WorldWideScience

Sample records for channel chain lengths

  1. Diffusional behavior of n-paraffins with various chain lengths in urea adduct channels by pulsed field-gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sunmi; Kuroki, Shigeki; Ando, Isao

    2006-01-01

    The diffusion coefficients (D) of n-paraffin molecules (n-C n H 2n+2 ) with various chain-lengths (n = 8, 12, 21, 26, 28 and 32) in the long channels of a deuterated urea-d 4 adduct have been measured at 25 deg. C by means of pulsed field-gradient spin-echo 1 H NMR method. The aim is to clarify diffusional behavior of the n-paraffin molecules in the urea adduct channels. From the experimental results, it is found that n-paraffin molecules are diffusing in the long channels and have two kinds of diffusion components, namely a fast (D ∼ 10 -10 m 2 /s) and a slow diffusion component (D ∼ 10 -11 m 2 /s). The diffusing-time (Δ) dependence of the diffusion coefficients of the n-paraffins shows some likely evidence of restricted diffusion since the n-paraffin molecules are confined in the urea channel. The diffusion coefficients (D) decrease as the carbon number increases from 8 to 28, and very slowly decreases as the carbon number increases from 28 to 32

  2. Spin chain model for correlated quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, Davide [International School for Advanced Studies SISSA/ISAS, via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Giovannetti, Vittorio; Montangero, Simone [NEST-CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: monta@sns.it

    2008-11-15

    We analyze the quality of the quantum information transmission along a correlated quantum channel by studying the average fidelity between input and output states and the average output purity, giving bounds for the entropy of the channel. Noise correlations in the channel are modeled by the coupling of each channel use with an element of a one-dimensional interacting quantum spin chain. Criticality of the environment chain is seen to emerge in the changes of the fidelity and of the purity.

  3. Neutron chain length distributions in subcritical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, S.D.; Spriggs, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the results of the chain-length distribution as a function of k in subcritical systems. These results were obtained from a point Monte Carlo code and a three-dimensional Monte Carlo code, MC++. Based on these results, they then attempt to explain why several of the common neutron noise techniques, such as the Rossi-α and Feynman's variance-to-mean techniques, are difficult to perform in highly subcritical systems using low-efficiency detectors

  4. Finite fission chain length and symmetry around prompt-criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Qilin; Yin Yanpeng; Gao Hui; Huang Po; Fang Xiaoqiang

    2012-01-01

    Probability distribution of finite fission chain length was derived by assuming that all neutrons behave identically. Finite fission chain length was also calculated using a zero-dimension Monte-Carlo method based on point kinetics. Then symmetry of finite fission chain length probability distribution around prompt-criticality was deduced, which helps understanding the emission rate of delayed neutrons and initiation of fission chain in super-prompt-critical system. (authors)

  5. The Distribution of Lightning Channel Lengths in Northern Alabama Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, H. S.; Koshak, W. J.

    2010-01-01

    Lightning is well known to be a major source of tropospheric NOx, and in most cases is the dominant natural source (Huntreiser et al 1998, Jourdain and Hauglustaine 2001). Production of NOx by a segment of a lightning channel is a function of channel segment energy density and channel segment altitude. A first estimate of NOx production by a lightning flash can be found by multiplying production per segment [typically 104 J/m; Hill (1979)] by the total length of the flash s channel. The purpose of this study is to determine average channel length for lightning flashes near NALMA in 2008, and to compare average channel length of ground flashes to the average channel length of cloud flashes.

  6. Joint source-channel coding using variable length codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakirsky, V.B.

    2001-01-01

    We address the problem of joint source-channel coding when variable-length codes are used for information transmission over a discrete memoryless channel. Data transmitted over the channel are interpreted as pairs (m k ,t k ), where m k is a message generated by the source and t k is a time instant

  7. Study on effective MOSFET channel length extracted from gate capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Katsuhiro; Terada, Kazuo; Fujisaka, Hisato

    2018-01-01

    The effective channel length (L GCM) of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is extracted from the gate capacitances of actual-size MOSFETs, which are measured by charge-injection-induced-error-free charge-based capacitance measurement (CIEF CBCM). To accurately evaluate the capacitances between the gate and the channel of test MOSFETs, the parasitic capacitances are removed by using test MOSFETs having various channel sizes and a source/drain reference device. A strong linear relationship between the gate-channel capacitance and the design channel length is obtained, from which L GCM is extracted. It is found that L GCM is slightly less than the effective channel length (L CRM) extracted from the measured MOSFET drain current. The reason for this is discussed, and it is found that the capacitance between the gate electrode and the source and drain regions affects this extraction.

  8. Constraints on food chain length arising from regional metacommunity dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Vincent; Massol, François; Mouquet, Nicolas; Jarne, Philippe; David, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Classical ecological theory has proposed several determinants of food chain length, but the role of metacommunity dynamics has not yet been fully considered. By modelling patchy predator–prey metacommunities with extinction–colonization dynamics, we identify two distinct constraints on food chain length. First, finite colonization rates limit predator occupancy to a subset of prey-occupied sites. Second, intrinsic extinction rates accumulate along trophic chains. We show how both processes concur to decrease maximal and average food chain length in metacommunities. This decrease is mitigated if predators track their prey during colonization (habitat selection) and can be reinforced by top-down control of prey vital rates (especially extinction). Moreover, top-down control of colonization and habitat selection can interact to produce a counterintuitive positive relationship between perturbation rate and food chain length. Our results show how novel limits to food chain length emerge in spatially structured communities. We discuss the connections between these constraints and the ones commonly discussed, and suggest ways to test for metacommunity effects in food webs. PMID:21367786

  9. Effect of Amphiphilic Alkyl Chain Length Upon Purified LATEX Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amira Amir Hassan; Amir Hashim Mohd Yatim

    2015-01-01

    Rubber particles in purified latex (PL) are stabilized by a film of protein and fatty acid soap (surfactant). Saturated straight-chain fatty acid soaps can assist an enhancement of latex stability. However, whether the alkyl chain length plays an important role in increasing the stability is still an issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of alkyl chain length of anionic surfactant on the stability of purified latex. The fatty acid soap of decanoate (9), laurate (11), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) (12) and palmitate (15) were used. The numbers in parentheses indicating the number of carbon present in alkyl chain of the soap. The results showed that the impact of alkyl chain length on the stability of latex is in the order of laurate > decanoate > SDS > palmitate > purified latex accordingly. The alkyl chain length does giving a significant effect on latex stability after longer stirring time. The particle size of latex with the presence of surfactant is greater compare to a single particle itself due to extension of particles diameter. Thus suitable interaction of the nonpolar tail of surfactant with the hydrophobic regions of latex surface played a major role in maintaining a stable latex system. (author)

  10. Unsupervised Idealization of Ion Channel Recordings by Minimum Description Length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanasambandam, Radhakrishnan; Nielsen, Morten S; Nicolai, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    and characterize an idealization algorithm based on Rissanen's Minimum Description Length (MDL) Principle. This method uses minimal assumptions and idealizes ion channel recordings without requiring a detailed user input or a priori assumptions about channel conductance and kinetics. Furthermore, we demonstrate...... that correlation analysis of conductance steps can resolve properties of single ion channels in recordings contaminated by signals from multiple channels. We first validated our methods on simulated data defined with a range of different signal-to-noise levels, and then showed that our algorithm can recover...... channel currents and their substates from recordings with multiple channels, even under conditions of high noise. We then tested the MDL algorithm on real experimental data from human PIEZO1 channels and found that our method revealed the presence of substates with alternate conductances....

  11. Knotting dynamics of DNA chains of different length confined in nanochannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suma, Antonio; Micheletti, Cristian; Orlandini, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    Langevin dynamics simulations are used to characterize the typical mechanisms governing the spontaneous tying, untying and the dynamical evolution of knots in coarse-grained models of DNA chains confined in nanochannels. In particular we focus on how these mechanisms depend on the chain contour length, L c , at a fixed channel width D = 56 nm corresponding to the onset of the Odijk scaling regime where chain backfoldings and hence knots are disfavoured but not suppressed altogether. We find that the lifetime of knots grows significantly with L c , while that of unknots varies to a lesser extent. The underlying kinetic mechanisms are clarified by analysing the evolution of the knot position along the chain. At the considered confinement, in fact, knots are typically tied by local backfoldings of the chain termini where they are eventually untied after a stochastic motion along the chain. Consequently, the lifetime of unknots is mostly controlled by backfoldings events at the chain ends, which is largely independent of L c . The lifetime of knots, instead, increases significantly with L c because knots can, on average, travel farther along the chain before being untied. The observed interplay of knots and unknots lifetimes underpins the growth of the equilibrium knotting probability of longer and longer chains at fixed channel confinement. (paper)

  12. The Chain-Length Distribution in Subcritical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, Steven Douglas

    2000-01-01

    The individual fission chains that appear in any neutron multiplying system provide a means, via neutron noise analysis, to unlock a wealth of information regarding the nature of the system. This work begins by determining the probability density distributions for fission chain lengths in zero-dimensional systems over a range of prompt neutron multiplication constant (K) values. This section is followed by showing how the integral representation of the chain-length distribution can be used to obtain an estimate of the system's subcritical prompt multiplication (MP). The lifetime of the chains is then used to provide a basis for determining whether a neutron noise analysis will be successful in assessing the neutron multiplication constant, k, of the system in the presence of a strong intrinsic source. A Monte Carlo transport code, MC++, is used to model the evolution of the individual fission chains and to determine how they are influenced by spatial effects. The dissertation concludes by demonstrating how experimental validation of certain global system parameters by neutron noise analysis may be precluded in situations in which the system K is relatively low and in which realistic detector efficiencies are simulated

  13. The Chain-Length Distribution in Subcritical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen, Steven Douglas [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The individual fission chains that appear in any neutron multiplying system provide a means, via neutron noise analysis, to unlock a wealth of information regarding the nature of the system. This work begins by determining the probability density distributions for fission chain lengths in zero-dimensional systems over a range of prompt neutron multiplication constant (K) values. This section is followed by showing how the integral representation of the chain-length distribution can be used to obtain an estimate of the system's subcritical prompt multiplication (MP). The lifetime of the chains is then used to provide a basis for determining whether a neutron noise analysis will be successful in assessing the neutron multiplication constant, k, of the system in the presence of a strong intrinsic source. A Monte Carlo transport code, MC++, is used to model the evolution of the individual fission chains and to determine how they are influenced by spatial effects. The dissertation concludes by demonstrating how experimental validation of certain global system parameters by neutron noise analysis may be precluded in situations in which the system K is relatively low and in which realistic detector efficiencies are simulated.

  14. Ultrashort Channel Length Black Phosphorus Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jinshui; Zhang, Suoming; Cai, Le; Scherr, Martin; Wang, Chuan

    2015-09-22

    This paper reports high-performance top-gated black phosphorus (BP) field-effect transistors with channel lengths down to 20 nm fabricated using a facile angle evaporation process. By controlling the evaporation angle, the channel length of the transistors can be reproducibly controlled to be anywhere between 20 and 70 nm. The as-fabricated 20 nm top-gated BP transistors exhibit respectable on-state current (174 μA/μm) and transconductance (70 μS/μm) at a VDS of 0.1 V. Due to the use of two-dimensional BP as the channel material, the transistors exhibit relatively small short channel effects, preserving a decent on-off current ratio of 10(2) even at an extremely small channel length of 20 nm. Additionally, unlike the unencapsulated BP devices, which are known to be chemically unstable in ambient conditions, the top-gated BP transistors passivated by the Al2O3 gate dielectric layer remain stable without noticeable degradation in device performance after being stored in ambient conditions for more than 1 week. This work demonstrates the great promise of atomically thin BP for applications in ultimately scaled transistors.

  15. Stochastic Simulation of a Full-Chain Reptation Model with Constraint Release, Chain-Length Fluctuations and Chain Stretching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Schieber, Jay D.

    1999-01-01

    A self-consistent reptation model that includes chain stretching, chain-length fluctuations, segment connectivity and constraint release is used to predict transient and steady flows. Quantitative comparisons are made with entangledsolution data. The model is able to capture quantitatively all...

  16. Expected value of finite fission chain lengths of pulse reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianjun; Zhou Zhigao; Zhang Ben'ai

    2007-01-01

    The average neutron population necessary for sponsoring a persistent fission chain in a multiplying system, is discussed. In the point reactor model, the probability function θ(n, t 0 , t) of a source neutron at time t 0 leading to n neutrons at time t is dealt with. The non-linear partial differential equation for the probability generating function G(z; t 0 , t) is derived. By solving the equation, we have obtained an approximate analytic solution for a slightly prompt supercritical system. For the pulse reactor Godiva-II, the mean value of finite fission chain lengths is estimated in this work and shows that the estimated value is reasonable for the experimental analysis. (authors)

  17. Coordination of Advertising Free Riding in Hybrid Channel Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a crucial tool for demand creation and market expansion; enterprises in supply chain use it widely to increase sales and improve profits. But the homogeneity of products sold in hybrid channel supply chain magnifies the positive externalities of advertising and leads to serious free-riding problem. To coordinate the supply chain effectively, firstly, this paper classifies hybrid channel supply chain based on the relationship between members and selects horizontally integrated, vertically integrated, and decentralized hybrid channel supply chains as research objects. Then, a demand function considering the common effect of price and advertising is proposed and coordination schemes for different types of supply chains are designed. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the impact of parameters on coordination using orthogonal experiment.

  18. Glycogen with short average chain length enhances bacterial durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Wise, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    Glycogen is conventionally viewed as an energy reserve that can be rapidly mobilized for ATP production in higher organisms. However, several studies have noted that glycogen with short average chain length in some bacteria is degraded very slowly. In addition, slow utilization of glycogen is correlated with bacterial viability, that is, the slower the glycogen breakdown rate, the longer the bacterial survival time in the external environment under starvation conditions. We call that a durable energy storage mechanism (DESM). In this review, evidence from microbiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology will be assembled to support the hypothesis of glycogen as a durable energy storage compound. One method for testing the DESM hypothesis is proposed.

  19. Channel characteristics and coordination in three-echelon dual-channel supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subrata

    2016-02-01

    We explore the impact of channel structure on the manufacturer, the distributer, the retailer and the entire supply chain by considering three different channel structures in radiance of with and without coordination. These structures include a traditional retail channel and two manufacturer direct channels with and without consistent pricing. By comparing the performance of the manufacturer, the distributer and the retailer, and the entire supply chain in three different supply chain structures, it is established analytically that, under some conditions, a dual channel can outperform a single retail channel; as a consequence, a coordination mechanism is developed that not only coordinates the dual channel but also outperforms the non-cooperative single retail channel. All the analytical results are further analysed through numerical examples.

  20. Topological analysis of polymeric melts: chain-length effects and fast-converging estimators for entanglement length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Robert S; Foteinopoulou, Katerina; Kröger, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Primitive path analyses of entanglements are performed over a wide range of chain lengths for both bead spring and atomistic polyethylene polymer melts. Estimators for the entanglement length N_{e} which operate on results for a single chain length N are shown to produce systematic O(1/N) errors. The mathematical roots of these errors are identified as (a) treating chain ends as entanglements and (b) neglecting non-Gaussian corrections to chain and primitive path dimensions. The prefactors for the O(1/N) errors may be large; in general their magnitude depends both on the polymer model and the method used to obtain primitive paths. We propose, derive, and test new estimators which eliminate these systematic errors using information obtainable from the variation in entanglement characteristics with chain length. The new estimators produce accurate results for N_{e} from marginally entangled systems. Formulas based on direct enumeration of entanglements appear to converge faster and are simpler to apply.

  1. Effect of temperature on atom-atom collision chain length in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, A.A.; Demkin, N.A.; Lyashchenko, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    Focused atom-atom collision chain lengths are calculated for fcc-crystals with account of thermal oscillations. The model of solid spheres with the Born-Merier potential has been used in the calculations. The dependence of chain lengths on the temperature, energy and movement direction of the first chain atom for Cu, Au, Ag, Pb, Ni is considered. The plot presented shows that the chain lengths strongly decrease with temperature growth, for example, for the gold at T=100 K the chain length equals up to 37 interatomic spacings, whereas at T=1000 K their length decreases down to 5 interatomic distances. The dependence of the energy loss by the chain atoms on the atom number in the chain is obtained in a wide range of crystal temperature and the primary chain atom energy [ru

  2. Self-Assembly of Alkylammonium Chains on Montmorillonite: Effect of Interlayer Cations, CEC, and Chain Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Li, Yingjun; Zhou, Yuanlin; Wang, Shanqiang; Zheng, Jian; He, Jiacai

    2017-12-01

    Recently, polymeric materials have been filled with synthetic or natural inorganic compounds in order to improve their properties. Especially, polymer clay nanocomposites have attracted both academic and industrial attention. Currently, the structure and physical phenomena of organoclays at molecular level are difficultly explained by existing experimental techniques. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was executed using the CLAYFF and CHARMM force fields to evaluate the structural properties of organoclay such as basal spacing, interlayer density, energy and the arrangement of alkyl chains in the interlayer spacing. Our results are in good agreement with available experimental or other simulation data. The effects of interlayer cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), the cation exchange capacity, and the alkyl chain length on the basal spacing and the structural properties are estimated. These simulations are expected to presage the microstructure of organo-montmorillonite and lead relevant engineering applications.

  3. Channel Coordination in Logistics Service Supply Chain considering Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistics service supply chain (LSSC is a new type of service supply chain. This paper investigates the channel coordination issue in a two-echelon LSSC composed of one logistics service integrator (LSI and one functional logistics service provider (FLSP under fairness concerns. The models for a reservation price-only contract under disadvantageous inequality and advantageous inequality are established, respectively, in which the procurement cost, the potential shortage cost, and the operation cost are considered under stochastic market demand. Based on this model, the LSI’s optimal reservation quantity can be determined. Furthermore, we analyze the impact of fairness concerns and the related costs on channel performance and channel coordination. The results are presented in four aspects: (1 channel coordination of the LSSC can be achieved under certain conditions when the LSI experiences advantageous inequality; (2 the spiteful behavior of the LSI leads to the reduction of the channel profit, and channel coordination cannot be achieved when the LSI suffers from disadvantageous inequality; (3 the LSI’s reservation quantity and the channel profit are affected by the LSI’s fairness concerns; (4 motivated by the concerns of fairness, the LSI’s reservation quantity is related not only to his procurement cost and shortage cost but also to the FLSP’s operation cost.

  4. The roles of productivity and ecosystem size in determining food chain length in tropical terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Dunbar, Robert B; Hutson, Michael S; Ter-Kuile, Ana Miller; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2013-03-01

    Many different drivers, including productivity, ecosystem size, and disturbance, have been considered to explain natural variation in the length of food chains. Much remains unknown about the role of these various drivers in determining food chain length, and particularly about the mechanisms by which they may operate in terrestrial ecosystems, which have quite different ecological constraints than aquatic environments, where most food chain length studies have been thus far conducted. In this study, we tested the relative importance of ecosystem size and productivity in influencing food chain length in a terrestrial setting. We determined that (1) there is no effect of ecosystem size or productive space on food chain length; (2) rather, food chain length increases strongly and linearly with productivity; and (3) the observed changes in food chain length are likely achieved through a combination of changes in predator size, predator behavior, and consumer diversity along gradients in productivity. These results lend new insight into the mechanisms by which productivity can drive changes in food chain length, point to potential for systematic differences in the drivers of food web structure between terrestrial and aquatic systems, and challenge us to consider how ecological context may control the drivers that shape food chain length.

  5. Sales Channels, Governance, and Upgrading in Floriculture Global Value Chains:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melese, Ayelech Tiruwha

    Floriculture is a dynamic industry that has transformed from a regional business, where both production and consumption were concentrated in Europe, to a global business organized in global value chains. Although the Dutch still lead the industry, particularly through the Dutch auction, developing...... countries have strengthened their position as producers in the chain. While consumption in traditional markets remains important, new demand has emerged in the global South. This working paper explains the dynamics and main features of the floriculture global value chain, different sales channels...... and governance structures, and their implications for how supplier firms in developing countries learn and build technological capabilities. Governance structures in the floriculture global value chain are not only shaped by buyer requirements and auction’s institutional rules but also by national...

  6. Structure-guided investigation of lipopolysaccharide O-antigen chain length regulators reveals regions critical for modal length control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalynych, Sergei; Ruan, Xiang; Valvano, Miguel A; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2011-08-01

    The O-antigen component of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) represents a population of polysaccharide molecules with nonrandom (modal) chain length distribution. The number of the repeat O units in each individual O-antigen polymer depends on the Wzz chain length regulator, an inner membrane protein belonging to the polysaccharide copolymerase (PCP) family. Different Wzz proteins confer vastly different ranges of modal lengths (4 to >100 repeat units), despite having remarkably conserved structural folds. The molecular mechanism responsible for the selective preference for a certain number of O units is unknown. Guided by the three-dimensional structures of PCPs, we constructed a panel of chimeric molecules containing parts of two closely related Wzz proteins from Salmonella enterica and Shigella flexneri which confer different O-antigen chain length distributions. Analysis of the O-antigen length distribution imparted by each chimera revealed the region spanning amino acids 67 to 95 (region 67 to 95), region 200 to 255, and region 269 to 274 as primarily affecting the length distribution. We also showed that there is no synergy between these regions. In particular, region 269 to 274 also influenced chain length distribution mediated by two distantly related PCPs, WzzB and FepE. Furthermore, from the 3 regions uncovered in this study, region 269 to 274 appeared to be critical for the stability of the oligomeric form of Wzz, as determined by cross-linking experiments. Together, our data suggest that chain length determination depends on regions that likely contribute to stabilize a supramolecular complex.

  7. Length of marketing channels in sales of gas boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the number of institutions participating in this marketing channel and depending on the number of channel members, the literature usually classifies marketing channels into direct and indirect. There is also the third modality, which occasionally occurs in commercial practice, representing a mix of marketing flows characteristic of the two basic models, called the quasi-direct marketing channel. This channel model usually occurs during the placement of production goods, or as it is also often said in the 'industrial marketing'. When the placement of gas boilers in Serbian market is concerned quasi-direct marketing channels are applied very often, especially when it comes to large quantities because of their suitability, faster and more efficient distribution, and significantly lower transport and storage costs.

  8. How Chain Length and Charge Affect Surfactant Denaturation of Acyl Coenzyme A Binding Protein (ACBP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kell Kleiner; Otzen, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    maltoside (DDM). The aim has been to determine how surfactant chain length and micellar charge affect the denaturation mechanism. ACBP denatures in two steps irrespective of surfactant chain length, but with increasing chain length, the potency of the denaturant rises more rapidly than the critical micelle......Using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, equilibria and kinetics of unfolding of acyl coenzyme A binding protein (ACBP) have been investigated in sodium alkyl sulfate surfactants of different chain length (8-16 carbon atoms) and with different proportions of the nonionic surfactant dodecyl...... constants increases linearly with denaturant concentration below the cmc but declines at higher concentrations. Both shortening chain length and decreasing micellar charge reduce the overall kinetics of unfolding and makes the dependence of unfolding rate constants on surfactant concentration more complex...

  9. Research on Cost Information Sharing and Channel Choice in a Dual-Channel Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies examine information sharing in an uncertain demand environment in a supply chain. However there is little literature on cost information sharing in a dual-channel structure consisting of a retail channel and a direct sales channel. Assuming that the retail sale cost and direct sale cost are random variables with a general distribution, the paper investigates the retailer’s choice on cost information sharing in a Bertrand competition model. Based on the equilibrium outcome of information sharing, the manufacturer’s channel choice is discussed in detail. Our paper provides several interesting conclusions. In both single- and dual-channel structures, the retailer has little motivation to share its private cost information which is verified to be valuable for the manufacturer. When the cost correlation between the two channels increases, our analyses show that the manufacturer’s profit improves. However, when channel choice is involved, the value of information could play a different role. The paper finds that a dual-channel structure can benefit the manufacturer only when the cost correlation is sufficiently low. In addition, if the cost correlation is weak, the cost fluctuation will bring out the advantage of a dual-channel structure and adding a new direct channel will help in risk pooling.

  10. Polyurethanes elastomers with amide chain extenders of uniform length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schuur, J.M.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Noordover, Bart; Gaymans, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate based polyurethanes with amide extenders were synthesized poly(propylene oxide) with a number average molecular weight of 2000 and endcapped with toluene diisocyanate was used as the polyether segment. The chain extenders were based on poly(hexamethylene terephthalamide):

  11. Polyuretehane elastomers with amide chain extenders of uniform length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, van der M.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate based polyurethanes with amide extenders were synthesized poly(propylene oxide) with a number average molecular weight of 2000 and endcapped with toluene diisocyanate was used as the polyether segment. The chain extenders were based on poly(hexamethylene terephthalamide):

  12. Quantum discord length is enhanced while entanglement length is not by introducing disorder in a spin chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Debasis; Roy, Sudipto Singha; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R; Sen De, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-01-01

    Classical correlation functions of ground states typically decay exponentially and polynomially, respectively, for gapped and gapless short-range quantum spin systems. In such systems, entanglement decays exponentially even at the quantum critical points. However, quantum discord, an information-theoretic quantum correlation measure, survives long lattice distances. We investigate the effects of quenched disorder on quantum correlation lengths of quenched averaged entanglement and quantum discord, in the anisotropic XY and XYZ spin glass and random field chains. We find that there is virtually neither reduction nor enhancement in entanglement length while quantum discord length increases significantly with the introduction of the quenched disorder.

  13. Intracellular long-chain acyl CoAs activate TRPV1 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yu

    Full Text Available TRPV1 channels are an important class of membrane proteins that play an integral role in the regulation of intracellular cations such as calcium in many different tissue types. The anionic phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 is a known positive modulator of TRPV1 channels and the negatively charged phosphate groups interact with several basic amino acid residues in the proximal C-terminal TRP domain of the TRPV1 channel. We and other groups have shown that physiological sub-micromolar levels of long-chain acyl CoAs (LC-CoAs, another ubiquitous anionic lipid, can also act as positive modulators of ion channels and exchangers. Therefore, we investigated whether TRPV1 channel activity is similarly regulated by LC-CoAs. Our results show that LC-CoAs are potent activators of the TRPV1 channel and interact with the same PIP2-binding residues in TRPV1. In contrast to PIP2, LC-CoA modulation of TRPV1 is independent of Ca2+i, acting in an acyl side-chain saturation and chain-length dependent manner. Elevation of LC-CoAs in intact Jurkat T-cells leads to significant increases in agonist-induced Ca2+i levels. Our novel findings indicate that LC-CoAs represent a new fundamental mechanism for regulation of TRPV1 channel activity that may play a role in diverse cell types under physiological and pathophysiological conditions that alter fatty acid transport and metabolism such as obesity and diabetes.

  14. Dependence of the product chain-length on detergents for long-chain E-polyprenyl diphosphate synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jian-Jung; Ramamoorthy, Gurusankar; Poulter, C. Dale

    2013-01-01

    Long-chain E-polyprenyl diphosphate synthases (E-PDS) catalyze repetitive addition of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to the growing prenyl chain of an allylic diphosphate. The polyprenyl diphosphate products are required for the biosynthesis of ubiquinones and menaquinones required for electron transport during oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP. In vitro, the long-chain PDSs require addition of phospholipids or detergents to the assay buffer to enhance product release and maintain efficient turnover. During preliminary assays of product chain-length with anionic, zwitterionic, and non-ionic detergents, we discovered considerable variability. Examination of a series of non-ionic PEG detergents with several long-chain E-PDSs from different organisms revealed that in vitro incubations with nonaethylene glycol monododecyl ether or Triton X-100 typically gave chain lengths that corresponded to those of the isoprenoid moieties in respiratory quinones synthesized in vivo. In contrast incubations in buffer with n-butanol, CHAPS, DMSO, n-octyl-β-glucopyranoside, or β-cyclodextrin or in buffer without detergent typically proceeded more slowly and gave a broad range of chain lengths. PMID:23802587

  15. Exploring the impact of the side-chain length on peptide/RNA binding events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbicca, Lola; González, Alejandro López; Gresika, Alexandra; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Closa, Jordi Teixido; Tejedor, Roger Estrada; Andréola, Marie-Line; Azoulay, Stéphane; Patino, Nadia

    2017-07-19

    The impact of the amino-acid side-chain length on peptide-RNA binding events has been investigated using HIV-1 Tat derived peptides as ligands and the HIV-1 TAR RNA element as an RNA model. Our studies demonstrate that increasing the length of all peptide side-chains improves unexpectedly the binding affinity (K D ) but reduces the degree of compactness of the peptide-RNA complex. Overall, the side-chain length appears to modulate in an unpredictable way the ability of the peptide to compete with the cognate TAR RNA partner. Beyond the establishment of non-intuitive fundamental relationships, our results open up new perspectives in the design of effective RNA ligand competitors, since a large number of them have already been identified but few studies report on the modulation of the biological activity by modifying in the same way the length of all chains connecting RNA recognition motives to the central scaffold of a ligand.

  16. Novel odd/even effect of alkylene chain length on the photopolymerizability of organogelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ken'ichi; Kudo, Masabumi; Tamaoki, Nobuyuki

    2004-10-28

    [reaction: see text] Starting from diactylene diacarboxylic acids, we have synthesized a series of photopolymerizable organogelators that possess simple amide structures, different alkylene chain lengths, and either optically active or racemic 3,7-dimethyl-1-octylamine units. The alkylene chain length of these compounds exhibits a prominent odd/even effect with respect to the photopolymerization in the gel state and is accompanied by a stereostructural effect on the gelation ability.

  17. Effect of channel-protein interaction on translocation of a protein-like chain through a finite channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Ting-Ting; Ma Hai-Zhu; Jiang Zhou-Ting

    2012-01-01

    We study the translocation of a protein-like chain through a finite cylindrical channel using the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM) and the modified orientation-dependent monomer-monomer interaction (ODI) model. Attractive channels (in cp = −2.0, −1.0, −0.5), repulsive channels (in cp = 0.5, 1.0, 2.0), and a neutral channel (in cp = 0) are discussed. The results of the chain dimension and the energy show that Z 0 = 1.0 is an important case to distinguish the types of the channels. For the strong attractive channel, more contacts form during the process of translocation. It is also found that an external force is needed to drive the chain outside of the channel with the strong attraction. While for the neutral, the repulsive, and the weak attractive channels, the translocation is spontaneous. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. Fractal-Based Lightning Channel Length Estimation from Convex-Hull Flash Areas for DC3 Lightning Mapping Array Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Eric C.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Carey, Larry D.; Koshak, William; Peterson, Harold; MacGorman, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    We will use VHF Lightning Mapping Array data to estimate NOx per flash and per unit channel length, including the vertical distribution of channel length. What s the best way to find channel length from VHF sources? This paper presents the rationale for the fractal method, which is closely related to the box-covering method.

  19. Price competition and equilibrium analysis in multiple hybrid channel supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Guihua; Wang, Aihu; Sha, Jin

    2017-06-01

    The amazing boom of Internet and logistics industry prompts more and more enterprises to sell commodity through multiple channels. Such market conditions make the participants of multiple hybrid channel supply chain compete each other in traditional and direct channel at the same time. This paper builds a two-echelon supply chain model with a single manufacturer and a single retailer who both can choose different channel or channel combination for their own sales, then, discusses the price competition and calculates the equilibrium price under different sales channel selection combinations. Our analysis shows that no matter the manufacturer and retailer choose same or different channel price to compete, the equilibrium price does not necessarily exist the equilibrium price in the multiple hybrid channel supply chain and wholesale price change is not always able to coordinate supply chain completely. We also present the sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence of equilibrium price and coordination wholesale price.

  20. Information Sharing and Channel Construction of Supply Chain under Asymmetric Demand Information

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Guangdong; Kong, Qingshan; Shi, Jian-gang; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Information sharing and marketing channel building have become an important problem of supply chain management theory and practice. The research of information sharing focused on traditional channel of supply chain between upstream and downstream enterprises; however, the research ignores the behavior of information sharing with potential entrants and composite structure characteristics about traditional marketing channel with the direct channel. This paper uses the model to research the eff...

  1. Resonance chains in open systems, generalized zeta functions and clustering of the length spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhofen, S; Faure, F; Weich, T

    2014-01-01

    In many non-integrable open systems in physics and mathematics, resonances have been found to be surprisingly ordered along curved lines in the complex plane. In this article we provide a unifying approach to these resonance chains by generalizing dynamical zeta functions. By means of a detailed numerical study we show that these generalized zeta functions explain the mechanism that creates the chains of quantum resonance and classical Ruelle resonances for three-disk systems as well as geometric resonances on Schottky surfaces. We also present a direct system-intrinsic definition of the continuous lines on which the resonances are strung together as a projection of an analytic variety. Additionally, this approach shows that the existence of resonance chains is directly related to a clustering of the classical length spectrum on multiples of a base length. Finally, this link is used to construct new examples where several different structures of resonance chains coexist. (paper)

  2. Effect of hydrocarbon chain length of aliphatic diluents on hydrodynamic properties of irradiated solutions of extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumenyuk, V.E.; Pribush, A.G.; Egorov, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    To optimize the composition of n-paraffin mixtures with different molecular weight, used as a diluent (D) of extractant during extraction reprocessing of spent fuel, interrelation between D hydrocarbon chain length and change in hydrodynamic properties of extraction mixture on D basis depending on the dose has been considered. It is shown that the value of threshold dose loading (D crit ), at which a sharp change in hydrodynamic properties of tri-n-butyl phosphate solutions in D is observed, decreases with hydrocarbon chain length growth. Empiric ratio relating D crit value and the number of carbon atoms of D is obtained

  3. Photoconductivity, pH Sensitivity, Noise, and Channel Length Effects in Si Nanowire FET Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Ferdinand; Zadorozhnyi, Ihor; Khondkaryan, Hrant; Arakelyan, Armen; Vitusevich, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    Silicon nanowire (NW) field-effect transistor (FET) sensors of various lengths were fabricated. Transport properties of Si NW FET sensors were investigated involving noise spectroscopy and current-voltage (I-V) characterization. The static I-V dependencies demonstrate the high quality of fabricated silicon FETs without leakage current. Transport and noise properties of NW FET structures were investigated under different light illumination conditions, as well as in sensor configuration in an aqueous solution with different pH values. Furthermore, we studied channel length effects on the photoconductivity, noise, and pH sensitivity. The magnitude of the channel current is approximately inversely proportional to the length of the current channel, and the pH sensitivity increases with the increase of channel length approaching the Nernst limit value of 59.5 mV/pH. We demonstrate that dominant 1/f-noise can be screened by the generation-recombination plateau at certain pH of the solution or external optical excitation. The characteristic frequency of the generation-recombination noise component decreases with increasing of illumination power. Moreover, it is shown that the measured value of the slope of 1/f-noise spectral density dependence on the current channel length is 2.7 which is close to the theoretically predicted value of 3.

  4. Direct observation of the edge spin structure and chain length dependence of a finite haldane chain by high field ESR measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Ohta, Hitoshi; Ito, Toshimitsu; Ajiro, Yoshitami

    2006-01-01

    We have performed high field and multi-frequency ESR measurements of finite length S=1 antiferromagnetic chains in Y 2 BaNi 0.96 Mg 0.04 O 5 . Owing to the high spectral resolution by high fields and high frequencies, observed ESR signals can be separated into the contributions of the finite chains with various chain lengths. Our results clearly show that the edge spins actually interact with each other through the quantum spin chain and the interaction depends on the chain length N. (author)

  5. Characterization of Binary Organogels Based on Some Azobenzene Compounds and Alkyloxybenzoic Acids with Different Chain Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the gelation behaviors of binary organogels composed of azobenzene amino derivatives and alkyloxybenzoic acids with different lengths of alkyl chains in various organic solvents were investigated and characterized. The corresponding gelation behaviors in 20 solvents were characterized and shown as new binary organic systems. It showed that the lengths of substituent alkyl chains in compounds have played an important role in the gelation formation of gelator mixtures in present tested organic solvents. Longer methylene chains in molecular skeletons in these gelators seem more suitable for the gelation of present solvents. Morphological characterization showed that these gelator molecules have the tendency to self-assemble into various aggregates from lamella, wrinkle, and belt to dot with change of solvents and gelator mixtures. Spectral characterization demonstrated different H-bond formation and hydrophobic force existing in gels, depending on different substituent chains in molecular skeletons. Meanwhile, these organogels can self-assemble to form monomolecular or multilayer nanostructures owing to the different lengths of due to alkyl substituent chains. Possible assembly modes for present xerogels were proposed. The present investigation is perspective to provide new clues for the design of new nanomaterials and functional textile materials with special microstructures.

  6. Phase behaviour of an ionic microemulsion system as a function of the cosurfactant chain length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kegel, W.K.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    1993-01-01

    The phase behaviour of a microemulsion system consisting of equal volumes of brine and oil, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as surfactant and alcohols of different chain lengths (pentanol, hexanol and heptanol) as cosurfactant was studied. In the case of pentanol, at low surfactant concentrations and

  7. Vaporization enthalpies of imidazolium based ionic liquids. A thermogravimetric study of the alkyl chain length dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H.; Emel’yanenko, Vladimir N.; Ralys, Ricardas V.; Yermalayeu, Andrei V.; Schick, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were measured with thermogravimetry. ► We studied 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. ► The linear alkyl chain length was 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 C-atoms. ► A linear dependence on the chain length of the alkyl-imidazolium cation was found. - Abstract: Vaporization enthalpies for a series of ten ionic liquids (ILs) 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [C n mim][NTf 2 ], with the alkyl chain length n = 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 were determined using the thermogravimetric method. An internally consistent set of experimental data and vaporization enthalpies at 540 K was obtained. Vaporization enthalpies at 540 K have shown a linear dependence on the chain length of the alkyl-imidazolium cation in agreement with the experimental results measured previously with a quartz crystal microbalance. Ambiguity of Δ l g C pm o -values required for the extrapolation of experimental vaporization enthalpies to the reference temperature 298 K has been discussed.

  8. Biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes for bio-aviation fuel by metabolic engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Nie, Kaili; Cao, Hao; Xu, Haijun; Fang, Yunming; Tan, Tianwei; Baeyens, Jan; Liu, Luo

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the synthesis of medium-chain length alkanes (MCLA), as bio-aviation product. To control the chain length of alkanes and increase the production of MCLA, Escherichia coli cells were engineered by incorporating (i) a chain length specific thioesterase from Umbellularia californica (UC), (ii) a plant origin acyl carrier protein (ACP) gene and (iii) the whole fatty acid synthesis system (FASs) from Jatropha curcas (JC). The genetic combination was designed to control the product spectrum towards optimum MCLA. Decanoic, lauric and myristic acid were produced at concentrations of 0.011, 0.093 and 1.657mg/g, respectively. The concentration of final products nonane, undecane and tridecane were 0.00062mg/g, 0.0052mg/g, and 0.249mg/g respectively. Thioesterase from UC controlled the fatty acid chain length in a range of 10-14 carbons and the ACP gene with whole FASs from JC significantly increased the production of MCLA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of chain length and lipid phase transitions on the selective permeability properties of liposomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, M.C.; Neut-Kok, E.C.M. van der; Deenen, L.L.M. van; Gier, J. de

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes experiments showing the importance of the fatty acid chain length on the barrier properties of liposomal bilayers, prepared from saturated lecithins, under conditions of lateral phase separation. 1. 1.|Above the gel to liquid crystalline phase transition temperature,

  10. The importance of chain length for the polyphosphate enhancement of acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Brendan J; Adcock, Jacqui L; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Peristyy, Anton; Stevenson, Paul G; Barnett, Neil W; Conlan, Xavier A; Francis, Paul S

    2014-09-09

    Sodium polyphosphate is commonly used to enhance chemiluminescence reactions with acidic potassium permanganate through a dual enhancement mechanism, but commercially available polyphosphates vary greatly in composition. We have examined the influence of polyphosphate composition and concentration on both the dual enhancement mechanism of chemiluminescence intensity and the stability of the reagent under analytically useful conditions. The average chain length (n) provides a convenient characterisation, but materials with similar values can exhibit markedly different distributions of phosphate oligomers. There is a minimum polyphosphate chain length (∼6) required for a large enhancement of the emission intensity, but no further advantage was obtained using polyphosphate materials with much longer average chain lengths. Providing there is a sufficient average chain length, the optimum concentration of polyphosphate is dependent on the analyte and in some cases, may be lower than the quantities previously used in routine detection. However, the concentration of polyphosphate should not be lowered in permanganate reagents that have been partially reduced to form high concentrations of the key manganese(III) co-reactant, as this intermediate needs to be stabilised to prevent formation of insoluble manganese(IV). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modification of eucalyptus pulp fiber using silane coupling agents with aliphatic side chains of different length

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three silane coupling agents with different aliphatic chain lengths on the hydrophobicity of eucalyptus pulp fiber. The three silanes coupling agents used (isobutyltrimethoxysilane, methyltrimethoxysilane, and n-octyltriethoxysilane [OTES]) we...

  12. effect of side chain length on the stability and structural properties of 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    We report on the effect of the alkoxy chain length on the thermodynamic ... studied by Hartree-Fock (HF) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. ..... with longer alkoxy substituents on the phenyl ring have lesser value of change in Gibbs ...

  13. Chain length distribution and kinetic characteristics of an enzymatically produced polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Non-processive enzymatic polymerization leads to a distribution of polymer chain lengths. A polymerization model was developed to investigate the relation between the extent of this distribution on one hand, and the polymerization start conditions and reaction kinetics on the other hand. The model

  14. Characterization of amylose nanoparticles prepared via nanoprecipitation: Influence of chain length distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanjiao; Yang, Jingde; Ren, Lili; Zhou, Jiang

    2018-08-15

    The influence of chain length distribution of amylose on size and structure of the amylose nanoparticles (ANPs) prepared through nanoprecipitation was investigated. Amylose with different chain length distributions was obtained by β-amylase treating amylose paste for different times and measured by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). ANPs prepared via precipitation were characterized by using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that the β-amylase treatments led to decrease in chain length of amylose, and it was the most important factor affecting size of ANPs. When hydrolysis degree of amylose was 52.8%, mean size of ANPs decreased from 206.4 nm to 102.7 nm. All the ANPs displayed a V-type crystalline structure and the effect of amylose chain length on crystallinity of the precipitated ANPs was negligible in the investigated range. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Photoluminescence decay lifetime measurements of hemicyanine derivatives of different alkyl chain lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Taekyu; Lee, Myounghee; Kim, Sungho; Sung, Jaeho; Rhee, Bum Ku; Kim, Doseok; Kim, Hyunsung; Yoon, Kyung Byung

    2004-01-01

    The fluorescence upconversion setup for the detection of photoluminescence (PL) decay lifetime with subpicosecond time resolution was constructed, and the photoluminescence phenomena of several hemicyanine dyes with alkyl chains of different chain lengths tethered to the N atom of the pyridine moiety (HC-n, n=6, 15, 22) in methanol were investigated. The average decay lifetimes of the solutions determined from the measured data by multi-order exponential decay curve fitting were ∼27 ps at the PL peak wavelength. It was found that the PL decay properties did not depend on the alkyl chain length in the molecule, implying that the twist of the alkylpyridinium ring of the molecule is not possible as a nonfluorescing relaxation pathway. The time-dependent PL spectra constructed from the PL lifetime data showed the dynamic Stokes shift of ∼1000 cm -1

  16. Infinite coherence time of edge spins in finite-length chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceira, Ivo A.; Mila, Frédéric

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by the recent observation that exponentially long coherence times can be achieved for edge spins in models with strong zero modes, we study the impact of level crossings in finite-length spin chains on the dynamics of the edge spins. Focusing on the X Y spin-1 /2 chain with a transverse or longitudinal magnetic field, two models relevant to understanding recent experimental results on cobalt adatoms, we show that the edge spins can remain coherent for an infinite time even for a finite-length chain if the magnetic field is tuned to a value at which there is a level crossing. Furthermore, we show that the edge spins remain coherent for any initial state for the integrable case of a transverse field because all states have level crossings at the same value of the field, while the coherence time is increasingly large for lower temperatures in the case of a longitudinal field, which is nonintegrable.

  17. Putative Structural and Functional Coupling of the Mitochondrial BKCa Channel to the Respiratory Chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bednarczyk

    Full Text Available Potassium channels have been found in the inner mitochondrial membranes of various cells. These channels regulate the mitochondrial membrane potential, the matrix volume and respiration. The activation of these channels is cytoprotective. In our study, the single-channel activity of a large-conductance Ca(2+-regulated potassium channel (mitoBKCa channel was measured by patch-clamping mitoplasts isolated from the human astrocytoma (glioblastoma U-87 MG cell line. A potassium-selective current was recorded with a mean conductance of 290 pS in symmetrical 150 mM KCl solution. The channel was activated by Ca(2+ at micromolar concentrations and by the potassium channel opener NS1619. The channel was inhibited by paxilline and iberiotoxin, known inhibitors of BKCa channels. Western blot analysis, immuno-gold electron microscopy, high-resolution immunofluorescence assays and polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of the BKCa channel β4 subunit in the inner mitochondrial membrane of the human astrocytoma cells. We showed that substrates of the respiratory chain, such as NADH, succinate, and glutamate/malate, decrease the activity of the channel at positive voltages. This effect was abolished by rotenone, antimycin and cyanide, inhibitors of the respiratory chain. The putative interaction of the β4 subunit of mitoBKCa with cytochrome c oxidase was demonstrated using blue native electrophoresis. Our findings indicate possible structural and functional coupling of the mitoBKCa channel with the mitochondrial respiratory chain in human astrocytoma U-87 MG cells.

  18. Full length channel Pressure Tube sagging under completely voided full length pressure tube of an Indian PHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, Sujay, E-mail: negi.sujay@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Kumar, Ravi, E-mail: ravikfme@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Majumdar, P., E-mail: pmajum@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mukopadhyay, D., E-mail: dmukho@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • At 16 kW/m input, thermal stability was attained at 595 °C, without PT-CT contact. • At 20 kW/m step input, PT-CT contact occurred at 637 °C near bottom-center of the tube. • PT integrity was maintained throughout the experiment. - Abstract: An experimental investigation was conducted to simulate the sagging behavior of a full length Pressure Tube of a channel of 220 MWe Indian PHWR. The investigation aimed to recreate a condition resembling Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) with Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) failure in a nuclear power plant. A full length channel assembly immersed in moderator was subjected to electrical resistance heating of Pressure Tube (PT) to simulate the residual heat after shutting down of reactor. The temperature of PT started rising and the contact between PT and CT was established at the center of the tube where average bottom temperature was 637 °C. The integrity of PT was maintained throughout the experiment and the PT heat up was arrested on contact with the CT due to transfer of heat to the moderator.

  19. Experimental evidence of independence of nuclear de-channeling length on the particle charge sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagli, E.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Sytov, A.I. [Universita di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra (Italy); INFN Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); De Salvador, D. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy); Berra, A.; Prest, M. [Universita dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN Sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Under coherent interactions, particles undergo correlated collisions with the crystal lattice and their motion result in confinement in the fields of atomic planes, i.e. particle channeling. Other than coherently interacting with the lattice, particles also suffer incoherent interactions with individual nuclei and may leave their bounded motion, i.e., they de-channel. The latter is the main limiting factor for applications of coherent interactions in crystal-assisted particle steering. We experimentally investigated the nature of de-channeling of 120 GeV/c e{sup -} and e{sup +} in a bent silicon crystal at H4-SPS external line at CERN. We found that while channeling efficiency differs significantly for e{sup -} (2 ± 2%) and e{sup +} (54 ± 2%), their nuclear de-channeling length is comparable, (0.6 ± 0.1) mm for e{sup -} and (0.7 ± 0.3) mm for e{sup +}. The experimental proof of the equality of the nuclear de-channeling length for positrons and electrons is interpreted in terms of similar dynamics undergone by the channeled particles in the field of nuclei irrespective of their charge. (orig.)

  20. PEGylation on mixed monolayer gold nanoparticles: Effect of grafting density, chain length, and surface curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiaqi; Zhang, Heng; Morovati, Vahid; Dargazany, Roozbeh

    2017-10-15

    PEGylation on nanoparticles (NPs) is widely used to prevent aggregation and to mask NPs from the fast clearance system in the body. Understanding the molecular details of the PEG layer could facilitate rational design of PEGylated NPs that maximize their solubility and stealth ability without significantly compromising the targeting efficiency and cellular uptake. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to understand the structural and dynamic the PEG coating of mixed monolayer gold NPs. Specifically, we modeled gold NPs with PEG grafting densities ranging from 0-2.76chain/nm 2 , chain length with 0-10 PEG monomers, NP core diameter from 5nm to 500nm. It is found that the area accessed by individual PEG chains gradually transits from a "mushroom" to a "brush" conformation as NP surface curvature become flatter, whereas such a transition is not evident on small NPs when grafting density increases. It is shown that moderate grafting density (∼1.0chain/nm 2 ) and short chain length are sufficient enough to prevent NPs from aggregating in an aqueous medium. The effect of grafting density on solubility is also validated by dynamic light scattering measurements of PEGylated 5nm gold NPs. With respect to the shielding ability, simulations predict that increase either grafting density, chain length, or NP diameter will reduce the accessibility of the protected content to a certain size molecule. Interestingly, reducing NP surface curvature is estimated to be most effective in promoting shielding ability. For shielding against small molecules, increasing PEG grafting density is more effective than increasing chain length. A simple model that includes these three investigated parameters is developed based on the simulations to roughly estimate the shielding ability of the PEG layer with respect to molecules of different sizes. The findings can help expand our current understanding of the PEG layer and guide rational design of PEGylated gold NPs for a particular

  1. Flow of two stratified fluids in an open channel with addition of fluids along the channel length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that two stably stratified fluids flowing in an open channel have two critical flow conditions. The one at higher flowrates is equivalent to the choked flow condition of a single fluid over a broad-crested weir, when the Froude number is unity. The lower critical condition imposes restrictions, which define the system if fluids are added progressively along the channel length and the flowrates increase from low to high values. However, if the flowrate does not become sufficiently large to pass through the lower critical condition, this condition will then define a form of choking, which again determines the system. It is shown that an important special case, with the proportional flowrates of the two fluids kept constant, has an analytical solution in which the relative depths of the fluids is a constant along the channel. Other systems must be solved numerically. (orig.)

  2. On the burnout in annular channels at non-uniform heat release distribution in length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornatskij, A.P.; Chernobaj, V.A.; Vasil'ev, A.F.; Struts, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of axial heat release non-uniformity on the conditions of the burnout in annular channels is investigated. The investigation is carried out in annular channels with different laws of heat flux density distribution by channel length. The heat release non-uniformity coefficient was varied from 4.4 to 10, the pressure from 9.8 to 17.6 MPa, mass rate from 500 to 1700 kg (m 2 xS), liquid temperature (chemically desalted water) at the channel inlet constituted 30-300 deg C. The experiments have been performed at the test bench with a closed circulation circuit. The data obtained testify to the fact that under non-uniform heat release the influence of main operating parameters on the value of critical power is of the same character as under uniform heat release. The character of wall temperature variation by channel length before the burnout is determined by the form of heat supply temperature profile. The temperature maximum is observed in the region lying behind the cross section with maximum heat flux. The conclusion is drawn that the dominant influence on the position of the cross section in which the burnout arises is exerted by the form of heat flux density distribution by length. Independently of this distribution form the burnout developes when the vapour content near the wall reaches a limiting value

  3. Channel length scaling and the impact of metal gate work function ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As the channel length is reduced from one transistor generation to the next, ... As CMOS technology continues to scale, metal gate electrodes need to be intro .... in the z-direction, q is the electron charge, h is the Planck's constant, Ψ(x, z) is the.

  4. Optimization of the alkyl side chain length of fluorine-18-labeled 7α-alkyl-fluoroestradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Mayumi; Shibayama, Hiromitsu; Naka, Kyosuke; Kitagawa, Yuya; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Shimizu, Isao; Toyohara, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several lines of evidence suggest that 7α-substituted estradiol derivatives bind to the estrogen receptor (ER). In line with this hypothesis, we designed and synthesized 18 F-labeled 7α-fluoroalkylestradiol (Cn-7α-[ 18 F]FES) derivatives as molecular probes for visualizing ERs. Previously, we successfully synthesized 7α-(3-[ 18 F]fluoropropyl)estradiol (C3-7α-[ 18 F]FES) and showed promising results for quantification of ER density in vivo, although extensive metabolism was observed in rodents. Therefore, optimization of the alkyl side chain length is needed to obtain suitable radioligands based on Cn-7α-substituted estradiol pharmacophores. Methods: We synthesized fluoromethyl (23; C1-7α-[ 18 F]FES) to fluorohexyl (26; C6-7α-[ 18 F]FES) derivatives, except fluoropropyl (C3-7α-[ 18 F]FES) and fluoropentyl derivatives (C5-7α-[ 18 F]FES), which have been previously synthesized. In vitro binding to the α-subtype (ERα) isoform of ERs and in vivo biodistribution studies in mature female mice were carried out. Results: The in vitro IC 50 value of Cn-7α-FES tended to gradually decrease depending on the alkyl side chain length. C1-7α-[ 18 F]FES (23) showed the highest uptake in ER-rich tissues such as the uterus. Uterus uptake also gradually decreased depending on the alkyl side chain length. As a result, in vivo uterus uptake reflected the in vitro ERα affinity of each compound. Bone uptake, which indicates de-fluorination, was marked in 7α-(2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl)estradiol (C2-7α-[ 18 F]FES) (24) and 7α-(4-[ 18 F]fluorobutyl)estradiol (C4-7α-[ 18 F]FES) (25) derivatives. However, C1-7α-[ 18 F]FES (23) and C6-7α-[ 18 F]FES (26) showed limited uptake in bone. As a result, in vivo bone uptake (de-fluorination) showed a bell-shaped pattern, depending on the alkyl side chain length. C1-7α-[ 18 F]FES (23) showed the same levels of uptake in uterus and bone compared with those of 16α-[ 18 F]fluoro-17β-estradiol. Conclusions: The optimal alkyl

  5. Dependence of adenine isolation efficiency on the chain length evidenced using paramagnetic particles and voltammetry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huska, Dalibor [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Adam, Vojtech [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Animal Nutrition and Forage Production, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trnkova, Libuse [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, CZ-625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kizek, Rene [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: kizek@sci.muni.cz

    2009-05-15

    The main aim of this work was to study the dependence of oligoadenine isolation efficiency on the chain length by using paramagnetic particles covered by homo-deoxythymidines ((dT)25) with subsequent detection by adsorptive transfer technique coupled with square wave voltammetry. For this purpose, the oligonucleotides of the length A5, A10, A15, A20, A25, A30, A35, A40 and poly(A) in various concentrations were chosen. We determined that the isolation efficiency defined as 'isolated oligonucleotide concentration'/'given oligonucleotide concentration' was about 55% on average. Sequence A25 demonstrated the best binding onto microparticles surface.

  6. Dependence of adenine isolation efficiency on the chain length evidenced using paramagnetic particles and voltammetry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huska, Dalibor; Adam, Vojtech; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to study the dependence of oligoadenine isolation efficiency on the chain length by using paramagnetic particles covered by homo-deoxythymidines ((dT)25) with subsequent detection by adsorptive transfer technique coupled with square wave voltammetry. For this purpose, the oligonucleotides of the length A5, A10, A15, A20, A25, A30, A35, A40 and poly(A) in various concentrations were chosen. We determined that the isolation efficiency defined as 'isolated oligonucleotide concentration'/'given oligonucleotide concentration' was about 55% on average. Sequence A25 demonstrated the best binding onto microparticles surface.

  7. Joint Source-Channel Decoding of Variable-Length Codes with Soft Information: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Siohan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia transmission over time-varying wireless channels presents a number of challenges beyond existing capabilities conceived so far for third-generation networks. Efficient quality-of-service (QoS provisioning for multimedia on these channels may in particular require a loosening and a rethinking of the layer separation principle. In that context, joint source-channel decoding (JSCD strategies have gained attention as viable alternatives to separate decoding of source and channel codes. A statistical framework based on hidden Markov models (HMM capturing dependencies between the source and channel coding components sets the foundation for optimal design of techniques of joint decoding of source and channel codes. The problem has been largely addressed in the research community, by considering both fixed-length codes (FLC and variable-length source codes (VLC widely used in compression standards. Joint source-channel decoding of VLC raises specific difficulties due to the fact that the segmentation of the received bitstream into source symbols is random. This paper makes a survey of recent theoretical and practical advances in the area of JSCD with soft information of VLC-encoded sources. It first describes the main paths followed for designing efficient estimators for VLC-encoded sources, the key component of the JSCD iterative structure. It then presents the main issues involved in the application of the turbo principle to JSCD of VLC-encoded sources as well as the main approaches to source-controlled channel decoding. This survey terminates by performance illustrations with real image and video decoding systems.

  8. Joint Source-Channel Decoding of Variable-Length Codes with Soft Information: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, Christine; Siohan, Pierre

    2005-12-01

    Multimedia transmission over time-varying wireless channels presents a number of challenges beyond existing capabilities conceived so far for third-generation networks. Efficient quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning for multimedia on these channels may in particular require a loosening and a rethinking of the layer separation principle. In that context, joint source-channel decoding (JSCD) strategies have gained attention as viable alternatives to separate decoding of source and channel codes. A statistical framework based on hidden Markov models (HMM) capturing dependencies between the source and channel coding components sets the foundation for optimal design of techniques of joint decoding of source and channel codes. The problem has been largely addressed in the research community, by considering both fixed-length codes (FLC) and variable-length source codes (VLC) widely used in compression standards. Joint source-channel decoding of VLC raises specific difficulties due to the fact that the segmentation of the received bitstream into source symbols is random. This paper makes a survey of recent theoretical and practical advances in the area of JSCD with soft information of VLC-encoded sources. It first describes the main paths followed for designing efficient estimators for VLC-encoded sources, the key component of the JSCD iterative structure. It then presents the main issues involved in the application of the turbo principle to JSCD of VLC-encoded sources as well as the main approaches to source-controlled channel decoding. This survey terminates by performance illustrations with real image and video decoding systems.

  9. Influence of the chain length on the biological behaviour of 131I fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riche, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Comet, M.; Vidal, M.; Pernin, C.; Marti-Batlle, D.; Busquet, G.; Bardy, A.

    1983-01-01

    Saturated and acetylenic fatty acids labeled with 131 I in ω position, differing by their chain length (C8 to C20) and the number odd or even of their carbon atoms are injected in mice. The evolution of the activity in myocardium, blood, liver and kidney is measured until 10 minutes after injection. The myocardial activity increases with chain length from C8 to C16 then decreases for C18 and C20. The odd or even number of carbon atoms does not influence myocardial activity but in the liver, activity is inferior with the odd fatty acids. The presence of a triple bond accelerates the output of activity from the myocardium and these fatty acids are not well suited for the study of myocardial metabolism [fr

  10. Influence of the chain length on the biological behaviour of /sup 131/I fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Comet, M.; Vidal, M.; Pernin, C.; Marti-Batlle, D.; Busquet, G. (Universite de Grenoble, 38 (France)); Bardy, A. (C.E.A.-ORIS, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1983-01-01

    Saturated and acetylenic fatty acids labeled with /sup 131/I in ..omega.. position, differing by their chain length (C8 to C20) and the number odd or even of their carbon atoms are injected in mice. The evolution of the activity in myocardium, blood, liver and kidney is measured until 10 minutes after injection. The myocardial activity increases with chain length from C8 to C16 then decreases for C18 and C20. The odd or even number of carbon atoms does not influence myocardial activity but in the liver, activity is inferior with the odd fatty acids. The presence of a triple bond accelerates the output of activity from the myocardium and these fatty acids are not well suited for the study of myocardial metabolism.

  11. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended.

  12. Productivity, Disturbance and Ecosystem Size Have No Influence on Food Chain Length in Seasonally Connected Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Warfe, Danielle M.; Jardine, Timothy D.; Pettit, Neil E.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Pusey, Bradley J.; Bunn, Stuart E.; Davies, Peter M.; Douglas, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    The food web is one of the oldest and most central organising concepts in ecology and for decades, food chain length has been hypothesised to be controlled by productivity, disturbance, and/or ecosystem size; each of which may be mediated by the functional trophic role of the top predator. We characterised aquatic food webs using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from 66 river and floodplain sites across the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia to determine the relative importance of produ...

  13. The Effect of the Chain Length on MMA Free Radicl Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the polymerization process of methyl methacrylate (MMA), the Arrhenius parameters (activation energy and frequency factor) of propagating reaction monotonically decrease with increasing monomer conversion. At the beginning and middle stage of the propagating reaction, the increase of radical chain length is the main reason of above mentioned change. And at the end stage, the sharp decrease of kp indicates that the activation energy is approximately incline to zero and the propagating reaction is controlled by molecular diffusion motion.

  14. Effect of side chain length on charge transport, morphology, and photovoltaic performance of conjugated polymers in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, C.; Willems, R.E.M.; van Franeker, J.J.; Bruijnaers, B.J.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of side chain length on the photovoltaic properties of conjugated polymers is systematically investigated with two sets of polymers that bear different alkyl side chain lengths based on benzodithiophene and benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazole or 5,6-difluorobenzo[2,1,3]thiadiazole. Characterization

  15. Online channel operation mode: Game theoretical analysis from the supply chain power structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dual-channels have been widely used in practice, and the pricing decisions and the online channel operation mode choice have been the core problems in dual-channel supply chain management. This paper focuses on the online channel operation mode choice from the supply chain power structures based on game theoretical analysis. Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes three kinds of game theoretical models to analyze the impact of supply chain power structures on the optimal pricing and online channel operation mode choice. Findings: Results derived in this paper indicate that when the self-price elasticity is large, the power structures have no direct impact on the decisions. However, when the self-price elasticity is small and customers’ preference for the online channel is low, then in the MS market, it is better for the retailer to operate the online channel, while in the RS market or in the VN market, it is better for the manufacturer to operate the online channel. Research limitations/implications: In this paper, we do not consider stochastic demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suit the reality. Originality/value: This paper provides a different perspective to analyze the impact of supply chain power structures on the pricing decisions and online channel operation mode choice. The comparison of these two online channel operation modes in this paper is also a unique point.

  16. Abnormal glycogen chain length pattern, not hyperphosphorylation, is critical in Lafora disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Felix; Sullivan, Mitchell A; Wang, Peixiang; Zhao, Xiaochu; Chown, Erin E; Perri, Ami M; Israelian, Lori; Juana-López, Lucia; Bovolenta, Paola; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Steup, Martin; Minassian, Berge A

    2017-07-01

    Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal progressive epilepsy essentially caused by loss-of-function mutations in the glycogen phosphatase laforin or the ubiquitin E3 ligase malin. Glycogen in LD is hyperphosphorylated and poorly hydrosoluble. It precipitates and accumulates into neurotoxic Lafora bodies (LBs). The leading LD hypothesis that hyperphosphorylation causes the insolubility was recently challenged by the observation that phosphatase-inactive laforin rescues the laforin-deficient LD mouse model, apparently through correction of a general autophagy impairment. We were for the first time able to quantify brain glycogen phosphate. We also measured glycogen content and chain lengths, LBs, and autophagy markers in several laforin- or malin-deficient mouse lines expressing phosphatase-inactive laforin. We find that: (i) in laforin-deficient mice, phosphatase-inactive laforin corrects glycogen chain lengths, and not hyperphosphorylation, which leads to correction of glycogen amounts and prevention of LBs; (ii) in malin-deficient mice, phosphatase-inactive laforin confers no correction; (iii) general impairment of autophagy is not necessary in LD We conclude that laforin's principle function is to control glycogen chain lengths, in a malin-dependent fashion, and that loss of this control underlies LD. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  17. Productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size have no influence on food chain length in seasonally connected rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfe, Danielle M; Jardine, Timothy D; Pettit, Neil E; Hamilton, Stephen K; Pusey, Bradley J; Bunn, Stuart E; Davies, Peter M; Douglas, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    The food web is one of the oldest and most central organising concepts in ecology and for decades, food chain length has been hypothesised to be controlled by productivity, disturbance, and/or ecosystem size; each of which may be mediated by the functional trophic role of the top predator. We characterised aquatic food webs using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from 66 river and floodplain sites across the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia to determine the relative importance of productivity (indicated by nutrient concentrations), disturbance (indicated by hydrological isolation) and ecosystem size, and how they may be affected by food web architecture. We show that variation in food chain length was unrelated to these classic environmental determinants, and unrelated to the trophic role of the top predator. This finding is a striking exception to the literature and is the first published example of food chain length being unaffected by any of these determinants. We suggest the distinctive seasonal hydrology of northern Australia allows the movement of fish predators, linking isolated food webs and potentially creating a regional food web that overrides local effects of productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size. This finding supports ecological theory suggesting that mobile consumers promote more stable food webs. It also illustrates how food webs, and energy transfer, may function in the absence of the human modifications to landscape hydrological connectivity that are ubiquitous in more populated regions.

  18. Effect of the alkyl chain length of the ionic liquid anion on polymer electrolytes properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leones, Rita; Sentanin, Franciani; Nunes, Sílvia Cristina; Esperança, José M.S.S.; Gonçalves, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    New polymer electrolytes (PEs) based on chitosan and three ionic liquid (IL) families ([C 2 mim][C n SO 3 ], [C 2 mim][C n SO 4 ] and [C 2 mim][diC n PO 4 ]) were synthesized by the solvent casting method. The effect of the length of the alkyl chain of the IL anion on the thermal, morphological and electrochemical properties of the PEs was studied. The solid polymer electrolytes SPE membranes were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), polarized optical microscopy (POM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), complex impedance spectroscopy (ionic conductivity) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The obtained results evidenced an influence of the alkyl chain length of the IL anion on the temperature of degradation, birefringence, surface roughness and ionic conductivity of the membranes. The DSC, XRD and CV results showed independency from the length of the IL-anion-alkyl chain. The PEs displayed an predominantly amorphous morphology, a minimum temperature of degradation of 135 °C, a room temperature (T = 25 °C) ionic conductivity of 7.78 × 10 −4 S cm −1 and a wide electrochemical window of ∼ 4.0 V.

  19. Productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size have no influence on food chain length in seasonally connected rivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M Warfe

    Full Text Available The food web is one of the oldest and most central organising concepts in ecology and for decades, food chain length has been hypothesised to be controlled by productivity, disturbance, and/or ecosystem size; each of which may be mediated by the functional trophic role of the top predator. We characterised aquatic food webs using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from 66 river and floodplain sites across the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia to determine the relative importance of productivity (indicated by nutrient concentrations, disturbance (indicated by hydrological isolation and ecosystem size, and how they may be affected by food web architecture. We show that variation in food chain length was unrelated to these classic environmental determinants, and unrelated to the trophic role of the top predator. This finding is a striking exception to the literature and is the first published example of food chain length being unaffected by any of these determinants. We suggest the distinctive seasonal hydrology of northern Australia allows the movement of fish predators, linking isolated food webs and potentially creating a regional food web that overrides local effects of productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size. This finding supports ecological theory suggesting that mobile consumers promote more stable food webs. It also illustrates how food webs, and energy transfer, may function in the absence of the human modifications to landscape hydrological connectivity that are ubiquitous in more populated regions.

  20. Price and Service Competition of Dual-Channel Supply Chain with Consumer Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Products returned by consumers are common in the retail industry and result in additional costs to both the manufacturer and the retailer. This paper proposes dual-channel supply chain models involving consumer returns policies. Also, the price and service competition between retail channel and direct channel is considered in the models. According to the models, we analyze the optimal decisions in both centralized and decentralized scenarios. Then we design a new contract, coordinate the dual-channel supply chain, and enable both the retailer and the manufacturer to be a win-win.

  1. From Brownian Dynamics to Markov Chain: An Ion Channel Example

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wan

    2014-02-27

    A discrete rate theory for multi-ion channels is presented, in which the continuous dynamics of ion diffusion is reduced to transitions between Markovian discrete states. In an open channel, the ion permeation process involves three types of events: an ion entering the channel, an ion escaping from the channel, or an ion hopping between different energy minima in the channel. The continuous dynamics leads to a hierarchy of Fokker-Planck equations, indexed by channel occupancy. From these the mean escape times and splitting probabilities (denoting from which side an ion has escaped) can be calculated. By equating these with the corresponding expressions from the Markov model, one can determine the Markovian transition rates. The theory is illustrated with a two-ion one-well channel. The stationary probability of states is compared with that from both Brownian dynamics simulation and the hierarchical Fokker-Planck equations. The conductivity of the channel is also studied, and the optimal geometry maximizing ion flux is computed. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  2. From Brownian Dynamics to Markov Chain: An Ion Channel Example

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wan; Erban, Radek; Chapman, S. Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    is illustrated with a two-ion one-well channel. The stationary probability of states is compared with that from both Brownian dynamics simulation and the hierarchical Fokker-Planck equations. The conductivity of the channel is also studied, and the optimal

  3. Information Sharing and Channel Construction of Supply Chain under Asymmetric Demand Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information sharing and marketing channel building have become an important problem of supply chain management theory and practice. The research of information sharing focused on traditional channel of supply chain between upstream and downstream enterprises; however, the research ignores the behavior of information sharing with potential entrants and composite structure characteristics about traditional marketing channel with the direct channel. This paper uses the model to research the effects brought about sharing demand information with potential entrants and building marketing channel, which reveals information sharing and channel building mechanism in the supply chain. The study found that the five-force model of Porter regards potential entrants only as a threat that is one-sided. When the channel competitiveness meets certain conditions, manufacturer and retailer will share demand information with potential entrants. Building composite marketing channel is the manufacturer's absolute dominant strategy. Channel construction will increase the entry barriers for potential entrants and weaken the effect of double marginalization; meanwhile, the performance of supply chain will be augmented.

  4. Does alkyl chain length really matter? Structure–property relationships in thermochemistry of ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H.; Emel’yanenko, Vladimir N.; Ralys, Ricardas V.; Yermalayeu, Andrei V.; Schick, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We have shown that enthalpies of formation, enthalpies of vaporization, and lattice potential energies of alkylsubstituted imidazolium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium based ionic liquids with Cl and Br anions are linearly dependant on the alkyl chain length. The thermochemical properties of ILs are generally obey the group additivity rules and the values of the additivity parameters for enthalpies of formation and vaporization are very close to those for molecular compounds. - Highlights: • Alkyl substituted imidazolium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium based ionic liquids with anions [Cl] and [Br] were studied using DSC and ab initio methods. • The thermochemical properties of ILs generally obey the group additivity rules. • A linear dependence on the chain length of the alkyl chain of cation was found. - Abstract: DSC was used for determination of reaction enthalpies of synthesis of ionic liquids [C n mim][Cl]. A combination of DSC with quantum chemical calculations presents an indirect way to study thermodynamics of ionic liquids. The indirect procedure for vaporization enthalpy was validated with the direct experimental measurements by using thermogravimetry. First-principles calculations of the enthalpy of formation in the gaseous phase have been performed for the ionic species using the CBS-QB3 and G3 (MP2) theory. Experimental DSC data for homologous series of alkyl substituted imidazolium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium based ionic liquids with anions [Cl] and [Br] were collected from the literature. We have shown that enthalpies of formation, enthalpies of vaporization, and lattice potential energies are linearly dependant on the alkyl chain length. The thermochemical properties of ILs generally obey the group additivity rules and the values of the additivity parameters for enthalpies of formation and vaporization seem to be very close to those for molecular compounds

  5. Liposomes coated with hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl cellulose: Influence of hydrophobic chain length and degree of modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smistad, Gro; Nyström, Bo; Zhu, Kaizheng; Grønvold, Marthe Karoline; Røv-Johnsen, Anne; Hiorth, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    Nanoparticulate systems with an uncharged hydrophilic surface may have a great potential in mucosal drug delivery. In the present study liposomes were coated with hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl cellulose (HM-HEC) to create a sterically stabilized liposomal system with an uncharged surface. The aim was to clarify the influence of the amount of hydrophobic modification of HEC and the length of the hydrophobic moiety, on the stability of the system and on the release properties. HM-HEC with different degrees of hydrophobic modification (1 and 2mol%) and hydrophobic groups with different chain lengths (C8, C12, C16) were included in the study, as well as fluid phase and gel phase liposomes. Both types of liposomes were successfully coated with HM-HEC containing 1mol% of hydrophobic groups, while 2mol% did not work for the intended pharmaceutical applications. The polymer coated gel phase liposomes were stable (size, zeta potential, leakage) for 24 weeks at 4°C, with no differences between the C8 and C16 HM-HEC coating. For the fluid phase liposomes a size increase was observed after 24 weeks at 4°C for all formulations; the C8 HM-HEC coated liposomes increased the most. No differences in the leakage during storage at 4°C or in the release at 35°C were observed between the fluid phase formulations. To conclude; HM-HEC with a shorter hydrophobic chain length resulted in a less stable product for the fluid phase liposomes, while no influence of the chain length was observed for the gel phase liposomes (1mol% HM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Channel Thickness, Annealing Temperature and Channel Length on Nanoscale Ga2O3-In2O3-ZnO Thin Film Transistor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Pak, Yusin; Lim, Namsoo; Lee, Ryeri; Song, Hui; Kim, Tae Heon; Choi, Boran; Jung, Gun Young

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrated the effect of active layer (channel) thickness and annealing temperature on the electrical performances of Ga2O3-In2O3-ZnO (GIZO) thin film transistor (TFT) having nanoscale channel width (W/L: 500 nm/100 μm). We found that the electron carrier concentration of the channel was decreased significantly with increasing the annealing temperature (100 degrees C to 300 degrees C). Accordingly, the threshold voltage (V(T)) was shifted towards positive voltage (-12.2 V to 10.8 V). In case of channel thickness, the V(T) was shifted towards negative voltage with increasing the channel thickness. The device with channel thickness of 90 nm annealed at 200 degrees C revealed the best device performances in terms of mobility (10.86 cm2/Vs) and V(T) (0.8 V). The effect of channel length was also studied, in which the channel width, thickness and annealing temperature were kept constant such as 500 nm, 90 nm and 200 degrees C, respectively. The channel length influenced the on-current level significantly with small variation of V(T), resulting in lower value of on/off current ratio with increasing the channel length. The device with channel length of 0.5 μm showed enhanced on/off current ratio of 10(6) with minimum V(T) of 0.26 V.

  7. Collection effort and reverse channel choices in a closed-loop supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Liu, Liwen; Wang, Zongjun

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the pricing and reverse channel choice decision issues in a closed-loop supply chain, within which the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) sells the new and remanufactured products through a retailer, while collects used products (cores) via dual recycling channels. We consider...

  8. Diversion of phagosome trafficking by pathogenic Rhodococcus equi depends on mycolic acid chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, Tobias; von Bargen, Kristine; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Huth, Gitta; Holst, Otto; Wohlmann, Jens; Becken, Ulrike; Dykstra, Tobias; Söhl, Kristina; Lindner, Buko; Prescott, John F; Schaible, Ulrich E; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Haas, Albert

    2013-03-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a close relative of Mycobacterium spp. and a facultative intracellular pathogen which arrests phagosome maturation in macrophages before the late endocytic stage. We have screened a transposon mutant library of R. equi for mutants with decreased capability to prevent phagolysosome formation. This screen yielded a mutant in the gene for β-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein)-synthase A (KasA), a key enzyme of the long-chain mycolic acid synthesizing FAS-II system. The longest kasA mutant mycolic acid chains were 10 carbon units shorter than those of wild-type bacteria. Coating of non-pathogenic E. coli with purified wild-type trehalose dimycolate reduced phagolysosome formation substantially which was not the case with shorter kasA mutant-derived trehalose dimycolate. The mutant was moderately attenuated in macrophages and in a mouse infection model, but was fully cytotoxic.Whereas loss of KasA is lethal in mycobacteria, R. equi kasA mutant multiplication in broth was normal proving that long-chain mycolic acid compounds are not necessarily required for cellular integrity and viability of the bacteria that typically produce them. This study demonstrates a central role of mycolic acid chain length in diversion of trafficking by R. equi. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Post, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Food chain length (FCL) is a fundamental component of food web structure. Studies in a variety of ecosystems suggest that FCL is determined by energy supply, environmental stability, and/or ecosystem size, but the nature of the relationship between environmental stability and FCL, and the mechanism linking ecosystem size to FCL, remain unclear. Here we show that FCL increases with drainage area and decreases with hydrologic variability and intermittency across 36 North American rivers. Our analysis further suggests that hydrologic variability is the mechanism underlying the correlation between ecosystem size and FCL in rivers. Ecosystem size lengthens river food chains by integrating and attenuating discharge variation through stream networks, thereby enhancing environmental stability in larger river systems.

  10. Micellar dipolar rearrangement is sensitive to hydrophobic chain length: Implication for structural switchover of piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethy, Dasaratha; Chakraborty, Hirak

    2016-10-01

    The interfacial properties of the membrane are exceptionally vital in drug-membrane interaction. They not only select out a particular prototropic form of the drug molecule for incorporation, but are also potent enough to induce structural switchover of these drugs in several cases. In this work, we quantitatively monitored the change in dipolar rearrangement of the micellar interface (as a simplified membrane mimic) by measuring the dielectric constant and dipole potential with the micellization of SDS at pH 3.6. The dielectric constant and dipole potential were measured utilizing the fluorescence of polarity sensitive probe, pyrene and potential-sensitive probe, di-8-ANEPPS, respectively. Our study demonstrates that the change in dipolar rearrangement directly influences the switchover equilibrium between the anionic and neutral from of piroxicam. We have further extended our work to evaluate the effect of hydrophobic chain length of the surfactants on the dipolar rearrangement and its effect on the structural switchover of piroxicam. It is interesting that the extent of switchover of piroxicam is directly correlated with the dipolar rearrangement induced bythe varying hydrophobic chain length of the surfactants. To the best of our knowledge, our results constitute the first report to show the dependence of dipole potential on the hydrophobic chain length of the surfactant and demonstrate that the dipolar rearrangement directly tunes the extent of structural switchover of piroxicam, which was so far only intuitive. We consider that this new finding would have promising implication in drug distribution and drug efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dependence of micelle size and shape on detergent alkyl chain length and head group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C Oliver

    Full Text Available Micelle-forming detergents provide an amphipathic environment that can mimic lipid bilayers and are important tools for solubilizing membrane proteins for functional and structural investigations in vitro. However, the formation of a soluble protein-detergent complex (PDC currently relies on empirical screening of detergents, and a stable and functional PDC is often not obtained. To provide a foundation for systematic comparisons between the properties of the detergent micelle and the resulting PDC, a comprehensive set of detergents commonly used for membrane protein studies are systematically investigated. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, micelle shapes and sizes are determined for phosphocholines with 10, 12, and 14 alkyl carbons, glucosides with 8, 9, and 10 alkyl carbons, maltosides with 8, 10, and 12 alkyl carbons, and lysophosphatidyl glycerols with 14 and 16 alkyl carbons. The SAXS profiles are well described by two-component ellipsoid models, with an electron rich outer shell corresponding to the detergent head groups and a less electron dense hydrophobic core composed of the alkyl chains. The minor axis of the elliptical micelle core from these models is constrained by the length of the alkyl chain, and increases by 1.2-1.5 Å per carbon addition to the alkyl chain. The major elliptical axis also increases with chain length; however, the ellipticity remains approximately constant for each detergent series. In addition, the aggregation number of these detergents increases by ∼16 monomers per micelle for each alkyl carbon added. The data provide a comprehensive view of the determinants of micelle shape and size and provide a baseline for correlating micelle properties with protein-detergent interactions.

  12. Lipid polymorphism of mixtures of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine and saturated and monounsaturated phosphatidylcholines of various chain lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tate, M.W.; Gruner, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The L/sub α/-H/sub II/ phase transition behavior of many lipid-water liquid crystals is dominated by the competition between the tendency to curl the lipid layers to an intrinsic radius of curvature and opposing hydrocarbon packing constraints. In particular, packing constraints can increase the free energy of the inverted hexagonal (H/sub II/) phase as compared to that of the lamellar (L/sub α/) phase. This is especially true where the lipid molecule is not long enough to reach into the corners of the lattice in large hexagonal structures necessitated by a large radius of curvature.In this paper it is shown that the addition of a minor fraction long-chain lipid to a system of otherwise uniform chain composition can also relax packing constraints, thereby lowering the lamellar to hexagonal transition temperature. For the specific systems used, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (di-18:1/sub c/-PE) with minor fractions of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines [di-n:1/sub c/-PC (n = 14, 18, 22, and 24)], the observed H/sub II/lattices systematically increased in size with increasing chain length suggesting that the chain length also may affect the intrinsic curvature of the mixture. These experiments demonstrate that the lipid shape concept, which is a qualitative expression of the concept quantitatively described by the intrinsic radius of curvature, is insufficient to understand the L/sub α/-H/sub II/ transition. It is necessary to, at least, consider the competition between curvature and packing

  13. Alkyl chain length impacts the antioxidative effect of lipophilized ferulic acid in fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Lyneborg, Karina Sieron; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Lipophilization of phenolics by esterification with fatty alcohols may alter their localization in an emulsion and thereby their antioxidant efficacy. In this study, synthesized unbranched alkyl ferulates were evaluated as antioxidants in fish oil enriched milk. Lipid oxidation was determined...... by peroxide values and concentration of volatile oxidation products. A cut-off effect in the antioxidant efficacy in relation to the alkyl chain length was observed. The most efficient alkyl ferulate was methyl ferulate followed by ferulic acid and butyl ferulate, whereas octyl ferulate was prooxidative...

  14. Perspectives of medium chain length poly(hydroxyalkanoates), a versatile set of bacterial bioplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witholt; Kessler

    1999-06-01

    Medium chain length (mcl) poly(hydroxyalkanoic acids) (PHAs) are polyesters accumulated by fluorescent Pseudomonads and other bacteria. Work on the genetics of mcl-PHA formation has led to polymer synthesis in recombinant bacteria and plants. Several high and medium cost applications are now emerging. With optimized bacterial mcl-PHA synthesis on inexpensive agro-substrates and the development of plant-based mcl-PHAs in the next decade, the production economics of these bioplastics will ultimately permit their sustainable production for bulk applications.

  15. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoi, Kuan Hoon; Chia, Chin-Hua; Zakaria, Sarani; Chiu, Wee Siong

    2015-01-01

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature

  16. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoi, Kuan Hoon; Chia, Chin-Hua, E-mail: chia@ukm.edu.my; Zakaria, Sarani [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Chiu, Wee Siong [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature.

  17. Effect of Chain Length Compatibility of Alcohols on Muscovite Flotation by Dodecyl Amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A portion of dodecyl amine (DDA in a muscovite flotation system was replaced with alcohols with different carbon-chain lengths. These alcohols included octanol (OCT; decanol (DEC; dodecanol (DOD; and tetradecanol (TER. The muscovite adsorption behavior of the mixed DDA and alcohol systems were investigated through zeta potential; contact angle; and adsorption quantity tests. Single-mineral flotation tests showed that the muscovite-collecting power of the mixed DDA/alcohol (OCT, DEC, or DOD system was stronger than that of the pure DDA system. The muscovite-collecting power of the collector systems decreased in the following order: DDA/DEC > DDA/OCT > DDA/DEC > DDA > DDA/TER. Zeta potential and contact angle analysis indicated that when combined with DDA; alcohols physically adsorbed on the surfaces of muscovite. This behavior improved the hydrophobicity of muscovite. Furthermore, adsorption analysis revealed that synergy between DDA and alcohol enhanced the adsorption of alcohol on muscovite. DDA has a dominant role in synergistic adsorption; whereas alcohol has a supporting role. Among all tested alcohols; DDA and DOD exhibit the highest synergetic adsorption effect because of their similar carbon-chain lengths. This similarity promotes the formation of a compact adsorption layer on the muscovite surface.

  18. Effect of the Alkyl Chain Length on the Adsorption Properties of Malonamide Chelating Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.M.; Nogami, M.; Suzuki, K.

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of the alkyl chain length of malonamide chelating resins on the rate of uptake of U(VI) ions and Ce(III) Ions, lV,N,N',N'-tetraethyl malonamide (TEMA), N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-propyl malonamide (TPrMA), lV,lV,N',N'-tetra-n-butyl malonamide (TBMA) and N,l V,N',N'-tetra-n-pentyl malonamide (Tamp) chelating resins were synthesized by chemically bonding these function groups to CMS-DVB co-polymer beads. N,lV,N',N'-tetraphenyl malonamide (TPhMA) chelating resin was also investigated and the results of these resins were compared with those of N,lY,N',N-tetra methylmalonamide (TMMA) previously reported. The batch technique was used to study the thermodynamic equilibrium, in terms of distribution coefficient, and the kinetics of the adsorption U(VI) and Ce(III) ions from 3 M HNO 3 , Acid, and 3 M NaNO 3 + 0.05 M HNO 3 , Salt, media. The introduction ratio of the function group into the polymer base and the uptake of U(VI) ions and C(III) ions were found to decrease with the increase in the alkyl chain length. The uptake was found to diminish in case of TPhMA resin due to the decrease of the function group ratio and the steric-hinder effect

  19. Pricing strategy in a dual-channel and remanufacturing supply chain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengzhi; Xu, Feng; Sheng, Zhaohan

    2010-07-01

    This article addresses the pricing strategy problems in a supply chain system where the manufacturer sells original products and remanufactured products via indirect retailer channels and direct Internet channels. Due to the complexity of that system, agent technologies that provide a new way for analysing complex systems are used for modelling. Meanwhile, in order to reduce the computational load of searching procedure for optimal prices and profits, a learning search algorithm is designed and implemented within the multi-agent supply chain model. The simulation results show that the proposed model can find out optimal prices of original products and remanufactured products in both channels, which lead to optimal profits of the manufacturer and the retailer. It is also found that the optimal profits are increased by introducing direct channel and remanufacturing. Furthermore, the effect of customer preference, direct channel cost and remanufactured unit cost on optimal prices and profits are examined.

  20. Variable-Length Coding with Stop-Feedback for the Common-Message Broadcast Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Yang, Wei; Durisi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the maximum coding rate over a K-user discrete memoryless broadcast channel for the scenario where a common message is transmitted using variable-length stop-feedback codes. Specifically, upon decoding the common message, each decoder sends a stop signal to the encoder...... of these bounds reveal that---contrary to the point-to-point case---the second-order term in the asymptotic expansion of the maximum coding rate decays inversely proportional to the square root of the average blocklength. This holds for certain nontrivial common-message broadcast channels, such as the binary......, which transmits continuously until it receives all K stop signals. We present nonasymptotic achievability and converse bounds for the maximum coding rate, which strengthen and generalize the bounds previously reported in Trillingsgaard et al. (2015) for the two-user case. An asymptotic analysis...

  1. Pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method: Simulations of θ polymers of chain length up to 1000000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassberger, P.

    1997-01-01

    We present an algorithm for simulating flexible chain polymers. It combines the Rosenbluth-Rosenbluth method with recursive enrichment. Although it can be applied also in more general situations, it is most efficient for three-dimensional θ polymers on the simple-cubic lattice. There it allows high statistics simulations of chains of length up to N=10 6 . For storage reasons, this is feasable only for polymers in a finite volume. For free θ polymers in infinite volume, we present very high statistics runs with N=10000. These simulations fully agree with previous simulations made by Hegger and Grassberger [J. Chem. Phys. 102, 6681 (1995)] with a similar but less efficient algorithm, showing that logarithmic corrections to mean field behavior are much stronger than predicted by field theory. But the finite volume simulations show that the density inside a collapsed globule scales with the distance from the θ point as predicted by mean field theory, in contrast to claims in the work mentioned above. In addition to the simple-cubic lattice, we also studied two versions of the bond fluctuation model, but with much shorter chains. Finally, we show that our method can be applied also to off-lattice models, and illustrate this with simulations of a model studied in detail by Freire et al. [Macromolecules 19, 452 (1986) and later work]. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. Alignment-free Transcriptomic and Metatranscriptomic Comparison Using Sequencing Signatures with Variable Length Markov Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Weinan; Ren, Jie; Wang, Kun; Wang, Shun; Zeng, Feng; Wang, Ying; Sun, Fengzhu

    2016-11-23

    The comparison between microbial sequencing data is critical to understand the dynamics of microbial communities. The alignment-based tools analyzing metagenomic datasets require reference sequences and read alignments. The available alignment-free dissimilarity approaches model the background sequences with Fixed Order Markov Chain (FOMC) yielding promising results for the comparison of microbial communities. However, in FOMC, the number of parameters grows exponentially with the increase of the order of Markov Chain (MC). Under a fixed high order of MC, the parameters might not be accurately estimated owing to the limitation of sequencing depth. In our study, we investigate an alternative to FOMC to model background sequences with the data-driven Variable Length Markov Chain (VLMC) in metatranscriptomic data. The VLMC originally designed for long sequences was extended to apply to high-throughput sequencing reads and the strategies to estimate the corresponding parameters were developed. The flexible number of parameters in VLMC avoids estimating the vast number of parameters of high-order MC under limited sequencing depth. Different from the manual selection in FOMC, VLMC determines the MC order adaptively. Several beta diversity measures based on VLMC were applied to compare the bacterial RNA-Seq and metatranscriptomic datasets. Experiments show that VLMC outperforms FOMC to model the background sequences in transcriptomic and metatranscriptomic samples. A software pipeline is available at https://d2vlmc.codeplex.com.

  3. Characterization of a Novel Subgroup of Extracellular Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate Depolymerases from Actinobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoiti, Joana; Santos, Marta; Prieto, María Auxiliadora; de la Mata, Isabel; Llama, María J.

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen medium-chain-length (mcl) poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA)-degrading microorganisms were isolated from natural sources. From them, seven Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria were identified. The ability of these microorganisms to hydrolyze other biodegradable plastics, such as short-chain-length (scl) PHA, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene succinate) (PES), and poly(l-lactide) (PLA), has been studied. On the basis of the great ability to degrade different polyesters, Streptomyces roseolus SL3 was selected, and its extracellular depolymerase was biochemically characterized. The enzyme consisted of one polypeptide chain of 28 kDa with a pI value of 5.2. Its maximum activity was observed at pH 9.5 with chromogenic substrates. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed mcl PHA and PCL but not scl PHA, PES, and PLA. Moreover, the mcl PHA depolymerase can hydrolyze various substrates for esterases, such as tributyrin and p-nitrophenyl (pNP)-alkanoates, with its maximum activity being measured with pNP-octanoate. Interestingly, when poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate [11%]) was used as the substrate, the main hydrolysis product was the monomer (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoate. In addition, the genes of several Actinobacteria strains, including S. roseolus SL3, were identified on the basis of the peptide de novo sequencing of the Streptomyces venezuelae SO1 mcl PHA depolymerase by tandem mass spectrometry. These enzymes did not show significant similarity to mcl PHA depolymerases characterized previously. Our results suggest that these distinct enzymes might represent a new subgroup of mcl PHA depolymerases. PMID:22865072

  4. Shot Noise Suppression in a Quantum Point Contact with Short Channel Length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Heejun

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study on the current shot noise of a quantum point contact with short channel length is reported. The experimentally measured maximum energy level spacing between the ground and the first excited state of the device reached up to 7.5 meV, probably due to the hard wall confinement by using shallow electron gas and sharp point contact geometry. The two-dimensional non-equilibrium shot noise contour map shows noise suppression characteristics in a wide range of bias voltage. Fano factor analysis indicates spin-polarized transport through a short quantum point contact. (paper)

  5. The impact of channel path length on PEMFC flow-field design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimpalee, S.; Greenway, S.; Van Zee, J.W. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2006-09-29

    Distributions in reactant species concentration in a PEMFC due to local consumption of fuel and local transport of water through the membrane cause distributions in current density, temperature, and water concentration in three dimensions in a PEMFC. These distributions can lead to flooding or drying of the membrane that may shorten the life of an MEA. Changing the cell's flow-field pattern to distribute the gas more evenly is one method of minimizing these stresses. This paper investigates how 200cm{sup 2} serpentine flow-fields with different number of gas paths, and thus different gas path lengths, affect performance and species distribution. The results show how the local temperature, water content, and current density distributions become more uniform for serpentine flow-field designs with shorter path lengths or larger number of channels. These results may be used to develop universal heuristics and dimensionless number correlations in the design of flow-fields and stacks. (author)

  6. Pricing Decisions of a Dual-Channel Supply Chain considering Supply Disruption Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancong Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply disruption may cause strong complaints of customers, which is a cost loss for the firms in the supply chain. Obviously, if realizing that there is the disruption risk, the members in a supply chain will adjust their decisions. For analyzing the influence, we consider a popular supply chain mode with dual channels, where one manufacturer has its direct sales channel and one traditional retailer channel. The manufacturer may suffer a supply disruption so that all ordered products by the retailer or the direct retail channel will be lost, and the members in supply chain will bear the corresponding disruption penalty from the customers. By considering four structures with different market power relations, the closed-form optimal price decisions of the four models are given. We found that the disruption factor improves the sales prices for any member structure as compared to the supply chain without the disruption. And the direct retail prices in the different modes are the same as each other, but the price of the traditional channel is influenced by the market share. And the sorts of the sales prices under different structures are given. We also conduct some extensive numerical analysis and compare the results under different structures. We observe that the expected optimal profits of considering the external penalty are smaller than those of no external penalty, and we give a sort of the optimal expected profits. And we also provide the effects of some parameters on the optimal decisions and the optimal expected profits.

  7. The effect of carbon chain length of starting materials on the formation of carbon dots and their optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaohua; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Xiaobo; Pan, Wei; Yu, Guifeng; Si, Shuxin; Wang, Jinping

    2018-04-01

    Carbon dots (CDs) have attracted increasing attention due to their high performances and potential applications in wide range of areas. However, their emission mechanism is not clear so far. In order to reveal more factors contributing to the emission of CDs, the effect of carbon chain length of starting materials on the formation of CDs and their optical properties was experimentally investigated in this work. In order to focus on the effect of carbon chain length, the starting materials with C, O, N in fully identical forms and only carbon chain lengths being different were selected for synthesizing CDs, including citric acid (CA) and adipic acid (AA) as carbon sources, and diamines with different carbon chain lengths (H2N(CH2)nNH2, n = 2, 4, 6) as nitrogen sources, as well as ethylenediamine (EDA) as nitrogen source and diacids with different carbon chain lengths (HOOC(CH2)nCOOH, n = 0, 2, 4, 6) as carbon sources. Therefore, the effect of carbon chain length of starting materials on the formation and optical properties of CDs can be systematically investigated by characterizing and comparing the structures and optical properties of as-prepared nine types of CDs. Moreover, the density of –NH2 on the surface of the CDs was quantitatively detected by a spectrophotometry so as to elucidate the relationship between the –NH2 related surface state and the optical properties.

  8. Soliton scatterings by impurities in a short-length sine-Gordon chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikande, A.M.; Kofane, T.C.

    1995-07-01

    The scattering of soliton by impurities at the frontiers of a finite-length region of an infinite sine-Gordon chain is analyzed. The impurities consist of two isotopic inhomogeneities installed at the boundaries of the finite-length region. The soliton solution in the region is found in term of snoidal sine-Gordon soliton which properly takes into account the effects of the boundaries. By contrast, the soliton solutions in the neighboring sides of the region are obtained in terms of the so-called large-amplitude, localized kinks with limiting spatial extensions at x → ± ∞, which is equal ±π. Using the continuity of these soliton solutions at the frontiers as well as appropriate boundary conditions, it is shown that the soliton may be either i) reflected by the incident impurity; ii) trapped (with oscillating motions) between the two impurities (i.e. inside the infinite region); or iii) transmitted by the second impurity into the third, infinitely extended region. The threshold velocities for the reflection and transmission into different regions are found and shown to vary exponentially as a function of the length of the bounded region. The frequency of soliton oscillations between the impurities has also been calculated in some acceptable limit. (author). 28 refs, 1 fig

  9. Topological and metric properties of linear and circular DNA chains in nano-slits and nano-channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandini, Enzo; Micheletti, Cristian

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by recent advancements in single DNA molecule experiments, based on nanofluidic devices, we investigate numerically the metric and topological properties of a modelof open and circular DNA chains confined inside nano-slits and nano-channles. The results reveal an interesting characterization of the metric crossover behaviour in terms of the abundance, type and length of occuring knots. In particular we find that the knotting probability is nonmonotonic for increasing confinement and can be largely enhanced or suppressed, compared to the bulk case, by simply varying the slit or channel trasversal dimension. The observed knot population consists of knots that are far simpler than for DNA chains in spherical (i.e. cavities or capsids) confinement. These results suggest that nanoslits and nanochannels can be properly designed to produce open DNA chains hosting simple knots or to sieve DNA rings according to their knotted state. Finally we discuss the implications that the presence of knots may have on the dynamical properties of confined DNA chains such as chain elongation, injection/ejection processes and entanglement relaxation. We acknowledge financial support from the Italian ministry of education, grant PRIN 2010HXAW77.

  10. Asymmetric functional contributions of acidic and aromatic side chains in sodium channel voltage-sensor domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Elstone, Fisal D; Niciforovic, Ana P

    2014-01-01

    largely enigmatic. To this end, natural and unnatural side chain substitutions were made in the S2 hydrophobic core (HC), the extracellular negative charge cluster (ENC), and the intracellular negative charge cluster (INC) of the four VSDs of the skeletal muscle sodium channel isoform (NaV1......Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels mediate electrical excitability in animals. Despite strong sequence conservation among the voltage-sensor domains (VSDs) of closely related voltage-gated potassium (KV) and NaV channels, the functional contributions of individual side chains in Nav VSDs remain.......4). The results show that the highly conserved aromatic side chain constituting the S2 HC makes distinct functional contributions in each of the four NaV domains. No obvious cation-pi interaction exists with nearby S4 charges in any domain, and natural and unnatural mutations at these aromatic sites produce...

  11. Chain length effects on the vibrational structure and molecular interactions in the liquid normal alkyl alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Wagenfeld, Sabine; Kerlé, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Alkyl alcohols are widely used in academia, industry, and our everyday lives, e.g. as cleaning agents and solvents. Vibrational spectroscopy is commonly used to identify and quantify these compounds, but also to study their structure and behavior. However, a comprehensive investigation and comparison of all normal alkanols that are liquid at room temperature has not been performed, surprisingly. This study aims at bridging this gap with a combined experimental and computational effort. For this purpose, the alkyl alcohols from methanol to undecan-1-ol have been analyzed using infrared and Raman spectroscopy. A detailed assignment of the individual peaks is presented and the influence of the alkyl chain length on the hydrogen bonding network is discussed. A 2D vibrational mapping allows a straightforward visualization of the effects. The conclusions drawn from the experimental data are backed up with results from Monte Carlo simulations using the simulation package Cassandra.

  12. Synthesis of medium-chain length capsinoids from coconut oil catalyzed by Candida rugosa lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trbojević Ivić, Jovana; Milosavić, Nenad; Dimitrijević, Aleksandra; Gavrović Jankulović, Marija; Bezbradica, Dejan; Kolarski, Dušan; Veličković, Dušan

    2017-03-01

    A commercial preparation of Candida rugosa lipases (CRL) was tested for the production of capsinoids by esterification of vanillyl alcohol (VA) with free fatty acids (FA) and coconut oil (CO) as acyl donors. Screening of FA chain length indicated that C8-C12 FA (the most common FA found in CO triglycerides) are the best acyl-donors, yielding 80-85% of their specific capsinoids. Hence, when CO, which is rich in these FA, was used as the substrate, a mixture of capsinoids (vanillyl caprylate, vanillyl decanoate and vanillyl laurate) was obtained. The findings presented here suggest that our experimental method can be applied for the enrichment of CO with capsinoids, thus giving it additional health promoting properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Role of Chain Length in Nonergodicity Factor and Fragility of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalle-Ferrie, Cecile; Niss, Kristine; Sokolov, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism that leads to different fragility values upon approaching the glass transition remains a topic of active discussion. Many researchers are trying to find an answer in the properties of the frozen glassy state. Following this approach, we focus here on a previously proposed relationship...... between the fragility of glass-formers and their nonergodicity factor, determined by inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) in the glass. We extend this molecular liquid study to two model polymers— polystyrene (PS) and polyisobutylene (PIB)—for which we change the molecular weight. Polymers offer...... the opportunity to change the fragility without altering the chemical structure, just by changing the chain length. Thus, we specifically chose PS and PIB because they exhibit opposite dependences of fragility with molecular weight. Our analysis for these two polymers reveals no unique correlation between...

  14. Effect of surfactant chain length on drug release kinetics from microemulsion-laden contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Desai, Ankita R; Choksi, Harsh H; Patil, Rahul J; Ranch, Ketan M; Vyas, Bhavin A; Shah, Dinesh O

    2017-05-30

    The effect of surfactant chain lengths [sodium caprylate (C 8 ), Tween 20 (C 12 ), Tween 80 (C 18 )] and the molecular weight of block copolymers [Pluronic F68 and Pluronic F 127] were studied to determine the stability of the microemulsion and its effect on release kinetics from cyclosporine-loaded microemulsion-laden hydrogel contact lenses in this work. Globule size and dilution tests (transmittance) suggested that the stability of the microemulsion increases with increase in the carbon chain lengths of surfactants and the molecular weight of pluronics. The optical transmittance of direct drug-laden contact lenses [DL-100] was low due to the precipitation of hydrophobic drugs in the lenses, while in microemulsion-laden lenses, the transmittance was improved when stability of the microemulsion was achieved. The results of in vitro release kinetics revealed that drug release was sustained to a greater extent as the stability of microemulsion was improved as well. This was evident in batch PF127-T80, which showed sustained release for 15days in comparison to batch DL-100, which showed release up to 7days. An in vivo drug release study in rabbit tear fluid showed significant increase in mean residence time (MRT) and area under curve (AUC) with PF-127-T80 lenses (stable microemulsion) in comparison to PF-68-SC lenses (unstable microemulsion) and DL-100 lenses. This study revealed the correlation between the stability of microemulsion and the release kinetics of drugs from contact lenses. Thus, it was inferred that the stable microemulsion batches sustained the release of hydrophobic drugs, such as cyclosporine from contact lenses for an extended period of time without altering critical lens properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tuning the Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites Filled with Grafted Nanoparticles by Varying the Grafted Chain Length and Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixuan Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By employing coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, we simulate the spatial organization of the polymer-grafted nanoparticles (NPs in homopolymer matrix and the resulting mechanical performance, by particularly regulating the grafted chain length and flexibility. The morphologies ranging from the agglomerate, cylinder, sheet, and string to full dispersion are observed, by gradually increasing the grafted chain length. The radial distribution function and the total interaction energy between NPs are calculated. Meanwhile, the stress–strain behavior of each morphology and the morphological evolution during the uniaxial tension are simulated. In particular, the sheet structure exhibits the best mechanical reinforcement compared to other morphologies. In addition, the change of the grafted chain flexibility to semi-flexibility leads to the variation of the morphology. We also find that at long grafted chain length, the stress–strain behavior of the system with the semi-flexible grafted chain begins to exceed that of the system with the flexible grafted chain, attributed to the physical inter-locking interaction between the matrix and grafted polymer chains. A similar transition trend is as well found in the presence of the interfacial chemical couplings between grafted and matrix polymer chains. In general, this work is expected to help to design and fabricate high performance polymer nanocomposites filled with grafted NPs with excellent and controllable mechanical properties.

  16. Supplemental Dietary Inulin of Variable Chain Lengths Alters Intestinal Bacterial Populations in Young Pigs123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jannine K.; Yasuda, Koji; Welch, Ross M.; Miller, Dennis D.; Lei, Xin Gen

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we showed that supplementation of diets with short-chain inulin (P95), long-chain inulin (HP), and a 50:50 mixture of both (Synergy 1) improved body iron status and altered expression of the genes involved in iron homeostasis and inflammation in young pigs. However, the effects of these 3 types of inulin on intestinal bacteria remain unknown. Applying terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we determined the abundances of luminal and adherent bacterial populations from 6 segments of the small and large intestines of pigs (n = 4 for each group) fed an iron-deficient basal diet (BD) or the BD supplemented with 4% of P95, Synergy 1, or HP for 5 wk. Compared with BD, all 3 types of inulin enhanced (P inulin on bacterial populations in the lumen contents were found. Meanwhile, all 3 types of inulin suppressed the less desirable bacteria Clostridium spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae in the lumen and mucosa of various gut segments. Our findings suggest that the ability of dietary inulin to alter intestinal bacterial populations may partially account for its iron bioavailability-promoting effect and possibly other health benefits. PMID:20980641

  17. Interactions of Bargaining Power and Introduction of Online Channel in Two Competing Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of dual-channel format on supply chain’s competition ability and the effect of different bargaining powers on the competition between two supply chains and the optimal pricing decisions of all supply chain members when one supply chain introduces an online retailing channel. We develop four game models and obtain the optimal pricing decisions in closed form of these models and give some sensitivity analysis through numerical approach. Some new managerial insights are obtained as follows: Regardless of the two supply chain members’ bargaining forms, the optimal price, the maximal demand, and the maximal profit decrease as the self-price sensitivity decreases. The industry holds advantage in getting higher profit when the supply chain without online retailing channel is led by the retailer. In addition, we find that a manufacturer as a leader of its supply chain can get more profit when the competing supply chain’s leader is the manufacturer than when the competing supply chain’s leader is the retailer.

  18. Critical temperatures and a critical chain length in saturated diacylphosphatidylcholines: calorimetric, ultrasonic and Monte Carlo simulation study of chain-melting/ordering in aqueous lipid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharakoz, Dmitry P; Panchelyuga, Maria S; Tiktopulo, Elizaveta I; Shlyapnikova, Elena A

    2007-12-01

    Chain-ordering/melting transition in a series of saturated diacylphosphatidylcholines (PCs) in aqueous dispersions have been studied experimentally (calorimetric and ultrasonic techniques) and theoretically (an Ising-like lattice model). The shape of the calorimetric curves was compared with the theoretical data and interpreted in terms of the lateral interactions and critical temperatures determined for each lipid studied. A critical chain length has been found (between 16 and 17 C-atoms per chain) which subdivides PCs into two classes with different phase behavior. In shorter lipids, the transition takes place above their critical temperatures meaning that this is an intrinsically continuous transition. In longer lipids, the transition occurs below the critical temperatures of the lipids, meaning that the transition is intrinsically discontinuous (first-order). This conclusion was supported independently by the ultrasonic relaxation sensitive to density fluctuations. Interestingly, it is this length that is the most abundant among the saturated chains in biological membranes.

  19. From four- to two-channel Kondo effect in junctions of XY spin chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Giuliano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Kondo effect in Y-junctions of anisotropic XY models in an applied magnetic field along the critical lines characterized by a gapless excitation spectrum. We find that, while the boundary interaction Hamiltonian describing the junction can be recasted in the form of a four-channel, spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Kondo Hamiltonian, the number of channels effectively participating in the Kondo effect depends on the chain parameters, as well as on the boundary couplings at the junction. The system evolves from an effective four-channel topological Kondo effect for a junction of XX-chains with symmetric boundary couplings into a two-channel one at a junction of three quantum critical Ising chains. The effective number of Kondo channels depends on the properties of the boundary and of the bulk. The XX-line is a “critical” line, where a four-channel topological Kondo effect can be recovered by fine-tuning the boundary parameter, while along the line in parameter space connecting the XX-line and the critical Ising point the junction is effectively equivalent to a two-channel topological Kondo Hamiltonian. Using a renormalization group approach, we determine the flow of the boundary couplings, which allows us to define and estimate the critical couplings and Kondo temperatures of the different Kondo (pair channels. Finally, we study the local transverse magnetization in the center of the Y-junction, eventually arguing that it provides an effective tool to monitor the onset of the two-channel Kondo effect.

  20. From four- to two-channel Kondo effect in junctions of XY spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Tagliacozzo, Arturo; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We consider the Kondo effect in Y-junctions of anisotropic XY models in an applied magnetic field along the critical lines characterized by a gapless excitation spectrum. We find that, while the boundary interaction Hamiltonian describing the junction can be recasted in the form of a four-channel, spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Kondo Hamiltonian, the number of channels effectively participating in the Kondo effect depends on the chain parameters, as well as on the boundary couplings at the junction. The system evolves from an effective four-channel topological Kondo effect for a junction of XX-chains with symmetric boundary couplings into a two-channel one at a junction of three quantum critical Ising chains. The effective number of Kondo channels depends on the properties of the boundary and of the bulk. The XX-line is a “critical” line, where a four-channel topological Kondo effect can be recovered by fine-tuning the boundary parameter, while along the line in parameter space connecting the XX-line and the critical Ising point the junction is effectively equivalent to a two-channel topological Kondo Hamiltonian. Using a renormalization group approach, we determine the flow of the boundary couplings, which allows us to define and estimate the critical couplings and Kondo temperatures of the different Kondo (pair) channels. Finally, we study the local transverse magnetization in the center of the Y-junction, eventually arguing that it provides an effective tool to monitor the onset of the two-channel Kondo effect.

  1. From four- to two-channel Kondo effect in junctions of XY spin chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliano, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.giuliano@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende I-87036, Cosenza (Italy); INFN, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende I-87036, Cosenza (Italy); Sodano, Pasquale, E-mail: pasquale.sodano02@gmail.com [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-400 Natal, RN (Brazil); Departemento de Física Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Tagliacozzo, Arturo, E-mail: arturo.tagliacozzo@na.infn.it [INFN, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende I-87036, Cosenza (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Monte S. Angelo-Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN, Monte S. Angelo-Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Trombettoni, Andrea, E-mail: andreatr@sissa.it [CNR-IOM DEMOCRITOS Simulation Center, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); SISSA and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    We consider the Kondo effect in Y-junctions of anisotropic XY models in an applied magnetic field along the critical lines characterized by a gapless excitation spectrum. We find that, while the boundary interaction Hamiltonian describing the junction can be recasted in the form of a four-channel, spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Kondo Hamiltonian, the number of channels effectively participating in the Kondo effect depends on the chain parameters, as well as on the boundary couplings at the junction. The system evolves from an effective four-channel topological Kondo effect for a junction of XX-chains with symmetric boundary couplings into a two-channel one at a junction of three quantum critical Ising chains. The effective number of Kondo channels depends on the properties of the boundary and of the bulk. The XX-line is a “critical” line, where a four-channel topological Kondo effect can be recovered by fine-tuning the boundary parameter, while along the line in parameter space connecting the XX-line and the critical Ising point the junction is effectively equivalent to a two-channel topological Kondo Hamiltonian. Using a renormalization group approach, we determine the flow of the boundary couplings, which allows us to define and estimate the critical couplings and Kondo temperatures of the different Kondo (pair) channels. Finally, we study the local transverse magnetization in the center of the Y-junction, eventually arguing that it provides an effective tool to monitor the onset of the two-channel Kondo effect.

  2. Well-defined block copolymers for gene delivery to dendritic cells: probing the effect of polycation chain-length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rupei; Palumbo, R Noelle; Nagarajan, Lakshmi; Krogstad, Emily; Wang, Chun

    2010-03-03

    The development of safe and efficient polymer carriers for DNA vaccine delivery requires mechanistic understanding of structure-function relationship of the polymer carriers and their interaction with antigen-presenting cells. Here we have synthesized a series of diblock copolymers with well-defined chain-length using atom transfer radical polymerization and characterized the influence of polycation chain-length on the physico-chemical properties of the polymer/DNA complexes as well as the interaction with dendritic cells. The copolymers consist of a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) block and a cationic poly(aminoethyl methacrylate) (PAEM) block. The average degree of polymerization (DP) of the PAEM block was varied among 19, 39, and 75, with nearly uniform distribution. With increasing PAEM chain-length, polyplexes formed by the diblock copolymers and plasmid DNA had smaller average particle size and showed higher stability against electrostatic destabilization by salt and heparin. The polymers were not toxic to mouse dendritic cells (DCs) and only displayed chain-length-dependent toxicity at a high concentration (1mg/mL). In vitro gene transfection efficiency and polyplex uptake in DCs were also found to correlate with chain-length of the PAEM block with the longer polymer chain favoring transfection and cellular uptake. The polyplexes induced a modest up-regulation of surface markers for DC maturation that was not significantly dependent on PAEM chain-length. Finally, the polyplex prepared from the longest PAEM block (DP of 75) achieved an average of 20% enhancement over non-condensed anionic dextran in terms of uptake by DCs in the draining lymph nodes 24h after subcutaneous injection into mice. Insights gained from studying such structurally well-defined polymer carriers and their interaction with dendritic cells may contribute to improved design of practically useful DNA vaccine delivery systems. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pricing Decisions of a Dual-Channel Closed-Loop Supply Chain under Uncertain Demand of Indirect Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dual-channel closed-loop supply chain (CLSC which is composed of one manufacturer and one retailer under uncertain demand of an indirect channel is constructed. In this paper, we establish three pricing models under decentralized decision making, namely, the Nash game between the manufacturer and the retailer, the manufacturer-Stackelberg game, and the retailer-Stackelberg game, to investigate pricing decisions of the CLSC in which the manufacturer uses the direct channel and indirect channel to sell products and entrusts the retailer to collect the used products. We numerically analyze the impact of customer acceptance of the direct channel (θ on pricing decisions and excepted profits of the CLSC. The results show that when the variable θ changes in a certain range, the wholesale price, retail price, and expected profits of the retailer all decrease when θ increases, while the direct online sales price and manufacturer’s expected profits in the retailer-Stackelberg game all increase when θ increases. However, the optimal recycling transfer price and optimal acquisition price of used product are unaffected by θ.

  4. Scaling behaviour of the correlation length for the two-point correlation function in the random field Ising chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Adrian; Stinchcombe, Robin [Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-07

    We study the general behaviour of the correlation length {zeta}(kT:h) for two-point correlation function of the local fields in an Ising chain with binary distributed fields. At zero field it is shown that {zeta} is the same as the zero-field correlation length for the spin-spin correlation function. For the field-dominated behaviour of {zeta} we find an exponent for the power-law divergence which is smaller than the exponent for the spin-spin correlation length. The entire behaviour of the correlation length can be described by a single crossover scaling function involving the new critical exponent. (author)

  5. Control of in vivo disposition and immunogenicity of polymeric micelles by adjusting poly(sarcosine) chain lengths on surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Kensuke; Ueda, Motoki; Hara, Isao; Ozeki, Eiichi; Togashi, Kaori; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2017-07-01

    Four kinds of A3B-type amphiphilic polydepsipeptides, (poly(sarcosine))3- b-poly( l-lactic acid) (the degree of polymerization of poly(sarcosine) are 10, 33, 55, and 85; S10 3 , S33 3 , S55 3 , and S85 3 ) were synthesized to prepare core-shell type polymeric micelles. Their in vivo dispositions and stimulations to trigger immune system to produce IgM upon multiple administrations to mice were examined. With increasing poly(sarcosine) chain lengths, the hydrophilic shell became thicker and the surface density at the most outer surface decreased on the basis of dynamic and static light scattering measurements. These two physical elements of polymeric micelles elicited opposite effects on the immune response in light of the chain length therefore to show an optimized poly(sarcosine) chain length existing between 33mer and 55mer to suppress the accelerated blood clearance phenomenon associated with polymeric micelles.

  6. Dual-Recycling Channel Decision in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Cost Disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanting Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cost disruptions of new and remanufactured products in a closed-loop supply chain where a manufacturer and a third-party collector recycle used products through online-recycling and offline-recycling channels, respectively. We use a Stackelberg game to acquire the equilibrium decisions of dual-recycling and single-recycling channels and analyze how cost disruptions affect the manufacturer’ production and collection strategies. We show that, cost disruption of new products produces a positive impact whilst the remanufacturing cost disruption has a negative impact on collection quantity of used products and negative cost disruptions of both new and remanufactured products could be profitable to the manufacturer. As for the manufacturer’s channel choice, the dual-recycling channel dominates single-recycling channels when new product cost faces positive disruption, because the manufacturer acts as both a buyer and a competitor to the collector and can determine an appropriate acquisition price and transfer price to coordinate the online-offline recycling channel. While if cost disruption of new products is negative, the manufacturer prefers the dual-recycling channel instead of single-recycling channels only if the remanufacturing cost faces large size of negative disruption.

  7. On optimal length of hydrocarbon chain of fatty-acid collectors of rare earth ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrylev, L.D.; Sazonova, V.F.; Markina, Eh.L.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanism of the effect of the length of alkyl chain in fatty-acid collectors on the efficiency of flotation separation of the ions of rare earth elements (REE) collected by them has been investigated. REE flotation separation was studied on gadolinium chloride. Aqueous solutions of potassium caprinata, indecanate, laurate, tridecanate, myristate, pentadecanate and palmitate were used as collectors of Gd ions. The interaction of Gd ions with these compounds proceeds rapidly and is accompanied by stable colloidal solutions of Gd soaps being formed. Infrared spectra and radiograms of the sublates have been studied. It has been found that, with the number of carbon atoms in the collector molecule increasing from 10 to 16, the rate of flotation separation of Gd ions from solutions with pH 6 and 8 at first practically does not change (for potassium caprinate, undecanate and laurate), then drops sharply (potassium tridecanate and myristate), after which is again increases sharply (potassium pentadecanata and palmitate). The separation rate of Gd ions does not rise in solutions with pH 10. The nature of the sublate is shown to be determined by the solubility of the corresponing fatty acids and gadolinium soaps

  8. The interacting effects of temperature and food chain length on trophic abundance and ecosystem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Humphries, Stuart; Petchey, Owen L

    2010-05-01

    1. While much is known about the independent effects of trophic structure and temperature on density and ecosystem processes, less is known about the interaction(s) between the two. 2. We manipulated the temperature of laboratory-based bacteria-protist communities that contained communities with one, two, or three trophic levels, and recorded species' densities and bacterial decomposition. 3. Temperature, food chain length and their interaction produced significant responses in microbial density and bacterial decomposition. Prey and resource density expressed different patterns of temperature dependency during different phases of population dynamics. The addition of a predator altered the temperature-density relationship of prey, from a unimodal trend to a negative one. Bacterial decomposition was greatest in the presence of consumers at higher temperatures. 4. These results are qualitatively consistent with a recent model of direct and indirect temperature effects on resource-consumer population dynamics. Results highlight and reinforce the importance of indirect effects of temperature mediated through trophic interactions. Understanding and predicting the consequences of environmental change will require that indirect effects, trophic structure, and individual species' tolerances be incorporated into theory and models.

  9. Molecular identification of Giardia duodenalis in Ecuador by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Atherton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of Giardia duodenalis present in a human population living in a northern Ecuadorian rain forest. All Giardia positive samples (based on an ELISA assay were analysed using a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay that targets the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh gene; those amplified were subsequently genotyped using NlaIV and RsaI enzymes. The gdh gene was successfully amplified in 74 of 154 ELISA positive samples; 69 of the 74 samples were subsequently genotyped. Of these 69 samples, 42 (61% were classified as assemblage B (26 as BIII and 16 as BIV, 22 (32% as assemblage A (3 as AI and 19 as AII and five (7% as mixed AII and BIII types. In this study site we observe similar diversity in genotypes to other regions in Latin America, though in contrast to some previous studies, we found similar levels of diarrheal symptoms in those individuals infected with assemblage B compared with those infected with assemblage A.

  10. Influence of channel length and layout on TID for 0.18 μm NMOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xue; Wang Xin; Xi Shanbin; Lu Wu; Guo Qi; He Chengfa; Li Yudong; Sun Jing; Wen Lin

    2013-01-01

    Different channel lengths and layouts on 0.18 μm NMOS transistors are designed for investigating the dependence of short channel effects (SCEs) on the width of shallow trench isolation (STI) devices and designing in radiation hardness. Results show that, prior to irradiation, the devices exhibited near-ideal I-V characteristics, with no significant SCEs. Following irradiation, no noticeable shift of threshold voltage is observed, radiation-induced edge-leakage current, however, exhibits significant sensitivity on TID. Moreover, radiation-enhanced drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and channel length modulation (CLM) effects are observed on short-channel NMOS transistors. Comparing to stripe-gate layout, enclosed-gate layout has excellent radiation tolerance. (authors)

  11. Chain length dependence of the helix orientation in Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of alpha-helical diblock copolypeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Le-Thu T.; Ardana, Aditya; Vorenkamp, Eltjo J.; ten Brinke, Gerrit; Schouten, Arend J.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of chain length on the helix orientation of alpha-helical diblock copolypeptides in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers is reported for the first time. Amphiphilic diblock copolypeptides (PLGA-b-PMLGSLGs) of poly(alpha-L-glutamic acid) (PLGA) and

  12. Biosynthesis of Colabomycin E, a New Manumycin-Family Metabolite, Involves an Unusual Chain-Length Factor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petříčková, Kateřina; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Kuzma, Marek; Tylová, Tereza; Jágr, Michal; Tomek, P.; Chroňáková, Alica; Brabcová, E.; Anděra, Ladislav; Krištůfek, Václav; Petříček, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 9 (2014), s. 1334-1345 ISSN 1439-4227 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13012 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : biosynthesis * chain-length factors * manumycins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.088, year: 2014

  13. Development of environmentally friendly coatings and paints using medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) as the polymer binder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walle, van der G.A.M.; Buisman, F.J.H.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Eggink, G.

    1999-01-01

    Unsaturated medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) produced by Pseudomonas putida from linseed oil fatty acids (LOFA) and tall oil fatty acids (TOFA), were used as the polymer binder in the formulation of high solid alkyd-like paints. The relatively high concentration of

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome c551 denaturation by five systematic urea derivatives that differ in the alkyl chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinya; Fujii, Sotaro; Koga, Aya; Wakai, Satoshi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Sambongi, Yoshihiro

    2017-07-01

    Reversible denaturation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome c 551 (PAc 551 ) could be followed using five systematic urea derivatives that differ in the alkyl chain length, i.e. urea, N-methylurea (MU), N-ethylurea (EU), N-propylurea (PU), and N-butylurea (BU). The BU concentration was the lowest required for the PAc 551 denaturation, those of PU, EU, MU, and urea being gradually higher. Furthermore, the accessible surface area difference upon PAc 551 denaturation caused by BU was found to be the highest, those by PU, EU, MU, and urea being gradually lower. These findings indicate that urea derivatives with longer alkyl chains are stronger denaturants. In this study, as many as five systematic urea derivatives could be applied for the reversible denaturation of a single protein, PAc 551 , for the first time, and the effects of the alkyl chain length on protein denaturation were systematically verified by means of thermodynamic parameters.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of radiation grafted FEP films as proton exchange membranes: Effects of the side chain length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xue; Zhao, Yang; Li, Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the microstructure of the prepared potential proton exchange membrane (PEM), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to lucubrate the transport behavior of water molecules and hydronium ions inside the hydrated sulfonated styrene grafted fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP...... whereas larger water clusters formed. The results of the mean square displacements (MSDs) show that the proton conductivities of the membranes with the proposed side chain lengths were about three fifths of the experimental data, of which the membrane with side chain length of 7 sulfonic styrene units...... was supposed to exhibit the highest proton conductivity, that is 115.69 mS cm-1. All of the supposed membrane models presented good proton conductivity that could definitely meet the application requirements of the proton exchange membranes. The MD simulations can provide an insight to the chain structure...

  16. Effects of cloud-point grafting, chain length, and density of PEG layers on competitive adsorption of ocular proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingshott, P.; Thissen, H.; Griesser, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of pinning density, chain length, and 'cloud point' (CP) versus non-CP grafting conditions have been studied on the ability of polyethylene glycol (PEG) layers to minimize adsorption from a multicomponent (lysozyme, human serum albumin (HSA), IgG and lactoferrin) protein solution...... density) r.f.g.d. polymer layers. The PEG graft density was varied also by increasing the temperature and salt (K2SO4) content of the grafting solution; it reached a maximum at the CP of the PEGs. The CP reaction conditions were critical for producing PEG layers capable of minimizing protein adsorption. X...... density and chain length are interrelated, but the key factor is optimization of PEG chain density by use of the CP conditions, provided that a sufficient density of pinning sites exists. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. Al l rights reserved....

  17. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-11-04

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety—unusual for a thiolase—are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys143) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C12 and C14) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ117) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation.

  18. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R; Jensen, Matthew R; Mohamed, Fatuma A; Wackett, Lawrence P; Wilmot, Carrie M

    2016-12-23

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety-unusual for a thiolase-are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys 143 ) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C 12 and C 14 ) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ 117 ) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety—unusual for a thiolase—are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys143) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C12 and C14) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ117) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation. PMID:27815501

  20. Dual influences of ecosystem size and disturbance on food chain length in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Peter A; McIntosh, Angus R; Jellyman, Phillip G

    2010-07-01

    The number of trophic transfers occurring between basal resources and top predators, food chain length (FCL), varies widely in the world's ecosystems for reasons that are poorly understood, particularly for stream ecosystems. Available evidence indicates that FCL is set by energetic constraints, environmental stochasticity, or ecosystem size effects, although no single explanation has yet accounted for FCL patterns in a broad sense. Further, whether environmental disturbance can influence FCL has been debated on both theoretical and empirical grounds for quite some time. Using data from sixteen South Island, New Zealand streams, we determined whether the so-called ecosystem size, disturbance, or resource availability hypotheses could account for FCL variation in high country fluvial environments. Stable isotope-based estimates of maximum trophic position ranged from 2.6 to 4.2 and averaged 3.5, a value on par with the global FCL average for streams. Model-selection results indicated that stream size and disturbance regime best explained across-site patterns in FCL, although resource availability was negatively correlated with our measure of disturbance; FCL approached its maximum in large, stable springs and was disturbed streams. Community data indicate that size influenced FCL, primarily through its influence on local fish species richness (i.e., via trophic level additions and/or insertions), whereas disturbance did so via an effect on the relative availability of intermediate predators (i.e., predatory invertebrates) as prey for fishes. Overall, our results demonstrate that disturbance can have an important food web-structuring role in stream ecosystems, and further imply that pluralistic explanations are needed to fully understand the range of structural variation observed for real food webs.

  1. Cooperation or Competition? Channel Choice for a Remanufacturing Fashion Supply Chain with Government Subsidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangzhou Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problem of choosing an appropriate channel for the marketing channel structure of remanufactured fashion products. To be specific, we consider a remanufacturer who has two options for selling the products: (1 provide the remanufactured products to a manufacturer, then the manufacturer sells both new products and the remanufactured products to customers, and (2 sell the remanufactured products directly to customers. Because of the relatively low acceptance of remanufactured products and environment consciousness of customers in developing countries like China, we model the two scenarios as decentralized remanufacturing supply chains, with the manufacturer being the Stackelberg leader and the government offering subsidy to the remanufacturer to incentivize remanufacturing activities. We find that the subsidy can incentivize remanufacturing activity regardless of the remanufacturer’s channel choice. A “too high” or “too low” subsidy makes the remanufacturer compete with the manufacturer, and an intermediate subsidy results in cooperation between the two members of the remanufacturing supply chain. Meanwhile, if the customers’ acceptance for remanufactured products is higher, the remanufacturer will be more likely to compete with the manufacturer. However, the remanufacturer’s optimal channel choice may be inefficient in the sense of social welfare and environmental protection.

  2. Relationship between Length and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Signal Strength in Metal Nanoparticle Chains: Ideal Models versus Nanofabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen D. Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have employed capillary force deposition on ion beam patterned substrates to fabricate chains of 60 nm gold nanospheres ranging in length from 1 to 9 nanoparticles. Measurements of the surface-averaged SERS enhancement factor strength for these chains were then compared to the numerical predictions. The SERS enhancement conformed to theoretical predictions in the case of only a few chains, with the vast majority of chains tested not matching such behavior. Although all of the nanoparticle chains appear identical under electron microscope observation, the extreme sensitivity of the SERS enhancement to nanoscale morphology renders current nanofabrication methods insufficient for consistent production of coupled nanoparticle chains. Notwithstanding this fact, the aggregate data also confirmed that nanoparticle dimers offer a large improvement over the monomer enhancement while conclusively showing that, within the limitations imposed by current state-of-the-art nanofabrication techniques, chains comprising more than two nanoparticles provide only a marginal signal boost over the already considerable dimer enhancement.

  3. Association mapping of starch chain length distribution and amylose content in pea (Pisum sativum L.) using carbohydrate metabolism candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Margaret A; Shaw, Martin; Cooper, Rebecca D; Frew, Tonya J; Butler, Ruth C; Murray, Sarah R; Moya, Leire; Coyne, Clarice J; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M

    2017-08-01

    Although starch consists of large macromolecules composed of glucose units linked by α-1,4-glycosidic linkages with α-1,6-glycosidic branchpoints, variation in starch structural and functional properties is found both within and between species. Interest in starch genetics is based on the importance of starch in food and industrial processes, with the potential of genetics to provide novel starches. The starch metabolic pathway is complex but has been characterized in diverse plant species, including pea. To understand how allelic variation in the pea starch metabolic pathway affects starch structure and percent amylose, partial sequences of 25 candidate genes were characterized for polymorphisms using a panel of 92 diverse pea lines. Variation in the percent amylose composition of extracted seed starch and (amylopectin) chain length distribution, one measure of starch structure, were characterized for these lines. Association mapping was undertaken to identify polymorphisms associated with the variation in starch chain length distribution and percent amylose, using a mixed linear model that incorporated population structure and kinship. Associations were found for polymorphisms in seven candidate genes plus Mendel's r locus (which conditions the round versus wrinkled seed phenotype). The genes with associated polymorphisms are involved in the substrate supply, chain elongation and branching stages of the pea carbohydrate and starch metabolic pathways. The association of polymorphisms in carbohydrate and starch metabolic genes with variation in amylopectin chain length distribution and percent amylose may help to guide manipulation of pea seed starch structural and functional properties through plant breeding.

  4. Channel length dependence of negative-bias-illumination-stress in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Jae Gwang; Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin, E-mail: jjang@khu.ac.kr [Advanced Display Research Center, Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Migliorato, Piero [Advanced Display Research Center, Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-21

    We have investigated the dependence of Negative-Bias-illumination-Stress (NBIS) upon channel length, in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The negative shift of the transfer characteristic associated with NBIS decreases for increasing channel length and is practically suppressed in devices with L = 100-μm. The effect is consistent with creation of donor defects, mainly in the channel regions adjacent to source and drain contacts. Excellent agreement with experiment has been obtained by an analytical treatment, approximating the distribution of donors in the active layer by a double exponential with characteristic length L{sub D} ∼ L{sub n} ∼ 10-μm, the latter being the electron diffusion length. The model also shows that a device with a non-uniform doping distribution along the active layer is in all equivalent, at low drain voltages, to a device with the same doping averaged over the active layer length. These results highlight a new aspect of the NBIS mechanism, that is, the dependence of the effect upon the relative magnitude of photogenerated holes and electrons, which is controlled by the device potential/band profile. They may also provide the basis for device design solutions to minimize NBIS.

  5. The effect of the chain length distribution of free fatty acids on the mixing properties of stratum corneum model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Masashi; Gooris, Gert S; Bito, Kotatsu; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2014-07-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a fundamental role in the barrier function of the skin. The SC consists of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix. The main lipid classes in the lipid matrix are ceramides (CERs), cholesterol (CHOL) and free fatty acids (FFAs). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the chain length of FFAs on the thermotropic phase behavior and mixing properties of SC lipids. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman imaging spectroscopy were used to study the mixing properties using either protonated or deuterated FFAs. We selected SC model lipid mixtures containing only a single CER, CHOL and either a single FFA or a mixture of FFAs mimicking the FFA SC composition. The single CER consists of a sphingoid base with 18 carbon atoms and an acyl chain with a chain length of 24 carbon atoms. When using lignoceric acid (24 carbon atoms) or a mixture of FFAs, the CER and FFAs participated in mixed crystals, but hydration of the mixtures induced a slight phase separation between CER and FFA. The mixed crystalline structures did not phase separate during storage even up to a time period of 3months. When using palmitic acid (16 carbon atoms), a slight phase separation was observed between FFA and CER. This phase separation was clearly enhanced during hydration and storage. In conclusion, the thermotropic phase behavior and the mixing properties of the SC lipid mixtures were shown to strongly depend on the chain length and chain length distribution of FFAs, while hydration enhanced the phase separation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Proton conducting graft copolymers with tunable length and density of phosphonated side chains for fuel cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Takamuku, Shogo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Polysulfones functionalized with highly phosphonated poly(pentafluorostyrene) side chains of different lengths were synthesized applying controlled polymerization and modification methods. The graft copolymers' thermal properties were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal...... gravimetrical analyses. The proton conductivity of membrane prepared from the graft copolymer with the shortest phosphonated side chains was 134 mS cm(-1) at 100 degrees C under fully immersed conditions. The graft copolymer TEM image shows a nanophase separation of ion-rich segments within the polysulfone...

  7. Development of environmentally friendly coatings and paints using medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) as the polymer binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walle, G A; Buisman, G J; Weusthuis, R A; Eggink, G

    1999-01-01

    Unsaturated medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) produced by Pseudomonas putida from linseed oil fatty acids (LOFA) and tall oil fatty acids (TOFA), were used as the polymer binder in the formulation of high solid alkyd-like paints. The relatively high concentration of unsaturated alkyl side chains incorporated into the PHA resins resulted in oxidative drying PHA paints having excellent coating properties. The homogeneously pigmented PHA coatings yielded high-gloss, smooth and strong films upon curing and showed an excellent flexibility, a good adhesion to different substrates, cohesive film properties and resistance to chipping.

  8. σ-Bond Electron Delocalization in Oligosilanes as Function of Substitution Pattern, Chain Length, and Spatial Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Hlina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polysilanes are known to exhibit the interesting property of σ-bond electron delocalization. By employing optical spectroscopy (UV-vis, it is possible to judge the degree of delocalization and also differentiate parts of the molecules which are conjugated or not. The current study compares oligosilanes of similar chain length but different substitution pattern. The size of the substituents determines the spatial orientation of the main chain and also controls the conformational flexibility. The chemical nature of the substituents affects the orbital energies of the molecules and thus the positions of the absorption bands.

  9. The effect of the cation alkyl chain length on density and diffusion in dialkylpyrrolidinium bis(mandelato)borate ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Andrei; Taher, Mamoun; Shah, Faiz Ullah; Glavatskih, Sergei; Antzutkin, Oleg N

    2014-12-28

    The physicochemical properties of ionic liquids are strongly affected by the selective combination of the cations and anions comprising the ionic liquid. In particular, the length of the alkyl chains of ions has a clear influence on the ionic liquid's performance. In this paper, we study the self-diffusion of ions in a series of halogen-free boron-based ionic liquids (hf-BILs) containing bis(mandelato)borate anions and dialkylpyrrolidinium cations with long alkyl chains CnH2n+1 with n from 4 to 14 within a temperature range of 293-373 K. It was found that the hf-BILs with n = 4-7 have very similar diffusion coefficients, while hf-BILs with n = 10-14 exhibit two liquid sub-phases in almost the entire temperature range studied (293-353 K). Both liquid sub-phases differ in their diffusion coefficients, while values of the slower diffusion coefficients are close to those of hf-BILs with shorter alkyl chains. To explain the particular dependence of diffusion on the alkyl chain length, we examined the densities of the hf-BILs studied here. It was shown that the dependence of the density on the number of CH2 groups in long alkyl chains of cations can be accurately described using a "mosaic type" model, where regions of long alkyl chains of cations (named 'aliphatic' regions) and the residual chemical moieties in both cations and anions (named 'ionic' regions) give additive contributions. Changes in density due to an increase in temperature and the number of CH2 groups in the long alkyl chains of cations are determined predominantly by changes in the free volume of the 'ionic' regions, while 'aliphatic' regions are already highly compressed by van der Waals forces, which results in only infinitesimal changes in their free volumes with temperature.

  10. Effect of side chain length on the stability and structural properties of 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thiophene (DOOPT) and their dimers studied by Hartree-Fock (HF) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. The DFT calculations suggest that dimers of the dialkoxyphenylthiophenes with longer side chains are thermodynamically more ...

  11. Effect of Difference in Fatty Acid Chain Lengths of Medium- Chain Lipids on Lipid/Surfactant/Water Phase Diagrams and Drug Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetal N. Prajapati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipids consisting of medium chain fatty acids are commonly used in the development of lipid-based selfemulsifying and self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems. However, no systematic approach to selecting one lipid over another has been reported in the literature. In this study, propylene glycol (PG monoester (PG monocaprylate, Capmul PG-8® and PG diester (PG dicaprylocaprate, Captex 200P® of C8-fatty acids were compared with PG monoester (PG monolaurate, Capmul PG-12® and PG diester (PG dilaurate, Capmul PG-2L® of C12-fatty acids with respect to their phase diagrams, and especially for their ability to form microemulsions in the presence of a common surfactant, Cremophor EL®, and water. The solubility of two model drugs, danazol and probucol, in the lipids and lipid/surfactant mixtures were also compared. The effect of the chain length of medium-chain fatty acids (C8 versus C12 on the phase diagrams of the lipids was minimal. Both shorter and longer chain lipids formed essentially similar microemulsion and emulsion regions in the presence of Cremophor EL® and water, although the C12-fatty acid esters formed larger gel regions in the phase diagrams than the C8-fatty acid esters. When monoesters were mixed with their respective diesters at 1:1 ratios, larger microemulsion regions with lower lipid particle sizes were observed compared to those obtained with individual lipids alone. While the solubility of both danazol and probucol increased greatly in all lipids studied, compared to their aqueous solubility, the solubility in C12-fatty acid esters was found to be lower than in C8-fatty acid esters when the lipids were used alone. This difference in solubility due to the difference in fatty acid chain length, practically disappeared when the lipids were combined with the surfactant.

  12. Anomaly in the Chain Length Dependence of n-Alkane Diffusion in ZIF-4 Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungtaik Hwang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular diffusion is commonly found to slow down with increasing molecular size. Deviations from this pattern occur in some host materials with pore sizes approaching the diameters of the guest molecules. A variety of theoretical models have been suggested to explain deviations from this pattern, but robust experimental data are scarcely available. Here, we present such data, obtained by monitoring the chain length dependence of the uptake of n-alkanes in the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-4. A monotonic decrease in diffusivity from ethane to n-butane was observed, followed by an increase for n-pentane, and another decrease for n-hexane. This observation was confirmed by uptake measurements with n-butane/n-pentane mixtures, which yield faster uptake of n-pentane. Further evidence is provided by the observation of overshooting effects, i.e., by transient n-pentane concentrations exceeding the (eventually attained equilibrium value. Accompanying grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations reveal, for the larger n-alkanes, significant differences between the adsorbed and gas phase molecular configurations, indicating strong confinement effects within ZIF-4, which, with increasing chain length, may be expected to give rise to configurational shifts facilitating molecular propagation at particular chain lengths.

  13. Anomaly in the Chain Length Dependence of n-Alkane Diffusion in ZIF-4 Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seungtaik; Gopalan, Arun; Hovestadt, Maximilian; Piepenbreier, Frank; Chmelik, Christian; Hartmann, Martin; Snurr, Randall Q; Kärger, Jörg

    2018-03-15

    Molecular diffusion is commonly found to slow down with increasing molecular size. Deviations from this pattern occur in some host materials with pore sizes approaching the diameters of the guest molecules. A variety of theoretical models have been suggested to explain deviations from this pattern, but robust experimental data are scarcely available. Here, we present such data, obtained by monitoring the chain length dependence of the uptake of n- alkanes in the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-4. A monotonic decrease in diffusivity from ethane to n- butane was observed, followed by an increase for n- pentane, and another decrease for n- hexane. This observation was confirmed by uptake measurements with n- butane/ n -pentane mixtures, which yield faster uptake of n- pentane. Further evidence is provided by the observation of overshooting effects, i.e., by transient n- pentane concentrations exceeding the (eventually attained) equilibrium value. Accompanying grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations reveal, for the larger n- alkanes, significant differences between the adsorbed and gas phase molecular configurations, indicating strong confinement effects within ZIF-4, which, with increasing chain length, may be expected to give rise to configurational shifts facilitating molecular propagation at particular chain lengths.

  14. Self-consistent field theoretic simulations of amphiphilic triblock copolymer solutions: Polymer concentration and chain length effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-G. Han

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the self-consistent field lattice model, polymer concentration φP and chain length N (keeping the length ratio of hydrophobic to hydrophilic blocks constant the effects on temperature-dependent behavior of micelles are studied, in amphiphilic symmetric ABA triblock copolymer solutions. When chain length is increased, at fixed φP, micelles occur at higher temperature. The variations of average volume fraction of stickers φcos and the lattice site numbers Ncols at the micellar cores with temperature are dependent on N and φP, which demonstrates that the aggregation of micelles depends on N and φP. Moreover, when φP is increased, firstly a peak appears on the curve of specific heat CV for unimer-micelle transition, and then in addition a primary peak, the secondary peak, which results from the remicellization, is observed on the curve of CV. For a long chain, in intermediate and high concentration regimes, the shape of specific heat peak markedly changes, and the peak tends to be a more broad peak. Finally, the aggregation behavior of micelles is explained by the aggregation way of amphiphilic triblock copolymer. The obtained results are helpful in understanding the micellar aggregation process.

  15. Impact of the alkyl chain length on binding of imidazolium-based ionic liquids to bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengyue; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Hongmei; Cao, Jian; Fei, Zhenghao; Wang, Yanqing

    2018-05-01

    The effects of six imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with different alkyl chain length ([CnMim]Cl, n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) on the structure and functions of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by multi-spectral methods and molecular docking. ILs with the longer alkyl chain length have the stronger binding interaction with BSA and the greater conformational damage to protein. The effects of ILs on the functional properties of BSA were further studied by the determination of non-enzyme esterase activity, β-fibrosis and other properties of BSA. The thermal stability of BSA was reduced, the rate of the formation of beta sheet structures of BSA was lowered, and the esterase-like activity of BSA were decreased with the increase of ILs concentration. Simultaneous molecular modeling technique revealed the favorable binding sites of ILs on protein. The hydrophobic force and polar interactions were the mainly binding forces of them. The calculated results are in a good agreement with the spectroscopic experiments. These studies on the impact of the alkyl chain length on binding of imidazolium-based ionic liquids to BSA are of great significance for understanding and developing the application of ionic liquid in life and physiological system.

  16. Phase Behavior and Evaporation Profile of Tween 20 - Eugenol System. Effect of Different Alkane Chain Length and Solvent System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, A.; Lim, W.H.; Kuangl, D.; Rusmawati, W.W.M.; Abdullah, A.H.; Teoh, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The isotropic region of Tween 20/eugenol/n-alkane in aqueous systems was determined. The solubilisation trend of isotropic solution formed in the presence of eugenol was studied as a function of different alkyl chain length of n-alkane. The solubility of solvent in surfactant solution is dependent on their molecular polarity. An increase in n-alkane chain length (lower polarity) lead to smaller isotropic region which will affect the surfactant partitioning between the interface, the oil phase and the aqueous phase of the microemulsion as the oil chain length is varied. The changes of evaporation behaviour were affected strongly by the types of phases existed in the systems. The increment of n-alkane and water content led to higher evaporation rate. But the formation of w/o microemulsion would lower the evaporation rate because water molecules were trapped in the core of aggregates. In solubilisation system, evaporation rate is dependent on the solvent content and the interaction between Tween 20 and solvent molecules in the mixed composition. (author)

  17. Solute transport in a single fracture involving an arbitrary length decay chain with rock matrix comprising different geological layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Batoul; Liu, Longcheng; Moreno, Luis; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2014-08-01

    A model is developed to describe solute transport and retention in fractured rocks. It accounts for advection along the fracture, molecular diffusion from the fracture to the rock matrix composed of several geological layers, adsorption on the fracture surface, adsorption in the rock matrix layers and radioactive decay-chains. The analytical solution, obtained for the Laplace-transformed concentration at the outlet of the flowing channel, can conveniently be transformed back to the time domain by the use of the de Hoog algorithm. This allows one to readily include it into a fracture network model or a channel network model to predict nuclide transport through channels in heterogeneous fractured media consisting of an arbitrary number of rock units with piecewise constant properties. More importantly, the simulations made in this study recommend that it is necessary to account for decay-chains and also rock matrix comprising at least two different geological layers, if justified, in safety and performance assessment of the repositories for spent nuclear fuel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spectral sensitization of TiO2 by new hemicyanine dyes in dye solar cell yielding enhanced photovoltage: Probing chain length effect on performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadadu, Kishan B.; Soni, Saurabh S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: New hemicyanine dyes based on indolenine moiety were utilized as light harvesting materials in dye sensitized solar cell. Chain lengths of the molecules were varied in order to study its effect of chain length on the performance of DSSC. Electron transfer kinetic of the solar cell was studied and it was found that the chain length changes the electron transfer kinetic. We have achieved remarkable photovoltage and overall performance of DSSC. Highlights: ► New hemicyanine dyes based on indolenine moiety were utilized as light harvesting materials in dye sensitized solar cell. ► Chain lengths of the molecules were varied in order to study its effect of chain length on the performance of DSSC. ► Electron transfer kinetic of the solar cell was studied and it was found that the chain length changes the electron transfer kinetic. -- Abstract: New hemicyanine dyes having indole nucleus with different alkyl chain length were synthesized and characterized using 1 H NMR and mass spectroscopy. These dyes were used to sensitize the TiO 2 film in dye sensitized solar cell. Nanocrystalline dye solar cells were fabricated and characterized using various electrochemical techniques. It has been found that the alkyl chain length present in the dye molecules greatly affects the overall performance of dye solar cell. Molecules having longer alkyl chain are having better sensitizers which enhance V oc to significant extent. Chain length dependent performance was further investigated using Tafel polarization and impedance method. Hemicyanine dye having hexyl chain has outperformed by attaining 2.9% solar to electricity conversion efficiency

  19. Two-channel spin-chain communication line and simple quantum gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolze, J.; Zenchuk, A. I.

    2017-08-01

    We consider the remote creation of a mixed state in a one-qubit receiver connected to two two-qubit senders via different channels. Channels are assumed to be chains of spins (qubits) with nearest-neighbor interactions, no external fields are being applied. The problem of sharing the creatable region of the receiver's state-space between two senders is considered for a communication line with the receiver located asymmetrically with respect to these senders (asymmetric communication line). An example of a quantum register realizing simple functions is constructed on the basis of a symmetric communication line. In that setup, the initial states of the two senders serve as input and control signals, respectively, while the state of the receiver at a proper time instant is considered as the output signal.

  20. Decision on risk-averse dual-channel supply chain under demand disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Jin, Zijie; Liu, Yanping; Yang, Jianbo

    2018-02-01

    We studied dual-channel supply chains using centralized and decentralized decision-making models. We also conducted a comparative analysis of the decisions before and after demand disruption. The study shows that the amount of change in decision-making is a linear function of the amount of demand disruption, and it is independent of the risk-averse coefficient. The optimal sales volume decision of the disturbing supply chain is related to market share and demand disruption in the decentralized decision-making model. The optimal decision is only influenced by demand disruption in the centralized decision-making model. The stability of the sales volume of the two models is related to market share and demand disruption. The optimal system production of the two models shows robustness, but their stable internals are different.

  1. Effect of the Channel Length on the Transport Characteristics of Transistors Based on Boron-Doped Graphene Ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Marconcini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Substitutional boron doping of devices based on graphene ribbons gives rise to a unipolar behavior, a mobility gap, and an increase of the I O N / I O F F ratio of the transistor. Here we study how this effect depends on the length of the doped channel. By means of self-consistent simulations based on a tight-binding description and a non-equilibrium Green’s function approach, we demonstrate a promising increase of the I O N / I O F F ratio with the length of the channel, as a consequence of the different transport regimes in the ON and OFF states. Therefore, the adoption of doped ribbons with longer aspect ratios could represent a significant step toward graphene-based transistors with an improved switching behavior.

  2. Thermoresponsive Poly(2-oxazoline) Molecular Brushes by Living Ionic Polymerization: Kinetic Investigations of Pendant Chain Grafting and Cloud Point Modulation by Backbone and Side Chain Length Variation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ning

    2012-04-17

    Molecular brushes of poly(2-oxazoline)s were prepared by living anionic polymerization of 2-iso-propenyl-2-oxazoline to form the backbone and subsequent living cationic ring-opening polymerization of 2-n- or 2-iso-propyl-2-oxazoline for pendant chain grafting. In situ kinetic studies indicate that the initiation efficiency and polymerization rates are independent from the number of initiator functions per initiator molecule. This was attributed to the high efficiency of oxazolinium salt and the stretched conformation of the backbone, which is caused by the electrostatic repulsion of the oxazolinium moieties along the macroinitiator. The resulting molecular brushes showed thermoresponsive properties, that is, having a defined cloud point (CP). The dependence of the CP as a function of backbone and side chain length as well as concentration was studied. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The Effect of Extending the Length of the Coupling Coils in a Muon Ionization Cooling Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    RF cavities are used to re-accelerate muons that have been cooled by absorbers that are in low beta regions of a muon ionization cooling channel. A superconducting coupling magnet (or magnets) are around or among the RF cavities of a muon ionization-cooling channel. The field from the magnet guides the muons so that they are kept within the iris of the RF cavities that are used to accelerate the muons. This report compares the use of a single short coupling magnet with an extended coupling magnet that has one or more superconducting coils as part of a muon-cooling channel of the same design as the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE). Whether the superconducting magnet is short and thick or long and this affects the magnet stored energy and the peak field in the winding. The magnetic field distribution also affects is the muon beam optics in the cooling cell of a muon cooling channel

  4. Simulated glass-forming polymer melts: dynamic scattering functions, chain length effects, and mode-coupling theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S; Weysser, F; Meyer, H; Farago, J; Fuchs, M; Baschnagel, J

    2015-02-01

    We present molecular-dynamics simulations for a fully flexible model of polymer melts with different chain length N ranging from short oligomers (N = 4) to values near the entanglement length (N = 64). For these systems we explore the structural relaxation of the supercooled melt near the critical temperature T c of mode-coupling theory (MCT). Coherent and incoherent scattering functions are analyzed in terms of the idealized MCT. For temperatures T > T c we provide evidence for the space-time factorization property of the β relaxation and for the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) of the α relaxation, and we also discuss deviations from these predictions for T ≈ T c. For T larger than the smallest temperature where the TTSP holds we perform a quantitative analysis of the dynamics with the asymptotic MCT predictions for the late β regime. Within MCT a key quantity, in addition to T c, is the exponent parameter λ. For the fully flexible polymer models studied we find that λ is independent of N and has a value (λ = 0.735 ) typical of simple glass-forming liquids. On the other hand, the critical temperature increases with chain length toward an asymptotic value T c (∞) . This increase can be described by T c (∞) - T c(N) ∼ 1/N and may be interpreted in terms of the N dependence of the monomer density ρ, if we assume that the MCT glass transition is ruled by a soft-sphere-like constant coupling parameter Γ c = ρ c T c (-1/4), where ρ c is the monomer density at T c. In addition, we also estimate T c from a Hansen-Verlet-like criterion and MCT calculations based on structural input from the simulation. For our polymer model both the Hansen-Verlet criterion and the MCT calculations suggest T c to decrease with increasing chain length, in contrast to the direct analysis of the simulation data.

  5. Novel Strategies for Production of Medium and High Chain Length Alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Kuit, W.; Springer, J.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fermentation-derived ethanol is currently widely used as transport fuel, both as such or as a blending component in gasoline (Antoni et al. 2007; Mielenz 2001). However, longer chain alcohols have higher energy densities and are less soluble in water than ethanol, which are important advantages for

  6. Ion solvation in polymer blends and block copolymer melts: effects of chain length and connectivity on the reorganization of dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Issei

    2014-05-29

    We studied the thermodynamic properties of ion solvation in polymer blends and block copolymer melts and developed a dipolar self-consistent field theory for polymer mixtures. Our theory accounts for the chain connectivity of polymerized monomers, the compressibility of the liquid mixtures under electrostriction, the permanent and induced dipole moments of monomers, and the resultant dielectric contrast among species. In our coarse-grained model, dipoles are attached to the monomers and allowed to rotate freely in response to electrostatic fields. We demonstrate that a strong electrostatic field near an ion reorganizes dipolar monomers, resulting in nonmonotonic changes in the volume fraction profile and the dielectric function of the polymers with respect to those of simple liquid mixtures. For the parameter sets used, the spatial variations near an ion can be in the range of 1 nm or larger, producing significant differences in the solvation energy among simple liquid mixtures, polymer blends, and block copolymers. The solvation energy of an ion depends substantially on the chain length in block copolymers; thus, our theory predicts the preferential solvation of ions arising from differences in chain length.

  7. Effects of chain length, chlorination degree, and structure on the octanol-water partition coefficients of polychlorinated n-alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Bettina; Fromme, Hermann; Völkel, Wolfgang; Coelhan, Mehmet

    2011-04-01

    Log octanol-water partition coefficients (log Kow) of 40 synthesized polychlorinated n-alkanes (PCAs) with different chlorination degrees were determined using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). In addition, log Kow values of a technical mixture namely Cereclor 63L as well as 15 individual in house synthesized C10, C11, and C12 chloroalkanes with known chlorine positions were estimated. Based on these results, the effects of chain length, chlorination degree, and structure were explored. The estimated log Kow values ranged from 4.10 (polychlorinated n-decanes with 50.2% chlorine content) to 11.34 (polychlorinated n-octacosanes with 54.8% chlorine content) for PCAs and from 3.82 (1,2,5,6,9,10-hexachlorodecane) to 7.75 (1,1,1,3,9,11,11,11-octachlorododecane) for the individual chloroalkanes studied. The results showed that log Kow value was influenced linearly at a given chlorine content by chain length, while a polynominal effect was observed in dependence on the chlorination degree of an alkane chain. Chlorine substitution pattern influenced markedly the log Kow value of chloroalkanes.

  8. The effect of the alkyl chain length on physicochemical features of (ionic liquids + γ-butyrolactone) binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papović, Snežana; Bešter-Rogač, Marija; Vraneš, Milan; Gadžurić, Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of alkyl substituent length on IL properties was studied. • Nature of interactions between studied [C_nC_1im][NTf_2] and GBL were discussed. • Angell strength parameter indicates [C_nC_1im][NTf_2] are fragile liquids. • ILs properties regularly change with increase of the alkyl chain length. • Absence of GBL self-association upon addition of IL is observed. - Abstract: Densities and viscosities were determined and analysed for γ-butyrolactone (GBL) binary mixtures with 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids (where alkyl = ethyl, hexyl, octyl) as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure (p = 0.1 MPa) and over the whole composition range. Excess molar volumes have been calculated from the experimental densities and were fitted using Redlich–Kister’s polynomial equation. Other volumetric parameters have been also calculated in order to obtain information about interactions between GBL and imidazolium based ionic liquids with different alkyl chain length. From the viscosity measurements, the Angell strength parameter was calculated for pure ionic liquids indicating that all investigated electrolytes are “fragile” liquids.

  9. Electrical contacts to nanorod networks at different length scales: From macroscale ensembles to single nanorod chains

    KAUST Repository

    Lavieville, Romain; Zhang, Yang; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Krahne, Roman

    2013-01-01

    The nature of metal-semiconductor interfaces at the nanoscale is an important issue in micro- and nanoelectronic engineering. The study of charge transport through chains of CdSe semiconductor nanorods linked by Au particles represents an ideal model system for this matter, because the metal semiconductor interface is an intrinsic feature of the nanosystem. Here we show the controlled fabrication of all-inorganic hybrid metal-semiconductor networks with different size, in which the semiconductor nanorods are linked by Au domains at their tips. We demonstrate different approaches to selectively contact the networks and single nanorod chains with planar electrodes, and we investigate their charge transport at room temperature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrical contacts to nanorod networks at different length scales: From macroscale ensembles to single nanorod chains

    KAUST Repository

    Lavieville, Romain

    2013-11-01

    The nature of metal-semiconductor interfaces at the nanoscale is an important issue in micro- and nanoelectronic engineering. The study of charge transport through chains of CdSe semiconductor nanorods linked by Au particles represents an ideal model system for this matter, because the metal semiconductor interface is an intrinsic feature of the nanosystem. Here we show the controlled fabrication of all-inorganic hybrid metal-semiconductor networks with different size, in which the semiconductor nanorods are linked by Au domains at their tips. We demonstrate different approaches to selectively contact the networks and single nanorod chains with planar electrodes, and we investigate their charge transport at room temperature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Room temperature ionic liquids: A simple model. Effect of chain length and size of intermolecular potential on critical temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapela, Gustavo A; Guzmán, Orlando; Díaz-Herrera, Enrique; del Río, Fernando

    2015-04-21

    A model of a room temperature ionic liquid can be represented as an ion attached to an aliphatic chain mixed with a counter ion. The simple model used in this work is based on a short rigid tangent square well chain with an ion, represented by a hard sphere interacting with a Yukawa potential at the head of the chain, mixed with a counter ion represented as well by a hard sphere interacting with a Yukawa potential of the opposite sign. The length of the chain and the depth of the intermolecular forces are investigated in order to understand which of these factors are responsible for the lowering of the critical temperature. It is the large difference between the ionic and the dispersion potentials which explains this lowering of the critical temperature. Calculation of liquid-vapor equilibrium orthobaric curves is used to estimate the critical points of the model. Vapor pressures are used to obtain an estimate of the triple point of the different models in order to calculate the span of temperatures where they remain a liquid. Surface tensions and interfacial thicknesses are also reported.

  12. Esterification of fatty acids using nylon-immobilized lipase in n-hexane: kinetic parameters and chain-length effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, A; Gainer, J L; Carta, G; Mrani, A; Kadiri, T; Belarbi, Y; Mir, A

    2002-02-28

    The esterification of long-chain fatty acids in n-hexane catalyzed by nylon-immobilized lipase from Candida rugosa has been investigated. Butyl oleate (22 carbon atoms), oleyl butyrate (22 carbon atoms) and oleyl oleate (36 carbon atoms) were produced at maximum reaction rates of approximately equal to 60 mmol h(-1) g(-1) immobilized enzyme when the substrates were present in equimolar proportions at an initial concentration of 0.6 mol l(-1). The observed kinetic behavior of all the esterification reactions is found to follow a ping-pong bi-bi mechanism with competitive inhibition by both substrates. The effect of the chain-length of the fatty acids and the alcohols could be correlated to some mechanistic models, in accordance with the calculated kinetic parameters.

  13. Immobilization of lipases on alkyl silane modified magnetic nanoparticles: effect of alkyl chain length on enzyme activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiqian Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biocatalytic processes often require a full recycling of biocatalysts to optimize economic benefits and minimize waste disposal. Immobilization of biocatalysts onto particulate carriers has been widely explored as an option to meet these requirements. However, surface properties often affect the amount of biocatalysts immobilized, their bioactivity and stability, hampering their wide applications. The aim of this work is to explore how immobilization of lipases onto magnetite nanoparticles affects their biocatalytic performance under carefully controlled surface modification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Magnetite nanoparticles, prepared through a co-precipitation method, were coated with alkyl silanes of different alkyl chain lengths to modulate their surface hydrophobicity. Candida rugosa lipase was then directly immobilized onto the modified nanoparticles through hydrophobic interaction. Enzyme activity was assessed by catalytic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate. The activity of immobilized lipases was found to increase with increasing chain length of the alkyl silane. Furthermore, the catalytic activities of lipases immobilized on trimethoxyl octadecyl silane (C18 modified Fe(3O(4 were a factor of 2 or more than the values reported from other surface immobilized systems. After 7 recycles, the activities of the lipases immobilized on C18 modified nanoparticles retained 65%, indicating significant enhancement of stability as well through hydrophobic interaction. Lipase immobilized magnetic nanoparticles facilitated easy separation and recycling with high activity retaining. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The activity of immobilized lipases increased with increasing alkyl chain length of the alkyl trimethoxy silanes used in the surface modification of magnetite nanoparticles. Lipase stability was also improved through hydrophobic interaction. Alkyl silane modified magnetite nanoparticles are thus highly attractive carriers for

  14. Immobilization of lipases on alkyl silane modified magnetic nanoparticles: effect of alkyl chain length on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiqian; Meng, Gang; Tao, Kai; Feng, Min; Zhao, Xiubo; Li, Zhen; Xu, Hai; Xia, Daohong; Lu, Jian R

    2012-01-01

    Biocatalytic processes often require a full recycling of biocatalysts to optimize economic benefits and minimize waste disposal. Immobilization of biocatalysts onto particulate carriers has been widely explored as an option to meet these requirements. However, surface properties often affect the amount of biocatalysts immobilized, their bioactivity and stability, hampering their wide applications. The aim of this work is to explore how immobilization of lipases onto magnetite nanoparticles affects their biocatalytic performance under carefully controlled surface modification. Magnetite nanoparticles, prepared through a co-precipitation method, were coated with alkyl silanes of different alkyl chain lengths to modulate their surface hydrophobicity. Candida rugosa lipase was then directly immobilized onto the modified nanoparticles through hydrophobic interaction. Enzyme activity was assessed by catalytic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate. The activity of immobilized lipases was found to increase with increasing chain length of the alkyl silane. Furthermore, the catalytic activities of lipases immobilized on trimethoxyl octadecyl silane (C18) modified Fe(3)O(4) were a factor of 2 or more than the values reported from other surface immobilized systems. After 7 recycles, the activities of the lipases immobilized on C18 modified nanoparticles retained 65%, indicating significant enhancement of stability as well through hydrophobic interaction. Lipase immobilized magnetic nanoparticles facilitated easy separation and recycling with high activity retaining. The activity of immobilized lipases increased with increasing alkyl chain length of the alkyl trimethoxy silanes used in the surface modification of magnetite nanoparticles. Lipase stability was also improved through hydrophobic interaction. Alkyl silane modified magnetite nanoparticles are thus highly attractive carriers for enzyme immobilization enabling efficient enzyme recovery and recycling.

  15. Entangled state teleportation through a couple of quantum channels composed of XXZ dimers in an Ising- XXZ diamond chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M.; de Souza, S. M.; Rojas, Onofre

    2017-02-01

    The quantum teleportation plays an important role in quantum information process, in this sense, the quantum entanglement properties involving an infinite chain structure is quite remarkable because real materials could be well represented by an infinite chain. We study the teleportation of an entangled state through a couple of quantum channels, composed by Heisenberg dimers in an infinite Ising-Heisenberg diamond chain, the couple of chains are considered sufficiently far away from each other to be ignored the any interaction between them. To teleporting a couple of qubits through the quantum channel, we need to find the average density operator for Heisenberg spin dimers, which will be used as quantum channels. Assuming the input state as a pure state, we can apply the concept of fidelity as a useful measurement of teleportation performance of a quantum channel. Using the standard teleportation protocol, we have derived an analytical expression for the output concurrence, fidelity, and average fidelity. We study in detail the effects of coupling parameters, external magnetic field and temperature dependence of quantum teleportation. Finally, we explore the relations between entanglement of the quantum channel, the output entanglement and the average fidelity of the system. Through a kind of phase diagram as a function of Ising-Heisenberg diamond chain model parameters, we illustrate where the quantum teleportation will succeed and a region where the quantum teleportation could fail.

  16. Collapse of Langmuir monolayer at lower surface pressure: Effect of hydrophobic chain length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushikdas2089@gmail.com; Kundu, Sarathi [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Vigyan Path, Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati, Assam 781035 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Long chain fatty acid molecules (e.g., stearic and behenic acids) form a monolayer on water surface in the presence of Ba{sup 2+} ions at low subphase pH (≈ 5.5) and remain as a monolayer before collapse generally occurs at higher surface pressure (π{sub c} > 50 mN/m). Monolayer formation is verified from the surface pressure vs. area per molecule (π-A) isotherms and also from the atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the films deposited by single upstroke of hydrophilic Si (001) substrate through the monolayer covered water surface. At high subphase pH (≈ 9.5), barium stearate molecules form multilayer structure at lower surface pressure which is verified from the π-A isotherms and AFM analysis of the film deposited at 25 mN/m. Such monolayer to multilayer structure formation or monolayer collapse at lower surface pressure is unusual as at this surface pressure generally fatty acid salt molecules form a monolayer on the water surface. Formation of bidentate chelate coordination in the metal containing headgroups is the reason for such monolayer to multilayer transition. However, for longer chain barium behenate molecules only monolayer structure is maintained at that high subphase pH (≈ 9.5) due to the presence of relatively more tail-tail hydrophobic interaction.

  17. Effect of bidispersity in grafted chain length on grafted chain conformations and potential of mean force between polymer grafted nanoparticles in a homopolymer matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nitish; Wentzel, Nathaniel; Jayaraman, Arthi

    2011-05-21

    In efforts to produce polymeric materials with tailored physical properties, significant interest has grown around the ability to control the spatial organization of nanoparticles in polymer nanocomposites. One way to achieve controlled particle arrangement is by grafting the nanoparticle surface with polymers that are compatible with the matrix, thus manipulating the interfacial interactions between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix. Previous work has shown that the molecular weight of the grafted polymer, both at high grafting density and low grafting density, plays a key role in dictating the effective inter-particle interactions in a polymer matrix. At high grafting density nanoparticles disperse (aggregate) if the graft molecular weight is higher (lower) than the matrix molecular weight. At low grafting density the longer grafts can better shield the nanoparticle surface from direct particle-particle contacts than the shorter grafts and lead to the dispersion of the grafted particles in the matrix. Despite the importance of graft molecular weight, and evidence of non-trivial effects of polydispersity of chains grafted on flat surfaces, most theoretical work on polymer grafted nanoparticles has only focused on monodisperse grafted chains. In this paper, we focus on how bidispersity in grafted chain lengths affects the grafted chain conformations and inter-particle interactions in an implicit solvent and in a dense homopolymer polymer matrix. We first present the effects of bidispersity on grafted chain conformations in a single polymer grafted particle using purely Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. This is followed by calculations of the potential of mean force (PMF) between two grafted particles in a polymer matrix using a self-consistent Polymer Reference Interaction Site Model theory-Monte Carlo simulation approach. Monte Carlo simulations of a single polymer grafted particle in an implicit solvent show that in the bidisperse polymer grafted particles

  18. Antiaromatic bisindeno-[n]thienoacenes with small singlet biradical characters: Syntheses, structures and chain length dependent physical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Xueliang

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that aromaticity and biradical character play important roles in determining the ground-state structures and physical properties of quinoidal polycyclic hydrocarbons and oligothiophenes, a kind of molecular materials showing promising applications for organic electronics, photonics and spintronics. In this work, we designed and synthesized a new type of hybrid system, the so-called bisindeno-[n]thienoacenes (n = 1-4), by annulation of quinoidal fused α-oligothiophenes with two indene units. The obtained molecules can be regarded as antiaromatic systems containing 4n π electrons with small singlet biradical character (y0). Their ground-state geometry and electronic structures were studied by X-ray crystallographic analysis, NMR, ESR and Raman spectroscopy, assisted by density functional theory calculations. With extension of the chain length, the molecules showed a gradual increase of the singlet biradical character accompanied by decreased antiaromaticity, finally leading to a highly reactive bisindeno[4]thienoacene (S4-TIPS) which has a singlet biradical ground state (y0= 0.202). Their optical and electronic properties in the neutral and charged states were systematically investigated by one-photon absorption, two-photon absorption, transient absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry, which could be correlated to the chain length dependent antiaromaticity and biradical character. Our detailed studies revealed a clear structure-aromaticity-biradical character-physical properties-reactivity relationship, which is of importance for tailored material design in the future. This journal is

  19. Evaluation of clay hybrid nanocomposites of different chain length as reinforcing agent for natural and synthetic rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yehia, A.A.; Akelah, A.M.; Rehab, A.; El-Sabbagh, S.H.; El Nashar, D.E.; Koriem, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The modified organo-clay (MMT-ATBN) markedly reinforce natural and synthetic rubbers. → The reinforcing efficiency of the organo-clay is much higher than HAF carbon black. → The reinforcing efficiency of MMT modified with different alkylamines greatly depend on the chain length. → The good compatibility of modified organo-clay with NBR can be attributed to the chemical nature. -- Abstract: Polymer nanocomposites are one of the highly discussed research topics in recent time. It has been reported in the present paper the preparation and the properties of different nanoclays based on sodium montmorillonite (bentonite) and some organic amines of varying chain lengths (dodecylamine, hexadecylamine and octadecylamine) beside amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (ATBN). The hybrid clays have been characterized with the help of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Wide angle X-ray diffractions (WXRD), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). X-ray results showed that the intergallery distance of the clay is increased as a result of the intercalation of the amines and ATBN. The nanocomposite clays were incorporated in natural and synthetic rubbers (NR, SBR and NBR). The physico-mechanical properties are greatly improved with loading low concentrations of the nanocomposite clays compared with carbon black.

  20. Dynamic photoinduced realignment processes in photoresponsive block copolymer films: effects of the chain length and block copolymer architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Masami; Shan, Feng; Hara, Mitsuo; Nagano, Shusaku; Shinohara, Yuya; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Seki, Takahiro

    2015-08-07

    A series of block copolymers composed of an amorphous poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) block connected with an azobenzene (Az)-containing liquid crystalline (PAz) block were synthesized by changing the chain length and polymer architecture. With these block copolymer films, the dynamic realignment process of microphase separated (MPS) cylinder arrays of PBMA in the PAz matrix induced by irradiation with linearly polarized light was studied by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and time-resolved grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GI-SAXS) measurements using a synchrotron beam. Unexpectedly, the change in the chain length hardly affected the realignment rate. In contrast, the architecture of the AB-type diblock or the ABA-type triblock essentially altered the realignment feature. The strongly cooperative motion with an induction period before realignment was characteristic only for the diblock copolymer series, and the LPL-induced alignment change immediately started for triblock copolymers and the PAz homopolymer. Additionally, a marked acceleration in the photoinduced dynamic motions was unveiled in comparison with a thermal randomization process.

  1. Effect of side chain length and degree of polymerization on the decomposition and crystallization behaviour of chlorinated poly(vinyl ester) oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinze, D.; Mang, Th.; Popescu, C.; Weichold, O.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal behaviour of telomerized polyvinyl esters is investigated. • Thermal stability relies mainly on the contribution of side chains. • At equal molecular weights thermal stability is dictated by length of side chain. • Increasing the length of side chains improves also the packing degree of polymer. - Abstract: Four members of a homologous series of chlorinated poly(vinyl ester) oligomers CCl_3–(CH_2CH (OCO(CH_2)_mCH_3))_n–Cl with degrees of polymerization of 10 and 20 were prepared by telomerisation using carbon tetrachloride. The number of side chain carbon atoms ranges from 2 (poly(vinyl acetate) to 18 (poly(vinyl stearate)). The effect of the n-alkyl side chain length and of the degree of polymerization on the thermal stability and crystallization behaviour of the synthesized compounds was investigated. All oligomers degrade in two major steps by first losing HCl and side chains with subsequent breakdown of the backbone. The members with short side chains, up to poly(vinyl octanoate), are amorphous and show internal plasticization, whereas those with high number of side chain carbon atoms are semi-crystalline due to side-chain crystallization. A better packing for poly(vinyl stearate) is also noticeable. The glass transition and melting temperatures as well as the onset temperature of decomposition are influenced to a larger extent by the side chain length than by the degree of polymerization. Thermal stability is improved if both the size and number of side chains increase, but only a long side chain causes a significant increase of the resistance to degradation. This results in a stabilization of PVAc so that oligomers from poly(vinyl octanoate) on are stable under atmospheric conditions. Thus, the way to design stable, chlorinated PVEs oligomers is to use a long n-alkyl side chain.

  2. Effect of side chain length and degree of polymerization on the decomposition and crystallization behaviour of chlorinated poly(vinyl ester) oligomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinze, D.; Mang, Th. [Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Popescu, C., E-mail: crisan.popescu@kao.com [KAO Germany GmbH, Pfungstädterstr. 98-100, 64297 Darmstadt (Germany); Weichold, O., E-mail: weichold@ibac.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Building Materials Research, Schinkelstr. 3, 52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-08-10

    Highlights: • Thermal behaviour of telomerized polyvinyl esters is investigated. • Thermal stability relies mainly on the contribution of side chains. • At equal molecular weights thermal stability is dictated by length of side chain. • Increasing the length of side chains improves also the packing degree of polymer. - Abstract: Four members of a homologous series of chlorinated poly(vinyl ester) oligomers CCl{sub 3}–(CH{sub 2}CH (OCO(CH{sub 2}){sub m}CH{sub 3})){sub n}–Cl with degrees of polymerization of 10 and 20 were prepared by telomerisation using carbon tetrachloride. The number of side chain carbon atoms ranges from 2 (poly(vinyl acetate) to 18 (poly(vinyl stearate)). The effect of the n-alkyl side chain length and of the degree of polymerization on the thermal stability and crystallization behaviour of the synthesized compounds was investigated. All oligomers degrade in two major steps by first losing HCl and side chains with subsequent breakdown of the backbone. The members with short side chains, up to poly(vinyl octanoate), are amorphous and show internal plasticization, whereas those with high number of side chain carbon atoms are semi-crystalline due to side-chain crystallization. A better packing for poly(vinyl stearate) is also noticeable. The glass transition and melting temperatures as well as the onset temperature of decomposition are influenced to a larger extent by the side chain length than by the degree of polymerization. Thermal stability is improved if both the size and number of side chains increase, but only a long side chain causes a significant increase of the resistance to degradation. This results in a stabilization of PVAc so that oligomers from poly(vinyl octanoate) on are stable under atmospheric conditions. Thus, the way to design stable, chlorinated PVEs oligomers is to use a long n-alkyl side chain.

  3. Decentralized Channel Decisions of Green Supply Chain in a Fuzzy Decision Making Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengju Sang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the greening policies in a decentralized channel between one manufacturer and one retailer in a fuzzy decision making environment. We consider the manufacturing cost and the parameters of demand function as the fuzzy variables. Based on the different market structures, we develop three different fuzzy decentralized decision models. For each case, the expected value, optimistic value and pessimistic value models are formulated, and their optimal solutions are also derived through the fuzzy set theory. Finally, three numerical examples are solved to examine the effectiveness of fuzzy models. The effects of the confidence level of the supply chain memberrs profits and the fuzziness of parameters on optimal prices, level of green innovation, and fuzzy expected profits of actors are also analyzed.

  4. The Impact of Price Comparison Service on Pricing Strategy in a Dual-Channel Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, price comparison service (PCS websites are more and more popular due to its features in facilitating transparent price and promoting rational purchase decision. Motivated by the industrial practices, in this study, we examine the pricing strategies of retailers and supplier in a dual-channel supply chain influenced by the signals of PCS. We categorize and discuss three situations according to the signal availability of PCS, under which the optimal pricing strategies are derived. Finally, we conduct a numerical study and find that in fact the retailers and supplier are all more willing to avoid the existence of PCS with the objective of profit maximization. When both of retailers are affected by the PCS, the supplier is more willing to reduce the availability of price information. Important managerial insights are discussed.

  5. Game Channels for Trustless Off-Chain Interactions in Decentralized Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kraft

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Blockchains can be used to build multi-player online games and virtual worlds that require no central server. This concept is pioneered by Huntercoin, but it leads to large growth of the blockchain and heavy resource requirements. In this paper, we present a new protocol inspired by payment channels and sidechains that allows for trustless off-chain interactions of players in private turn-based games. They are usually performed without requiring space in the public blockchain, but if a dispute arises, the public network can be used to resolve the conflict. We also analyze the resulting security guarantees and describe possible extensions to games with shared turns and for near real-time interaction. Our proposed concept can be used to scale Huntercoin to very large or even infinite worlds and to enable almost real-time interactions between players.

  6. Effects of Chain Length and Saturability of Fatty Acids on Phospholipids and Proteins in Plasma Membranes of Bovine Mammary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiongxian; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Bamikole, Musibau Adungbe; Zhou, Chuanshe; Kang, Jinhe; Wang, Min; Tan, Zhiliang

    2016-12-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma are essential substrates for de novo synthesis of milk fat, or directly import into mammary cells. The physico-chemical properties of mammary cells membrane composition affected by FFAs with different chain lengths and saturability are unclear yet. Employing GC, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy, the adsorption capacity, phospholipids content, membrane proteins conformation, lipid peroxidation product, and free sulfhydryl of plasma membranes (PMs) interacted with different FFAs were determined. The mammary cells PMs at 38 and 39.5 °C showed different adsorption capacities: acetic acid (Ac) > stearic acid (SA) > β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) > trans10, cis12 CLA. In the FTIR spectrum, the major adsorption peaks appeared at 2920 and 2850 cm -1 for phospholipids, and at 1628 and 1560 cm -1 for membrane proteins. The intensities of PMs-FFAs complexes were varied with the FFAs species and their initial concentrations. The β-sheet and turn structures of membrane proteins were transferred into random coil and α-helix after BHBA, SA and trans10, cis12 CLA treatments compared with Ac treatment. The quenching effects on the fluorescence of endogenous membrane protein, 1, 8-ANS, NBD-PE, and DHPE entrapped in PMs by LCFA were different from those of short chain FFAs. These results indicate that the adsorption of FFAs could change membrane protein conformation and polarity of head group in phospholipids. This variation of the mammary cells PMs was regulated by carbon chain length and saturability of FFAs.

  7. 4-N, 4-S & 4-O Chloroquine Analogues: Influence of Side Chain Length and Quinolyl Nitrogen pKa on Activity vs. Chloroquine Resistant Malaria+, #

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Jayakumar K.; Alumasa, John; Yearick, Kimberly; Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli A.; Casabianca, Leah B.; de Dios, Angel C.; Wolf, Christian; Roepe, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    Using predictions from heme – quinoline antimalarial complex structures, previous modifications of chloroquine (CQ), and hypotheses for chloroquine resistance (CQR), we synthesize and assay CQ analogues that test structure – function principles. We vary side chain length for both monoethyl and diethyl 4N CQ derivatives. We alter the pKa of the quinolyl N by introducing alkylthio or alkoxy substituents into the 4 position, and vary side chain length for these analogues. We introduce an additio...

  8. The Complexity Analysis in Dual-Channel Supply Chain Based on Fairness Concern and Different Business Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu-xiang, Li; Yu-hao, Zhang; Yi-min, Huang

    2018-01-01

    We study a dual-channel supply chain which consists of one dual-channel manufacturer and one traditional retailer considering fairness concern. The manufacturer takes the market share as one of its business objectives in the competition game. We are devoted to establishing a vertical Nash game model and analyzing the price evolution of the model via the method of complexity theory and take adaptive adjustment control method to control the system’s chaotic state. The results show that an exces...

  9. The Bullwhip Effect on the VMI-Supply Chain Management viaSystem Dynamics Approach: The Supply Chain with Two Suppliers and One Retail Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia Zare Mehrjerdi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effect of different inventory policies of a supply chain model using the system dynamics approach which belongs to the class of Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI, automatic pipeline, inventory and order based production control systems (VMI-APIOBPCS. This work helps management to investigate the effect of different policies such as adding the VMI system or third party logistic (TPL on the whole cost of the supply chain. To this end, this work applies system dynamics in supply chain with two supplier and one retail channel which consists of VMI system. Moreover, this work studies the performance of the proposed model via three metrics: Bullwhip effect; satisfaction of the end-customer; the amount of the whole inventory of chain.

  10. Joint decision of pricing and order quantity by considering product substitution in dual channel supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Erwin

    2017-11-01

    Dual channel supply chain (DCSC) has been attracting many researchers' attention. Their contributions mainly are in two folds, namely pricing problem and inventory policy. However, research to address both pricing and inventory problems simultaneously are still scarce. Meanwhile in recent competitive market, product substitution is an unavoidable practice in fulfilling customer demand when the main product is unavailable. Thus how to decide price and order quantity by considering product substitution under DCSC setting is an interesting topic to address. In this paper, corresponding mathematical model incorporating such problem is proposed. This model consists of objective function measuring sales revenue and inventory cost, and some constraints to assure positive profit margin, interplaying price between online and offline channel, and positive demand. Two pricing schemes, namely Vertical Nash and Stackelberg Leadership are evaluated. The result shows that in any situation of substitution level, Vertical Nash solution provides higher financial performance than that under Stackelberg Leadership. In addition, this work's results have also revealed that there exist some threshold values differentiating when it is better off to apply Vertical Nash scenario an, when Stackelberg Leadership scenario is preferable.

  11. Commercialization channels of organic products in Brazil: analysis at the first level of the production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Rossi Scalco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Specialized literature on organic production highlights the presence and concentration of retail, especially supermarkets, in the organic enhancement chain. This presents enormous obstacles for the entrance of small farmers in the production of organic products due to administrative barriers, in addition to pressure for lower prices by the supermarket retail network. This paper investigates the commercialization channels of organic production in Brazil. The survey was undertaken in 2013; questionnaires were sent to 900 out of approximately 11.200 farmers producing organic products; 216 answers were received. Analysis showed that approximately 90% of farmers provided for the internal market and 60% of the products were fresh fruits and vegetables. The distribution of organic products in Brazil is highly fragmented at the local, regional and national levels. The presence of supermarkets and intermediaries in the commercialization of fruits and vegetables is relevant, regardless of the size of the farm. There is a great dispersion of channels in the case of small farmers, although supermarkets rank second. However, direct commercialization (farmers markets is the main form of commercialization of the produce. Commercialization triggered by social programs has guaranteed a considerable part of the income on small production units or small farms. It seems that high involvement of retail networks and agents in the agribusiness segment causes low development rates in small agricultural units and in local development due to the latter’s low profit margins.

  12. Effects of alkyl chain length and solvents on thermodynamic dissociation constants of the ionic liquids with one carboxyl group in the alkyl chain of imidazolium cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuehua; Wang, Huiyong; Wang, Jianji

    2014-05-01

    Thermodynamic dissociation constants of the Brønsted acidic ionic liquids (ILs) are important for their catalytic and separation applications. In this work, a series of imidazolium bromides with one carboxylic acid substitute group in their alkyl chain ([{(CH2)nCOOH}mim]Br, n = 1,3,5,7) have been synthesized, and their dissociation constants (pKa) at different ionic strengths have been determined in aqueous and aqueous organic solvents at 0.1 mole fraction (x) of ethanol, glycol, iso-propanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide by potentiometric titrations at 298.2 K. The standard thermodynamic dissociation constants (pKa(T)) of the ILs in these solvents were calculated from the extended Debye-Hückel equation. It was found that the pKa values increased with the increase of ionic strength of the media and of the addition of organic solvent in water. The pKa(T) values also increased with the increase of the alkyl chain length of cations of the ILs. In addition, the effect of solvent nature on pKa(T) values is interpreted from solvation of the dissociation components and their Gibbs energy of transfer from water to aqueous organic solutions.

  13. Hypoxic augmentation of Ca2+ channel currents requires a functional electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen T; Scragg, Jason L; Boyle, John P; Hudasek, Kristin; Peers, Chris; Fearon, Ian M

    2005-06-10

    The incidence of Alzheimer disease is increased following ischemic episodes, and we previously demonstrated that following chronic hypoxia (CH), amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide-mediated increases in voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channel activity contribute to the Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis seen in Alzheimer disease. Because in certain cell types mitochondria are responsible for detecting altered O(2) levels we examined the role of mitochondrial oxidant production in the regulation of recombinant Ca(2+) channel alpha(1C) subunits during CH and exposure to Abeta-(1-40). In wild-type (rho(+)) HEK 293 cells expressing recombinant L-type alpha(1C) subunits, Ca(2+) currents were enhanced by prolonged (24 h) exposure to either CH (6% O(2)) or Abeta-(1-40) (50 nm). By contrast the response to CH was absent in rho(0) cells in which the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) was depleted following long term treatment with ethidium bromide or in rho(+) cells cultured in the presence of 1 microm rotenone. CH was mimicked in rho(0) cells by the exogenous production of O2(-.). by xanthine/xanthine oxidase. Furthermore Abeta-(1-40) enhanced currents in rho(0) cells to a degree similar to that seen in cells with an intact ETC. The antioxidants ascorbate (200 microm) and Trolox (500 microm) ablated the effect of CH in rho(+) cells but were without effect on Abeta-(1-40)-mediated augmentation of Ca(2+) current in rho(0) cells. Thus oxidant production in the mitochondrial ETC is a critical factor, acting upstream of amyloid beta peptide production in the up-regulation of Ca(2+) channels in response to CH.

  14. Application of nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes (δ(15N and δ(13C to quantify food chain length and trophic structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Perkins

    Full Text Available Increasingly, stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ(15N and carbon (δ(13C are used to quantify trophic structure, though relatively few studies have tested accuracy of isotopic structural measures. For laboratory-raised and wild-collected plant-invertebrate food chains spanning four trophic levels we estimated nitrogen range (NR using δ(15N, and carbon range (CR using δ(13C, which are used to quantify food chain length and breadth of trophic resources respectively. Across a range of known food chain lengths we examined how NR and CR changed within and between food chains. Our isotopic estimates of structure are robust because they were calculated using resampling procedures that propagate variance in sample means through to quantified uncertainty in final estimates. To identify origins of uncertainty in estimates of NR and CR, we additionally examined variation in discrimination (which is change in δ(15N or δ(13C from source to consumer between trophic levels and among food chains. δ(15N discrimination showed significant enrichment, while variation in enrichment was species and system specific, ranged broadly (1.4‰ to 3.3‰, and importantly, propagated variation to subsequent estimates of NR. However, NR proved robust to such variation and distinguished food chain length well, though some overlap between longer food chains infers a need for awareness of such limitations. δ(13C discrimination was inconsistent; generally no change or small significant enrichment was observed. Consequently, estimates of CR changed little with increasing food chain length, showing the potential utility of δ(13C as a tracer of energy pathways. This study serves as a robust test of isotopic quantification of food chain structure, and given global estimates of aquatic food chains approximate four trophic levels while many food chains include invertebrates, our use of four trophic level plant-invertebrate food chains makes our findings relevant for a majority

  15. Application of Nitrogen and Carbon Stable Isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) to Quantify Food Chain Length and Trophic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Matthew J.; McDonald, Robbie A.; van Veen, F. J. Frank; Kelly, Simon D.; Rees, Gareth; Bearhop, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) are used to quantify trophic structure, though relatively few studies have tested accuracy of isotopic structural measures. For laboratory-raised and wild-collected plant-invertebrate food chains spanning four trophic levels we estimated nitrogen range (NR) using δ15N, and carbon range (CR) using δ13C, which are used to quantify food chain length and breadth of trophic resources respectively. Across a range of known food chain lengths we examined how NR and CR changed within and between food chains. Our isotopic estimates of structure are robust because they were calculated using resampling procedures that propagate variance in sample means through to quantified uncertainty in final estimates. To identify origins of uncertainty in estimates of NR and CR, we additionally examined variation in discrimination (which is change in δ15N or δ13C from source to consumer) between trophic levels and among food chains. δ15N discrimination showed significant enrichment, while variation in enrichment was species and system specific, ranged broadly (1.4‰ to 3.3‰), and importantly, propagated variation to subsequent estimates of NR. However, NR proved robust to such variation and distinguished food chain length well, though some overlap between longer food chains infers a need for awareness of such limitations. δ13C discrimination was inconsistent; generally no change or small significant enrichment was observed. Consequently, estimates of CR changed little with increasing food chain length, showing the potential utility of δ13C as a tracer of energy pathways. This study serves as a robust test of isotopic quantification of food chain structure, and given global estimates of aquatic food chains approximate four trophic levels while many food chains include invertebrates, our use of four trophic level plant-invertebrate food chains makes our findings relevant for a majority of ecological systems

  16. Application of nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) to quantify food chain length and trophic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Matthew J; McDonald, Robbie A; van Veen, F J Frank; Kelly, Simon D; Rees, Gareth; Bearhop, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon (δ(13)C) are used to quantify trophic structure, though relatively few studies have tested accuracy of isotopic structural measures. For laboratory-raised and wild-collected plant-invertebrate food chains spanning four trophic levels we estimated nitrogen range (NR) using δ(15)N, and carbon range (CR) using δ(13)C, which are used to quantify food chain length and breadth of trophic resources respectively. Across a range of known food chain lengths we examined how NR and CR changed within and between food chains. Our isotopic estimates of structure are robust because they were calculated using resampling procedures that propagate variance in sample means through to quantified uncertainty in final estimates. To identify origins of uncertainty in estimates of NR and CR, we additionally examined variation in discrimination (which is change in δ(15)N or δ(13)C from source to consumer) between trophic levels and among food chains. δ(15)N discrimination showed significant enrichment, while variation in enrichment was species and system specific, ranged broadly (1.4‰ to 3.3‰), and importantly, propagated variation to subsequent estimates of NR. However, NR proved robust to such variation and distinguished food chain length well, though some overlap between longer food chains infers a need for awareness of such limitations. δ(13)C discrimination was inconsistent; generally no change or small significant enrichment was observed. Consequently, estimates of CR changed little with increasing food chain length, showing the potential utility of δ(13)C as a tracer of energy pathways. This study serves as a robust test of isotopic quantification of food chain structure, and given global estimates of aquatic food chains approximate four trophic levels while many food chains include invertebrates, our use of four trophic level plant-invertebrate food chains makes our findings relevant for a majority of

  17. A study of unsteady physiological magneto-fluid flow and heat transfer through a finite length channel by peristaltic pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Dharmendra; Bég, O Anwar

    2012-08-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic peristaltic flows arise in controlled magnetic drug targeting, hybrid haemodynamic pumps and biomagnetic phenomena interacting with the human digestive system. Motivated by the objective of improving an understanding of the complex fluid dynamics in such flows, we consider in the present article the transient magneto-fluid flow and heat transfer through a finite length channel by peristaltic pumping. Reynolds number is small enough and the wavelength to diameter ratio is large enough to negate inertial effects. Analytical solutions for temperature field, axial velocity, transverse velocity, pressure gradient, local wall shear stress, volume flowrate and averaged volume flowrate are obtained. The effects of the transverse magnetic field, Grashof number and thermal conductivity on the flow patterns induced by peristaltic waves (sinusoidal propagation along the length of channel) are studied using graphical plots. The present study identifies that greater pressure is required to propel the magneto-fluid by peristaltic pumping in comparison to a non-conducting Newtonian fluid, whereas, a lower pressure is required if heat transfer is effective. The analytical solutions further provide an important benchmark for future numerical simulations.

  18. PEGylation of Phytantriol-Based Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Particles-The Effect of Lipid Composition, PEG Chain Length, and Temperature on the Internal Nanostructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Christa; Ostergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Susan Weng

    2014-01-01

    of these lipidic nonlamellar liquid crystalline particles by using DSPE-mPEGs with three different block lengths of the hydrophilic PEG segment. The effects of lipid composition, PEG chain length, and temperature on the morphology and internal nanostructure of these self-assembled lipidic aqueous dispersions based...

  19. Effect of Hydrophobic Chain Length on the Stability and Guest Exchange Behavior of Shell-Sheddable Micelles Formed by Disulfide-Linked Diblock Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haiyan; Li, Yixia; Yang, Jinxian; Ye, Xiaodong

    2017-10-19

    Reduction-responsive micelles hold enormous promise for application as drug carriers due to the fast drug release triggered by reducing conditions and high anticancer activity. However, the effect of hydrophobic chain length on the stability and guest exchange of reduction-responsive micelles, especially for the micelles formed by diblock copolymers containing single disulfide group, is not fully understood. Here, shell-sheddable micelles formed by a series of disulfide-linked copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-SS-PCL) containing the same chain length of PEG but different chain lengths of hydrophobic block PCL were prepared and well characterized. The influence of the chain length of hydrophobic PCL block on the stability and guest exchange of PEG-SS-PCL micelles was studied by the use of both dynamic laser light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The results show that longer PCL chains lead to a slower aggregation rate and guest exchange of micelles in the aqueous solutions containing 10 mM dithiothreitol (DTT). The cell uptake of the shell-sheddable PEG-SS-PCL micelles in vitro shows that the amount of internalization of dyes loaded in PEG-SS-PCL micelles increases with the chain length of hydrophobic PCL block investigated by flow cytometric analysis and confocal fluorescence microscopy.

  20. HLA-DPB1 typing with polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism technique in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F.; Madsen, Hans O; Morling, Niels

    1992-01-01

    We have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in combination with the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique for HLA-DBP1 typing. After PCR amplification of the polymorphic second exon of the HLA-DPB1 locus, the PCR product was digested with seven allele-specific restriction...... endonucleases: RsaI, FokI, ApaI, SacI, BstUI, EcoNI, and DdeI, and the DNA fragments were separated by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Altogether, 71 individuals were investigated and 16 different HLA-DPB1 types were observed in 26 different heterozygotic combinations, as well as five possible homozygotes....... Four heterozygotes could not be unequivocally typed with the PCR-RFLP method. The HLA-DPB1 typing results obtained with the PCR-RFLP method were compared with the typing results obtained with PCR allele-specific oligonucleotides (PCR-ASO) in 50 individuals. The results obtained with the two methods...

  1. Modulation of saturation and chain length of fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of cocoa butter-like lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholm, David; Gossing, Michael; Wei, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Chain length and degree of saturation plays an important role for the characteristics of various products derived from fatty acids, such as fuels, cosmetics, and food additives. The seeds of Theobroma cacao are the source of cocoa butter, a natural lipid of high interest for the food and cosmetics...... as the saturated fatty acid stearic acid is typically found only in low abundance. Demand for cocoa butter is increasing, yet T. cacao can only be cultivated in some parts of the tropics. Alternative means of production of cocoa butter lipids (CBLs) are, therefore, sought after. Yeasts also store fatty acids...... industry. Cocoa butter is rich in saturated fatty acids that are stored in the form of triacylglycerides (TAGs). One of the major TAG species of cocoa butter, consisting of two stearic acid molecules and one oleic acid molecule (stearic acid-oleic acid-stearic acid, sn-SOS), is particularly rare in nature...

  2. A kinetic model for growth and biosynthesis of medium-chain-length poly-(3-hydroxyalkanoates in Pseudomonas putida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. M. Annuar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic model is presented giving a mathematical description of batch culture of Pseudomonas putida PGA1 grown using saponified palm kernel oil as carbon source and ammonium as the limiting nutrient. The growth of the micro-organism is well-described using Tessier-type model which takes into account the inhibitory effect of ammonium at high concentrations. The ammonium consumption rate by the cells is related in proportion to the rate of growth. The intracellular production of medium-chain-length poly-(3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA MCL by P. putida PGA1 cells is reasonably modeled by the modified Luedeking-Piret kinetics, which incorporate a function of product synthesis inhibition (or reduction by ammonium above a threshold level.

  3. The Relationship between the Monomer Chain Length and the Electro-Optical Properties of Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Five polymers dispersed liquid crystalline (LC films were fabricated using photo-polymerizable monomers with different lengths of carbon chains. These LC films have shown different electro-optical (EO properties. Through their SEM pictures, the relationship between the linear electro-optical effect and the mesh size of the polymer network was explored. With the increase of number of photo-polymerizable monomers, the mesh size of the polymer network would become larger. So the liquid crystal molecules would be easily oriented in the electric field and therefore, the threshold voltage and saturation voltage would decrease. The open state response times were also reduced and the off state response times would be extended. The DFT simulations have shown principal role of the ground state dipole moments in the observed electro-optical efficiency.

  4. Production of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanoates From Oleic Acid Using Pseudomonas putida PGA1 by Fed Batch Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidik Marsudi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are a class of p0lymers currently receiving much attention because of their potential as renewable and biodegradable plastics. A wide variety of bacteria has been reported to produce PHAs including Pseudomonas strains. These strains are known as versatile medium chain length PHAs (PHAs-mcl producers using fatty acids as carbon source. Oleic acid was used to produce PHAs-mcl using Pseudomonas putida PGA 1 by continuous feeding of both nitrogen and carbon source, in a fed batch culture. During cell growth, PHAs also accumulated, indicating that PHA production in this organism is growth associated. Residual cell increased until the nitrogen source was depleted. At the end of fermentation, final cell concentration, PHA content, and roductivity were 30.2 g/L, 44.8 % of cell dry weight, and 0.188 g/l/h, respectively.

  5. Synthesis of Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate Homopolymers, Random Copolymers, and Block Copolymers by an Engineered Strain of Pseudomonas entomophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chung, Ahleum; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs), widely used in medical area, are commonly synthesized by Pseudomonas spp. This study tries to use β-oxidation pathways engineered P. entomophila to achieve single source of a series of mcl-monomers for microbial production of PHA homopolymers. The effort is proven successful for the first time to obtain a wide range of mcl-PHA homopolymers from engineered P. entomophila LAC23 grown on various fatty acids, respectively, ranging from poly(3-hydroxyheptanoate) to poly(3-hydroxytetradecanoate). Effects of a PHA monomer chain length on thermal and crystallization properties including the changes of T m , T g , and T d5% are investigated. Additionally, strain LAC23 is used to synthesize random copolymers of 3-hydroxyoctanoate (3HO) and 3-hydroxydodecanoate (3HDD) or 3-hydroxytetradecanoates, their compositions could be controlled by adjusting the ratios of two related fatty acids. Meanwhile, block copolymer P(3HO)-b-P(3HDD) is synthesized by the same strain. It is found for the first time that even- and odd number mcl-PHA homopolymers have different physical properties. When the gene of the PHA synthase in the engineered P. entomophila is replaced by phaC from Aeromonas hydrophila 4AK4, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-30 mol%-3-hydroxyhexanoate) is synthesized. Therefore, P. entomophila can be used to synthesize the whole range of PHA (C7-C14) homopolymers, random- and block copolymers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Interaction and dynamics of (alkylamide + electrolyte) deep eutectics: Dependence on alkyl chain-length, temperature, and anion identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guchhait, Biswajit; Das, Suman; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Biswas, Ranjit

    2014-01-01

    Here we investigate the solute-medium interaction and solute-centered dynamics in (RCONH 2 + LiX) deep eutectics (DEs) via carrying out time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations at various temperatures. Alkylamides (RCONH 2 ) considered are acetamide (CH 3 CONH 2 ), propionamide (CH 3 CH 2 CONH 2 ), and butyramide (CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CONH 2 ); the electrolytes (LiX) are lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4 ), lithium bromide (LiBr), and lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ). Differential scanning calorimetric measurements reveal glass transition temperatures (T g ) of these DEs are ∼195 K and show a very weak dependence on alkyl chain-length and electrolyte identity. Time-resolved and steady state fluorescence measurements with these DEs have been carried out at six-to-nine different temperatures that are ∼100–150 K above their individual T g s. Four different solute probes providing a good spread of fluorescence lifetimes have been employed in steady state measurements, revealing strong excitation wavelength dependence of probe fluorescence emission peak frequencies. Extent of this dependence, which shows sensitivity to anion identity, has been found to increase with increase of amide chain-length and decrease of probe lifetime. Time-resolved measurements reveal strong fractional power dependence of average rates for solute solvation and rotation with fraction power being relatively smaller (stronger viscosity decoupling) for DEs containing longer amide and larger (weaker decoupling) for DEs containing perchlorate anion. Representative all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of (CH 3 CONH 2 + LiX) DEs at different temperatures reveal strongly stretched exponential relaxation of wavevector dependent acetamide self dynamic structure factor with time constants dependent both on ion identity and temperature, providing justification for explaining the fluorescence results in terms of temporal heterogeneity and amide clustering in these multi

  7. Influence of alkyl chain length and temperature on thermophysical properties of ammonium-based ionic liquids with molecular solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, T; Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Devi, R S Rama; Hofman, T

    2012-04-19

    Mixing of ionic liquids (ILs) with molecular solvent can expand the range of structural properties and the scope of molecular interactions between the molecules of the solvents. Exploiting of these phenomena essentially require a basic fundamental understanding of mixing behavior of ILs with molecular solvents. In this context, a series of protic ILs possessing tetra-alkyl ammonium cation [R(4)N](+) with commonly used anion hydroxide [OH](-) were synthesized and characterized by temperature dependent thermophysical properties. The ILs [R(4)N](+)[OH](-) are varying only in the length of alkyl chain (R is methyl, ethyl, propyl, or butyl) of tetra-alkyl ammonium on the cationic part. The ILs used for the present study included tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide [(CH(3))(4)N](+)[OH](-) (TMAH), tetraethyl ammonium hydroxide [(C(2)H(5))(4)N](+)[OH](-) (TEAH), tetrapropyl ammonium hydroxide [(C(3)H(7))(4)N](+)[OH](-) (TPAH) and tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide [(C(4)H(9))(4)N](+)[OH](-) (TBAH). The alkyl chain length effect has been analyzed by precise measurements such as densities (ρ), ultrasonic sound velocity (u), and viscosity (η) of these ILs with polar solvent, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), over the full composition range as a function of temperature. The excess molar volume (V(E)), the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκ(s)) and deviation in viscosity (Δη) were predicted using these properties as a function of the concentration of ILs. Redlich-Kister polynomial was used to correlate the results. A qualitative analysis of the results is discussed in terms of the ion-dipole, ion-pair interactions, and hydrogen bonding between ILs and NMP molecules. Later, the hydrogen bonding features between ILs and NMP were also analyzed using a molecular modeling program with the help of HyperChem 7.

  8. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Craig T.; Mason, Philip E.; Anderson, J. L. Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E.

    2016-02-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD.

  9. Study on Complex Advertising and Price Competition Dual-Channel Supply Chain Models Considering the Overconfidence Manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore how the manufacturers make decisions when two manufacturers compete for local advertising investment, we examine two noncooperative models (Stackelberg and Nash game and propose a cost sharing contract to investigate channel competition of dual-channel supply chain. The dominant power between manufacturer and retailer and the effect of channel competition strategy on price are mainly discussed. In addition, dynamic system concepts are integrated into Stackelberg game model based on bounded rational mechanism. We analyze the local stability and find that the stability level of the dual-channel supply chains depends crucially on the price adjustment speed, the level of demand uncertainty, and the risk preference. The outcome shows that, under the master-slave game model, the profits of manufacturers are greater than that under decentralized decision-making mode, and the profits of retailers under master-slave game model are less than that under decentralized decision-making mode. The profits of manufacturers and retailers in the stable region are greater than that in unstable region. Finally, the delay feedback control method is utilized and effectively controls the chaotic behavior of dual-channel supply chain model. The results have theoretical and practical significance for the game models in terms of advertising and price competition.

  10. Effect of the number, position and length of alkyl chains on the physical properties of polysubstituted pyridinium ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdía, Pedro; Hernaiz, Marta; González, Emilio J.; Macedo, Eugénia A.; Salgado, Josefa; Tojo, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of five polysubstituted pyridinium based-ionic liquids. • Physical properties of the pure ionic liquids were measured at several temperatures. • Thermal analysis of the pure ionic liquids was carried out by DSC and TGA techniques. • Density, speed of sound, and refractive index were fitted with a linear expression. • Viscosity data were correlated using the VFT equation. -- Abstract: The knowledge of the physical properties of ionic liquids is of high importance in order to evaluate their potential applicability for a given purpose. In the last few years, ionic liquids have been proposed as promising solvents for extractive desulfurization of fuels. Among them, recent studies have shown that ionic liquids derived from pyridinium affords excellent S-compounds removal capacity. In this work, the thermal analysis of five ionic liquids derived from pyridinium cation polysubstituted with different alkyl chains was carried out by Differencial Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Furthermore, the density, speed of sound, refractive index and dynamic viscosity for all the pure ionic liquids were also measured from T = (298.15 to 343.15) K. The effect of the number of cation alkyl chains, their length, and their position on the pyridinium ring, on the ionic liquid physical properties is also analyzed and discussed

  11. Increased mean aliphatic lipid chain length in left ventricular hypertrophy secondary to arterial hypertension: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaristi, Maria Francesca; Caubère, Céline; Harmancey, Romain; Desmoulin, Franck; Peacock, William Frank; Berry, Matthieu; Turkieh, Annie; Barutaut, Manon; Galinier, Michel; Dambrin, Camille; Polidori, Carlo; Miceli, Cristina; Chamontin, Bernard; Koukoui, François; Roncalli, Jerôme; Massabuau, Pierre; Smih, Fatima; Rouet, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    About 77.9 million (1 in 4) American adults have high blood pressure. High blood pressure is the primary cause of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which represents a strong predictor of future heart failure and cardiovascular mortality. Previous studies have shown an altered metabolic profile in hypertensive patients with LVH. The goal of this study was to identify blood metabolomic LVH biomarkers by H NMR to provide novel diagnostic tools for rapid LVH detection in populations of hypertensive individuals. This cross-sectional study included 48 hypertensive patients with LVH matched with 48 hypertensive patients with normal LV size, and 24 healthy controls. Two-dimensional targeted M-mode echocardiography was performed to measure left ventricular mass index. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used for the multivariate analysis of the H NMR spectral data. From the H NMR-based metabolomic profiling, signals coming from methylene (-CH2-) and methyl (-CH3) moieties of aliphatic chains from plasma lipids were identified as discriminant variables. The -CH2-/-CH3 ratio, an indicator of the mean length of the aliphatic lipid chains, was significantly higher (P hypertensive group without LVH and controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve showed that a cutoff of 2.34 provided a 52.08% sensitivity and 85.42% specificity for discriminating LVH (AUC = 0.703, P-value hypertension.

  12. Fatty acid biosynthesis VII. Substrate control of chain-length of products synthesised by rat liver fatty acid synthetase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Carey, E.M.; Dils, R.

    1970-01-01

    - 1. Gas-liquid and paper chromatography have been used to determine the chain-lengths of fatty acids synthesised by purified rat liver fatty acid synthetase from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA, [1,3-14C2]malonyl-CoA and from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA plus partially purified rat liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase. - 2....... A wide range (C4:0–C18:0) of fatty acids was synthesised and the proportions were modified by substrate concentrations in the same manner as for purified rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase. - 3. The relative amount of radioactivity incorporated from added acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA depended...... of long-chain fatty acids was synthesised from carboxylated acetyl-CoA than from added malonyl-CoA. - 5. It is suggested that acetyl-CoA carboxylase may carboxylate acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase....

  13. Influence of the chain length of surfactant in the modification of zeolites and clays. Removal of atrazine from water solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Jaldin, Helen Paola; Blanco-Flores, Alien; Sánchez-Mendieta, Víctor; Martín-Hernández, Osnieski

    2017-08-30

    Removal potentials of a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) and clay (SMC) for atrazine adsorption were evaluated. Materials were modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) and benzyl octadecyl dimethyl ammonium (BODA) chloride considering the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of each one (0.94 and 0.041 meq/L, respectively). The influence of the surfactant was analyzed in detail, particularly the formation of surfactant layers (complete or partial) connected with the length of the surfactant tail (16 and 18 methyl groups or number of carbons in the chain). Raw materials were characterized by XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), SMZ and SMC were analyzed by FTIR. Results obtained from kinetic adsorption experiments shown that equilibrium time is less for materials modified with HDTMA (8 h) than materials with BODA (10 and 12 h). Materials modified with the largest chain surfactant (BODA) showed more resistance to atrazine masse transference. The chemisorption was presented in the adsorption mechanisms of atrazine and adsorbent materials. Based on the results of adsorption isotherms Langmuir isotherms showed the better correlation coefficients value. The q max is greater for materials modified with BODA (0.9232 and 4.2448 mg/g) than for materials modified with HDTMA (0.6731 and 3.9121 mg/g). Therefore, SMZ and SMC modified with the largest chain surfactant has more affinity for the pesticide. The removal process at high concentration of atrazine depends of the partition process but at lower concentration, it occurs not only by this process but also by absorption process.

  14. Contribution to the determination of the mixing length in a channel; Contribution a la determination de la longueur de bon melange dans un canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitalnik, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-04-15

    A formula giving the mixing length in a rectangular channel is established. The value of that mixing length depends on the geometrical dimensions of the channel, the longitudinal, lateral and vertical diffusion coefficients, and the water average velocity in the channel. (author) [French] On etablit une formule permettant de calculer la longueur de bon melange dans un canal rectangulaire. La valeur de cette longueur depend des donnees geometriques du canal, des coefficients de diffusion longitudinal, transversal et vertical, et de la vitesse moyenne de l'eau dans le canal. (auteur)

  15. Effects of hydrophobic helix length and side chain chemistry on biomimicry in peptoid analogues of SP-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nathan J; Wu, Cindy W; Seurynck-Servoss, Shannon L; Barron, Annelise E

    2008-02-12

    The hydrophobic proteins of lung surfactant (LS), SP-B and SP-C, are critical constituents of an effective surfactant replacement therapy for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. Because of concerns and difficulties associated with animal-derived surfactants, recent investigations have focused on the creation of synthetic analogues of the LS proteins. However, creating an accurate mimic of SP-C that retains its biophysical surface activity is extraordinarily challenging given the lipopeptide's extreme hydrophobicity and propensity to misfold and aggregate. One successful approach that overcomes these difficulties is the use of poly-N-substituted glycines, or peptoids, to mimic SP-C. To develop a non-natural, bioactive mimic of SP-C and to investigate the effects of side chain chemistry and length of the helical hydrophobic region, we synthesized, purified, and performed in vitro testing of two classes of peptoid SP-C mimics: those having a rigid alpha-chiral aromatic helix and those having a biomimetic alpha-chiral aliphatic helix. The length of the two classes of mimics was also systematically altered. Circular dichroism spectroscopy gave evidence that all of the peptoid-based mimics studied here emulated SP-C's secondary structure, forming stable helical structures in solution. Langmuir-Wilhelmy surface balance, fluorescence microscopy, and pulsating bubble surfactometry experiments provide evidence that the aromatic-based SP-C peptoid mimics, in conjunction with a synthetic lipid mixture, have superior surface activity and biomimetic film morphology in comparison to the aliphatic-based mimics and that there is an increase in surface activity corresponding to increasing helical length.

  16. Aggregation behavior and intermicellar interactions of cationic Gemini surfactants: Effects of alkyl chain, spacer lengths and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajy Alimohammadi, Marjan; Javadian, Soheila; Gharibi, Hussein; Tehrani-Bagha, Ali reza; Alavijeh, Mohammad Rashidi; Kakaei, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → Enthalpy-entropy compensation relation was found between and for gemini surfactants. → The intermicellar interaction parameters are influenced with increasing the lengths of the tail and the spacer of gemini surfactants. → Increasing temperature decreases the intermicellar interaction parameters. → The changes in micellar surface charge density, and phase transition between spherical and rod geometries explain the data. - Abstract: The aggregation behavior of the cationic Gemini surfactants C m H 2m+1 N(CH 3 ) 2 (CH 2 ) S (CH 3 ) 2 N C m H 2m+1 ,2Br - with m = 12, 14 and s = 2, 4 were studied by performing surface tension, electrical conductivity, pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements over the temperature range 298 K to 323 K. The critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface excess (Γ max ), mean molecular surface area (A min ), degree of counter ion dissociation (α), and the thermodynamic parameters of micellization were determined from the surface tension and conductance data. An enthalpy-entropy compensation effect was observed and all the plots of enthalpy-entropy compensation exhibit excellent linearity. The micellar self-diffusion coefficients (D m ) and intermicellar interaction parameters (k d ) were obtained from the PFG-NMR and CV measurements. These results are discussed in terms of the intermicellar interactions, the effects of the chain and spacer lengths on the micellar surface charge density, and the phase transition between spherical and rod geometries. The intermicellar interaction parameters were found to decrease slightly with increasing temperature for 14-4-14, which suggests that the micellar surface charge density decreases with increasing temperature. The mean values of the hydrodynamic radius, R h , and the aggregation number, N agg , of the Gemini surfactants'm-4-m micelles were calculated from the micellar self-diffusion coefficient

  17. Fabrication and tribological properties of self-assembled monolayer of n-alkyltrimethoxysilane on silicon: Effect of SAM alkyl chain length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo, Lixia [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Vacuum Technology and Physics, Lanzhou Institute of Physics, Lanzhou, Gansu 730010 (China); Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Gansu 730000 (China); Du, Pengcheng [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Gansu 730000 (China); Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Kaifeng [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Vacuum Technology and Physics, Lanzhou Institute of Physics, Lanzhou, Gansu 730010 (China); Liu, Peng, E-mail: pliu@lzu.edu.cn [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • n-Alkyltrimethoxysilanes with various chain lengths were self-assembled on silicon. • Effect of alkyl chain lengths (C6, C12, or C18) on the SAMs was investigated. • Surface roughness of the SAMs decreased with increasing the alkyl chain lengths. • The C{sub 12}-SAM possessed superior friction reduction and wear resistance. - Abstract: It is well known that the self-assembled organic molecules on a solid surface exhibit the friction-reducing performance. However, the effect of the molecular size of the self-assembled organic molecules has not been established. In the present work, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of n-alkyltrimethoxysilanes with different alkyl chain lengths (C{sub 6}, C{sub 12}, or C{sub 18}) were fabricated on silicon substrate. The water contact angles of the SAMs increased from 26.8° of the hydroxylated silicon substrate to near 60° after self-assembly. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis results showed that the mean roughness (R{sub a}) of the SAMs decreased with increasing the alkyl chain length. The tribological properties of the SAMs sliding against Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball were evaluated on an UMT-2 tribometer, and the worn surfaces of the samples were analyzed by means of Nano Scratch Tester and surface profilometry. It was found that lowest friction coefficient and smallest width of wear were achieved with the SAMs of C{sub 12} alkyl chain (C{sub 12}-SAM). The superior friction reduction and wear resistance of the SAMs in comparison with the bare silicon substrate are attributed to good adhesion of the self-assembled films to the substrate, especially the C{sub 12}-SAM with desirable alkyl chain length.

  18. Fabrication and tribological properties of self-assembled monolayer of n-alkyltrimethoxysilane on silicon: Effect of SAM alkyl chain length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Lixia; Du, Pengcheng; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Kaifeng; Liu, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • n-Alkyltrimethoxysilanes with various chain lengths were self-assembled on silicon. • Effect of alkyl chain lengths (C6, C12, or C18) on the SAMs was investigated. • Surface roughness of the SAMs decreased with increasing the alkyl chain lengths. • The C 12 -SAM possessed superior friction reduction and wear resistance. - Abstract: It is well known that the self-assembled organic molecules on a solid surface exhibit the friction-reducing performance. However, the effect of the molecular size of the self-assembled organic molecules has not been established. In the present work, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of n-alkyltrimethoxysilanes with different alkyl chain lengths (C 6 , C 12 , or C 18 ) were fabricated on silicon substrate. The water contact angles of the SAMs increased from 26.8° of the hydroxylated silicon substrate to near 60° after self-assembly. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis results showed that the mean roughness (R a ) of the SAMs decreased with increasing the alkyl chain length. The tribological properties of the SAMs sliding against Al 2 O 3 ball were evaluated on an UMT-2 tribometer, and the worn surfaces of the samples were analyzed by means of Nano Scratch Tester and surface profilometry. It was found that lowest friction coefficient and smallest width of wear were achieved with the SAMs of C 12 alkyl chain (C 12 -SAM). The superior friction reduction and wear resistance of the SAMs in comparison with the bare silicon substrate are attributed to good adhesion of the self-assembled films to the substrate, especially the C 12 -SAM with desirable alkyl chain length.

  19. Numerical simulation of drag-reducing channel flow by using bead-spring chain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, M.; Atsumi, T.; Mamori, H.; Iwamoto, K.; Murata, A.; Masuda, M.; Ando, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical simulations of drag-reduced turbulent flow by polymer additives were performed by using a discrete element model. • A decreasing pressure-strain correlation mainly contributes to drag reduction by polymer addition. • Energy transport by the polymer attenuates the turbulence. • The viscoelastic effects on the drag-reducing flow are intensified with increasing relaxation time of polymer. • The polymer energy transport is related to the orientation of the polymer. - Abstract: Numerical simulations of the drag-reducing turbulent channel flow caused by polymer addition are performed. A bead-spring chain model is employed as a model of polymer aggregation. The model consists of beads and springs to represent the polymer dynamics. Three drag-reduction cases are studied with different spring constants that correspond to the relaxation time of the polymer. The energy budget is mainly focused upon to discuss the drag-reduction mechanism. Our results show that a decreasing pressure-strain correlation mainly contributes to strengthening the anisotropy of the turbulence. Furthermore, energy transport by the polymer models attenuates the turbulence. These viscoelastic effects on the drag-reducing flow are intensified with decreasing spring constant. By visualizing the flow field, it is found that this polymer energy transport is related to the orientation of the polymer.

  20. Vortex dynamics and heat transfer behind self-oscillating inverted flags of various lengths in channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuelong; Liu, Yingzheng; Chen, Yujia

    2018-04-01

    The influence of an inverted flag's length-to-channel-width ratio (C* = L/W) on its oscillating behavior in a channel flow and the resultant vortex dynamics and heat transfer are determined experimentally. Three systems with C* values of 0.125, 0.250, and 0.375 were chosen for comparison. The interaction of highly unsteady flow with the inverted flag is measured with time-resolved particle image velocimetry. Variations in the underlying flow physics are discussed in terms of the statistical flow quantities, flag displacement, phase-averaged flow field, and vortex dynamics. The results show that the increase in C* shifts the occurrence of the flapping regime at high dimensionless bending stiffness. With the flag in the flapping region, three distinct vortex dynamics—the von Kármán vortex street, the G mode, and the singular mode—are identified at C* values of 0.375, 0.250, and 0.125, respectively. Finally, the heat transfer enhancement from the self-oscillating inverted flag is measured to serve as complementary information to quantify the cause-and-effect relationship between vortex dynamics and wall heat transfer. The increase in C* strongly promotes wall heat removal because disruption of the boundary layer by the energetic vortices is substantially intensified. Among all systems, wall heat transfer removal is most efficient at the intermediate C* value of 0.250.

  1. The Complexity Analysis in Dual-Channel Supply Chain Based on Fairness Concern and Different Business Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qiu-xiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a dual-channel supply chain which consists of one dual-channel manufacturer and one traditional retailer considering fairness concern. The manufacturer takes the market share as one of its business objectives in the competition game. We are devoted to establishing a vertical Nash game model and analyzing the price evolution of the model via the method of complexity theory and take adaptive adjustment control method to control the system’s chaotic state. The results show that an excessive price adjustment speed will hurt the system’s stability as well as profit of the supply chain. A high level fair caring for retailer will push the system to fall into chaos earlier, while a higher level fair caring for manufacturer will enlarge the stability region of the system. Setting the different objectives by the manufacturer will cause drastic competition in dual-channel supply chain. The research of this paper is of great significance to the decision-makers’ price decision and supply chain operation management.

  2. Comparison of Chain-Length Preferences and Glucan Specificities of Isoamylase-Type α-Glucan Debranching Enzymes from Rice, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiki Kobayashi

    Full Text Available It has been believed that isoamylase (ISA-type α-glucan debranching enzymes (DBEs play crucial roles not only in α-glucan degradation but also in the biosynthesis by affecting the structure of glucans, although molecular basis on distinct roles of the individual DBEs has not fully understood. In an attempt to relate the roles of DBEs to their chain-length specificities, we analyzed the chain-length distribution of DBE enzymatic reaction products by using purified DBEs from various sources including rice, cyanobacteria, and bacteria. When DBEs were incubated with phytoglycogen, their chain-length specificities were divided into three groups. First, rice endosperm ISA3 (OsISA3 and Eschericia coli GlgX (EcoGlgX almost exclusively debranched chains having degree of polymerization (DP of 3 and 4. Second, OsISA1, Pseudomonas amyloderamosa ISA (PsaISA, and rice pullulanase (OsPUL could debranch a wide range of chains of DP≧3. Third, both cyanobacteria ISAs, Cyanothece ATCC 51142 ISA (CytISA and Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 ISA (ScoISA, showed the intermediate chain-length preference, because they removed chains of mainly DP3-4 and DP3-6, respectively, while they could also react to chains of DP5-10 and 7-13 to some extent, respectively. In contrast, all these ISAs were reactive to various chains when incubated with amylopectin. In addition to a great variation in chain-length preferences among various ISAs, their activities greatly differed depending on a variety of glucans. Most strikingly, cyannobacteria ISAs could attack branch points of pullulan to a lesser extent although no such activity was found in OsISA1, OsISA3, EcoGlgX, and PsaISA. Thus, the present study shows the high possibility that varied chain-length specificities of ISA-type DBEs among sources and isozymes are responsible for their distinct functions in glucan metabolism.

  3. Bacterial membrane activity of a-peptide/b-peptoid chimeras: Influence of amino acid composition and chain length on the activity against different bacterial strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein-Kristensen, Line; Knapp, Kolja M; Franzyk, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    and subsequent killing is usually not tested. In this report, six α-peptide/β-peptoid chimeras were examined for the effect of amino acid/peptoid substitutions and chain length on the membrane perturbation and subsequent killing of food-borne and clinical bacterial isolates. RESULTS: All six AMP analogues...... acid only had a minor effect on MIC values, whereas chain length had a profound influence on activity. All chimeras were less active against Serratia marcescens (MICs above 46 μM). The chimeras were bactericidal and induced leakage of ATP from Staphylococcus aureus and S. marcescens with similar time...... of onset and reduction in the number of viable cells. EDTA pre-treatment of S. marcescens and E. coli followed by treatment with chimeras resulted in pronounced killing indicating that disintegration of the Gram-negative outer membrane eliminated innate differences in susceptibility. Chimera chain length...

  4. On the chain length dependence of local correlations in polymer melts and a perturbation theory of symmetric polymer blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, David C; Chung, Jun Kyung

    2009-06-14

    The self-consistent field (SCF) approach to the thermodynamics of dense polymer liquids is based on the idea that short-range correlations in a polymer liquid are almost independent of how monomers are connected into polymers over larger scales. Some limits of this idea are explored in the context of a perturbation theory for symmetric polymer blends. We consider mixtures of two structurally identical polymers, A and B, in which the AB monomer pair interaction differs slightly from the AA and BB interactions by an amount proportional to a parameter alpha. An expansion of the free energy to first order in alpha yields an excess free energy of mixing per monomer of the form alphaz(N)phi(A)phi(B) in both lattice and continuum models, where z(N) is a measure of the number of intermolecular near neighbors per monomer in a one-component (alpha=0) reference liquid with chains of length N. The quantity z(N) decreases slightly with increasing N because the concentration of intramolecular near neighbors is slightly higher for longer chains, creating a slightly deeper intermolecular correlation hole. We predict that z(N)=z(infinity)[1+betaN(-1/2)], where N is an invariant degree of polymerization and beta=(6/pi)(3/2) is a universal coefficient. This and related predictions about the slight N dependence of local correlations are confirmed by comparison to simulations of a continuum bead-spring model and to published lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We show that a renormalized one-loop theory for blends correctly describes this N dependence of local liquid structure. We also propose a way to estimate the effective interaction parameter appropriate for comparisons of simulation data to SCF theory and to coarse-grained theories of corrections to SCF theory, which is based on an extrapolation of perturbation theory to the limit N-->infinity.

  5. Interaction and dynamics of (alkylamide + electrolyte) deep eutectics: Dependence on alkyl chain-length, temperature, and anion identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guchhait, Biswajit; Das, Suman; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Biswas, Ranjit, E-mail: ranjit@bose.res.in [Department of Chemical, Biological and Macromolecular Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block-JD, Sector-III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2014-03-14

    Here we investigate the solute-medium interaction and solute-centered dynamics in (RCONH{sub 2} + LiX) deep eutectics (DEs) via carrying out time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations at various temperatures. Alkylamides (RCONH{sub 2}) considered are acetamide (CH{sub 3}CONH{sub 2}), propionamide (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CONH{sub 2}), and butyramide (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CONH{sub 2}); the electrolytes (LiX) are lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}), lithium bromide (LiBr), and lithium nitrate (LiNO{sub 3}). Differential scanning calorimetric measurements reveal glass transition temperatures (T{sub g}) of these DEs are ∼195 K and show a very weak dependence on alkyl chain-length and electrolyte identity. Time-resolved and steady state fluorescence measurements with these DEs have been carried out at six-to-nine different temperatures that are ∼100–150 K above their individual T{sub g}s. Four different solute probes providing a good spread of fluorescence lifetimes have been employed in steady state measurements, revealing strong excitation wavelength dependence of probe fluorescence emission peak frequencies. Extent of this dependence, which shows sensitivity to anion identity, has been found to increase with increase of amide chain-length and decrease of probe lifetime. Time-resolved measurements reveal strong fractional power dependence of average rates for solute solvation and rotation with fraction power being relatively smaller (stronger viscosity decoupling) for DEs containing longer amide and larger (weaker decoupling) for DEs containing perchlorate anion. Representative all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of (CH{sub 3}CONH{sub 2} + LiX) DEs at different temperatures reveal strongly stretched exponential relaxation of wavevector dependent acetamide self dynamic structure factor with time constants dependent both on ion identity and temperature, providing justification for explaining the fluorescence results in

  6. Pricing Models for Dual-channel Reverse Supply Chain Considering Regional Differences under “Internet Recycling” Mode in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Li, Peng; Chen, Juhong

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the Internet technology has been deeply influencing recycling industry to make it more intelligent and interconnected. However, most existing papers on “Internet Recycling” neglected the problem of pricing strategy under online and offline channels for different levels of recyclers. Moreover, the effect of regional differences has been emphasized a lot in dual-channel forward supply chain, but recycling field has seldom been concerned about it. In this paper, a recycling system consisting of one recycling center and several third-party recyclers (TPR) was investigated based on traditional mode and dual-channel mode. The dual-channel reverse supply chain model is transformed from traditional mode by the introduction of online channel. It involves two recycling modes, as recycling centre for online recovery and “Recycling center+TPR” for offline recovery. By establishing pricing strategies based on Stackelberg game model, the impacts of regional differences were analysed. Finally, numerical analysis was given to illustrate the effectiveness of the pricing mechanisms and strategies.

  7. Influence of trehalose 6,6'-diester (TDX) chain length on the physicochemical and immunopotentiating properties of DDA/TDX liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallerup, Rie Selchau; Madsen, Cecilie Maria; Schiøth, Mikkel Lohmann

    2015-01-01

    Linking physicochemical characterization to functional properties is crucial for defining critical quality attributes during development of subunit vaccines toward optimal safety and efficacy profiles. We investigated how the trehalose 6,6'-diester (TDX) chain length influenced the physicochemical...... and immunopotentiating properties of the clinically tested liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and analogues of trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB). TDB analogues with symmetrically shortened acyl chains [denoted X: arachidate (A), stearate (S), palmitate (P), myristate (Myr) and laurate...

  8. Unique contributions of an arginine side chain to ligand recognition in a glutamate-gated chloride channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy; Komnatnyy, Vitaly V; Pless, Stephan A

    2017-01-01

    Glutamate recognition by neurotransmitter receptors often relies on arginine (Arg) residues in the binding site, leading to the assumption that charge-charge interactions underlie ligand recognition. However, assessing the precise chemical contribution of Arg side chains to protein function......-gated chloride channel from the nematode Haemonchus contortus. Our data unveil a surprisingly small contribution of charge at a conserved arginine side chain previously suggested to form a salt bridge with the ligand, glutamate. Instead, our data show that Arg contributes crucially to ligand sensitivity via...

  9. Stochastic-shielding approximation of Markov chains and its application to efficiently simulate random ion-channel gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, Nicolaus T; Galán, Roberto F

    2012-09-14

    Markov chains provide realistic models of numerous stochastic processes in nature. We demonstrate that in any Markov chain, the change in occupation number in state A is correlated to the change in occupation number in state B if and only if A and B are directly connected. This implies that if we are only interested in state A, fluctuations in B may be replaced with their mean if state B is not directly connected to A, which shortens computing time considerably. We show the accuracy and efficacy of our approximation theoretically and in simulations of stochastic ion-channel gating in neurons.

  10. Photoluminescence and self-assembly of cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals: Effects of chain length of organic amines and reaction temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yi; Liu, Zheming; Liu, Zhenyang; Peng, Lan; Li, Yongjie; Tang, Aiwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CsPbBr_3 perovskite nanocrystals have been synthesized in the presence of organic amines with different hydrocarbon length. • The photoluminescence of the CsPbBr_3 nanocrystals is affected by the varying the carbon length of the organic amines. • The lower reaction temperature and hydrocarbon chain length of the organic ligands play a significant role in the self-assembly of CsPbBr_3 nanocrystals. - Abstract: All-inorganic halide perovskites have become one of the most prospective materials for lightening and display technology due to their color-tunable and narrow-band emission. Herein, we have systematically studied the effects of organic amines with different hydrocarbon chain length on the optical properties and morphology as well as the crystal structure of colloidal CsPbBr_3 nanocrystals (NCs), which were synthesized in the presence of oleic acid (OA) and organic amines by using a simple hot-injection approach. The hydrocarbon chain length has shown an independent correlation to the morphology and crystal structure of the as-obtained CsPbBr_3 NCs at 160 °C, but their optical properties can be affected to some extent. The photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of the CsPbBr_3 NCs synthesized in the presence of organic amines with long carbon chain length are generally in the range of 55–80% for different reaction time, but the PLQYs of less than 20% are obtained for the products synthesized in the presence of octylamine (OTAm) with short carbon chain length. The effects of the reaction temperature on the optical properties, size and crystal structure of the CsPbBr_3 NCs synthesized in the presence of cetylamine (CTAm) are studied. Interestingly, some nanoplates also appear in these CsPbBr_3 NCs obtained at relatively low temperatures (120 and 140 °C), which have a strong tendency to self-assemble into face-to-face nanostructures. Such a similar self-assembly behavior is also observed in the product synthesized in the presence of

  11. Photoluminescence and self-assembly of cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals: Effects of chain length of organic amines and reaction temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yi; Liu, Zheming; Liu, Zhenyang; Peng, Lan; Li, Yongjie; Tang, Aiwei, E-mail: awtang@bjtu.edu.cn

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • CsPbBr{sub 3} perovskite nanocrystals have been synthesized in the presence of organic amines with different hydrocarbon length. • The photoluminescence of the CsPbBr{sub 3} nanocrystals is affected by the varying the carbon length of the organic amines. • The lower reaction temperature and hydrocarbon chain length of the organic ligands play a significant role in the self-assembly of CsPbBr{sub 3} nanocrystals. - Abstract: All-inorganic halide perovskites have become one of the most prospective materials for lightening and display technology due to their color-tunable and narrow-band emission. Herein, we have systematically studied the effects of organic amines with different hydrocarbon chain length on the optical properties and morphology as well as the crystal structure of colloidal CsPbBr{sub 3} nanocrystals (NCs), which were synthesized in the presence of oleic acid (OA) and organic amines by using a simple hot-injection approach. The hydrocarbon chain length has shown an independent correlation to the morphology and crystal structure of the as-obtained CsPbBr{sub 3} NCs at 160 °C, but their optical properties can be affected to some extent. The photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of the CsPbBr{sub 3} NCs synthesized in the presence of organic amines with long carbon chain length are generally in the range of 55–80% for different reaction time, but the PLQYs of less than 20% are obtained for the products synthesized in the presence of octylamine (OTAm) with short carbon chain length. The effects of the reaction temperature on the optical properties, size and crystal structure of the CsPbBr{sub 3} NCs synthesized in the presence of cetylamine (CTAm) are studied. Interestingly, some nanoplates also appear in these CsPbBr{sub 3} NCs obtained at relatively low temperatures (120 and 140 °C), which have a strong tendency to self-assemble into face-to-face nanostructures. Such a similar self-assembly behavior is also observed in the

  12. Evaluation of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 using biodiesel by-product streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Umesh; Sparling, Richard; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B

    2014-07-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 was analyzed in shake-flask-based batch reactions, using pure chemical-grade glycerol (PG), biodiesel-derived "waste" glycerol (WG), and biodiesel-derived "waste" free fatty acids (WFA). Cell growth, substrate consumption, mcl-PHA accumulation within the cells, and the monomer composition of the synthesized biopolymers were monitored. The patterns of mcl-PHA synthesis in P. putida LS46 cells grown on PG and WG were similar but differed from that of cells grown with WFA. Polymer accumulation in glycerol-based cultures was stimulated by nitrogen limitation and plateaued after 48 h in both PG and WG cultures, with a total accumulation of 17.9% cell dry mass and 16.3% cell dry mass, respectively. In contrast, mcl-PHA synthesis was independent of nitrogen concentration in P. putida LS46 cells cultured with WFA, which accumulated to 29% cell dry mass. In all cases, the mcl-PHAs synthesized consisted primarily of 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C(8)) and 3-hydroxydecanoate (C(10)). WG and WFA supported similar or greater cell growth and mcl-PHA accumulation than PG under the experimental conditions used. These results suggest that biodiesel by-product streams could be used as low-cost carbon sources for sustainable mcl-PHA production.

  13. Identification of Echinococcus granulosus strains using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism amongst livestock in Moroto district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamai, Martin; Omadang, Leonard; Erume, Joseph; Ocaido, Michael; Oba, Peter; Othieno, Emmanuel; Bonaventure, Straton; Kitibwa, Annah

    2016-07-29

    A descriptive study was conducted to identify the different strains of Echinococcus granulosus occurring in livestock in Moroto district, Uganda. Echinococcus cysts from 104 domestic animals, including cattle, sheep, goats and camels, were taken and examined by microscopy, polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism and Sanger DNA sequencing. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes or strains were identified through use of Bioinformatics tools: BioEdit, BLAST and MEGA6. The major finding of this study was the existence of a limited number of E. granulosus genotypes from cattle, goats, sheep and camels. The most predominant genotype was G1 (96.05%), corresponding to the common sheep strain. To a limited extent (3.95%), the study revealed the existence of Echinococcus canadensis G6/7 in three (n = 3) of the E. granulosus-positive samples. No other strains of E. granulosus were identified. It was concluded that the common sheep strain of Echinococcus sensu stricto and G6/7 of E. canadensis were responsible for echinococcal disease in Moroto district, Uganda.

  14. Effects of Odd–Even Side Chain Length of Alkyl-Substituted Diphenylbithiophenes on First Monolayer Thin Film Packing Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Akkerman, Hylke B.

    2013-07-31

    Because of their preferential two-dimensional layer-by-layer growth in thin films, 5,5′bis(4-alkylphenyl)-2,2′-bithiophenes (P2TPs) are model compounds for studying the effects of systematic chemical structure variations on thin-film structure and morphology, which in turn, impact the charge transport in organic field-effect transistors. For the first time, we observed, by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), a strong change in molecular tilt angle in a monolayer of P2TP, depending on whether the alkyl chain on the P2TP molecules was of odd or even length. The monolayers were deposited on densely packed ultrasmooth self-assembled alkane silane modified SiO2 surfaces. Our work shows that a subtle change in molecular structure can have a significant impact on the molecular packing structure in thin film, which in turn, will have a strong impact on charge transport of organic semiconductors. This was verified by quantum-chemical calculations that predict a corresponding odd-even effect in the strength of the intermolecular electronic coupling. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates-carbon nanotubes composite anode enhances the performance of microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindatu, Y; Annuar, M S M; Subramaniam, R; Gumel, A M

    2017-06-01

    Insufficient power generation from a microbial fuel cell (MFC) hampers its progress towards utility-scale development. Electrode modification with biopolymeric materials could potentially address this issue. In this study, medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA)/carbon nanotubes (C) composite (CPHA) was successfully applied to modify the surface of carbon cloth (CC) anode in MFC. Characterization of the functional groups on the anodic surface and its morphology was carried out. The CC-CPHA composite anode recorded maximum power density of 254 mW/m 2 , which was 15-53% higher than the MFC operated with CC-C (214 mW/m 2 ) and pristine CC (119 mW/m 2 ) as the anode in a double-chambered MFC operated with Escherichia coli as the biocatalyst. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry showed that power enhancement was attributed to better electron transfer capability by the bacteria for the MFC setup with CC-CPHA anode.

  16. Distinguishing Heterodera filipjevi and H. avenae using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and cyst morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guiping; Smiley, Richard W

    2010-03-01

    The cereal cyst nematodes Heterodera filipjevi and H. avenae impede wheat production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Accurate identification of cyst nematode species and awareness of high population density in affected fields are essential for designing effective control measures. Morphological methods for differentiating these species are laborious. These species were differentiated using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-ribosomal (r)DNA with up to six restriction endonucleases (TaqI, HinfI, PstI, HaeIII, RsaI, and AluI). The method was validated by inspecting underbridge structures of cyst vulval cones. Grid soil sampling of an Oregon field infested by both species revealed that H. filipjevi was present at most of the infested grid sites but mixtures of H. avenae and H. filipjevi also occurred. These procedures also detected and differentiated H. filipjevi and H. avenae in soil samples from nearby fields in Oregon and H. avenae in samples from Idaho and Washington. Intraspecific polymorphism was not observed within H. filipjevi or PNW H. avenae populations based on the ITS-rDNA. However, intraspecific variation was observed between H. avenae populations occurring in the PNW and France. Methods described here will improve detection and identification efficiencies for cereal cyst nematodes in wheat fields.

  17. The Impact of Polyether Chain Length on the Iron Clearing Efficiency and Physiochemical Properties of Desferrithiocin Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Raymond J.; Bharti, Neelam; Wiegand, Jan; McManis, James S.; Singh, Shailendra; Abboud, Khalil A.

    2010-01-01

    (S)-2-(2,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid (2) was abandoned in clinical trials as an iron chelator for the treatment of iron overload disease because of its nephrotoxicity. However, subsequent investigations revealed that replacing the 4′-(HO) of 2 with a 3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy group, ligand 4, increased iron clearing efficiency (ICEa) and ameliorated the renal toxicity of 2. This compelled a closer look at additional polyether analogues, the subject of this work. The 3,6,9,12-tetraoxatridecyloxy analogue of 4, chelator 5, an oil, had twice the ICE in rodents of 4, although its ICE in primates was reduced relative to 4. The corresponding 3,6-dioxaheptyloxy analogue of 2, 6 (a crystalline solid), had high ICEs in both the rodent and primate models. It significantly decorporated hepatic, renal, and cardiac iron, with no obvious histopathologies. These findings suggest that polyether chain length has a profound effect on ICE, tissue iron decorporation, and ligand physiochemical properties. PMID:20232803

  18. Limits of a rapid identification of common Mediterranean sandflies using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzedine Bounamous

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 131 phlebotomine Algerian sandflies have been processed in the present study. They belong to the species Phlebotomus bergeroti, Phlebotomus alexandri, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus chabaudi, Phlebotomus riouxi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus longicuspis, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus chadlii, Sergentomyia fallax, Sergentomyia minuta, Sergentomyia antennata, Sergentomyia schwetzi, Sergentomyia clydei, Sergentomyia christophersi and Grassomyia dreyfussi. They have been characterised by sequencing of a part of the cytochrome b (cyt b, t RNA serine and NADH1 on the one hand and of the cytochrome C oxidase I of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA on the other hand. Our study highlights two sympatric populations within P. sergenti in the area of its type-locality and new haplotypes of P. perniciosus and P. longicuspis without recording the specimens called lcx previously found in North Africa. We tried to use a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on a combined double digestion of each marker. These method is not interesting to identify sandflies all over the Mediterranean Basin.

  19. Effects of Odd–Even Side Chain Length of Alkyl-Substituted Diphenylbithiophenes on First Monolayer Thin Film Packing Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Akkerman, Hylke B.; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Kaushik, Ananth P.; Verploegen, Eric; Burnier, Luc; Zoombelt, Arjan P.; Saathoff, Jonathan D.; Hong, Sanghyun; Atahan-Evrenk, Sule; Liu, Xueliang; Aspuru-Guzik, Alá n; Toney, Michael F.; Clancy, Paulette; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-01-01

    Because of their preferential two-dimensional layer-by-layer growth in thin films, 5,5′bis(4-alkylphenyl)-2,2′-bithiophenes (P2TPs) are model compounds for studying the effects of systematic chemical structure variations on thin-film structure and morphology, which in turn, impact the charge transport in organic field-effect transistors. For the first time, we observed, by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), a strong change in molecular tilt angle in a monolayer of P2TP, depending on whether the alkyl chain on the P2TP molecules was of odd or even length. The monolayers were deposited on densely packed ultrasmooth self-assembled alkane silane modified SiO2 surfaces. Our work shows that a subtle change in molecular structure can have a significant impact on the molecular packing structure in thin film, which in turn, will have a strong impact on charge transport of organic semiconductors. This was verified by quantum-chemical calculations that predict a corresponding odd-even effect in the strength of the intermolecular electronic coupling. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Haplotyping the human T-cell receptor β-chain gene complex by use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmley, P.; Chao, A.; Gatti, R.A.; Concannon, P.; Hood, L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have studied the genetic segregation of human T-cell receptor β-chain (TCRβ) genes on chromosome 7q in 40 CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) families by using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). They constructed haplotypes from eight RFLPs by using variable- and constant-region cDNA probes, which detect polymorphisms that span more than 600 kilobases of the TCRβ gene complex. Analysis of allele distributions between TCRβ genes revealed significant linkage disequilibrium between only 6 of the 28 different pairs of RFLPs. This linkage disequilibrium strongly influences the most efficient order to proceed for typing of these RFLPs in order to achieve maximum genetic informativeness, which in this study revealed a 97.3% level of heterozygosity within the TCRβ gene complex. The results should provide new insight into recent reports of disease associations with the TCRβ gene complex and should assist in designing future experiments to detect or confirm the existence of disease-susceptibility loci in this region of the human genome

  1. Rapid differentiation of closely related isolates of two plant viruses by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, D J; Morton, A; Spence, N J; Miller, A

    1995-09-01

    Immunocapture reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the product has been shown to be an effective procedure for discriminating serologically indistinguishable isolates of two plant viruses, raspberry bushy dwarf (RBDV) and zucchini yellow mosaic (ZYMV). For both viruses, only limited sequence information was available at the time of primer design, but most of the isolates which were tested could be amplified (the one exception being a serologically quite distinct isolate of ZYMV). Restriction endonucleases revealing diagnostic RFLPs were readily identified. Each of two isolates of ZYMV could be detected in the presence of the other and the relative proportions approximately quantified by visual estimation of the relative intensity of the appropriate bands. A range of isolates of different RBDV pathotypes were compared; isolates were grouped in ways that accorded with their known history. Computer analysis of the published sequence from which the primers had been derived showed the sequenced isolate to be identical with an isolate imported from the USSR. The PCR/RFLP procedure is rapid (it can be completed in less than 2 days), effective and will probably be generally applicable to distinguishing closely related virus isolates, even where little sequence information is available.

  2. Lyme disease with facial nerve palsy: rapid diagnosis using a nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y; Takahashi, H; Kishiyama, K; Sato, Y; Nakao, M; Miyamoto, K; Iizuka, H

    1998-02-01

    A 64-year-old woman with Lyme disease and manifesting facial nerve palsy had been bitten by a tick on the left frontal scalp 4 weeks previously. Erythema migrans appeared on the left forehead, accompanied by left facial paralysis. Nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (nested PCR-RFLP) was performed on DNA extracted from a skin biopsy of the erythema on the left forehead. Borrelia flagellin gene DNA was detected and its RFLP pattern indicated that the organism was B. garinii, Five weeks later, B. garinii was isolated by conventional culture from the erythematous skin lesion, but not from the cerebrospinal fluid. After treatment with ceftriaxone intravenously for 10 days and oral administration of minocycline for 7 days, both the erythema and facial nerve palsy improved significantly. Nested PCR and culture taken after the lesion subsided, using skin samples obtained from a site adjacent to the original biopsy, were both negative. We suggest that nested PCR-RFLP analysis might be useful for the rapid diagnosis of Lyme disease and for evaluating therapy.

  3. An Assessment of Weight-Length Relationships for Muskellunge,Northern Pike, and Chain Pickerel In Carlander's Handbook of Freshwater Fishery Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Daviscourt, Joshua; Huertas, Joshua; Courtney, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Carlander's Handbook of Freshwater Fishery Biology (1969) contains life history data from many species of freshwater fish found in North America. It has been cited over 1200 times and used to produce standard-weight curves for some species. Recent work (Cole-Fletcher et al. 2011) suggests Carlander (1969) contains numerous errors in listed weight-length equations. This paper assesses the weight-length relationships listed in Carlander for muskellunge, northern pike, and chain pickerel by comp...

  4. THE DAIRY VALUE CHAIN AND FACTORS AFFECTING CHOICE OF MILK CHANNELS IN HARAR AND DIRE DAWA AREAS, EASTERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu KETEMA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at mapping the dairy value chain, assessing constraints and opportunities in the sector, and identifying factors affecting channel choices of producers in Harar and Dire Dawa milkshed areas. Data were collected from 93 producers, six collectors, seven wholesalers, seven retailers, and ten consumers. Both descriptive and econometric analysis were employed. The study revealed that the channel choices available to producers include selling to collectors, wholesalers, retailers, and directly to consumers. The multinomial model output indicated that being in rural areas, breed type, separate milking place, and supply of hay negatively determined the choice to sell to wholesalers, retailers, and consumers. In contrast, education status and milk storage duration positively determined producers’ choice not to sell to collectors. The major recommendations include provision of training, disseminating dairy technologies, encouraging value chain actors to add values; and enhancing collective actions of producers.

  5. An investigation on research and development cost reduction and channel strategies in competing supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of market competition, the competition form of firms is evolving from the competition among firms to the competition among supply chains. This paper considers a market with two competing supply chains consisting of one supplier and one manufacturer. The two supply chains compete on products’ quantities and research and development (R&D level when the two manufacturers conduct technological innovation. This paper analyses the supply chain competition in three scenarios: two decentralized supply chains (DD, one decentralized supply chain and one centralized supply chain (DC and two centralized supply chains (CC. The results indicate that the production quantity, the R&D level and the total profit of the integrated supply chain in DC scenario are the largest, CC scenario comes second, those of the DD scenario come third and those of the decentralized supply chain in DC scenario are the smallest. CC strategy is the supply chain system’s Nash equilibrium, which is good for the both supply chains, and there is no prisoner's dilemma.

  6. Inhibition of nuclear T3 binding by fatty acids: dependence on chain length, unsaturated bonds, cis-trans configuration and esterification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.; Platvoet-ter Schiphorst, M.

    1990-01-01

    1. Fatty acids have the capacity for inhibition of nuclear T3 binding (INB). The present studies were undertaken to describe the INB-activity of fatty acids as a function of chain length, unsaturated bonds, cis-trans configuration, and esterification. 2. Isolated rat liver nuclei were incubated with

  7. Characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii isolates using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the non-coding Toxoplasma gondii (TGR)-gene sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid; Vuust, Jens; Lind, Peter

    2000-01-01

    of using TGR gene variants as markers to distinguish among T. gondii isolates from different animals and different geographical sources. Based on the band patterns obtained by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified TGR sequences, the T...

  8. Lid opening and conformational stability of T1 Lipase is mediated by increasing chain length polar solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Maiangwa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics and conformational landscape of proteins in organic solvents are events of potential interest in nonaqueous process catalysis. Conformational changes, folding transitions, and stability often correspond to structural rearrangements that alter contacts between solvent molecules and amino acid residues. However, in nonaqueous enzymology, organic solvents limit stability and further application of proteins. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD of a thermostable Geobacillus zalihae T1 lipase was performed in different chain length polar organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol and water mixture systems to a concentration of 50%. On the basis of the MD results, the structural deviations of the backbone atoms elucidated the dynamic effects of water/organic solvent mixtures on the equilibrium state of the protein simulations in decreasing solvent polarity. The results show that the solvent mixture gives rise to deviations in enzyme structure from the native one simulated in water. The drop in the flexibility in H2O, MtOH, EtOH and PrOH simulation mixtures shows that greater motions of residues were influenced in BtOH and PtOH simulation mixtures. Comparing the root mean square fluctuations value with the accessible solvent area (SASA for every residue showed an almost correspondingly high SASA value of residues to high flexibility and low SASA value to low flexibility. The study further revealed that the organic solvents influenced the formation of more hydrogen bonds in MtOH, EtOH and PrOH and thus, it is assumed that increased intraprotein hydrogen bonding is ultimately correlated to the stability of the protein. However, the solvent accessibility analysis showed that in all solvent systems, hydrophobic residues were exposed and polar residues tended to be buried away from the solvent. Distance variation of the tetrahedral intermediate packing of the active pocket was not conserved in organic solvent

  9. 4-N-, 4-S-, and 4-O-chloroquine analogues: influence of side chain length and quinolyl nitrogen pKa on activity vs chloroquine resistant malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Jayakumar K; Alumasa, John N; Yearick, Kimberly; Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli A; Casabianca, Leah B; de Dios, Angel C; Wolf, Christian; Roepe, Paul D

    2008-06-26

    Using predictions from heme-quinoline antimalarial complex structures, previous modifications of chloroquine (CQ), and hypotheses for chloroquine resistance (CQR), we synthesize and assay CQ analogues that test structure-function principles. We vary side chain length for both monoethyl and diethyl 4-N CQ derivatives. We alter the pKa of the quinolyl N by introducing alkylthio or alkoxy substituents into the 4 position and vary side chain length for these analogues. We introduce an additional titratable amino group to the side chain of 4-O analogues with promising CQR strain selectivity and increase activity while retaining selectivity. We solve atomic resolution structures for complexes formed between representative 4-N, 4-S, and 4-O derivatives vs mu-oxo dimeric heme, measure binding constants for monomeric vs dimeric heme, and quantify hemozoin (Hz) formation inhibition in vitro. The data provide additional insight for the design of CQ analogues with improved activity vs CQR malaria.

  10. 4-N, 4-S & 4-O Chloroquine Analogues: Influence of Side Chain Length and Quinolyl Nitrogen pKa on Activity vs. Chloroquine Resistant Malaria+, #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Jayakumar K.; Alumasa, John; Yearick, Kimberly; Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli A.; Casabianca, Leah B.; de Dios, Angel C.; Wolf, Christian; Roepe, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Using predictions from heme – quinoline antimalarial complex structures, previous modifications of chloroquine (CQ), and hypotheses for chloroquine resistance (CQR), we synthesize and assay CQ analogues that test structure – function principles. We vary side chain length for both monoethyl and diethyl 4N CQ derivatives. We alter the pKa of the quinolyl N by introducing alkylthio or alkoxy substituents into the 4 position, and vary side chain length for these analogues. We introduce an additional titratable amino group to the side chain of 4O analogues with promising CQR strain selectivity and increase activity while retaining selectivity. We solve atomic resolution structures for complexes formed between representative 4N, 4S and 4O derivatives vs. μ-oxo dimeric heme, measure binding constants for monomeric vs. dimeric heme, and quantify hemozoin (Hz) formation inhibition in vitro. The data provide additional insight for the design of CQ analogues with improved activity vs. CQR malaria. PMID:18512900

  11. Comparison of CHROMagar, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and polymerase chain reaction-fragment size for the identification of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Zahra; Motamedi, Marjan; Jalalizand, Nilufar; Shokoohi, Gholam R; Charsizadeh, Arezu; Mirhendi, Hossein

    2017-09-01

    The epidemiological alteration in the distribution of Candida species, as well as the significantly increasing trend of either intrinsic or acquired resistance of some of these fungi highlights the need for a reliable method for the identification of the species. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the methods facilitating the quick and precise identification of Candida species. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of CHROMagar, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and PCR-fragment size polymorphism (PCR-FSP) assays in the identification of Candida species to determine the benefits and limitations of these methods. This study was conducted on 107 Candida strains, including 20 standard strains and 87 clinical isolates. The identification of the isolates was accomplished by using CHROMagar as a conventional method. The PCR-RFLP assay was performed on the entire internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and the consequent enzymatic digestion was compared with PCR-FSP results in which ITS1 and ITS2 regions were separately PCR amplified. In both molecular assays, yeast identification was carried out through the specific electrophoretic profiles of the PCR products. According to the results, the utilization of CHROMagar resulted in the identification of 29 (33.3%) Candida isolates, while the PCR-RFLP and PCR-FSP facilitated the identification of 83 (95.4%) and 80 (91.9%) clinical isolates, respectively. The obtained concordances between CHROMagar and PCR-RFLP, between CHROMagar and PCR-FSP, as well as between PCR-RFLP and PCR-FSP were 0.23, 0.20, and 0.77, respectively. The recognition of the benefits and limitations of PCR methods allows for the selection of the most efficient technique for a fast and correct differentiation. The PCR-RFLP and PCR-FSP assays had satisfactory concordance. The PCR-FSP provides a rapid, technically simple, and cost-effective method for the identification of Candida species

  12. Modulation of saturation and chain length of fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of cocoa butter-like lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenholm, David; Gossing, Michael; Wei, Yongjun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2018-04-01

    Chain length and degree of saturation plays an important role for the characteristics of various products derived from fatty acids, such as fuels, cosmetics, and food additives. The seeds of Theobroma cacao are the source of cocoa butter, a natural lipid of high interest for the food and cosmetics industry. Cocoa butter is rich in saturated fatty acids that are stored in the form of triacylglycerides (TAGs). One of the major TAG species of cocoa butter, consisting of two stearic acid molecules and one oleic acid molecule (stearic acid-oleic acid-stearic acid, sn-SOS), is particularly rare in nature as the saturated fatty acid stearic acid is typically found only in low abundance. Demand for cocoa butter is increasing, yet T. cacao can only be cultivated in some parts of the tropics. Alternative means of production of cocoa butter lipids (CBLs) are, therefore, sought after. Yeasts also store fatty acids in the form of TAGs, but these are typically not rich in saturated fatty acids. To make yeast an attractive host for microbial production of CBLs, its fatty acid composition needs to be optimized. We engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains toward a modified fatty acid synthesis. Analysis of the fatty acid profile of the modified strains showed that the fatty acid content as well as the titers of saturated fatty acids and the titers of TAGs were increased. The relative content of potential CBLs in the TAG pool reached up to 22% in our engineered strains, which is a 5.8-fold increase over the wild-type. SOS content reached a level of 9.8% in our engineered strains, which is a 48-fold increase over the wild type. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The conversion of BTEX compounds by single and defined mixed cultures to medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodinovic, Jasmina; Kenny, Shane T; Babu, Ramesh P; Woods, Trevor; Blau, Werner J; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2008-09-01

    Here, we report the use of petrochemical aromatic hydrocarbons as a feedstock for the biotechnological conversion into valuable biodegradable plastic polymers--polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). We assessed the ability of the known Pseudomonas putida species that are able to utilize benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene (BTEX) compounds as a sole carbon and energy source for their ability to produce PHA from the single substrates. P. putida F1 is able to accumulate medium-chain-length (mcl) PHA when supplied with toluene, benzene, or ethylbenzene. P. putida mt-2 accumulates mcl-PHA when supplied with toluene or p-xylene. The highest level of PHA accumulated by cultures in shake flask was 26% cell dry weight for P. putida mt-2 supplied with p-xylene. A synthetic mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, and styrene (BTEXS) which mimics the aromatic fraction of mixed plastic pyrolysis oil was supplied to a defined mixed culture of P. putida F1, mt-2, and CA-3 in the shake flasks and fermentation experiments. PHA was accumulated to 24% and to 36% of the cell dry weight of the shake flask and fermentation grown cultures respectively. In addition a three-fold higher cell density was achieved with the mixed culture grown in the bioreactor compared to shake flask experiments. A run in the 5-l fermentor resulted in the utilization of 59.6 g (67.5 ml) of the BTEXS mixture and the production of 6 g of mcl-PHA. The monomer composition of PHA accumulated by the mixed culture was the same as that accumulated by single strains supplied with single substrates with 3-hydroxydecanoic acid occurring as the predominant monomer. The purified polymer was partially crystalline with an average molecular weight of 86.9 kDa. It has a thermal degradation temperature of 350 degrees C and a glass transition temperature of -48.5 degrees C.

  14. Manipulating the morphology and textural property of γ-AlOOH by modulating the alkyl chain length of cation in ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhe, E-mail: tangzhe1983@163.com; Hu, Xiaofu, E-mail: hjj19850922@126.cn; Liang, Jilei, E-mail: liang.jilei_ttplan@126.com; Zhao, Jinchong, E-mail: Dr.zhaojc@gmail.com; Liu, Yunqi, E-mail: liuyq@upc.edu.cn; Liu, Chenguang, E-mail: cgliu@upc.edu.cn

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • γ-AlOOH was the only product in all experiments. • Different morphology of γ-AlOOH was obtained according to the alkyl chain length. • The textural property of γ-AlOOH was changed according to the alkyl chain length. • The possible formation mechanisms for hollow sphere and microflower were proposed. - Abstract: We demonstrated that the morphology and textural property of γ-AlOOH can be tuned by modulating the alkyl chain length of cation in [C{sub n}mim]{sup +}Cl{sup −} (n = 4, 8, 16). Using the short alkyl chain length-based [C{sub 4}mim]{sup +}Cl{sup −} as the structure-directed reagent, the morphology of γ-AlOOH was not changed and preserved as the hollow sphere structure in all experiments. The specific area and the number of small meso-pores of γ-AlOOH increased with the increase of [C{sub 4}mim]{sup +}Cl{sup −} dosage. While, using the larger alkyl chain length-based ionic liquids as the soft-template, such as [C{sub 8}mim]{sup +}Cl{sup −} and [C{sub 16}mim]{sup +}Cl{sup −}, the morphologies of γ-AlOOH were changed from initiative hollow spheres into the final microflowers. The specific areas of γ-AlOOH firstly increased then decreased with the increase of their dosage. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the possible formation mechanisms of γ-AlOOH have been proposed.

  15. Overexpression of O-polysaccharide chain length regulators in Gram-negative bacteria using the Wzx-/Wzy-dependent pathway enhances production of defined modal length O-polysaccharide polymers for use as haptens in glycoconjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerle, N; Bose, J; Ramachandran, G; Galen, J E; Levine, M M; Simon, R; Tennant, S M

    2018-03-30

    O-polysaccharide (OPS) molecules are protective antigens for several bacterial pathogens, and have broad utility as components of glycoconjugate vaccines. Variability in the OPS chain length is one obstacle towards further development of these vaccines. Introduction of sizing steps during purification of OPS molecules of suboptimal or of mixed lengths introduces additional costs and complexity while decreasing the final yield. The overall goal of this study was to demonstrate the utility of engineering Gram-negative bacteria to produce homogenous O-polysaccharide populations that can be used as the basis of carbohydrate vaccines by overexpressing O-polysaccharide chain length regulators of the Wzx-/Wzy-dependent pathway. The O-polysaccharide chain length regulators wzzB and fepE from Salmonella Typhimurium I77 and wzz2 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 were cloned and expressed in the homologous organism or in other Gram-negative bacteria. Overexpression of these Wzz proteins in the homologous organism significantly increased the proportion of long or very long chain O-polysaccharides. The same observation was made when wzzB was overexpressed in Salmonella Paratyphi A and Shigella flexneri, and wzz2 was overexpressed in two other strains of P. aeruginosa. Overexpression of Wzz proteins in Gram-negative bacteria using the Wzx/Wzy-dependant pathway for lipopolysaccharide synthesis provides a genetic method to increase the production of an O-polysaccharide population of a defined size. The methods presented herein represent a cost-effective and improved strategy for isolating preferred OPS vaccine haptens, and could facilitate the further use of O-polysaccharides in glycoconjugate vaccine development. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. The importance of business relations in the fish supply chain and export market distribution channels: the case of the Eritrean fish industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tsegai Habtom, Mesfin

    2006-01-01

    Dit proefschrift onderzoekt de visserij-sector in Eritrea. De belangrijkste vraagstukken die op dit moment in deze industrie spelen hebben betrekking op het functioneren van de supply chain en het export marketing channel. Zie: Samenvatting

  17. The importance of business relations in the fish supply chain and export market distribution channels : the case of the Eritrean fish industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsegai Habtom, Mesfin

    2006-01-01

    Dit proefschrift onderzoekt de visserij-sector in Eritrea. De belangrijkste vraagstukken die op dit moment in deze industrie spelen hebben betrekking op het functioneren van de supply chain en het export marketing channel. Zie: Samenvatting

  18. Effect of surfactant alkyl chain length on the dispersion, and thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of LDPE/organo-LDH composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Low density polyethylene/layered double hydroxide (LDH composites were prepared via melt compounding using different kinds of organo-LDHs and polyethylene-grafted maleic anhydride as the compatibilizer. The organo-LDHs were successfully prepared by converting a commercial MgAl-carbonate LDH into a MgAl-nitrate LDH, which was later modified by anion exchange with linear and branched sodium alkyl sulfates having different alkyl chain lengths (nc = 6, 12 and 20. It was observed that, depending on the size of the surfactant alkyl chain, different degrees of polymer chain intercalation were achieved, which is a function of the interlayer distance of the organo-LDHs, of the packing level of the alkyl chains, and of the different interaction levels between the surfactant and the polymer chains. In particular, when the number of carbon atoms of the surfactant alkyl chain is larger than 12, the intercalation of polymer chains in the interlayer space and depression of the formation of large aggregates of organo-LDH platelets are favored. A remarkable improvement of the thermal-oxidative degradation was evidenced for all of the composites; whereas only a slight increase of the crystallization temperature and no significant changes of both melting temperature and degree of crystallinity were achieved. By thermodynamic mechanical analysis, it was evidenced that a softening of the matrix is may be due to the plasticizing effect of the surfactant.

  19. Fabrication and tribological properties of self-assembled monolayer of n-alkyltrimethoxysilane on silicon: Effect of SAM alkyl chain length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Lixia; Du, Pengcheng; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Kaifeng; Liu, Peng

    2017-02-01

    It is well known that the self-assembled organic molecules on a solid surface exhibit the friction-reducing performance. However, the effect of the molecular size of the self-assembled organic molecules has not been established. In the present work, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of n-alkyltrimethoxysilanes with different alkyl chain lengths (C6, C12, or C18) were fabricated on silicon substrate. The water contact angles of the SAMs increased from 26.8° of the hydroxylated silicon substrate to near 60° after self-assembly. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis results showed that the mean roughness (Ra) of the SAMs decreased with increasing the alkyl chain length. The tribological properties of the SAMs sliding against Al2O3 ball were evaluated on an UMT-2 tribometer, and the worn surfaces of the samples were analyzed by means of Nano Scratch Tester and surface profilometry. It was found that lowest friction coefficient and smallest width of wear were achieved with the SAMs of C12 alkyl chain (C12-SAM). The superior friction reduction and wear resistance of the SAMs in comparison with the bare silicon substrate are attributed to good adhesion of the self-assembled films to the substrate, especially the C12-SAM with desirable alkyl chain length.

  20. Effects of alkyl chain length and substituent pattern of fullerene bis-adducts on film structures and photovoltaic properties of bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ran; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Kurotobi, Kei; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2014-10-08

    A series of alkoxycarbonyl-substituted dihydronaphthyl-based [60]fullerene bis-adduct derivatives (denoted as C2BA, C4BA, and C6BA with the alkyl chain of ethyl, n-butyl, and n-hexyl, respectively) have been synthesized to investigate the effects of alkyl chain length and substituent pattern of fullerene bis-adducts on the film structures and photovoltaic properties of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. The shorter alkyl chain length caused lower solubility of the fullerene bis-adducts (C6BA > C4BA > C2BA), thereby resulting in the increased separation difficulty of respective bis-adduct isomers. The device performance based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene bis-adduct regioisomer mixtures was enhanced by shortening the alkyl chain length. When using the regioisomerically separated fullerene bis-adducts, the devices based on trans-2 and a mixture of trans-4 and e of C4BA exhibited the highest power conversion efficiencies of ca. 2.4%, which are considerably higher than those of the C6BA counterparts (ca. 1.4%) and the C4BA regioisomer mixture (1.10%). The film morphologies as well as electron mobilities of the P3HT:bis-adduct blend films were found to affect the photovoltaic properties considerably. These results reveal that the alkyl chain length and substituent pattern of fullerene bis-adducts significantly influence the photovoltaic properties as well as the film structures of bulk heterojunction solar cells.

  1. Probing the Differential Tissue Distribution and Bioaccumulation Behavior of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances of Varying Chain-Lengths, Isomeric Structures and Functional Groups in Crucian Carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yali; Vestergren, Robin; Nost, Therese Haugdahl; Zhou, Zhen; Cai, Yaqi

    2018-04-17

    Understanding the bioaccumulation mechanisms of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) across different chain-lengths, isomers and functional groups represents a monumental scientific challenge with implications for chemical regulation. Here, we investigate how the differential tissue distribution and bioaccumulation behavior of 25 PFASs in crucian carp from two field sites impacted by point sources can provide information about the processes governing uptake, distribution and elimination of PFASs. Median tissue/blood ratios (TBRs) were consistently 90% of the amount of PFASs in the organism. Principal component analyses of TBRs and RBBs showed that the functional group was a relatively more important predictor of internal distribution than chain-length for PFASs. Whole body bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for short-chain PFASs deviated from the positive relationship with hydrophobicity observed for longer-chain homologues. Overall, our results suggest that TBR, RBB, and BAF patterns were most consistent with protein binding mechanisms although partitioning to phospholipids may contribute to the accumulation of long-chain PFASs in specific tissues.

  2. Effect of stereochemistry, chain length and sequence pattern on antimicrobial properties of short synthetic β-sheet forming peptide amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Zhan Yuin; Cheng, Junchi; Huang, Yuan; Xu, Kaijin; Ji, Zhongkang; Fan, Weimin; Yang, Yi Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the face of mounting global antibiotics resistance, the identification and development of membrane-active antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as an alternative class of antimicrobial agent have gained significant attention. The physical perturbation and disruption of microbial membranes by the AMPs have been proposed to be an effective means to overcome conventional mechanisms of drug resistance. Recently, we have reported the design of a series of short synthetic β-sheet folding peptide amphiphiles comprised of recurring (X1Y1X2Y2)n-NH2 sequences where X: hydrophobic amino acids, Y: cationic amino acids and n: number of repeat units. In efforts to investigate the effects of key parameters including stereochemistry, chain length and sequence pattern on antimicrobial effects, systematic d-amino acid substitutions of the lead peptides (IRIK)2-NH2 (IK8-all L) and (IRVK)3-NH2 (IK12-all L) were performed. It was found that the corresponding D-enantiomers exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities with minimal or no change in hemolytic activities, hence translating very high selectivity indices of 407.0 and >9.8 for IK8-all D and IK12-all D respectively. IK8-all D was also demonstrated to be stable to degradation by broad spectrum proteases trypsin and proteinase K. The membrane disrupting bactericidal properties of IK8-all D effectively prevented drug resistance development and inhibited the growth of various clinically isolated MRSA, VRE, Acinetobacter baumanni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cryptococcus. neoformans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Significant reduction in intracellular bacteria counts was also observed following treatment with IK8-all D in the Staphylococcus. aureus infected mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the d-amino acids substituted β-sheet forming peptide IK8-all D with its enhanced antimicrobial activities and improved protease stability, is a promising therapeutic candidate with potential to combat

  3. Photoluminescence and self-assembly of cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals: Effects of chain length of organic amines and reaction temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi; Liu, Zheming; Liu, Zhenyang; Peng, Lan; Li, Yongjie; Tang, Aiwei

    2017-05-01

    All-inorganic halide perovskites have become one of the most prospective materials for lightening and display technology due to their color-tunable and narrow-band emission. Herein, we have systematically studied the effects of organic amines with different hydrocarbon chain length on the optical properties and morphology as well as the crystal structure of colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals (NCs), which were synthesized in the presence of oleic acid (OA) and organic amines by using a simple hot-injection approach. The hydrocarbon chain length has shown an independent correlation to the morphology and crystal structure of the as-obtained CsPbBr3 NCs at 160 °C, but their optical properties can be affected to some extent. The photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of the CsPbBr3 NCs synthesized in the presence of organic amines with long carbon chain length are generally in the range of 55-80% for different reaction time, but the PLQYs of less than 20% are obtained for the products synthesized in the presence of octylamine (OTAm) with short carbon chain length. The effects of the reaction temperature on the optical properties, size and crystal structure of the CsPbBr3 NCs synthesized in the presence of cetylamine (CTAm) are studied. Interestingly, some nanoplates also appear in these CsPbBr3 NCs obtained at relatively low temperatures (120 and 140 °C), which have a strong tendency to self-assemble into face-to-face nanostructures. Such a similar self-assembly behavior is also observed in the product synthesized in the presence of oleylamine (OLAm), but only flat nanoplates are observed in the products in the presence of OTAm at 120 °C. The results indicate that the lower reaction temperature and hydrocarbon chain length of the organic ligands play a significant role in the self-assembly of CsPbBr3 NCs. This work opens up an alternative approach to controllable-synthesis of perovskite NCs through varying the carbon chain length of organic surfactants, and enlightens

  4. Recycling Pricing and Coordination of WEEE Dual-Channel Closed-Loop Supply Chain Considering Consumers' Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Wang, Jing; Tang, Juan

    2017-12-15

    Environmentally friendly handling and efficient recycling of waste electrical on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) have grown to be a global social problem. As holders of WEEE, consumers have a significant effect on the recycling process. A consideration of and attention to the influence of consumer behavior in the recycling process can help achieve more effective recycling of WEEE. In this paper, we built a dual-channel closed-loop supply chain model composed of manufacturers, retailers, and network recycling platforms. Based on the influence of customer bargaining behavior, we studied several different scenarios of centralized decision-making, decentralized decision-making, and contract coordination, using the Stackelberg game theory. The results show that retailers and network recycling platforms will reduce the direct recovery prices to maintain their own profit when considering the impact of consumer bargaining behavior, while remanufacturers will improve the transfer payment price for surrendering part of the profit under revenue and the expense sharing contract. Using this contract, we can achieve supply chain coordination and eliminate the effect of consumer bargaining behavior on supply chain performance. It can be viewed from the parameter sensitivity analysis that when we select the appropriate sharing coefficient, the closed-loop supply chain can achieve the same system performance under a centralized decision.

  5. Recycling Pricing and Coordination of WEEE Dual-Channel Closed-Loop Supply Chain Considering Consumers’ Bargaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly handling and efficient recycling of waste electrical on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE have grown to be a global social problem. As holders of WEEE, consumers have a significant effect on the recycling process. A consideration of and attention to the influence of consumer behavior in the recycling process can help achieve more effective recycling of WEEE. In this paper, we built a dual-channel closed-loop supply chain model composed of manufacturers, retailers, and network recycling platforms. Based on the influence of customer bargaining behavior, we studied several different scenarios of centralized decision-making, decentralized decision-making, and contract coordination, using the Stackelberg game theory. The results show that retailers and network recycling platforms will reduce the direct recovery prices to maintain their own profit when considering the impact of consumer bargaining behavior, while remanufacturers will improve the transfer payment price for surrendering part of the profit under revenue and the expense sharing contract. Using this contract, we can achieve supply chain coordination and eliminate the effect of consumer bargaining behavior on supply chain performance. It can be viewed from the parameter sensitivity analysis that when we select the appropriate sharing coefficient, the closed-loop supply chain can achieve the same system performance under a centralized decision.

  6. Recycling Pricing and Coordination of WEEE Dual-Channel Closed-Loop Supply Chain Considering Consumers’ Bargaining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Wang, Jing; Tang, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Environmentally friendly handling and efficient recycling of waste electrical on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) have grown to be a global social problem. As holders of WEEE, consumers have a significant effect on the recycling process. A consideration of and attention to the influence of consumer behavior in the recycling process can help achieve more effective recycling of WEEE. In this paper, we built a dual-channel closed-loop supply chain model composed of manufacturers, retailers, and network recycling platforms. Based on the influence of customer bargaining behavior, we studied several different scenarios of centralized decision-making, decentralized decision-making, and contract coordination, using the Stackelberg game theory. The results show that retailers and network recycling platforms will reduce the direct recovery prices to maintain their own profit when considering the impact of consumer bargaining behavior, while remanufacturers will improve the transfer payment price for surrendering part of the profit under revenue and the expense sharing contract. Using this contract, we can achieve supply chain coordination and eliminate the effect of consumer bargaining behavior on supply chain performance. It can be viewed from the parameter sensitivity analysis that when we select the appropriate sharing coefficient, the closed-loop supply chain can achieve the same system performance under a centralized decision. PMID:29244778

  7. Game Theoretic Analysis of Carbon Emission Abatement in Fashion Supply Chains Considering Vertical Incentives and Channel Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei He

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We study an emission-dependent dyadic fashion supply chain made up of a supplier and a manufacturer, both of which can reduce their own component/product emissions to serve the carbon-footprint sensitive consumers. With Carbon Tax regulation, we consider four scenarios resulting from two ways in form of adopting transfer price contract and/or introducing third-party emission-reduction service (TPERS to enhance the efficiency of systematic emission reductions. We refine four models from these corresponding scenarios, which in turn constitute a decision-making framework composed of determining vertical incentives and choosing supply chain structures. By exploiting Stackelberg games in all models, we compare their emission reduction efficiencies and profitability for each pair of settings. Theoretic analysis and numerical studies show that adopting vertical transfer payment schemes can definitely benefit channel carbon footprint reduction and Pareto improvement of supply chain profitability, regardless of whether the emission-reduction service exists or not. However, whether introducing TPERS or not is heavily depending on systematic parameters when the transfer payment incentive is adopted there. We also provide insights on the sensitivity of carbon tax parameters with respect to the supply chain performance, overall carbon emission reduction, vertical incentive and TPERS adopting decision-makings.

  8. Effects of molecular and lattice structure on the thermal behaviours of some long chain length potassium(I) n-alkanoates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter N.; Ellis, Henry A.; Taylor, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Lattice structures and thermal behaviours for some long chain potassium carboxylates (nc = 8-18, inclusive) are investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray Powder Diffraction, Solid State spin decoupled 13C NMR spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetry. The measurements show that the carboxyl groups are coordinated to potassium atoms via asymmetric chelating bidentate bonding, with extensive carboxyl intermolecular interactions to yield tetrahedral metal centers, irrespective of chain length. Furthermore, the hydrocarbon chains are crystallized in the fully extended all-trans configuration and are arranged as non-overlapping lamellar bilayer structures with closely packed methyl groups from opposite layers. Additionally, odd-even alternation, observed in density and methyl group chemical shift, is ascribed to the relative vertical distances between layers in the bilayer, that are not in the same plane. Therefore, for even chain homologues, where this distances is less than for odd chain adducts, more intimate packing is indicated. The phase sequences for all compounds show several reversible crystal-crystal transition associated with kinetically controlled gauche-trans isomerism of the polymethylene chains which undergo incomplete fusion when heated to the melt. The compounds degrade above 785 K to yield carbon dioxide, water, potassium oxide and an alkene.

  9. The critical main-chain length for helix formation in water: determined in a peptide series with alternating Aib and Ala residues exclusively and detected with ECD spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Edoardo; Moretto, Alessandro; Formaggio, Fernando; Toniolo, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    Critical main-chain length for peptide helix formation in the crystal (solid) state and in organic solvents has been already reported. In this short communication, we describe our results aiming at assessing the aforementioned parameter in water solution. To this goal, we synthesized step-by-step by solution procedures a complete series of N-terminally acetylated, C-terminally methoxylated oligopeptides, characterized only by alternating Aib and Ala residues, from the dimer to the nonamer level. All these compounds were investigated by electronic circular dichroism in the far-UV region in water solution as a function of chemical structure, namely presence/absence of an ester moiety or a negative charge at the C-terminus, and temperature. We find that the critical main-chain lengths for 3(10)- and α-helices, although still formed to a limited extent, in aqueous solution are six and eight residues, respectively. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of novel side-chain liquid crystalline polycarbonates, 4 - Synthesis of side-chain liquid crystalline polycarbonates with mesogenic groups having tails of different lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.C.; Addink, R.; Nijenhuis, K.T.; Mijs, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Side-chain liquid crystalline polycarbonates with alkoxyphenylbenzoate side groups, having a short spacer and tails ranging from 1 to 8 C-atoms, were synthesized. The polymers were prepared by an organo-zinc catalysed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and mesogenic 4-alkoxyphenyl

  11. Synthesis and characterization of novel side-chain liquid crystalline polycarbonates, 5 - Mesophase characterization of side-chain liquid crystalline polycarbonates with tails of different lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.C.; Addink, R.; Nijenhuis, K.T.; Mijs, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    The mesomorphic properties and thermal stability of side-chain LC polycarbonates with alkoxyphenyl benzoate side groups having a short spacer and alkoxy tails ranging from 1 to 8 carbon atoms were studied by DSC, X-ray diffraction and polarized light optical microscopy. All polymers have a smectic A

  12. Studies on the solvation dynamics of coumarin 153 in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium alkylsulfate ionic liquids: dependence on alkyl chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudhir Kumar; Sarkar, Moloy

    2012-08-06

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence behavior of coumarin 153 (C153) is investigated in a series of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium alkylsulfate ([C(2)mim][C(n)OSO(3)]) ionic liquids differing only in the length of the linear alkyl chain (n = 4, 6, and 8) in the anion. The aim of the present study is to understand the role of alkyl chain length in solute rotation and solvation dynamics of C153 in these ionic liquids. The blueshift observed in the steady-state absorption and emission maxima of C153 on going from the C(4)OSO(3) to the C(8)OSO(3) system indicates increasing nonpolar character of the microenvironment of the solute with increasing length of the alkyl side chain of the anion of the ionic liquids. The average solvation time is also found to increase on changing the substituent from butyl to octyl, and this is attributed to the increase in the bulk viscosity of the ILs. A steady blueshift of the time-zero maximum of the fluorescence spectrum with increasing alkyl chain length also indicates that the probe molecule experiences a less polar environment in the early part of the dynamics. Rotational dynamics of C153 are also analyzed by using the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED), Gierer-Wirtz (GW), and Dote-Kivelson-Schwartz (DKS) theories. Analyses of the results seem to suggest decoupling of the rotational motion of the probe from solvent viscosity. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effect of the Alkyl Chain Length Incorporated into Donor Part on the Optoelectronic Properties of the Carbazole Based Dyes: Theoretical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad El Mzioui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a theoretical study using density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent (TD-DFT for R-D-π-A systems with various alkyl chains (R. Results show that the LUMO of the dye lies above the semiconductor conduction band, promoting the injection of electrons; the lower HOMO level promotes dye regeneration. The incorporation of methyl chain (CH3 has a significant reduction in the gap energy, improved red-shift absorption spectrum and increase the molar extinction coefficient at the maximum absorption wavelength compared to D. While, the increase in alkyl chain length from C2H5 to C6H13 present a relatively reduce of gap energies, low effect on the wavelength (438 nm and converged excitation energies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i5.1003 

  14. Ultrasonic Relaxation Study of 1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-Based Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids: Probing the Role of Alkyl Chain Length in the Cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorębski, Michał; Zorębski, Edward; Dzida, Marzena; Skowronek, Justyna; Jężak, Sylwia; Goodrich, Peter; Jacquemin, Johan

    2016-04-14

    Ultrasound absorption spectra of four 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides were determined as a function of the alkyl chain length on the cation from 1-propyl to 1-hexyl from 293.15 to 323.15 K at ambient pressure. Herein, the ultrasound absorption measurements were carried out using a standard pulse technique within a frequency range from 10 to 300 MHz. Additionally, the speed of sound, density, and viscosity have been measured. The presence of strong dissipative processes during the ultrasound wave propagation was found experimentally, i.e., relaxation processes in the megahertz range were observed for all compounds over the whole temperature range. The relaxation spectra (both relaxation amplitude and relaxation frequency) were shown to be dependent on the alkyl side chain length of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ring. In most cases, a single-Debye model described the absorption spectra very well. However, a comparison of the determined spectra with the spectra of a few other imidazolium-based ionic liquids reported in the literature (in part recalculated in this work) shows that the complexity of the spectra increases rapidly with the elongation of the alkyl chain length on the cation. This complexity indicates that both the volume viscosity and the shear viscosity are involved in relaxation processes even in relatively low frequency ranges. As a consequence, the sound velocity dispersion is present at relatively low megahertz frequencies.

  15. Bond length and electric current oscillation of long linear carbon chains: Density functional theory, MpB model, and quantum spin transport studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeiras, R. Y.; Silva, E. Z. da

    2014-01-01

    Carbon linear atomic chains attached to graphene have experimentally been produced. Motivated by these results, we study the nature of the carbon bonds in these nanowires and how it affects their electrical properties. In the present study we investigate chains with different numbers of atoms and we observe that nanowires with odd number of atoms present a distinct behavior than the ones with even numbers. Using graphene nanoribbons as leads, we identify differences in the quantum transport of the chains with the consequence that even and odd numbered chains have low and high electrical conduction, respectively. We also noted a dependence of current with the wire size. We study this unexpected behavior using a combination of first principles calculations and simple models based on chemical bond theory. From our studies, the electrons of carbon nanowires present a quasi-free electron behavior and this explains qualitatively the high electrical conduction and the bond lengths with unexpected values for the case of odd nanowires. Our study also allows the understanding of the electric conduction dependence with the number of atoms and their parity in the chain. In the case of odd number chains a proposed π-bond (MpB) model describes unsaturated carbons that introduce a mobile π-bond that changes dramatically the structure and transport properties of these wires. Our results indicate that the nature of bonds plays the main role in the oscillation of quantum electrical conduction for chains with even and odd number of atoms and also that nanowires bonded to graphene nanoribbons behave as a quasi-free electron system, suggesting that this behavior is general and it could also remain if the chains are bonded to other materials

  16. Equivalent chain lengths of all C4-C23 saturated monomethyl branched fatty acid methyl esters on methylsilicone OV-1 stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinec, Róbert; Blaško, Jaroslav; Górová, Renáta; Addová, Gabriela; Ostrovský, Ivan; Amann, Anton; Soják, Ladislav

    2011-04-01

    Isomer mixtures of monomethyl branched saturated C7-C23 fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were prepared by performing a methylene insertion reaction to the straight chain FAME and this study model was completed by using commercially available standards of C4-C7 FAME. The equivalent chain lengths (ECL) of all 220 C4-C23 monomethyl branched FAME on OV-1 stationary phase were measured, achieving an average repeatability of ±0.0004 ECL units. The monomethyl branched FAME was identified by GC on the basis of regularity of the fractional chain lengths (FCL) dependence on the number of carbon atoms (C(z)) of individual homologous series of methyl 2-, 3-, …, 21-FAME. The prediction of retention of the first homologues, having the new position of methyl group beginning at higher carbon atoms number, and analogously for the second, third, fourth, and other members of the homologous series, allowed the dependence FCL=f(C(z)) for the first and subsequent members of beginning homologous of monomethyl derivatives of FAME. The identification was confirmed by mass spectrometry. All of the methyl isomers of FAME, which could not be completely separated by gas chromatography due to having a methyl group in surroundings of the middle of the carbon chain, were resolved by mass spectrometry using deconvolution in a SIM-mode. Measured gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric data were applied for identification of the monomethyl branched saturated FAME in tongue coating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Is DNA a worm-like chain in Couette flow? In search of persistence length, a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittman, Martyn; Gilroy, Emma; Koohya, Hashem; Rodger, Alison; Richards, Adair

    2009-01-01

    Persistence length is the foremost measure of DNA flexibility. Its origins lie in polymer theory which was adapted for DNA following the determination of BDNA structure in 1953. There is no single definition of persistence length used, and the links between published definitions are based on assumptions which may, or may not be, clearly stated. DNA flexibility is affected by local ionic strength, solvent environment, bound ligands and intrinsic sequence-dependent flexibility. This article is a review of persistence length providing a mathematical treatment of the relationships between four definitions of persistence length, including: correlation, Kuhn length, bending, and curvature. Persistence length has been measured using various microscopy, force extension and solution methods such as linear dichroism and transient electric birefringence. For each experimental method a model of DNA is required to interpret the data. The importance of understanding the underlying models, along with the assumptions required by each definition to determine a value of persistence length, is highlighted for linear dichroism data, where it transpires that no model is currently available for long DNA or medium to high shear rate experiments.

  18. Triple Recycling Channel Strategies for Remanufacturing of Construction Machinery in a Retailer-Dominated Closed-Loop Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Firms engaged in remanufacturing activities generally adopt more than one recycling channel to collect more used products and gain more profits. This paper explores the optimal strategies for a retailer-dominated closed-loop supply chain (CLSC with a triple recycling channel in the construction machinery remanufacturing context. In this special system, the retailer is the leader and authorized by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM to remanufacture. Moreover, the OEM, the retailer, and the secondary market all take part in the used products collection activities. Considering the differentiation of the OEM, the retailer, and the secondary market in collecting the used construction machinery, a mathematical model of the CLSC system based on reasonable assumptions is built, the closed-form optimal pricing decisions are derived, and the optimal collection efforts allocation strategies are explored within the framework of the game theory. In addition, the impacts of the reverse logistics cost coefficient, the competing coefficient, and the buy-back price coefficient on the supply chain performance are elaborately analyzed. These achievements provide decision makers with managerial insights and offer efficient guidelines for the construction machinery remanufacturing firms to solve similar puzzles.

  19. Nighttime oxidation of surfactants at the air-water interface: effects of chain length, head group and saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Federica; Campbell, Richard A.; Rastogi, Kunal; Pfrang, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Reactions of the key atmospheric nighttime oxidant NO3 with organic monolayers at the air-water interface are used as proxies for the ageing of organic-coated aqueous aerosols. The surfactant molecules chosen for this study are oleic acid (OA), palmitoleic acid (POA), methyl oleate (MO) and stearic acid (SA) to investigate the effects of chain length, head group and degree of unsaturation on the reaction kinetics and products formed. Fully and partially deuterated surfactants were studied using neutron reflectometry (NR) to determine the reaction kinetics of organic monolayers with NO3 at the air-water interface for the first time. Kinetic modelling allowed us to determine the rate coefficients for the oxidation of OA, POA and MO monolayers to be (2.8±0.7) × 10-8, (2.4±0.5) × 10-8and (3.3±0.6) × 10-8 cm2 molecule-1 s-1 for fitted initial desorption lifetimes of NO3 at the closely packed organic monolayers, τd, NO3, 1, of 8.1±4.0, 16±4.0 and 8.1±3.0 ns, respectively. The approximately doubled desorption lifetime found in the best fit for POA compared to OA and MO is consistent with a more accessible double bond associated with the shorter alkyl chain of POA facilitating initial NO3 attack at the double bond in a closely packed monolayer. The corresponding uptake coefficients for OA, POA and MO were found to be (2.1±0.5) × 10-3, (1.7±0.3) × 10-3 and (2.1±0.4) × 10-3, respectively. For the much slower NO3-initiated oxidation of the saturated surfactant SA we estimated a loss rate of approximately (5±1) × 10-12 cm2 molecule-1 s-1, which we consider to be an upper limit for the reactive loss, and estimated an uptake coefficient of ca. (5±1) × 10-7. Our investigations demonstrate that NO3 will contribute substantially to the processing of unsaturated surfactants at the air-water interface during nighttime given its reactivity is ca. 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of O3. Furthermore, the relative contributions of NO3 and O3 to the oxidative

  20. Nighttime oxidation of surfactants at the air–water interface: effects of chain length, head group and saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sebastiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of the key atmospheric nighttime oxidant NO3 with organic monolayers at the air–water interface are used as proxies for the ageing of organic-coated aqueous aerosols. The surfactant molecules chosen for this study are oleic acid (OA, palmitoleic acid (POA, methyl oleate (MO and stearic acid (SA to investigate the effects of chain length, head group and degree of unsaturation on the reaction kinetics and products formed. Fully and partially deuterated surfactants were studied using neutron reflectometry (NR to determine the reaction kinetics of organic monolayers with NO3 at the air–water interface for the first time. Kinetic modelling allowed us to determine the rate coefficients for the oxidation of OA, POA and MO monolayers to be (2.8±0.7 × 10−8, (2.4±0.5 × 10−8and (3.3±0.6 × 10−8 cm2 molecule−1 s−1 for fitted initial desorption lifetimes of NO3 at the closely packed organic monolayers, τd, NO3, 1, of 8.1±4.0, 16±4.0 and 8.1±3.0 ns, respectively. The approximately doubled desorption lifetime found in the best fit for POA compared to OA and MO is consistent with a more accessible double bond associated with the shorter alkyl chain of POA facilitating initial NO3 attack at the double bond in a closely packed monolayer. The corresponding uptake coefficients for OA, POA and MO were found to be (2.1±0.5 × 10−3, (1.7±0.3 × 10−3 and (2.1±0.4 × 10−3, respectively. For the much slower NO3-initiated oxidation of the saturated surfactant SA we estimated a loss rate of approximately (5±1 × 10−12 cm2 molecule−1 s−1, which we consider to be an upper limit for the reactive loss, and estimated an uptake coefficient of ca. (5±1 × 10−7. Our investigations demonstrate that NO3 will contribute substantially to the processing of unsaturated surfactants at the air–water interface during nighttime given its reactivity is ca. 2 orders of magnitude higher

  1. Critical determinant of intestinal permeability and oral bioavailability of pegylated all trans-retinoic acid prodrug-based nanomicelles: Chain length of poly (ethylene glycol) corona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenbao; Han, Xiaopeng; Zhai, Yinglei; Lian, He; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui; Liu, Zheng; Sun, Jin

    2015-06-01

    Pegylation method is widely used to prolong the blood circulation time of proteins and nanoparticles after intravenous administration, but the effect of surface poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain length on oral absorption of the pegylated nanoparticles is poorly reported. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of PEG corona chain length on membrane permeability and oral bioavailability of the amphiphilic pegylated prodrug-based nanomicelles, taking all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) as a model drug. The amphiphilic ATRA-PEG conjugates were synthesized by esterification reaction between all trans-retinoic acid and mPEGs (mPEG500, mPEG1000, mPEG2000, and mPEG5000). The conjugates could self-assemble in aqueous medium to form nanomicelles by emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The resultant nanomicelles were in spherical shape with an average diameter of 13-20 nm. The drug loading efficiency of ATRA-PEG500, ATRA-PEG1000, ATRA-PEG2000, and ATRA-PEG5000 was about 38.4, 26.6, 13.1, and 5.68 wt%, respectively. With PEG chain length ranging from 500 to 5000, ATRA-PEG nanomicelles exhibited a bell shape of chemical stability in different pH buffers, intestinal homogenate and plasma. More importantly, they were all rapidly hydrolyzed into the parent drug in hepatic homogenate, with the half-time values being 0.3-0.4h. In comparison to ATRA solution and ATRA prodrug-based nanomicelles, ATRA-PEG1000 showed the highest intestinal permeability. After oral administration, ATRA-PEG2000 and ATRA-PEG5000 nanomicelles were not nearly absorbed, while the oral bioavailability of ATRA-PEG500 and ATRA-PEG1000 demonstrated about 1.2- and 2.0-fold higher than ATRA solution. Our results indicated that PEG1000 chain length of ATRA-PEG prodrug nanomicelles has the optimal oral bioavailability probably due to improved stability and balanced mucus penetration capability and cell binding, and that the PEG chain length on a surface of nanoparticles cannot exceed a key threshold with

  2. Lipid membrane partitioning of lysolipids and fatty acids: Effects of membrane phase structure and detergent chain length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Lise Pernille Kristine; Davidsen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Kent

    2001-01-01

    gel phase and at high temperatures in the disordered fluid phase of the phospholipid membrane vesicles. The long saturated acyl chains of the lysolipids and fatty acids varied from 10 to 16 carbon atoms and all titrations were performed below the critical micellar concentrations (cmc...... of magnitude higher when the saturated acyl chain of the detergents increases by two carbon atoms. The obtained partition coefficients are of importance in relation to a deeper understanding of the interplay between global aqueous and local membrane concentrations of the detergents and the functional influence...

  3. Novel extracellular medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase from Streptomyces exfoliatus K10 DSMZ 41693

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Virginia; de Santos, Patricia Gómez; García-Hidalgo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    reaction product. Markedly, PhaZSex2 is able to degrade functionalized polymers containing thioester groups in the side chain (PHACOS), releasing functional thioester-based monomers and oligomers demonstrating the potentiality of this novel biocatalyst for the industrial production of enantiopure (R)-3...

  4. Highly Grafted Polystyrene/polyvinylpyridine Polymer Gold Nanoparticles in a Good Solvent: Effects of Chain Length and Composition.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Posel, Zbyšek; Posocco, P.; Lísal, Martin; Fermeglia, M.; Pricl, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 15 (2016), s. 3600-3611 ISSN 1744-683X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S; GA MŠk LH12020 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : block copolymers * chains * fiber optic sensors Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.889, year: 2016

  5. Revisit complexation between DNA and polyethylenimine — Effect of length of free polycationic chains on gene transfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yanan; Jin, Fan; Deng, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Our revisit of the complexation between DNA and polyethylenimine (PEI) by using a combination of laser light scattering and gel electrophoresis confirms that nearly all the DNA chains are complexed with PEI to form polyplexes when the molar ratio of nitrogen from PEI to phosphate from DNA (N:P) r...

  6. Probing the effects of the ester functional group, alkyl side chain length and anions on the bulk nanostructure of ionic liquids: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraee, Mostafa; Gholami, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-14

    The effects of ester addition on nanostructural properties of biodegradable ILs composed of 1-alkoxycarbonyl-3-alkyl-imidazolium cations ([C1COOCnC1im](+), n = 1, 2, 4) combined with [Br](-), [NO3](-), [BF4](-), [PF6](-), [TfO](-), and [Tf2N](-) were explored by using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analysis at 400 K. Various thermodynamic properties of these ILs were extensively computed in our earlier work (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2015, 54, 11678-11700). Nano-scale segregation analysis demonstrates the formation of a small spherical island-like hydrocarbon within the continuous ionic domain for ILs with short alkyl side chain ([C1COOC1C1im]), and a sponge-like nanostructure for the compound with long alkyl side chain ([C1COOC4C1im]). Ester-functionalized ILs with ethyl side chain ([C1COOC2C1im]) are the turning point between two different morphologies. Non-polar channels were observed for [C1COOC4C1im] ILs composed of smaller anions such as [Br] and [NO3], whereas clustering organization was found for the other anions. Formation of the spherical micelle-like nanostructure was seen for lengthened cations. Finally, the incorporation of an ester group into the alkyl side chain of the cation leads to stronger segregation between charged and uncharged networks, which consequently increased the possibility of self-assembly and micelle formation.

  7. Quantitative theory of channeling particle diffusion in transverse energy in the presence of nuclear scattering and direct evaluation of dechanneling length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhomirov, Victor V. [Belarusian State University, Institute for Nuclear Problems, Minsk (Belarus)

    2017-07-15

    A refined equation for channeling particle diffusion in transverse energy taking into consideration large-angle scattering by nuclei is suggested. This equation is reduced to the Sturm-Liouville problem, allowing one to reveal both the origin and the limitations of the dechanneling length notion. The values of the latter are evaluated for both positively and negatively charged particles of various energies. New features of the dechanneling dynamics of positively charged particles are also revealed. First, it is demonstrated that the dechanneling length notion is completely inapplicable for their nuclear dechanneling process. Second, the effective electron dechanneling length of positively charged particle varies more than twice converging to a constant asymptotic value only at the depth exceeding the latter. (orig.)

  8. Influence of alkyl chain length and anion species on ionic liquid structure at the graphite interface as a function of applied potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hua; Wood, Ross J; Atkin, Rob; Endres, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements elucidate the effect of cation alkyl chain length and the anion species on ionic liquid (IL) interfacial structure at highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces as a function of potential. Three ILs are examined: 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([HMIM] FAP), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([EMIM] FAP), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM] TFSA). The step-wise force-distance profiles indicate the ILs adopt a multilayered morphology near the surface. When the surface is biased positively or negatively versus Pt quasireference electrode, both the number of steps, and the force required to rupture each step increase, indicating stronger interfacial structure. At all potentials, push-through forces for [HMIM] FAP are the highest, because the long alkyl chain results in strong cohesive interactions between cations, leading to well-formed layers that resist the AFM tip. The most layers are observed for [EMIM] FAP, because the C 2 chains are relatively rigid and the dimensions of the cation and anion are similar, facilitating neat packing. [EMIM] TFSA has the smallest push-through forces and fewest layers, and thus the weakest interfacial structure. Surface-tip attractive forces are measured for all ILs. At the same potential, the attractions are the strongest for [EMIM] TFSA and the weakest for [HMIM] FAP because the interfacial layers are better formed for the longer alkyl chain cation. This means interfacial forces are stronger, which masks the weak attractive forces. (paper)

  9. Application of Stochastic Automata Networks for Creation of Continuous Time Markov Chain Models of Voltage Gating of Gap Junction Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Snipas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this work was to study advantages of numerical methods used for the creation of continuous time Markov chain models (CTMC of voltage gating of gap junction (GJ channels composed of connexin protein. This task was accomplished by describing gating of GJs using the formalism of the stochastic automata networks (SANs, which allowed for very efficient building and storing of infinitesimal generator of the CTMC that allowed to produce matrices of the models containing a distinct block structure. All of that allowed us to develop efficient numerical methods for a steady-state solution of CTMC models. This allowed us to accelerate CPU time, which is necessary to solve CTMC models, ∼20 times.

  10. Stability and Complexity Analysis of a Dual-Channel Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Delayed Decision under Government Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoming Dai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs a continuous dual-channel closed-loop supply chain (DCLSC model with delayed decision under government intervention. The existence conditions of the local stability of the equilibrium point are discussed. We analyze the influence of delay parameters, the adjustment speed of wholesale price, recovery rate of waste products, direct price, carbon quota subsidy, and carbon tax on the stability and complexity of model by using bifurcation diagram, entropy diagram, attractor, and time series diagram and so on. Besides, the delay feedback control method is adopted to control the unstable or chaotic system effectively. The main conclusions of this paper show that the variables mentioned above must be within a reasonable range. Otherwise, the model will lose stability or enter chaos. The government can effectively adjust manufacturers' profit through carbon tax and carbon quota subsidy, and encourage manufacturers to reduce carbon emissions and increase the remanufacturing of waste products.

  11. Complexity Uncertainty Analysis of Dynamic in a Dual-Channel Energy Supply Chain Model with Heterogeneous Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the dynamics of dual-channel energy supply chain model with heterogeneous retailers (as regards the type of expectations’ formation. On the basis of analyzing the stabilities of four fixed points in the three-dimensional dynamic system, local stable regions of Nash equilibrium are obtained. Effects of S on the stable regions and profit are studied. Simulation results show that the adjustment of price speed has an obvious impact on the complexity of competition. The performances of the model in different period are measured by using the index of average profit. The results show that unstable behavior in economic system is often an unfavorable outcome. So this paper discusses the application of parameters control method when the model is in chaos and then allows the oligarchs to eliminate the negative effects.

  12. Application of Stochastic Automata Networks for Creation of Continuous Time Markov Chain Models of Voltage Gating of Gap Junction Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranevicius, Henrikas; Pranevicius, Mindaugas; Pranevicius, Osvaldas; Bukauskas, Feliksas F.

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this work was to study advantages of numerical methods used for the creation of continuous time Markov chain models (CTMC) of voltage gating of gap junction (GJ) channels composed of connexin protein. This task was accomplished by describing gating of GJs using the formalism of the stochastic automata networks (SANs), which allowed for very efficient building and storing of infinitesimal generator of the CTMC that allowed to produce matrices of the models containing a distinct block structure. All of that allowed us to develop efficient numerical methods for a steady-state solution of CTMC models. This allowed us to accelerate CPU time, which is necessary to solve CTMC models, ∼20 times. PMID:25705700

  13. Effects of Chain Length and Degree of Unsaturation of Fatty Acids on Structure and in Vitro Digestibility of Starch-Protein-Fatty Acid Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mengge; Chao, Chen; Yu, Jinglin; Copeland, Les; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Shujun

    2018-02-28

    The effects of chain length and degree of unsaturation of fatty acids (FAs) on structure and in vitro digestibility of starch-protein-FA complexes were investigated in model systems. Studies with the rapid visco analyzer (RVA) showed that the formation of ternary complex resulted in higher viscosities than those of binary complex during the cooling and holding stages. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the structural differences for ternary complexes were much less than those for binary complexes. Starch-protein-FA complexes presented lower in vitro enzymatic digestibility compared with starch-FAs complexes. We conclude that shorter chain and lower unsaturation FAs favor the formation of ternary complexes but decrease the thermal stability of these complexes. FAs had a smaller effect on the ordered structures of ternary complexes than on those of binary complexes and little effect on enzymatic digestibility of both binary and ternary complexes.

  14. Critical effects of alkyl chain length on fibril structures in benzene-trans(RR)- or (SS)-N,N'-alkanoyl-1,2-diaminocyclohexane gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hisako; Nakae, Takahiro; Morimoto, Kazuya; Tamura, Kenji

    2012-02-28

    Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra were recorded on benzene-d(6) gels formed by chiral low molecular mass gelators (LMGs), trans(RR)- or trans(SS)-N,N'-alkanoyl-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (denoted by RR-C(n) or SS-C(n), respectively; n = the number of carbon atoms in an introduced alkanoyl group). Attention was focused on the effects of alkyl chain length on the structures of the gels. When n was changed from 6 to 12, the signs of the coupled peaks around 1550 cm(-1) in the VCD spectra, which were assigned to the symmetric and asymmetric C=O stretching vibrations from the higher to lower wavenumber, respectively, critically depended on the alkyl chain length. In the case of RR-C(n), for example, the signs of the couplet were plus and minus for n = 8, 9, 10 and 12, while the signs of the same couplet were reversed for n = 6 and 7. The conformations of LMGs in fibrils were determined by comparing the observed IR and VCD spectra with those calculated for a monomeric molecule. The observed reversal of signs in the C=O couplet was rationalized in terms of the different modes of hydrogen bonding. In the case of C(8), C(9), C(10) and C(12), gelator molecules were stacked with their cyclohexyl rings in parallel, forming double anti-parallel chains of intermolecular hydrogen bonds using two pairs of >NH and >C=O groups. In case of C(6) and C(7), gelator molecules were stacked through a single chain of intermolecular hydrogen bonds using a pair of >NH and >C=O groups. The remaining pair of >NH and >C=O groups formed an intramolecular hydrogen bond.

  15. Photo-Induced Phase Transitions to Liquid Crystal Phases: Influence of the Chain Length from C8E4 to C14E4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Techert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Photo-induced phase transitions are characterized by the transformation from phase A to phase B through the absorption of photons. We have investigated the mechanism of the photo-induced phase transitions of four different ternary systems CiE4/alkane (i with n = 8, 10, 12, 14; cyclohexane/H2O. We were interested in understanding the effect of chain length increase on the dynamics of transformation from the microemulsion phase to the liquid crystal phase. Applying light pump (pulse/x-ray probe (pulse techniques, we could demonstrate that entropy and diffusion control are the driving forces for the kind of phase transition investigated.

  16. Impact of underlap spacer region variation on electrostatic and analog performance of symmetrical high-k SOI FinFET at 20 nm channel length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neeraj; Raj, Balwinder

    2017-12-01

    Continued scaling of CMOS technology to achieve high performance and low power consumption of semiconductor devices in the complex integrated circuits faces the degradation in terms of electrostatic integrity, short channel effects (SCEs), leakage currents, device variability and reliability etc. Nowadays, multigate structure has become the promising candidate to overcome these problems. SOI FinFET is one of the best multigate structures that has gained importance in all electronic design automation (EDA) industries due to its improved short channel effects (SCEs), because of its more effective gate-controlling capabilities. In this paper, our aim is to explore the sensitivity of underlap spacer region variation on the performance of SOI FinFET at 20 nm channel length. Electric field modulation is analyzed with spacer length variation and electrostatic performance is evaluated in terms of performance parameter like electron mobility, electric field, electric potential, sub-threshold slope (SS), ON current (I on), OFF current (I off) and I on/I off ratio. The potential benefits of SOI FinFET at drain-to-source voltage, V DS = 0.05 V and V DS = 0.7 V towards analog and RF design is also evaluated in terms of intrinsic gain (A V), output conductance (g d), trans-conductance (g m), gate capacitance (C gg), and cut-off frequency (f T = g m/2πC gg) with spacer region variations.

  17. Flow behaviour of inulin-milk beverages: Influence of inulin chain length and of milk fat content

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas, Beatriz; Costell, Elvira

    2003-01-01

    Inulin is used either as a macronutrient substitute or as a supplement added in foods mainly for its nutritional properties. Chemically, inulin consists of a long chain made up of fructose molecules and one glucose molecule at one end. The fructose molecules are connected by β-(2-1) bonds and the last fructose is linked with a glucose by an α-(1-2) bond as in sucrose [1, 2]. The average molecular weight and degree of polymerisation of inulin depend on the source of inulin, the time of harvest...

  18. Research on the Complexity of Dual-Channel Supply Chain Model in Competitive Retailing Service Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Li, Ting; Ren, Wenbo

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the optimal decisions of dual-channel game model considering the inputs of retailing service. We analyze how adjustment speed of service inputs affect the system complexity and market performance, and explore the stability of the equilibrium points by parameter basin diagrams. And chaos control is realized by variable feedback method. The numerical simulation shows that complex behavior would trigger the system to become unstable, such as double period bifurcation and chaos. We measure the performances of the model in different periods by analyzing the variation of average profit index. The theoretical results show that the percentage share of the demand and cross-service coefficients have important influence on the stability of the system and its feasible basin of attraction.

  19. Breaking Through the Multi-Mesa-Channel Width Limited of Normally Off GaN HEMTs Through Modulation of the Via-Hole-Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Cheng-Yen; Wu, Wen-Hsin; You, Yao-Hong; Lin, Jun-Huei; Lee, Chia-Yu; Hsu, Wen-Ching; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung; Lin, Ray-Ming

    2017-12-01

    We present new normally off GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) that overcome the typical limitations in multi-mesa-channel (MMC) width through modulation of the via-hole-length to regulate the charge neutrality screen effect. We have prepared enhancement-mode (E-mode) GaN HEMTs having widths of up to 300 nm, based on an enhanced surface pinning effect. E-mode GaN HEMTs having MMC structures and widths as well as via-hole-lengths of 100 nm/2 μm and 300 nm/6 μm, respectively, exhibited positive threshold voltages (V th ) of 0.79 and 0.46 V, respectively. The on-resistances of the MMC and via-hole-length structures were lower than those of typical tri-gate nanoribbon GaN HEMTs. In addition, the devices not only achieved the E-mode but also improved the power performance of the GaN HEMTs and effectively mitigated the device thermal effect. We controlled the via-hole-length sidewall surface pinning effect to obtain the E-mode GaN HEMTs. Our findings suggest that via-hole-length normally off GaN HEMTs have great potential for use in next-generation power electronics.

  20. Breaking Through the Multi-Mesa-Channel Width Limited of Normally Off GaN HEMTs Through Modulation of the Via-Hole-Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Cheng-Yen; Wu, Wen-Hsin; You, Yao-Hong; Lin, Jun-Huei; Lee, Chia-Yu; Hsu, Wen-Ching; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung; Lin, Ray-Ming

    2017-06-01

    We present new normally off GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) that overcome the typical limitations in multi-mesa-channel (MMC) width through modulation of the via-hole-length to regulate the charge neutrality screen effect. We have prepared enhancement-mode (E-mode) GaN HEMTs having widths of up to 300 nm, based on an enhanced surface pinning effect. E-mode GaN HEMTs having MMC structures and widths as well as via-hole-lengths of 100 nm/2 μm and 300 nm/6 μm, respectively, exhibited positive threshold voltages ( V th) of 0.79 and 0.46 V, respectively. The on-resistances of the MMC and via-hole-length structures were lower than those of typical tri-gate nanoribbon GaN HEMTs. In addition, the devices not only achieved the E-mode but also improved the power performance of the GaN HEMTs and effectively mitigated the device thermal effect. We controlled the via-hole-length sidewall surface pinning effect to obtain the E-mode GaN HEMTs. Our findings suggest that via-hole-length normally off GaN HEMTs have great potential for use in next-generation power electronics.

  1. A Game Theoretic Approach for Improving Environmental and Economic Performance in a Dual-Channel Green Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Ma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate economic performance and environmental performance of a dual-channel green supply chain (GSC. Given that most relevant literature still focus on the descriptive aspect of GSC, we adopt game theoretic approach rather than qualitative analysis method to address the following problems: (1 How can the integration of environmental and economic sustainability goals be achieved in GSC? (2 What is the impact of customer environmental awareness on the green level and profitability of the GSC? (3 How does the market demand changes in the presence of the online direct channel in addition to the traditional one? We establish four game models, which are decentralized scenario, centralized scenario, retailer-led revenue-sharing scenario and bargaining revenue-sharing scenario. In the decentralized scenario, participants in a GSC make individual decisions based on their specific interests. In the centralized scenario, the GSC is regarded as a whole and the participants make collective decisions to maximize the overall profit of the GSC. In addition, in the two revenue-sharing scenarios, revenue-sharing contracts as the important profit coordination systems are set up and the revenue-sharing ratio is determined either by the retailer or through bargaining. Moreover, the cost of green product research and development, customer environmental awareness and price sensitivity are also taken into account in the four scenarios. By comparing and analyzing the four game models, we recommend the two revenue-sharing scenarios as the optimum choice and improving green awareness as a feasible strategy to achieve the integration of economic and environmental goals of the GSC. Additionally, we find that online sales has become a major distribution channel of the GSC.

  2. Critical Length Criterion and the Arc Chain Model for Calculating the Arcing Time of the Secondary Arc Related to AC Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong Haoxi; Li Qingmin; Xing Jinyuan; Li Jinsong; Chen Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The prompt extinction of the secondary arc is critical to the single-phase reclosing of AC transmission lines, including half-wavelength power transmission lines. In this paper, a low-voltage physical experimental platform was established and the motion process of the secondary arc was recorded by a high-speed camera. It was found that the arcing time of the secondary arc rendered a close relationship with its arc length. Through the input and output power energy analysis of the secondary arc, a new critical length criterion for the arcing time was proposed. The arc chain model was then adopted to calculate the arcing time with both the traditional and the proposed critical length criteria, and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data. The study showed that the arcing time calculated from the new critical length criterion gave more accurate results, which can provide a reliable criterion in term of arcing time for modeling and simulation of the secondary arc related with power transmission lines. (paper)

  3. High yield purification of full-length functional hERG K+ channels produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molbaek, Karen; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    knowledge this is the first reported high-yield production and purification of full length, tetrameric and functional hERG. This significant breakthrough will be paramount in obtaining hERG crystal structures, and in establishment of new high-throughput hERG drug safety screening assays....

  4. Game Models on Optimal Strategies in a Tourism Dual-Channel Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a two-echelon tourism supply chain consisting of a hotel and an online travel agency. The upside hotel rooms can be sold through the downside hotel alliance and online travel agency. The hotel alliance, selling rooms at a lower price, is a direct sale platform with a negligible entry fee. Notwithstanding, the online travel agency sells the room at a higher price with related personalized service. Customers will be refunded partially in case of their cancellation or no-show. An integrated model and two decentralized models based on Bertrand and Stackelberg games are developed, respectively. The results show that when the wholesale price is lower than a certain value, both the hotel and the online travel agency can gain more profit from the Stackelberg game than that from the Bertrand game. In the case that the hotel allows overbooking, the optimal overbooking quantity is obtained. If the overbooking proportion is too high, overbooking is profitable for the hotel only when the overbooking cost is lower than a certain value. At the end of the study, some experiments are conducted to analyze the sensitivity of the optimal prices and profits in the light of certain parameters.

  5. Effect of temperature and chain length on the viscosity and surface tension of binary systems of N,N-dimethylformamide with 1-octanol, 1-nonanol and 1-decanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Abubaker A.; Alkhaldi, Khaled H.A.E.; AlTuwaim, Mohammad S.; Al-Jimaz, Adel S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of temperature and chain length on η and σ of DMF + 1-alkanol binary systems. • Viscosity and surface tension were obtained. • Δη, Δσ and G ∗E were calculated using the experimental data. • H σ and S σ were determined using the surface tension data. • Semi-empirical relations were used to estimate the viscosity of liquid mixtures. - Abstract: Viscosity and surface tension of binary systems of N,N-dimethylformamide DMF with higher 1-alkanols (C 8 –C 10 ) were measured at atmospheric pressure and four different temperatures over the entire range of mole fraction. The experimental measurements were used to calculate the deviations in viscosity and surface tension. Furthermore, the excess Gibbs free energy of activation, surface enthalpy and surface entropy of the (DMF + 1-alkanols) binary mixtures were determined. In addition, the deviation and excess properties were fitted to the method of Redlich–Kister (R–K) polynomial. Viscosity data of the binary systems were correlated with three different expressions (Grunberg and Nissan, the three-body, and four-body McAllister). The effects of the chain length of the higher 1-alkanols and temperature were investigated

  6. Individual Impact of Distinct Polysialic Acid Chain Lengths on the Cytotoxicity of Histone H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Zlatina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are able to neutralize pathogens by phagocytosis, by the release of antimicrobial components, as well as by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. The latter possibility is a DNA-meshwork mainly consisting of highly concentrated extracellular histones, which are not only toxic for pathogens, but also for endogenous cells triggering several diseases. To reduce the negative outcomes initiated by extracellular histones, different approaches like antibodies against histones, proteases, and the polysaccharide polysialic acid (polySia were discussed. We examined whether each of the individual histones is a binding partner of polySia, and analyzed their respective cytotoxicity in the presence of this linear homopolymer. Interestingly, all of the histones (H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 seem to interact with α2,8-linked sialic acids. However, we observed strong differences regarding the required chain length of polySia to bind histone H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Moreover, distinct degrees of polymerization were necessary to act as a cytoprotective agent in the presence of the individual histones. In sum, the outlined results described polySia-based strategies to bind and/or to reduce the cytotoxicity of individual histones using distinct polySia chain length settings.

  7. Critical role of alkyl chain branching of organic semiconductors in enabling solution-processed N-channel organic thin-film transistors with mobility of up to 3.50 cm² V(-1) s(-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Hu, Yunbin; Schuettfort, Torben; Di, Chong-an; Gao, Xike; McNeill, Christopher R; Thomsen, Lars; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Yuan, Wei; Sirringhaus, Henning; Zhu, Daoben

    2013-02-13

    Substituted side chains are fundamental units in solution processable organic semiconductors in order to achieve a balance of close intermolecular stacking, high crystallinity, and good compatibility with different wet techniques. Based on four air-stable solution-processed naphthalene diimides fused with 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)malononitrile groups (NDI-DTYM2) that bear branched alkyl chains with varied side-chain length and different branching position, we have carried out systematic studies on the relationship between film microstructure and charge transport in their organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). In particular synchrotron measurements (grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure) are combined with device optimization studies to probe the interplay between molecular structure, molecular packing, and OTFT mobility. It is found that the side-chain length has a moderate influence on thin-film microstructure but leads to only limited changes in OTFT performance. In contrast, the position of branching point results in subtle, yet critical changes in molecular packing and leads to dramatic differences in electron mobility ranging from ~0.001 to >3.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Incorporating a NDI-DTYM2 core with three-branched N-alkyl substituents of C(11,6) results in a dense in-plane molecular packing with an unit cell area of 127 Å(2), larger domain sizes of up to 1000 × 3000 nm(2), and an electron mobility of up to 3.50 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which is an unprecedented value for ambient stable n-channel solution-processed OTFTs reported to date. These results demonstrate that variation of the alkyl chain branching point is a powerful strategy for tuning of molecular packing to enable high charge transport mobilities.

  8. Dynamics of two disks settling in a two-dimensional narrow channel: From periodic motion to vertical chain in Oldroyd-B fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Glowinski, Roland

    2016-11-01

    In this talk we present a numerical study of the dynamics of two disks settling in a narrow vertical channel filled with an Oldroyd-B fluid. Two kinds of particle dynamics are obtained: (i) periodic interaction between two disks and (ii) the formation of the chain of two disks. For the periodic interaction of two disks, two different motions are obtained: (a) two disks stay far apart and interact is periodically, which is similar to one of the motions of two disks settling in a narrow channel filled with a Newtonian fluid discussed by Aidun & Ding and (b) two disks draft, kiss and break away periodically and the chain is not formed due to not strong enough elastic force. For the formation of two disk chain occurred at higher values of the elasticity number, it is either a tilted chain or a vertical chain. The tilted chain can be obtained for either that the elasticity number is less than the critical value for having the vertical chain or that the Mach number is greater than the critical value for a long body to fall broadside-on, which is consistent with the results for the elliptic particles settling in Oldroyd-B fluids. NSF.

  9. Effect of Acylglycerol Composition and Fatty Acyl Chain Length on Lipid Digestion in pH-Stat Digestion Model and Simulated In Vitro Digestion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jin F; Jia, Cai H; Shin, Jung A; Woo, Jeong M; Wang, Xiang Y; Park, Jong T; Hong, Soon T; Lee, K-T

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a pH-stat digestion model and a simulated in vitro digestion model were employed to evaluate the digestion degree of lipids depending on different acylglycerols and acyl chain length (that is, diacylglycerol [DAG] compared with soybean oil representing long-chain triacylglycerol compared with medium-chain triacylglycerol [MCT]). In the pH-stat digestion model, differences were observed among the digestion degrees of 3 oils using digestion rate (k), digestion half-time (t1/2 ), and digestion extent (Φmax). The results showed the digestion rate order was MCT > soybean oil > DAG. Accordingly, the order of digestion half-times was MCT digestion model, digestion rates (k') and digestion half-times (t'1/2 ) were also obtained and the results showed a digestion rate order of MCT (k' = 0.068 min(-1) ) > soybean oil (k' = 0.037 min(-1) ) > DAG (k' = 0.024 min(-1) ). Consequently, the order of digestion half-times was MCT (t'1/2 = 10.20 min) digested faster than soybean oil, and that soybean oil was digested faster than DAG. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Diacyltransferase Activity and Chain Length Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PapA5 in the Synthesis of Alkyl β-Diol Lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touchette, Megan H.; Bommineni, Gopal R.; Delle Bovi, Richard J.; Gadbery, John; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Metz, Thomas O.; Martin, Dwight W.; Sampson, Nicole S.; Miller, W. T.; Tonge, Peter J.; Seeliger, Jessica C.

    2015-09-08

    Although classified as Gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterineae possess an asymmetric outer membrane that imparts structural and thereby physiological similarity to more distantly related Gram-negative bacteria. Like lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, lipids in the outer membrane of Corynebacterineae have been associated with the virulence of pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). For example, Mtb strains that lack long, branched-chain alkyl esters known as dimycocerosates (DIMs) are significantly attenuated in model infections. The resultant interest in the biosynthetic pathway of these unusual virulence factors has led to the elucidation of many of the steps leading to the final esterification of the alkyl beta-diol, phthiocerol, with branched-chain fatty acids know as mycocerosates. PapA5 is an acyltransferase implicated in these final reactions. We here show that PapA5 is indeed the terminal enzyme in DIM biosynthesis by demonstrating its dual esterification activity and chain-length preference using synthetic alkyl beta-diol substrate analogues. Applying these analogues to a series of PapA5 mutants, we also revise a model for the substrate binding within PapA5. Finally, we demonstrate that the Mtb Ser/Thr kinase PknB modifies PapA5 on three Thr residues, including two (T196, T198) located on an unresolved loop. These results clarify the DIM biosynthetic pathway and suggest possible mechanisms by which DIM biosynthesis may be regulated by the post-translational modification of PapA5.

  11. Effect of alkyl chain length on the rotational diffusion of nonpolar and ionic solutes in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangamallaiah, V; Dutt, G B

    2013-10-10

    Rotational diffusion of a nonpolar solute 9-phenylanthracene (9-PA) and a cationic solute rhodamine 110 (R110) has been examined in a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (alkyl = octyl, decyl, dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl, and octadecyl) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides to understand the influence of alkyl chain length on solute rotation. In this study, reorientation times (τr) have been measured as a function of viscosity (η) by varying the temperature (T) of the solvents. These results have been analyzed using the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) hydrodynamic theory along with the ones obtained for the same solutes in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and hexyl) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides (Gangamallaiah and Dutt, J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 12819-12825). It has been noticed that the data for 9-PA and R110 follows the relation τr = A(η/T)(n) with A being the ratio of hydrodynamic volume of the solute to the Boltzmann constant and n = 1 as envisaged by the SED theory. However, upon increasing the alkyl chain length from methyl to octadecyl significant deviations from the SED theory have been observed especially from the octyl derivative onward. From methyl to octadecyl derivatives, the value of A decreases by a factor of 3 for both the solutes and n by a factor of 1.4 and 1.6 for 9-PA and R110, respectively. These observations have been rationalized by taking into consideration the organized structure of the ionic liquids, whose influence appears to be pronounced when the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain attached to the imidazolium cation exceeds eight.

  12. Length and amino acid sequence of peptides substituted for the 5-HT3A receptor M3M4 loop may affect channel expression and desensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole K McKinnon

    Full Text Available 5-HT3A receptors are pentameric neurotransmitter-gated ion channels in the Cys-loop receptor family. Each subunit contains an extracellular domain, four transmembrane segments (M1, M2, M3, M4 and a 115 residue intracellular loop between M3 and M4. In contrast, the M3M4 loop in prokaryotic homologues is <15 residues. To investigate the limits of M3M4 loop length and composition on channel function we replaced the 5-HT3A M3M4 loop with two to seven alanine residues (5-HT3A-A(n = 2-7. Mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and characterized using two electrode voltage clamp recording. All mutants were functional. The 5-HT EC(50's were at most 5-fold greater than wild-type (WT. The desensitization rate differed significantly among the mutants. Desensitization rates for 5-HT3A-A(2, 5-HT3A-A(4, 5-HT3A-A(6, and 5-HT3A-A(7 were similar to WT. In contrast, 5-HT3A-A(3 and 5-HT3A-A(5 had desensitization rates at least an order of magnitude faster than WT. The one Ala loop construct, 5-HT3A-A(1, entered a non-functional state from which it did not recover after the first 5-HT application. These results suggest that the large M3M4 loop of eukaryotic Cys-loop channels is not required for receptor assembly or function. However, loop length and amino acid composition can effect channel expression and desensitization. We infer that the cytoplasmic ends of the M3 and M4 segments may undergo conformational changes during channel gating and desensitization and/or the loop may influence the position and mobility of these segments as they undergo gating-induced conformational changes. Altering structure or conformational mobility of the cytoplasmic ends of M3 and M4 may be the basis by which phosphorylation or protein binding to the cytoplasmic loop alters channel function.

  13. Oligothiophene-Indandione-Linked Narrow-Band Gap Molecules: Impact of π-Conjugated Chain Length on Photovoltaic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Hideaki; To, Takahiro; Furukawa, Seiichi; Hidaka, Yu; Shin, Woong; Ichikawa, Takahiro; Arai, Ryota; Yasuda, Takuma

    2018-04-04

    Solution-processed organic solar cells (OSCs) based on narrow-band gap small molecules hold great promise as next-generation energy-converting devices. In this paper, we focus on a family of A-π-D-π-A-type small molecules, namely, BDT- nT-ID ( n = 1-4) oligomers, consisting of benzo[1,2- b:4,5- b']dithiophene (BDT) as the central electron-donating (D) core, 1,3-indandione (ID) as the terminal electron-accepting (A) units, and two regioregular oligo(3-hexylthiophene)s ( nT) with different numbers of thiophene rings as the π-bridging units, and elucidate their structure-property-function relationships. The effects of the length of the π-bridging nT units on the optical absorption, thermal behavior, morphology, hole mobility, and OSC performance were systematically investigated. All oligomers exhibited broad and intense visible photoabsorption in the 400-700 nm range. The photovoltaic performances of bulk heterojunction OSCs based on BDT- nT-IDs as donors and a fullerene derivative as an acceptor were studied. Among these oligomers, BDT-2T-ID, incorporating bithiophene as the π-bridging units, showed better photovoltaic performance with a maximum power conversion efficiency as high as 6.9% under AM 1.5G illumination without using solvent additives or postdeposition treatments. These favorable properties originated from the well-developed interpenetrating network morphology of BDT-2T-ID, with larger domain sizes in the photoactive layer. Even though all oligomers have the same A-D-A main backbone, structural modulation of the π-bridging nT length was found to impact their self-organization and nanostructure formation in the solid state, as well as the corresponding OSC device performance.

  14. Determination of locust bean gum and guar gum by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K; Rosa, C; Hischenhuber, C; Meyer, R

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to differentiate the thickening agents locust bean gum (LBG) and the cheaper guar gum in finished food products. Universal primers for amplification of the intergenic spacer region between trnL 3' (UAA) exon and trnF (GAA) gene in the chloroplast (cp) genome and subsequent restriction analysis were applied to differentiate guar gum and LBG. The presence of guar gum powder added to LBG powder was detectable. Based on data obtained from sequencing this intergenic spacer region, a second PCR method for the specific detection of guar gum DNA was also developed. This assay detected guar gum powder in LBG in amounts as low as 1% (w/w). Both methods successfully detected guar gum and/or LBG in ice cream stabilizers and in foodstuffs, such as dairy products, ice cream, dry seasoning mixes, a finished roasting sauce, and a fruit jelly product, but not in products with highly degraded DNA, such as tomato ketchup and sterilized chocolate cream. Both methods detected guar gum and LBG in ice cream and fresh cheese at levels <0.1%.

  15. Enterococcus faecalis Responds to Individual Exogenous Fatty Acids Independently of Their Degree of Saturation or Chain Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Holly E; Harp, John R; Fozo, Elizabeth M

    2018-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract that can persist in the external environment and is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Given its diverse habitats, the organism has developed numerous strategies to survive a multitude of environmental conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated that E. faecalis will incorporate fatty acids from bile and serum into its membrane, resulting in an induced tolerance to membrane-damaging agents. To discern whether all fatty acids induce membrane stress protection, we examined how E. faecalis responded to individually supplied fatty acids. E. faecalis readily incorporated fatty acids 14 to 18 carbons in length into its membrane but poorly incorporated fatty acids shorter or longer than this length. Supplementation with saturated fatty acids tended to increase generation time and lead to altered cellular morphology in most cases. Further, exogenously supplied saturated fatty acids did not induce tolerance to the membrane-damaging antibiotic daptomycin. Supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids produced variable growth effects, with some impacting generation time and morphology. Exogenously supplied unsaturated fatty acids that are normally produced by E. faecalis and those that are found in bile or serum could restore growth in the presence of a fatty acid biosynthetic inhibitor. However, only the eukaryote-derived fatty acids oleic acid and linoleic acid provided protection from daptomycin. Thus, exogenous fatty acids do not lead to a common physiological effect on E. faecalis The organism responds uniquely to each, and only host-derived fatty acids induce membrane protection. IMPORTANCE Enterococcus faecalis is a commonly acquired hospital infectious agent with resistance to many antibiotics, including those that target its cellular membrane. We previously demonstrated that E. faecalis will incorporate fatty acids found in human fluids, like serum, into its cellular membrane

  16. Production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown in sugary cassava extract supplemented with andiroba oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aires da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas oleovorans were grown on sugary cassava extracts supplemented with andiroba oil for the synthesis of a mediumchain- length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA MCL. The concentration of total sugars in the extract was approximately: 40 g/L in culture 1, 15 g/L in cultures 2 and 3, and 10 g/L in culture 4. Supplementation with 1% andiroba oil and 0.2 g/L of (NH42HPO4 was performed 6.5 hours after growth in culture 3, and supplementation with the same amount of andiroba oil and 2.4 g/L of (NH42HPO4 was performed at the beginning of growth in culture 4. The synthesis resulted mainly in 3-hydroxy-decanoate and 3-hydroxy-dodecanoate units; 3-hydroxy-butyrate, 3-hydroxy-hexanoate; and 3-hydroxy-octanoate monomers were also produced but in smaller proportions. P. oleovorans significantly accumulated PHA MCL in the deceleration phase of growth with an oxygen limitation but with sufficient nitrogen concentration to maintain cell growth. The sugary cassava extract supplemented with andiroba oil proved to be a potential substrate for PHA MCL production.

  17. Decrease in effective electron mobility in the channel of a metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor as the gate length is decreased

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsuzov, A. A.; Boyarkina, N. I.; Popov, V. P.

    2008-01-01

    Effective electron mobility μ eff in channels of metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors with a gate length L in the range of 3.8 to 0.34 μm was measured; the transistors were formed on wafers of the silicon-oninsulator type. It was found that μ eff decreases as L is decreased. It is shown that this decrease can be accounted for by the effect of series resistances of the source and drain only if it is assumed that there is a rapid increase in these resistances as the gate voltage is decreased. This assumption is difficult to substantiate. A more realistic model is suggested; this model accounts for the observed decrease in μ eff as L is decreased. The model implies that zones with a mobility lower than that in the middle part of the channel originate at the edges of the gate. An analysis shows that, in this case, the plot of the dependence of 1/μ eff on 1/L should be linear, which is exactly what is observed experimentally. The use of this plot makes it possible to determine both the electron mobility μ 0 in the middle part of the channel and the quantity A that characterizes the zones with lowered mobility at the gate’s edges.

  18. Shutdown channels and fitted interlocks in atomic reactors; Chaines de securite et verrouillages installes sur les piles atomiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J; Landauer, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This catalogue consists of tables (one per reactor) giving the following information: number and type of detectors, range of the shutdown channels, nature of the associated electronics, thresholds setting off the alarms, fitted interlocks. These cards have been drawn up with a view to an examination of the reactors safety by the 'Reactor Safety Sub-Commission', they take into account the latest decisions. The reactors involved in this review are: Azur, Cabri, Castor-Pollux, Cesar-Marius-2, Edf-2, EL3, EL4, Eole, G1, G2-G3, Harmonie, Isis, Masurca, Melusine, Minerve, Osiris, Pegase, Peggy, PAT, Rapsodie, SENA, Siloe, Siloette, Triton-Nereide, and Ulysse. (authors) [French] Ce catalogue est compose d'un ensemble de tableaux (a raison de un tableau par pile) donnant les renseignements suivants: nombre et nature des detecteurs, dynamique des chaines, nature de l'electronique associee, seuils provoquant des actions de securite, verrouillages installes. Ces fiches ont ete etablies en vue de l'examen de la securite des piles par la 'Sous-Commission de Surete des Piles', et tiennent compte des decisions de celle-ci. Les reacteurs concernes sont: Azur, Cabri, Cator-Pollux, Cesar-Marius-2, Edf-2, EL3, EL4, Eole, G1, G2-G3, Harmonie, Isis, Masurca, Melusine, Minerve, Osiris, Pegase, Peggy, PAT, Rapsodie, SENA, Siloe, Siloette, Triton-Nereide, et Ulysse. (auteurs)

  19. A Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Competitive Dual Collection Channel under Asymmetric Information and Reward–Penalty Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC where the retailer and the third-party recycler compete against each other to collect waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE given that collection effort is their private information. Using the principle-agent theory, we develop a CLSC model with dual collection channel without the government’s reward–penalty mechanism (RPM. An information screening contract is designed for the manufacturer to attain real information on collection effort levels; meanwhile, the optimal decision-making results of other decision variables are derived. Next, we take RPM into account to further examine the efficacy of the government’s guidance mechanism in improving collection rate and profits of CLSC members. Our results indicate that (i the collection competition reduces the total collection quantity and the expected profits of all the CLSC members without RPM; (ii all CLSC members’ expected profits are improved if both two collection agents select a high collection effort level without and with RPM; (iii RPM increases buyback price, collection price, collection quantity, and franchise fee but decreases wholesale price and retail price; with the reward–penalty intensity increasing, the manufacturer’s expected profit first decreases and then increases, while the expected profits of H-type retailer and H-type third-party recycler continue to increase. We find that RPM may ultimately stimulate the collection agents to collect more WEEEs, while the intense collection competition reduces the profits of CLSC members.

  20. Optimization of Water/Oil/Surfactant System for Preparation of Medium-Chain-Length Poly-3-Hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA)-Incorporated Nanoparticles via Nanoemulsion Templating Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, K A; Annuar, M Suffian M; Ahmad, N

    2017-12-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles gain a widespread interest in food and pharmaceutical industries as delivery systems that encapsulate, protect, and release lipophilic compounds such as omega-3 fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, carvedilol, cyclosporine, and ketoprofen. In this study, medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA)-incorporated nanoparticle was developed via facile organic solvent-free nanoemulsion templating technique. The water content (W/surfactant-to-oil (S/O)), S/O, and Cremophor EL-to-Span 80 (Cremo/Sp80) ratios were first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain nanoemulsion template prior to incorporation of mcl-PHA. Their effects on nanoemulsion formation were investigated. The mcl-PHA-incorporated nanoparticle system showed a good preservation capability of β-carotene and extended storage stability.

  1. Dependency of Anion and Chain Length of Imidazolium Based Ionic Liquid on Micellization of the Block Copolymer F127 in Aqueous Solution: An Experimental Deep Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh Lunagariya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The non-ionic triblock copolymer, Pluronic® F127, has been selected to observe its interaction with ionic liquids (ILs in aqueous solutions by using DLS, surface tension, and viscosity measurements. The Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC of F127 increased with the addition of ILs, which appeared logical since it increases the solubility of PPO (and PEO moiety, making it behaves more like a hydrophilic block copolymer that is micellized at a higher copolymer concentration. The results from DLS data showed good agreement with those obtained from the surface tension measurements. Upon the addition of ILs, the tendency in micellar size reduction was demonstrated by viscosity results, and therefore, intrinsic viscosity decreased compared to pure F127 in aqueous solution. The results were discussed as a function of alkyl chain length and anions of imidazolium based ILs.

  2. Identification of planorbids from Venezuela by polymerase chain reaction amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism of internal transcriber spacer of the RNA ribosomal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldeira Roberta L

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Snails of the genus Biomphalaria from Venezuela were subjected to morphological assessment as well as polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. Morphological identification was carried out by comparison of characters of the shell and the male and female reproductive apparatus. The PCR-RFLP involved amplification of the internal spacer region ITS1 and ITS2 of the RNA ribosomal gene and subsequent digestion of this fragment by the restriction enzymes DdeI, MnlI, HaeIII and MspI. The planorbids were compared with snails of the same species and others reported from Venezuela and present in Brazil, Cuba and Mexico. All the enzymes showed a specific profile for each species, that of DdeI being the clearest. The snails were identified as B. glabrata, B. prona and B. kuhniana.

  3. Effects of PEG tethering chain length of vitamin E TPGS with a Herceptin-functionalized nanoparticle formulation for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Feng, Si-Shen

    2014-03-01

    Drug formulation by ligand conjugated nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers has become one of the most important strategies in drug targeting. We have developed in our previous work nanoparticles of a mixture of two vitamin E TPGS based copolymers PLA-TPGS and TPGS-TOOH with the latter for Herceptin conjugation for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs such as docetaxel to the cancer cells of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression. In this research, we investigated the effects of the PEG chain length in TPGS, which is in fact a PEGylated vitamin E, on the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of the drug formulated in the Herceptin-conjugated nanoparticles of PLA-TPGS/TPGS-COOH blend (NPs). Such NPs of PEG1000, PEG2000, PEG3350 and PEG5000, i.e. the PEG of molecule weight 1000, 2000, 3350 and 5000, were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method and characterized for their size and size distribution, drug loading, surface morphology, surface charge and surface chemistry as well as in vitro drug release profile, cellular uptake and cytotoxicity. We found among such nanoparticles, those of PEG1000, i.e. of the shortest PEG tethering chain length, could result in the best therapeutic effects, which are 24.1%, 37.3%, 38.1% more efficient in cellular uptake and 68.1%, 90%, 92.6% lower in IC50 (thus higher in cytotoxicity) than the Herceptin-conjugated nanoparticles of PLA-TPGS/TPGS-COOH blend of PEG2000, PEG3350 and PEG5000 respectively in treatment of SK-BR-3 cancer cells which are of high HER2 overexpression. We provided a theoretical explanation from surface mechanics and thermodynamics for endocytosis of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Crystal structure of heterodimeric hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase from Micrococcus luteus B-P 26 reveals that the small subunit is directly involved in the product chain length regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Daisuke; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Okuyama, Naomi; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Noike, Motoyoshi; Koyama, Tanetoshi; Miki, Kunio

    2011-02-04

    Hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase from Micrococcus luteus B-P 26 (Ml-HexPPs) is a heterooligomeric type trans-prenyltransferase catalyzing consecutive head-to-tail condensations of three molecules of isopentenyl diphosphates (C(5)) on a farnesyl diphosphate (FPP; C(15)) to form an (all-E) hexaprenyl diphosphate (HexPP; C(30)). Ml-HexPPs is known to function as a heterodimer of two different subunits, small and large subunits called HexA and HexB, respectively. Compared with homooligomeric trans-prenyltransferases, the molecular mechanism of heterooligomeric trans-prenyltransferases is not yet clearly understood, particularly with respect to the role of the small subunits lacking the catalytic motifs conserved in most known trans-prenyltransferases. We have determined the crystal structure of Ml-HexPPs both in the substrate-free form and in complex with 7,11-dimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-yl diphosphate ammonium salt (3-DesMe-FPP), an analog of FPP. The structure of HexB is composed of mostly antiparallel α-helices joined by connecting loops. Two aspartate-rich motifs (designated the first and second aspartate-rich motifs) and the other characteristic motifs in HexB are located around the diphosphate part of 3-DesMe-FPP. Despite the very low amino acid sequence identity and the distinct polypeptide chain lengths between HexA and HexB, the structure of HexA is quite similar to that of HexB. The aliphatic tail of 3-DesMe-FPP is accommodated in a large hydrophobic cleft starting from HexB and penetrating to the inside of HexA. These structural features suggest that HexB catalyzes the condensation reactions and that HexA is directly involved in the product chain length control in cooperation with HexB.

  5. Allelic sequence variations in the hypervariable region of a T-cell receptor β chain: Correlation with restriction fragment length polymorphism in human families and populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Direct sequence analysis of the human T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) V β1 variable gene identified a single base-pair allelic variation (C/G) located within the coding region. This change results in substitution of a histidine (CAC) for a glutamine (CAG) at position 48 of the TCR β chain, a position predicted to be in the TCR antigen binding site. The V β1 polymorphism was found by DNA sequence analysis of V β1 genes from seven unrelated individuals; V β1 genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, the amplified fragments were cloned into M13 phage vectors, and sequences were determined. To determined the inheritance patterns of the V β1 substitution and to test correlation with V β1 restriction fragment length polymorphism detected with Pvu II and Taq I, allele-specific oligonucleotides were constructed and used to characterize amplified DNA samples. Seventy unrelated individuals and six families were tested for both restriction fragment length polymorphism and for the V β1 substitution. The correlation was also tested using amplified, size-selected, Pvu II- and Taq I-digested DNA samples from heterozygotes. Pvu II allele 1 (61/70) and Taq I allele 1 (66/70) were found to be correlated with the substitution giving rise to a histidine at position 48. Because there are exceptions to the correlation, the use of specific probes to characterize allelic forms of TCR variable genes will provide important tools for studies of basic TCR genetics and disease associations

  6. Micelle formation of nonionic surfactants in a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate: surfactant chain length dependence of the critical micelle concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tohru; Yamakawa, Haruka

    2011-04-15

    Micellization behavior was investigated for polyoxyethylene-type nonionic surfactants with varying chain length (C(n)E(m)) in a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF(4)). Critical micelle concentration (cmc) was determined from the variation of (1)H NMR chemical shift with the surfactant concentration. The logarithmic value of cmc decreased linearly with the number of carbon atoms in the surfactant hydrocarbon chain, similarly to the case observed in aqueous surfactant solutions. However, the slope of the straight line is much smaller in bmimBF(4) than in aqueous solution. Thermodynamic parameters for micelle formation estimated from the temperature dependence of cmc showed that the micellization in bmimBF(4) is an entropy-driven process around room temperature. This behavior is also similar to the case in aqueous solution. However, the magnitude of the entropic contribution to the overall micellization free energy in bmimBF(4) is much smaller compared with that in aqueous solution. These results suggest that the micellization in bmimBF(4) proceeds through a mechanism similar to the hydrophobic interaction in aqueous surfactant solutions, although the solvophobic effect in bmimBF(4) is much weaker than the hydrophobic effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Density functional theory study of silodithiophene thiophenepyrrolopyrroledion-based small molecules: The effect of alkyl side chain length in electron donor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong Kyun; Yeo, Hak; Kwak, Kyung Won [Dept. of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Woon; Kim, Bong Soo [Photo-electronic Hybrids Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Koo [Dept. of Chemistry, Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Push–pull small molecules are promising electron-donor materials for organic solar cells. Thus, precise prediction of their electronic structures is of paramount importance to control the optical and electrical properties of the solar cells. Various types of alkyl chains are usually introduced to increase solubility and modify the morphology of the resulting molecular films. Here, using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT), we report the precise effect of increasing the length of the alkyl chain on the electronic structure of an electron donor molecule 6,60-((4,4-dialkyl-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b′]-dithiophene-2,6-diyl) bis(thiophene-5,2-diyl))bis(2,5-alkyl-3-(thiophen-2-yl) -2,5-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione) (DTS1TDPP). Alkyl groups were attached to the bridging position (silicon atom) of the fused rings and nitrogen atom of the pyrrolopyrroledione groups. We demonstrate that the alkyl groups do not perturb the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels, π-delocalized backbone structure, and UV–Vis absorption spectrum when they are placed at the least steric effect positions.

  8. Roles of head group architecture and side chain length on colorimetric response of polydiacetylene vesicles to temperature, ethanol and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthai, Nipaphat; Pattanatornchai, Thanutpon; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol; Traiphol, Rakchart

    2011-08-15

    In this contribution, we report the relationship between molecular structures of polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles, fabricated by using three monomers, 10,12-tricosadiynoic acid (TCDA), 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) and N-(2-aminoethyl)pentacosa-10,12-diynamide (AEPCDA), and their color-transition behaviors. The modification of side chain length and head group of the PDA vesicles strongly affects the colorimetric response to temperature, ethanol and pH. A shorter side chain of poly(TCDA) yields weaker inter- and intra-chain dispersion interactions in the bilayers compared to the system of poly(PCDA), which in turn results in a faster color transition upon exposure to all stimuli. A change of head group in poly(AEPCDA) slightly reduces the transition temperature. Interestingly, the colorimetric response of poly(AEPCDA) vesicles to the addition of ethanol is found to occur in a two-step fashion while the response of poly(PCDA) vesicles takes place in a one-step process. The amount of ethanol required for inducing complete color-transition of poly(AEPCDA) vesicles is also much higher, about 87% v/v. The increase of pH to ~9 and ~10 causes a color-transition of poly(TCDA) and poly(PCDA) vesicles, respectively. The poly(AEPCDA) vesicles, on the other hand, change color upon decreasing pH to ~0. The colorimetric response also occurs in a multi-step fashion. These discrepancies are attributed to the architecture of surface layers of poly(AEPCDA), constituting amine and amide groups separated by ethyl linkers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermosensitive mPEG-b-PA-g-PNIPAM comb block copolymer micelles: effect of hydrophilic chain length and camptothecin release behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Li; Luo, Yan-Ling; Xu, Feng; Chen, Ya-Shao

    2014-02-01

    Block copolymer micelles are extensively used as drug controlled release carriers, showing promising application prospects. The comb or brush copolymers are especially of great interest, whose densely-grafted side chains may be important for tuning the physicochemical properties and conformation in selective solvents, even in vitro drug release. The purpose of this work was to synthesize novel block copolymer combs via atom transfer radical polymerization, to evaluate its physicochemical features in solution, to improve drug release behavior and to enhance the bioavailablity, and to decrease cytotoxicity. The physicochemical properties of the copolymer micelles were examined by modulating the composition and the molecular weights of the building blocks. A dialysis method was used to load hydrophobic camptothecin (CPT), and the CPT release and stability were detected by UV-vis spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography, and the cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assays. The copolymers could self-assemble into well-defined spherical core-shell micelle aggregates in aqueous solution, and showed thermo-induced micellization behavior, and the critical micelle concentration was 2.96-27.64 mg L(-1). The micelles were narrow-size-distribution, with hydrodynamic diameters about 128-193 nm, depending on the chain length of methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) blocks and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) graft chains or/and compositional ratios of mPEG to PNIPAM. The copolymer micelles could stably and effectively load CPT but avoid toxicity and side-effects, and exhibited thermo-dependent controlled and targeted drug release behavior. The copolymer micelles were safe, stable and effective, and could potentially be employed as CPT controlled release carriers.

  10. Use of length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR as non-invasive approach for dietary analysis of Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungbae Joo

    Full Text Available To efficiently investigate the forage preference of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus, we applied length-heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR based on length differences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions of ribosomal RNA (rRNA to fecal samples from R. tarandus platyrhynchus. A length-heterogeneity (LH database was constructed using both collected potential food sources of Svalbard reindeer and fecal samples, followed by PCR, cloning and sequencing. In total, eighteen fecal samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 from 2 geographic regions and 15 samples were successfully amplified by PCR. The LH-PCR analysis detected abundant peaks, 18.6 peaks on an average per sample, ranging from 100 to 500 bp in size and showing distinct patterns associated with both regions and years of sample collection. Principal component analysis (PCA resulted in clustering of 15 fecal samples into 3 groups by the year of collection and region with a statistically significant difference at 99.9% level. The first 2 principal components (PCs explained 71.1% of the total variation among the samples. Through comparison with LH database and identification by cloning and sequencing, lichens (Stereocaulon sp. and Ochrolechia sp. and plant species (Salix polaris and Saxifraga oppositifolia were detected as the food sources that contributed most to the Svalbard reindeer diet. Our results suggest that the use of LH-PCR analysis would be a non-invasive and efficient monitoring tool for characterizing the foraging strategy of Svalbard reindeer. Additionally, combining sequence information would increase its resolving power in identification of foraged diet components.

  11. Zika virus RNA polymerase chain reaction on the utility channel of a commercial nucleic acid testing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujnan, Mohamed; Duits, Ashley J; Koppelman, Marco H G M

    2018-03-01

    Several countries have implemented safety strategies to reduce the risk of Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission through blood transfusion. These strategies have included nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) of blood donations. In this study, a new real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay including internal control for the detection of ZIKV on the cobas omni Utility Channel (UC) on the cobas 6800 system is presented. PCR conditions and primer/probe concentrations were optimized on the LightCycler 480 instrument. Optimized conditions were transferred to the cobas omni UC on the cobas 6800 system. Subsequently, the limit of detection (LOD) in plasma and urine, genotype inclusivity, specificity, cross-reactivity, and clinical sensitivity were determined. The 95% LOD of the ZIKV PCR assay on the cobas 6800 system was 23.0 IU/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.5-37.5) in plasma and 24.5 IU/mL (95% CI, 13.4-92.9) in urine. The assay detected African and Asian lineages of ZIKV. The specificity was 100%. The clinical concordance between the newly developed ZIKV PCR assay and the investigational Roche cobas Zika NAT test was 83% (24/29). We developed a sensitive ZIKV PCR assay on the cobas omni UC on the cobas 6800 system. The assay can be used for large-scale screening of blood donations for ZIKV or for testing of blood donors returning from areas with ZIKV to avoid temporal deferral. This study also demonstrates that the cobas omni UC on the cobas 6800 system can be used for in-house-developed PCR assays. © 2018 AABB.

  12. Analysis of Carbon Emission Reduction in a Dual-Channel Supply Chain with Cap-And-Trade Regulation and Low-Carbon Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reduction of carbon emissions driven by cap-and-trade regulation and consumers’ low-carbon preference in a dual-channel supply chain. Under the low-carbon environment, we also discuss the pricing strategies and the profits for the supply chain members using the Stackelberg game model in two cases. In the first (second case where the initial proportion of consumers who prefer the online direct channel (traditional retail channel is “larger”, the direct sale price of low-carbon products could be set higher than (equal to the wholesale price. And it is shown that in both cases, tighter cap-and-trade regulation and higher low-carbon preference stimulate the manufacturer to cut carbon emissions in its production process. However, improving consumers’ low-carbon preference is more acceptable to the supply chain members. It always benefits the manufacturer and the retailer. In comparison, the firm’s profit increases with carbon price only when the clean production level is relatively high. Our findings can provide useful managerial insights for policy-makers and firms in the development of low-carbon sustainability.

  13. Genotyping of major histocompatibility complex Class II DRB gene in Rohilkhandi goats by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kush Shrivastava

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the major histocompatibility complex (MHC Class II DRB1 gene polymorphism in Rohilkhandi goat using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP and nucleotide sequencing techniques. Materials and Methods: DNA was isolated from 127 Rohilkhandi goats maintained at sheep and goat farm, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly. A 284 bp fragment of exon 2 of DRB1 gene was amplified and digested using BsaI and TaqI restriction enzymes. Population genetic parameters were calculated using Popgene v 1.32 and SAS 9.0. The genotypes were then sequenced using Sanger dideoxy chain termination method and were compared with related breeds/species using MEGA 6.0 and Megalign (DNASTAR software. Results: TaqI locus showed three and BsaI locus showed two genotypes. Both the loci were found to be in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE, however, population genetic parameters suggest that heterozygosity is still maintained in the population at both loci. Percent diversity and divergence matrix, as well as phylogenetic analysis revealed that the MHC Class II DRB1 gene of Rohilkhandi goats was found to be in close cluster with Garole and Scottish blackface sheep breeds as compared to other goat breeds included in the sequence comparison. Conclusion: The PCR-RFLP patterns showed population to be in HWE and absence of one genotype at one locus (BsaI, both the loci showed excess of one or the other homozygote genotype, however, effective number of alleles showed that allelic diversity is present in the population. Sequence comparison of DRB1 gene of Rohilkhandi goat with other sheep and goat breed assigned Rohilkhandi goat in divergence with Jamanupari and Angora goats.

  14. Chain-Length Distribution and Hydrogen Isotopic Fraction of n-alkyl Lipids in Aquatic and Terrestrial Plants: Implications for Paleoclimate Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L.; Littlejohn, S.; Hou, J.; Toney, J.; Huang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that in lacustrine sediments, aquatic plant lipids (e.g., C22-fatty acid) record lake water D/H ratio variation, while long-chain fatty acids (C26-C32, major components of terrestrial plant leaf waxes), record D/H ratios of precipitation (especially in arid regions). However, there are insufficient literature data for the distribution and hydrogen isotopic fractionation of n-alkyl lipids in aquatic and terrestrial plants. In this study, we determined the chain-length distributions and D/H ratios of n-alkyl lipids from 17 aquatic plant species (9 emergent, 4 floating and 4 submerge species) and 13 terrestrial plant species (7 grasses and 6 trees) from Blood Pond, Massachusetts. Our results are consistent with previous studies and provide a solid basis for the paleoclimatic reconstruction using D/H ratios of aquatic and terrestrial plant biomarkers. In addition, systematic hydrogen isotopic analyses on leaf waxes, leaf, stem and soil waters from trees and grasses significantly advance our understanding of our previously observed large D/H ratio difference between tree and grass leaf waxes. Our data indicate that the observed difference is not due to differences in leaf water D/H ratios. In comparison with grasses, trees use greater proportion of D-enriched residual or stored carbohydrates (as opposed to current photosynthetic carbohydrates) for leaf wax biosynthesis, resulting in higher leaf wax D/H ratios. The residual carbohydrates are enriched in deuterium because of the preferential consumption of light-hydrogen substrates during plant metabolism.

  15. Study and Simulation on Dynamics of a Risk-Averse Supply Chain Pricing Model with Dual-Channel and Incomplete Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijian; Ma, Junhai

    Under the industrial background of dual-channel, volatility in demand of consumers, we use the theory of bifurcations and numerical simulation tools to investigate the dynamic pricing game in a dual-channel supply chain with risk-averse behavior and incomplete information. Due to volatility of demand of consumers, we consider all the players in the supply chain are risk-averse. We assume there exist Bertrand game and Manufacturers’ Stackelberg in the chain which are closer to reality. The main objective of the paper is to investigate the complex influence of the decision parameters such as wholesale price adjustment speed, risk preference and service value on stability of the risk-averse supply chain and average utilities of all the players. We lay emphasis on the influence of chaos on average utilities of all the players which did not appear in previous studies. The dynamic phenomena, such as the bifurcation, chaos and sensitivity to initial values are analyzed by 2D bifurcation phase portraits, Double Largest Lyapunov exponent, basins of attraction and so on. The study shows that the manufacturers should slow down their wholesale price adjustment speed to get more utilities, if the manufacturers are willing to take on more risk, they will get more profits, but they must keep their wholesale prices in a certain range in order to maintain the market stability.

  16. Asymmetric Conjugated Molecules Based on [1]Benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene for High-Mobility Organic Thin-Film Transistors: Influence of Alkyl Chain Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Keqiang; Li, Weili; Tian, Hongkun; Zhang, Jidong; Yan, Donghang; Geng, Yanhou; Wang, Fosong

    2017-10-11

    Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of a series of [1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (BTBT)-based asymmetric conjugated molecules, that is, 2-(5-alkylthiophen-2-yl)[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (BTBT-Tn, in which T and n represent thiophene and the number of carbons in the alkyl group, respectively). All of the molecules with n ≥ 4 show mesomorphism and display smectic A, smectic B (n = 4), or smectic E (n > 4) phases and then crystalline phases in succession upon cooling from the isotropic state. Alkyl chain length has a noticeable influence on the microstructures of vacuum-deposited films and therefore on the performance of the organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). All molecules except for 2-(thiophen-2-yl)[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene and 2-(5-ethylthiophen-2-yl)[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene showed OTFT mobilities above 5 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . 2-(5-Hexylthiophen-2-yl)[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene and 2-(5-heptylthiophen-2-yl)[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene showed the greatest OTFT performance with reliable hole mobilities (μ) up to 10.5 cm 2 V -1 s -1 because they formed highly ordered and homogeneous films with diminished grain boundaries.

  17. Synthetic high-charge organomica: effect of the layer charge and alkyl chain length on the structure of the adsorbed surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, M Carolina; Castro, Miguel A; Orta, M Mar; Pavón, Esperanza; Valencia Rios, Jesús S; Alba, María D

    2012-05-15

    A family of organomicas was synthesized using synthetic swelling micas with high layer charge (Na(n)Si(8-n)Al(n)Mg(6)F(4)O(20)·XH(2)O, where n = 2, 3, and 4) exchanged with dodecylammonium and octadecylammonium cations. The molecular arrangement of the surfactant was elucidated on the basis on XRD patterns and DTA. The ordering conformation of the surfactant molecules into the interlayer space of micas was investigated by (13)C, (27)Al, and (29)Si MAS NMR. The arrangement of alkylammonium ions in these high-charge synthetic micas depends on the combined effects of the layer charge of the mica and the chain length of the cation. In the organomicas with dodecylammonium, a transition from a parallel layer to a bilayer-paraffin arrangement is observed when the layer charge of the mica increases. However, when octadecylammonium is the interlayer cation, the molecular arrangement of the surfactant was found to follow the bilayer-paraffin model for all values of layer charge. The amount of ordered conformation all-trans is directly proportional of layer charge.

  18. Identification of Pork Contamination in Meatballs of Indonesia Local Market Using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuny Erwanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research applied and evaluated a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP using cytochrome b gene to detect pork contamination in meatballs from local markets in Surabaya and Yogyakarta regions, Indonesia. To confirm the effectiveness and specificity of this fragment, thirty nine DNA samples from different meatball shops were isolated and amplified, and then the PCR amplicon was digested by BseDI restriction enzyme to detect the presence of pork in meatballs. BseDI restriction enzyme was able to cleave porcine cytochrome b gene into two fragments (131 bp and 228 bp. Testing the meatballs from the local market showed that nine of twenty meatball shops in Yogyakarta region were detected to have pork contamination, but there was no pork contamination in meatball shops in Surabaya region. In conclusion, specific PCR amplification of cytochrome b gen and cleaved by BseDI restriction enzymes seems to be a powerful technique for the identification of pork presence in meatball because of its simplicity, specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, pork contamination intended for commercial products of sausage, nugget, steak and meat burger can be checked. The procedure is also much cheaper than other methods based on PCR, immunodiffusion and other techniques that need expensive equipment.

  19. Identification of Pork Contamination in Meatballs of Indonesia Local Market Using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwanto, Yuny; Abidin, Mohammad Zainal; Sugiyono, Eko Yasin Prasetyo Muslim; Rohman, Abdul

    2014-10-01

    This research applied and evaluated a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using cytochrome b gene to detect pork contamination in meatballs from local markets in Surabaya and Yogyakarta regions, Indonesia. To confirm the effectiveness and specificity of this fragment, thirty nine DNA samples from different meatball shops were isolated and amplified, and then the PCR amplicon was digested by BseDI restriction enzyme to detect the presence of pork in meatballs. BseDI restriction enzyme was able to cleave porcine cytochrome b gene into two fragments (131 bp and 228 bp). Testing the meatballs from the local market showed that nine of twenty meatball shops in Yogyakarta region were detected to have pork contamination, but there was no pork contamination in meatball shops in Surabaya region. In conclusion, specific PCR amplification of cytochrome b gen and cleaved by BseDI restriction enzymes seems to be a powerful technique for the identification of pork presence in meatball because of its simplicity, specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, pork contamination intended for commercial products of sausage, nugget, steak and meat burger can be checked. The procedure is also much cheaper than other methods based on PCR, immunodiffusion and other techniques that need expensive equipment.

  20. Production of Medium-Chain-Length Poly(3-Hydroxyalkanoates from Saponified Palm Kernel Oil by Pseudomonas putida: Kinetics of Batch and Fed-Batch Fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annuar, M. S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates, PHAMCL production by Pseudomonas putida PGA1 in batch and fed-batch fermentations were studied. With saponified palm kernel oil (SPKO supplying the free fatty acids mixture as the sole carbon and energy source, PHAMCL accumulation is encouraged under ammonium-limited condition, which is a nitrogen stress environment. The amount of PHAMCL accumulated and its specific production rate, qPHA were influenced by the residual ammonium concentration level in the culture medium. It was observed that in both fermentation modes, when the residual ammonium was exhausted (< 0.05 gL-1, the PHAMCL accumulation (11.9% and qPHA (0.0062 h-1 were significantly reduced. However, this effect can be reversed by feeding low amount of ammonium to the culture, resulting in significantly improved PHAMCL yield (71.4% and specific productivity (0.6 h-1. It is concluded that the feeding of low ammonium concentration to the culture medium during the PHAMCL accumulation has a positive effect on sustaining the PHAMCL biosynthetic capability of the organism. It was also found that increasing SPKO concentration in the medium significantly reduced (up to 50% the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa of the fermentation system.

  1. Molecular identification of Candida species isolated from cases of neonatal candidemia using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeela Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Candida spp. is an emerging cause of bloodstream infections worldwide. Delay in speciation of Candida isolates by conventional methods and resistance to antifungal drugs in various Candida species are responsible for the increase in morbidity and mortality due to candidemia. Hence, the rapid identification of Candida isolates is very important for the proper management of patients with candidemia. Aims: The aim was to re-evaluate the identification of various Candida spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and to evaluate the accuracy, speed, and cost of phenotypic methodology versus PCR-RFLP. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Ninety consecutive clinical isolates of seven Candida species, isolated from blood of neonates and identified by routine phenotypic methods, were re-evaluated using universal primers internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 and ITS4 for PCR amplification and Msp I restriction enzyme for RFLP. Statistical Analysis Used: Kappa test for agreement. Results: The results of PCR-RFLP were 100% in agreement with those obtained using conventional phenotypic methods. Identification could be achieved within 3 work days by both the methods. Our routine methods proved to be cost effective than PCR-RFLP. Conclusions: We can continue with our routine phenotypic methods and PCR-RFLP can be used for periodic quality control or when conventional methods fail to identify a species.

  2. Molecular identification of similar species of the genus Biomphalaria (Mollusca: Planorbidae determined by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldeira Roberta Lima

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater snails Biomphalaria straminea, B. intermedia, B. kuhniana and B. peregrina, are morphologically similar; based on this similarity the first three species were therefore grouped in the complex B. straminea. The morphological identification of these species is based on characters such as vaginal wrinkling, relation between prepuce: penial sheath:deferens vas and number of muscle layers in the penis wall. In this study the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used for molecular identification of these molluscs. This technique is based on the amplification of the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 e ITS2 of the ribosomal RNA gene and subsequent digestion of these fragments by restriction enzymes. Six enzymes were tested: Dde I, Mnl I, Hae III, Rsa I, Hpa II e Alu I. The restriction patterns obtained with DdeI presented the best profile for separation of the four species of Biomphalaria. The profiles obtained with all the enzymes were used to estimate the genetic distances among the species through analysis of common banding patterns.

  3. The color tuning of PS-b-P2VP lamellar films with changing the alkyl chain length of 1-iodoalkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Eui; Kim, Su-Young; Shin, Dong-Myung

    2011-05-01

    Photonic crystals with tunability in the visible or near-infrared region have drawn increasing attention for controlling and processing light for the active components of future display. We prepared polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) lamellar films which is hydrophobic block-hydrophilic polyelectrolyte block polymer of 57 kg/mol-b-57 kg/mol. The lamellar stacks, which is alternating layer of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moiety of PS-b-P2VP, are obtained by exposing the spin coated film under chloroform vapor. The band gaps of the lamellar films interestingly varied after immersion into the quaternizing solvents containing 5 wt% of iodomethane, iodoethane, 1-iodobutane, 1-iodopentane, 1-iodohexane and 1-iodooctane solubilized in n-hexane. The iodoalkanes reacted with pyridine groups in PS-b-P2VP and generated the alkyl pyridinium salts readily. The degree of quaternization, alkyl chain length of iodoalkane and the salt water concentration affects the spacing of layer structure of PS-b-P2VP. The iodomethane and iodohexane produced similar band gaps and salt concentration dependence. These results are very much dependent on the hydrophobic-hydrophilic characters of PS-b-P2VP lamellar surface.

  4. The prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in Turkish children, and geno typing of isolates by nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamer, Gulden S.; Turk, M.; Dagci, H.; Pektas, B.; Guruz, Adnan Y.; Uner, A.; Guy, E.C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to verify the incidence of cryptosporidiosis among Turkish elementary school students. The study was conducted in the Dept. of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Turkey during a 3-month period in 2006. We assessed the fecal samples of 707 children using modified acid-fast and phenol-auramine staining followed by modified Ritchie concentration method. All cryptosporidium species isolates were analysed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to differentiate genotypes of the isolates. After the coprological examination, 4 samples were found to be positive for cryptosporidium species oocysts. In the present study, all 4 oocysts were of zoonotic origin and belonged to cryptoporodium parvum genotype 2 indicating that in Turkey the potential sources of human cryptosporidiosis is from animals. The application of genotyping to clinical isolates of cryptosporidium has significantly increased our knowledge and understanding of the distribution and epidemiology of this parasite. The PCR and RFLP techniques represent a more rapid and simple method of genotyping to support epidemiological and clinical investigations than conventional analytical DNA techniques. (author)

  5. Quinoidal Oligo(9,10-anthryl)s with Chain-Length-Dependent Ground States: A Balance between Aromatic Stabilization and Steric Strain Release

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Zhenglong

    2015-11-12

    Quinoidal π-conjugated polycyclic hydrocarbons have attracted intensive research interest due to their unique optical/electronic properties and possible magnetic activity, which arises from a thermally excited triplet state. However, there is still lack of fundamental understanding on the factors that determine the electronic ground states. Herein, by using quinoidal oligo(9,10-anthryl)s, it is demonstrated that both aromatic stabilisation and steric strain release play balanced roles in determining the ground states. Oligomers with up to four anthryl units were synthesised and their ground states were investigated by electronic absorption and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, assisted by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The quinoidal 9,10-anthryl dimer 1 has a closed-shell ground state, whereas the tri- (2) and tetramers (3) both have an open-shell diradical ground state with a small singlet-triplet gap. Such a difference results from competition between two driving forces: the large steric repulsion between the anthryl/phenyl units in the closed-shell quinoidal form that drives the molecule to a flexible open-shell diradical structure, and aromatic stabilisation due to the gain of more aromatic sextet rings in the closed-shell form, which drives the molecule towards a contorted quinoidal structure. The ground states of these oligomers thus depend on the overall balance between these two driving forces and show chain-length dependence. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The normal chain length distribution of the O antigen is required for the interaction of Shigella flexneri 2a with polarized Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilei Hoare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigella flexneri causes bacillary dysentery in humans. Essential to the establishment of the disease is the invasion of the colonic epithelial cells. Here we investigated the role of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS O antigen in the ability of S. flexneri to adhere to and invade polarized Caco-2 cells. The S. flexneri 2a O antigen has two preferred chain lengths: a short O antigen (S-OAg regulated by the WzzB protein and a very long O antigen (VL-OAg regulated by Wzz pHS2. Mutants with defined deletions of the genes required for O-antigen assembly and polymerization were constructed and assayed for their abilities to adhere to and enter cultured epithelial cells. The results show that both VL- and S-OAg are required for invasion through the basolateral cell membrane. In contrast, the absence of O antigen does not impair adhesion. Purified LPS does not act as a competitor for the invasion of Caco-2 cells by the wild-type strain, suggesting that LPS is not directly involved in the internalization process by epithelial cells.

  7. Simultaneous and rapid differential diagnosis of Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum based on a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mirnejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this investigation was to simultaneously detect and differentiate Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in female patients suffering from genital complications by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Materials and Methods : Genital swabs were taken from 210 patients. They were transported to the laboratory in phosphate-buffered saline. For PCR, samples were analysed with genus-specific MyUu-R and MyUu-F primers. This primer set, which was originally designed in our laboratory, amplified a 465 bp fragment (M. genitalium and a 559 bp fragment (U. urealyticum. Samples containing a band of the expected sizes for the Mycoplasma strains were subjected to digestion with a restriction endonuclease enzyme of TaqI and Cac8I. Results: Of the 210 samples, a total of 100 (47.6% samples were found to be positive for Mycoplasmas (seven M. genitalium isolates, 3.3%; and 89 U. urealyticum isolates, 42.4%, and coinfections with both species were detected in four samples (1.9%. The PCR-RFLP results showed that M. genitalium and U. urealyticum are different by enzyme patterns. Conclusion: PCR-RFLP offers a rapid and easily applicable protocol to simultaneous detection and differentiation of M. genitalium and U. urealyticum from clinical samples when specific primers and restriction enzymes are used.

  8. Effect of alkyl chain length of imidazolium cations on the electron transport and recombination kinetics in ionic gel electrolytes based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Zhipeng; Tao, Li; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Shuanghong; Zhang, Changneng; Dai, Songyuan; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •A series of novel IGEs based on 12-hydroxystearicacid as LMOG were prepared. •The QS-DSSCs exhibit excellent stability during the accelerated aging tests. •The influence of Im + alkyl chain length on the electron kinetic process is investigated. -- Abstract: A series of stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (QS-DSSCs) are prepared by the 12-hydroxystearicacid as low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG) to gelate the ionic liquid with different alkyl chain lengths (3, 4, and 7). The influence of alkyl chain length of imidazolium cations (Im + ) on the kinetic processes of electron transport and recombination are investigated by Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). It is found that the ionic gel electrolytes (IGEs) with different alkyl chain lengths of Im + can influence the competitive adsorption effects of imidazolium cations (Im + ) and Li + , and further affect the charge diffusion, the electron recombination/transport processes, the shift of TiO 2 conduction band edge and surface states distribution. The IGE with longer alkyl chain length of Im + can prolong the electron recombination lifetime, promote the incidental photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) and the short circuit photocurrent density (J sc ). An excellent QS-DSSC based on the IGE with the longer alkyl chain of Im + gives the highest photoelectric conversion efficiency. Moreover, all the QS-DSSCs based on IGEs exhibit excellent durability without losing their photovoltaic performances during the accelerated thermal and light–soaking test. These results are very important to the researches on the electrochemical mechanism and application of QS-DSSCs based on IGEs

  9. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Armstrong, C. T.; Mason, Philip E.; Anderson, J. L. R.; Dempsey, Ch. E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Feb 22 (2016), č. článku 21759. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : K+ channel * potassium channels * sensing domain Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 http://www.nature.com/articles/srep21759

  10. Engineering a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region of Rhizopus chinensis lipase: increased thermostability and altered acyl chain length specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Yu

    Full Text Available The key to enzyme function is the maintenance of an appropriate balance between molecular stability and structural flexibility. The lid domain which is very important for "interfacial activation" is the most flexible part in the lipase structure. In this work, rational design was applied to explore the relationship between lid rigidity and lipase activity by introducing a disulfide bond in the hinge region of the lid, in the hope of improving the thermostability of R. chinensis lipase through stabilization of the lid domain without interfering with its catalytic performance. A disulfide bridge between F95C and F214C was introduced into the lipase from R. chinensis in the hinge region of the lid according to the prediction of the "Disulfide by Design" algorithm. The disulfide variant showed substantially improved thermostability with an eleven-fold increase in the t(1/2 value at 60°C and a 7°C increase of T(m compared with the parent enzyme, probably contributed by the stabilization of the geometric structure of the lid region. The additional disulfide bond did not interfere with the catalytic rate (k(cat and the catalytic efficiency towards the short-chain fatty acid substrate, however, the catalytic efficiency of the disulfide variant towards pNPP decreased by 1.5-fold probably due to the block of the hydrophobic substrate channel by the disulfide bond. Furthermore, in the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters, the maximum conversion rate by RCLCYS reached 95% which was 9% higher than that by RCL. This is the first report on improving the thermostability of the lipase from R. chinensis by introduction of a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region without compromising the catalytic rate.

  11. An RFID-Based Smart Structure for the Supply Chain: Resilient Scanning Proofs and Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    The National Strategy for Global Supply Chain Security published in 2012 by the White House identifies two primary goals for strengthening global supply chains: first, to promote the efficient and secure movement of goods, and second to foster a resilient supply chain. The Internet of Things (IoT), and in particular Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, can be used to realize these goals. For product identification, tracking and real-time awareness, RFID tags are attached to goods. As tagged goods move along the supply chain from the suppliers to the manufacturers, and then on to the retailers until eventually they reach the customers, two major security challenges can be identified: (I) to protect the shipment of goods that are controlled by potentially untrusted carriers; and (II) to secure the transfer of ownership at each stage of the chain. For the former, grouping proofs in which the tags of the scanned goods generate a proof of “simulatenous” presence can be employed, while for the latter, ownership transfer protocols (OTP) are used. This paper describes enhanced security solutions for both challenges. We first extend earlier work on grouping proofs and group codes to capture resilient group scanning with untrusted readers; then, we describe a modified version of a recently published OTP based on channels with positive secrecy capacity adapted to be implemented on common RFID systems in the supply chain. The proposed solutions take into account the limitations of low cost tags employed in the supply chain, which are only required to generate pseudorandom numbers and compute one-way hash functions. PMID:28677637

  12. An RFID-Based Smart Structure for the Supply Chain: Resilient Scanning Proofs and Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Burmester

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Strategy for Global Supply Chain Security published in 2012 by the White House identifies two primary goals for strengthening global supply chains: first, to promote the efficient and secure movement of goods, and second to foster a resilient supply chain. The Internet of Things (IoT, and in particular Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology, can be used to realize these goals. For product identification, tracking and real-time awareness, RFID tags are attached to goods. As tagged goods move along the supply chain from the suppliers to the manufacturers, and then on to the retailers until eventually they reach the customers, two major security challenges can be identified: (I to protect the shipment of goods that are controlled by potentially untrusted carriers; and (II to secure the transfer of ownership at each stage of the chain. For the former, grouping proofs in which the tags of the scanned goods generate a proof of “simulatenous” presence can be employed, while for the latter, ownership transfer protocols (OTP are used. This paper describes enhanced security solutions for both challenges. We first extend earlier work on grouping proofs and group codes to capture resilient group scanning with untrusted readers; then, we describe a modified version of a recently published OTP based on channels with positive secrecy capacity adapted to be implemented on common RFID systems in the supply chain. The proposed solutions take into account the limitations of low cost tags employed in the supply chain, which are only required to generate pseudorandom numbers and compute one-way hash functions.

  13. An RFID-Based Smart Structure for the Supply Chain: Resilient Scanning Proofs and Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Mike; Munilla, Jorge; Ortiz, Andrés; Caballero-Gil, Pino

    2017-07-04

    The National Strategy for Global Supply Chain Security published in 2012 by the White House identifies two primary goals for strengthening global supply chains: first, to promote the efficient and secure movement of goods, and second to foster a resilient supply chain. The Internet of Things (IoT), and in particular Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, can be used to realize these goals. For product identification, tracking and real-time awareness, RFID tags are attached to goods. As tagged goods move along the supply chain from the suppliers to the manufacturers, and then on to the retailers until eventually they reach the customers, two major security challenges can be identified: (I) to protect the shipment of goods that are controlled by potentially untrusted carriers; and (II) to secure the transfer of ownership at each stage of the chain. For the former, grouping proofs in which the tags of the scanned goods generate a proof of "simulatenous" presence can be employed, while for the latter, ownership transfer protocols (OTP) are used. This paper describes enhanced security solutions for both challenges. We first extend earlier work on grouping proofs and group codes to capture resilient group scanning with untrusted readers; then, we describe a modified version of a recently published OTP based on channels with positive secrecy capacity adapted to be implemented on common RFID systems in the supply chain. The proposed solutions take into account the limitations of low cost tags employed in the supply chain, which are only required to generate pseudorandom numbers and compute one-way hash functions.

  14. (99m)Tc-labeled gastrins of varying peptide chain length: Distinct impact of NEP/ACE-inhibition on stability and tumor uptake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Nock, Berthold A; Lymperis, Emmanouil; Krenning, Eric P; de Jong, Marion; Maina, Theodosia

    2016-06-01

    In situ inhibition of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) has been recently shown to impressively increase the bioavailability and tumor uptake of biodegradable gastrin radioligands. Furthermore, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) has been previously shown to cleave gastrin analogs in vitro. In the present study, we have assessed the effects induced by single or dual NEP/ACE-inhibition on the pharmacokinetic profile of three (99m)Tc-labeled gastrins of varying peptide chain length: [(99m)Tc]SG6 ([(99m)Tc-N4-Gln(1)]gastrin(1-17)), [(99m)Tc]DG2 ([(99m)Tc-N4-Gly(4),DGlu(5)]gastrin(4-17)) and [(99m)Tc]DG4 ([(99m)Tc-N4-DGlu(10)]gastrin(10-17)). Mouse blood samples were collected 5min after injection of each of [(99m)Tc]SG6/DG2/DG4 together with: a) vehicle, b) the NEP-inhibitor phosphoramidon (PA), c) the ACE-inhibitor lisinopril (Lis), or d) PA plus Lis and were analyzed by RP-HPLC for radiometabolite detection. Biodistribution was studied in SCID mice bearing A431-CCK2R(+/-) xenografts at 4h postinjection (pi). [(99m)Tc]SG6 or [(99m)Tc]DG4 was coinjected with either vehicle or the above described NEP/ACE-inhibitor regimens; for [(99m)Tc]DG2 control and PA animal groups were only included. Treatment of mice with PA induced significant stabilization of (99m)Tc-radiotracers in peripheral blood, while treatment with Lis or Lis+PA affected the stability of des(Glu)5 [(99m)Tc]DG4 only. In line with these findings, PA coinjection led to notable amplification of tumor uptake of radiopeptides compared to controls (PTc]DG4 profited by single Lis (2.06±0.39%ID/g vs 0.99±0.13%ID/g in controls) or combined Lis+PA coinjection (8.91±1.61%ID/g vs 4.89±1.33%ID/g in PA-group). Furthermore, kidney uptake remained favourably low and unaffected by PA and/or Lis coinjection only in the case of [(99m)Tc]DG4 (Tc-radioligands based on different-length gastrins. Truncated [(99m)Tc]DG4 exhibited overall the most attractive profile during combined NEP/ACE-inhibition in mouse models, providing new

  15. Numerical study of the effect of relative humidity and stoichiometric flow ratio on PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell performance with various channel lengths: An anode partial flooding modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Lei; Cai, Qiong; Xu, Chenxi; Liu, Chunbo; Scott, Keith; Yan, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    A two dimensional, along the channel, non-isothermal, two-phase flow, anode partial flooding model was developed to investigate the effects of relative humidity, stoichiometric flow ratio and channel length, as well as their interactive influence, on the performance of a PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell. Liquid water formation and transport at the anode due to the condensation of supersaturated anode gas initiated by hydrogen consumption was considered. The model considered the heat source/sink in terms of electrochemical reaction, Joule heating and latent heat due to water phase-transfer. The non-uniform temperature distributions inside the MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and channels at various stoichiometric flow ratios were demonstrated. The Peclet number was used to evaluate the contributions of advection and diffusion on liquid water and heat transport. Results indicated that higher anode relative humidity is required to the improved cell performance. As the decrease in the anode relative humidity and increase in channel length, the optimal cathode relative humidity was increased. The initial increase in stoichiometric flow ratio improved the limiting current densities. However, the further increases led to limited contributions. The Peclet number indicated that the liquid water transport through the electrode was mainly determined by the capillary diffusion mechanism. - Highlights: • Interactive effects of RH, stoichiometric flow ratio, channel length are studied. • Fully humidified anode is required to maintain the good cell performance. • Optimal RH_c is 30–40% for channel length of 1–10 cm at high current density. • Effect of stoichiometric flow ratio is more significant for longer channels. • Both liquid water and heat transport are diffusion dominated rather than advection.

  16. Soil pretreatment and fast cell lysis for direct polymerase chain reaction from forest soils for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of fungal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cheng

    Full Text Available Abstract Humic substances in soil DNA samples can influence the assessment of microbial diversity and community composition. Using multiple steps during or after cell lysis adds expenses, is time-consuming, and causes DNA loss. A pretreatment of soil samples and a single step DNA extraction may improve experimental results. In order to optimize a protocol for obtaining high purity DNA from soil microbiota, five prewashing agents were compared in terms of their efficiency and effectiveness in removing soil contaminants. Residual contaminants were precipitated by adding 0.6 mL of 0.5 M CaCl2. Four cell lysis methods were applied to test their compatibility with the pretreatment (prewashing + Ca2+ flocculation and to ultimately identify the optimal cell lysis method for analyzing fungal communities in forest soils. The results showed that pretreatment with TNP + Triton X-100 + skim milk (100 mM Tris, 100 mM Na4P2O7, 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone, 100 mM NaCl, 0.05% Triton X-100, 4% skim milk, pH 10.0 removed most soil humic contaminants. When the pretreatment was combined with Ca2+ flocculation, the purity of all soil DNA samples was further improved. DNA samples obtained by the fast glass bead-beating method (MethodFGB had the highest purity. The resulting DNA was successfully used, without further purification steps, as a template for polymerase chain reaction targeting fungal internal transcribed spacer regions. The results obtained by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis indicated that the MethodFGB revealed greater fungal diversity and more distinctive community structure compared with the other methods tested. Our study provides a protocol for fungal cell lysis in soil, which is fast, convenient, and effective for analyzing fungal communities in forest soils.

  17. Production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates by sequential feeding of xylose and octanoic acid in engineered Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Meur Sylvaine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is able to synthesize large amounts of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs. To reduce the substrate cost, which represents nearly 50% of the total PHA production cost, xylose, a hemicellulose derivate, was tested as the growth carbon source in an engineered P. putida KT2440 strain. Results The genes encoding xylose isomerase (XylA and xylulokinase (XylB from Escherichia coli W3110 were introduced into P. putida KT2440. The recombinant KT2440 exhibited a XylA activity of 1.47 U and a XylB activity of 0.97 U when grown on a defined medium supplemented with xylose. The cells reached a maximum specific growth rate of 0.24 h-1 and a final cell dry weight (CDW of 2.5 g L-1 with a maximal yield of 0.5 g CDW g-1 xylose. Since no mcl-PHA was accumulated from xylose, mcl-PHA production can be controlled by the addition of fatty acids leading to tailor-made PHA compositions. Sequential feeding strategy was applied using xylose as the growth substrate and octanoic acid as the precursor for mcl-PHA production. In this way, up to 20% w w-1 of mcl-PHA was obtained. A yield of 0.37 g mcl-PHA per g octanoic acid was achieved under the employed conditions. Conclusions Sequential feeding of relatively cheap carbohydrates and expensive fatty acids is a practical way to achieve more cost-effective mcl-PHA production. This study is the first reported attempt to produce mcl-PHA by using xylose as the growth substrate. Further process optimizations to achieve higher cell density and higher productivity of mcl-PHA should be investigated. These scientific exercises will undoubtedly contribute to the economic feasibility of mcl-PHA production from renewable feedstock.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas mediterranea and P. corrugata plant pathogens during accumulation of medium-chain-length PHAs by glycerol bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Grazia; Ferraro, Rosario; Russo, Marcella; Strozzi, Francesco; Catara, Antonino F; Bella, Patrizia; Catara, Vittoria

    2017-07-25

    Pseudomonas corrugata and P. mediterranea are soil inhabitant bacteria, generally living as endophytes on symptomless plants and bare soil, but also capable of causing plant diseases. They share a similar genome size and a high proteome similarity. P. corrugata produces many biomolecules which play an important role in bacterial cell survival and fitness. Both species produce different medium-chain-length PHAs (mcl-PHAs) from the bioconversion of glycerol to a transparent film in P. mediterranea and a sticky elastomer in P. corrugata. In this work, using RNA-seq we investigated the transcriptional profiles of both bacteria at the early stationary growth phase with glycerol as the carbon source. Quantitative analysis of P. mediterranea transcripts versus P. corrugata revealed that 1756 genes were differentially expressed. A total of 175 genes were significantly upregulated in P. mediterranea, while 217 were downregulated. The largest group of upregulated genes was related to transport systems and stress response, energy and central metabolism, and carbon metabolism. Expression levels of most genes coding for enzymes related to PHA biosynthesis and central metabolic pathways showed no differences or only slight variations in pyruvate metabolism. The most relevant result was the significantly increased expression in P. mediterranea of genes involved in alginate production, an important exopolysaccharide, which in other Pseudomonas spp. plays a key role as a virulence factor or in stress tolerance and shows many industrial applications. In conclusion, the results provide useful information on the co-production of mcl-PHAs and alginate from glycerol as carbon source by P. mediterranea in the design of new strategies of genetic regulation to improve the yield of bioproducts or bacterial fitness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of the role of hydrophilic chain length in amphiphilic perfluoropolyether/poly(ethylene glycol) networks: towards high-performance antifouling coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yapei; Pitet, Louis M.; Finlay, John A.; Brewer, Lenora H.; Cone, Gemma; Betts, Douglas E.; Callow, Maureen E.; Callow, James A.; Wendt, Dean E.; Hillmyer, Marc A.; DeSimone, Joseph M. (Birmingham UK); (NCSU); (UNC); (Cal. Polytech.); (UMM)

    2013-03-07

    The facile preparation of amphiphilic network coatings having a hydrophobic dimethacryloxy-functionalized perfluoropolyether (PFPE-DMA; M{sub w} = 1500 g mol{sup -1}) crosslinked with hydrophilic monomethacryloxy functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) macromonomers (PEG-MA; M{sub w} = 300, 475, 1100 g mol{sup -1}), intended as non-toxic high-performance marine coatings exhibiting antifouling characteristics is demonstrated. The PFPE-DMA was found to be miscible with the PEG-MA. Photo-cured blends of these materials containing 10 wt% of PEG-MA oligomers did not swell significantly in water. PFPE-DMA crosslinked with the highest molecular weight PEG oligomer (ie PEG1100) deterred settlement (attachment) of algal cells and cypris larvae of barnacles compared to a PFPE control coating. Dynamic mechanical analysis of these networks revealed a flexible material. Preferential segregation of the PEG segments at the polymer/air interface resulted in enhanced antifouling performance. The cured amphiphilic PFPE/PEG films showed decreased advancing and receding contact angles with increasing PEG chain length. In particular, the PFPE/PEG1100 network had a much lower advancing contact angle than static contact angle, suggesting that the PEG1100 segments diffuse to the polymer/water interface quickly. The preferential interfacial aggregation of the larger PEG segments enables the coating surface to have a substantially enhanced resistance to settlement of spores of the green seaweed Ulva, cells of the diatom Navicula and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite as well as low adhesion of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva, adhesion being lower than to a polydimethyl elastomer, Silastic T2.

  20. Investigation of the role of hydrophilic chain length in amphiphilic perfluoropolyether/poly(ethylene glycol) networks: towards high-performance antifouling coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yapei; Pitet, Louis M; Finlay, John A; Brewer, Lenora H; Cone, Gemma; Betts, Douglas E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Wendt, Dean E; Hillmyer, Marc A; DeSimonea, Joseph M

    2011-01-01

    The facile preparation of amphiphilic network coatings having a hydrophobic dimethacryloxy-functionalized perfluoropolyether (PFPE-DMA; M(w) = 1500 g mol(-1)) crosslinked with hydrophilic monomethacryloxy functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) macromonomers (PEG-MA; M(w) = 300, 475, 1100 g mol(-1)), intended as non-toxic high-performance marine coatings exhibiting antifouling characteristics is demonstrated. The PFPE-DMA was found to be miscible with the PEG-MA. Photo-cured blends of these materials containing 10 wt% of PEG-MA oligomers did not swell significantly in water. PFPE-DMA crosslinked with the highest molecular weight PEG oligomer (ie PEG1100) deterred settlement (attachment) of algal cells and cypris larvae of barnacles compared to a PFPE control coating. Dynamic mechanical analysis of these networks revealed a flexible material. Preferential segregation of the PEG segments at the polymer/air interface resulted in enhanced antifouling performance. The cured amphiphilic PFPE/PEG films showed decreased advancing and receding contact angles with increasing PEG chain length. In particular, the PFPE/PEG1100 network had a much lower advancing contact angle than static contact angle, suggesting that the PEG1100 segments diffuse to the polymer/water interface quickly. The preferential interfacial aggregation of the larger PEG segments enables the coating surface to have a substantially enhanced resistance to settlement of spores of the green seaweed Ulva, cells of the diatom Navicula and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite as well as low adhesion of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva, adhesion being lower than to a polydimethyl elastomer, Silastic T2.

  1. Effect of molecular chain length on the mechanical and thermal properties of amine-functionalized graphene oxide/polyimide composite films prepared by in situ polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Hao; Yang, Shin-Yi; Wang, Jen-Yu; Tien, Hsi-Wen; Hsiao, Sheng-Tsung; Wang, Yu-Sheng; Li, Shin-Ming; Ma, Chen-Chi M; Wu, Yi-Fang

    2013-02-01

    This study fabricates amine (NH(2))-functionalized graphene oxide (GO)/polyimide(PI) composite films with high performance using in situ polymerization. Linear poly(oxyalkylene)amines with two different molecular weights 400 and 2000 (D400 and D2000) have been grafted onto the GO surfaces, forming two types of NH(2)-functionalized GO (D400-GO/D2000-GO). NH(2)-functionalized GO, especially D400-GO, demonstrated better reinforcing efficiency in mechanical and thermal properties. The observed property enhancement are due to large aspect ratio of GO sheets, the uniform dispersion of the GO within the PI matrix, and strong interfacial adhesion due to the chemical bonding between GO and the polymeric matrix. The Young's modulus of the composite films with 0.3 wt % D400-GO loading is 7.4 times greater than that of neat PI, and tensile strength is 240% higher than that of neat PI. Compared to neat PI, 0.3 wt % D400-GO/PI film exhibits approximately 23.96 °C increase in glass transition temperature (T(g)). The coefficient of thermal expansion below T(g) is significantly decreased from 102.6 μm/°C (neat PI) to 53.81 μm/°C (decreasing 48%) for the D400-GO/PI composites with low D400-GO content (0.1 wt %). This work not only provides a method to develop the GO-based polyimide composites with superior performances but also conceptually provides a chance to modulate the interfacial interaction between GO and the polymer through designing the chain length of grafting molecules on NH(2)-functionalized GO.

  2. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis*

    OpenAIRE

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction wi...

  3. Transport of water in proximal kidney tubules from whole tubules to single channels: length and section of the selectivity filter of aquaporin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittembury, G; González, E; Hernández, C S; Gutiérrez, A M; Echevarría, M

    1997-06-27

    within the channel selectivity filter, whose length must lie within 6 to 27 A, a value significantly lower than our previous value calculated from the P(os)/Pd* ratio.

  4. Novel phytoceramides containing fatty acids of diverse chain lengths are better than a single C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine to improve the physiological properties of human stratum corneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh MJ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Myoung Jin Oh,1 Young Hoon Cho,1 So Yoon Cha,1 Eun Ok Lee,2 Jin Wook Kim,2 Sun Ki Kim,2 Chang Seo Park1 1Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Dongguk University, Chung-gu, Seoul, 2LCS Biotech, Gwonseon-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea Abstract: Ceramides in the human stratum corneum (SC are a mixture of diverse N-acylated fatty acids (FAs with different chain lengths. C24 is the major class of FAs of ceramides. However, there are also other classes of ceramides with diverse chain lengths of FAs, and these lengths generally range from C16 to C26. This study aimed to prepare several types of phytoceramide containing diverse chain lengths of N-acylated FAs and compare them with C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine (NP in terms of their effects on the physiological properties of the SC. We chose natural oils, such as horse fat oil, shea butter, sunflower oil, and a mixture of macadamia nut, shea butter, moringa, and meadowfoam seed oil, as sources of FAs and phytosphingosine as a sphingoid backbone to synthesize diverse phytoceramides. Each phytoceramide exhibited a distinctive formation of the lamellar structure, and their FA profiles were similar to those of their respective natural oil. The skin barrier properties, as analyzed in human skin, clearly demonstrated that all the phytoceramides improved the recovery rate of the damaged SC and enhanced hydration better than C18-ceramide NP did. In conclusion, natural oil-derived phytoceramides could represent a novel class of ceramides for cosmetic applications in the development of an ideal skin barrier moisturizer. Keywords: fatty acid, chain length, phytoceramide, skin barrier, natural oil

  5. A reduction in growth rate of Pseudomonas putida KT2442 counteracts productivity advances in medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate production from gluconate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinn Manfred

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The substitution of plastics based on fossil raw material by biodegradable plastics produced from renewable resources is of crucial importance in a context of oil scarcity and overflowing plastic landfills. One of the most promising organisms for the manufacturing of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA is Pseudomonas putida KT2440 which can accumulate large amounts of polymer from cheap substrates such as glucose. Current research focuses on enhancing the strain production capacity and synthesizing polymers with novel material properties. Many of the corresponding protocols for strain engineering rely on the rifampicin-resistant variant, P. putida KT2442. However, it remains unclear whether these two strains can be treated as equivalent in terms of mcl-PHA production, as the underlying antibiotic resistance mechanism involves a modification in the RNA polymerase and thus has ample potential for interfering with global transcription. Results To assess PHA production in P. putida KT2440 and KT2442, we characterized the growth and PHA accumulation on three categories of substrate: PHA-related (octanoate, PHA-unrelated (gluconate and poor PHA substrate (citrate. The strains showed clear differences of growth rate on gluconate and citrate (reduction for KT2442 > 3-fold and > 1.5-fold, respectively but not on octanoate. In addition, P. putida KT2442 PHA-free biomass significantly decreased after nitrogen depletion on gluconate. In an attempt to narrow down the range of possible reasons for this different behavior, the uptake of gluconate and extracellular release of the oxidized product 2-ketogluconate were measured. The results suggested that the reason has to be an inefficient transport or metabolization of 2-ketogluconate while an alteration of gluconate uptake and conversion to 2-ketogluconate could be excluded. Conclusions The study illustrates that the recruitment of a pleiotropic mutation, whose effects might

  6. Comparative analysis of human cytomegalovirus a-sequence in multiple clinical isolates by using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, J A; Gallez-Hawkins, G; Churchill, M A; Morton-Blackshere, A; Pande, H; Adler, S P; Schmidt, G M; Forman, S J

    1990-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) a-sequence (a-seq) is located in the joining region between the long (L) and short (S) unique sequences of the virus (L-S junction), and this hypervariable junction has been used to differentiate HCMV strains. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are differences among strains of human cytomegalovirus which could be characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the a-seq of HCMV DNA and to compare a PCR method of strain differentiation with conventional restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methodology by using HCMV junction probes. Laboratory strains of HCMV and viral isolates from individuals with HCMV infection were characterized by using both RFLPs and PCR. The PCR assay amplified regions in the major immediate-early gene (IE-1), the 64/65-kDa matrix phosphoprotein (pp65), and the a-seq of the L-S junction region. HCMV laboratory strains Towne, AD169, and Davis were distinguishable, in terms of size of the amplified product, when analyzed by PCR with primers specific for the a-seq but were indistinguishable by using PCR targeted to IE-1 and pp65 sequences. When this technique was applied to a characterization of isolates from individuals with HCMV infection, selected isolates could be readily distinguished. In addition, when the a-seq PCR product was analyzed with restriction enzyme digestion for the presence of specific sequences, these DNA differences were confirmed. PCR analysis across the variable a-seq of HCMV demonstrated differences among strains which were confirmed by RFLP in 38 of 40 isolates analyzed. The most informative restriction enzyme sites in the a-seq for distinguishing HCMV isolates were those of MnlI and BssHII. This indicates that the a-seq of HCMV is heterogeneous among wild strains, and PCR of the a-seq of HCMV is a practical way to characterize differences in strains of HCMV. Images PMID:1980680

  7. 99mTc-labeled gastrins of varying peptide chain length: Distinct impact of NEP/ACE-inhibition on stability and tumor uptake in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Nock, Berthold A.; Lymperis, Emmanouil; Krenning, Eric P.; Jong, Marion de; Maina, Theodosia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In situ inhibition of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) has been recently shown to impressively increase the bioavailability and tumor uptake of biodegradable gastrin radioligands. Furthermore, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) has been previously shown to cleave gastrin analogs in vitro. In the present study, we have assessed the effects induced by single or dual NEP/ACE-inhibition on the pharmacokinetic profile of three 99m Tc-labeled gastrins of varying peptide chain length: [ 99m Tc]SG6 ([ 99m Tc-N 4 -Gln 1 ]gastrin(1–17)), [ 99m Tc]DG2 ([ 99m Tc-N 4 -Gly 4 ,DGlu 5 ]gastrin(4–17)) and [ 99m Tc]DG4 ([ 99m Tc-N 4 -DGlu 10 ]gastrin(10–17)). Methods: Mouse blood samples were collected 5 min after injection of each of [ 99m Tc]SG6/DG2/DG4 together with: a) vehicle, b) the NEP-inhibitor phosphoramidon (PA), c) the ACE-inhibitor lisinopril (Lis), or d) PA plus Lis and were analyzed by RP-HPLC for radiometabolite detection. Biodistribution was studied in SCID mice bearing A431-CCK2R(+/−) xenografts at 4 h postinjection (pi). [ 99m Tc]SG6 or [ 99m Tc]DG4 was coinjected with either vehicle or the above described NEP/ACE-inhibitor regimens; for [ 99m Tc]DG2 control and PA animal groups were only included. Results: Treatment of mice with PA induced significant stabilization of 99m Tc-radiotracers in peripheral blood, while treatment with Lis or Lis + PA affected the stability of des(Glu) 5 [ 99m Tc]DG4 only. In line with these findings, PA coinjection led to notable amplification of tumor uptake of radiopeptides compared to controls (P < 0.01). Only [ 99m Tc]DG4 profited by single Lis (2.06 ± 0.39%ID/g vs 0.99 ± 0.13%ID/g in controls) or combined Lis + PA coinjection (8.91 ± 1.61%ID/g vs 4.89 ± 1.33%ID/g in PA-group). Furthermore, kidney uptake remained favourably low and unaffected by PA and/or Lis coinjection only in the case of [ 99m Tc]DG4 (< 1.9%ID/g) resulting in the most optimal tumor-to-kidney ratios. Conclusions: In situ NEP

  8. L-type calcium channels play a critical role in maintaining lens transparency by regulating phosphorylation of aquaporin-0 and myosin light chain and expression of connexins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Nagendran, Tharkika; de Ridder, Gustaaf G; Schey, Kevin L; Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Homeostasis of intracellular calcium is crucial for lens cytoarchitecture and transparency, however, the identity of specific channel proteins regulating calcium influx within the lens is not completely understood. Here we examined the expression and distribution profiles of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and explored their role in morphological integrity and transparency of the mouse lens, using cDNA microarray, RT-PCR, immunoblot, pharmacological inhibitors and immunofluorescence analyses. The results revealed that Ca (V) 1.2 and 1.3 channels are expressed and distributed in both the epithelium and cortical fiber cells in mouse lens. Inhibition of LTCCs with felodipine or nifedipine induces progressive cortical cataract formation with time, in association with decreased lens weight in ex-vivo mouse lenses. Histological analyses of felodipine treated lenses revealed extensive disorganization and swelling of cortical fiber cells resembling the phenotype reported for altered aquaporin-0 activity without detectable cytotoxic effects. Analysis of both soluble and membrane rich fractions from felodipine treated lenses by SDS-PAGE in conjunction with mass spectrometry and immunoblot analyses revealed decreases in β-B1-crystallin, Hsp-90, spectrin and filensin. Significantly, loss of transparency in the felodipine treated lenses was preceded by an increase in aquaporin-0 serine-235 phosphorylation and levels of connexin-50, together with decreases in myosin light chain phosphorylation and the levels of 14-3-3ε, a phosphoprotein-binding regulatory protein. Felodipine treatment led to a significant increase in gene expression of connexin-50 and 46 in the mouse lens. Additionally, felodipine inhibition of LTCCs in primary cultures of mouse lens epithelial cells resulted in decreased intracellular calcium, and decreased actin stress fibers and myosin light chain phosphorylation, without detectable cytotoxic response. Taken together, these observations reveal a crucial

  9. Quantum communication through an unmodulated spin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Sougato

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme for using an unmodulated and unmeasured spin chain as a channel for short distance quantum communications. The state to be transmitted is placed on one spin of the chain and received later on a distant spin with some fidelity. We first obtain simple expressions for the fidelity of quantum state transfer and the amount of entanglement sharable between any two sites of an arbitrary Heisenberg ferromagnet using our scheme. We then apply this to the realizable case of an open ended chain with nearest neighbor interactions. The fidelity of quantum state transfer is obtained as an inverse discrete cosine transform and as a Bessel function series. We find that in a reasonable time, a qubit can be directly transmitted with better than classical fidelity across the full length of chains of up to 80 spins. Moreover, our channel allows distillable entanglement to be shared over arbitrary distances

  10. Rotational diffusion of nonpolar and ionic solutes in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides: is solute rotation always influenced by the length of the alkyl chain on the imidazolium cation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangamallaiah, V; Dutt, G B

    2012-10-25

    In an attempt to find out whether the length of the alkyl chain on the imidazolium cation has a bearing on solute rotation, temperature-dependent fluorescence anisotropies of three structurally similar solutes have been measured in a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and hexyl) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides. Solute-solvent coupling constants obtained from the experimentally measured reorientation times with the aid of Stokes-Einstein-Debye hydrodynamic theory indicate that there is no influence of the length of the alkyl chain on the rotation of nonpolar, anionic, and cationic solutes 9-phenylanthracene (9-PA), fluorescein (FL), and rhodamine 110 (R110), respectively. It has also been noticed that the rotational diffusion of 9-PA is closer to the predictions of slip hydrodynamics, whereas the rotation of negatively charged FL and positively charged R110 is almost identical and follows stick hydrodynamics in these ionic liquids. Despite having similar shape and size, ionic solutes rotate slower by a factor of 3-4 compared to the nonpolar solute. Interplay of specific and electrostatic interactions between FL and the imidazolium cation of the ionic liquids, and between R110 and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion, appear to be responsible for the observed behavior. These results are an indication that the length of the alkyl chain on the imidazolium cation does not alter their physical properties in a manner that has an effect on solute rotation.

  11. PMMA-g-OEtOx Graft Copolymers: Influence of Grafting Degree and Side Chain Length on the Conformation in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Muljajew

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the degree of grafting (DG and the side chain degree of polymerization (DP, graft copolymers may feature properties similar to statistical copolymers or to block copolymers. This issue is approached by studying aqueous solutions of PMMA-g-OEtOx graft copolymers comprising a hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA backbone and hydrophilic oligo(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (OEtOx side chains. The graft copolymers were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA and OEtOx-methacrylate macromonomers of varying DP. All aqueous solutions of PMMA-g-OEtOx (9% ≤ DG ≤ 34%; 5 ≤ side chain DP ≤ 24 revealed lower critical solution temperature behavior. The graft copolymer architecture significantly influenced the aggregation behavior, the conformation in aqueous solution and the coil to globule transition, as verified by means of turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and analytical ultracentrifugation. The aggregation behavior of graft copolymers with a side chain DP of 5 was significantly affected by small variations of the DG, occasionally forming mesoglobules above the cloud point temperature (Tcp, which was around human body temperature. On the other hand, PMMA-g-OEtOx with elongated side chains assembled into well-defined structures below the Tcp (apparent aggregation number (Nagg = 10 that were able to solubilize Disperse Orange 3. The thermoresponsive behavior of aqueous solutions thus resembled that of micelles comprising a poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (PEtOx shell (Tcp > 60 °C.

  12. A Nitrogen-16 Power Channel in the Melusine Cooling Circuit; Chaine de puissance azote 16 sur le circuit de refrigeration de melusine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberghien, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1962-07-01

    A power channel, which is to be used on Melusine, the 2 MW pool-type reactor built at Grenoble Nuclear Center, is described. It will be used for measuring of {sup 16}N activity of water after passage through the reactor core. The experimental system as well as the measuring instruments are described. Solutions to problems likely to arise are given. The experimental results show that this power measurement is free from neutron flux local deformations, from control rods position, and from experiments. The power indicated is to {+-}2% the same as the thermodynamic power. Since May 1962, this power channel is used as a reference for the operation of the reactor. It is also provided for on the Siloe 10 MW reactor. (author) [French] L'objet de ce rapport est la description d'une nouvelle chaine de puissance pour la pile piscine 'Melusine' de 2 MW du Centre d'etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble. Il s'agit de la mesure de l'activite en azote 16 de l'eau apres son passage dans le coeur du reacteur. Le dispositif experimental ainsi que les appareils de mesure y sont decrits. Les reponses aux differents problemes poses sont donnees. Les resultats experimentaux montrent que cette mesure de puissance est independante des deformations locales de flux de neutrons, de la position des barres de controle et des manipulations. La puissance indiquee par cette chaine est a 2 % pres identique a la puissance thermodynamique. Depuis mai 1962, elle est utilisee comme reference pour le pilotage de la pile. Elle est aussi prevue sur la pile 'Siloe' de 10 MW. (auteur)

  13. Alkyl chain interaction at the surface of room temperature ionic liquids: systematic variation of alkyl chain length (R = C(1)-C(4), C(8)) in both cation and anion of [RMIM][R-OSO(3)] by sum frequency generation and surface tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cherry S; Baldelli, Steven

    2009-01-29

    The gas-liquid interface of halide-free 1,3-dialkylimidazolium alkyl sulfates [RMIM][R-OSO(3)] with R chain length from C(1)-C(4) and C(8) has been studied systematically using the surface-specific sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and surface tension measurements. From the SFG spectra, vibrational modes from the methyl group of both cation and anion are observed for all ionic liquid samples considered in the present study. These results suggest the presence of both ions at the gas-liquid interface, which is further supported by surface tension measurements. Surface tension data show a decreasing trend as the alkyl chain in the imidazolium cation is varied from methyl to butyl chain, with a specific anion. A similar trend is observed when the alkyl chain of the anion is modified and the cation is fixed.

  14. Genomic DNA fingerprinting of clinical Haemophilus influenzae isolates by polymerase chain reaction amplification: comparison with major outer-membrane protein and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belkum, A.; Duim, B.; Regelink, A.; Möller, L.; Quint, W.; van Alphen, L.

    1994-01-01

    Non-capsulate strains of Haemophilus influenzae were genotyped by analysis of variable DNA segments obtained by amplification of genomic DNA with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR fingerprinting). Discrete fragments of 100-2000 bp were obtained. The reproducibility of the procedure was assessed by

  15. Study on nonstationary convective heat transfer in annular channels and rod bundles in conditions of arbitrary variation of heat duty in time and length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.N.; Kalinin, E.I.; Naumov, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of variability of heat duty on the characteristics of heat exchange in ring channels and rod bundles is investigated with analytical methods. The plotting of calculation formulae for non-stationary heat exchange in an annular channel at a jump of heat duty is carried out on the basis of the method of the effect function. The formulae obtained permit to accomplish technical calculations of the processes of non-stationary heat exchange in annular channels in the case of any alterations of thermal duty in time, at any moment of time, for any channel cross section (including the entrance heat section) in a wide range of geometric and regime parameters of the turbulent current of a coolant. According to preliminary estimates, calculation results differ from the results oi a numerical solution less than 5%. The approach considered permits to transfer the data on the non-stationary heat exchange in annular channels in the case of changing the heat duty in time, in the case of a non-stationary heat exchange in longitudinally flown not very dense and infinite rod bundles

  16. Influence of chain length of pyrene fatty acids on their uptake and metabolism by Epstein-Barr-virus-transformed lymphoid cell lines from a patient with multisystemic lipid storage myopathy and from control subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Radom, J; Salvayre, R; Levade, T; Douste-Blazy, L

    1990-01-01

    The uptake and intracellular metabolism of 4-(1-pyrene)butanoic acid (P4), 10-(1-pyrene)decanoic acid (P10) and 12-(1-pyrene)dodecanoic acid (P12) were investigated in cultured lymphoid cell lines from normal individuals and from a patient with multisystemic lipid storage myopathy (MLSM). The cellular uptake was shown to be dependent on the fatty-acid chain length, but no significant difference in the uptake of pyrene fatty acids was observed between MLSM and control lymphoid cells. After inc...

  17. Gamma-irradiation of homodeoxyoligonucleotides 32P-labelled at one end: computer simulation of the chain length distribution of the radioactive fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teoule, R.; Duplaa, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels of the fragments resulting from γ-irradiation of single-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides labelled at their 5'- or 3'-end proved a potent tool for analysis of the radiation-induced chain breakage of DNA. Owing to the fact that the oligonucleotide may be ruptured at more than one site, counting of the electrophoresis bands must be corrected and it is necessary to assess the influence of the cleavage position on the band intensities. A complicating factor is the inhomogeneity of the system due to the presence of the four bases A, T, C and G. To circumvent this problem, the homooligodeoxyribonucleotides (dA) 15 , (dC) 15 , (dT) 15 were used as experimental probes. They were γ-irradiated in solution, heated in alkali and resulting fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. A computer simulation of band intensities was compiled based on the general assumption that the chain breakage is homogeneous. Experimental results obtained from the homooligodeoxyribonucleotides labelled at either the 5' or the 3'-end are in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations. Abacus giving the gel band intensities (percentage) against the nucleotide positions and the remaining intensity of the original oligonucleotide have been obtained. (author)

  18. Comparison of rate one-half, equivalent constraint length 24, binary convolutional codes for use with sequential decoding on the deep-space channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Virtually all previously-suggested rate 1/2 binary convolutional codes with KE = 24 are compared. Their distance properties are given; and their performance, both in computation and in error probability, with sequential decoding on the deep-space channel is determined by simulation. Recommendations are made both for the choice of a specific KE = 24 code as well as for codes to be included in future coding standards for the deep-space channel. A new result given in this report is a method for determining the statistical significance of error probability data when the error probability is so small that it is not feasible to perform enough decoding simulations to obtain more than a very small number of decoding errors.

  19. Influence of chain length of pyrene fatty acids on their uptake and metabolism by Epstein-Barr-virus-transformed lymphoid cell lines from a patient with multisystemic lipid storage myopathy and from control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radom, J; Salvayre, R; Levade, T; Douste-Blazy, L

    1990-01-01

    The uptake and intracellular metabolism of 4-(1-pyrene)butanoic acid (P4), 10-(1-pyrene)decanoic acid (P10) and 12-(1-pyrene)dodecanoic acid (P12) were investigated in cultured lymphoid cell lines from normal individuals and from a patient with multisystemic lipid storage myopathy (MLSM). The cellular uptake was shown to be dependent on the fatty-acid chain length, but no significant difference in the uptake of pyrene fatty acids was observed between MLSM and control lymphoid cells. After incubation for 1 h the distribution of fluorescent fatty acids taken up by the lymphoid cell lines also differed with the chain length, most of the fluorescence being associated with phospholipid and triacylglycerols. In contrast with P10 and P12, P4 was not incorporated into neutral lipids. When the cells were incubated for 24 h with the pyrene fatty acids, the amount of fluorescent lipids synthesized by the cells was proportional to the fatty acid concentration in the culture medium. After a 24 h incubation in the presence of P10 or P12, at any concentration, the fluorescent triacylglycerol content of MLSM cells was 2-5-fold higher than that of control cells. Concentrations of pyrene fatty acids higher than 40 microM seemed to be more toxic for mutant cells than for control cells. This cytotoxicity was dependent on the fluorescent-fatty-acid chain length (P12 greater than P10 greater than P4). Pulse-chase experiments permitted one to demonstrate the defect in the degradation of endogenously biosynthesized triacylglycerols in MLSM cells (residual activity was around 10-25% of controls on the basis of half-lives and initial rates of P10- or P12-labelled-triacylglycerol catabolism); MLSM lymphoid cells exhibited a mild phenotypic expression of the lipid storage (less severe than that observed in fibroblasts). P4 was not utilized in the synthesis of triacylglycerols, and thus did not accumulate in MLSM cells: this suggests that natural short-chain fatty acids might induce a lesser

  20. Construction and validation of a long-channel membrane test cell for representative monitoring of performance and characterization of fouling over the length of spiral-wound membrane modules

    KAUST Repository

    Siebdrath, Nadine; Ding, Wei; Pietsch, Elisabeth; Kruithof, Joop; Uhl, Wolfgang; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2017-01-01

    A long-channel membrane test cell (LCMTC) with the same length as full-scale elements was developed to simulate performance and fouling in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis spiral-wound membrane modules (SWMs). The transparent LCMTC enabled simultaneous monitoring of SWM performance indicators: feed channel pressure drop, permeate flux and salt passage. Both permeate flux and salt passage were monitored over five sections of the test cell and were related to the amount and composition of the accumulated foulant in these five sections, illustrating the unique features of the test cell. Validation experiments at various feed pressures showed the same flow profile and the same hydraulic behaviour as SWMs used in practice, confirming the representativeness and suitability of the test cell to study SWM operation and fouling. The importance to apply feed spacers matching the flow channel height in test cell systems was demonstrated. Biofouling studies showed that the dosage of a biodegradable substrate to the feed of the LCMTC accelerated the gradual decrease of membrane performance and the accumulation of biomass on the spacer and membrane sheets. The strongest permeate flux decline and the largest amount of accumulated biomass was found in the first 18 cm of the test cell. The LCMTC showed to be suitable to study the impact of biofilm development and biofouling control strategies under representative conditions for full-scale membrane elements.

  1. Construction and validation of a long-channel membrane test cell for representative monitoring of performance and characterization of fouling over the length of spiral-wound membrane modules

    KAUST Repository

    Siebdrath, Nadine

    2017-12-03

    A long-channel membrane test cell (LCMTC) with the same length as full-scale elements was developed to simulate performance and fouling in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis spiral-wound membrane modules (SWMs). The transparent LCMTC enabled simultaneous monitoring of SWM performance indicators: feed channel pressure drop, permeate flux and salt passage. Both permeate flux and salt passage were monitored over five sections of the test cell and were related to the amount and composition of the accumulated foulant in these five sections, illustrating the unique features of the test cell. Validation experiments at various feed pressures showed the same flow profile and the same hydraulic behaviour as SWMs used in practice, confirming the representativeness and suitability of the test cell to study SWM operation and fouling. The importance to apply feed spacers matching the flow channel height in test cell systems was demonstrated. Biofouling studies showed that the dosage of a biodegradable substrate to the feed of the LCMTC accelerated the gradual decrease of membrane performance and the accumulation of biomass on the spacer and membrane sheets. The strongest permeate flux decline and the largest amount of accumulated biomass was found in the first 18 cm of the test cell. The LCMTC showed to be suitable to study the impact of biofilm development and biofouling control strategies under representative conditions for full-scale membrane elements.

  2. Dynamics of cyanophenyl alkylbenzoate molecules in the bulk and in a surface layer adsorbed onto aerosil. Variation of the lengths of the alkyl chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frunza, Stefan [National Institute of Materials Physics, R-077125 Magurele (Romania); Schoenhals, Andreas [BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Frunza, Ligia, E-mail: lfrunza@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, R-077125 Magurele (Romania); Beica, Traian; Zgura, Irina; Ganea, Paul [National Institute of Materials Physics, R-077125 Magurele (Romania); Stoenescu, Daniel [Telecom-Bretagne, Departement d' Optique, Technopole Brest-Iroise 29238 Cedex (France)

    2010-06-16

    Graphical abstract: The temperature dependence of the molecular mobility in composites shows an Arrhenius-type regime at low temperature and a glassy-type one at higher temperature separated by a crossover phenomenon. - Abstract: The molecular mobility of 4-butyl- and 4-pentyl-4'-cyanophenyl benzoate (CP4B, CP5B) and their composites prepared from aerosil A380 was investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy in a large temperature range. Thermogravimetric and infrared investigations were additionally performed. High silica density (larger than 7 g aerosil/1 g of liquid crystal) was selected to observe a thin layer adsorbed on the surface of the silica particles. The data were compared with those of the member of the series with six carbon atoms in the alkyl tail. Bulk CP4B and CP5B show the dielectric behaviour expected for liquid crystals. For the composites one relaxation process is observed at frequencies much lower than those for the corresponding bulk, which was assigned to the dynamics of the molecules in a surface layer. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rates (and of the dielectric strength) shows a crossover behaviour with two distinguished regimes. At higher temperatures the data obey the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law, whereas an Arrhenius law is observed at lower temperature, in a close similarity to the behaviour of a constrained dynamic glass transition. The estimated Vogel and crossover temperature is independent on the tail length, while the activation energy for the low temperature branch increases weakly with increasing the alkyl tail.

  3. The influence of gate length on the electron injection of velocity in an AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovich, S. V.; Galiev, R. R.; Zuev, A. V.; Pavlov, A. Yu.; Ponomarev, D. S.; Khabibullin, R. A.

    2017-08-01

    Field-effect high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures with various gate lengths L g have been studied. The maximum values of current and power gaincutoff frequencies ( f T and f max, respectively) amounted to 88 and 155 GHz for HEMTs with L g = 125 nm, while those for the transistors with L g = 360 nm were 26 and 82 GHz, respectively. Based on the measured S-parameters, the values of elements in small-signal equivalent schemes of AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs were extracted and the dependence of electron-injection velocity vinj on the gate-drain voltage was determined. The influence of L g and the drain-source voltage on vinj has been studied.

  4. Genetic polymorphism of toll-like receptors 4 gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms, polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism to correlate with mastitic cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja H. Gupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An attempt has been made to study the toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4 gene polymorphism from cattle DNA to correlate with mastitis cows. Materials and Methods: In present investigation, two fragments of TLR4 gene named T4CRBR1 and T4CRBR2 of a 316 bp and 382 bp were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively from Kankrej (22 and Triple cross (24 cattle. The genetic polymorphisms in the two populations were detected by a single-strand conformational polymorphism in the first locus and by digesting the fragments with restriction endonuclease Alu I in the second one. Results: Results showed that both alleles (A and B of two loci were found in all the two populations and the value of polymorphism information content indicated that these were highly polymorphic. Statistical results of χ2 test indicated that two polymorphism sites in the two populations fit with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (p˂0.05. Meanwhile, the effect of polymorphism of TLR4 gene on the somatic cell score (SCS indicated the cattle with allele a in T4CRBR1 showed lower SCS than that of allele B (p<0.05. Thus, the allele A might play an important role in mastitis resistance in cows. Conclusion: The relationship between the bovine mastitis trait and the polymorphism of TLR4 gene indicated that the bovine TLR4 gene may play an important role in mastitis resistance.

  5. Analysis of supply chain management of shallots in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. C.; Supriana, T.

    2018-02-01

    Supply chain is important for business. One of supply chain that needs to be studied is the shallots supply chain. Medan have high demand while the supply of shallots is limited. This study aims to analyze the flow of shallots supply chain distribution in Medan. The method used was survey by using questionnaires to shallots producers, collecting traders, distributors, traders as well as government involved in shallots supply chain. Descriptive analysis was used to explain the shallots supply chain distribution flow. The results showed that there are two shallots supply chain model in Medan that was local shallots model and imported shallots model. Local shallots model could be distinguished based on three producer area, those were models of Medan Marelan, Samosir, and Simalungun. Medan Marelan and Simalungun models have seven supply chains, while the Samosir Model has eight supply chains. This condition indicates that the local shallots supply chain management in Medan was not efficient because of the length of the distribution channel. Supply chain imported shallots was more efficient because it had a shorter distribution flow with five supply chains.

  6. N-terminal fatty acylated His-dPhe-Arg-Trp-NH(2) tetrapeptides: influence of fatty acid chain length on potency and selectivity at the mouse melanocortin receptors and human melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Aleksandar; Holder, Jerry Ryan; Bauzo, Rayna M; Scott, Joseph Walker; Kavanagh, Renny; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2005-05-05

    The melanocortin system is involved in the regulation of a diverse number of physiologically important pathways including pigmentation, feeding behavior, weight and energy homeostasis, inflammation, and sexual function. All the endogenous melanocortin agonist ligands possess the conserved His-Phe-Arg-Trp tetrapeptide sequence that is postulated to be important for melanocortin receptor molecular recognition and stimulation. Previous studies by our laboratory resulted in the discovery that increasing alkyl chain length at the N-terminal "capping" region of the His-dPhe-Arg-Trp-NH(2) tetrapeptide resulted in a 100-fold increased melanocortin receptor agonist potency. This study was undertaken to systematically evaluate the pharmacological effects of increasing N-capping alkyl chain length of the CH(3)(CH(2))(n)CO-His-dPhe-Arg-Trp-NH(2) (n = 6-16) tetrapeptide template. Twelve analogues were synthesized and pharmacologically characterized at the mouse melanocortin receptors MC1R and MC3R-MC5R and human melanocytes known to express the MC1R. These peptides demonstrated melanocortin receptor selectivity profiles different from those of previously published tetrapeptides. The most notable results of enhanced ligand potency (20- to 200-fold) and receptor selectivity were observed at the MC1R. Tetrapeptides that possessed greater than nine alkyl groups were superior to alpha-MSH in terms of the stimulation of human melanocyte tyrosinase activity. Additionally, the n-pentadecanoyl derivative had a residual effect on tyrosinase activity that existed for at least 4 days after the peptide was removed from the human melanocyte culture medium. These data demonstrate the utility, potency, and residual effect of melanocortin tetrapeptides by adding N-terminal fatty acid moieties.

  7. Maternal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, L.M.; Tolley, E.A.; Thodosoff, J.M.; Kerling, E.H.; Sullivan, D.K.; Colombo, J.; Carlson, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n=54) compared to control formula (n=15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS® that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840

  8. Anisotropic Transport of Electrons in a Novel FET Channel with Chains of InGaAs Nano-Islands Embedded along Quasi-Periodic Multi-Atomic Steps on Vicinal (111)B GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Y.; Kawazu, T.; Noda, T.; Sakaki, H.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied electron transport in n-AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction FET channels, in which chains of InGaAs nano-islands are embedded along quasi-periodic steps. By using two samples, conductance G para (V g ) parallel to the steps and G perp (V g ) perpendicular to them were measured at 80 K as functions of gate voltage V g . At sufficiently high V g , G para at 80 K is several times as high as G perp , which manifests the anisotropic two-dimensional transport of electrons. When V g is reduced to -0.7 V, G perp almost vanishes, while Gpara stays sizable unless V g is set below -0.8 V. These results indicate that 'inter-chain' barriers play stronger roles than 'intra-chain' barriers.

  9. PDGF-induced migration of synthetic vascular smooth muscle cells through c-Src-activated L-type Ca2+ channels with full-length CaV1.2 C-terminus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoguang; Kashihara, Toshihide; Nakada, Tsutomu; Aoyama, Toshifumi; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2018-06-01

    In atherosclerosis, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) migrate from the media toward the intima of the arteries in response to cytokines, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). However, molecular mechanism underlying the PDGF-induced migration of VSMCs remains unclear. The migration of rat aorta-derived synthetic VSMCs, A7r5, in response to PDGF was potently inhibited by a Ca V 1.2 channel inhibitor, nifedipine, and a Src family tyrosine kinase (SFK)/Abl inhibitor, bosutinib, in a less-than-additive manner. PDGF significantly increased Ca V 1.2 channel currents without altering Ca V 1.2 protein expression levels in A7r5 cells. This reaction was inhibited by C-terminal Src kinase, a selective inhibitor of SFKs. In contractile VSMCs, the C-terminus of Ca V 1.2 is proteolytically cleaved into proximal and distal C-termini (PCT and DCT, respectively). Clipped DCT is noncovalently reassociated with PCT to autoinhibit the channel activity. Conversely, in synthetic A7r5 cells, full-length Ca V 1.2 (Ca V 1.2FL) is expressed much more abundantly than truncated Ca V 1.2. In a heterologous expression system, c-Src activated Ca V 1.2 channels composed of Ca V 1.2FL but not truncated Ca V 1.2 (Ca V 1.2Δ1763) or Ca V 1.2Δ1763 plus clipped DCT. Further, c-Src enhanced the coupling efficiency between the voltage-sensing domain and activation gate of Ca V 1.2FL channels by phosphorylating Tyr1709 and Tyr1758 in PCT. Compared with Ca V 1.2Δ1763, c-Src could more efficiently bind to and phosphorylate Ca V 1.2FL irrespective of the presence or absence of clipped DCT. Therefore, in atherosclerotic lesions, phenotypic switching of VSMCs may facilitate pro-migratory effects of PDGF on VSMCs by suppressing posttranslational Ca V 1.2 modifications.

  10. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  11. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  12. Analytical calculation of chain length in ferrofluids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tezpur University, Assam 784028, India. MS received 4 ... under an external magnetic field applied parallel to the slit containing the ... of competition between magnetic dipolar interaction and.

  13. The Effect of Channel Structures on Third-party Collecting Closed-loop Supply Chain%渠道结构对第三方负责回收闭环供应链的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂佳佳

    2012-01-01

    Reverse logistics (e. g. product remanufacturing or recycling) practices can not only reduce the natural resources needed and the waste produced, but also help reduce the environmental burden. It is not unusual to see in practice the used-product collection activity contracted by a manufacturer to a third party, who is engaged only in the collection of the used products from the market. For example, in the automobile industry, used-product collection activities for the original equipment manufacturers are handled by some independent third parties. Recently, in the United States the "big three" auto manufacturers started to invest in joint research and remanufacturing partnerships with dismantling centers to benefit from their experiences and economics of scale. With the independent third parties joining the closed-loop supply chain, it becomes more difficult to study the closed-loop supply chain for of the increasing number supply chain members. In the third-party collecting closed-loop supply chain, there are several channels structures including no strategic alliance, strategic alliance between the retailer and the manufacturer, strategic alliance between the retailer and the third-party and strategic alliance between the manufacturer and the third-party. In this research, the aim is to examine the effect of these channel structures on the performance of members in a third-party collecting closed-loop supply chain. First, this paper adopts the game theory to develop four models of closed-loop supply chain. Second, the optimal retail prices, wholesale prices, return rates and profits of these models are derived. Third, these four models are compared with each other. Fourth, the effect of system parameters on the performance of members is researched with numerical simulation and some new findings are revealed. This study shows five interesting results. First, the retail price is the highest, the demand is the least and return rate is the lowest in the no strategic

  14. Ratchet rectification effect on the translocation of a flexible polyelectrolyte chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M., E-mail: muthu@polysci.umass.edu [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    We report a three dimensional Langevin dynamics simulation of a uniformly charged flexible polyelectrolyte chain, translocating through an asymmetric narrow channel with periodically varying cross sections under the influence of a periodic external electric field. When reflection symmetry of the channel is broken, a rectification effect is observed with a favored direction for the chain translocation. For a given volume of the channel unit and polymer length, the rectification occurs below a threshold frequency of the external periodic driving force. We have also observed that the extent of the rectification varies non-monotonically with increasing molecular weight and the strength of geometric asymmetry of the channel. Observed non-monotonicity of the rectification performance has been interpreted in terms of a competition between two effects arising from the channel asymmetry and change in conformational entropy. An analytical model is presented with predictions consistent with the simulation results.

  15. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  16. Differentiation of canine distemper virus isolates in fur animals from various vaccine strains by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism according to phylogenetic relations in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jianjun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to effectively identify the vaccine and field strains of Canine distemper virus (CDV, a new differential diagnostic test has been developed based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. We selected an 829 bp fragment of the nucleoprotein (N gene of CDV. By RFLP analysis using BamHI, field isolates were distinguishable from the vaccine strains. Two fragments were obtained from the vaccine strains by RT-PCR-RFLP analysis while three were observed in the field strains. An 829 nucleotide region of the CDV N gene was analyzed in 19 CDV field strains isolated from minks, raccoon dogs and foxes in China between 2005 and 2007. The results suggest this method is precise, accurate and efficient. It was also determined that three different genotypes exist in CDV field strains in fur animal herds of the north of China, most of which belong to Asian type. Mutated field strains, JSY06-R1, JSY06-R2 and JDH07-F1 also exist in Northern China, but are most closely related to the standard virulent strain A75/17, designated in Arctic and America-2 genetype in the present study, respectively.

  17. Effect of alkyl chain length and temperature on the thermodynamic properties of ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Shekaari, Hemayat; Hosseini, Rahim

    2009-01-01

    The alkyl chain length of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Rmim][Br], R = propyl (C 3 ), hexyl (C 6 ), heptyl (C 7 ), and octyl (C 8 )) was varied to prepare a series of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), and experimental measurements of density and speed of sound at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 308.15) K for their aqueous and methanolic solutions in the dilute concentration region (0.01 to 0.30) mol . kg -1 were taken. The values of the compressibilities, expansivity and apparent molar properties for [C n mim][Br] in aqueous and methanolic solutions were determined at the investigated temperatures. The obtained apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities were fitted to the Redlich-Mayer and the Pitzer's equations from which the corresponding infinite dilution molar properties were obtained. The values of the infinite dilution molar properties were used to obtain some information about solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions. The thermodynamic properties of investigated ionic liquids in aqueous solutions have been compared with those in methanolic solutions. Also, the comparison between thermodynamic properties of investigated solutions and those of electrolyte solutions, polymer solutions, cationic surfactant solutions and tetraalkylammonium salt solutions have been made

  18. Effect of alkyl chain length and temperature on the thermodynamic properties of ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: rahsadeghi@yahoo.com; Shekaari, Hemayat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Rahim [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    The alkyl chain length of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Rmim][Br], R = propyl (C{sub 3}), hexyl (C{sub 6}), heptyl (C{sub 7}), and octyl (C{sub 8})) was varied to prepare a series of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), and experimental measurements of density and speed of sound at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 308.15) K for their aqueous and methanolic solutions in the dilute concentration region (0.01 to 0.30) mol . kg{sup -1} were taken. The values of the compressibilities, expansivity and apparent molar properties for [C{sub n}mim][Br] in aqueous and methanolic solutions were determined at the investigated temperatures. The obtained apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities were fitted to the Redlich-Mayer and the Pitzer's equations from which the corresponding infinite dilution molar properties were obtained. The values of the infinite dilution molar properties were used to obtain some information about solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions. The thermodynamic properties of investigated ionic liquids in aqueous solutions have been compared with those in methanolic solutions. Also, the comparison between thermodynamic properties of investigated solutions and those of electrolyte solutions, polymer solutions, cationic surfactant solutions and tetraalkylammonium salt solutions have been made.

  19. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  20. Long quantum channels for high-quality entanglement transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchi, L; Apollaro, T J G; Cuccoli, A; Verrucchi, P; Vaia, R

    2011-01-01

    High-quality quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be achieved in an unmodulated spin bus operating in the ballistic regime, which occurs when the endpoint qubits A and B are nonperturbatively coupled to the chain by a suitable exchange interaction j 0 . Indeed, the transition amplitude characterizing the transfer quality exhibits a maximum for a finite optimal value j opt 0 (N), where N is the channel length. We show that j opt 0 (N) scales as N -1/6 for large N and that it ensures a high-quality entanglement transfer even in the limit of arbitrarily long channels, almost independently of the channel initialization. For instance, for any chain length the average quantum-state transmission fidelity exceeds 90% and decreases very little in a broad neighbourhood of j opt 0 (N). We emphasize that, taking the reverse point of view, should j 0 be experimentally constrained, high-quality transfer can still be obtained by adjusting the channel length to its optimal value. (paper)

  1. Pronounced Side Chain Effects in Triple Bond-Conjugated Polymers Containing Naphthalene Diimides for n-Channel Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungho; Hahm, Suk Gyu; Khim, Dongyoon; Kim, Hwajeong; Sajoto, Tissa; Ree, Moonhor; Marder, Seth R.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Bradley, Donal D.C.; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2018-01-01

    on the surface morphology/nanostructure, thus playing a critical role in charge-transporting properties of the three NDI-based copolymers. Among the polymers, the one with an octyldodecyl (OD) chain at the nitrogen atoms of imide ring and a hexadecyloxy (HO

  2. Pronounced Side Chain Effects in Triple Bond-Conjugated Polymers Containing Naphthalene Diimides for n-Channel Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungho

    2018-03-23

    Three triple bond-conjugated naphthalene diimide (NDI) copolymers, poly{[N,N′-bis(2-R1)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-[(2,5-bis(2-R2)-1,4-phenylene)bis(ethyn-2,1-diyl)]} (PNDIR1-R2), were synthesized via Sonogashira coupling polymerization with varying alkyl side chains at the nitrogen atoms of the imide ring and 2,5-positions of the 1,4-diethynylbenzene moiety. Considering their identical polymer backbone structures, the side chains were found to have a strong influence on the surface morphology/nanostructure, thus playing a critical role in charge-transporting properties of the three NDI-based copolymers. Among the polymers, the one with an octyldodecyl (OD) chain at the nitrogen atoms of imide ring and a hexadecyloxy (HO) chain at the 2,5-positions of 1,4-diethynylbenzene, P(NDIOD-HO), exhibited the highest electron mobility of 0.016 cm2 V–1 s–1, as compared to NDI-based copolymers with an ethylhexyl chain at the 2,5-positions of 1,4-diethynylbenzene. The enhanced charge mobility in the P(NDIOD-HO) layers is attributed to the well-aligned nano-fiber-like surface morphology and highly ordered packing structure with a dominant edge-on orientation, thus enabling efficient in-plane charge transport. Our results on the molecular structure–charge transport property relationship in these materials may provide an insight into novel design of n-type conjugated polymers for applications in the organic electronics of the future.

  3. Flexible long-chain-linker constructed Ni-based metal-organic frameworks with 1D helical channel and their pseudo-capacitor behavior studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuaibing; Wang, Zikai; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Xueqin; Tao, Yuehong; Wu, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Two novel and isostructural Ni-based MOFs with topological symbol of 422·54·62, namely [Ni2(TATB)2(L)2(H2O)], have successfully synthesized, where L is the flexibly N-donor bid (1,10-bisimidazoledecane) or btd (1,10-bistriazoledecane) linker and TATB is the deprotonation mode from 4,4‧,4″-s-triazine-2,4,6-triyl-tribenzoic acid (H3TATB). Two types of left- and right-handed helical channels with mean diameter of 11 Å results in large void space in 3D network. When directly use as electrode materials, the as-synthesized Ni-MOFs single-crystal electrodes behave as pseudo-capacitor and deliver high gravimetric capacitance with superior energy deliverable ability and cycling stability. For example, the maximum gravimetric capacitance is 705 F g-1 with the energy density of 29.6 Wh kg-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. Even after 5000 continuous cycles, the capacitance retention maintains at 92.1%. The good electrochemical performance should be ascribed to the 1D helical channels facilitating the diffusion of OH-. Furthermore, the low bulk solution (0.46 and 0.50 Ω) and charge-transfer resistances accelerate the contact between OH- and active species in the electrode, and consequently result in efficiency Faradaic reaction. This work opens a new way for the directly application of 3D topological MOFs single-crystal with novel interior structures especially porous and channel-like architectures in electronic energy storage field.

  4. Polymer chain alignment and transistor properties of nanochannel-templated poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seungjun; Hayakawa, Ryoma; Pan, Chengjun; Sugiyasu, Kazunori; Wakayama, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Nanowires of semiconducting poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) were produced by a nanochannel-template technique. Polymer chain alignment in P3HT nanowires was investigated as a function of nanochannel widths (W) and polymer chain lengths (L). We found that the ratio between chain length and channel width (L/W) was a key parameter as regards promoting polymer chain alignment. Clear dichroism was observed in polarized ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra only at a ratio of approximately L/W = 2, indicating that the L/W ratio must be optimized to achieve uniaxial chain alignment in the nanochannel direction. We speculate that an appropriate L/W ratio is effective in confining the geometries and conformations of polymer chains. This discussion was supported by theoretical simulations based on molecular dynamics. That is, the geometry of the polymer chains, including the distance and tilting angles of the chains in relation to the nanochannel surface, was dominant in determining the longitudinal alignment along the nanochannels. Thus prepared highly aligned polymer nanowire is advantageous for electrical carrier transport and has great potential for improving the device performance of field-effect transistors. In fact, a one-order improvement in carrier mobility was observed in a P3HT nanowire transistor.

  5. GENOMIC DNA-FINGERPRINTING OF CLINICAL HAEMOPHILUS-INFLUENZAE ISOLATES BY POLYMERASE CHAIN-REACTION AMPLIFICATION - COMPARISON WITH MAJOR OUTER-MEMBRANE PROTEIN AND RESTRICTION-FRAGMENT-LENGTH-POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANBELKUM, A; DUIM, B; REGELINK, A; MOLLER, L; QUINT, W; VANALPHEN, L

    Non-capsulate strains of Haemophilus influenzae were genotyped by analysis of variable DNA segments obtained by amplification of genomic DNA with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR fingerprinting). Discrete fragments of 100-2000 bp were obtained. The reproducibility of the procedure was assessed by

  6. Subwavelength dielectric nanorod chains for energy transfer in the visible range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Zhang, Jingjing; Yan, Changchun; Xu, Zhengji; Zhang, Dao Hua

    2017-10-15

    We report a new type of energy transfer device, formed by a dielectric nanorod array embedded in a silver slab. Such dielectric chain structures allow surface plasmon wave guiding with large propagation length and highly suppressed crosstalk between adjacent transmission channels. The simulation results show that our proposed design can be used to enhance the energy transfer along the waveguide-like dielectric nanorod chains via coupled plasmons, where the energy spreading is effectively suppressed, and superior imaging properties in terms of resolution and energy transfer distance can be achieved.

  7. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  8. Falling chains

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is inco...

  9. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  10. Anisotropy of relativistic lepton coherent scattering at axial channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, V.I.; Kanloev, A.M.; Kungurov, F.R.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of the coherent and incoherent scattering of relativistic leptons passed through thin crystals in the channeling mode to their angular distribution is considered. The investigation was carried out by numerical integration of the motion equations for a great number of particles. It is shown that in the crystals with a thickness smaller than the dechanneling length the determining role in formation of distribution over the axit angles is played by the coherent scattering of particles by atomic chains. The effect of the multiple scattering on the angular distribution is negligibly small. 6 refs.; 4 figs

  11. Low complexity iterative MLSE equalization of M-QAM signals in extremely long rayleigh fading channels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Myburgh, HC

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available long channels. Its computational complexity is linear in the data block length and approximately independent of the channel memory length, whereas conventional equalization algorithms have computational complexity linear in the data block length...

  12. Unit and internal chain profiles of maca amylopectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Guantian; Yao, Weirong; Zhu, Fan

    2018-03-01

    Unit chain length distributions of amylopectin and its φ, β-limit dextrins, which reflect amylopectin internal structure from three maca starches, were determined by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection after debranching, and the samples were compared with maize starch. The amylopectins exhibited average chain lengths ranging from 16.72 to 17.16, with ranges of total internal chain length, external chain length, and internal chain length of the maca amylopectins at 12.49 to 13.68, 11.24 to 11.89, and 4.27 to 4.48. The average chain length, external chain length, internal chain length, and total internal chain length were comparable in three maca amylopectins. Amylopectins of the three maca genotypes studied here presented no significant differences in their unit chain length profiles, but did show significant differences in their internal chain profiles. Additional genetic variations between different maca genotypes need to be studied to provide unit- and internal chain profiles of maca amylopectin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Chain networking revealed by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yexin; Tsige, Mesfin; Wang, Shi-Qing

    Based on Kremer-Grest model for entangled polymer melts, we demonstrate how the response of a polymer glass depends critically on the chain length. After quenching two melts of very different chain lengths (350 beads per chain and 30 beads per chain) into deeply glassy states, we subject them to uniaxial extension. Our MD simulations show that the glass of long chains undergoes stable necking after yielding whereas the system of short chains is unable to neck and breaks up after strain localization. During ductile extension of the polymer glass made of long chain significant chain tension builds up in the load-bearing strands (LBSs). Further analysis is expected to reveal evidence of activation of the primary structure during post-yield extension. These results lend support to the recent molecular model 1 and are the simulations to demonstrate the role of chain networking. This work is supported, in part, by a NSF Grant (DMR-EAGER-1444859)

  14. Graph state generation with noisy mirror-inverting spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Stephen R; Klein, Alexander; Bruderer, Martin; Jaksch, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the influence of noise on a graph state generation scheme which exploits a mirror inverting spin chain. Within this scheme the spin chain is used repeatedly as an entanglement bus (EB) to create multi-partite entanglement. The noise model we consider comprises of each spin of this EB being exposed to independent local noise which degrades the capabilities of the EB. Here we concentrate on quantifying its performance as a single-qubit channel and as a mediator of a two-qubit entangling gate, since these are basic operations necessary for graph state generation using the EB. In particular, for the single-qubit case we numerically calculate the average channel fidelity and whether the channel becomes entanglement breaking, i.e. expunges any entanglement the transferred qubit may have with other external qubits. We find that neither local decay nor dephasing noise cause entanglement breaking. This is in contrast to local thermal and depolarizing noise where we determine a critical length and critical noise coupling, respectively, at which entanglement breaking occurs. The critical noise coupling for local depolarizing noise is found to exhibit a power-law dependence on the chain length. For two-qubits we similarly compute the average gate fidelity and whether the ability for this gate to create entanglement is maintained. The concatenation of these noisy gates for the construction of a five-qubit linear cluster state and a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state indicates that the level of noise that can be tolerated for graph state generation is tightly constrained

  15. Partial nucleotide sequences, and routine typing by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) lactate dehydrogenase, LDH-C1*90 and *100 alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeel, O M; Hoey, E M; Ferguson, A

    2001-01-01

    The cDNA nucleotide sequences of the lactate dehydrogenase alleles LDH-C1*90 and *100 of brown trout (Salmo trutta) were found to differ at position 308 where an A is present in the *100 allele but a G is present in the *90 allele. This base substitution results in an amino acid change from aspartic acid at position 82 in the LDH-C1 100 allozyme to a glycine in the 90 allozyme. Since aspartic acid has a net negative charge whilst glycine is uncharged, this is consistent with the electrophoretic observation that the LDH-C1 100 allozyme has a more anodal mobility relative to the LDH-C1 90 allozyme. Based on alignment of the cDNA sequence with the mouse genomic sequence, a local primer set was designed, incorporating the variable position, and was found to give very good amplification with brown trout genomic DNA. Sequencing of this fragment confirmed the difference in both homozygous and heterozygous individuals. Digestion of the polymerase chain reaction products with BslI, a restriction enzyme specific for the site difference, gave one, two and three fragments for the two homozygotes and the heterozygote, respectively, following electrophoretic separation. This provides a DNA-based means of routine screening of the highly informative LDH-C1* polymorphism in brown trout population genetic studies. Primer sets presented could be used to sequence cDNA of other LDH* genes of brown trout and other species.

  16. Beltless translocation domain of botulinum neurotoxin A embodies a minimum ion-conductive channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Audrey; Sambashivan, Shilpa; Brunger, Axel T; Montal, Mauricio

    2012-01-13

    Botulinum neurotoxin, the causative agent of the paralytic disease botulism, is an endopeptidase composed of a catalytic domain (or light chain (LC)) and a heavy chain (HC) encompassing the translocation domain (TD) and receptor-binding domain. Upon receptor-mediated endocytosis, the LC and TD are proposed to undergo conformational changes in the acidic endocytic environment resulting in the formation of an LC protein-conducting TD channel. The mechanism of channel formation and the conformational changes in the toxin upon acidification are important but less well understood aspects of botulinum neurotoxin intoxication. Here, we have identified a minimum channel-forming truncation of the TD, the "beltless" TD, that forms transmembrane channels with ion conduction properties similar to those of the full-length TD. At variance with the holotoxin and the HC, channel formation for both the TD and the beltless TD occurs independent of a transmembrane pH gradient. Furthermore, acidification in solution induces moderate secondary structure changes. The subtle nature of the conformational changes evoked by acidification on the TD suggests that, in the context of the holotoxin, larger structural rearrangements and LC unfolding occur preceding or concurrent to channel formation. This notion is consistent with the hypothesis that although each domain of the holotoxin functions individually, each domain serves as a chaperone for the others.

  17. Channel box dimension measuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Hirotake; Jo, Hiroto.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for measuring the entire length of a channel box of a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor. Namely, four sensors are used as one set that generate ultrasonic waves from oblique upper portion, oblique lower portion, upper portion and lower portion of the channel box respectively. The distances between the four sensors and each of the portions of the channel box are measured respectively for both of a reference member and a member to be measured. The entire length of the channel box is measured by calculating the measured values and the angles of the obliquely disposed sensors according to a predetermined formula. According to the method of the present invention, the inclination of the channel box to be measured can be corrected. In addition, accuracy of the measurement is improved and the measuring time is saved as well as the measuring device and operation can be simplified. (I.S.)

  18. Separation of Particles in Channels Rotary Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyatikov Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the separation of particles in channels with different relative length. It is shown that the intensity of turbulence at the inlet section of the channel varies considerably in its length. The dependence of the turbulence damping along the channel expressing by fraction of the distance is shown. The ratio of the particle separation efficiency out the gas flow in the rotor channel is defined. The values of particle separation efficiency in the channel for the angle α=π/4 in turbulent aerosol flow is shows, including without mixing the particles.

  19. Quantifying Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin Congener Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Bo; Bogdal, Christian; Berger, Urs; MacLeod, Matthew; Gebbink, Wouter A.; Alsberg, Tomas; Wit, de Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate quantification of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) poses an exceptional challenge to analytical chemists. SCCPs are complex mixtures of chlorinated alkanes with variable chain length and chlorination level; congeners with a fixed chain length (n) and number of chlorines (m) are

  20. MITOCHONDRIAL BKCa CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique eBalderas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in a glioma cell line 15 years ago, mitochondrial BKCa channel (mitoBKCa has been studied in brain cells and cardiomyocytes sharing general biophysical properties such as high K+ conductance (~300 pS, voltage-dependency and Ca2+-sensitivity. Main advances in deciphering the molecular composition of mitoBKCa have included establishing that it is encoded by the Kcnma1 gene, that a C-terminal splice insert confers mitoBKCa ability to be targeted to cardiac mitochondria, and evidence for its potential coassembly with β subunits. Notoriously, β1 subunit directly interacts with cytochrome c oxidase and mitoBKCa can be modulated by substrates of the respiratory chain. mitoBKCa channel has a central role in protecting the heart from ischemia, where pharmacological activation of the channel impacts the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial Ca2+ preventing cell death likely by impeding uncontrolled opening of the mitochondrial transition pore. Supporting this view, inhibition of mitoBKCa with Iberiotoxin, enhances cytochrome c release from glioma mitochondria. Many tantalizing questions remain. Some of them are: how is mitoBKCa coupled to the respiratory chain? Does mitoBKCa play non-conduction roles in mitochondria physiology? Which are the functional partners of mitoBKCa? What are the roles of mitoBKCa in other cell types? Answers to these questions are essential to define the impact of mitoBKCa channel in mitochondria biology and disease.

  1. Demand chain management - The evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ericsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM and Demand Chain Management (DCM are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: “Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?” Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Different approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less si- multaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and structured in academia. In this way a terminology (or language is provided that helps in further diffusion of the concepts. There is a lack of consensus on the definition of the concept of SCM. This may be one of the major reasons for the difficulty in advancing the science and measuring the results of implementation in business. Relationships in SCM span from rather loose coalitions to highly structured virtual network integrations. DCM is a highly organised chain in which the key is mutual interdependence and partnership. The purpose is to create a distinctive competence for the chain as a whole that helps to identify and satisfy customer needs and wishes. The classical research concerning vertical marketing systems is very helpful in systemising the rather unstructured discussions in current SCM research. The trend lies in increasing competition between channels rather than between companies, which in turn leads to the creation of channels with a high degree of partnership and mutual interdependence between members. These types of channels are known as organised vertical marketing systems in the classic marketing channel research. The behaviour in these types of channels, as well as the formal and informal structures, roles in the network, power and dependence relations, etc. are well covered topics in the literature. The concept of vertical marketing systems lies behind the definition of demand chains and demand chain management proposed in this paper. A

  2. Chain Assembly and Disassembly Processes Differently Affect the Conformational Space of Ubiquitin Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniss, Andreas; Schuetz, Denise; Kazemi, Sina; Pluska, Lukas; Spindler, Philipp E; Rogov, Vladimir V; Husnjak, Koraljka; Dikic, Ivan; Güntert, Peter; Sommer, Thomas; Prisner, Thomas F; Dötsch, Volker

    2018-02-06

    Ubiquitination is the most versatile posttranslational modification. The information is encoded by linkage type as well as chain length, which are translated by ubiquitin binding domains into specific signaling events. Chain topology determines the conformational space of a ubiquitin chain and adds an additional regulatory layer to this ubiquitin code. In particular, processes that modify chain length will be affected by chain conformations as they require access to the elongation or cleavage sites. We investigated conformational distributions in the context of chain elongation and disassembly using pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling. Analysis of the conformational space of diubiquitin revealed conformational selection or remodeling as mechanisms for chain recognition during elongation or hydrolysis, respectively. Chain elongation to tetraubiquitin increases the sampled conformational space, suggesting that a high intrinsic flexibility of K48-linked chains may contribute to efficient proteasomal degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tunnel current across linear homocatenated germanium chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yukihito

    2014-01-01

    The electronic transport properties of germanium oligomers catenating into linear chains (linear Ge chains) have been theoretically studied using first principle methods. The conduction mechanism of a Ge chain sandwiched between gold electrodes was analyzed based on the density of states and the eigenstates of the molecule in a two-probe environment. Like that of silicon chains (Si chains), the highest occupied molecular orbital of Ge chains contains the extended σ-conjugation of Ge 4p orbitals at energy levels close to the Fermi level; this is in contrast to the electronic properties of linear carbon chains. Furthermore, the conductance of a Ge chain is expected to decrease exponentially with molecular length L. The decay constant β, which is defined as e −βL , of a Ge chain is similar to that of a Si chain, whereas the conductance of the Ge chains is higher than that of Si chains even though the Ge–Ge bond length is longer than the Si–Si bond length

  4. Channel perceptions and usage: beyond media richness factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan; Teerling, Marije; Ebbers, Wolfgang E.; Wimmer, Maria A.; Scholl, Hans J.; Ferro, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we asses how service channel perceptions affect channel choice and channel usage. Building on communication theories, such as the Media Richness Theory, we explore how different channel characteristics are perceived by citizens in a Dutch governmental service chain. The results of our

  5. Consolidation equipment for irradiated nuclear fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Ose, T.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed and put into use a new type of mechanical consolidation equipment for irradiated nuclear fuel channels. This includes round-slice cutting of the top 100mm of the fuel channel with a guillotine cutter, and press cutting of the two corners of the remaining length of the fuel channel. Four guillotine blades work in combination with receiving blades arranged inside the fuel channel to cut the top 100mm, including the clips and spacers, of the fuel channel into a round slice. A press assembled in the consolidation equipment then presses the slice to achieve volume reduction. The press cutting operation uses two press cutting blades arranged inside the fuel channel and the receiving blades outside the fuel channel. The remaining length of fuel channel is cut off into L-shaped pieces by press cutting. This consolidation equipment is highly efficient because the round-slice cutting, pressing, and press cutting are all achieved by one unit

  6. Kinematics and Dynamics of Roller Chain Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Niels

    There are two main subjects of this work: Kinematic and dynamic modeling and analysis of roller chain drives. In the kinematic analysis we contribute first with a complete treatment of the roller chain drive modeled as a four-bar mechanism. This includes a general, exact and approximate analysis...... which is useful for predicting the characteristic loading of the roller chain drive. As a completely novel contribution, a kinematic model and analysis is presented which includes both spans and sprockets in a simple chain drive system. A general procedure for determination of the total wrapping length...... is presented, which also allows for exact sprocket center positions for a chain with a given number of links. Results show that the total chain wrapping length varies periodically with the tooth frequency. These results are of practical importance to both the design, installation and operation of roller chain...

  7. Isospin breaking in the pion-nucleon scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoferichter, Martin; Kubis, Bastian; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze isospin breaking through quark mass differences and virtual photons in the pion-nucleon scattering lengths in all physical channels in the framework of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory.

  8. Isospin breaking in the pion-nucleon scattering lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoferichter, Martin [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Kubis, Bastian [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)], E-mail: kubis@itkp.uni-bonn.de; Meissner, Ulf-G. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Institute for Advanced Simulation, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-06

    We analyze isospin breaking through quark mass differences and virtual photons in the pion-nucleon scattering lengths in all physical channels in the framework of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory.

  9. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  10. Identification of a Novel EF-Loop in the N-terminus of TRPM2 Channel Involved in Calcium Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Luo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available As an oxidative stress sensor, transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2 channel is involved in many physiological and pathological processes including warmth sensing, ischemia injury, inflammatory diseases and diabetes. Intracellular calcium is critical for TRPM2 channel activation and the IQ-like motif in the N-terminus has been shown to be important by mediating calmodulin binding. Sequence analysis predicted two potential EF-loops in the N-terminus of TRPM2. Site-directed mutagenesis combining with functional assay showed that substitution with alanine of several residues, most of which are conserved in the typical EF-loop, including D267, D278, D288, and E298 dramatically reduced TRPM2 channel currents. By further changing the charges or side chain length of these conserved residues, our results indicate that the negative charge of D267 and the side chain length of D278 are critical for calcium-induced TRPM2 channel activation. G272I mutation also dramatically reduced the channel currents, suggesting that this site is critical for calcium-induced TRPM2 channel activation. Furthermore, D267A mutant dramatically reduced the currents induced by calcium alone compared with that by ADPR, indicating that D267 residue in D267–D278 motif is the most important site for calcium sensitivity of TRPM2. In addition, inside-out recordings showed that mutations at D267, G272, D278, and E298 had no effect on single-channel conductance. Taken together, our data indicate that D267–D278 motif in the N-terminus as a novel EF-loop is critical for calcium-induced TRPM2 channel activation.

  11. Bywalled plasma formation in vacuum prolonged channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    To produce homogeneous along the channel length plasma the application of incomplete rate-in surface dielectric discharge for generating the bywalled plasma in prolonged cylindrical channels at a pressure of the residual gas of P approximately 10 -5 Torr is proposed. Experimental set-up consisted of a pulse voltage generator and a plasma channel. The plasma channel was a coaxial system of three tubes inserted into each other. The first outer tube is made of a stainless steel, the second - of a dielectric material, the third - of smallsized stainless steel greed. It is demonstrated that the plasma being formed in the process is sufficiently homogeneous by concentration of the components, by the channel length and azimuth. The length of the experimental channel under investigation was 1.6 m, its diameter amounted 0.05 m. The maximum concentration of electron component was 10 17 m -3

  12. CHAIN 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D.

    1998-04-01

    The Second Processing Chain (CHAIN2) consists of a suite of ten programs which together provide a full local analysis of the bulk plasma physics within the JET Tokamak. In discussing these ten computational models this report is intended to fulfil two broad purposes. Firstly it is meant to be used as a reference source for any user of CHAIN2 data, and secondly it provides a basic User Manual sufficient to instruct anyone in running the CHAIN2 suite of codes. In the main report text each module is described in terms of its underlying physics and any associated assumptions or limitations, whilst deliberate emphasis is put on highlighting the physics and mathematics of the calculations required in deriving each individual datatype in the standard module PPF output. In fact each datatype of the CHAIN2 PPF output listed in Appendix D is cross referenced to the point in the main text where its evaluation is discussed. An effort is made not only to give the equation used to derive a particular data profile but also to explicitly define which external data sources are involved in the computational calculation

  13. Ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Blondiaux, G.

    1994-01-01

    Channeling phenomenon was predicted, many years ago, by stark. The first channeling experiments were performed in 1963 by Davies and his coworkers. Parallely Robinson and Oen have investigated this process by simulating trajectories of ions in monocrystals. This technique has been combined with many methods like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (R.B.S.), Particles Induced X-rays Emission (P.I.X.E) and online Nuclear Reaction (N.R.A.) to localize trace elements in the crystal or to determine crystalline quality. To use channeling for material characterization we need data about the stopping power of the incident particle in the channeled direction. The ratios of channeled to random stopping powers of silicon for irradiation in the direction have been investigated and compared to the available theoretical results. We describe few applications of ion channeling in the field of materials characterization. Special attention is given to ion channeling combined with Charged Particle Activation Analysis (C.P.A.A.) for studying the behaviour of oxygen atoms in Czochralski silicon lattices under the influence of internal gettering and in different gaseous atmospheres. Association between ion channeling and C.P.A.A was also utilised for studying the influence of the growing conditions on concentration and position of carbon atoms at trace levels in the MOVPE Ga sub (1-x) Al sub x lattice. 6 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (author)

  14. Hydraulic jumps in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, D.; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of hydraulic jumps with flow predominantly in one direction, created either by confining the flow to a narrow channel with parallel walls or by providing an inflow in the form of a narrow sheet. In the channel flow, we find a linear height profile upstream of the jump as expected......'s mixing-length theory with a mixing length that is proportional to the height of the fluid layer. Using averaged boundary-layer equations, taking into account the friction with the channel walls and the eddy viscosity, the flow both upstream and downstream of the jump can be understood. For the downstream...... subcritical flow, we assume that the critical height is attained close to the channel outlet. We use mass and momentum conservation to determine the position of the jump and obtain an estimate which is in rough agreement with our experiment. We show that the averaging method with a varying velocity profile...

  15. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  16. Carbon chain length and the stimulus problem in oldfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, S.; Olsson, M.; Lundstrom, J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how odour quality perception is encoded in its molecular properties arguably poses one of the most significant problems in olfaction. Determining the odour structure–quality relationships of structurally similar odorants could provide a key tool to this problem. We tentatively explored

  17. Aquaglyceroporins: ancient channels for metalloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Thiyagarajan, Saravanamuthu; Rosen, Barry P

    2008-01-01

    The identification of aquaglyceroporins as uptake channels for arsenic and antimony shows how these toxic elements can enter the food chain, and suggests that food plants could be genetically modified to exclude arsenic while still accumulating boron and silicon. PMID:19014407

  18. Electrostatic stiffening and induced persistence length for coassembled molecular bottlebrushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, Ingeborg M.; Stuart, Martien A.C.; Vries, de Renko; Leermakers, Frans A.M.

    2018-01-01

    A self-consistent field analysis for tunable contributions to the persistence length of isolated semiflexible polymer chains including electrostatically driven coassembled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bottlebrushes is presented. When a chain is charged, i.e., for polyelectrolytes, there is, in

  19. Channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    In a channel box of a BWR type reactor, protruding pads are disposed in axial position on the lateral side of a channel box opposing to a control rod and facing the outer side portion of the control rod in a reactor core loaded state. In the initial loading stage of fuel assemblies, channel fasteners and spacer pads are abutted against each other in the upper portion between the channel boxes sandwiching the control rod therebetween. Further, in the lower portion, a gap as a channel for the movement of the control rod is ensured by the support of fuel support metals. If the channel box is bent toward the control rod along with reactor operation, the pads are abutted against each other to always ensure the gap through which the control rod can move easily. Further, when the pads are brought into contact with each other, the bending deformation of the channel box is corrected by urging to each other. Thus, the control rod can always be moved smoothly to attain reactor safety operation. (N.H.)

  20. Chain-modified radioiodinated fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Several carbon chain manipulations have been studied in terms of their effects on myocardial activity levels and residence time. The manipulations examined included: chain length, chain branching, chain unsaturation, and carbon-iodine bond stabilization. It was found that chain length affects myocardial activity levels for both straight-chain alkyl acids and branched chain alkyl and aryl acids. Similar results have been reported for the straight-chain aryl acids. Generally, the longer chain lengths correlated with higher myocardial activity levels and longer residence times. This behavior is attributed to storage as triglycerides. Branched chain acids are designed to be anti-metabolites but only the aryl β-methyl acids possessed the expected time course of constant or very slowly decreasing activity levels. The alkyl β-methyl acids underwent rapid deiodination - a process apparently independent of β-oxidation. Inhibition of β-oxidation by incorporation of carbon-carbon double and triple bonds was studied. Deiodination of ω-iodo alkyl fatty acids prevented an assessment of suicide inhibition using an unsaturated alkynoic acid. Stabilization of the carbon-iodine bond by attachment of iodine to a vinylic or aryl carbon was studied. The low myocardial values and high blood values observed for an eleven carbon ω-iodo vinylic fatty acid were not encouraging but ω-iodo aryl fatty acids appear to avoid the problems of rapid deiodination. (Auth.)

  1. Long-distance entanglement and quantum teleportation in XX spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Venuti, L.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.; Zanardi, P.

    2007-01-01

    Isotropic XX models of one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains are investigated with the aim to elucidate the formal structure and the physical properties that allow these systems to act as channels for long-distance, high-fidelity quantum teleportation. We introduce two types of models: (i) open, dimerized XX chains, and (ii) open XX chains with small end bonds. For both models we obtain the exact expressions for the end-to-end correlations and the scaling of the energy gap with the length of the chain. We determine the end-to-end concurrence and show that model (i) supports true long-distance entanglement at zero temperature, while model (ii) supports 'quasi-long-distance' entanglement that slowly falls off with the size of the chain. Due to the different scalings of the gaps, respectively exponential for model (i) and algebraic in model (ii), we demonstrate that the latter allows for efficient qubit teleportation with high fidelity in sufficiently long chains even at moderately low temperatures

  2. Regulation of Connexin-Based Channels by Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, Carlos; Retamal, Mauricio A.; Acuña, Rodrigo; Sáez, Juan C.

    2017-01-01

    In this mini-review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge about the effects of fatty acids (FAs) on connexin-based channels, as well as discuss the limited information about the impact FAs may have on pannexins (Panxs). FAs regulate diverse cellular functions, some of which are explained by changes in the activity of channels constituted by connexins (Cxs) or Panxs, which are known to play critical roles in maintaining the functional integrity of diverse organs and tissues. Cxs are transmembrane proteins that oligomerize into hexamers to form hemichannels (HCs), which in turn can assemble into dodecamers to form gap junction channels (GJCs). While GJCs communicate the cytoplasm of contacting cells, HCs serve as pathways for the exchange of ions and small molecules between the intra and extracellular milieu. Panxs, as well as Cx HCs, form channels at the plasma membrane that enable the interchange of molecules between the intra and extracellular spaces. Both Cx- and Panx-based channels are controlled by several post-translational modifications. However, the mechanism of action of FAs on these channels has not been described in detail. It has been shown however that FAs frequently decrease GJC-mediated cell-cell communication. The opposite effect also has been described for HC or Panx-dependent intercellular communication, where, the acute FA effect can be reversed upon washout. Additionally, changes in GJCs mediated by FAs have been associated with post-translational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation), and seem to be directly related to chemical properties of FAs (e.g., length of carbon chain and/or degree of saturation), but this possible link remains poorly understood. PMID:28174541

  3. Formation and properties of metal-oxygen atomic chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thijssen, W.H.A.; Strange, Mikkel; de Brugh, J.M.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    of longer atomic chains. The mechanical and electrical properties of these diatomic chains have been investigated by determining local vibration modes of the chain and by measuring the dependence of the average chain-conductance on the length of the chain. Additionally, we have performed calculations......Suspended chains consisting of single noble metal and oxygen atoms have been formed. We provide evidence that oxygen can react with and be incorporated into metallic one-dimensional atomic chains. Oxygen incorporation reinforces the linear bonds in the chain, which facilitates the creation...

  4. Heavy Chain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of heavy chain produced: Alpha Gamma Mu Alpha Heavy Chain Disease Alpha heavy chain disease (IgA heavy ... the disease or lead to a remission. Gamma Heavy Chain Disease Gamma heavy chain disease (IgG heavy ...

  5. Surface channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmann, R.; Varelas, C.

    1976-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that swift light ions incident at small angles towards single crystalline surfaces can lose an appreciable fraction of their kinetic energy during reflection. It is shown that these projectiles penetrate into the bulk surface region of the crystal. They can travel as channeled particles along long paths through the solid (surface channeling). The angular distribution and the depth history of the re-emerged projectiles are investigated by computer simulations. A considerable fraction of the penetrating projectiles re-emerges from the crystal with constant transverse energy if the angle of incidence is smaller than the critical angle for axial channeling. Analytical formulae are derived based on a diffusion model for surface channeling. A comparison with experimental data exhibits the relevance of the analytical solutions. (Auth.)

  6. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  7. Spark Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haydon, S. C. [Department of Physics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW (Australia)

    1968-04-15

    A brief summary is given of the principal methods used for initiating spark channels and the various highly time-resolved techniques developed recently for studies with nanosecond resolution. The importance of the percentage overvoltage in determining the early history and subsequent development of the various phases of the growth of the spark channel is discussed. An account is then given of the recent photographic, oscillographic and spectroscopic investigations of spark channels initiated by co-axial cable discharges of spark gaps at low [{approx} 1%] overvoltages. The phenomena observed in the development of the immediate post-breakdown phase, the diffuse glow structure, the growth of the luminous filament and the final formation of the spark channel in hydrogen are described. A brief account is also given of the salient features emerging from corresponding studies of highly overvolted spark gaps in which the spark channel develops from single avalanche conditions. The essential differences between the two types of channel formation are summarized and possible explanations of the general features are indicated. (author)

  8. Full Length Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MEMUNA

    markovian process could be reduced to a markovian chain with the homogenous .... x and y respectively. n= the value of the strategy i.e. number of dummies/virtual ..... Groove, CA. Feinberg, E. A. & Shwartz, A. (2002), Handbook of Markov.

  9. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  10. Grazer-induced chain lenght plasticity reduces grazing risk in a marine diatom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergkvist, Johanna; Thor, Peter; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2012-01-01

    . marinoi was exposed to chemical cues from caged A. tonsa without physical contact with the responding cells. The reductions in chain length significantly reduced copepod grazing; grazing rates on chains (four cells or more) were several times higher compared to that of single cells. This suggests...... that chain length plasticity is a means for S. marinoi to reduce copepod grazing. In contrast, chain length was not suppressed in cultures exposed to the microzooplankton grazer Gyrodinium dominans. Size-selective predation may have played a key role in the evolution of chain formation and chain length...... plasticity in diatoms...

  11. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  12. The coprime quantum chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussardo, G.; Giudici, G.; Viti, J.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we introduce and study the coprime quantum chain, i.e. a strongly correlated quantum system defined in terms of the integer eigenvalues n i of the occupation number operators at each site of a chain of length M. The n i ’s take value in the interval [2,q] and may be regarded as S z eigenvalues in the spin representation j  =  (q  -  2)/2. The distinctive interaction of the model is based on the coprimality matrix \\boldsymbolΦ : for the ferromagnetic case, this matrix assigns lower energy to configurations where occupation numbers n i and n i+1 of neighbouring sites share a common divisor, while for the anti-ferromagnetic case it assigns a lower energy to configurations where n i and n i+1 are coprime. The coprime chain, both in the ferro and anti-ferromagnetic cases, may present an exponential number of ground states whose values can be exactly computed by means of graph theoretical tools. In the ferromagnetic case there are generally also frustration phenomena. A fine tuning of local operators may lift the exponential ground state degeneracy and, according to which operators are switched on, the system may be driven into different classes of universality, among which the Ising or Potts universality class. The paper also contains an appendix by Don Zagier on the exact eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the coprimality matrix in the limit q\\to ∞ .

  13. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  14. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  15. Hierarchical self-assembly of two-length-scale multiblock copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinke, Gerrit ten; Loos, Katja; Vukovic, Ivana; Du Sart, Gerrit Gobius

    2011-01-01

    The self-assembly in diblock copolymer-based supramolecules, obtained by hydrogen bonding short side chains to one of the blocks, as well as in two-length-scale linear terpolymers results in hierarchical structure formation. The orientation of the different domains, e.g. layers in the case of a lamellar-in-lamellar structure, is determined by the molecular architecture, graft-like versus linear, and the relative magnitude of the interactions involved. In both cases parallel and perpendicular arrangements have been observed. The comb-shaped supramolecules approach is ideally suited for the preparation of nanoporous structures. A bicontinuous morphology with the supramolecular comb block forming the channels was finally achieved by extending the original approach to suitable triblock copolymer-based supramolecules.

  16. Phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xiao-Hui; Xia A-Gen; Chen Hong-Ping; Zhang Lin-Xi

    2011-01-01

    The phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. In this paper, we focus on the collapse of the polyethylene knotted ring chain, and also present the results of linear and ring chains for comparison. At high temperatures, a fully extensive knot structure is observed. The mean-square radius of gyration per bond (S 2 )/(Nb 2 ) and the shape factor (δ*) depend on not only the chain length but also the knot type. With temperature decreasing, chain collapse is observed, and the collapse temperature decreases with the chain length increasing. The actual collapse transition can be determined by the specific heat capacity C v , and the knotted ring chain undergoes gas—liquid—solid-like transition directly. The phase transition of a knotted ring chain is only one-stage collapse, which is different from the polyethylene linear and ring chains. This investigation can provide some insights into the statistical properties of knotted polymer chains. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  17. Chain Dynamics in Magnetorheological Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, A. P.; Furst, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    fluctuating chains of dipolar particles. Resolving this issue would contribute greatly to the understanding of these interesting and important materials. We have begun to test the predictions of the HT model by both examining the dynamics of individual chains and by measuring the forces between dipolar chains directly to accurately and quantitatively assess the interactions that they experience. To do so, we employ optical trapping techniques and video-microscopy to manipulate and observe our samples on the microscopic level. With these techniques, it is possible to observe chains that are fluctuating freely in three-dimensions, independent of interfacial effects. More importantly, we are able to controllably observe the interactions of two chains at various separations to measure the force-distance profile. The techniques also allow us to study the mechanical properties of individual chains and chain clusters. Our work to this point has focused on reversibly-formed dipolar chains due to field induced dipoles where the combination of this chaining, the dipolar forces, and the hydrodynamic interactions that dictate the rheology of the suspensions. One can envision, however, many situations where optical, electronic, or rheological behavior may be optimized with magneto-responsive anisotropic particles. Chains of polarizable particles may have the best properties as they can coil and flex in the absence of a field and stiffen and orient when a field is applied. We have recently demonstrated a synthesis of stable, permanent paramagnetic chains by both covalently and physically linking paramagnetic colloidal particles. The method employed allows us to create monodisperse chains of controlled length. We observed the stability, field-alignment, and rigidity of this new class of materials. The chains may exhibit unique rheological properties in an applied magnetic field over isotropic suspensions of paramagnetic particles. They are also useful rheological models as bead

  18. Exact steady state manifold of a boundary driven spin-1 Lai–Sutherland chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilievski, Enej; Prosen, Tomaž

    2014-01-01

    We present an explicit construction of a family of steady state density matrices for an open integrable spin-1 chain with bilinear and biquadratic interactions, also known as the Lai–Sutherland model, driven far from equilibrium by means of two oppositely polarizing Markovian dissipation channels localized at the boundary. The steady state solution exhibits n+1 fold degeneracy, for a chain of length n, due to existence of (strong) Liouvillian U(1) symmetry. The latter can be exploited to introduce a chemical potential and define a grand canonical nonequilibrium steady state ensemble. The matrix product form of the solution entails an infinitely-dimensional representation of a non-trivial Lie algebra (semidirect product of sl 2 and a non-nilpotent radical) and hints to a novel Yang–Baxter integrability structure

  19. Exact steady state manifold of a boundary driven spin-1 Lai–Sutherland chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilievski, Enej; Prosen, Tomaž

    2014-05-15

    We present an explicit construction of a family of steady state density matrices for an open integrable spin-1 chain with bilinear and biquadratic interactions, also known as the Lai–Sutherland model, driven far from equilibrium by means of two oppositely polarizing Markovian dissipation channels localized at the boundary. The steady state solution exhibits n+1 fold degeneracy, for a chain of length n, due to existence of (strong) Liouvillian U(1) symmetry. The latter can be exploited to introduce a chemical potential and define a grand canonical nonequilibrium steady state ensemble. The matrix product form of the solution entails an infinitely-dimensional representation of a non-trivial Lie algebra (semidirect product of sl{sub 2} and a non-nilpotent radical) and hints to a novel Yang–Baxter integrability structure.

  20. Electron angular distribution axial channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokonov, A.Kh.; Khokonov, M.Kh.

    1989-01-01

    Angular distributions of ultra-relativistic electrons are calculated in the assumption about presence of statistical equilibrium. Analysis is based on numerical solution of Fokker-Planck type kinetic equation. It is shown that in contrast to case of amorphous medium, the multiple scattering at axial channeling of negative particles results in self-focusing of the initial beam particles and due to it number of electrons moving at an angles to the chain, which are smaller, than critical angle of channeling, may increase by several times as compared to the initial one

  1. Efficient Quantum Information Transfer Through a Uniform Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Verrucchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be obtained by inducing a coherent dynamics in quantum wires with homogeneous intrawire interactions. This goal is accomplished by optimally tuning the coupling between the wire endpoints and the two qubits there attached. A general procedure to determine such value is devised, and scaling laws between the optimal coupling and the length of the wire are found. The procedure is implemented in the case of a wire consisting of a spin-1/2 XY chain: results for the time dependence of the quantities which characterize quantum-state and entanglement transfer are found of extremely good quality also for very long wires. The present approach does not require engineered intrawire interactions nor a specific initial pulse shaping, and can be applied to a vast class of quantum channels.

  2. Coupling of laser energy into plasma channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, D. A.; Giacone, R. E.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Busby, R.; Cary, J. R.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2007-01-01

    Diffractive spreading of a laser pulse imposes severe limitations on the acceleration length and maximum electron energy in the laser wake field accelerator (LWFA). Optical guiding of a laser pulse via plasma channels can extend the laser-plasma interaction distance over many Rayleigh lengths. Energy efficient coupling of laser pulses into and through plasma channels is very important for optimal LWFA performance. Results from simulation parameter studies on channel guiding using the particle-in-cell (PIC) code VORPAL [C. Nieter and J. R. Cary, J. Comput. Phys. 196, 448 (2004)] are presented and discussed. The effects that density ramp length and the position of the laser pulse focus have on coupling into channels are considered. Moreover, the effect of laser energy leakage out of the channel domain and the effects of tunneling ionization of a neutral gas on the guided laser pulse are also investigated. Power spectral diagnostics were developed and used to separate pump depletion from energy leakage. The results of these simulations show that increasing the density ramp length decreases the efficiency of coupling a laser pulse to a channel and increases the energy loss when the pulse is vacuum focused at the channel entrance. Then, large spot size oscillations result in increased energy leakage. To further analyze the coupling, a differential equation is derived for the laser spot size evolution in the plasma density ramp and channel profiles are simulated. From the numerical solution of this equation, the optimal spot size and location for coupling into a plasma channel with a density ramp are determined. This result is confirmed by the PIC simulations. They show that specifying a vacuum focus location of the pulse in front of the top of the density ramp leads to an actual focus at the top of the ramp due to plasma focusing, resulting in reduced spot size oscillations. In this case, the leakage is significantly reduced and is negligibly affected by ramp length

  3. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  4. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  6. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  7. Action of insecticidal N-alkylamides at site 2 of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottea, J.A.; Payne, G.T.; Soderlund, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Nine synthetic N-alkylamides were examined as inhibitors of the specific binding of [ 3 H]batrachotoxinin A 20α-benzoate ([ 3 H]BTX-B) to sodium channels and as activators of sodium uptake in mouse brain synaptoneurosomes. In the presence of scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) venom, the six insecticidal analogues were active as both inhibitors of [ 3 H]BTX-B binding and stimulators of sodium uptake. These findings are consistent with an action of these compounds at the alkaloid activator recognition site (site 2) of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel. The three noninsecticidal N-alkylamides also inhibited [ 3 H]BTX-B binding but were ineffective as activators of sodium uptake. Concentration-response studies revealed that some of the insecticidal amides also enhanced sodium uptake through a second, high-affinity interaction that does not involve site 2, but this secondary effect does not appear to be correlated with insecticidal activity. The activities of N-alkylamides as sodium channel activators were influenced by the length of the alkenyl chain and the location of unsaturation within the molecule. These results further define the actions of N-alkylamides on sodium channels and illustrate the significance of the multiple binding domains of the sodium channel as target sites for insect control agents

  8. Aquaglyceroporins: generalized metalloid channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aquaporins (AQPs), members of a superfamily of transmembrane channel proteins, are ubiquitous in all domains of life. They fall into a number of branches that can be functionally categorized into two major sub-groups: i) orthodox aquaporins, which are water-specific channels, and ii) aquaglyceroporins, which allow the transport of water, non-polar solutes, such as urea or glycerol, the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide, and gases such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and nitric oxide and, as described in this review, metalloids. Scope of Review: This review summarizes the key findings that AQP channels conduct bidirectional movement of metalloids into and out of cells. Major Conclusions: As(OH)3 and Sb(OH)3 behave as inorganic molecular mimics of glycerol, a property that allows their passage through AQP channels. Plant AQPs also allow the passage of boron and silicon as their hydroxyacids, boric acid (B(OH)3) and orthosilicic acid (Si(OH)4), respectively. Genetic analysis suggests that germanic acid (GeO2) is also a substrate. While As(III), Sb(III) and Ge(IV) are toxic metalloids, borate (B(III)) and silicate (Si(IV)) are essential elements in higher plants. General Significance: The uptake of environmental metalloids by aquaporins provides an understanding of (i) how toxic elements such as arsenic enter the food chain; (ii) the delivery of arsenic and antimony containing drugs in the treatment of certain forms of leukemia and chemotherapy of diseases caused by pathogenic protozoa; and (iii) the possibility that food plants such as rice could be made safer by genetically modifying them to exclude arsenic while still accumulating boron and silicon. PMID:24291688

  9. Odd Length Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  10. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  11. Chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, Brian.

    1991-01-01

    Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)

  12. What is the Entanglement Length in a Polymer Melt?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grest, Gary S.; Kremer, Kurt; Putz, Mathias

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of very long model polymer chains analyzed by various experimentally relevant techniques. The segment motion of the chains is found to be in very good agreement with the reptation model. We also calculated the plateau modulus G 0 N . The predictions of the entanglement length N e from G 0 N and from the mean square displacement of the chain segments disagree by a factor of about 2.2(2), indicating an error in the prefactor in the standard formula for G 0 N . We show that recent neutron spin echo measurements were carried out for chain lengths which are too small to allow for a correct determination of N e

  13. Energy conversion device with support member having pore channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routkevitch, Dmitri [Longmont, CO; Wind, Rikard A [Johnstown, CO

    2014-01-07

    Energy devices such as energy conversion devices and energy storage devices and methods for the manufacture of such devices. The devices include a support member having an array of pore channels having a small average pore channel diameter and having a pore channel length. Material layers that may include energy conversion materials and conductive materials are coaxially disposed within the pore channels to form material rods having a relatively small cross-section and a relatively long length. By varying the structure of the materials in the pore channels, various energy devices can be fabricated, such as photovoltaic (PV) devices, radiation detectors, capacitors, batteries and the like.

  14. Microphase separation and the formation of ion conductivity channels in poly(ionic liquid)s: A coarse-grained molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyman, Alexander; Bier, Markus; Holm, Christian; Smiatek, Jens

    2018-05-01

    We study generic properties of poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) via coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations in bulk solution and under confinement. The influence of different side chain lengths on the spatial properties of the PIL systems and on the ionic transport mechanism is investigated in detail. Our results reveal the formation of apolar and polar nanodomains with increasing side chain length in good agreement with previous results for molecular ionic liquids. The ion transport numbers are unaffected by the occurrence of these domains, and the corresponding values highlight the potential role of PILs as single-ion conductors in electrochemical devices. In contrast to bulk behavior, a pronounced formation of ion conductivity channels in confined systems is initiated in close vicinity to the boundaries. We observe higher ion conductivities in these channels for increasing PIL side chain lengths in comparison with bulk values and provide an explanation for this effect. The appearance of these domains points to an improved application of PILs in modern polymer electrolyte batteries.

  15. Achromatic Cooling Channel with Li Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2002-04-29

    A linear cooling channel with Li lenses, solenoids, and 201 MHz RF cavities is considered. A special lattice design is used to minimize chromatic aberrations by suppression of several betatron resonances. Transverse emittance of muon beam decreases from 2 mm to 0.5 mm at the channel of about 110 m length. Longitudinal heating is modest, therefore transmission of the channel is rather high: 96% without decay and 90% with decay. Minimal beam emittance achievable by similar channel estimated as about 0.25 mm at surface field of Li lenses 10 T.

  16. Structure of conducting channel of lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanakyan, Yu. R.

    2013-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the plasma density in a lightning channel is studied theoretically. It is shown that the electric-field double layer is formed at the channel boundary. In this case, the electron temperature changes abruptly and ions are accelerated by the electric field of the double layer. The ion momentum flux density is close to the surrounding gas pressure. Cleaning of the channel from heavy particles occurs in particle-exchange processes between the plasma channel and the surrounding air. Hydrogen ions are accumulated inside the expanding channel from the surrounding air, which is enriched by hydrogen-contained molecules. In this case, the plasma channel is unstable and splits to a chain of equidistant bunches of plasma. The hydrogen-enrich bunches burn diffusely after recombination exhibiting the bead lightning behavior

  17. Applying Best Supply Chain Practices to Humanitarian Relief

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Roberta S.; Hiller, Janine S.

    2015-01-01

    With the growth in length and breadth of extended supply chains, more companies are employing risk management techniques and resilience planning to deal with burgeoning and costly supply chain disruptions. As companies can learn from humanitarian groups, so can humanitarian groups learn from industry how to respond, recover, and prepare for these disruptive events. This paper looks at industry leaders in supply chain risk management and explores how humanitarian supply chains can learn from i...

  18. Understanding the length dependence of molecular junction thermopower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlström, Sven Olov Harald; Strange, Mikkel; Solomon, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Thermopower of molecular junctions is sensitive to details in the junction and may increase, decrease, or saturate with increasing chain length, depending on the system. Using McConnell's theory for exponentially suppressed transport together with a simple and easily interpretable tight binding...... model, we show how these different behaviors depend on the molecular backbone and its binding to the contacts. We distinguish between resonances from binding groups or undercoordinated electrode atoms, and those from the periodic backbone. It is demonstrated that while the former gives a length......-independent contribution to the thermopower, possibly changing its sign, the latter determines its length dependence. This means that the question of which orbitals from the periodic chain that dominate the transport should not be inferred from the sign of the thermopower but from its length dependence. We find...

  19. On the domestic fuel channel for BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    Kobe Steel Ltd. started the domestic manufacture of fuel channel boxes for BWRs in 1967, and entered the actual production stage four years after that. Since 1976, the mass production system was adopted with the increase of the demand. The requirements about the surface contamination and the dimensional accuracy over whole length are very strict in the fuel channel boxes, moreover, special consideration must be given so as to prevent the deformation in use. The unique working methods such as electron beam welding, high temperature press forming and so on are employed in Kobe Steel Ltd. to satisfy such strict requirements, therefore the quality of the produced fuel channel boxes is superior to imported ones. At present, the fuel channel boxes domestically made by Kobe Steel Ltd. are used for almost all BWRs in Japan. The functions of fuel channel boxes are to flow boiling coolant uniformly upward, to guide control rods, and to increase the rigidity of fuel assembly. The fuel channel boxes are the square tubes of zircaloy 4 of 134.06 mm inside width, 2.03 mm thickness, and 4118 or 4239 mm length. The progress of the development and the features of the fuel channel boxes and the manufacturing processes are described. Zircaloy plates are formed into channels, and two channels are electron beam-welded after the edge preparation, to make a box. Ultrasonic examination and stress relief treatment are applied, and clips and spacers are welded. (Kako, I.)

  20. A hydrodynamic microchip for formation of continuous cell chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Shi-Yang; Nasabi, Mahyar; Soffe, Rebecca; Tovar-Lopez, Francisco J.; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Mitchell, Arnan

    2014-05-01

    Here, we demonstrate the unique features of a hydrodynamic based microchip for creating continuous chains of model yeast cells. The system consists of a disk shaped microfluidic structure, containing narrow orifices that connect the main channel to an array of spoke channels. Negative pressure provided by a syringe pump draws fluid from the main channel through the narrow orifices. After cleaning process, a thin layer of water is left between the glass substrate and the polydimethylsiloxane microchip, enabling leakage beneath the channel walls. A mechanical clamp is used to adjust the operation of the microchip. Relaxing the clamp allows leakage of liquid beneath the walls in a controllable fashion, leading to formation of a long cell chain evenly distributed along the channel wall. The unique features of the microchip are demonstrated by creating long chains of yeast cells and model 15 μm polystyrene particles along the side wall and analysing the hydrogen peroxide induced death of patterned cells.

  1. The effect of gate length on SOI-MOSFETS operation | Baedi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of gate length on the operation of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFET structure with a layer of buried silicon oxide added to isolate the device body has been simulated. Three transistors with gate lengths of 100, 200 and 500 nm were simulated. Simulations showed that with a fixed channel length, when the gate ...

  2. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirpanah, Nadia; Verhagen, Fleurieke H; Rothova, Anna; Missotten, Tom O A R; van Velthoven, Mirjam; Den Hollander, Anneke I; Hoyng, Carel B; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Broen, Jasper C A; Kuiper, Jonas J W

    2017-01-01

    Birdshot Uveitis (BU) is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes. To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls. Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL) = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair) compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair) in unaffected controls (PRTEL1. These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  3. Quantum Markov Chain Mixing and Dissipative Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastoryano, Michael James

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is the fruit of investigations on the extension of ideas of Markov chain mixing to the quantum setting, and its application to problems of dissipative engineering. A Markov chain describes a statistical process where the probability of future events depends only on the state...... of the system at the present point in time, but not on the history of events. Very many important processes in nature are of this type, therefore a good understanding of their behaviour has turned out to be very fruitful for science. Markov chains always have a non-empty set of limiting distributions...... (stationary states). The aim of Markov chain mixing is to obtain (upper and/or lower) bounds on the number of steps it takes for the Markov chain to reach a stationary state. The natural quantum extensions of these notions are density matrices and quantum channels. We set out to develop a general mathematical...

  4. Channelling and electromagnetic radiation of channelling particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, N.

    1983-01-01

    A brief description is presented of the channelling of charged particles between atoms in the crystal lattice. The specificities are discussed of the transverse motion of channelling particles as are the origin and properties of quasi-characteristic radiation of channelling particles which accompany transfers from one band of permissible energies of the transverse motion of channelling particles to the other. (B.S.)

  5. TRPV6 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecher-Trost, Claudia; Weissgerber, Petra; Wissenbach, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    TRPV6 (former synonyms ECAC2, CaT1, CaT-like) displays several specific features which makes it unique among the members of the mammalian Trp gene family (1) TRPV6 (and its closest relative, TRPV5) are the only highly Ca(2+)-selective channels of the entire TRP superfamily (Peng et al. 1999; Wissenbach et al. 2001; Voets et al. 2004). (2) Translation of Trpv6 initiates at a non-AUG codon, at ACG, located upstream of the annotated AUG, which is not used for initiation (Fecher-Trost et al. 2013). The ACG codon is nevertheless decoded by methionine. Not only a very rare event in eukaryotic biology, the full-length TRPV6 protein existing in vivo comprises an amino terminus extended by 40 amino acid residues compared to the annotated truncated TRPV6 protein which has been used in most studies on TRPV6 channel activity so far. (In the following numbering occurs according to this full-length protein, with the numbers of the so far annotated truncated protein in brackets). (3) Only in humans a coupled polymorphism of Trpv6 exists causing three amino acid exchanges and resulting in an ancestral Trpv6 haplotype and a so-called derived Trpv6 haplotype (Wissenbach et al. 2001). The ancestral allele encodes the amino acid residues C197(157), M418(378) and M721(681) and the derived alleles R197(157), V418(378) and T721(681). The ancestral haplotype is found in all species, the derived Trpv6 haplotype has only been identified in humans, and its frequency increases with the distance to the African continent. Apparently the Trpv6 gene has been a strong target for selection in humans, and its derived variant is one of the few examples showing consistently differences to the orthologues genes of other primates (Akey et al. 2004, 2006; Stajich and Hahn 2005; Hughes et al. 2008). (4) The Trpv6 gene expression is significantly upregulated in several human malignancies including the most common cancers, prostate and breast cancer (Wissenbach et al. 2001; Zhuang et al. 2002; Fixemer et al

  6. Joint Source-Channel Coding by Means of an Oversampled Filter Bank Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkovic Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantized frame expansions based on block transforms and oversampled filter banks (OFBs have been considered recently as joint source-channel codes (JSCCs for erasure and error-resilient signal transmission over noisy channels. In this paper, we consider a coding chain involving an OFB-based signal decomposition followed by scalar quantization and a variable-length code (VLC or a fixed-length code (FLC. This paper first examines the problem of channel error localization and correction in quantized OFB signal expansions. The error localization problem is treated as an -ary hypothesis testing problem. The likelihood values are derived from the joint pdf of the syndrome vectors under various hypotheses of impulse noise positions, and in a number of consecutive windows of the received samples. The error amplitudes are then estimated by solving the syndrome equations in the least-square sense. The message signal is reconstructed from the corrected received signal by a pseudoinverse receiver. We then improve the error localization procedure by introducing a per-symbol reliability information in the hypothesis testing procedure of the OFB syndrome decoder. The per-symbol reliability information is produced by the soft-input soft-output (SISO VLC/FLC decoders. This leads to the design of an iterative algorithm for joint decoding of an FLC and an OFB code. The performance of the algorithms developed is evaluated in a wavelet-based image coding system.

  7. Effective IPTV channel management method over heterogeneous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hyunchul; Lee, Dai-boong; Song, Hwangjun

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents an effective IPTV channel management method using SVC (scalable video coding) that considers concurrently both channel zapping time and network utilization. A broadcasting channel is encoded in two-layered bitstream (base-layer channel and enhancement-layer channel) to supply for heterogeneous environments. The proposed algorithm locates only a limited numbers of base-layer channels close to users to reduce the network delay part of channel zapping time and adjusts the length of GOP (group of picture) into each base-layer channel to decrease the video decoding delay part of channel zapping time, which are performed based on user's channel preference information. Finally, the experimental results are provided to show the performance of the proposed schemes.

  8. Functional validation of Ca2+-binding residues from the crystal structure of the BK ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshatri, Aravind S; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Alberto J; Giraldez, Teresa

    2018-04-01

    BK channels are dually regulated by voltage and Ca 2+ , providing a cellular mechanism to couple electrical and chemical signalling. Intracellular Ca 2+ concentration is sensed by a large cytoplasmic region in the channel known as "gating ring", which is formed by four tandems of regulator of conductance for K + (RCK1 and RCK2) domains. The recent crystal structure of the full-length BK channel from Aplysia californica has provided new information about the residues involved in Ca 2+ coordination at the high-affinity binding sites located in the RCK1 and RCK2 domains, as well as their cooperativity. Some of these residues have not been previously studied in the human BK channel. In this work we have investigated, through site directed mutagenesis and electrophysiology, the effects of these residues on channel activation by voltage and Ca 2+ . Our results demonstrate that the side chains of two non-conserved residues proposed to coordinate Ca 2+ in the A. californica structure (G523 and E591) have no apparent functional role in the human BK Ca 2+ sensing mechanism. Consistent with the crystal structure, our data indicate that in the human channel the conserved residue R514 participates in Ca 2+ coordination in the RCK1 binding site. Additionally, this study provides functional evidence indicating that R514 also interacts with residues E902 and Y904 connected to the Ca 2+ binding site in RCK2. Interestingly, it has been proposed that this interaction may constitute a structural correlate underlying the cooperative interactions between the two high-affinity Ca 2+ binding sites regulating the Ca 2+ dependent gating of the BK channel. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Beyond the Structure-Function Horizon of Membrane Proteins edited by Ute Hellmich, Rupak Doshi and Benjamin McIlwain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Channel Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Arne; Schinnenburg, Marc; Gross, James; Aguiar, Ana

    For any communication system the Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise-Ratio of the link is a fundamental metric. Recall (cf. Chapter 9) that the SINR is defined as the ratio between the received power of the signal of interest and the sum of all "disturbing" power sources (i.e. interference and noise). From information theory it is known that a higher SINR increases the maximum possible error-free transmission rate (referred to as Shannon capacity [417] of any communication system and vice versa). Conversely, the higher the SINR, the lower will be the bit error rate in practical systems. While one aspect of the SINR is the sum of all distracting power sources, another issue is the received power. This depends on the transmitted power, the used antennas, possibly on signal processing techniques and ultimately on the channel gain between transmitter and receiver.

  10. Channeling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, H.; Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1990-07-01

    Channeling of water flow and tracer transport in real fractures in a granite body at Stripa have been investigated experimentally. The experimental site was located 360 m below the ground level. Two kinds of experiments were performed. In the single hole experiments, 20 cm diameter holes were drilled about 2.5 m into the rock in the plane of the fracture. Specially designed packers were used to inject water into the fracture in 5 cm intervals all along the fracture trace in the hole. The variation of the injection flowrates along the fracture were used to determine the transmissivity variations in the fracture plane. Detailed photographs were taken from inside the hole and the visual fracture aperture was compared with the injection flowrates in the same locations. Geostatistical methods were used to evaluate the results. Five holes were measured in great detail. In addition 7 holes were drilled and scanned by simpler packer systems. A double hole experiment was performed where two parallel holes were drilled in the same fracture plane at nearly 2 m distance. Pressure pulse tests were made between the holes in both directions. Tracers were injected in 5 locations in one hole and monitored for in many locations in the other hole. The single hole experiment and the double hole experiment show that most of the fracture planes are tight but that there are open sections which form connected channels over distances of at least 2 meters. It was also found in the double hole experiment that the investigated fracture was intersected by at least one fracture between the two holes which diverted a large amount of the injected tracers to several distant locations at the tunnel wall. (authours)

  11. Axial channeling of uttrarelativistic electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1982-07-01

    The dynamics of motion of ultrarelativistic electrons under axial channeling conditions is investigated. The analysis is based on the solution of the kinetic equation obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov. The particle dechanneling function is investigated as depending on the type of a crystal, particle energy and angle of entrance into the single crystal. It is found that for most of the beam the major diffusion mechanism is scattering by electrons. It is shown that an optimal depth range exists for which the fraction of channeled particles sharply increases at the expense of the quasi-channeled particles. In a number of cases the dechanneling length for crystals with high atomic numbers may be greater than that of light elements.

  12. Axial channeling of uttrarelativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of motion of ultrarelativistic electrons under axial channeling conditions is investigated. The analysis is based on the solution of the kinetic equation obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov. The particle dechanneling function is investigated as depending on the type of a crystal, particle energy and angle of entrance into the single crystal. It is found that for most of the beam the major diffusion mechanism is scattering by electrons. It is shown that an optimal depth range exists for which the fraction of channeled particles sharply increases at the expense of the quasi-channeled particles. In a number of cases the dechanneling length for crystals with high atomic numbers may be greater than that of light elements

  13. Hopping control channel MAC protocol for opportunistic spectrum access networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing-tuan; JI Hong; MAO Xu

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) is considered as a promising approach to mitigate spectrum scarcity by allowing unlicensed users to exploit spectrum opportunities in licensed frequency bands. Derived from the existing channel-hopping multiple access (CHMA) protocol,we introduce a hopping control channel medium access control (MAC) protocol in the context of OSA networks. In our proposed protocol,all nodes in the network follow a common channel-hopping sequence; every frequency channel can be used as control channel and data channel. Considering primary users' occupancy of the channel,we use a primary user (PU) detection model to calculate the channel availability for unlicensed users' access. Then,a discrete Markov chain analytical model is applied to describe the channel states and deduce the system throughput. Through simulation,we present numerical results to demonstrate the throughput performance of our protocol and thus validate our work.

  14. Human health risk assessment of long chain alcohols (LCOH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veenstra, Gauke; Sanderson, Hans; Webb, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    evidence of activity in genetic toxicity tests or to the reproductive system or the developing organism. These chemicals also are not sensitizers. Irritation is dependant on chain length; generally, alcohols in the range C6-C11 are considered as irritant, intermediate chain lengths (C12-C16) alcohols...... are considered to be mild irritants and chain lengths of C18 and above are considered non-irritants. These chemicals are broadly used across the consumer products industry with highest per person consumer exposures resulting from use in personal care products. Margins of exposure adequate for the protection...

  15. Duplex quantum communication through a spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Ming; Bishop, C. Allen; Gu, Yong-Jian; Shao, Bin

    2011-08-01

    Data multiplexing within a quantum computer can allow for the simultaneous transfer of multiple streams of information over a shared medium thereby minimizing the number of channels needed for requisite data transmission. Here, we investigate a two-way quantum communication protocol using a spin chain placed in an external magnetic field. In our scheme, Alice and Bob each play the role of a sender and a receiver as two states, cos((θ1)/(2))0+sin((θ1)/(2))eiφ11 and cos((θ2)/(2))0+sin((θ2)/(2))eiφ21, are transferred through one channel simultaneously. We find that the transmission fidelity at each end of a spin chain can usually be enhanced by the presence of a second party. This is an important result for establishing the viability of duplex quantum communication through spin chain networks.

  16. Probabilistic Chain Teleportation of a Qutrit-State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meiyu; Yan Fengli

    2010-01-01

    We investigate chain teleportation of a qutrit-state via the non-maximally two-qutrit entangled channels. For the case of four parties, the efficiencies of two chain teleportation protocols, the separate chain teleportation protocol (SCTP), and the global chain teleportation protocol (GCTP), are calculated. In SCTP the errors are corrected between every step while in GCTP the errors are corrected only at the end. Furthermore, we present a piecewise global chain teleportation protocol (PGCTP) for keeping away from the inconvenience of error-correction of GCTP. We show that PGCTP is more efficient than SCTP. (general)

  17. CHAINS-PC, Decay Chain Atomic Densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: CHAINS computes the atom density of members of a single radioactive decay chain. The linearity of the Bateman equations allows tracing of interconnecting chains by manually accumulating results from separate calculations of single chains. Re-entrant loops can be treated as extensions of a single chain. Losses from the chain are also tallied. 2 - Method of solution: The Bateman equations are solved analytically using double-precision arithmetic. Poles are avoided by small alterations of the loss terms. Multigroup fluxes, cross sections, and self-shielding factors entered as input are used to compute the effective specific reaction rates. The atom densities are computed at any specified times. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 100 energy groups, 100 time values, 50 members in a chain

  18. Rational Design of Coordination Polymers with Flexible Oxyethylene Side Chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun Young; Gao, Chunji; Lee, Suck Hyun; Kwon, O Pil

    2012-01-01

    We rationally designed and synthesized metallopolymers with organic 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC) linkers with different lengths of oxyethylene side chains in order to examine the influence of side chains on the coordination characteristics. While in a previous report the BDC linkers with alkyl side chains were found to form three-dimensional (3D) isoreticular metal-organic framework (IRMOF) structures or one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymeric structures with short -O(CH 2 ) 6 CH 3 or long -O(CH 2 ) 9 CH 3 side chains, respectively, new BDC linkers with oxyethylene side chains of the same lengths, -(OCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 CH 3 and -(OCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 CH 3 , form only 3D IRMOF structures. This result is attributed to the higher flexibility and smaller volume of oxyethylene side chains compared to alkyl side chains

  19. Omni-channel Retail Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2014-01-01

    key players in the industry of retailing (Wilson, 2012; Verizon, 2012) and covers the idea that anything can be sold anywhere with consistent marketing, reasonable efficiency of the supply chain channels and responsible customer service. This article aims at contributing to a characterisation...... and definition of omni-channel retail information systems (OCRIS) by using the information systems research tradition as a distinctive starting point (Treiblmaier and Strebinger, 2008; Avgerou, 2001; Parboteah et al., 2009). Omni-channel retailing has evolved since 2010 with the ultimate aim of aligning physical...

  20. Buckling of paramagnetic chains in soft gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shilin; Pessot, Giorgio; Cremer, Peet; Weeber, Rudolf; Holm, Christian; Nowak, Johannes; Odenbach, Stefan; Menzel, Andreas M.; Auernhammer, Günter K.

    We study the magneto-elastic coupling behavior of paramagnetic chains in soft polymer gels exposed to external magnetic fields. To this end, a laser scanning confocal microscope is used to observe the morphology of the paramagnetic chains together with the deformation field of the surrounding gel network. The paramagnetic chains in soft polymer gels show rich morphological shape changes under oblique magnetic fields, in particular a pronounced buckling deformation. The details of the resulting morphological shapes depend on the length of the chain, the strength of the external magnetic field, and the modulus of the gel. Based on the observation that the magnetic chains are strongly coupled to the surrounding polymer network, a simplified model is developed to describe their buckling behavior. A coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation model featuring an increased matrix stiffness on the surfaces of the particles leads to morphologies in agreement with the experimentally observed buckling effects.