Grace, Andrew; Zumhagen, Sven; Seebohm, Guiscard; Ortiz-Bonnin, Beatriz; Rinné, Susanne; Sachse, Frank B; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Decher, Niels

    2015-03-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in CACNA1C, encoding the L-type Ca(2+) channel Cav1.2, cause Timothy syndrome (TS), a multi-systemic disorder with dysmorphic features, long-QT syndrome (LQTS) and autism spectrum disorders. TS patients have heterozygous mutations (G402S and G406R) located in the alternatively spliced exon 8, causing a gain-of-function by reduced voltage-dependence of inactivation. Screening 540 unrelated patients with non-syndromic forms of LQTS, we identified six functional relevant CACNA1C mutations in different regions of the channel. All these mutations caused a gain-of-function combining different mechanisms, including changes in current amplitude, rate of inactivation and voltage-dependence of activation or inactivation, similar as in TS. Computer simulations support the theory that the novel CACNA1C mutations prolong action potential duration. We conclude that genotype-negative LQTS patients should be investigated for mutations in CACNA1C, as a gain-of-function in Cav1.2 is likely to cause LQTS and only specific and rare mutations, i.e. in exon 8, cause the multi-systemic TS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Effects of unblocking meridians and Du-channel massage combined with rehabilitation training on the motor function improvement of cerebral ischemic stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hua-ping; Feng, Hui; Li, Ya-juan

    2011-11-01

    To study effects of unblocking meridians and Du-channel massage combined with rehabilitation training on the motor function improvement of cerebral ischemic stroke (CIS) patients. Eighty CIS patients were assigned to the treatment group (40 cases) and the control group (40 cases) using random digit table method. Bobath technique was mainly carried out in patients in the control group. On the basis of routine rehabilitation training, unblocking meridians and Du-channel massage was additionally given to patients in the treatment group. The therapeutic course for all patients was 8 weeks. The changes of Fugl-Meyer Assessment-L (FMA-L), 10 meter maximal walking speed (MWS), and gait space and time parameters were compared before and after treatment. Before treatment there was no significant difference in each index between the two groups (P > 0.05). After treatment there was significant difference in these indices between the two groups (P < 0.05), with better results obtained in the treatment group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). The unblocking meridians and Du-channel massage could improve the motor function and walking capability of CIS patients, which was worthy of further summaries.

  17. Altered Potassium Ion Channel Function as a Possible Mechanism of Increased Blood Pressure in Rats Fed Thermally Oxidized Palm Oil Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkanu, Etah E; Owu, Daniel U; Osim, Eme E

    2017-12-27

    Intake of thermally oxidized palm oil leads to cytotoxicity and alteration of the potassium ion channel function. This study investigated the effects of fresh and thermally oxidized palm oil diets on blood pressure and potassium ion channel function in blood pressure regulation. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of eight rats. Control group received normal feed; fresh palm oil (FPO) and thermally oxidized palm oil (TPO) groups were fed a diet mixed with 15% (weight/weight) fresh palm oil and five times heated palm oil, respectively, for 16 weeks. Blood pressure was measured; blood samples, hearts, and aortas were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. Thermally oxidized palm oil significantly elevated basal mean arterial pressure (MAP). Glibenclamide (10-5 mmol/L) and tetraethylammonium (TEA; 10-3 mmol/L) significantly raised blood pressure in TPO compared with FPO and control groups. Levcromakalim (10-6 mmol/L) significantly (p palm oil increases MAP probably due to the attenuation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP) and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium (BKCa) channels, tissue peroxidation, and altered histological structures of the heart and blood vessels.

  18. Effects of dietary vitamin E on growth performance as well as intestinal structure and function of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque 1818).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Wang, Kaiyu; Liang, Xiaoxia; Fang, Jing; Geng, Yi; Chen, Zhengli; Pu, Haibo; Hu, Yaodong; Li, Xue; Liu, Ling

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of dietary vitamin E supplementation on growth performance, the intestinal structure and function of channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus , Rafinesque 1818) was investigated. A total of 900 healthy channel catfish (weight, 5.20±0.15 g) were divided into four groups, which received experimental diets with different vitamin E content (0, 50, 100 or 1,000 mg/kg). At the end of the feeding trial (after 15 weeks), the growth and gut performance of the animals was determined. The digestive enzyme activity in hepatopancreas and gut was also detected. In addition, the height of intestinal fold, the thickness of the mucous membrane and the number of somatostatin-positive cells was examined by histological analysis. Dietary vitamin E supplementation at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly improved the growth and gut performance, which also increased the activity of several digestive enzymes compared to that in animals without vitamin E supplementation (PE supplementation also significantly increased the height of intestinal fold and the thickness of the mucous membrane (PE supplementation at appropriate doses also had more somatostatin-positive cells in than those without vitamin E supplementation (PE supplementation at 50 and 100 mg/kg was shown to improve the growth performance as well as intestinal structure and function of channel catfish.

  19. Cloning, functional characterization, and remodeling of K2P3.1 (TASK-1) potassium channels in a porcine model of atrial fibrillation and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Constanze; Wiedmann, Felix; Langer, Clara; Tristram, Frank; Anand, Priya; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Lugenbiel, Patrick; Schweizer, Patrick A; Katus, Hugo A; Thomas, Dierk

    2014-10-01

    Effective treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) remains an unmet need. Human K2P3.1 (TASK-1) K(+) channels display atrial-specific expression and may serve as novel antiarrhythmic targets. In rodents, inhibition of K2P3.1 causes prolongation of action potentials and QT intervals. We used a porcine model to further elucidate the significance of K2P3.1 in large mammals. The purpose of this study was to study porcine (p)K2P3.1 channel function and cardiac expression and to analyze pK2P3.1 remodeling in AF and heart failure (HF). The porcine K2P3.1 ortholog was amplified and characterized using voltage-clamp electrophysiology. K2P3.1 mRNA expression and remodeling were studied in domestic pigs during AF and HF induced by atrial burst pacing. Porcine K2P3.1 cDNA encodes a channel protein with 97% identity to human K2P3.1. K(+) currents recorded from Xenopus oocytes expressing pK2P3.1 were functionally and pharmacologically similar to their human counterparts. In the pig, K2P3.1 mRNA was predominantly expressed in atrial tissue. AF and HF were associated with reduction of K2P3.1 mRNA levels by 85.1% (right atrium) and 77.0% (left atrium) at 21-day follow-up. In contrast, ventricular K2P3.1 expression was low and not significantly affected by AF/HF. Porcine K2P3.1 channels exhibit atrial expression and functional properties similar to their human orthologs, supporting a general role as antiarrhythmic drug targets. K2P3.1 down-regulation in AF with HF may indicate functional relevance of the channel that remains to be validated in prospective interventional studies. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of physiological ClC-1 Cl- ion channel regulation for the excitability and function of working skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Riisager, Anders; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    temporal resolution in action potential firing muscle fibers. These and other techniques have revealed that ClC-1 function is controlled by multiple cellular signals during muscle activity. Thus, onset of muscle activity triggers ClC-1 inhibition via protein kinase C, intracellular acidosis, and lactate...... permeability for Cl- ions. Thus, in resting human muscle, ClC-1 Cl- ion channels account for ∼80% of the membrane conductance, and because active Cl- transport is limited in muscle fibers, the equilibrium potential for Cl- lies close to the resting membrane potential. These conditions—high membrane conductance...... ions. This inhibition is important for preserving excitability of working muscle in the face of activity-induced elevation of extracellular K+ and accumulating inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. Furthermore, during prolonged activity, a marked ClC-1 activation can develop that compromises...

  1. Interactions of the Ca2+ channel β2 subunit with the ion-conducting α1C subunit and the giant protein Ahnak: Functional analysis and characterization of binding domains

    OpenAIRE

    Hohaus, Annette

    2010-01-01

    L-type Ca2+channels are protein complexes that play a critical role in the regulation of muscle contractility. Gating as well as regulation of voltage-dependent Ca2+channels is for a large part determined by the interaction between ion-conducting a 1 and b subunits. An aim of this study was to analyze modulation of the smooth-muscle Ca2+channel a 1C-b subunit by the accessory b 2a subunit at single-channel level. In addition, the functional role of the a 1-b interaction...

  2. ATP Sensitive Potassium Channels in the Skeletal Muscle Function: Involvement of the KCNJ11(Kir6.2) Gene in the Determination of Mechanical Warner Bratzer Shear Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricarico, Domenico; Selvaggi, Maria; Passantino, Giuseppe; De Palo, Pasquale; Dario, Cataldo; Centoducati, Pasquale; Tateo, Alessandra; Curci, Angela; Maqoud, Fatima; Mele, Antonietta; Camerino, Giulia M; Liantonio, Antonella; Imbrici, Paola; Zizzo, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-sensitive K(+)-channels (KATP) are distributed in the tissues coupling metabolism with K(+) ions efflux. KATP subunits are encoded by KCNJ8 (Kir6.1), KCNJ11 (Kir6.2), ABCC8 (SUR1), and ABCC9 (SUR2) genes, alternative RNA splicing give rise to SUR variants that confer distinct physiological properties on the channel. An high expression/activity of the sarco-KATP channel is observed in various rat fast-twitch muscles, characterized by elevated muscle strength, while a low expression/activity is observed in the slow-twitch muscles characterized by reduced strength and frailty. Down-regulation of the KATP subunits of fast-twitch fibers is found in conditions characterized by weakness and frailty. KCNJ11 gene knockout mice have reduced glycogen, lean phenotype, lower body fat, and weakness. KATP channel is also a sensor of muscle atrophy. The KCNJ11 gene is located on BTA15, close to a QTL for meat tenderness, it has also a role in glycogen storage, a key mechanism of the postmortem transformation of muscle into meat. The role of KCNJ11 gene in muscle function may underlie an effect of KCNJ11 genotypes on meat tenderness, as recently reported. The fiber phenotype and genotype are important in livestock production science. Quantitative traits including meat production and quality are influenced both by environment and genes. Molecular markers can play an important role in the genetic improvement of animals through breeding strategies. Many factors influence the muscle Warner-Bratzler shear force including breed, age, feeding, the biochemical, and functional parameters. The role of KCNJ11gene and related genes on muscle tenderness will be discussed in the present review.

  3. ATP sensitive potassium channels in the skeletal muscle functions : involvement of the KCNJ11(Kir6.2 gene in the determination of Warner Bratzer shear force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico eTricarico

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ATP-sensitive K+-channels (KATP are distributed in the tissues coupling metabolism with K+ ions efflux. KATP subunits are encoded by KCNJ8 (Kir6.1, KCNJ11 (Kir6.2, ABCC8 (SUR1 and ABCC9 (SUR2 genes, alternative RNA splicing give rise to SUR variants that confer distinct physiological properties on the channel. An high expression/activity of the sarco-KATP channel is observed in various rat fast-twitch muscles, characterized by elevated muscle strength, while a low expression/activity is observed in the slow-twitch muscles characterized by reduced strength and frailty. Down-regulation of the KATP subunits of fast-twitch fibres is found in conditions characterized by weakness and frailty. KCNJ11 gene knockout mice have reduced glycogen, lean phenotype, lower body fat, and weakness. KATP channel is also a sensor of muscle atrophy. The KCNJ11 gene is located on BTA15, close to a QTL for meat tenderness, it has also a role in glycogen storage, a key mechanism of the postmortem transformation of muscle into meat. The role of KCNJ11 gene in muscle function may underlie an effect of KCNJ11 genotypes on meat tenderness, as recently reported. The fiber phenotype and genotype are important in livestock production science. Quantitative traits including meat production and quality are influenced both by environment and genes. Molecular markers can play an important role in the genetic improvement of animals through breeding strategies. Many factors influence the muscle Warner-Bratzler shear force including breed, age, feeding, the biochemical and functional parameters. The role of KCNJ11gene and related genes on muscle tenderness will be discussed in the present review.

  4. Association between Fish Consumption and Prefrontal Function during a Cognitive Task in Male Japanese Workers: A Multi-Channel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghong Pu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fish consumption and prefrontal function during a cognitive task in male Japanese workers. The study included 208 male workers who underwent medical health examinations 3 months after a change in their work assignment. We measured the hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal region during working memory tasks using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. The frequency of fish consumption was calculated on the basis of the subjects' self-reported customary intake frequency over the previous 3 months. A significant positive relationship was observed between fish consumption and left dorsolateral prefrontal function during a working memory task. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between fish consumption and functional cortical activity with an ample sample size, suggesting that fish consumption modulates functional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  5. Association between Fish Consumption and Prefrontal Function during a Cognitive Task in Male Japanese Workers: A Multi-Channel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Katsutoshi; Kaneko, Koichi; Kurosawa, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fish consumption and prefrontal function during a cognitive task in male Japanese workers. The study included 208 male workers who underwent medical health examinations 3 months after a change in their work assignment. We measured the hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal region during working memory tasks using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. The frequency of fish consumption was calculated on the basis of the subjects' self-reported customary intake frequency over the previous 3 months. A significant positive relationship was observed between fish consumption and left dorsolateral prefrontal function during a working memory task. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between fish consumption and functional cortical activity with an ample sample size, suggesting that fish consumption modulates functional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  6. Characterization of Microfibrillar-associated Protein 4 in the Development of Pulmonary Emphysema-like Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anne Trommelholt

    Ph.D.-afhandlingen er baseret på tre karakteriseringsstudier. Disse studier omhandler den strukturalle organisering af mikrofibrillar-associeret protein 4 (MFAP4) og dets interaktion med komponenter af lungevævet. Derudover også den basale karakterisering af de pulmonale konsekvenser associeret m...

  7. Purification and light-scattering analysis of penicillin-binding protein 4 from Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fusetti, F; Dijkstra, BW

    1996-01-01

    Penicillin binding protein 4 (PBP4) from Escherichia coli is a protein involved in the recycling and maturation of the bacterial cell wall and it is inhibited by beta-lactam antibiotics, PBP4 exhibits D-Ala-D-Ala-endopeptidase as well as D-Ala-D-Ala-carboxypeptidase activity. To provide a structural

  8. Functional coupling between human E-type Ca2+ channels and mu opioid receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottolia, M; Platano, D; Qin, N; Noceti, F; Birnbaumer, M; Toro, L; Birnbaumer, L; Stefani, E; Olcese, R

    1998-05-01

    Neuronal alpha1E Ca2+ channels were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes alone and in combination with the mu opioid receptor. Macroscopic currents were recorded under voltage clamp conditions. The stimulation of the morphine receptor by the synthetic [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5] enkephalin (DAMGO) produced a 20% reduction in the alpha1E ionic current. This effect was associated with a large change in the decay phase of the Ba2+ current. The effect of 1 microM DAMGO was fully antagonized by the universal mu opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and by the selective antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. The ionic current inhibition induced by DAMGO was partially recovered by preceding strong depolarizations. The injection of the catalytic subunit of pertussis toxin (A-protomer) abolished the effect of DAMGO, suggesting the involvement of a GTP binding protein in the alpha1E modulation. The coexpression of the regulatory beta2a Ca2a channel subunit, together with the alpha1E subunit and the mu opioid receptor, prevented the reduction of the ionic current following the receptor stimulation with DAMGO, whereas the coexpression with the beta3 subunit reduced by approximately 50% the modulatory effect of DAMGO. The effect produced by the stimulation of the opioid receptor could be mimicked by coexpressing the alpha1E channel with the G-protein betagamma subunits.

  9. The K+ channel KIR2.1 functions in tandem with proton influx to mediate sour taste transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wenlei; Chang, Rui B; Bushman, Jeremy D; Tu, Yu-Hsiang; Mulhall, Eric M; Wilson, Courtney E; Cooper, Alexander J; Chick, Wallace S; Hill-Eubanks, David C; Nelson, Mark T; Kinnamon, Sue C; Liman, Emily R

    2016-01-12

    Sour taste is detected by a subset of taste cells on the tongue and palate epithelium that respond to acids with trains of action potentials. Entry of protons through a Zn(2+)-sensitive proton conductance that is specific to sour taste cells has been shown to be the initial event in sour taste transduction. Whether this conductance acts in concert with other channels sensitive to changes in intracellular pH, however, is not known. Here, we show that intracellular acidification generates excitatory responses in sour taste cells, which can be attributed to block of a resting K(+) current. We identify KIR2.1 as the acid-sensitive K(+) channel in sour taste cells using pharmacological and RNA expression profiling and confirm its contribution to sour taste with tissue-specific knockout of the Kcnj2 gene. Surprisingly, acid sensitivity is not conferred on sour taste cells by the specific expression of Kir2.1, but by the relatively small magnitude of the current, which makes the cells exquisitely sensitive to changes in intracellular pH. Consistent with a role of the K(+) current in amplifying the sensory response, entry of protons through the Zn(2+)-sensitive conductance produces a transient block of the KIR2.1 current. The identification in sour taste cells of an acid-sensitive K(+) channel suggests a mechanism for amplification of sour taste and may explain why weak acids that produce intracellular acidification, such as acetic acid, taste more sour than strong acids.

  10. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  11. UMTS Common Channel Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Rodrigues, António; Santos, Frederico

    2006-01-01

    The UMTS common transport channels forward access channel (FACH) and the random access channel (RACH) are two of the three fundamental channels for a functional implementation of an UMTS network. Most signaling procedures, such as the registration procedure, make use of these channels...... and as such it is necessary that both channels be available across the cell radius. This requirement makes the choice of the transmission parameters a fundamental one. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis regarding the transmission parameters of two UMTS common channels: RACH and FACH. Optimization of these channels...... is performed and values for the key transmission parameters in both common channels are obtained. On RACH these parameters are the message to preamble offset, the initial SIR target and the preamble power step while on FACH it is the transmission power offset....

  12. Reconfigurable virtual electrowetting channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ananda; Kreit, Eric; Liu, Yuguang; Heikenfeld, Jason; Papautsky, Ian

    2012-02-21

    Lab-on-a-chip systems rely on several microfluidic paradigms. The first uses a fixed layout of continuous microfluidic channels. Such lab-on-a-chip systems are almost always application specific and far from a true "laboratory." The second involves electrowetting droplet movement (digital microfluidics), and allows two-dimensional computer control of fluidic transport and mixing. The merging of the two paradigms in the form of programmable electrowetting channels takes advantage of both the "continuous" functionality of rigid channels based on which a large number of applications have been developed to date and the "programmable" functionality of digital microfluidics that permits electrical control of on-chip functions. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time programmable formation of virtual microfluidic channels and their continuous operation with pressure driven flows using an electrowetting platform. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical analyses of virtual channel formation with biologically relevant electrolyte solutions and electrically-programmable reconfiguration are presented. We demonstrate that the "wall-less" virtual channels can be formed reliably and rapidly, with propagation rates of 3.5-3.8 mm s(-1). Pressure driven transport in these virtual channels at flow rates up to 100 μL min(-1) is achievable without distortion of the channel shape. We further demonstrate that these virtual channels can be switched on-demand between multiple inputs and outputs. Ultimately, we envision a platform that would provide rapid prototyping of microfluidic concepts and would be capable of a vast library of functions and benefitting applications from clinical diagnostics in resource-limited environments to rapid system prototyping to high throughput pharmaceutical applications.

  13. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.

    2013-09-01

    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.

  14. Functional transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 channels along different segments of the renal vasculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, L; Kaßmann, M; Sendeski, M

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) cation channels have been recently identified to promote endothelium-dependent relaxation of mouse mesenteric arteries. However, the role of TRPV1 and TRPV4 in the renal vasculature is largely unknown. We hypothesized...... GSK1016790A relaxed large conducting renal arteries, mesenteric arteries and vasa recta with EC50 of 18, 63 nm and ~10 nm respectively. These effects were endothelium-dependent and inhibited by a TRPV4 antagonist, AB159908 (10 μm). Capsaicin and GSK1016790A produced vascular dilation in isolated mouse...

  15. Study of Channel Characteristics for Galvanic-Type Intra-Body Communication Based on a Transfer Function from a Quasi-Static Field Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Du

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intra-Body Communication (IBC, which modulates ionic currents over the human body as the communication medium, offers a low power and reliable signal transmission method for information exchange across the body. This paper first briefly reviews the quasi-static electromagnetic (EM field modeling for a galvanic-type IBC human limb operating below 1 MHz and obtains the corresponding transfer function with correction factor using minimum mean square error (MMSE technique. Then, the IBC channel characteristics are studied through the comparison between theoretical calculations via this transfer function and experimental measurements in both frequency domain and time domain. High pass characteristics are obtained in the channel gain analysis versus different transmission distances. In addition, harmonic distortions are analyzed in both baseband and passband transmissions for square input waves. The experimental results are consistent with the calculation results from the transfer function with correction factor. Furthermore, we also explore both theoretical and simulation results for the bit-error-rate (BER performance of several common modulation schemes in the IBC system with a carrier frequency of 500 kHz. It is found that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the simulation results.

  16. Reconstitution of CO2 Regulation of SLAC1 Anion Channel and Function of CO2-Permeable PIP2;1 Aquaporin as CARBONIC ANHYDRASE4 Interactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeise, Brian; Xu, Danyun; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Boron, Walter F.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    Dark respiration causes an increase in leaf CO2 concentration (Ci), and the continuing increases in atmospheric [CO2] further increases Ci. Elevated leaf CO2 concentration causes stomatal pores to close. Here, we demonstrate that high intracellular CO2/HCO3− enhances currents mediated by the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell S-type anion channel SLAC1 upon coexpression of any one of the Arabidopsis protein kinases OST1, CPK6, or CPK23 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Split-ubiquitin screening identified the PIP2;1 aquaporin as an interactor of the βCA4 carbonic anhydrase, which was confirmed in split luciferase, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. PIP2;1 exhibited CO2 permeability. Mutation of PIP2;1 in planta alone was insufficient to impair CO2- and abscisic acid-induced stomatal closing, likely due to redundancy. Interestingly, coexpression of βCA4 and PIP2;1 with OST1-SLAC1 or CPK6/23-SLAC1 in oocytes enabled extracellular CO2 enhancement of SLAC1 anion channel activity. An inactive PIP2;1 point mutation was identified that abrogated water and CO2 permeability and extracellular CO2 regulation of SLAC1 activity. These findings identify the CO2-permeable PIP2;1 as key interactor of βCA4 and demonstrate functional reconstitution of extracellular CO2 signaling to ion channel regulation upon coexpression of PIP2;1, βCA4, SLAC1, and protein kinases. These data further implicate SLAC1 as a bicarbonate-responsive protein contributing to CO2 regulation of S-type anion channels. PMID:26764375

  17. Analysis of trafficking, stability and function of human connexin 26 gap junction channels with deafness-causing mutations in the fourth transmembrane helix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Ambrosi

    Full Text Available Human Connexin26 gene mutations cause hearing loss. These hereditary mutations are the leading cause of childhood deafness worldwide. Mutations in gap junction proteins (connexins can impair intercellular communication by eliminating protein synthesis, mis-trafficking, or inducing channels that fail to dock or have aberrant function. We previously identified a new class of mutants that form non-functional gap junction channels and hemichannels (connexons by disrupting packing and inter-helix interactions. Here we analyzed fourteen point mutations in the fourth transmembrane helix of connexin26 (Cx26 that cause non-syndromic hearing loss. Eight mutations caused mis-trafficking (K188R, F191L, V198M, S199F, G200R, I203K, L205P, T208P. Of the remaining six that formed gap junctions in mammalian cells, M195T and A197S formed stable hemichannels after isolation with a baculovirus/Sf9 protein purification system, while C202F, I203T, L205V and N206S formed hemichannels with varying degrees of instability. The function of all six gap junction-forming mutants was further assessed through measurement of dye coupling in mammalian cells and junctional conductance in paired Xenopus oocytes. Dye coupling between cell pairs was reduced by varying degrees for all six mutants. In homotypic oocyte pairings, only A197S induced measurable conductance. In heterotypic pairings with wild-type Cx26, five of the six mutants formed functional gap junction channels, albeit with reduced efficiency. None of the mutants displayed significant alterations in sensitivity to transjunctional voltage or induced conductive hemichannels in single oocytes. Intra-hemichannel interactions between mutant and wild-type proteins were assessed in rescue experiments using baculovirus expression in Sf9 insect cells. Of the four unstable mutations (C202F, I203T, L205V, N206S only C202F and N206S formed stable hemichannels when co-expressed with wild-type Cx26. Stable M195T hemichannels

  18. Autoantibodies to lipoprotein-related protein 4 in patients with double-seronegative myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Tzartos, John S; Belimezi, Maria; Ragheb, Samia; Bealmear, Beverly; Lewis, Richard A; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Lisak, Robert P; Tzartos, Socrates J; Mei, Lin

    2012-04-01

    To determine whether patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) have serum antibodies to lipoprotein-related protein 4 (LRP4), a newly identified receptor for agrin that is essential for neuromuscular junction formation, and to establish whether such antibodies contribute to MG pathogenesis. Serum samples from patients with MG with known status of serum antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) and serum samples from control subjects (healthy individuals and individuals with other diseases) were tested for antibodies to LRP4. Serum samples with such antibodies were tested to determine whether they had the ability to inhibit 2 different functions of LRP4 at the neuromuscular junction. Serum samples were collected at the Hellenic Pasteur Institute and Wayne State University. Samples were tested for LRP4 autoantibodies at Georgia Health Sciences University. Other immunoreactivities of the samples were tested at the Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens, Greece, or processed through University Laboratories of the Detroit Medical Center, Michigan. Patients  The study included 217 patients with MG, 76 patients with other neurologic or psychiatric diseases, and 45 healthy control subjects. Anti-LRP4 antibodies were detected in 11 of 120 patients with MG without detectable anti-AChR or anti-MuSK antibodies (double seronegative) and in 1 of 36 patients without anti-AChR antibodies but with anti-MuSK antibodies, but they were not detected in any of the 61 patients with anti-AChR antibodies. No healthy control subjects and only 2 of the 76 control patients with neurologic disease had anti-LRP4 antibodies. Serum samples from patients with MG with anti-LRP4 antibodies were able to inhibit the LRP4-agrin interaction and/or alter AChR clustering in muscle cells. Anti-LRP4 antibodies were detected in the serum of approximately 9.2% of patients with double-seronegative MG. This frequency is intermediate compared with 2 recent studies showing anti

  19. Functional integrity of flexible n-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors on a reversibly bistable platform

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-10-26

    Flexibility can bring a new dimension to state-of-the-art electronics, such as rollable displays and integrated circuit systems being transformed into more powerful resources. Flexible electronics are typically hosted on polymeric substrates. Such substrates can be bent and rolled up, but cannot be independently fixed at the rigid perpendicular position necessary to realize rollable display-integrated gadgets and electronics. A reversibly bistable material can assume two stable states in a reversible way: flexibly rolled state and independently unbent state. Such materials are used in cycling and biking safety wristbands and a variety of ankle bracelets for orthopedic healthcare. They are often wrapped around an object with high impulsive force loading. Here, we study the effects of cumulative impulsive force loading on thinned (25 μm) flexible silicon-based n-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor devices housed on a reversibly bistable flexible platform. We found that the transistors have maintained their high performance level up to an accumulated 180 kN of impact force loading. The gate dielectric layers have maintained their reliability, which is evidenced by the low leakage current densities. Also, we observed low variation in the effective electron mobility values, which manifests that the device channels have maintained their carrier transport properties.

  20. A novel silicon patch-clamp chip permits high-fidelity recording of ion channel activity from functionally defined neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Christophe; Denhoff, Mike W; Martina, Marzia; Monette, Robert; Comas, Tanya; Ahuja, Tarun; Martinez, Dolores; Wingar, Simon; Caballero, Juan; Laframboise, Sylvain; Mielke, John; Bogdanov, Alexei; Luk, Collin; Syed, Naweed; Mealing, Geoff

    2010-11-01

    We report on a simple and high-yield manufacturing process for silicon planar patch-clamp chips, which allow low capacitance and series resistance from individually identified cultured neurons. Apertures are etched in a high-quality silicon nitride film on a silicon wafer; wells are opened on the backside of the wafer by wet etching and passivated by a thick deposited silicon dioxide film to reduce the capacitance of the chip and to facilitate the formation of a high-impedance cell to aperture seal. The chip surface is suitable for culture of neurons over a small orifice in the substrate with minimal leak current. Collectively, these features enable high-fidelity electrophysiological recording of transmembrane currents resulting from ion channel activity in cultured neurons. Using cultured Lymnaea neurons we demonstrate whole-cell current recordings obtained from a voltage-clamp stimulation protocol, and in current-clamp mode we report action potentials stimulated by membrane depolarization steps. Despite the relatively large size of these neurons, good temporal and spatial control of cell membrane voltage was evident. To our knowledge this is the first report of recording of ion channel activity and action potentials from neurons cultured directly on a planar patch-clamp chip. This interrogation platform has enormous potential as a novel tool to readily provide high-information content during pharmaceutical assays to investigate in vitro models of disease, as well as neuronal physiology and synaptic plasticity. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The erythrocyte cytoskeleton protein 4.2 is not demonstrable in several mammalian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Guerra-Shinohara

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocyte membrane proteins from 44 representative mammals were studied. Protein 4.2 was not detected in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (N = 14, Southern Brazilian swamp large rats (Myocastor coypus (N = 2, cutias (Dasyprocta sp (N = 4, and horses (Equus caballus (N = 13. These animals also presented high ankyrin concentrations except for the horse which did not exhibit a sharp band, although minor components located between proteins 2 and 3 could account for the ankyrin family. The rodents studied did present band 6, which was not detectable in other common rodents such as white rats (Rattus norvegicus (N = 9 and mice (Mus musculus (N = 12. Since the absence of protein 4.2 does not disrupt the cytoskeleton membrane, we suggest that it is not an essential protein. Its absence may be compensated physiologically by the higher ankyrin concentration observed.

  2. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Massimi; Ambra Ciuffetta; Flavia Temperilli; Francesca Ferrandino; Alessandra Zicari; Pulcinelli, Fabio M.; Maria Pia Felli

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4) overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα). In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293) to aspirin...

  3. Anticonvulsant mechanism of saponins fraction from adventitious roots of Ficus religiosa: possible modulation of GABAergic, calcium and sodium channel functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damanpreet Singh

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In our previous studies, quantified saponins-rich fraction from adventitious root extract of Ficus religiosa L., Moraceae, showed anticonvulsant effect in acute, as well as chronic mice models of epilepsy. The present study was designed to reveal putative anticonvulsant mechanism of quantified saponins-rich fraction using target specific animal models. The anticonvulsant effect of quantified saponins-rich fraction was initially studied in maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol test at 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg; i.p. doses. Based on the results of initial anticonvulsant testing, different groups of mice were injected with vehicle or quantified saponins-rich fraction (4 mg/kg; i.p., 30 min prior to an injection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (100 mg/kg; s.c., bicuculline (5 mg/kg; i.p., strychnine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg; i.p., BAY k-8644 (37.5 µg; i.c.v., veratridine (500 µg/kg; i.p. and the convulsive episodes were studied. Treatment with the extract (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg showed significant protection in maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion tests, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, quantified saponins-rich fraction at 4 mg/kg dose showed significant increase in latency to clonic convulsions, decrease in seizure severity and increase in average wave amplitude in bicuculline, BAY k-8644 and veratridine tests, respectively, as compared to vehicle control. However, SRF treatment failed to abolish N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and strychnine-induced convulsions, indicated by insignificant change in the appearance of turning behavior and onset of tonic extension, respectively, as compared to vehicle control. From the results of present study, it is concluded that quantified saponins-rich fraction suppress maximal electroshock, pentylenetetrazol, bicuculline, BAY k-8644 and veratridine-induced convulsions, indicating its GABAergic, Na+ and Ca2+ channel modulatory effects. Further it can be correlated that quantified saponins

  4. Preoperative Serum Human Epididymis Protein 4 Levels in Early Stage Endometrial Cancer: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanfani, Francesco; Restaino, Stefano; Cicogna, Stefania; Petrillo, Marco; Montico, Marcella; Perrone, Emanuele; Radillo, Oriano; De Leo, Rossella; Ceccarello, Matteo; Scambia, Giovanni; Ricci, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and cancer antigen 125 markers with pathological prognostic factor to complete the preoperative clinical panel and help the treatment planning. This prospective multicenter study was conducted in 2 gynecologic oncology centers between 2012 and 2014 (Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo in Trieste and Catholic University of the Sacred Heart in Rome, Italy). We enrolled 153 patients diagnosed with clinical early (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages I-II) type I endometrial cancer. Human epididymis protein 4 levels seemed to be strictly related to age (P endometrial cancer type I versus type II (P = 0.86), the lymphovascular infiltration (P = 0.12), and the cervical invasion (P = 0.6). We established a new variable, considering 3 high-risk tumor features: MI of greater than 50% and/or histological G3 and/or type II. Human epididymis protein 4 levels significantly increase in high-risk tumors (high risk HE4, 93.6 pmol/L vs low-medium risk, 65.5 pmol/L; P < 0.001). A preoperative HE4 evaluation could help stratify patients with deep invasion and/or metastatic disease and is correlated with other relevant prognostic factors to be considered to tailor an adequate surgical strategy.

  5. Steviol glycosides enhance pancreatic beta-cell function and taste sensation by potentiation of TRPM5 channel activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippaert, Koenraad; Pironet, Andy; Mesuere, Margot; Sones, William; Vermeiren, Laura; Kerselaers, Sara; Pinto, Sílvia; Segal, Andrei; Antoine, Nancy; Gysemans, Conny; Laureys, Jos; Lemaire, Katleen; Gilon, Patrick; Cuypers, Eva; Tytgat, Jan; Mathieu, Chantal; Schuit, Frans; Rorsman, Patrik; Talavera, Karel; Voets, Thomas; Vennekens, Rudi

    2017-03-31

    Steviol glycosides (SGs), such as stevioside and rebaudioside A, are natural, non-caloric sweet-tasting organic molecules, present in extracts of the scrub plant Stevia rebaudiana, which are widely used as sweeteners in consumer foods and beverages. TRPM5 is a Ca2+-activated cation channel expressed in type II taste receptor cells and pancreatic β-cells. Here we show that stevioside, rebaudioside A and their aglycon steviol potentiate the activity of TRPM5. We find that SGs potentiate perception of bitter, sweet and umami taste, and enhance glucose-induced insulin secretion in a Trpm5-dependent manner. Daily consumption of stevioside prevents development of high-fat-diet-induced diabetic hyperglycaemia in wild-type mice, but not in Trpm5-/- mice. These results elucidate a molecular mechanism of action of SGs and identify TRPM5 as a potential target to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes.

  6. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle....... Understanding the structure/function relationship of TRPV4 is essential for future development of specific TRPV4 agonist for treatment of diseases causes by dysfunctional TRPV4. E.g. two inherited bone dysplasias have recently been demonstrated in humans to originate from TRPV4 mutations....

  7. Loading characteristics and chemical stability of headgroup-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-lipid ligand tethers on polypropylene capillary-channeled polymer fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadock-Hewitt, Abby J; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    Polypropylene capillary-channeled polymer fibers have been modified by adsorption of headgroup-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-lipids to generate a species-specific stationary phase. In order to study ligand binding characteristics, a fluorescein-labeled poly(ethylene glycol)-lipid was used as a model system. Breakthrough curves and frontal analysis were employed to characterize the surface loading characteristics across a range of lipid concentrations and mobile phase flow rates. Efficient mass transfer and fluid transport yield a linear adsorption isotherm up to the maximum loading concentration of 3 mg/mL, at a linear velocity of 57.1 mm/s. Under these conditions, the dynamic binding capacity was found to be 1.52 mg/g of fiber support. Variation of the linear velocity from 8.6 to 57.1 mm/s showed only small changes in breakthrough volume. The maximum capacity of 1.8 mg/g is found under conditions of a load velocity of 34.2 mm/s and a concentration of 3 mg/mL lipid. Exposure of the lipid modified fibers to several challenge solvents reveals a chemically robust system, with only 50% acetonitrile and hexanes able to disrupt the lipid adsorption. The straightforward capillary-channeled polymer fiber surface modification with headgroup-functionalized lipids provides both a diverse yet practically robust ligand tethering system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Resveratrol Protects Against Ultraviolet A-Mediated Inhibition of the Phagocytic Function of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Via Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwu-Jiuan Sheu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to examine the protective effect of resveratrol on human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cell phagocytosis against ultraviolet irradiation damage. Cultured RPE cells were exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA, 20 minutes irradiation, and treated with meclofenamic acid (30μM, 20 minutes, paxilline (100 μM, 20 minutes or resveratrol (10μM, 20 minutes. Meclofenamic acid and resveratrol were given after exposure to UVA. Pretreatment with meclofenamic acid, resveratrol or paxilline before UVA irradiation was also performed. Fluorescent latex beads were then fed for 4 hours and the phagocytotic function was assessed by flow cytometry. UVA irradiation inhibited the phagocytic function of human RPE cells. The large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activator meclofenamic acid ameliorated the damage caused by UVA irradiation. Pretreatment with resveratrol acid also provided protection against damage caused by UVA. Posttreatment with meclofenamic acid offered mild protection, whereas resveratrol did not. In conclusion, the red wine flavonoid resveratrol ameliorated UVA-mediated inhibition of human RPE phagocytosis. The underlying mechanism might involve the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.

  9. SLO-1-channels of parasitic nematodes reconstitute locomotor behaviour and emodepside sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans slo-1 loss of function mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Welz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The calcium-gated potassium channel SLO-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans was recently identified as key component for action of emodepside, a new anthelmintic drug with broad spectrum activity. In this study we identified orthologues of slo-1 in Ancylostoma caninum, Cooperia oncophora, and Haemonchus contortus, all important parasitic nematodes in veterinary medicine. Furthermore, functional analyses of these slo-1 orthologues were performed using heterologous expression in C. elegans. We expressed A. caninum and C. oncophora slo-1 in the emodepside-resistant genetic background of the slo-1 loss-of-function mutant NM1968 slo-1(js379. Transformants expressing A. caninum slo-1 from C. elegans slo-1 promoter were highly susceptible (compared to the fully emodepside-resistant slo-1(js379 and showed no significant difference in their emodepside susceptibility compared to wild-type C. elegans (p = 0.831. Therefore, the SLO-1 channels of A. caninum and C. elegans appear to be completely functionally interchangeable in terms of emodepside sensitivity. Furthermore, we tested the ability of the 5' flanking regions of A. caninum and C. oncophora slo-1 to drive expression of SLO-1 in C. elegans and confirmed functionality of the putative promoters in this heterologous system. For all transgenic lines tested, expression of either native C. elegans slo-1 or the parasite-derived orthologue rescued emodepside sensitivity in slo-1(js379 and the locomotor phenotype of increased reversal frequency confirming the reconstitution of SLO-1 function in the locomotor circuits. A potent mammalian SLO-1 channel inhibitor, penitrem A, showed emodepside antagonising effects in A. caninum and C. elegans. The study combined the investigation of new anthelmintic targets from parasitic nematodes and experimental use of the respective target genes in C. elegans, therefore closing the gap between research approaches using model nematodes and those using target organisms

  10. Unique battery with an active membrane separator having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels and a method making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J [Chicago, IL; Sears, Devin N [Spruce Grove, CA; Smith, Luis J [Natick, MA; Klingler, Robert J [Glenview, IL; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL

    2012-02-21

    The invention relates to a unique battery having an active, porous membrane and method of making the same. More specifically the invention relates to a sealed battery system having a porous, metal oxide membrane with uniform, physicochemically functionalized ion channels capable of adjustable ionic interaction. The physicochemically-active porous membrane purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  11. The junctional SR protein JP-45 affects the functional expression of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel Cav1.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ayuk A; Altafaj, Xavier; Zheng, Zhenlin; Wang, Zhong-Min; Delbono, Osvaldo; Ronjat, Michel; Treves, Susan; Zorzato, Francesco

    2006-05-15

    JP-45, an integral protein of the junctional face membrane of the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), colocalizes with its Ca2+ -release channel (the ryanodine receptor), and interacts with calsequestrin and the skeletal-muscle dihydropyridine receptor Cav1. We have identified the domains of JP-45 and the Cav1.1 involved in this interaction, and investigated the functional effect of JP-45. The cytoplasmic domain of JP-45, comprising residues 1-80, interacts with Cav1.1. JP-45 interacts with two distinct and functionally relevant domains of Cav1.1, the I-II loop and the C-terminal region. Interaction between JP-45 and the I-II loop occurs through the alpha-interacting domain in the I-II loop. beta1a, a Cav1 subunit, also interacts with the cytosolic domain of JP-45, and its presence drastically reduces the interaction between JP-45 and the I-II loop. The functional effect of JP-45 on Cav1.1 activity was assessed by investigating charge movement in differentiated C2C12 myotubes after overexpression or depletion of JP-45. Overexpression of JP-45 decreased peak charge-movement and shifted VQ1/2 to a more negative potential (-10 mV). JP-45 depletion decreased both the content of Cav1.1 and peak charge-movements. Our data demonstrate that JP-45 is an important protein for functional expression of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels.

  12. The intravestibular source of the vestibular aqueduct. II: its structure and function clarified by a developmental study of the intra-skeletal channels of the otic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Leslie; Soucek, Sava; Linthicum, Fred

    2010-04-01

    A developmental histologic study of the otic capsule indicates that it grows a system of lamellar bone with abundant interconnecting intraosseous channels. These include the 'cartilage canals' in the cartilage model, the chondro-osseous and Haversian-like (Volkmann's) canals in the ossified otic capsule, the fissula ante fenestram, which seems to function as a lifelong manufacturer of the latter two channels, and the inner layer (vestibular arch) of the vestibular aqueduct, which is a complex series of Volkmann's canals and microcanals. Chemical changes, possibly produced by breakdown of cells within the channels, may provide a homeostatic environment for the functions of hearing and balance that take place in the endolymphatic fluid. We studied the development of the otic capsule to clarify the cellular appearances that we had previously described in the normal vestibular arch and the changes in that structure in Ménière's disease. Step sections from 84 temporal bones, including those from fetuses, children and adults from a variety of ages were examined histologically. Cartilage canals, bringing blood vessels and mesenchymal cells from perichondrium to the depths of the cartilage model to mediate ossification, are found early in fetal life and disappear when ossification is complete at about 24 weeks. The otic capsule is formed of chondro-osseous canals, which are composed of trabeculae of mineralized cartilage lacunae containing mesenchymal cells that undergo ossification (globuli ossei); also Volkmann's canals (like Haversian canals in long bones but multidirectional), which are produced from osteoblasts. The lumina of the latter frequently link up with chondro-osseous canals. Lamellar bone forms the background of the otic capsule. The fissula ante fenestram is present from early in the cartilage model and then throughout life. It appears to mediate bone production and the new formation of chondro-osseous channels and Volkmann's canals. The internal layer of

  13. Genetically heterogeneous mice show age-related vision deficits not related to increased rod cell L-type calcium channel function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Bruce A; Miller, Richard A; Roberts, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Visual performance declines over time in humans and 2-18 months outbred Long-Evans (LE) rats; vision is maintained in inbred 2-18 months C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Increased rod L-type calcium channel (LTCC) function predicts visual decline in LE rats but does not occur in B6 mice. Genetic diversity may contribute to rod LTCC function escalation time. To test this hypothesis, 4 and 18 months genetically heterogeneous UM-HET3 mice were studied. Rod LTCC function (manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and ocular anatomy (MRI, optical coherence tomography) were measured in vivo. Light-evoked subretinal space and choroid thickness changes were measured (diffusion-weighted MRI). Visual performance declined over time in the absence of (1) increased rod LTCC function; (2) changes in light-dependent expansion of the subretinal space and choroidal thickness; and (3) retinal thinning. Aging changed anterior and vitreous chambers' axial length and decreased light-stimulated choroidal expansion. Species differences appear to contribute to the LTCC function differences. Aging-related declines in vision in the UM-HET3 mice deserve more attention than they have received so far. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Specialized functions of Nav1.5 and Nav1.9 channels in electrogenesis of myenteric neurons in intact mouse ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Nancy; Korogod, Sergiy; Delmas, Patrick

    2014-04-09

    Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels play a central role in gastrointestinal physiology because they transmit depolarizing impulses in enteric neurons, thereby enabling the coordination of intestinal motility. However, little is known about the ion channel machinery that specifies firing pattern of enteric neurons. Here, we used in situ patch-clamp recording of myenteric neurons from mice to define functionally the Nav channel subtypes responsible for the electrical signature of myenteric neurons. We found that mouse myenteric neurons exhibit two types of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) currents: an early inactivating Na(+) current (INaT) and a persistent Na(+) current (INaP). INaT was encountered in all myenteric neurons, whereas INaP was preferentially found in Dogiel type II sensory neurons. Knock-out mouse studies, in combination with pharmacological assays, indicate that INaT is carried by the Scn5a-encoded "cardiac" Nav1.5, whereas INaP is attributed to the Scn11a-encoded Nav1.9. Current-clamp experiments show that Nav1.9 flows at subthreshold voltages, generating tonic firing. In addition, action potential (AP) clamp reveals that Nav1.5 contributes to the upstroke velocity of APs, whereas Nav1.9, which remains active during the falling phase, opposes AP repolarization. We developed a computational model of a Dogiel type II myenteric neuron that successfully reproduces all experimentally observed phenomena and highlights the differential roles of Nav1.5 and Nav1.9 in the control of excitability. Our data illustrate how excitability can be finely tuned to provide specific firing templates by the selective deployment of Nav1.5 and Nav1.9 isoforms. We propose that Nav-dependent ENS disorders of excitability may play important roles in the pathogenesis of digestive diseases.

  15. Mutually exclusive splicing regulates the Nav 1.6 sodium channel function through a combinatorial mechanism that involves three distinct splicing regulatory elements and their ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubović, Lorena; Baralle, Marco; Baralle, Francisco E

    2012-07-01

    Mutually exclusive splicing is a form of alternative pre-mRNA processing that consists in the use of only one of a set of two or more exons. We have investigated the mechanisms involved in this process for exon 18 of the Na(v) 1.6 sodium channel transcript and its significance regarding gene-expression regulation. The 18N exon (neonatal form) has a stop codon in phase and although the mRNA can be detected by amplification methods, the truncated protein has not been observed. The switch from 18N to 18A (adult form) occurs only in a restricted set of neural tissues producing the functional channel while other tissues display the mRNA with the 18N exon also in adulthood. We demonstrate that the mRNA species carrying the stop codon is subjected to Nonsense-Mediated Decay, providing a control mechanism of channel expression. We also map a string of cis-elements within the mutually exclusive exons and in the flanking introns responsible for their strict tissue and temporal specificity. These elements bind a series of positive (RbFox-1, SRSF1, SRSF2) and negative (hnRNPA1, PTB, hnRNPA2/B1, hnRNPD-like JKTBP) splicing regulatory proteins. These splicing factors, with the exception of RbFox-1, are ubiquitous but their levels vary during development and differentiation, ensuing unique sets of tissue and temporal levels of splicing factors. The combinatorial nature of these elements is highlighted by the dominance of the elements that bind the ubiquitous factors over the tissue specific RbFox-1.

  16. Functional study of TREK-1 potassium channels during rat heart development and cardiac ischemia using RNAi techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Guo, Peng; Li, Jiang; Wang, Weiping; Xu, Shaofeng; Wang, Ling; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2014-08-01

    To explore the physiological and pathological significance of the 2-pore domain potassium channel TWIK-related K(+) (TREK)-1 in rat heart, its expression and role during heart development and cardiac ischemia were investigated. In the former study, the ventricles of Sprague Dawley rats were collected from embryo day 19 to postnatal 18 months and examined for mRNA and protein expression of TREK-1. It was found that both increased during development, reached a maximum at postnatal day 28, and remained higher at postnatal day 3 through to postnatal 18 months. In the latter study, protein expression of TREK-1 was examined after initiation of acute heart ischemia by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. TREK-1 expression was found to be increased in the endocardium but unchanged in the epicardium. In primary cultured rat neonatal ventricular myocytes subjected to hypoxia (oxygen-glucose deprivation), TREK-1 expression was increased. In cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes, silencing of the TREK-1 gene by lentivirus delivery of the short-hairpin RNAs, L-sh-492 and L-sh-605, was found to promote their viability and number. In addition, both short-hairpin RNA provided protection against hypoxia-induced injury to cardiomyocytes in vitro. These results suggest that TREK-1 plays an important role in neonatal rat heart development and downregulation of TREK-1 may provide protection against ischemic injury. It seems that TREK-1 is a potential drug target for treatment of acute heart ischemia.

  17. Effect of Diuretic or Calcium-Channel Blocker Plus Angiotensin-Receptor Blocker on Diastolic Function in Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Norihisa; Ishii, Katsuhisa; Kihara, Hajime; Iwakura, Katsuomi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension increases the risk of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, and anti-hypertensive therapy may improve LV relaxation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether combining an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) with either hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or a calcium-channel blocker (CCB) improves LV relaxation in patients with hypertension and diastolic dysfunction. Hypertensive patients who had not achieved their target blood pressure with at least 4 weeks of ARB therapy were randomly assigned to receive either a fixed-dose combination of losartan and HCTZ (losartan/HCTZ; n=110) or a combination of amlodipine and a typical ARB dosage (CCB/ARB; n=121) and followed for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in early diastolic mitral annular velocity (e', cm/s). Systolic blood pressure decreased in both groups after switch to the combination therapies. E' velocity increased both in the losartan/HCTZ (0.52 cm/s) and in the CCB/ARB (0.59 cm/s) groups. The mean (95% CI) treatment difference was -0.02 (-0.37 to 0.34) cm/s, indicating that improvement in LV relaxation was similar between the groups. The ratio of early mitral inflow velocity to e' velocity and left atrial volume index were significantly decreased in the losartan/HCTZ group. The combination of losartan and HCTZ is as effective as amlodipine plus ARB in improving LV relaxation in hypertensive patients.

  18. Where have all the Na+ channels gone? In search of functional ENaC in exocrine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Hansen, Mette R

    2002-01-01

    was to investigate if pancreatic ducts express functional ENaC. Membrane voltages (V) of ducts isolated from rat pancreas were measured with microelectrodes or whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Amiloride and benzamil given from bath or luminal sides did not hyperpolarize V. Lowering of extracellular Na...... with glucocorticoids had no effect on pancreatic fluid secretion evoked from ducts, or from acini. Hence, our study shows that pancreas especially pancreatic ducts do not express functional ENaC....

  19. Course on Ionic Channels

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This book is based on a series of lectures for a course on ionic channels held in Santiago, Chile, on November 17-20, 1984. It is intended as a tutorial guide on the properties, function, modulation, and reconstitution of ionic channels, and it should be accessible to graduate students taking their first steps in this field. In the presentation there has been a deliberate emphasis on the spe­ cific methodologies used toward the understanding of the workings and function of channels. Thus, in the first section, we learn to "read" single­ channel records: how to interpret them in the theoretical frame of kinetic models, which information can be extracted from gating currents in re­ lation to the closing and opening processes, and how ion transport through an open channel can be explained in terms of fluctuating energy barriers. The importance of assessing unequivocally the origin and purity of mem­ brane preparations and the use of membrane vesicles and optical tech­ niques in the stUGY of ionic channels a...

  20. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris

    2008-01-01

    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  1. Effect of the quasi-continuous equal-channel angular pressing on the structure and functional properties of Ti-Ni-based shape-memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmelevskaya, I. Yu.; Karelin, R. D.; Prokoshkin, S. D.; Andreev, V. A.; Yusupov, V. S.; Perkas, M. M.; Prosvirnin, V. V.; Shelest, A. E.; Komarov, V. S.

    2017-03-01

    The effect of severe plastic deformation by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) under normal and quasi-continuous regimes on the structure and the mechanical and functional properties of a Ti-50.2 at % Ni shape-memory alloy (SMA) has been studied. ECAP was carried out at an angle of intersection of channels of 120° in the normal regime with heating between passes at 450°C for 20 passes and in the quasi-continuous regime at the temperature of 400°C for three, five, and seven passes. The hot screw rolling with subsequent annealing at 750°C for 30 min and cooling in water was used as a control treatment (CT). A mixed submicrocrystalline and nanosubgrained structure was formed. The increase in the number of passes from three to seven led to a decrease in the average size of structural elements from 115 ± 5 to 103 ± 5 nm and to an increase in the fraction of grains/subgrains having a size less than 100 nm. After ECAP (seven passes) and post-deformation annealing at the temperature of 400°C for 1 h, a completely recoverable strain was 9.5%; after normal ECAP, 7.2%; after CT, 4.0%.

  2. Congenital ataxia and hemiplegic migraine with cerebral edema associated with a novel gain of function mutation in the calcium channel CACNA1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Segarra, Nuria; Gautschi, Ivan; Mittaz-Crettol, Laureane; Kallay Zetchi, Christine; Al-Qusairi, Lama; Van Bemmelen, Miguel Xavier; Maeder, Philippe; Bonafé, Luisa; Schild, Laurent; Roulet-Perez, Eliane

    2014-07-15

    Mutations in the CACNA1A gene, encoding the α1 subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel Ca(V)2.1 (P/Q-type), have been associated with three neurological phenotypes: familial and sporadic hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1, SHM1), episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2), and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). We report a child with congenital ataxia, abnormal eye movements and developmental delay who presented severe attacks of hemiplegic migraine triggered by minor head traumas and associated with hemispheric swelling and seizures. Progressive cerebellar atrophy was also observed. Remission of the attacks was obtained with acetazolamide. A de novo 3 bp deletion was found in heterozygosity causing loss of a phenylalanine residue at position 1502, in one of the critical transmembrane domains of the protein contributing to the inner part of the pore. We characterized the electrophysiology of this mutant in a Xenopus oocyte in vitro system and showed that it causes gain of function of the channel. The mutant Ca(V)2.1 activates at lower voltage threshold than the wild type. These findings provide further evidence of this molecular mechanism as causative of FHM1 and expand the phenotypic spectrum of CACNA1A mutations with a child exhibiting severe SHM1 and non-episodic ataxia of congenital onset. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Selection of Mother Wavelet Functions for Multi-Channel EEG Signal Analysis during a Working Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Bin Mohd Ali, Sawal Hamid; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Islam, Mohd Shabiul; Escudero, Javier

    2015-11-17

    We performed a comparative study to select the efficient mother wavelet (MWT) basis functions that optimally represent the signal characteristics of the electrical activity of the human brain during a working memory (WM) task recorded through electro-encephalography (EEG). Nineteen EEG electrodes were placed on the scalp following the 10-20 system. These electrodes were then grouped into five recording regions corresponding to the scalp area of the cerebral cortex. Sixty-second WM task data were recorded from ten control subjects. Forty-five MWT basis functions from orthogonal families were investigated. These functions included Daubechies (db1-db20), Symlets (sym1-sym20), and Coiflets (coif1-coif5). Using ANOVA, we determined the MWT basis functions with the most significant differences in the ability of the five scalp regions to maximize their cross-correlation with the EEG signals. The best results were obtained using "sym9" across the five scalp regions. Therefore, the most compatible MWT with the EEG signals should be selected to achieve wavelet denoising, decomposition, reconstruction, and sub-band feature extraction. This study provides a reference of the selection of efficient MWT basis functions.

  4. Selection of Mother Wavelet Functions for Multi-Channel EEG Signal Analysis during a Working Memory Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Kamal Al-Qazzaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We performed a comparative study to select the efficient mother wavelet (MWT basis functions that optimally represent the signal characteristics of the electrical activity of the human brain during a working memory (WM task recorded through electro-encephalography (EEG. Nineteen EEG electrodes were placed on the scalp following the 10–20 system. These electrodes were then grouped into five recording regions corresponding to the scalp area of the cerebral cortex. Sixty-second WM task data were recorded from ten control subjects. Forty-five MWT basis functions from orthogonal families were investigated. These functions included Daubechies (db1–db20, Symlets (sym1–sym20, and Coiflets (coif1–coif5. Using ANOVA, we determined the MWT basis functions with the most significant differences in the ability of the five scalp regions to maximize their cross-correlation with the EEG signals. The best results were obtained using “sym9” across the five scalp regions. Therefore, the most compatible MWT with the EEG signals should be selected to achieve wavelet denoising, decomposition, reconstruction, and sub-band feature extraction. This study provides a reference of the selection of efficient MWT basis functions.

  5. Investigation of verbal and visual working memory by multi-channel time-resolved functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, D.; Caffini, M.; Re, R.; Zucchelli, L.; Spinelli, L.; Basso Moro, S.; Bisconti, S.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Cutini, S.; Torricelli, A.

    2013-03-01

    Working memory (WM) is fundamental for a number of cognitive processes, such as comprehension, reasoning and learning. WM allows the short-term maintenance and manipulation of the information selected by attentional processes. The goal of this study was to examine by time-resolved fNIRS neural correlates of the verbal and visual WM during forward and backward digit span (DF and DB, respectively) tasks, and symbol span (SS) task. A neural dissociation was hypothesised between the maintenance and manipulation processes. In particular, a dorsolateral/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC) recruitment was expected during the DB task, whilst a lateralised involvement of Brodmann Area (BA) 10 was expected during the execution of the DF task. Thirteen subjects were monitored by a multi-channel, dual-wavelength (690 and 829 nm) time-resolved fNIRS system during 3 minutes long DF and DB tasks and 4 minutes long SS task. The participants' mean memory span was calculated for each task: DF: 6.46+/-1.05 digits; DB: 5.62+/-1.26 digits; SS: 4.69+/-1.32 symbols. No correlation was found between the span level and the heart rate data (measured by pulse oximeter). As expected, DB elicited a broad activated area, in the bilateral VLPFC and the right DLPFC, whereas a more localised activation was observed over the right hemisphere during either DF (BA 10) or SS (BA 10 and 44). The robust involvement of the DLPFC during DB, compared to DF, is compatible with previous findings and with the key role of the central executive subserving in manipulating processes.

  6. Alterations of retinol-binding protein 4 species in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease and their relation to lipid parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Andrea; Frey, Simone K; Raila, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and has been discussed as marker of kidney function. In addition to an elevated concentration, the existence of truncated RBP4 species, RBP4-L (truncated at last C-terminal leucine) and RBP4-LL (truncated...... analysis revealed a strong association of the RBP4-TTR ratio with parameters of lipid metabolism and with diabetes-related factors. In conclusion, RBP4 serum concentration and the appearance of RBP4-LL seem to be influenced by kidney function. Furthermore, the RBP4-TTR ratio may provide diagnostic...

  7. High yield purification of full-length functional hERG K+ channels produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molbaek, Karen; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    knowledge this is the first reported high-yield production and purification of full length, tetrameric and functional hERG. This significant breakthrough will be paramount in obtaining hERG crystal structures, and in establishment of new high-throughput hERG drug safety screening assays....

  8. Biphasic DC measurement approach for enhanced measurement stability and multi-channel sampling of self-sensing multi-functional structural materials doped with carbon-based additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Austin; D'Alessandro, Antonella; Ubertini, Filippo; Laflamme, Simon; Geiger, Randall

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of multi-functional carbon-based self-sensing structural materials for structural health monitoring applications is a topic of growing interest. These materials are self-sensing in the sense that they can provide measurable electrical outputs corresponding to physical changes such as strain or induced damage. Nevertheless, the development of an appropriate measurement technique for such materials is yet to be achieved, as many results in the literature suggest that these materials exhibit a drift in their output when measured with direct current (DC) methods. In most of the cases, the electrical output is a resistance and the reported drift is an increase in resistance from the time the measurement starts due to material polarization. Alternating current methods seem more appropriate at eliminating the time drift. However, published results show they are not immune to drift. Moreover, the use of multiple impedance measurement devices (LCR meters) does not allow for the simultaneous multi-channel sampling of multi-sectioned self-sensing materials due to signal crosstalk. The capability to simultaneously monitor multiple sections of self-sensing structural materials is needed to deploy these multi-functional materials for structural health monitoring. Here, a biphasic DC measurement approach with a periodic measure/discharge cycle in the form of a square wave sensing current is used to provide consistent, stable resistance measurements for self-sensing structural materials. DC measurements are made during the measurement region of the square wave while material depolarization is obtained during the discharge region of the periodic signal. The proposed technique is experimentally shown to remove the signal drift in a carbon-based self-sensing cementitious material while providing simultaneous multi-channel measurements of a multi-sectioned self-sensing material. The application of the proposed electrical measurement technique appears promising for real

  9. Beyond Gap Junction Channel Function: the Expression of Cx43 Contributes to Aldosterone-Induced Mesangial Cell Proliferation via the ERK1/2 and PKC Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiqing Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to explore the precise mechanism and signaling pathways of mesangial cell (MC proliferation from a new point of view considering Connexin 43 (Cx43. Methods: MC proliferation was measured by the incorporation of 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR. Cx43 was over-expressed in MC cells using lipofectamine 2000, and the expression level was tested with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. The gap junction channel function was explored by Lucifer Yellow scrape loading and dye transfer (SLDT, and the intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i were characterized by confocal microscopy on cells loaded with Fura-3/AM. Results: There was an inverse correlation between Cx43 expression and MC proliferation (P0.05. Our data also showed that the mineralcorticoid receptor (MR antagonist spironolactone, ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 and PKC inhibitor GF109203X could attenuate the down-regulation of Cx43 expression in Aldo-induced MC proliferation; however, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 could block MC proliferation without affecting Cx43 expression at either the mRNA or protein level. In addition, Aldo promoted MC proliferation in parallel with increasing [Ca2+]i (PConclusions: Our study provides preliminary evidence that Cx43 is an important regulator of Aldo-promoted MC proliferation. Furthermore, reduced Cx43 expression promoted MC proliferation independent of the gap junction channel function, and this process might be mediated through the ERK1/2- and PKC-dependent pathways.

  10. Intracellular ion channels and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leanza, Luigi; Biasutto, Lucia; Managò, Antonella; Gulbins, Erich; Zoratti, Mario; Szabò, Ildikò

    2013-09-03

    Several types of channels play a role in the maintenance of ion homeostasis in subcellular organelles including endoplasmatic reticulum, nucleus, lysosome, endosome, and mitochondria. Here we give a brief overview of the contribution of various mitochondrial and other organellar channels to cancer cell proliferation or death. Much attention is focused on channels involved in intracellular calcium signaling and on ion fluxes in the ATP-producing organelle mitochondria. Mitochondrial K(+) channels (Ca(2+)-dependent BKCa and IKCa, ATP-dependent KATP, Kv1.3, two-pore TWIK-related Acid-Sensitive K(+) channel-3 (TASK-3)), Ca(2+) uniporter MCU, Mg(2+)-permeable Mrs2, anion channels (voltage-dependent chloride channel VDAC, intracellular chloride channel CLIC) and the Permeability Transition Pore (MPTP) contribute importantly to the regulation of function in this organelle. Since mitochondria play a central role in apoptosis, modulation of their ion channels by pharmacological means may lead to death of cancer cells. The nuclear potassium channel Kv10.1 and the nuclear chloride channel CLIC4 as well as the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER)-located inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor, the ER-located Ca(2+) depletion sensor STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1), a component of the store-operated Ca(2+) channel and the ER-resident TRPM8 are also mentioned. Furthermore, pharmacological tools affecting organellar channels and modulating cancer cell survival are discussed. The channels described in this review are summarized on Figure 1. Overall, the view is emerging that intracellular ion channels may represent a promising target for cancer treatment.

  11. Intracellular ion channels and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eLeanza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Several types of channels play a role in the maintenance of ion homeostasis in subcellular organelles including endoplasmatic reticulum, nucleus, lysosome, endosome and mitochondria. Here we give a brief overview of the contribution of various mitochondrial and other organellar channels to cancer cell proliferation or death. Much attention is focused on channels involved in intracellular calcium signaling and on ion fluxes in the ATP-producing organelle mitochondria. Mitochondrial K+ channels (Ca2+-dependent BKCa and IKCa, ATP-dependent KATP, Kv1.3, two-pore TWIK-related Acid-Sensitive K+ channel-3 (TASK-3, Ca2+ uniporter MCU, Mg2+-permeable Mrs2, anion channels (voltage-dependent chloride channel VDAC, intracellular chloride channel CLIC and the Permeability Transition Pore (MPTP contribute importantly to the regulation of function in this organelle. Since mitochondria play a central role in apoptosis, modulation of their ion channels by pharmacological means may lead to death of cancer cells. The nuclear potassium channel Kv10.1 and the nuclear chloride channel CLIC4 as well as the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER-located inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 receptor, the ER-located Ca2+ depletion sensor STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1, a component of the store-operated Ca2+ channel and the ER-resident TRPM8 are also mentioned. Furthermore, pharmacological tools affecting organellar channels and modulating cancer cell survival are discussed. The channels described in this review are summarized on Figure 1. Overall, the view is emerging that intracellular ion channels may represent a promising target for cancer treatment.

  12. Computing rates of Markov models of voltage-gated ion channels by inverting partial differential equations governing the probability density functions of the conducting and non-conducting states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveito, Aslak; Lines, Glenn T; Edwards, Andrew G; McCulloch, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Markov models are ubiquitously used to represent the function of single ion channels. However, solving the inverse problem to construct a Markov model of single channel dynamics from bilayer or patch-clamp recordings remains challenging, particularly for channels involving complex gating processes. Methods for solving the inverse problem are generally based on data from voltage clamp measurements. Here, we describe an alternative approach to this problem based on measurements of voltage traces. The voltage traces define probability density functions of the functional states of an ion channel. These probability density functions can also be computed by solving a deterministic system of partial differential equations. The inversion is based on tuning the rates of the Markov models used in the deterministic system of partial differential equations such that the solution mimics the properties of the probability density function gathered from (pseudo) experimental data as well as possible. The optimization is done by defining a cost function to measure the difference between the deterministic solution and the solution based on experimental data. By evoking the properties of this function, it is possible to infer whether the rates of the Markov model are identifiable by our method. We present applications to Markov model well-known from the literature. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Upgrading a marketing channels role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tišma-Borota Ankica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the marketing mix instruments, marketing channels were usually behind other instruments (product, price and promotion. Many companies regarded marketing channels as something that was 'left' after more important strategies of price, product and promotion were created. In recent past, things have changed and marketing channels became more interesting for research. This change came as a result of change in global market functioning especially in competitive advantage, distributors' strength and increasing technology.

  14. Cholesterol binding to ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena eLevitan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies demonstrated that membrane cholesterol is a major regulator of ion channel function. The goal of this review is to discuss significant advances that have been recently achieved in elucidating the mechanisms responsible for cholesterol regulation of ion channels. The first major insight that comes from growing number of studies that based on the sterol specificity of cholesterol effects, show that several types of ion channels (nAChR, Kir, BK, TRPV are regulated by specific sterol-protein interactions. This conclusion is supported by demonstrating direct saturable binding of cholesterol to a bacterial Kir channel. The second major advance in the field is the identification of putative cholesterol binding sites in several types of ion channels. These include sites at locations associated with the well-known cholesterol binding motif CRAC and its reversed form CARC in nAChR, BK, and TRPV, as well as novel cholesterol binding regions in Kir channels. Notably, in the majority of these channels, cholesterol is suggested to interact mainly with hydrophobic residues in non-annular regions of the channels being embedded in between transmembrane protein helices. We also discuss how identification of putative cholesterol binding sites is an essential step to understand the mechanistic basis of cholesterol-induced channel regulation. Clearly, however, these are only the first few steps in obtaining a general understanding of cholesterol-ion channels interactions and their roles in cellular and organ functions.

  15. Therapeutic approaches to ion channel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Diana Conte; Desaphy, Jean-François; Tricarico, Domenico; Pierno, Sabata; Liantonio, Antonella

    2008-01-01

    More than 400 genes are known that encode ion channel subunits. In addition, alternative splicing and heteromeric assembly of different subunits increase tremendously the variety of ion channels. Such many channels are needed to accomplish very complex cellular functions, whereas dysfunction of ion channels are key events in many pathological processes. The recent discovery of ion channelopathies, which, in its more stringent definition, encloses monogenic disorders due to mutations in ion channel genes, has largely contributed to our understanding of the function of the various channel subtypes and of the role of ion channels in multigenic or acquired diseases. Last but not least, ion channels are the main targets of many drugs already used in the clinics. Most of these drugs were introduced in therapy based on the experience acquired quite empirically, and many were discovered afterward to target ion channels. Now, intense research is being conducted to develop new drugs acting selectively on ion channel subtypes and aimed at the understanding of the intimate drug-channel interaction. In this review, we first focus on the pharmacotherapy of ion channel diseases, which includes many drugs targeting ion channels. Then, we describe the molecular pharmacology of ion channels, including the more recent advancement in drug development. Among the newest aspect of ion channel pharmacology, we draw attention to how polymorphisms or mutations in ion channel genes may modify sensitivity to drugs, opening the way toward the development of pharmacogenetics.

  16. Regulation of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel by Nedd4 family interacting proteins (Ndfips).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yudi; Guo, Jun; Yang, Tonghua; Li, Wentao; Zhang, Shetuan

    2015-11-15

    The cardiac electrical disorder long QT syndrome (LQTS) pre-disposes affected individuals to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Dysfunction of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG)-encoded rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+) channel (IKr) is a major cause of LQTS. The expression of hERG channels is controlled by anterograde trafficking of newly synthesized channels to and retrograde degradation of existing channels from the plasma membrane. We have previously shown that the E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase Nedd4-2 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4-2) targets the PY motif of hERG channels to initiate channel degradation. Although both immature and mature hERG channels contain the PY motif, Nedd4-2 selectively mediates the degradation of mature hERG channels. In the present study, we demonstrate that Nedd4-2 is directed to specific cellular compartments by the Nedd4 family interacting proteins, Nedd4 family-interacting protein 1 (Ndfip1) and Ndfip2. Ndfip1 is primarily localized in the Golgi apparatus where it recruits Nedd4-2 to mediate the degradation of mature hERG proteins during channel trafficking to the plasma membrane. Although Ndfip2 directs Nedd4-2 to the Golgi apparatus, it also recruits Nedd4-2 to the multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which may impair MVB function and impede the degradation of mature hERG proteins mediated by Nedd4-2. These findings extend our understanding of hERG channel regulation and provide information which may be useful for the rescue of impaired hERG function in LQTS. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  17. Does calcium channel blockade and beta-adrenergic blockade affect platelet function and fibrinolysis to a varying degree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup; Mehlsen, J; Winther, K

    1995-01-01

    The effects of isradipine and atenolol on platelet function and fibrinolytic activity were studied in 10 male patients with mild untreated hypertension. After a 2-week placebo run-in period, the volunteers were randomized to either isradipine 2.5 mg twice daily or atenolol 100 mg daily for a 6...... as the fast-acting inhibitor against tissue plasminogen activator usually termed PAI-1. During atenolol and isradipine therapy, blood pressure (BP) was equally reduced (p Heart rate (HR) decreased during atenolol treatment but was not changed by isradipine. Platelet activity in vivo estimated as B...

  18. Raman Channel Temperature Measurement of SiC MESFET as a Function of Ambient Temperature and DC Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Eldridge, Jeffrey J.; Krainsky, Isay L.

    2009-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is used to measure the junction temperature of a Cree SiC MESFET as a function of the ambient temperature and DC power. The carrier temperature, which is approximately equal to the ambient temperature, is varied from 25 C to 450 C, and the transistor is biased with VDS=10V and IDS of 50 mA and 100 mA. It is shown that the junction temperature is approximately 52 and 100 C higher than the ambient temperature for the DC power of 500 and 1000 mW, respectively.

  19. Targeting sodium channels in cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for proper electrical conduction in the heart. During acquired pathological conditions and inherited sodium channelopathies, altered sodium channel function causes conduction disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias. Although the clinical,

  20. Learning in Tactile Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gescheider, George A.; Wright, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrotactile intensity-discrimination thresholds for sinusoidal stimuli applied to the thenar eminence of the hand declined as a function of practice. However, improvement was confined to the tactile information-processing channel in which learning had occurred. Specifically, improvements in performance with training within the Pacinian-corpuscle…

  1. Expression and functional role of Nav1.9 sodium channel in cartwheel cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhiyu; Xu, Yanjun; Liang, Min; Ren, Xiaowei

    2015-03-01

    In the central auditory system, cartwheel cells (CWCs) are a group of interneurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). While other DCN neurons respond to stimuli with a simple discharge pattern of single action potentials (SAPs), CWCs respond with complex action potentials (CAPs), consisting of SAPs superimposed on a slow depolarization. The CAPs in CWCs may participate in various auditory or non‑auditory signaling processing but its intrinsic mechanisms are largely unknown. In the present study, in vitro whole‑cell current clamp recordings on neonatal mice brain slices were used to demonstrate that CWCs respond to brief voltage stimulation with CAPs. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were also utilized to demonstrate that Nav1.9 was expressed in the CWCs. Finally, when Nav1.9 was genetically silenced, CWCs responded to voltage stimulation with SAPs, not CAPs. The results strongly suggested that Nav1.9 was expressed and functionally contributed to the signaling processing in the central auditory pathway.

  2. The scorpion toxin Amm VIII induces pain hypersensitivity through gain-of-function of TTX-sensitive Na⁺ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Najwa; Gaudioso-Tyzra, Christelle; Bonnet, Caroline; Gabriac, Mélanie; Amsalem, Muriel; Lonigro, Aurélie; Padilla, Françoise; Crest, Marcel; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Delmas, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) are the targets of a variety of scorpion toxins. Here, we investigated the effects of Amm VIII, a toxin isolated from the venom of the scorpion Androctonus mauretanicus mauretanicus, on pain-related behaviours in mice. The effects of Amm VIII were compared with the classic scorpion α-toxin AaH II from Androctonus australis. Contrary to AaH II, intraplantar injection of Amm VIII at relatively high concentrations caused little nocifensive behaviours. However, Amm VIII induced rapid mechanical and thermal pain hypersensitivities. We evaluated the toxins' effects on Nav currents in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and immortalized DRG neuron-derived F11 cells. Amm VIII and AaH II enhanced tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) Nav currents in DRG and F11 cells. Both toxins impaired fast inactivation and negatively shifted activation. AaH II was more potent than Amm VIII at modulating TTX-S Nav currents with EC50 of 5 nM and 1 μM, respectively. AaH II and Amm VIII also impaired fast inactivation of Nav1.7, with EC50 of 6.8 nM and 1.76 μM, respectively. Neither Nav1.8 nor Nav1.9 was affected by the toxins. AaH II and Amm VIII reduced first spike latency and lowered action potential threshold. Amm VIII was less efficient than AaH II in increasing the gain of the firing frequency-stimulation relationship. In conclusion, our data show that Amm VIII, although less potent than AaH II, acts as a gating-modifier peptide reminiscent of classic α-toxins, and suggest that its hyperalgesic effects can be ascribed to gain-of-function of TTX-S Na(+) channels in nociceptors. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional extension of amino acid triads from the fourth transmembrane segment (S4) into its external linker in Shaker K(+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Chin; Lin, Shin; Chang, Po-Chun; Lin, Hsiao-Chun; Kuo, Chung-Chin

    2011-10-28

    The highly conserved fourth transmembrane segment (S4) is the primary voltage sensor of the voltage-dependent channel and would move outward upon membrane depolarization. S4 comprises repetitive amino acid triads, each containing one basic (presumably charged and voltage-sensing) followed by two hydrophobic residues. We showed that the triad organization is functionally extended into the S3-4 linker right external to S4 in Shaker K(+) channels. The arginine (and lysine) substitutes for the third and the sixth residues (Ala-359 and Met-356, respectively) external to the outmost basic residue (Arg-362) in S4 dramatically and additively stabilize S4 in the resting conformation. Also, Leu-361 and Leu-358 play a very similar role in stabilization of S4 in the resting position, presumably by their hydrophobic side chains. Moreover, the double mutation A359R/E283A leads to a partially extruded position of S4 and consequently prominent closed-state inactivation, suggesting that Glu-283 in S2 may coordinate with the arginines in the extruded S4 upon depolarization. We conclude that the triad organization extends into the S3-4 linker for about six amino acids in terms of their microenvironment. These approximately six residues should retain the same helical structure as S4, and their microenvironment serves as part of the "gating canal" accommodating the extruding S4. Upon depolarization, S4 most likely moves initially as a sliding helix and follows the path that is set by the approximately six residues in the S3-4 linker in the resting state, whereas further S4 translocation could be more like, for example, a paddle, without orderly coordination from the contiguous surroundings.

  4. Functional roles of TRPV1 channels in lower urinary tract irritated by acetic acid: in vivo evaluations of the sex difference in decerebrate unanesthetized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiyama, Mitsuharu; Araki, Isao; Kobayashi, Hideki; Zakoji, Hidenori; Takeda, Masayuki

    2010-06-01

    Sex-specific differences in activity of the lower urinary tract (LUT) responding to acid irritation in mice have been revealed. This study, using continuous infusion cystometry with acetic acid (AA; pH 3.0), was conducted to examine whether the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels expressed in the mouse LUT are involved in the sex difference in functional responses of the bladder and urethra to irritation. No differences were found between effects of capsazepine (a TRPV1 blocker; 100 microM) and those of its vehicle on any of the cystometric changes by intravesical AA in either female or male mice. However, capsazepine eliminated the acid-induced sex differences in parameters associated with bladder contraction phase (i.e., maximal voiding pressure, closing peak pressure, 2nd-phase contraction, bladder contraction duration), whereas capsazepine did not affect those in parameters associated with bladder-filling period (i.e., intercontraction interval, actual collecting time). In males, capsazepine reduced the number of bladder contractions accompanying fluid dribbling at 2nd-phase contraction, which is indicative of the urethral response to irritation, whereas in females it increased the number. Together, these results suggest the possibilities that TRPV1 channels in the bladder and urethra are involved in the sex difference in the LUT response to acid irritation and that these participate, e.g., via "cross talk" between the bladder and urethra, in the fine-tuning of intravesical pressure (or bladder emptying) at the bladder contraction phase under irritated LUT conditions but not in sensing for bladder filling during the storage period, although the contribution of the mechanism may be small.

  5. Critical Importance of Protein 4.1 in Centrosome and Mitotic Spindle Aberrations in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krauss, Sharon W

    2006-01-01

    We proposed to test the novel hypothesis that protein 4.1 is of critical importance to centrosome and mitotic spindle aberrations that directly impact aspects of breast cancer pathogenesis. We characterized...

  6. Binding properties of HABA-type azo derivatives to avidin and avidin-related protein 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo, Susanna; Paldanius, Tiina A; Hytönen, Vesa P; Nyholm, Thomas K M; Halling, Katrin K; Huuskonen, Juhani; Pentikäinen, Olli T; Rissanen, Kari; Slotte, J Peter; Airenne, Tomi T; Salminen, Tiina A; Kulomaa, Markku S; Johnson, Mark S

    2006-10-01

    The chicken genome encodes several biotin-binding proteins, including avidin and avidin-related protein 4 (AVR4). In addition to D-biotin, avidin binds an azo dye compound, 4-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid (HABA), but the HABA-binding properties of AVR4 are not yet known. Differential scanning calorimetry, UV/visible spectroscopy, and molecular modeling were used to analyze the binding of 15 azo molecules to avidin and AVR4. Significant differences are seen in azo compound preferences for the two proteins, emphasizing the importance of the loop between strands beta3 and beta4 for azo ligand recognition; information on these loops is provided by the high-resolution (1.5 A) X-ray structure for avidin reported here. These results may be valuable in designing improved tools for avidin-based life science and nanobiotechnology applications.

  7. The gene for human erythrocyte protein 4. 2 maps to chromosome 15q15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najfeld, V. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States)); Ballard, S.G.; Menninger, J.; Ward, D.C. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)); Bouhassira, E.E.; Schwartz, R.S.; Nagel, R.L.; Rybicki, A.C. (Albert Einstein Coll. of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Protein 4.2 (P4.2), one of the major components of the red-blood-cell membrane, is located on the interior surface, where it binds with high affinity to the cytoplasmic domain of band 3. Individuals whose red blood cells are deficient in P4.2 have osmotically fragile, abnormally shaped cells and moderate hemolytic anemia. cDNA clones from both the 5{prime} and the 3{prime} coding regions of the P4.2 gene were used to map its chromosomal location by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The probes, individually or in combination, gave specific hybridization signals on chromosome 15. The hybridization locus was identified by combining fluorescence images of the probe signals with fluorescence banding patterns generated by Alu-PCR (R-like) probe and by DAPI staining (G-like). The authors results demonstrate that the locus of the P4.2 gene is located within 15q15.

  8. Localization of Microfibrillar-Associated Protein 4 (MFAP4) in Human Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Johansson, Helle; Lock Johansson, Sofie; Schlosser, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is located in the extracellular matrix (ECM). We sought to identify tissues with high levels of MFAP4 mRNA and MFAP4 protein expression. Moreover, we aimed to evaluate the significance of MFAP4 as a marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to correlate...... myocardial infarction (STEMI), 2: patients with non-STEMI, 3: patients destined for vascular surgery because of various atherosclerotic diseases (stable atherosclerotic disease), 4: apparently healthy individuals with documented coronary artery calcification (CAC-positive), and 5: apparently healthy...... individuals without signs of coronary artery calcification (CAC-negative). Serum MFAP4 levels were significantly lower in patients with stable atherosclerotic disease than CAC-negative individuals (p...

  9. FMCG companies specific distribution channels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ioana Barin

    2009-01-01

    ... existing distribution channels and logistics system. One of the essential functions of a distribution is performing acts of sale, through which, with the actual movement of goods, their change of ownership takes place, that the successive transfer of ownership from producer to consumer. This is an itinerary in the economic cycle of goods, called the distribution channel.

  10. The Orange Juice Distribution Channels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is to provide a general overview about the agents in the European marketing channels of the FCOJ, focusing on the final juice consumers, retailing, food service and the beverage industry. The framework for this part is build up of the marketing channel concepts and functions (Stern et al., 1996; Berman,. 1996; Rosembloom ...

  11. L-type Calcium Channel Blockers Enhance Trafficking and Function of Epilepsy-associated α1(D219N) Subunits of GABA(A) Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-Yun; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Wang, Ya-Juan; Hatzoglou, Maria; Mu, Ting-Wei

    2015-09-18

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors are the primary inhibitory ion channels in the mammalian central nervous system and play an essential role in regulating inhibition-excitation balance in neural circuits. The α1 subunit harboring the D219N mutation of GABAA receptors was reported to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and traffic inefficiently to the plasma membrane, leading to a loss of function of α1(D219N) subunits and thus idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). We present the use of small molecule proteostasis regulators to enhance the forward trafficking of α1(D219N) subunits to restore their function. We showed that treatment with verapamil (4 μM, 24 h), an L-type calcium channel blocker, substantially increases the α1(D219N) subunit cell surface level in both HEK293 cells and neuronal SH-SY5Y cells and remarkably restores the GABA-induced maximal chloride current in HEK293 cells expressing α1(D219N)β2γ2 receptors to a level that is comparable to wild type receptors. Our drug mechanism study revealed that verapamil treatment promotes the ER to Golgi trafficking of the α1(D219N) subunits post-translationally. To achieve that, verapamil treatment enhances the interaction between the α1(D219N) subunit and β2 subunit and prevents the aggregation of the mutant protein by shifting the protein from the detergent-insoluble fractions to detergent-soluble fractions. By combining (35)S pulse-chase labeling and MG-132 inhibition experiments, we demonstrated that verapamil treatment does not inhibit the ER-associated degradation of the α1(D219N) subunit. In addition, its effect does not involve a dynamin-1 dependent endocytosis. To gain further mechanistic insight, we showed that verapamil increases the interaction between the mutant protein and calnexin and calreticulin, two major lectin chaperones in the ER. Moreover, calnexin binding promotes the forward trafficking of the mutant subunit. Taken together, our data indicate that

  12. Electrophysiological findings in patients with low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 4 positive myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, A V; Bojic, S D; Rakocevic Stojanovic, V M; Basta, I Z; Lavrnic, D V

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to determine the electrophysiological profile of our cohort of low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 4 (LRP4) positive myasthenia gravis (MG) patients. A repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) test and jitter analysis using a concentric needle electrode were performed in 17 LRP4 positive MG patients. The results were compared to 31 muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) positive and 28 acetylcholine receptor (AChR) positive MG patients. The RNS test was negative in almost all patients belonging to the LRP4/seronegative and LRP4/MuSK groups. It was positive most frequently in the AChR MG patients, especially those without anti-LRP4 antibodies. The presence of anti-LRP4 antibodies was connected to lower decrement values, whilst the independent presence of anti-AChR or anti-MuSK antibodies was connected to higher decrement values. Lowest jitter was recorded in patients with LRP4/seronegative MG. The highest percentage of pathological jitter analysis test results was present in MuSK and AChR MG patients. The isolate presence of anti-LRP4 antibodies did not influence the mean consecutive difference values, whilst mean consecutive difference values were higher in the presence of anti-AChR or anti-MuSK antibodies. Low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 4 positive patients make a distinct MG subgroup with rarely detected pathological electrophysiological test results. The lack of influence of anti-LRP4 antibodies on the different electrophysiological parameters brings into question the pathogenic role of anti-LRP4 antibodies in MG. © 2016 EAN.

  13. Prognostic value of human epididymis protein 4 in endometrial cancer and its utility for surgical staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minar, Lubos; Klabenesova, Ivanka; Jandakova, Eva; Zlamal, Filip; Bienertova-Vasku, Julie

    2015-10-01

    An optimal surgical staging in the group of patients with the high-risk type of endometrial cancer is often limited by age and serious internal comorbidities. Therefore, in this study we focused on human epididymis protein 4 and its contribution to the preoperative differentiation of prognostically distinct groups of patients and to individualized surgical treatment as compared with cancer antigen (CA) 125 and imaging methods. The study included 115 patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma diagnosed through endometrial biopsy. Before the final operation, blood sampling was performed for the determination of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and CA125 levels. Serum levels of both biomarkers were analyzed in relation to individual prognostic factors (stage of disease, depth of myometrial invasion, tumor grade, risk type of disease). In the case of HE4, we demonstrated a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) between patients with low and high risk of the disease. In our model, achieving the maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity, HE4 shows a sensitivity of 72.4% and a specificity of 75.4% for the cut-off 76.5 pmol/L and is a better predictor in distinguishing the high-risk patients than CA125 (area under the curve 0.77 for HE vs 0.71 for CA125). HE4 is a marker that could complement the findings of imaging techniques and that may be useful in decision-making on how to individualize surgical staging. The possibility of its introduction as an independent marker in routine practice remains, at the moment however, limited. The optimal cut-off for HE4 has not been established yet and further studies are needed. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Head group-functionalized poly(ethyleneglycol)-lipid (PEG-lipid) surface modification for highly selective analyte extractions on capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadock-Hewitt, Abby J; Pittman, Jennifer J; Christensen, Kenneth A; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2014-05-07

    Polypropylene (PP) capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers were modified by adsorption of a head group-functionalized lipid to generate analyte-specific surfaces for application as a stationary phase in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or solid phase extraction (SPE). The aliphatic moiety of the lipid adsorbs strongly to the hydrophobic PP surface, with the hydrophilic active head groups orienting themselves toward the more polar mobile phase, thus allowing for interactions with the desired solutes. Initial proof-of-concept was achieved by adsorbing a biotin-poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized lipid to the surface of the PP C-CP fibers. Surface modification and uniformity was evaluated by binding streptavidin labeled with Texas Red (SAv-TR) to the biotin moiety. Isolation of SAv-TR from a mixture in neat buffer and in cleared lysate demonstrated the capability of the modified fibers to extract an analyte of interest from a complex viscous mixture. It is believed that this surface modification approach is generally applicable to a diversity of selective protein immobilization applications, including clinical diagnostics and preparative scale HPLC on C-CP fibers as well as to other hydrophobic supports.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Capture by a Metal-Organic Framework with Nitrogen-Rich Channels Based on Rationally Designed Triazole-Functionalized Tetraacid Organic Linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Saona; Savitha, Govardhan; Moorthy, Jarugu Narasimha

    2015-07-20

    A semirigid tetraacid linker H4L functionalized with 1,2,3-triazole was rationally designed and synthesized to access nitrogen-rich MOFs for selective adsorption of CO2. The cadmium MOF, that is, Cd-L, obtained by the reaction of H4L with Cd(NO3)2, is found to be a 3D porous framework structure that is robust to desolvation. Crystal structure analysis reveals channels that are decorated by the triazole moieties of L. Gas adsorption studies show that Cd-L MOF permits remarkable CO2 uptake to the extent of 99 and 1000 cc/g at 1 and 30 bar, respectively, at 0 °C. While literature survey reveals that MIL-112, constructed from a 1,2,3-triazole functionalized linker, exhibits no porosity to gas adsorption due to structural flexibility, the results with Cd-L MOF described herein emphasize how rigidification of the organic linker improves gas uptake properties of the resultant MOF.

  16. Marketing channels and competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2005-01-01

    Issue that can already be seen and will be very clear in the future is that the central problem in the market of tube caps will not be the product or the price or promotion, but marketing channels. Therefore, the competitive advantage will most probably be built on marketing channels and not the production - as it has been so far, so, the questions of choice functioning and modification of marketing channels, as well as selection of the most appropriate members of channels will become more an...

  17. Expression of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in rats with cirrhosis: correlationship with sympathetic activity and renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Martins Monte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a direct analysis ofKATP mRNA expression by RT-PCR in kidney and isolated aorta fromrats with cirrhosis (induced by carbon tetrachloride and controls.The present study also analyses the relation between induced cirrhosisand urinary excretion of sodium and sympathetic activity in cirrhoticrats. Methods: Rats were placed in metabolic cages and allowedfree access to food and water. Cirrhosis was induced by repeateddoses of carbon tetrachloride by gastric gavage. After some weeks,the kidney and aorta were dissected and utilized for RNA extraction.Blood and urine were analyzed for electrolytes. Renal function wasestimated by creatinine clearance and sodium urinary excretion.Serum catecholamines were measured by HPLC analysis. Results:First, RT-PCR analysis showed that KATP mRNA is expressed in liverwith cirrhosis and intense fibrosis, but not with moderate fibrosis.Second, RT-PCR analysis revealed that KATP mRNA was detectedonly in aorta dissected from rats with cirrhosis. Finally, an enhancedreabsorption of sodium without renal failure suggests a potentialmediator would increase the activity of the sympathetic system.Conclusion: These results suggest that KATP mRNA is expressed incirrhotic rats with sympathetic activation and renal dysfunction. Thischannel might be involved in another route where the vascular tonecan be modulated in cirrhosis.

  18. Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 4 is associated with breast cancer metastasis through Src-mediated Akt tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Huang, F; Fan, L; Jiang, Y; Wang, X; Li, J; Wang, Q; Pan, H; Sun, J; Cao, X; Wang, X

    2014-09-11

    Metastasis is responsible for more than 90% of the mortality observed among patients with breast cancer. Human phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 4 (hPEBP4) is a novel member of the PEBP family and functions as an anti-apoptotic molecule. Here, we found that the metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells expressed much higher levels of hPEBP4 than the nonmetastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cells and that the expression levels of hPEBP4 were positively correlated with the metastasis of clinical breast cancer. The hPEBP4 overexpression in the MDA-MB-231 cells significantly promoted cell invasion in vitro and increased the development of lymph node metastasis in vivo. Conversely, the silencing of hPEBP4 suppressed the cell-invasive ability both in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation showed that hPEBP4 promoted the expression or activity of the metastasis-related proteinases MMP (matrix metalloproteinase) 2, MMP9 and MMP13. This hPEBP4-potentiated cell invasion and MMP expression is due to an increase in Akt activation. Knockdown of Akt restored hPEBP4-induced breast tumor metastasis in the hPEBP4-MDA-MB-231 xenograft mouse model. Moreover, we found that hPEBP4 functioned as a scaffolding molecule and enhanced the association of Akt with Src to promote Akt tyrosine phosphorylation, a prerequisite for the full activation of Akt, in a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding domain-dependent manner. Given the present information about human breast cancer, these functional data from cell culture and animal studies suggest that, in human breast cancer hPEBP4 is a novel and clinically relevant metastasis accelerator gene and may be a new diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for breast cancer metastasis.

  19. High glucose induces N-linked glycosylation-mediated functional upregulation and overexpression of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels in neuroendocrine-like differentiated human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Kazuki; Asano, Erina; Ueda, Mai; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Yoshida, Shigeru; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2017-01-01

    Given that Cav3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels were functionally regulated by asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation, we examined effects of high glucose on the function of Cav3.2, known to regulate secretory function, in neuroendocrine-like differentiated prostate cancer LNCaP cells. High glucose accelerated the increased channel function and overexpression of Cav3.2 during neuroendocrine differentiation, the former prevented by enzymatic inhibition of N-glycosylation and cleavage of N-glycans. Hyperglycemia thus appears to induce N-linked glycosylation-mediated functional upregulation and overexpression of Cav3.2 in neuroendocrine-like differentiated prostate cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High glucose induces N-linked glycosylation-mediated functional upregulation and overexpression of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels in neuroendocrine-like differentiated human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Fukami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels were functionally regulated by asparagine (N-linked glycosylation, we examined effects of high glucose on the function of Cav3.2, known to regulate secretory function, in neuroendocrine-like differentiated prostate cancer LNCaP cells. High glucose accelerated the increased channel function and overexpression of Cav3.2 during neuroendocrine differentiation, the former prevented by enzymatic inhibition of N-glycosylation and cleavage of N-glycans. Hyperglycemia thus appears to induce N-linked glycosylation-mediated functional upregulation and overexpression of Cav3.2 in neuroendocrine-like differentiated prostate cancer cells.