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Sample records for channel angular pressing

  1. Effect of equal channel angular pressing on aging treatment of Al-7075 alloy

    OpenAIRE

    M.H. Shaeri; M. Shaeri; M.T. Salehi; S. H Seyyedein; M.R. Abutalebi

    2015-01-01

    The effect of aging treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of equal channel angular pressed Al-7075 alloy was examined. Commercial Al-7075 alloy in the solid solution heat-treated condition was processed by equal channel angular pressing through route BC at both the room temperature and 120 °C. Only three passes of equal channel angular pressing was possible due to the low ductility of the alloy at both temperatures. Followed by equal channel angular pressing, the specimens hav...

  2. Low Carbon Steel Processed by Equal Channel Angular Warm Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrnik, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon steel AISI 10 was subjected to a severe plastic deformation technique called Equal Angular Channel Pressing (ECAP at different increased temperatures. The steel was subjected to ECAP with channel’s angle j = 90°, at different temperature in range of 150 - 300 °C. The number of passes at each temperature was N = 3. Light, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM of thin foils were used to study the formation of substructure and ultrafine grains in deformed specimens. The size of newly born polygonized grains (subgrains and/or submicrocrystalline grains is in range of 300 - 500 mm. The formation of such of predominant submicrocrystalline structure resulted in significant increase of yield stress [Re] and tensile strength of the steel [Rm].

  3. Equal channel angular pressing of pure aluminium—an analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Saravanan; R M Pillai; B C Pai; M Brahmakumar; K R Ravi

    2006-12-01

    Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is a novel technique for producing ultra fine grain structures in submicron level by introducing a large amount of shear strain into the materials without changing the billet shape or dimensions. This process is well suited for aluminium alloys and is capable of producing ultra fine grain structures with grain sizes falling between 200 and 500 nm. The present study attempts to apply ECAP technique to 99.5% pure aluminium and characterize the resulting aluminium by optical metallography, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and hardness measurement. ECAP of 99.5% pure aluminium produces ultrafine grain structure of about 620 nm after 8 passes. Despite an increase in the hardness from 23 to 47 BHN up to 6 passes, it decreases slightly for seventh and eighth passes. The results are compared with the already existing results available on pure aluminium. Analysis of the results of this investigation with those available in the literature has revealed that the number of passes essential to achieve a homogeneous microstructure in pure Al increases, while the ultimate equilibrium grain size obtained becomes finer with decreasing purity.

  4. Effect of equal channel angular pressing on aging treatment of Al-7075 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Shaeri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aging treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of equal channel angular pressed Al-7075 alloy was examined. Commercial Al-7075 alloy in the solid solution heat-treated condition was processed by equal channel angular pressing through route BC at both the room temperature and 120 °C. Only three passes of equal channel angular pressing was possible due to the low ductility of the alloy at both temperatures. Followed by equal channel angular pressing, the specimens have been aged at 120 °C for different aging times. Mechanical properties were measured by Vickers microhardness and tensile tests and microstructural observations were undertaken using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer as well as optical microscopy. Microstructural investigations showed that ultrafine-grained materials with grain size in the range of 200–350 nm and 300–500 nm could be obtained after three passes of equal channel angular pressing at room temperature and 120 °C, respectively. Equal channel angular pressing of solid solution heat-treated Al-7075 alloy accelerates precipitation rate and subsequently leads to a significant decrease in aging time to attain maximum mechanical properties. Furthermore, it is possible to achieve maximum mechanical properties during equal channel angular pressing at 120 °C as a result of dynamic aging and formation of small ɳ´ phase.

  5. DEVELOPMENT BY COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AN EQUAL CHANNEL ANGULAR PRESSING DIE

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Springer; José Benaque Rubert; Vitor Luiz Sord; Maurizio Ferrante

    2013-01-01

    Critical geometric parameters of an Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) die suitable to plate processing were optimized by making use of the DEFORM™ software. Following the simulation a die was manufactured and employed in the processing of 7 mm thick Al AA 1050 plates. Software output included the pressing forces and the equivalent deformation distribution within the plates, after one and four ECAP passes. Calculated pressing forces against the punch displacement were compared ...

  6. Microstructural evolution of bainitic steel severely deformed by equal channel angular pressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nili-Ahmadabadi, M; Haji Akbari, F; Rad, F; Karimi, Z; Iranpour, M; Poorganji, B; Furuhara, T

    2010-09-01

    High Si bainitic steel has been received much of interest because of combined ultra high strength, good ductility along with high wear resistance. In this study a high Si bainitic steel (Fe-0.22C-2.0Si-3.0Mn) was used with a proper microstructure which could endure severe plastic deformation. In order to study the effect of severe plastic deformation on the microstructure and properties of bainitic steel, Equal Channel Angular Pressing was performed in two passes at room temperature. Optical, SEM and TEM microscopies were used to examine the microstructure of specimens before and after Equal Channel Angular Pressing processing. X-ray diffraction was used to measure retained austenite after austempering and Equal Channel Angular Pressing processing. It can be seen that retained austenite picks had removed after Equal Channel Angular Pressing which could attributed to the transformation of austenite to martensite during severe plastic deformation. Enhancement of hardness values by number of Equal Channel Angular Pressing confirms this idea. PMID:21133137

  7. INFLUENCE OF DIE ANGLES ON THE MICROHARDNESS OF ALUMINUM ALLOY PROCESSED BY EQUAL CHANNEL ANGULAR PRESSING

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    Ali A Aljubouri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available   The die geometry has a massive effect on the plastic deformation behavior during pressing of material processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP method; subsequently the properties of the processed material are strongly dependent on it. Two categories of designed and manufactured dies are used for equal channel angular pressing, a 1200 sharp angle and a 900 round –cornered (200 dies, that produce strain per pass through both dies of ~0.7 and ~1.05   respectively. The microhardness developed in Al-Si alloy during ECAP using route BC. The microhardness increased by a factor of >1.5, after only 1 pressing. Subsequently, the hardness increases slightly up to 8 pressings through the 1200 sharp angle die, while it is increased by a factor of ~2.6 after 5 passes by using the 900 round cornered die, comparing with that for the cast workpiece.

  8. Effects of pressing temperature and initial microstructure on the equal channel angular pressing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of pressing temperature and initial microstructure on the equal channel angular (ECA) pressing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were investigated in this study. The ECA pressing was carried out isothermally with route C at 500 C, 600 C and 700 C for two typical microstructures, i.e., the Widmanstaetten microstructure and the equiaxed microstructure. The results showed that ECA pressing at 600 C and 700 C was successful without producing any noticeable segment at the specimen surfaces, while a large amount of surface segments were produced at 500 C. After 1 pass pressing at 600 C, the equiaxed microstructure showed more uniform material flow at the surface than the Widmanstaetten microstructure. However, this microstructural influence was diminished with increase of the number of the ECA pressing. A flow-localization parameter that quantifies the flow non-uniform tendency in case of flow softening materials was used to explain the different results in each microstructure. (orig.)

  9. Severe plastic deformation by equal channel angular pressing: product quality and operational details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal de Andrade Mendes Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As a technique, Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP is simple and inexpensive. However, if die manufacture and operational details are not carefully planned and implemented, difficulties arise, which can interfere with the product characteristics and the pressing operation itself. The present paper offers guidelines on die design and manufacture, emphasizing geometry, material and heat treatment. Further, operational parameters such as lubrication, pressing temperature, deformation routes, die closure procedure and the influence of channel cross section on maximum acceptable load are described. Additionally, the effects of those variables on the product characteristics (deformation level and homogeneity and integrity, plus process control and safety, are discussed.

  10. Equal channel angular pressing technique for the formation of ultra-fine grained structures

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    Kazeem O. Sanusi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Equal channel angular pressing is one of the techniques in metal forming processes in which an ultra-large plastic strain is imposed on a bulk material in order to make ultra-fine grained and nanocrystalline metals and alloys. The technique is a viable forming procedure to extrude materials by use of specially designed channel dies without substantially changing the geometry by imposing severe plastic deformation. This technique has the potential for high strain rate superplasticity by effective grain refinement to the level of the submicron-scale or nanoscale. Wereview recent work on new trends in equal channel angular pressing techniques and the manufacturing of die-sets used for the processing of metals and alloys. We also experimented on a copper alloy using the equal channel angular pressing technique to examine the microstructural, mechanical and hardness properties of the ultra-fine grained and nanocrystalline materials produced. After deformation, all samples were subjected to a hardness test and the results showed improved mechanical behaviour of the ultra-fine grained copper alloy that was developed. This research provides an opportunity to examine the significance of the equal channel angular pressing process for metals and alloys. That is, these ultra-fine grained materials can be used in the manufacturing of semi-finished products used in the power, aerospace, medical and automotive industries.

  11. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of high purity aluminium processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Jiří; Sklenička, Václav; Horita, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 15-19. ISSN 1345-9678 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : pure aluminium * equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) * tensile property * strain rates * grain refinement * stacking fault energy Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.753, year: 2008

  12. DEVELOPMENT BY COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AN EQUAL CHANNEL ANGULAR PRESSING DIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Springer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Critical geometric parameters of an Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP die suitable to plate processing were optimized by making use of the DEFORM™ software. Following the simulation a die was manufactured and employed in the processing of 7 mm thick Al AA 1050 plates. Software output included the pressing forces and the equivalent deformation distribution within the plates, after one and four ECAP passes. Calculated pressing forces against the punch displacement were compared with the actual forces, whilst the deformation distribution is validated by Vickers microhardness measurements. From tensile tests and microstructural observation of the processed plates the die performance was found quite satisfactory.

  13. X-ray line profile analysis of equal channel angular pressing processed Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóni, B.; Gonda, V.; Verö, B.; Ungár, T.

    2014-08-01

    The effect of equal channel angular pressing on the microstructure of copper samples was studied by X-ray line profile analysis. Pure Cu samples were processed by equal channel angular pressing with 3 passes in route A. Samples were taken from the vicinity of the channel intersection, and along a profile across the deformation zone, microhardness and XRD measurements were performed. For the high resolution line profile analysis of the diffraction spectra, convolutional-multiple-whole-profile CMWP method was applied, dislocation density and grain size were calculated, furthermore the density of twin boundaries were determined. Results show a rearrangement in the dislocations in the third pass leading to a rise in the density of twin boundaries.

  14. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of 6061 aluminum alloy strips severely deformed by Dissimilar Channel Angular Pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissimilar Channel Angular Pressing (DCAP) is a severe plastic deformation technique to improve the mechanical properties of flat products by producing ultrafine grains. In this study, the changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties of 6061 Al-alloy strips deformed by various numbers of DCAP passes were investigated. Some DCAPed samples were also held at 200 deg. C and 350 deg. C to investigate the effect of post-annealing. Mechanical properties were determined by hardness and tension tests; and microstructural changes were investigated by TEM analysis. Up to a critical level of plastic strain, remarkable improvements have been observed in the strength and hardness of the severely deformed strips; and the improvements have been explained by variations in grain size, dislocation structure, and formation of subgrains. - Research Highlights: →Dissimilar Channel Angular Pressing (DCAP). →Severe plastic deformation (SPD). →Transmission Electron Microscopy of the 6061 Al alloy. →Mechanical Properties of 6061 Al alloy.

  15. Finite Element Method and Upper-Bound Type Analysis of Equal Channel Angular Pressing

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    T. A. Fashanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the analysis of stresses required for a frictionless equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP of perfectly plastic or strain-hardening materials using finite-element method and upper-bound type analysis. Upper-bound type and FEM analysis were analytical approximations and numerical methods respectively. The two methods used and presented agree well for different ECAP die angles and materials.

  16. Microstructural Characterization of a Magnesium Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Florina Diana Dumitru; Mihaela Andreea Moncea; Oscar Fabián Higuera-Cobos

    2014-01-01

    Samples of as-extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy were subjected to 6 passes of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) following route A. The processing temperature was decreased with the number of passes. The structural evolution of the deformed samples was analyzed using Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) and X-Ray Diffraction. The grain boundary misorientation distribution showed a reduction in the grain size accompanied bya large proportion of high angle grain boundaries and the presence ...

  17. Corrosion Behavior of Commercial Aluminum Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Atef Korchef; Abdelkrim Kahoul

    2013-01-01

    A commercial aluminum alloy was subjected to severe plastic deformation through equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The alloy contains a low volume fraction of α-AlFeSi located essentially at the grain boundaries. The corrosion behavior of the ECAP’ed alloy was investigated in NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization and immersion tests. The effects of scan rate and NaCl concentration on the alloy susceptibility to corrosion were also studied. The results obtained were compared wit...

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a commercially pure Ti processed by warm equal channel angular pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Calvillo, Pablo; Cabrera Marrero, José M.

    2015-01-01

    A commercially pure (CP) Titanium alloy classified as Grade 1, was processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) up to 4 passes in the temperature range of 450-150 degrees C.; The resulting microstructures were observed by Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction, revealing a bimodal grain size distribution consisting of small recrystallized grains of submicrometer size, with an average value of 0.3 mu m, and elongated bands of 1.4 mu m with different degree of substructure. Additionally the ...

  19. Texture analysis in ultrafine grained copper processed by equal channel angular pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Higuera Cobos, Oscar Fabián; Cabrera Marrero, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Electrolytic tough pitch (ETP) and fire refined high conductivity (FRHC) copper samples were severely deformed at room temperature by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) up to 16 passes (e ~ 1 per pass), following route Bc. The effect of the initial texture on the evolution of texture after the ECAP process for both materials was analyzed. The annealed materials present a marked anisotropy, with a texture controlled by the fiber. According to the orientation distribution function (ODF), th...

  20. Development of Nanostructured AA3103 by Equal Channel Angular Pressing and Thermal Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Luis, C. J.; Luri, R.; León, J.; Puertas, I.; Salcedo, D.; Pérez, I.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a study related to the achievement of a nanometric structure in AA3103, employing severe plastic deformation processes (SPD), in this case equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The changes in the mechanical properties and in the microstructure of AA3103 were studied after being processed by ECAP. Subsequently, scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the evolution of the microstructure after different thermal treatments on the material processed by this severe pl...

  1. Texture analysis in ultrafine grained coppers processed by equal channel angular pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Fabián Higuera; Cabrera, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Electrolytic tough pitch (ETP) and fire refined high conductivity (FRHC) copper samples were severely deformed at room temperature by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) up to 16 passes (ε ~ 1 per pass), following route Bc. The effect of the initial texture on the evolution of texture after the ECAP process for both materials was analyzed. The annealed materials present a marked anisotropy, with a texture controlled by the fiber. According to the orientation distribution function (ODF...

  2. Structure and properties of ultrafine-grained aluminium alloys prepared by equal-channel angular pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dám, Karel; Jäger, Aleš; Vystavěl, Tomáš; Lejček, Pavel

    Aachen: RWTH Aachen University, 2010 - (Epple, D.; Nick, M.; Strämke, M.; Zilkens, C.), s. 141-144 ISBN N. [ ISDM 2010. Aachen (DE), 16.09.2010-18.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Equal-Channel Angular Pressing * aluminium alloys * grain refinement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  3. Dislocation density of pure copper processed by accumulative roll bonding and equal-channel angular pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, Yoji, E-mail: miyajima.y.ab@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-J2-63, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Okubo, Satoshi; Abe, Hiroki; Okumura, Hiroki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-J2-63, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Fujii, Toshiyuki [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S8-7, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Onaka, Susumu; Kato, Masaharu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-J2-63, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    The dislocation density of pure copper fabricated by two severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes, i.e., accumulative roll bonding and equal-channel angular pressing, was evaluated using scanning transmission electron microscopy/transmission electron microscopy observations. The dislocation density drastically increased from ~ 10{sup 13} m{sup −} {sup 2} to about 5 × 10{sup 14} m{sup −} {sup 2}, and then saturated, for both SPD processes.

  4. Effect of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) on creep in aluminium alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenička, Václav; Dvořák, Jiří; Král, Petr; Kvapilová, Marie; Svoboda, Milan; Saxl, Ivan; Horita, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 539-543, - (2007), s. 2904-2909. ISSN 0255-5476 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA2041301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : equal-channel angular pressing * aluminium alloy s * ultrafine-grained microscructure Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2005

  5. Characterization Of An Equal Channel Angular Pressed Al-Zn-In Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Banjongprasert C.; Jak-Ra A.; Domrong C.; Patakham U.; Pongsaksawad W.; Chairuangsri T.

    2015-01-01

    Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is a technique that creates a high accumulated strain in metals and results in ultrafine-grained structure. In this study, Al-5Zn-0.02In was processed by ECAP at a room temperature using route Bc through an ECAP die (press angle of Φ = 100° and Ψ = 20°). The samples were subjected to ECAP with 1, 2, 3 and 4 passes. The processed specimens were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results confirmed the grain refinement of the al...

  6. Reducing the tension–compression yield asymmetry of extruded Mg–Zn–Ca alloy via equal channel angular pressing

    OpenAIRE

    L.B. Tong; M.Y. Zheng; S. Kamado; Zhang, D.P.; Meng, J; L. R. Cheng; Zhang, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of equal channel angular pressing on the tension–compression yield asymmetry of extruded Mg–5.3 Zn–0.6 Ca (weight percent) alloy has been investigated. The microstructure was obviously refined by the large strain during the equal channel angular pressing, accompanied with very fine Ca2Mg6Zn3 phases with average diameter of 70 nm. The weak tension–compression yield asymmetry after equal channel angular pressing is mainly attributed to the reduced volume fraction of extension twin...

  7. Characterization Of An Equal Channel Angular Pressed Al-Zn-In Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjongprasert C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP is a technique that creates a high accumulated strain in metals and results in ultrafine-grained structure. In this study, Al-5Zn-0.02In was processed by ECAP at a room temperature using route Bc through an ECAP die (press angle of Φ = 100° and Ψ = 20°. The samples were subjected to ECAP with 1, 2, 3 and 4 passes. The processed specimens were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD. The results confirmed the grain refinement of the alloy after ECAP to an average grain size less than 5 μm after 4-pass ECAP. The microhardness test shows that the hardness increased with the number of passes. The hardness of the cross-sectional area of the sample was similar to that tested along the pressing direction.

  8. Microstructural Characterization of a Magnesium Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Diana Dumitru

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Samples of as-extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy were subjected to 6 passes of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP following route A. The processing temperature was decreased with the number of passes. The structural evolution of the deformed samples was analyzed using Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD and X-Ray Diffraction. The grain boundary misorientation distribution showed a reduction in the grain size accompanied bya large proportion of high angle grain boundaries and the presence of recrystallization processes. XRD results showed that with the increment of the applied strain the peaks presented a slight variation of the angles.

  9. On the cold rolling of AZ31 Mg alloy after Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Arab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the various Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD processes, Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP is one of the most applicable one which improves strength and ductility due to grain refinement and suitable texture development. In this study, cold rolling were carried out on the 4 pass ECAPed (in route A and C strip shaped specimens of AZ31 magnesium alloy to investigate the ECAP effects on the roll-ability. Results showed that reduction in area which can be concerned as an index for roll-ability increased after ECAP. It was also seen that ECAP in route C enhanced roll-ability more than route A.

  10. Achieving superplastic properties in a ZK10 magnesium alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Roberto B.; Terence G. Langdon

    2016-01-01

    Equal-channel angular pressing provides an opportunity for refining the grain structure and introducing superplastic properties in magnesium alloys. This report describes the use of this processing technique with a ZK10 (Mg–1.0 wt.% Zn–0.26 wt.% Zr) alloy. The grain structure was successfully refined from ~12.9um to ~5.2um after 4 passes and superplastic elongations were observed when testing at low strain rates at temperatures of 473 and 523 K. An analysis shows that the superplastic behavio...

  11. Grain refinement of commercial purity Magnesium processed by Ecap (Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Spitale Jacques Poggiali

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Grain refinement in magnesium is evaluated in the present paper. Equal Channel Angular Pressing is used to process commercially pure magnesium. Processing was carried out at 523 K which is lower than the temperature used in other papers on the literature. The grain structure was evaluated throughout the deformation zone. The low processing temperature prevents significant grain growth. The evolution of the grain structure is compared to a recent model for mechanism of grain refinement in magnesium. The present results confirm the validity of the model.

  12. Novel deformation structures of pure titanium induced by room temperature equal channel angular pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Y. J. Chen; Li, Y. J.; Xu, X J; Hjelen, J.; Roven, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Novel deformation structures of commercial pure (CP) Ti induced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at room temperature have been studied by electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). All the deformation twins occurring in CP Ti, {101?1}, {112?1}, {101?2} and {112?2} have been revealed surprisingly in one original grain as first, secondary or third generation twins. 3 variants of {101?2} twins have been identified. The deformation mechanism of CP-Ti during ECAP at room temperature in co...

  13. Analysis of microstructure and strengthening in CuMg alloys deformed by equal channel angular pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Calvillo, P.; Cabrera Marrero, José M.

    2015-01-01

    The microstructural and strengthening behavior of two CuMg alloys, with 0.2 and 0.5 m.-% of Mg, were analyzed after severe plastic deformation by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP). Both alloys were passed through a 90° inner angle ECAP die at room temperature up to 16 passes following route Bc. The EBSD analysis of the deformed microstructure revealed a significant grain refinement after the 2nd pass. Average grain sizes as fine as 0.31 and 0.24 µm for the CuMg0.2 and CuMg0.5, respectivel...

  14. On the cold rolling of AZ31 Mg alloy after Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohammad Arab; Abbas Akbarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Among the various Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) processes, Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) is one of the most applicable one which improves strength and ductility due to grain refinement and suitable texture development. In this study, cold rolling were carried out on the 4 pass ECAPed (in route A and C) strip shaped specimens of AZ31 magnesium alloy to investigate the ECAP effects on the roll-ability. Results showed that reduction in area which can be concerned as an index for roll-...

  15. Creep in Al single crystal processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Petr; Dvořák, Jiří; Šedá, Petra; Jäger, Aleš; Sklenička, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2012), s. 138-144. ISSN 1606-5131. [Bulk nanostructured materials, BNM 2011. Ufa, 23.08.2011-26.08.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100801; GA ČR GPP108/10/P469 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : equal-channel angular pressing * single crystal * creep behaviour Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2012

  16. Evolution of the structure of the VT6 alloy subjected to equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation results are reported on the evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of a two-phase titanium alloy of VT6 (Ti-6Al-4V) with initial globular structure subjected to equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 700 Deg C with 1-12 passes. Experimental results permit studying the evolution of mean grain size, phase morphology, microhardness, mechanical behavior depending on the quantity of ECAP passes. The possibility is found to refine intensively the microstructure in VT6 alloy billets using ECAP

  17. SPOT WELDING COPPER–1%Cr ELECTRODE TIPS PRODUCED VIA EQUAL CHANNEL ANGULAR PRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay Bakir Hussain

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A sharp 120o Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP following rout Bc was applied at room temperature to refine the grains sizes of pure copper and copper-1%Chromium alloy for spot welding electrode tips application. Initially deformation behavior was investigated with the position using colorful plasticine as work piece followed by copper alloy. It was found the deformation at the central part of the work piece is heavily sheared than the outer part. Optical and Scanning electron microscopy were used to study the progress of grain refining under the influence of rotation and number of passes during pressing. The influnece of elongated fibrous nano graines on electrical conductivity and hardness were discussed. Shear test of spot welded 303 stainless steel indicated that nano structural Cu-1%Cr electrode tips used showed a superior results compared to commercial electrodes

  18. Mechanical properties of copper processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing – a review

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    Ludvík Kunz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Equal Channel Angular Pressing is a hardening treatment with which ductile metals can be processed to refine their grain and sub-grain structure. This process enhances the mechanical strength of metals in terms of tensile strength, stress-controlled fatigue strength, and fatigue crack growth resistance. In this paper the authors draw a review of the major results of a wide research activity they carried out on a copper microstructure processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing. The essential results are that tensile and fatigue strengths of the so obtained refined structure are improved by a factor of two with respect to the original coarse-grained metal. The fatigue crack initiation mechanism and the stability of the refined microstructure under cyclic loading are topics also discussed, evidencing the essential role of the process and of the material parameter, as the content of impurities in the microstructure. In this review, the authors also underline some critical aspects that have to be more investigated.

  19. Microstructural and mechanical properties of Al 7075 alloy processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Equal Channel Angular Pressing is a tool for producing ultrafine grains. ► Al 7075 alloy is studied. ► Four passes at four different routes of ECA. ► Mechanical and microstructural characteristics were analyzed. - Abstract: In this paper the effect of Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) on microstructures, mechanical properties of Al-7075 alloys has been investigated. Due to ECAP, tensile yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and micro hardness of the material increase by 168%, 73%, and 93%, respectively. On the other hand, elongation to failure decreases. The quantum of decrease is high after the first pass while after the subsequent passes it remains almost constant. TEM analysis shows that the rod-like η1 (MgZn2) precipitates, present in the annealed condition, are broken in to small spherical particles during ECAP and are distributed uniformly throughout the material. The presence of these fine particles, combined with their uniform distribution is very effective in restricting grain growth resulting in ultrafine grains. Analysis of the deformation and fracture morphologies of ECAPed samples by scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows that the average dimple size gradually decreases with increasing number of ECAP passes.

  20. Damage prediction of 7025 aluminum alloy during equal-channel angular pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, M.; Attarilar, Sh.; Gode, C.; Djavanroodi, F.

    2014-10-01

    Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is a prominent technique that imposes severe plastic deformation into materials to enhance their mechanical properties. In this research, experimental and numerical approaches were utilized to investigate the mechanical properties, strain behavior, and damage prediction of ECAPed 7025 aluminum alloy in various conditions, such as die channel angle, outer corner angle, and friction coefficient. Experimental results indicate that, after the first pass, the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and hardness magnitude are improved by approximately 95%, 28%, and 48.5%, respectively, compared with the annealed state, mainly due to grain refinement during the deformation. Finite element analysis shows that the influence of die channel angle is more important than that of outer corner angle or friction coefficient on both the strain behavior and the damage prediction. Also, surface cracks are the main cause of damage during the ECAP process for every die channel angle except for 90°; however, the cracks initiated from the neighborhood of the central regions are the possible cause of damage in the ECAPed sample with the die channel angle of 90°.

  1. Damage prediction of 7025 aluminum alloy during equal-channel angular pressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Ebrahimi; Sh. Attarilar; C.Gode; F.Djavanroodi

    2014-01-01

    Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is a prominent technique that imposes severe plastic deformation into materials to en-hance their mechanical properties. In this research, experimental and numerical approaches were utilized to investigate the mechanical prop-erties, strain behavior, and damage prediction of ECAPed 7025 aluminum alloy in various conditions, such as die channel angle, outer corner angle, and friction coefficient. Experimental results indicate that, after the first pass, the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and hardness magnitude are improved by approximately 95%, 28%, and 48.5%, respectively, compared with the annealed state, mainly due to grain re-finement during the deformation. Finite element analysis shows that the influence of die channel angle is more important than that of outer corner angle or friction coefficient on both the strain behavior and the damage prediction. Also, surface cracks are the main cause of damage during the ECAP process for every die channel angle except for 90°;however, the cracks initiated from the neighborhood of the central re-gions are the possible cause of damage in the ECAPed sample with the die channel angle of 90°.

  2. Mechanical properties of equal channel angular pressed powder extrudates of a rapidly solidified hypereutectic Al-20 wt% Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seung Chae [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Yuseoung, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Jik [Division of Advanced Engineering, Kongju National University, Kongju, 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseoung, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sun Ig [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Yuseoung, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Seop [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Yuseoung, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-Mail: hskim@cnu.ac.kr

    2007-03-25

    The processing and mechanical properties of rapidly solidified and consolidated hypereutectic Al-20 wt% Si alloys were studied. A bulk form of rapidly solidified Al-20 wt% Si alloy was prepared by extruding gas atomized powders having a powder size of 106-145 {mu}m. Powder extrudates were subsequently equal channel angular pressed up to eight repetitive route C passes to refine matrix microstructure and Si particles by imposing severe plastic deformation. The microstructures of the gas atomized powders, extrudates and equal channel angular pressed samples were investigated via a scanning electron microscope. The mechanical properties of the bulk samples were measured by compressive tests. Equal channel angular pressing was found to be effective in matrix grain and Si particle refinement, which enhanced the strength of the Al-20 wt% Si alloy without deteriorating ductility in a range of experimental strain of up to 30%.

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of ZE10 magnesium alloy prepared by equal channel angular pressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Liu; Wei Li; Yuan-yuan Li

    2009-01-01

    ZE10 magnesium alloy was subjected to equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) up to 12 passes in a die with an angle of 120° between the two channels at 250-300°C. An inhomogeneous microstructure of bimodal grains including fine grains of 1-2 μm as well as coarse grains of about 20 °tm was obtained after the initial 1-4 ECAP passes. The grain size became increasingly homoge-neous with further ECAP processing and the grains were significantly refined to 1-2 μm after 8 passes and further refined to 0.5-1 μm after 12 passes. The alloy's yield strength changed slightly but the ductility improved greatly initially up to 4-6 passes corre-sponding to the bimodal grain microstrueture. And after the subsequent pressing of more than 8 passes, the tensile strength including yield strength improved while the elongation decreased gradually.

  4. Strength and ductility improvement of ultrafine-grained tungsten produced by equal-channel angular pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, T., E-mail: hao.ting@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Fan, Z.Q.; Zhang, T. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Luo, G.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, X.P.; Liu, C.S. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Fang, Q.F., E-mail: qffang@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-12-15

    In this study, equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) was employed to refine the grain size of tungsten at relatively low temperatures. The small punch (SP) test results show that the ultrafine-grained tungsten appears an evident improvement in both strength and ductility compared with primary coarse-grained tungsten. The analysis results from SP test data indicate that the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of the ultrafine-grained tungsten decrease to 386 °C and 322 °C due to the ECAP processing at 800 °C and 950 °C, respectively. The reason of the improvement in both strength and ductility of the ultrafine-grained tungsten produced by ECAP is discussed.

  5. Development of Nanostructured AA3103 by Equal Channel Angular Pressing and Thermal Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Luis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study related to the achievement of a nanometric structure in AA3103, employing severe plastic deformation processes (SPD, in this case equal channel angular pressing (ECAP. The changes in the mechanical properties and in the microstructure of AA3103 were studied after being processed by ECAP. Subsequently, scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the evolution of the microstructure after different thermal treatments on the material processed by this severe plastic deformation process. Furthermore, a more profound knowledge of the changes in the mechanical properties of this aluminium alloy was obtained. It was demonstrated that with different appropriate combinations of thermal treatments and ECAP processing, it is possible to significantly improve the mechanical properties through obtaining submicrometric grain size structures.

  6. Corrosion Behavior of Commercial Aluminum Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef Korchef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A commercial aluminum alloy was subjected to severe plastic deformation through equal channel angular pressing (ECAP. The alloy contains a low volume fraction of α-AlFeSi located essentially at the grain boundaries. The corrosion behavior of the ECAP’ed alloy was investigated in NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization and immersion tests. The effects of scan rate and NaCl concentration on the alloy susceptibility to corrosion were also studied. The results obtained were compared with those of the nonpressed alloy. ECAP leads to an intensive grain refinement accompanied by an increased dislocation density. All electrochemical tests confirm that corrosion resistance of the alloy remarkably diminished with increasing the ECAP number of passes. This is presumably due to the breakdown of the α-AlFeSi after ECAP leading to higher number of galvanic cells and enhanced dissolution of the aluminum matrix.

  7. Strength and ductility improvement of ultrafine-grained tungsten produced by equal-channel angular pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, T.; Fan, Z. Q.; Zhang, T.; Luo, G. N.; Wang, X. P.; Liu, C. S.; Fang, Q. F.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) was employed to refine the grain size of tungsten at relatively low temperatures. The small punch (SP) test results show that the ultrafine-grained tungsten appears an evident improvement in both strength and ductility compared with primary coarse-grained tungsten. The analysis results from SP test data indicate that the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of the ultrafine-grained tungsten decrease to 386 °C and 322 °C due to the ECAP processing at 800 °C and 950 °C, respectively. The reason of the improvement in both strength and ductility of the ultrafine-grained tungsten produced by ECAP is discussed.

  8. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Granular Pearlite Steel After Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yi; He, Tiantian; Li, Pengyan; Chen, Lufei; Ren, Fengzhang; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2015-07-01

    Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) of granular pearlite high carbon steel was carried out at room temperature via the Bc route. The microstructure evolution was investigated by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and the mechanical properties of granular pearlite steel were measured by tensile and microhardness testing. After four passes, the microstructure was obviously refined. An ultrafine microduplex structure with 400 nm equiaxed ferrite grains and 200 nm cementite particles were formed. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, microhardness, and the ratio of the yield to tensile strength increased with the number of ECAP passes, however, the elongation slightly reduced. The tensile fracture morphology changes gradually from ductile fracture to ductile and quasi-cleavage mixed fracture.

  9. Microstructure evolution of commercial pure titanium during equal channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure development of commercially pure titanium during 3 and 4 passes of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) has been investigated in detail by optical microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The flow line, texture, grain, subgrain and twinning structures along the whole length of the ECAP bar have been characterized systematically. A theoretically predicted triangular zone with a completely different flow line pattern and texture has been found at the extruded end of the sample. Details of the misorientation gradient inside grains and the continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) mechanism are discussed. Low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) in grains are seen to evolve into high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) throughout the material. No {101-bar 1} twinning was detected but a low fraction of {101-bar 2} twins was present.

  10. Mechanical properties and fracture characteristics of high carbon steel after equal channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultra-microduplex structure was fabricated in a fully pearlitic Fe–0.8 wt% C steel after equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 923 K via the Bc route. The microstructures and mechanical properties, before and after deformation, were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and mini-tensile tests. The cementite lamellae are gradually spheroidized by increasing the number of ECAP passes. After four passes, the cementite lamellae are fully spheroidized. Microhardness and the ultimate tensile strength of pearlite increase with the strain, up to a peak value (after two passes) and then decrease significantly. The yield strength, elongation and percentage of reduction in area increase with the number of ECAP passes. The tensile fracture morphology changes gradually from brittle cleavage to typical ductile fracture after four passes

  11. Texture analysis in ultrafine grained coppers processed by equal channel angular pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fabián Higuera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrolytic tough pitch (ETP and fire refined high conductivity (FRHC copper samples were severely deformed at room temperature by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP up to 16 passes (ε ~ 1 per pass, following route Bc. The effect of the initial texture on the evolution of texture after the ECAP process for both materials was analyzed. The annealed materials present a marked anisotropy, with a texture controlled by the fiber. According to the orientation distribution function (ODF, this initial behavior allows the presence of a strong C ({001} component after the first two ECAP passes in both coppers. However in the second pass the C component significantly increases in the FRHC copper, whereas the ETP copper presents a much more balanced behavior of the A1* (111[ 2]and A2* (111[11 ]components. The textures obtained for both coppers after each ECAP pass exhibit predominant orientations with continuous distributions along the orientation fiber with simple shear texture.

  12. Influence of post-deformation on CP-Ti processed by equal channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafine-grained (UFG) sheets of commercially pure (CP)-Ti were produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP), by ECAP plus subsequent rolling as a post-deformation and, for comparison, by rolling only, from coarse-grained (CG) billets. It was found that post-deformation of ECAPed CP-Ti by rolling achieves a higher strength with still considerable ductility, and a higher thermal stability compared with the sample's properties after ECAP deformation and/or rolling solely. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that the post-deformed material has a finer and much more homogeneous microstructure than the rolled CG material. Besides, it was shown that the workability of ECAPed Ti depends on the purity

  13. Influence of post-deformation on CP-Ti processed by equal channel angular pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyarov, V.V. [Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, RAS, Moscow 101990, Maly Kharitonievski lane 4 (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa 450000, K. Marks 12 (Russian Federation); Zeipper, L. [ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, Seibersdorf (Austria); Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mingler, B. [Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: bernhard.mingler@univie.ac.at; Zehetbauer, M. [Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-03-15

    Ultrafine-grained (UFG) sheets of commercially pure (CP)-Ti were produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP), by ECAP plus subsequent rolling as a post-deformation and, for comparison, by rolling only, from coarse-grained (CG) billets. It was found that post-deformation of ECAPed CP-Ti by rolling achieves a higher strength with still considerable ductility, and a higher thermal stability compared with the sample's properties after ECAP deformation and/or rolling solely. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that the post-deformed material has a finer and much more homogeneous microstructure than the rolled CG material. Besides, it was shown that the workability of ECAPed Ti depends on the purity.

  14. Characterization of nanostructured pure aluminum tubes produced by tubular channel angular pressing (TCAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafine grained (UFG) aluminum tubes were fabricated by the tubular channel angular pressing (TCAP) process. The microstructural evolution was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and mechanical properties were evaluated by compression test and hardness measurements. TEM analysis of specimen subjected to one TCAP pass showed the formation of an array of elongated subgrains with high angle grain boundaries. Increase in the number of passes changes the elongated grains to equiaxed grains with ∼310 nm sizes. Microhardness value of the processed tubes was enhanced to 49.4 Hv after one pass from an initial value of 32.9 Hv. Yield and ultimate strengths were increased 2.5 and 2.28 times as compared to annealed specimen. Compression tests also showed that UFG aluminum tubes exhibit lower work hardening and almost perfect plastic behavior without any failure

  15. Microstructural evolution of equal channel angular pressed AZ91D magnesium alloy during semi-solid isothermal heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Guoxiang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural evolution of AZ91D magnesium alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing during isothermal heat treatment at 570℃ was investigated. The results indicated that the equal channel angular pressing followed by semi-solid isothermal heat treatment was an effective method to prepare semisolid nondendritic slurry of AZ91D magnesium alloy. During this process, its microstructure change underwent four stages, the initial coarsening stage, the structure separation stage, the spheroidization stage and the final coarsening stage. The microstructural spheroidization effect was the best after being heated for 15 min for the alloy pressed for four passes, and the grain size was the smallest. With the further increase of heating time, the grain size and shape factor increased. When the heating time was kept constant, the grain size and shape factor decreased with the increase of pressing passes.

  16. Microstructural evolution of equal channel angular pressed AZ91D magnesium alloy during semi-solid isothermal heat treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Tijun; Lu Guoxiang; Hao Yuan

    2008-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of AZ91D magnesium alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing during isothermal heat treatment at 570℃ was investigated. The results indicated that the equal channel angular pressing followed by semi-solid isothermal heat treatment was an effective method to prepare semi-solid nondendritic slurry of AZ91D magnesium alloy. During this process, its microstructure change underwent four stages, the initial coarsening stage, the structure separation stage, the spheroidization stage and the final coarsening stage. The microstructural spheroidization effect was the best after being heated for 15 min for the alloy pressed for four passes, and the grain size was the smallest. With the further increase of heating time, the grain size and shape factor increased. When the heating time was kept constant, the grain size and shape factor decreased with the increase of pressing passes.

  17. Structural and mechanical properties of EN AW 6082 aluminum alloy produced by equal-channel angular pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Greger, Miroslav; Madaj, Michal; Žáček, David

    2014-01-01

    At the VSB-TU Ostrava a piece of equipment was installed for verifying the equal-channel-angular-pressing (ECAP) technology, used for investigating the effect of deformation on the evolution of the structure and mechanical properties of alloy EN AW 6082. This alloy was subjected to ECAP consisting of four passes. During the pressing deformation forces were measured and the pressure in the die was calculated. Higher values of strain hardening were found and a higher pressure was me...

  18. Evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of ultra-fine-grained IF steel processed by equal channel angular pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Krajňák; Kristián Máthis

    2013-01-01

    Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is one of the severe plastic deformation techniques which is widely used for producing metals with ultra-fine-grained microstructures. In the present work the influence of number of pressing by route BC on grain size, evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of interstitial-free (IF) steel has been investigated by means of optical microscopy, electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD) and tensile tests. It has been found, that the grain size ...

  19. Durability and static strength of microcrystalline titanium VT1-0 obtained by equal-channel angular pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betekhtin, V. I.; Dvorak, J.; Kadomtsev, A. G.; Kardashev, B. K.; Narykova, M. V.; Raab, G. K.; Sklenička, V.; Faizova, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of deformation by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) on the durability of titanium (VT1-0 grade) tensile tested under creep conditions has been studied for the first time. It is established that the ECAP-induced transition of titanium to a microcrystalline state leads to a decrease in the durability, while the characteristics of static strength are improved.

  20. Reducing the tension–compression yield asymmetry of extruded Mg–Zn–Ca alloy via equal channel angular pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Tong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of equal channel angular pressing on the tension–compression yield asymmetry of extruded Mg–5.3 Zn–0.6 Ca (weight percent alloy has been investigated. The microstructure was obviously refined by the large strain during the equal channel angular pressing, accompanied with very fine Ca2Mg6Zn3 phases with average diameter of 70 nm. The weak tension–compression yield asymmetry after equal channel angular pressing is mainly attributed to the reduced volume fraction of extension twinning during the compression, because the slope (k of twinning in Hall–Petch relationship is higher than that of dislocation slip, and the twinning deformation is difficult to take place with decreasing grain size. The basal slip is more active in the alloy after equal channel angular pressing, due to the non-basal texture components, which hinders the twinning activation and reduces the yield asymmetry. Furthermore, the presence of fine precipitate restricts the twinning activation, which also contributes to the reduction of yield asymmetry.

  1. Fatigue property and fatigue cracks of ultra-fine grained copper processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, Q.; Du, Z.; Liu, X.; Kunz, Ludvík

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 682 (2011), s. 231-237. ISSN 1013-9826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : ultrafine-grained copper * equal channel angular pressing * fatigue * fatigue cracks Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  2. Optimizing the equal channel angular pressing process (ECAP) operation parameters to produce bulk nanostructure materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushgair, K.

    2015-03-01

    In this work we were interested in doing simulation using finite elements analysis (FEA) to study the equal channel angular pressing process (ECAP), which is currently one of the most popular methods of severe plastic deformation Processes (SPD). for fabricating Ultra-Fine Grained (UFG) materials, because it allows very high strains to be imposed leading to extreme work hardening and microstructural refinement. The main object of this study is to establish the influence of main parameters which effect ECAP process which are magnitude of the die angle and the friction coefficient. The angle studied between (90-135°) degree, and magnitude of the friction coefficient μ between (0.12-0.6), and number of pass. The samples were made from aluminum alloy at room temperature with (15X 15) mm cross section and 150 mm length. The simulation result shows that normal elastic strain, shears elastic strain, and max. shear elastic strain increased, when changing the angle from 90° to 100°. and decrease between the angle 110° to 135°. Also the total deformation increased when we change die angle from 90° to 135°. By studding the friction effect on the die and sample we noted that increasing the friction coefficient from 0.12 to 0.6, normal elastic strain, and shear elastic strain increased and increasing the friction coefficient from 0.1 to 0.6 decrease the normal and shear stress.

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a commercially pure Ti processed by warm equal channel angular pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Calvillo, P., E-mail: pablo.rodriguez@ctm.com.es [Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, Plaza de la Ciencia 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cabrera, J.M. [Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, Plaza de la Ciencia 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-02-11

    A commercially pure (CP) Titanium alloy classified as Grade 1, was processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) up to 4 passes in the temperature range of 450–150 °C. The resulting microstructures were observed by Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction, revealing a bimodal grain size distribution consisting of small recrystallized grains of submicrometer size, with an average value of 0.3 µm, and elongated bands of 1.4 µm with different degree of substructure. Additionally the fraction of restored and deformed grains were evaluated as a function of processing temperature following an internal grain misorientation criterion, leading to an overall fraction of recrystallized grains between 40% and 20% in samples ECAPed at 450 and 150 °C, respectively. The strengthening contributions of the grain size, equivalent oxygen content (O{sub eq}) and Low Angle Grain Boundaries (LAGBs) to the yield stress were identified by the Hall Petch and Taylor equations. The strengthening coefficient k of the Hall–Petch relation was approximately 5 MPa mm{sup −1/2}, with an increment of 0.44 MPa mm{sup −1/2} per 0.1 O{sub eq}.-%, while the LAGB strengthening contribution was responsible approximately by half of the experimental yield stress values measured.

  4. Mechanical Spectroscopy Of Equal-Channel Angular Pressed Fe-Cr Alloys And Tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ting

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Internal friction technique was used to investigate the microstructural stability of equal-channel angular pressed (ECAP 9Cr1Mo steel (T91, Fe-18wt.%Cr alloy, and pure W. Several non-relaxation internal friction peaks are observed in three ECAP-strained specimens, which are related to the microstructural transition from a severely deformed state to a static recovery state of dislocations, and to recrystallized state. Along with the disappearance of the P1 peak, another relaxation internal friction peak P2 is observed during the second heating run only in Fe-18wt.%Cr alloy, and it does not disappear even during subsequent third heating run. This peak is not observed in T91 steel and W. The P2 peak is likely associated with a process of grain boundary (GB sliding. Unlike T91, no abundant carbide precipitates distribute on GBs to pin GB and repulse GB sliding, thus, the P2 peak only occurs in Fe-18wt.%Cr alloy. It is concluded that high-temperature internal friction measurements are required to detect the grain boundary peak in pure W.

  5. Structure and mechanical behavior of Fe–Cr alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, H.Y. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Hao, T., E-mail: hao.ting@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, X.P. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Luo, G.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu, C.S. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Fang, Q.F., E-mail: qffang@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The grain size of Fe–Cr alloy can be refined to about 160 nm via ECAP method. • The strength increases monotonously with increasing the number of ECAP passes. • The total elongation (TE) decreases substantially due to ECAP processing. • The lost TE can be regained by an annealing in keeping with a higher strength. - Abstract: The microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe–18(wt)%Cr binary alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) method at room temperature were investigated. The average grain size of this Fe–Cr alloy was refined from several hundred of micrometers to about 160 nm after four passes extrusion. The influence of the number of passes in ECAP on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe–Cr alloys was investigated by means of TEM method, tensile tests, Vickers microhardness measurement and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) increases and the total elongation (TE) decreases significantly with increasing the number of ECAP passes. After annealing at 650 °C, the TE of the ECAPed samples was recovered to the value before ECAP process, and at the same time the UTS was 1.2–1.3 times that of the initial sample.

  6. Effect of Equal-Channel Angular Pressing on Pitting Corrosion of Pure Aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Injoon Son

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP on the pitting corrosion of pure Al was investigated using electrochemical techniques in solutions containing 0.1 m mol·dm−3 of Na2SO4 and 8.46 mol·dm−3 of NaCl (300 ppm Cl− and followed by surface analysis. The potential for pitting corrosion of pure Al was clearly shifted in the noble direction by the ECAP process indicating that this process improves resistance to pitting corrosion. The time dependence of corrosion potential and the anodic potential at 1 A·m−2 revealed that the rate of formation of Al oxide films increased due to a decrease in the grain size of the Al after ECAP. Since there exists a negligible amount of impurity precipitates in pure Al, the improvement in pitting corrosion resistance of pure Al by ECAP appears to be attributable to an increase in the rate of formation of Al oxide films.

  7. Flow behaviour of magnesium alloy AZ31B processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, M. S.; Chakkingal, U.

    2014-08-01

    Magnesium alloys are characterised by their low density, high specific strength and stiffness. But, the potential application of Mg is limited by its low room-temperature ductility & formability. Formability can be improved by developing an ultrafine grained (UFG) structure. Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is a well known process that can be used to develop an ultrafine grained microstructure. The aim of this study was to investigate the flow behaviour of AZ31B magnesium alloy after ECAP. The specimen was subjected to three passes of ECAP with a die angle of 120° using processing route Bc. The processing temperature was 523 K for the first pass and 423 K for the subsequent two passes. The microstructure characterisation was done. Compression tests of ECAPed and annealed specimens were carried out at strain rates of 0.01 - 1s-1 and deformation temperatures of 200 - 300°C using computer servo-controlled Gleeble-3800 system. The value of activation energy Q and the empirical materials constants of A and n were determined. The equations relating flow stress and Zener-Hollomon parameter were proposed. In the case annealed AZ31, the activation energy was determined to be 154 kJ/mol, which was slightly higher than the activation energy of 144 kJ/mol for ECAPed AZ31.

  8. Thermal Properties of SiCp/Al Composites Consolidated by Equal Channel Angular Pressing and Torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chen-hao; Li, Ping; Xue, Ke-min

    2015-02-01

    Powder mixture of pure Al and oxidized SiC was consolidated into SiCp/Al composites by equal channel angular pressing and torsion (ECAP-T). The influences of several parameters on the thermal expansions, the thermal conductivities, and the recrystallization temperatures of the as-consolidated composites were studied. These parameters are the number of ECAP-T passes (1, 2, and 4), the content of SiC (10, 20, and 40 wt.%), and the fabrication temperature (150, 250, and 350 °C). The results show that increasing the number of ECAP-T passes has a positive effect on depressing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the composite within a certain temperature range, since the total variation amplitude of the CTE is enlarged. The CTE can also be decreased by increasing the content of SiC. The number of ECAP-T passes and the contents of SiC in the composites are both positively related with the thermal conductivity of the composites. No direct relationship between the fabrication temperature and the thermal properties was detected. However, the composite fabricated at too low temperature (150 °C) can not obtain full densification, leading to the appearance of low CTE and thermal conductivity. Finally, when the number of ECAP-T passes is elevated from 2 to 4, the recrystallization temperature of the composite has an obvious declination.

  9. Equal Channel Angular Extrusion of AA 6063 Using Conventional Direct Extrusion Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Hsien; Lin, Hsin-Chih

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, an extrusion-equal channel angular extrusion (Ex-ECAE) process composed of two processes, extrusion and ECAE, is developed. The Ex-ECAE die contains three segments and is used directly in the conventional direct extrusion press to refine the microstructure, specifically the coarse grain layer (CGL) on the surface of the extrudate. The first segment in the die is designed to perform the normal extrusion process and the second and third segments to perform the process of ECAE. The study reveals that the CGL can be eliminated (refined) completely at the macroscale. At the microscale, the original grain is subdivided into subgrain, which contains many smaller cells. The results can be explained by the grain subdivision mechanism. The textures of the Ex-ECAE sample at various segments are measured using EBSD (Electron Backscatter Diffraction). The results reveal that the first segment of the Ex-ECAE sample has a perfect fiber texture which consists of a mixture of strong and weak fiber components. The texture of the second segment is a mixture of strong (1 1 0) [1 -2 1] and weak (0 1 1) [2 -1 0] fiber components. However, the main component of the second segment is a typical texture of the "alloy" or "brass" type. Finally, the texture of the extrudate (the third segment) is reversed to an incomplete fiber texture which consists of strong (0 0 1) [-1 -1 0] and weak (1 1 1) [1 -1 0].

  10. Development of Texture in Interstitial-Free Steel Processed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Deepa; Shekhawat, Satish Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, N. K.; Sastry, G. V. S.; Manna, R.

    2016-03-01

    Ti + Nb-stabilised interstitial-free steel is deformed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) adopting a route BC up to an equivalent strain of 24. Upon ECAP the grain size decreases to ultrafine level and it becomes strongly textured. At ɛvm = 0.6-6, components of both {110} fiber, J_{\\uptheta } , bar{J}_{\\uptheta } and of fiber, D 1θ, D 2θ with common components of E θ, bar{E}_{\\uptheta } are existing but after ɛvm ≥9, only fiber components are observed. At large strain, ɛvm = 9-24, fiber texture is recorded with monoclinic symmetry. At ɛvm = 0.6, coarse grains get split into deformation bands. Fragmentation of bands (at ɛvm = 3) suppress bar{J}_{\\uptheta } , J_{\\uptheta } components. At ɛvm = 6, formation of lamellar structures increases intensity of mainly D 1θ, D 2θ. At ɛvm = 9, oriented ribbon grains result in strong D 1θ, D 2θ components with fiber. At ɛvm = 15-24, conversion of ribbon grains to near-equiaxed shaped grains maintains fiber texture with enhanced intensity of D 1θ and D 2θ components.

  11. Low-cycle fatigue of Fe-20%Cr alloy processed by equal- channel angular pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Yoshihisa; Tomita, Ryuji; Vinogradov, Alexei

    2014-08-01

    Low-cycle fatigue properties were investigated on Fe-20%Cr ferritic stainless steel processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The Fe-20%Cr alloy bullets were processed for one to four passes via Route-Bc. The ECAPed samples were cyclically deformed at the constant plastic strain amplitude ɛpl of 5x10-4 at room temperature in air. After the 1-pass ECAP, low-angle grain boundaries were dominantly formed. During the low-cycle fatigue test, the 1-pass sample revealed the rapid softening which continued until fatigue fracture. Fatigue life of the 1-pass sample was shorter than that of a coarse-grained sample. After the 4-pass ECAP, the average grain size reduced down to about 1.5 μm. At initial stage of the low-cycle fatigue tests, the stress amplitude increased with increasing ECAP passes. At the samples processed for more than 2 passes, the cyclic softening was relatively moderate. It was found that fatigue life of the ECAPed Fe-20%Cr alloy excepting the 1-pass sample was improved as compared to the coarse-grained sample, even under the strain controlled fatigue condition.

  12. Electrochemical behavior of equal channel angular pressed titanium for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gode, C.; Attarilar, Sh.; Eghbali, B.; Ebrahimi, M.

    2015-03-01

    Equal channel angular pressing method is one of the prominent severe plastic deformation techniques to obtain ultrafine grained and even nanostructured metals and alloys by imposing intense plastic strain. As known, pure titanium can be a suitable candidate for biomedical applications because it does not release any toxic ions into the body fluids and also, its biocompatibility properties. The present investigation deals the corrosion behavior of commercial pure titanium before and after ECAP process up to 10 passes by route BC at the 250°C in the 0.9% NaCl solution. The electrochemical results revealed that the corrosion resistance of titanium sample is improved by adding pass number because of the fabrication of passive oxide layer on the surface of the material. It is found that about 92% reduction at the corrosion rate magnitude and also, approximately 41% improvement at the hardness value have been achieved at the final pass as compared to the annealed condition. Furthermore, it is observed that the passive film on the surface of final pass sample is dense and integral with uniform structure, while the as-received one has some rarefactions and does not have very uniform surface.

  13. Spall properties of Al 5083 plate fabricated using equi-channel angular pressing (ECAP) and rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spall strength and Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) of aluminum alloy 5083 (Al 5083) are compared for plates fabricated using equi-channel angular pressing (ECAP) and rolling. Al 5083 is a light-weight and strain-hardenable aluminum alloy used for armor plating in military transport vehicles, thus requiring the highest achievable spall strength and HEL. Materials that were processed by ECAP displayed a highly refined grain structure with little texture and a large degree of plastic deformation, whereas subsequent rolling resulted in a textured microstructure with both grains and inclusions aligning along the rolling direction. The spall behavior of Al 5083 was determined using plate-impact gas-gun experiments with rear free surface velocity measurements for a variety of processing conditions involving both ECAP and rolling. The spall strength and HEL increased from that of the as-received material after processing with ECAP. Subsequent rolling further increased the HEL but reduced the spall strength. Rolling also resulted in directional dependence of the spall strength, with the lowest spall strength occurring for impact through the plate thickness and highest spall strength in the rolling direction. The trends in the spall behavior correlate with the size and preferential alignment of manganese dispersoids and iron and silicon rich inclusions that are evolved during processing.

  14. Effect of temperature on texture formation of 6061 aluminum sheet in equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) procedure was conducted on 6061 aluminum sheet at temperature up to 513 K to investigate temperature effect on microstructure and texture formation. The deformed microstructures were examined by transmission electron microscopy and the macrotexture evolution was investigated by orientation distribution functions (ODFs). The results shown that when ECAP at temperature below 433 K the microstructures exhibit high dislocation density within subgrains with thick and waved non-equilibrium boundaries, and the textures are characterized by the formation of Rotated cube component or a pair of textures components near Rotated cube component, such as {0 3 1} and {0 1 3}or {0 4 1} and {0 1 4}. Whereas under certain procedure condition, i.e. at 513 K, the ECAP procedure is capable of producing microstructure with low density dislocations subgrains separated by regular boundaries, and a preferable //ND texture fiber is formed with the R-value as higher as 1.5. The texture results show that the ECAP procedure could be expected to be a potential application to enhance the formability of aluminum sheet

  15. Optimizing the equal channel angular pressing process (ECAP) operation parameters to produce bulk nanostructure materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abushgair, K. [Khaleel. Abu-Shgair, Al-Balqa Applied University, Amman, Jordan. khaleel45@yahoo.com (Jordan)

    2015-03-30

    In this work we were interested in doing simulation using finite elements analysis (FEA) to study the equal channel angular pressing process (ECAP), which is currently one of the most popular methods of severe plastic deformation Processes (SPD). for fabricating Ultra-Fine Grained (UFG) materials, because it allows very high strains to be imposed leading to extreme work hardening and microstructural refinement. The main object of this study is to establish the influence of main parameters which effect ECAP process which are magnitude of the die angle and the friction coefficient. The angle studied between (90-135°) degree, and magnitude of the friction coefficient μ between (0.12-0.6), and number of pass. The samples were made from aluminum alloy at room temperature with (15X 15) mm cross section and 150 mm length. The simulation result shows that normal elastic strain, shears elastic strain, and max. shear elastic strain increased, when changing the angle from 90° to 100°. and decrease between the angle 110° to 135°. Also the total deformation increased when we change die angle from 90° to 135°. By studding the friction effect on the die and sample we noted that increasing the friction coefficient from 0.12 to 0.6, normal elastic strain, and shear elastic strain increased and increasing the friction coefficient from 0.1 to 0.6 decrease the normal and shear stress.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Pb-4%Sb alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Braga Figueiredo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP is the most prominent SPD (Severe Plastic Deformation method for the production of ultrafine and nanostructured metals, and has been extensively employed and analyzed. This technique was applied to a Pb-4%Sb alloy at room temperature, in order to study its effect on a low melting point and multiphase metallic material. The material was subjected to effective strains higher than 9, after 8 passes of processing, where dynamic and static recrystallization are expected during and after each pass. This eliminates any grain refinement and allows the analysis only of the microstructural effects associated with second phase redistribution and eventual precipitate dissolution. ECAP followed route C, which eliminates structural alignment after each even ECAP pass, facilitating the study of the microstructural evolution. It is shown that three ECAP passes are necessary to completely break the lamellar structure of the as cast strucure and that antimony dissolves into the lead rich matrix. Dynamic recrystallization and structural changes reduce the material strength and change the flow curve format.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a commercially pure Ti processed by warm equal channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercially pure (CP) Titanium alloy classified as Grade 1, was processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) up to 4 passes in the temperature range of 450–150 °C. The resulting microstructures were observed by Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction, revealing a bimodal grain size distribution consisting of small recrystallized grains of submicrometer size, with an average value of 0.3 µm, and elongated bands of 1.4 µm with different degree of substructure. Additionally the fraction of restored and deformed grains were evaluated as a function of processing temperature following an internal grain misorientation criterion, leading to an overall fraction of recrystallized grains between 40% and 20% in samples ECAPed at 450 and 150 °C, respectively. The strengthening contributions of the grain size, equivalent oxygen content (Oeq) and Low Angle Grain Boundaries (LAGBs) to the yield stress were identified by the Hall Petch and Taylor equations. The strengthening coefficient k of the Hall–Petch relation was approximately 5 MPa mm−1/2, with an increment of 0.44 MPa mm−1/2 per 0.1 Oeq.-%, while the LAGB strengthening contribution was responsible approximately by half of the experimental yield stress values measured

  18. Initial porosity impact on equal channel angular pressing (ECAP of Ti–6Al–4V powder material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Andreyachshenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is studied the technology of processing Ti-6Al-4V powder material with various initial densities using the method of equal channel angular pressing. The device with the 90, 120 and 135 degree angled joint channels was used for the study. The deformation was carried out at the room temperature. It was found that the most favorable stressed-and-strained state was formed in the instrument where the angle of channel joints was equal to 135 degrees. The maximum compression in the instrument is reached at 90 degree angle of the channel joints, but it needs a larger deformation force. To obtain pressed material it is recommended to use a high ECAP cycle for any configuration.

  19. Calorimetric analysis of a Mg-Zn-Zr alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing via route A

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru, Florina Diana; Ghiban, Brândusa; Cabrera Marrero, José M.; Higuera Cobos, Oscar Fabián; Gurau, Gheorghe; Ghiban, Nicolae

    2014-01-01

    Being the lightest structural element, magnesium a nd its alloys has attracted significant interest in the last years, but because of its hexa gonal close packed structure, magnesium presents relatively low strength and ductility. One of the m ethods to improve the mechanical properties of the processed materials is through Severe Plastic D eformation (SPD). ZK60 magnesium alloy samples were subjected to 4 passes of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at a process...

  20. Improvement in Cold Formability of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP)

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Joung Sik

    2016-01-01

    The present study contributes to enhance the cold formability and competitiveness of magnesium sheet AZ31 as lightweight material using the process equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The systematic parameter study of ECAP process leads to a fundamental understanding of the interactions between microstructure and texture evolution, activation of deformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of AZ31 sheets. On this basis, the fundamentals are established in order that ECAP process can be...

  1. Shape memory effect of NiTi alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing followed by post deformation annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Shahmir, Hamed; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud; Terence G. Langdon

    2014-01-01

    Processing by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) is generally considered superior to most other SPD techniques because it uses relatively large bulk samples. However, due to their low deformability it has proven almost impossible to successfully process NiTi alloys by ECAP at room temperature and therefore the processing is conducted at elevated temperatures. Recently, a new billet design was introduced and it was used to achieve the successful processing of NiTi shape memory alloys by ECA...

  2. Microstructure influencing physical and mechanical properties of electrolytic tough pitch copper produced by equal channel angular pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Higuera Cobos, Oscar Fabián; Cabrera Marrero, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Samples of electrolytic tough pitch (ETP) copper were subjected to equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) for up to 16 passes at room temperature following route Bc. The microstructural evolution was followed by Oriented Image Microscopy (OIM) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to estimate the activation energy and the recrystallization temperature after each ECAP pass. Also, mechanical properties after each pass were evaluated by tensile tests. Finally, electrical propert...

  3. Grain refinement of bronze alloy by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) and its effect on corrosion behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Sadawy; Ghanem, M

    2016-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of bronze alloy prepared by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was investigated in 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution. Immersion corrosion tests and different electrochemical techniques were carried out. The results showed that ECAPed bronze samples exhibited higher corrosion resistance compared with the as-cast alloy and the passive current density decreased with increasing number of passes. Moreover, the morphology of alloys indicated that the corrosion damage on the surface...

  4. Grain Refinement and High-Performance of Equal-Channel Angular Pressed Cu-Mg Alloy for Electrical Contact Wire

    OpenAIRE

    Aibin Ma; Chengcheng Zhu; Jianqing Chen; Jinghua Jiang; Dan Song; Shizhan Ni; Qing He

    2014-01-01

    Multi-pass equal-channel angular pressing (EACP) was applied to produce ultrafine-grained (UFG) Cu-0.2wt%Mg alloy contact wire with high mechanical/electric performance, aim to overcome the catenary barrier of high-speed trains by maximizing the tension and improving the power delivery. Microstructure evolution and overall properties of the Cu-Mg alloy after different severe-plastic-deformation (SPD) routes were investigated by microscopic observation, tensile and electric tests. The results ...

  5. Influence of Particulate Reinforcement and Equal-Channel Angular Pressing on Fatigue Crack Growth of an Aluminum Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Köhler; Kristin Hockauf; Thomas Lampke

    2015-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth behavior of unreinforced and particulate reinforced Al 2017 alloy, manufactured by powder metallurgy and additional equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP), is investigated. The reinforcement was done with 5 vol % Al2O3 particles with a size fraction of 0.2–2 µm. Our study presents the characterization of these materials by electron microscopy, tensile testing, and fatigue crack growth measurements. Whereas particulate reinforcement leads to a drastic decrease of the gr...

  6. Compressive creep in Al-3%Mg-0.2%Sc alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenička, Václav; Dvořák, Jiří; Svoboda, Milan; Král, Petr; Kvapilová, Marie; Horita, Z.

    Warrendale, Pennsylvania : TMS, 2006 - (Zhu, Y.; Langdon, T.; Horita, Z.; Zehetbauer, M.; Semiatin, S.; Lowe, T.), s. 459-464 ISBN 978-0-87339-628-8. [International Symposium on Ultrafine Grained Materials /4./. San Antonio, Texas (US), 12.03.2006-16.03.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2041301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : aluminum alloy * equal-channel angular pressing * creep testing Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  7. Microstructural Evolution and Creep of an Al-0.2wt.%Sc Alloy after Equal-Channel Angular Pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Petr; Dvořák, Jiří; Sklenička, Václav

    Goslar : Trans Tech Publication Ltd, 2008 - (Estrin, Y.; Maier , H.), s. 846-851 ISBN 0-87849-375-1. ISSN 0255-5476. [International Conference on Nanomaterials by Severe Plastic Deformation /4./. Goslar (DE), 18.08.2008-22.08.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Ultrafine-grained materials * equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) * creep Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  8. Equal channel angular pressing of magnesium at room temperature: the effect of processing route on microstructure and texture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jäger, Aleš; Gärtnerová, Viera

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 8 (2012), s. 384-390. ISSN 0950-0839 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100801; GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnesium * equal channel angular pressing * grqain boundaries * electron backscattering diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.156, year: 2012

  9. Development of manufacturing systems for nanocrystalline and ultra-fine grain materials employing indexing equal channel angular pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Michael Wayne

    Nanotechnology offers significant opportunities in providing solutions to existing engineering problems as well as breakthroughs in new fields of science and technology. In order to fully realize benefits from such initiatives, nanomanufacturing methods must be developed to integrate enabling constructs into commercial mainstream. Even though significant advances have been made, widespread industrialization in many areas remains limited. Manufacturing methods, therefore, must continually be developed to bridge gaps between nanoscience discovery and commercialization. A promising technology for integration of top-down nanomanufacturing yet to receive full industrialization is equal channel angular pressing, a process transforming metallic materials into nanostructured or ultra-fine grained materials with significantly improved performance characteristics. To bridge the gap between process potential and actual manufacturing output, a prototype top-down nanomanufacturing system identified as indexing equal channel angular pressing (IX-ECAP) was developed. The unit was designed to capitalize on opportunities of transforming spent or scrap engineering elements into key engineering commodities. A manufacturing system was constructed to impose severe plastic deformation via simple shear in an equal channel angular pressing die on 1100 and 4043 aluminum welding rods. 1/4 fraction factorial split-plot experiments assessed significance of five predictors on the response, microhardness, for the 4043 alloy. Predictor variables included temperature, number of passes, pressing speed, back pressure, and vibration. Main effects were studied employing a resolution III design. Multiple linear regression was used for model development. Initial studies were performed using continuous processing followed by contingency designs involving discrete variable length work pieces. IX-ECAP offered a viable solution in severe plastic deformation processing. Discrete variable length work piece

  10. High Temperature Deformation of Twin-Roll Cast Al-Mn-Based Alloys after Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Přemysl Málek; Michaela Šlapáková Poková; Miroslav Cieslar

    2015-01-01

    Twin roll cast Al-Mn- and Al-Mn-Zr-based alloys were subjected to four passes of equal channel angular pressing. The resulting grain size of 400 nm contributes to a significant strengthening at room temperature. This microstructure is not fully stable at elevated temperatures and recrystallization and vast grain growth occur at temperatures between 350 and 450 °C. The onset of these microstructure changes depends on chemical and phase composition. Better stability is observed in the Al-Mn-Zr-...

  11. Microstructural and mechanical characteristics of AlSiMnFe alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Andreyachshenko; Naizabekov, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was conducted. The defectness degree of the alloy for one pass and maximum strain was determined. Ultra fine grained AlSiMnFe alloy was produced by refining grained annealed bulk by multi-pass ECAP at room temperature. The results reveal two regimes: from 1 to 2 passes the microstructure evolves to a equiaxed of ultrafine grains and from 2 to 4 passes there is no strict change in the average grain size.

  12. Microstructural and mechanical characteristics of AlSiMnFe alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Andreyachshenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP was conducted. The defectness degree of the alloy for one pass and maximum strain was determined. Ultra fine grained AlSiMnFe alloy was produced by refining grained annealed bulk by multi-pass ECAP at room temperature. The results reveal two regimes: from 1 to 2 passes the microstructure evolves to a equiaxed of ultrafine grains and from 2 to 4 passes there is no strict change in the average grain size.

  13. Influence of microstructural stability on the creep mechanism of Al-7wt% Si alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco-Caballero, A.; Menon, S.K.; Cepeda-Jiménez, C.M.; Hidalgo-Manrique, P.; McNelley, T.R.; Ruano, O.A.; Carreño, F.

    2014-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2014.06.017 A Na-modified, as-cast Al-7 wt% Si alloy was processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) up to 8 passes by route A at ambient temperature using a 90 degree square section die, obtaining improved strength ductility and work fracture. From the first pass, porosity is removed, the eutectic constituent is refined and the eutectic silicon particles are partially redistributed...

  14. Influence of Route-R on wrought magnesium AZ61 alloy mechanical properties through equal channel angular pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidhar Avvari; Narendranath, S.

    2014-01-01

    A new fundamental route entitled ‘Route-R’ is introduced to refine the grains in the material through Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) process. In route R, specimen is inverted to the original position in each ECAP pass. In the present work, AZ61 alloy is processed using ECAP process for three different fundamental routes mainly route A, route Bc, and route R. ECAP experiment is carried out on AZ61 alloy at lower temperature of 483 K up to two passes. Microstructural characterization is ...

  15. Stress-Corrosion Cracking Property of Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy Processed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Nakano; Satoshi Oue; Seiji Taguchi; Shigeo Kobayashi; Zenji Horita

    2012-01-01

    Stress-corrosion cracking property of an aluminum-magnesium alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) was investigated by a slow strain-rate tensile technique in a 3% NaCl solution of pH 4.2 at 303 K. The maximum stress and elongation of the Al-Mg alloy were lower in the NaCl solution than in air. The stress-corrosion cracking property was evaluated by the decrease ratio of maximum stress and elongation of the Al-Mg alloy with NaCl solution, ( m a x ) and ( ) , respecti...

  16. Grain refinement of bronze alloy by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP and its effect on corrosion behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Sadawy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of bronze alloy prepared by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP was investigated in 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution. Immersion corrosion tests and different electrochemical techniques were carried out. The results showed that ECAPed bronze samples exhibited higher corrosion resistance compared with the as-cast alloy and the passive current density decreased with increasing number of passes. Moreover, the morphology of alloys indicated that the corrosion damage on the surface of ECAPed bronze was smooth and uniform while the as-cast alloy suffered from selective corrosion.

  17. Microstructure strengthening mechanisms in an Al–Mg–Si–Sc–Zr equal channel angular pressed aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabibbo, Marcello, E-mail: m.cabibbo@univpm.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Scienze Matematiche (DIISM), Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    Microstructure dislocation strengthening mechanisms in severely deformed aluminium strongly depend on the different boundary evolutions. Thereafter, models of proof stress determination should take into account the different nature of the boundaries that form during severe plastic deformation. In the last few decades, Hall–Petch modified relationship and other proof stress modelling were extensively discussed. This paper deals with further insights into the Hansen's and other authors approach to the modelling of aluminium poof stress after equal channel angular pressing. The present model is based on a detailed transmission electron microscopy microstructure characterization of the different strengthening contributions in an age-hardened Al–Mg–Si–Sc–Zr alloy.

  18. Microstructural and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B alloys processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal, E.; Lapovok, R.; Kishimoto, H.; Kato, A.; Davies, C. H. J.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-05-01

    Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is a well-established thermo-mechanical processing technique. This technique allows virtually unlimited strain and manipulation of texture by processing route, while the cross-section of the sample remains unchanged during processing. In order to clarify the effectiveness of ECAP on preparing anisotropic permanent magnets, the microstructure and magnetic properties of a melt-spun Nd13.5Fe73.8Co6.7B5.6Ga0.4 alloy processed at 773 K for 300 s by ECAP were investigated. Macrotexture analysis carried out for the exit channel of ECAP shows that the basal plane of the tetragonal Nd2Fe14B crystal aligns parallel to the shear band, i.e., the c-axis texture formation normal to the shear band induced by the ECAP process. Due to this texture formation, the technical magnetization behaviour becomes anisotropic, and the remanent magnetization is clearly enhanced along the direction perpendicular to the shear band. This anisotropic microstructure is realized at a relatively low processing temperature of 773 K, well below the melting point of the Nd-rich intergranular phase. As a consequence of this lower processing temperature, the nanostructure of the melt-spun alloy remains approximately 20 to 30 nm, considerably smaller than the typical grain size obtained after conventional die-upsetting. Our study demonstrates that equal-channel angular pressing has a potential for realising anisotropic nanostructured magnets.

  19. Evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of ultra-fine-grained IF steel processed by equal channel angular pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Krajňák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP is one of the severe plastic deformation techniques which is widely used for producing metals with ultra-fine-grained microstructures. In the present work the influence of number of pressing by route BC on grain size, evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of interstitial-free (IF steel has been investigated by means of optical microscopy, electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD and tensile tests. It has been found, that the grain size decreases with increasing number of passes. Simultaneously tensile strength increases. The thermal stability of ECAP-processed microstructures has been also examined. It was found that the degradation of mechanical properties occurs only above 600˚C and 700˚C.

  20. Effect of deformation route on the development of low CN Fe-20%Cr alloy by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Muhammad; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    The effect of deformation routes on the microstructure, mechanical, and electrochemical properties of low CN Fe-20%Cr alloys by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) has been investigated in detail focusing on the anisotropy of the microstructure. This alloy is pressed at 423K up to eight passes via the so-called routes A, Bc and C. The continuous refinement of the microstructure is sustained by ECAP until the sub-grain range. However, the degree of anisotropy of microstructural development was different among the three deformation routes. Materials processed by Route Bc exhibited a comparable micro-hardness value in three orthogonal planes than those processed by routes A and C. Pitting corrosion characteristics of the ECAP processed sample were investigated using an electrochemical potentiodynamic test. The increased pitting potential along with an increased number passes of ECAP were explained by enhanced protective passive layer of ultrafine grain structure, as compared to the coarse grain counterpart.

  1. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) and Its Application to Grain Refinement of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekeli, Sueleyman; Gueral, Ahmet

    2011-12-10

    Microstructure of a metal can be considerably changed by severe plastic deformation techniques such as high pressure torsion, extrusion and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). Among these methods, ECAP is particularly attractive because it has a potential for introducing significant grain refinement and homogeneous microstructure into bulk materials. Typically, it reduces the grain size to the submicrometer level or even nanometer range and thus produces materials that are capable of exhibiting unusual mechanical properties. In the present study, a test unites for equal channel angular pressing was constructed and this system was used for Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. After the optimization tests, it was seen that the most effective lubricant for the dies was MoS{sub 2}, the pressing pressure was around 25-35 ton and the pressing speed was 2 mm/s. By using these parameters, the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was successfully ECAPed up to 14 passes at 200 deg. C using route C. After ECAP tests, the specimens were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), hardness and macrostructural investigations. It was seen that the plastic deformation in the ECAPed specimens occurred from edge to the centre like whirlpool. In addition, the deformation intensity increased with increasing pass number. The grain size of the specimens effectively also decreased with increasing pass number. That is, while the grain size of unECAPed specimen was 10 {mu}m, this value decreased to 300 nm after 14 passes. At the beginning, while there was a banding tendency in the grains toward deformation direction, homogeneous and equiaxed grains were formed with increasing pass number. This grain refinement was as a result of an interaction between shear strain and thermal recovery during ECAP processing. Hardness measurements showed that the hardness values increased up to 4 passes, decreased effectively at 6th pass, again increased at 8th pass and after this pass, the hardness again decreased due to

  2. Specialized mechanical properties of pure aluminum by using non-equal channel angular pressing for developing its electrical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshteh-Saniee, Faramarz; Asgari, Mohammad; Fakhar, Naeimeh

    2016-08-01

    Despite valuable electrical characteristics, the use of pure aluminum in different applications has been limited due to its low strength. Non-equal channel angular pressing (NECAP) is a recently proposed severe plastic deformation process with greater induced plastic strain and, consequently, better grain refinement in the product, compared with the well-known equal channel angular pressing technique. This research is concerned with the effects of the process temperature and ram velocity on the mechanical, workability and electrical properties of AA1060 aluminum alloy. Increasing the process temperature can concurrently increase the workability, ductility and electrical conductivity, while it has a reverse influence on the strength of the NECAPed specimen, although the strengths of all the products are higher than the as-received alloy. The influence of the ram speed on the mechanical properties of the processed samples is lower than the process temperature. Finally, a compromised process condition is introduced in order to attain a good combination of workability and strength with well-preserved electrical conductivity for electrical applications of components made of pure aluminum.

  3. Properties and Formation of the Structure of Bi2Se0.3Te2.7 Solid Solutions Produced by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, D. I.; Bublik, V. T.; Tabachkova, N. YU.; Tarasova, I. V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports an x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy study of regularities in the formation of defect structures in thermoelectric materials at different stages of plastic flow during equal-channel angular pressing in a three-channel configuration. We show that this deformation setup produces a homogeneous fine-grain structure with a preferential texture in which grain cleavage planes arrange along the extrusion axis. These studies of the structure and properties of thermoelectric materials were used to choose the optimum temperature for equal-channel angular pressing corresponding to lower pre-recrystallization temperatures.

  4. X-ray diffraction analysis of aluminium containing Al8Fe2Si processed by equal channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 99.1% aluminium with initial grain size of ∼85 μm was deformed by equal channel angular (ECA) pressing. The sample undergoes an effective strain of 1.07 N by N passes through the die. The material contains a low volume fraction of Al8Fe2Si precipitates located essentially at the grain boundaries. The analysis of the X-ray diffraction peaks showed a significant broadening, which was related to grain refinement and lattice distortions. The crystallite size, calculated using the Halder-Wagner method, reached 225 nm after two passes and did not subsequently change. A decrease of the lattice parameter was also observed after ECA pressing. This is due to a partial dissolution of the precipitates. The microstructure was stable up an annealing of 200 deg. C due to the precipitates which delay the diffusion process. The annealing of the ECA pressed samples up to 400 deg. C leads to a decrease in the X-ray diffraction peaks broadening and an increase of the lattice parameter. This is due to grain growth

  5. Textural evaluation of copper produced by equal channel angular pressing with routes A and B30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: A new route with a rotating angle of 30 deg. in the same direction between consecutive passes was adopted and comparisons were made between the texture evolutions of pure copper specimens processed by CAP up to ten passes with routes A and B30. - Abstract: The present study investigated texture evolution and tensile properties of oxygen-free, high conductivity copper (OFHC) subjected to equal channel angular extrusion at room temperature for up to ten passes using routes A and B30. As the cross sections of the specimens were circular, a new route with a rotation angle of 30 deg/ in the same direction between consecutive passes was used. Texture was weak in the initial copper specimen. Both routes exhibited texture development similar to simple shear. In route A, A1 and C are the main components up to four passes and the B/B-bar components strengthen in the sixth pass, but in route B30 the discontinuous strain path applied to the bar through rotation by 30 deg. around its longitudinal axis between each pass results in significant changes in texture with increasing N. The tensile strength and ductility of the annealed and ECAP samples with routes A and B30 were measured using tensile tests and the relations between tensile strength and intensity of (1 1 0) textures were obtained.

  6. Dynamic Compression Properties of an Ultrafine-Grained Al-26 wt.% Si Alloy Fabricated by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinghua; Shi, Jun; Yao, YiHong; Ma, Aibin; Song, Dan; Yang, Donghui; Chen, Jianqing; Lu, Fumin

    2015-05-01

    The grains of a hypereutectic Al-26 wt.% Si alloy were drastically refined by multi-pass equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). Compression deformation characteristics of the alloy with different microstructure were examined at two dynamic strain rates (700, 1000 s-1) by a split-Hopkinson pressure bar system and at a quasi-static strain rate (0.001 s-1) by a universal testing machine, respectively. The results reveal that the Al-26 wt.% Si alloy is strain-rate sensitive under those compression conditions, i.e., the initial yield stress and the flow stress considerably increase with the strain rate. Grain refinement through ECAP improves the strain-rate sensitivity of the alloy. With rising the ECAP temperature, the yield stress of the ultrafine-grained alloy decreases but the strain value increases during dynamic compression.

  7. Texture Evolution as Determined by In situ Neutron Diffraction During Annealing of Iron Deformed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandim, H. R. Z.; Bolmaro, R. E.; Renzetti, R. A.; Sandim, M. J. R.; Hartwig, K. T.; Vogel, S. C.; Raabe, D.

    2014-09-01

    In situ neutron diffraction experiments were performed to follow the annealing behavior of iron deformed by equal-channel angular pressing at room temperature using route B c to a total von Mises strain of ɛ vM = 9.2. The temperature was varied from room temperature to 1223 K (950 °C), while neutron diffraction data for quantitative texture analysis were collected at a given temperature when holding for 5 minutes. Pole figures and orientation distribution function maps from neutron diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction measurements were used to follow the changes in crystallographic texture and grain size during annealing. In situ neutron diffraction experiments allowed understanding and identifying texture-related changes that occur during recrystallization, grain growth, and phase transformation in iron.

  8. Effect of multidirectional forging and equal channel angular pressing on ultrafine grain formation in a Cu- Cr-Zr alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhova, I.; Belyakov, A.; Kaibyshev, R.

    2014-08-01

    The microstructure evolution was investigated in a Cu-0.3%Cr-0.5%Zr alloy subjected to large plastic deformation at temperature of 400 °C. Two methods of large plastic deformation, i.e., equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and multidirectional forging (MDF) were used. The large plastic deformations resulted in the development of new ultrafine grains. The formation of new ultrafine grains occurred as a result of continuous reaction, i.e., progressive increase in the misorientations of deformation subboundaries. The faster kinetics of microstructure evolution was observed during MDF as compared to ECAP. The MDF to a total strain of 4 resulted in the formation of uniform ultrafine grained structure, while ECAP to the same strain led to the heterogeneous microstructure consisting of new ultrafine grains and coarse remnants of original grains. Corresponding area fractions of ultrafine grains comprised 0.23 and 0.59 in the samples subjected to ECAP and MDF, respectively.

  9. Mechanical properties and biocorrosion resistance of the Mg-Gd-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junyi; Kang, Zhixin; Wang, Fen

    2016-11-01

    A Mg-Gd-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy was processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 375°C. The grain size of Mg-Gd-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy was refined to ~2.5μm with the spherical precipitates (β1 phase) distributing in the matrix. The mechanical properties of ECAPed alloy were significantly improved as a result of the grain refinement and precipitation strengthening. The corrosion rate of the ECAPed magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid dramatically decreased from 0.236mm/a to 0.126mm/a due to the strong basal texture and refined microstructure. This wrought magnesium alloy shows potentials in biomedical application. PMID:27524012

  10. Grain Refinement and High-Performance of Equal-Channel Angular Pressed Cu-Mg Alloy for Electrical Contact Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibin Ma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-pass equal-channel angular pressing (EACP was applied to produce ultrafine-grained (UFG Cu-0.2wt%Mg alloy contact wire with high mechanical/electric performance, aim to overcome the catenary barrier of high-speed trains by maximizing the tension and improving the power delivery. Microstructure evolution and overall properties of the Cu-Mg alloy after different severe-plastic-deformation (SPD routes were investigated by microscopic observation, tensile and electric tests. The results show that the Cu-Mg alloy after multi-pass ECAP at 473 K obtains ultrafine grains, higher strength and desired conductivity. More passes of ECAP leads to finer grains and higher strength, but increasing ECAP temperature significantly lower the strength increment of the UFG alloy. Grain refinement via continuous SPD processing can endow the Cu-Mg alloy superior strength and good conductivity characteristics, which are advantageous to high-speed electrification railway systems.

  11. Deformation mechanism at impact test of Al-11% Si alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing with rotary die

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ai-bin; Y. NISHIDA; JIANG Jing-hua; N. SAITO; I. SHIGEMATSU; A. WATAZU

    2007-01-01

    Al-11%Si (mass fraction) alloy was transformed into a ductile material by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) with a rotary die. Two mechanisms at impact test, slip deformation by dislocation motion and grain boundary sliding, were discussed. The ultrafine grains with modified grain boundaries and the high content of fine particles (<1 μm) were necessary for attaining high absorbed energy. The results contradict the condition of slip deformation by dislocation motion and coincide with that of grain boundary sliding. Many fine zigzag lines like a mosaic were observed on the side surface of the tested specimens. These observed lines may show grain boundaries appeared by the sliding of grains.

  12. Hardening and microstructural reactions in high-temperature equal-channel angular pressed Mg-Nd-Gd-Zn-Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of high-temperature (330 deg. C) equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is demonstrated to promote precipitation of a fine and uniform dispersion of the FCC β1 phase in an Mg-Nd-Gd-Zn-Zr alloy. Significantly, this process induces a hardening reaction in the alloy, where isothermal ageing at this temperature leads only to softening. The evolution of microstructure is characterized using transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The nucleation and growth of precipitates during the high-temperature ECAP are discussed. This research highlights a new approach to engineer precipitate microstructures via the application of severe plastic deformation so as to extend the property space of high-temperature Mg alloys.

  13. Transformation of Lamellar Structures in Equal Channel Angular Pressing: Geometric Model and Application to Nickel Aluminum Bronze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Cameron J.; McDonald, Daniel T.; Xia, Kenong

    2015-09-01

    Nickel aluminum bronze (NAB) with a duplex structure was subjected to equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). Samples were pressed for up to four passes at 673 K (400 °C) using routes A, BA, BC, and C, respectively, and the evolution of the microstructures was characterized. A detailed geometric model was developed to enable systematic and quantitative analysis of the transformation of the lamellar structure during ECAP. Depending on their orientations before each ECAP pass, the lamellae were either stretched, leading to fragmentation, or compressed, resulting in buckling and spheroidisation at locations of high curvature. Thanks to the continuous rotation of lamellae into the stretching orientations in route A and the non-plane strain deformation in the two B routes, they are demonstrated to be the most effective in breaking down the lamellar structure. In contrast, partial restoration due to redundant strain in route C makes it least efficient. The model applies generally to materials with a duplex structure, such as NAB and low and medium carbon steels, consisting of a hard and brittle lamellar phase and a softer and ductile matrix phase.

  14. EVOLUTION OF MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRA-FINE-GRAINED INTERSTITIAL-FREE STEEL PROCESSED BY EQUAL CHANNEL ANGULAR PRESSING

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Krajňák; Kristián Máthis

    2013-01-01

    Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is one of the severe plastic deformation techniques which is widely used for producing metals with ultra-fine-grained microstructures. In the present work the influence of number of pressing by route BC on grain size, evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of interstitial-free (IF) steel has been investigated by means of optical microscopy, electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD) and tensile tests. It has been found, that the grain size ...

  15. X-ray microbeam measurements of long-range internal stresses in commercial-purity aluminum processed by multiple passes of equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray microbeam diffraction was used to measure long-range internal stresses (LRISs) in the grain/subgrain interiors of commercial-purity aluminum processed by equal-channel angular pressing for up to eight passes. The LRIS values at +4.9° off the axial (pressing) direction show only a slight increase with increasing numbers of passes. The normalized stress remains approximately constant at ∼0.10 of the flow stress

  16. Comparison of the monotonic and cyclic mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained low carbon steels processed by continuous and conventional equal channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► UFG low-carbon steel was successfully processed by continuous ECAP-Conform. ► Continuously processed UFG steel shows high performance. ► High monotonic strength and good ductility. ► Microstructural stability under cyclic loading in the LCF regime. ► Established concepts can be used for predicting the properties. - Abstract: In the current study the mechanical properties of ultra-fine grained low carbon steel processed by conventional equal channel angular pressing and a continuous equal channel angular pressing-Conform process were investigated. Both monotonic and cyclic properties were determined for the steel in either condition and found to be very similar. Microstructural analyses employing electron backscatter diffraction were used for comparison of the low carbon steels processed by either technique. Both steels feature very similar grain sizes and misorientation angle distributions. With respect to fatigue life the low carbon steel investigated shows properties similar to ultra-fine grained interstitial-free steel processed by conventional equal channel angular pressing, and thus, the general fatigue behavior can be addressed following the same routines as proposed for interstitial-free steel. In conclusion, the continuously processed material exhibits very promising properties, and thus, equal channel angular pressing-Conform is a promising tool for production of ultra-fine grained steels in a large quantity

  17. Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) of AA6082 : mechanical properties, texture and microstructural development

    OpenAIRE

    Werenskiold, Jens Christofer

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with the concept of ECAP applied to a commercial Al Mg-Si alloy (AA6082.50). A detailed analysis of the strains introduced by ECAP in a single passage through the die has been made, based on direct measurements on partially pressed samples. Further, the mechanical properties of ECAP’ed samples have been investigated. The effect of initial material temper and post-ECAP artificial aging was investigated in addition to the effect of strain accumulation and processing route. F...

  18. Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) of AA6082 : mechanical properties, texture and microstructural development

    OpenAIRE

    Werenskiold, Jens Christofer

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with the concept of ECAP applied to a commercial Al Mg-Si alloy (AA6082.50). A detailed analysis of the strains introduced by ECAP in a single passage through the die has been made, based on direct measurements on partially pressed samples. Further, the mechanical properties of ECAP’ed samples have been investigated. The effect of initial material temper and post-ECAP artificial aging was investigated in addition to the effect of strain accumulation and processing route. Fin...

  19. Strength and ductility of medium carbon steel after equal channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon the ECA pressing at 4000C of the AISI 1045 steel with 0.45% C, the processes of dynamic recovery are developed with the formation of subgrains of ∼320 nm in size and isolated grains of submicron size with high-angle boundaries. The fragmentation and partial spheroidization of the cementite lamellae is observed within the pearlite colonies. Deformation in pearlite grains is not sufficient, either to break down the cementite lamellae structure or to produce the refinement of ferrite grains. Annealing of the deformed steel with 0.45%C after ECA pressing causes the perfection of the recovered structure in ferrite and further processes of fragmentation, spheroidization, and coagulation of carbide phase. Annealing at T = 5500C for 5 h leads to almost complete spheroidization of carbides with an average size of ∼280 nm and increases to some extent the average ferrite grain (subgrain) size to ∼410 nm. The submicron grain-subgrain structure of the steel with 0.45%C causes a significant strengthening (YS = 960 MPa) at a retention of satisfactory elongation (EL = 8%). Subsequent annealing at T 5500C for 5 h increases ductility to EL = 14% and decreases the yield strength to YS = 745 MPa.

  20. Microstructure and texture evolution in a Cu–Ni–Si alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadj Larbi, Fayçal; Azzeddine, Hiba [Faculté de Physique, USTHB, BP 32 El-Alia, Dar El Beida, Alger (Algeria); Baudin, Thierry [Université de Paris Sud, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, Laboratoire de physico-chimie de l’état solide, Bâtiment 410, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Mathon, Marie-Hélène [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, CEA-CNRS, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Brisset, François; Helbert, Anne-Laure [Université de Paris Sud, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, Laboratoire de physico-chimie de l’état solide, Bâtiment 410, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Kawasaki, Megumi, E-mail: megumi@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Departments of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); Bradai, Djamel [Faculté de Physique, USTHB, BP 32 El-Alia, Dar El Beida, Alger (Algeria); Langdon, Terence G. [Departments of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); Materials Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • A Cu–Ni–Si alloy is processed by ECAP up to 12 passes at 423 K through route A. • The texture after ECAP is characterized by typical shear components of fcc metals. • ECAP leads to randomization of the texture with increasing numbers of passes. • ECAP through route A rotates the texture positions from the ideal component. - Abstract: Experiments were conducted to evaluate the evolution of microstructure and texture in a commercial Cu–2.5Ni–0.6Si (wt.%) alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 423 K for up to 12 passes. An electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis shows that ECAP processing leads to microstructural refinement with an average grain size of ∼0.9 μm. The refined grains are inclined to the direction of extrusion and the deformation structure evolves from elongated grains to a duplex microstructure of equiaxed and elongated grains. Detailed measurements demonstrate that the grain boundary misorientations gradually increase with increasing numbers of ECAP passes. The texture was investigated using both EBSD and neutron diffraction. The results show the texture after ECAP is characterized by typical shear components of face-centered cubic metals which deviate from their ideal positions.

  1. Low-temperature superplasticity of ZK40 magne-sium alloy processed using equal channel angular pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LIN

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure evolution and superplastic behaviours of ZK40 magnesium alloy were investigated in the temperature range of 473-623 K. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to study the microstructure changes, twining occurred significantly after being processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP for one pass through the die, the mean grain size was 5.6 μm. Finer grains can be obtained after further processing through ECAP, the average grain size of the alloy processed by ECAP for three passes was as low as 0.8 μm; this alloy exhibited low temperature superplasticity at 473-523 k, elongations obtained at the same initial strain rate of 1×10-3 s-1 were 260% at 473 K and 612% at 523 K, respectively. Corresponding values for the ZK40 alloy processed by ECAP for only one pass were 124% at 473 K and 212% at 523 K, respectively; poor superplastic bahavior of this material was related to long -range stresses associated with the non-equilibrium grain boundaries within the coarse grains. The incompatativity between fine and coarse grains was thought to be unfavorable to the improvement of superplasticity.

  2. Influence of Route-R on wrought magnesium AZ61 alloy mechanical properties through equal channel angular pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar Avvari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new fundamental route entitled ‘Route-R’ is introduced to refine the grains in the material through Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP process. In route R, specimen is inverted to the original position in each ECAP pass. In the present work, AZ61 alloy is processed using ECAP process for three different fundamental routes mainly route A, route Bc, and route R. ECAP experiment is carried out on AZ61 alloy at lower temperature of 483 K up to two passes. Microstructural characterization is evaluated on unECAPed and ECAPed specimens for three routes. Average grain size of the alloy is to be reduced from 66 μm to 16 μm, 14.1 μm and 10 μm for route A routes Bc, and route R respectively. Vickers microhardness of the alloy is found to be 60 HV for as received material. This microhardness of the alloy is increased to 71 HV, 72 HV, and 74 HV for route A, route Bc, and route R respectively. Mechanical properties of the AZ61 alloy are observed to be route R is providing maximum YS, UTS, and percentage elongation than other route A and route Bc. Tensile fracture topography of the specimen is analyzed using three different routes for two passes.

  3. Shape memory effect of NiTi alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing followed by post deformation annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmir, Hamed; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud; Langdon, Terence G.

    2014-08-01

    Processing by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) is generally considered superior to most other SPD techniques because it uses relatively large bulk samples. However, due to their low deformability it has proven almost impossible to successfully process NiTi alloys by ECAP at room temperature and therefore the processing is conducted at elevated temperatures. Recently, a new billet design was introduced and it was used to achieve the successful processing of NiTi shape memory alloys by ECAP. In this procedure, a NiTi alloy was inserted as a core within an Fe sheath to give a core-sheath billet. In this research, a NiTi was processed by one pass ECAP with this new billet design at room temperature. The structural evolution during annealing was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microhardness measurements. Post deformation annealing (PDA) was carried out at 400°C for 5 to 300 min and the results indicate that the shape memory effect improves by PDA after ECAP.

  4. Influence of Particulate Reinforcement and Equal-Channel Angular Pressing on Fatigue Crack Growth of an Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Köhler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue crack growth behavior of unreinforced and particulate reinforced Al 2017 alloy, manufactured by powder metallurgy and additional equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP, is investigated. The reinforcement was done with 5 vol % Al2O3 particles with a size fraction of 0.2–2 µm. Our study presents the characterization of these materials by electron microscopy, tensile testing, and fatigue crack growth measurements. Whereas particulate reinforcement leads to a drastic decrease of the grain size, the influence of ECAP processing on the grain size is minor. Both reinforced conditions, with and without additional ECAP processing, exhibit reduced fatigue crack growth thresholds as compared to the matrix material. These results can be ascribed to the well-known effect of the grain size on the crack growth, since crack deflection and closure are directly affected. Despite their small grain size, the thresholds of both reinforced conditions depend strongly on the load ratio: tests at high load ratios reduce the fatigue threshold significantly. It is suggested that the strength of the particle-matrix-interface becomes the critical factor here and that the particle fracture at the interfaces dominates the failure behavior.

  5. Role of deformation temperature on the evolution and heterogeneity of texture during equal channel angular pressing of magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Somjeet, E-mail: somjeetbiswas@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Université de Lorraine, F-57045 Metz (France); Brokmeier, H.-G. [Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht Max Planck Straße 1, Geb 33, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Fundenberger, J.-J. [Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Université de Lorraine, F-57045 Metz (France); Laboratoire d' Étude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux, UMR 7239, CNRS/Université de Lorraine, F-57045 Metz (France); Suwas, Satyam [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Investigations on texture evolution and through-thickness texture heterogeneity during equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) of pure magnesium at 200 °C, 150 °C and room temperature (RT) was carried out by neutron, high energy synchrotron X-ray and electron back-scatter diffraction. Irrespective of the ECAP temperature, a distinctive basal (B) and pyramidal (C{sub 2}) II type of fibers forms. The texture differs in the bottom 1 mm portion, where the B-fiber is shifted ~ 55° due to negative shear attributed to friction. - Highlights: • ECAP of magnesium was carried out at 200 °C, 150 °C and room temperature. • Microstructure and micro-texture evolution was examined using EBSD in FEG–SEM. • Bulk-texture was studied using neutron diffraction and compared with micro-texture. • Through thickness texture heterogeneity was observed by synchrotron radiation. • Changes in these parameters with respect to deformation temperature are discussed.

  6. Stress-Corrosion Cracking Property of Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy Processed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Nakano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-corrosion cracking property of an aluminum-magnesium alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP was investigated by a slow strain-rate tensile technique in a 3% NaCl solution of pH 4.2 at 303 K. The maximum stress and elongation of the Al-Mg alloy were lower in the NaCl solution than in air. The stress-corrosion cracking property was evaluated by the decrease ratio of maximum stress and elongation of the Al-Mg alloy with NaCl solution, (max and (, respectively. (max and ( were lower with ECAP than without it, showing that the susceptibility of stress-corrosion cracking decreased with ECAP. The polarization curve and time dependence of the anodic current density at constant potential of the Al-Mg alloy in the NaCl solution revealed that the anodic current density was lower with ECAP than without it, or the corrosion resistance of the Al-Mg alloy was improved by ECAP. The decrease in stress-corrosion crack susceptibility of the Al-Mg alloy with ECAP is attributed to an improvement in corrosion resistance afforded by ECAP.

  7. Ultrafine grained ferrite-martensite dual phase steels fabricated via equal channel angular pressing: Microstructure and tensile properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafine grained (UFG) ferrite-martensite dual phase steels containing different amounts of vanadium were fabricated by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and subsequent intercritical annealing. Their room temperature tensile properties were examined and compared to those of a coarse grained counterpart. The formation of UFG martensite islands of ∼1 μm was not confined to the former pearlite colonies but they were uniformly distributed throughout UFG ferrite matrix. A diffusion analysis showed that this specific microstructure may result from dissolution of carbon atoms from pearlitic cementite and their concurrent diffusion into UFG ferrite during ECAP, making the average carbon content reach the equilibrium content to form austenite during subsequent intercritical annealing. The strength of UFG dual phase steels was much higher than that of the coarse grained counterpart, but uniform and total elongations were not degraded. More importantly, the present UFG dual phase steels exhibited extensive rapid strain hardening unlike most UFG materials. The addition of vanadium slightly increased the strength and elongation of the present UFG dual phase steels, but it was found that excessive vanadium addition did not lead to further improvement of their mechanical properties. An excellent combination of strength, elongation and strain hardening of the present UFG dual phase steels was explained in terms of their specific microstructural features

  8. Role of deformation temperature on the evolution and heterogeneity of texture during equal channel angular pressing of magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations on texture evolution and through-thickness texture heterogeneity during equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) of pure magnesium at 200 °C, 150 °C and room temperature (RT) was carried out by neutron, high energy synchrotron X-ray and electron back-scatter diffraction. Irrespective of the ECAP temperature, a distinctive basal (B) and pyramidal (C2) II type of fibers forms. The texture differs in the bottom 1 mm portion, where the B-fiber is shifted ~ 55° due to negative shear attributed to friction. - Highlights: • ECAP of magnesium was carried out at 200 °C, 150 °C and room temperature. • Microstructure and micro-texture evolution was examined using EBSD in FEG–SEM. • Bulk-texture was studied using neutron diffraction and compared with micro-texture. • Through thickness texture heterogeneity was observed by synchrotron radiation. • Changes in these parameters with respect to deformation temperature are discussed

  9. Microstructure and texture evolution in a Cu–Ni–Si alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A Cu–Ni–Si alloy is processed by ECAP up to 12 passes at 423 K through route A. • The texture after ECAP is characterized by typical shear components of fcc metals. • ECAP leads to randomization of the texture with increasing numbers of passes. • ECAP through route A rotates the texture positions from the ideal component. - Abstract: Experiments were conducted to evaluate the evolution of microstructure and texture in a commercial Cu–2.5Ni–0.6Si (wt.%) alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 423 K for up to 12 passes. An electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis shows that ECAP processing leads to microstructural refinement with an average grain size of ∼0.9 μm. The refined grains are inclined to the direction of extrusion and the deformation structure evolves from elongated grains to a duplex microstructure of equiaxed and elongated grains. Detailed measurements demonstrate that the grain boundary misorientations gradually increase with increasing numbers of ECAP passes. The texture was investigated using both EBSD and neutron diffraction. The results show the texture after ECAP is characterized by typical shear components of face-centered cubic metals which deviate from their ideal positions

  10. Structure and properties of Ti-Ni-based alloys after equal-channel angular pressing and high-pressure torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure formation and functional properties of Ti-48.5, 50.0, 50.6 and 50.7 at.% Ni and Ti-47 at.% Ni-3 at.% Fe shape memory alloys under conditions of high-pressure torsion (HPT) and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) in dependence on deformation temperature and post-deformation annealing were studied using electron microscopy and mechanical testing methods. The upper limiting deformation temperature for nanocrystalline structure formation under continuous severe deformation in HPT were determined for aging (somewhat higher than 400 deg. C) and non-aging (about 300-350 deg. C) alloys. As a result of ECAP of Ti-Ni and Ti-Ni-Fe alloys at 350-500 deg. C in six to eight passes, a submicrocrystalline structure with the grain size of 0.1-0.2 μm (at 350 deg. C), 0.2-0.4 μm (at 450 deg. C) and 0.3-0.5 μm (at 500 deg. C) was obtained. The highest functional properties of Ti-50.6% Ni alloy which exceed the best results provided by traditional thermomechanical treatment, correspond to the finest submicrocrystalline structure formation after ECAP at 350 deg. C. The low-temperature annealing after ECAP does not deteriorate the functional properties as it does not increase the austenite grain size. For obtaining actual nanocrystalline structure in bulk samples under ECAP conditions, the ECAP temperature should be below 350 deg. C

  11. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ultrafine-Grained Copper Produced Using Intermittent Ultrasonic-Assisted Equal-Channel Angular Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianxun; Wu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Xu, Bin; Wu, Zhaozhi; Ruan, Shuangchen

    2016-09-01

    We proposed intermittent ultrasonic-assisted equal-channel angular pressing (IU-ECAP) and used it to produce ultrafine-grained copper. The main aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties of copper processed by IU-ECAP. We performed experiments with two groups of specimens: group 1 used conventional ECAP, and group 2 combined ECAP with intermittent ultrasonic vibration. The extrusion forces, microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal stability of the two groups were compared. It was revealed that more homogeneous microstructure with smaller grains could be obtained by IU-ECAP compared with copper obtained using the traditional ECAP method. Mechanical testing showed that IU-ECAP significantly reduced the extrusion force and increased both the hardness and ultimate tensile stress owing to the higher dislocation density and smaller grains. IU-ECAP promotes conversion from low-angle grain boundaries to high-angle grain boundaries, and it increases the fractions of subgrains and dynamic recrystallized grains. Group 2 statically recrystallized at a higher temperature or longer duration than group 1, showing that group 2 had better thermal stability.

  12. An Analysis on Microstructure and Grain Size of Molybdenum Powder Material Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Li, Ping; Xue, Kemin

    2015-11-01

    Pure molybdenum powder with a body center cubic lattice was processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) for multi-pass at a processing temperature of 673 K, and subsequently, tests of relative density and Vickers microhardness were followed after processing. Additionally, the x-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to analyze the crystallite size and dislocation density for both as-received powder and ECAP-processed samples. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was performed to characterize the grain structure and texture for the ECAP-processed samples. The results show that through processing by ECAP, bulk molybdenum sample with ultrafine-grained microstructure was achieved with the relative density of 0.93, the Vickers microhardness of 355 Hv, and the mean grain size of 0.24 μm. XRD profiles based on integral breadth method indicate that the crystallite size and dislocation density in the initial powder are 63.0 nm and 8.45E13 m-2, respectively. After ECAP processing, the crystallite size decreases gradually from 52.7 to 39.1 nm and the dislocation density increases from 3.82E14 to 4.00E14 m-2 after 1 and 2 passes. EBSD measurements show the significant grain refinement after 2 passes of ECAP. Therefore, grain refinement strengthening and dislocation tangling are likely to contribute to the increase of microhardness. The narrow range of grain size distribution after 2 passes of ECAP and the decrease of non-uniformity coefficient of microhardness both indicate the enhanced homogeneity compared with samples after 1 pass. The XRD profiles as well as inverse pole figures reveal that a texture of {110} was developed through processing by ECAP.

  13. In vitro and in vivo studies of biodegradable fine grained AZ31 magnesium alloy produced by equal channel angular pressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna Sunil, B; Sampath Kumar, T S; Chakkingal, Uday; Nandakumar, V; Doble, Mukesh; Devi Prasad, V; Raghunath, M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present work is to investigate the role of different grain sizes produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) on the degradation behavior of magnesium alloy using in vitro and in vivo studies. Commercially available AZ31 magnesium alloy was selected and processed by ECAP at 300°C for up to four passes using route Bc. Grain refinement from a starting size of 46μm to a grain size distribution of 1-5μm was successfully achieved after the 4th pass. Wettability of ECAPed samples assessed by contact angle measurements was found to increase due to the fine grain structure. In vitro degradation and bioactivity of the samples studied by immersing in super saturated simulated body fluid (SBF 5×) showed rapid mineralization within 24h due to the increased wettability in fine grained AZ31 Mg alloy. Corrosion behavior of the samples assessed by weight loss and electrochemical tests conducted in SBF 5× clearly showed the prominent role of enhanced mineral deposition on ECAPed AZ31 Mg in controlling the abnormal degradation. Cytotoxicity studies by MTT colorimetric assay showed that all the samples are viable. Additionally, cell adhesion was excellent for ECAPed samples particularly for the 3rd and 4th pass samples. In vivo experiments conducted using New Zealand White rabbits clearly showed lower degradation rate for ECAPed sample compared with annealed AZ31 Mg alloy and all the samples showed biocompatibility and no health abnormalities were noticed in the animals after 60days of in vivo studies. These results suggest that the grain size plays an important role in degradation management of magnesium alloys and ECAP technique can be adopted to achieve fine grain structures for developing degradable magnesium alloys for biomedical applications. PMID:26652384

  14. Ultra-High-Strength Interstitial-Free Steel Processed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing at Large Equivalent Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Deepa; Mukhopadhyay, N. K.; Sastry, G. V. S.; Manna, R.

    2016-04-01

    The billets of interstitial-free (IF) steel are deformed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 298 K (25 °C) adopting the route BC up to an equivalent strain ( ɛ vm) of 24. The evolution of microstructures and their effects on the mechanical properties are examined. The microstructural refinement involves the elongation of grains, the subdivision of grains to the bands with high dislocation density, and the splitting of bands into the cell blocks and then cell blocks into the cells. The widths of the bands and the size of cells decrease with strain. The degree of reduction in the grain size is highest at the low strain level. However, most of the boundaries at this stage are of low-angle boundaries (at ɛ vm = 3). Thereafter, the misorientation angle increases by progressive lattice rotation with strain. The coarse bands transform step by step from the lamellar structure to the ribbon-shaped grains and finally to the near-equiaxed grain structures with the subgrains of a saturated low-angle grain boundary fraction of 0.34 at very large strain >15. The as-received coarse-grained microstructure (grain size of 57.6 ± 21 µm) has been refined to 257 ± 48 nm at an equivalent strain of 24. The strength increases considerably up to ɛ vm = 3 due to grain refinement and high dislocation density. However, the strengthening at later stages is mainly due to the increase in misorientation angle and refinement. Initial yield strength of 227 MPa is increased to a record value of 895 MPa on straining up to ɛ vm = 24 at 298 K (25 °C). Uniform elongation decreases drastically at low equivalent strain but it regains marginally later. The ECAPed sample fails by a ductile fracture at ɛ vm = 0.6 to 6 but by a mixed mode of ductile-brittle fracture at larger strain of 9 to 24.

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-7075 alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing combined with aging treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Specimens were aged before ECAP, after ECAP and during ECAP at 393 K and 423 K. • Maximum mechanical properties achieved when microstructure mainly consists of fine η′ phase. • Dynamic aging during ECAP at 393 K is the optimum process to gain maximum mechanical properties. • ECAP does not change the expected precipitation sequence but it accelerates the precipitation rate. • Ultrafine-grained materials with grain size less than 500 nm obtained after final ECAP pass. - Abstract: In order to examine the combined effect of plastic deformation and aging process, the Al 7075 alloy was subjected to equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) deformation by route BC in various ECAP and aging conditions: pre-ECAP aging, post-ECAP aging and dynamic aging during ECAP at 393 K and 423 K. Followed by ECAP and aging treatment, Vickers microhardness and tensile test were performed and microstructural observations were undertaken using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). TEM investigation showed that ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials with grain size less than 500 nm could be obtained after three or four passes of ECAP. Precipitates characterization revealed that maximum mechanical properties are achieved when the microstructure mainly consists of fine dispersion of small η′ precipitates and minor quantities of GP zones. Dynamic aged specimens at 393 K and 423 K represented maximum and minimum mechanical properties, respectively, due to formation of fine η′ precipitates plus GP zones and η′ plus η precipitates, respectively. Dynamic aging during ECAP at 393 K appeared preferable to other procedures for attaining maximum mechanical properties as well as saving time and energy

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of an as-cast AZ91 magnesium alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An as-cast AZ91 magnesium alloy was processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 593K and its microstructure and mechanical properties were studied using electron microscopy and room temperature tensile tests, respectively. It has been found that after the first pass of ECAP, the grain size of the alloy shows a bi-modal distribution, containing fine grains of about 14 μm and large dendrite structure. The dendritic structure completely disappeared after two passes of ECAP. The average grain size of the alloy after six passes of ECAP becomes less than 10 μm. The yield stress of the alloy has significantly increased from 65 MPa of the as-cast alloy to 135 MPa after the first pass of ECAP, but does not show much change with further ECAP. However, the elongation to failure measured from the alloy processed by the first pass of ECAP is similar to that measured from the as-cast alloy. A noticeable increase of the elongation to failure has been observed after the second pass of ECAP, which then remains at the similar level with further ECAP process. The fractography of the tensile tested samples have been studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) microscope. The facture surface of the as-cast alloy is predominated by cleavages. Although not predominantly, cleavage has also been frequently observed in the alloy processed by one pass of ECAP. With further ECAP process, the facture surface becomes profuse in dimples, characteristic of ductile facture, consistent with the ductility change observed. FIB observation suggests that the cracking is mainly initiated at the blocky particles.

  17. Microstructural Evolution at Micro/Meso-Scale in an Ultrafine-Grained Pure Aluminum Processed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing with Subsequent Annealing Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Xu; Jianwei Li; Xiaocheng Zhu; Guohua Fan; Debin Shan; Bin Guo

    2015-01-01

    Micro-forming with ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials is a promising direction for the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) components due to the improved formability, good surface quality, and excellent mechanical properties it provides. In this paper, micro-compression tests were performed using UFG pure aluminum processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) with subsequent annealing treatment. Microstructural evolution was investigated by electron back-scattered diffr...

  18. Simulation and Experimental Investigation for the Homogeneity of Ti49.2Ni50.8 Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Diantao Zhang; Mohamed Osman; Li Li; Yufeng Zheng; Yunxiang Tong

    2016-01-01

    Ti49.2Ni50.8 shape memory alloy (SMA) was processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) for eight passes at 450 °C. The deformation homogeneity was analyzed on various planes across the thickness by Deform-3D software. Strain standard deviation (SSD) was used to quantify deformation homogeneity. The simulation result shows that the strain homogeneity is optimized by the third pass. Deformation homogeneity of ECAP was analyzed experimentally using microhardness measurements. Experimental ...

  19. Dispersion of soft Bi particles and grain refinement of matrix in an Al-Bi alloy by equal channel angular pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Zha, M.; Li, Y.; Mathiesen, R.H.; Roven, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The deformation behavior of a soft particle containing Al-8Bi hypermonotectic alloy during equal-channel angular pressing was studied. The size, shape and distribution of soft Bi particles are substantially modified via shearing, fragmentation, coalescence and ripening. It is found that the soft Bi particles have a strong influence on promoting refinement of Al grains via particle stimulated continuous dynamic recrystallization. The present work provides an effective methodology to obtain mon...

  20. Microstructure Stability and Creep Behaviour of a Cu-0.2wt.%Zr Alloy Processed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Jiří; Král, Petr; Kvapilová, Marie; Svoboda, Milan; Sklenička, Václav

    667-669, - (2011), s. 821-826. ISSN 0255-5476. [NanoSPD5 - International Conference on Nanomaterials by Severe Plastic Deformation /5./. Nanjing, 21.03.2011-25.03.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : copper alloy * creep * equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) * precipitation-strengthened alloy Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery http://www.scientific.net/MSF.667-669.821

  1. Effect of Annealing on the Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Anodized Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, In Joon; Nakano, Hiroaki; Oue, Satoshi; Fukushima, Hisaaki; Horita, Zenji [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kobayashi, Shigeo [Kyushu Sangyo University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2007-12-15

    The effect of annealing on the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized Al-Mg alloy (AA5052) processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) was investigated by electrochemical techniques in a solution containing 0.2 mol/L of AlCl{sub 3} and also by surface analysis. The Al-Mg alloy was annealed at a fixed temperature between 473 and 573 K for 120 min in air after ECAP. Anodizing was conducted for 40 min at 100-400 A/m{sup 2} at 293 K in a solution containing 1.53 mol/L of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.0185 mol/L of Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The internal stress generated in anodic oxide films during anodization was measured with a strain gauge to clarify the effect of ECAP on the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized Al-Mg alloy. The time required to initiate the pitting corrosion of anodized Al-Mg alloy was shorter in samples subjected to ECAP, indicating that ECAP decreased the pitting corrosion resistance. however, the pitting corrosion resistance was greatly improved by annealing after ECAP. The time required to initiate pitting corrosion increased with increasing annealing temperature. The strain gauge attached to Al-Mg alloy revealed that the internal stress present in the anodic oxide films was compressive stress, and that the stress was larger with ECAP than without. The compressive internal stress gradually decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cracks occurred in the anodic oxide film on Al-Mg alloy during initial corrosion and that the cracks were larger with ECAP than without. The ECAP process of severe plastic deformation produces large internal stresses in the Al-Mg alloy: the stresses remain in the anodic oxide films, increasing the likelihood of cracks. it is assumed that the pitting corrosion is promoted by these cracks as a result of the higher internal stress resulting from ECAP. The improvement in the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized AlMg alloy as a result of annealing appears to be

  2. Effect of Annealing on the Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Anodized Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of annealing on the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized Al-Mg alloy (AA5052) processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) was investigated by electrochemical techniques in a solution containing 0.2 mol/L of AlCl3 and also by surface analysis. The Al-Mg alloy was annealed at a fixed temperature between 473 and 573 K for 120 min in air after ECAP. Anodizing was conducted for 40 min at 100-400 A/m2 at 293 K in a solution containing 1.53 mol/L of H2SO4 and 0.0185 mol/L of Al2(SO4)3. The internal stress generated in anodic oxide films during anodization was measured with a strain gauge to clarify the effect of ECAP on the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized Al-Mg alloy. The time required to initiate the pitting corrosion of anodized Al-Mg alloy was shorter in samples subjected to ECAP, indicating that ECAP decreased the pitting corrosion resistance. however, the pitting corrosion resistance was greatly improved by annealing after ECAP. The time required to initiate pitting corrosion increased with increasing annealing temperature. The strain gauge attached to Al-Mg alloy revealed that the internal stress present in the anodic oxide films was compressive stress, and that the stress was larger with ECAP than without. The compressive internal stress gradually decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cracks occurred in the anodic oxide film on Al-Mg alloy during initial corrosion and that the cracks were larger with ECAP than without. The ECAP process of severe plastic deformation produces large internal stresses in the Al-Mg alloy: the stresses remain in the anodic oxide films, increasing the likelihood of cracks. it is assumed that the pitting corrosion is promoted by these cracks as a result of the higher internal stress resulting from ECAP. The improvement in the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized AlMg alloy as a result of annealing appears to be attributable to a decrease in the internal

  3. The Effect of Multi-pass Equal-Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) for Consolidation of Aluminum-Nano Alumina Composite Powder on Wear Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshandeh-Haghighi, Reza; Jenabali Jahromi, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    The wear behavior of aluminum matrix composite powder with varying concentration of nano alumina particles, which was consolidated by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at different passes, was determined by applying, 10 and 46 N loads, using a pin-on-disk machine. Optical and electronic microscopy, EDX analysis, and hardness measurement were performed in order to characterize the worn samples. The relative density of the samples after each pass of ECAP was determined using Archimedes principle. Within the studied range of loads, the wear loss decreased by increasing the number of ECAP passes.

  4. Simulation and Experimental Investigation for the Homogeneity of Ti49.2Ni50.8 Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diantao Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ti49.2Ni50.8 shape memory alloy (SMA was processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP for eight passes at 450 °C. The deformation homogeneity was analyzed on various planes across the thickness by Deform-3D software. Strain standard deviation (SSD was used to quantify deformation homogeneity. The simulation result shows that the strain homogeneity is optimized by the third pass. Deformation homogeneity of ECAP was analyzed experimentally using microhardness measurements. Experimental results show that the gradual evolution of hardness with increasing numbers of passes existed and the optimum homogeneity was achieved after three passes. This is in good agreement with simulation results.

  5. Strain Mapping and Nanocrystallite Size Determination by Neutron Diffraction in an Aluminum Alloy (AA5083 Severely Plastically Deformed through Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. González Crespo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Six specimens of an aluminum alloy (AA-5083 extruded by Equal Channel Angular Pressing following two different routes plus a blank sample were examined with a neutron radiation of 1.5448 Å. Macrostrain maps from the (311 reflection were obtained. A clear difference about accumulated macrostrain with the extrusion cycles between the two routes is shown. The diffraction data of annealed specimens did permit to estimate crystallite sizes that range between 89 nm and 115 nm depending on the routes.

  6. Mechanical and corrosion properties of ultrafine-grained low C, N Fe-20%Cr steel produced by equal channel angular pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Rifai, Muhammad; リファイ, ムハマド

    2015-01-01

    Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is one of the severe plastic deformation (SPD) to produce ultra-fine grain (UFG) material, and its principle and microstructural developments. The majority of papers on SPD materials have been devoted to the face centered cubic (FCC) structure materials such as Al, Cu and Ni. The UFG of high alloy ECAP processing has been difficult up to now, but we were successful in this study. Fe-20%Cr steel with extremely low C and N has different slip behavior from t...

  7. Strain Mapping and Nanocrystallite Size Determination by Neutron Diffraction in an Aluminum Alloy (AA5083) Severely Plastically Deformed through Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    OpenAIRE

    González Crespo, P. A.; C. Luis Pérez; Hughes, Darren J.; Turrillas, X.

    2013-01-01

    Six specimens of an aluminum alloy (AA-5083) extruded by Equal Channel Angular Pressing following two different routes plus a blank sample were examined with a neutron radiation of 1.5448 Å. Macrostrain maps from the (311) reflection were obtained. A clear difference about accumulated macrostrain with the extrusion cycles between the two routes is shown. The diffraction data of annealed specimens did permit to estimate crystallite sizes that range between 89 nm and 115 nm depending on the rou...

  8. Microstructure Evolution in a Cu-0.5Cr-0.2Zr Alloy Subjected to Equal Channel Angular Pressing, Rolling or Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Igor V.; Sitdikov, Vil D.; Abramova, Marina M.; Sarkeeva, Elena A.; Wei, Kun Xia; Wei, Wei

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of microstructure in the Cu-0.5%Cr-0.2%Zr alloy subjected to thermomechanical treatment has been studied by means of the x-ray analysis. The workpieces have been subjected to 1, 2, 4 and 8 passes of equal channel angular pressing, plain cold rolling and aging treatment. The results of the XRD investigations reflect the evolution of the lattice parameter, the size of coherently scattering domains, the elastic microdistortions and the dislocation density in Cu matrix. The observed changes in the microstructure are explained by the competition between the developing defects and precipitation of the Cr phase particles from the Cu matrix.

  9. Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of a Ti-35Nb-3Zr-2Ta biomedical alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhengjie; Wang, Liqiang; Xue, Xiaobing; Lu, Weijie; Qin, Jining; Zhang, Di

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, an equal channel angular pressing method is employed to refine grains and enhance mechanical properties of a new β Ti-35Nb-3Zr-2Ta biomedical alloy. After the 4th pass, the ultrafine equiaxed grains of approximately 300 nm and 600 nm are obtained at pressing temperatures of 500 and 600°C respectively. The SEM images of billets pressed at 500°C reveal the evolution of shear bands and finally at the 4th pass intersectant networks of shear bands, involving initial band propagation and new band broadening, are formed with the purpose of accommodating large plastic strain. Furthermore, a unique herringbone microstructure of twinned martensitic variants is observed in TEM images. The results of microhardness measurements and uniaxial tensile tests show a significant improvement in microhardness and tensile strength from 534 MPa to 765 MPa, while keeping a good level of ductility (~16%) and low elastic modulus (~59 GPa). The maximum superelastic strain of 1.4% and maximum recovered strain of 2.7% are obtained in the billets pressed at 500°C via the 4th pass, which exhibits an excellent superelastic behavior. Meanwhile, the effects of different accumulative deformations and pressing temperatures on superelasticity of the ECAP-processed alloys are investigated. PMID:24094159

  10. EVOLUTION OF MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRA-FINE-GRAINED INTERSTITIAL-FREE STEEL PROCESSED BY EQUAL CHANNEL ANGULAR PRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Krajňák

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP is one of the severe plastic deformation techniques which is widely used for producing metals with ultra-fine-grained microstructures. In the present work the influence of number of pressing by route BC on grain size, evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of interstitial-free (IF steel has been investigated by means of optical microscopy, electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD and tensile tests. It has been found, that the grain size decreases with increasing number of passes. Simultaneously tensile strength increases. The thermal stability of ECAP-processed microstructures has been also examined. It was found that the degradation of mechanical properties occurs only above 600 ˚C and 700 ˚C.

  11. Annealing behavior and shape memory effect in NiTi alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A martensitic NiTi shape memory alloy was processed successfully by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) for one pass at room temperature using a core–sheath billet design. The annealing behavior and shape memory effect of the ECAP specimens were studied followed by post-deformation annealing (PDA) at 673 K for various times. The recrystallization and structural evolution during annealing were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, dilatometry, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. The results indicate that the shape memory effect improves by PDA after ECAP processing. Annealing for 10 min gives a good shape memory effect which leads to a maximum in recoverable strain of 6.9 pct upon heating where this is more than a 25 pct improvement compared with the initial state

  12. Annealing behavior and shape memory effect in NiTi alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahmir, Hamed, E-mail: h.shahmir@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud [School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Wang, Chuan Ting [Departments of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Jung, Jai Myun; Kim, Hyoung Seop [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Langdon, Terence G. [Departments of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); Materials Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    A martensitic NiTi shape memory alloy was processed successfully by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) for one pass at room temperature using a core–sheath billet design. The annealing behavior and shape memory effect of the ECAP specimens were studied followed by post-deformation annealing (PDA) at 673 K for various times. The recrystallization and structural evolution during annealing were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, dilatometry, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. The results indicate that the shape memory effect improves by PDA after ECAP processing. Annealing for 10 min gives a good shape memory effect which leads to a maximum in recoverable strain of 6.9 pct upon heating where this is more than a 25 pct improvement compared with the initial state.

  13. Effect of heat treatment on diffusion, internal friction, microstructure and mechanical properties of ultra-fine-grained nickel severely deformed by equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe plastic deformation via equal-channel angular pressing was shown to induce characteristic ultra-fast diffusion paths in Ni (Divinski et al., 2011). The effect of heat treatment on these paths, which were found to be represented by deformation-modified general high-angle grain boundaries (GBs), is investigated by accurate radiotracer self-diffusion measurements applying the 63Ni isotope. Redistribution of free volume and segregation of residual impurities caused by the heat treatment triggers relaxation of the diffusion paths. A correlation between the GB diffusion kinetics, internal friction, microstructure evolution and microhardness changes is established and analyzed in detail. A phenomenological model of diffusion enhancement in deformation-modified GBs is proposed

  14. Microstructural evolution of Fe-rich particles in an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy during equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructures of a severely deformed Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (AA7136) alloy have been characterized carefully using transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional atom probe analysis. The Fe-rich intermetallic particles are predominantly Al13Fe4 type in the as-extruded alloy. Significantly, equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 200 deg. C refines Fe-rich particles from ∼1 to 2 μm to as small as ∼50 nm after 4 passes processing, and effectively narrow down their size distribution with the increase of number of ECAP passes. In addition, small Fe-rich particles evolve into spherical morphology and are in a more uniform distribution. The formations of Fe-rich phases in AA7136, the kinetic and thermodynamic effects in relation to the refinement of Fe-rich particles and their morphology evolution during ECAP processing are discussed.

  15. Microstructure and anisotropy of the mechanical properties in commercially pure titanium after equal channel angular pressing with back pressure at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jäger, A., E-mail: jager@fzu.cz; Gärtnerova, V.; Tesař, K.

    2015-09-17

    In this work, we report on the anisotropy of the mechanical properties and the results of in-depth microstructural analysis of commercially pure (CP) grade 2 titanium after severe plastic deformation. CP-Ti was successfully processed at room temperature via four consecutive passes of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) with very high back pressure (BP). An ECAP-BP die with circular channel cross-section, channel angle φ=90° and arc curvature angle ψ=0° was used. A sub-microcrystalline structure with a grain size of ~150 nm exhibits promising mechanical properties, as determined by hardness measurements and tensile and compression tests in different directions. We observed a significant mechanical anisotropy related to the strong texture. Considering the ID, ED and TD to be the insert, extrusion and transverse directions of the ECAP die, respectively, the highest compression strength was attained for samples with the major axis in the ID and in a direction inclined 22.5° from the ID toward the TD (σ{sub max}~1150 MPa). In contrast, the lowest strength was observed in the ED and at 45° from the ID toward the ED (σ{sub max}~940 MPa). Although a fracture occurred during compression of the samples tested along the ID, compression along the ED exhibited perfect plasticity with balanced hardening and softening mechanisms. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination after ECAP-BP revealed a small amount of high-pressure hexagonal ω-phase. The occurrence of this phase was induced by a combination of severe plastic deformation and high pressure.

  16. Microstructural Evolution at Micro/Meso-Scale in an Ultrafine-Grained Pure Aluminum Processed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing with Subsequent Annealing Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Micro-forming with ultrafine-grained (UFG materials is a promising direction for the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS components due to the improved formability, good surface quality, and excellent mechanical properties it provides. In this paper, micro-compression tests were performed using UFG pure aluminum processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP with subsequent annealing treatment. Microstructural evolution was investigated by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results show that microstructural evolutions during compression tests at the micro/meso-scale in UFG pure Al are absolutely different from the coarse-grained (CG materials. A lot of low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs and recrystallized fine grains are formed inside of the original large grains in CG pure aluminum after micro-compression. By contrast, ultrafine grains are kept with few sub-grain boundaries inside the grains in UFG pure aluminum, which are similar to the original microstructure before micro-compression. The surface roughness and coordinated deformation ability can be signmicrostructure; micro/meso-forming; ultrafine grains; ECAP; aluminumificantly improved with UFG pure aluminum, which demonstrates that the UFG materials have a strong potential application in micro/meso-forming.

  17. Microstructure stability of ultra-fine grained magnesium alloy AZ31 processed by extrusion and equal-channel angular pressing (EX–ECAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stráská, Jitka, E-mail: straska.jitka@gmail.com [Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Janeček, Miloš, E-mail: janecek@met.mff.cuni.cz [Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Čížek, Jakub, E-mail: jcizek@mbox.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Department of Low Temperature Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Stráský, Josef, E-mail: josef.strasky@gmail.com [Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Hadzima, Branislav, E-mail: branislav.hadzima@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Research Centre, Univerzitná 1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia); Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Žilina, Univerzitná 1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-15

    Thermal stability of the ultra-fine grained (UFG) microstructure of magnesium AZ31 alloy was investigated. UFG microstructure was achieved by a combined two-step severe plastic deformation process: the extrusion (EX) and subsequent equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). This combined process leads to refined microstructure and enhanced microhardness. Specimens with UFG microstructure were annealed isochronally at temperatures 150–500 °C for 1 h. The evolution of microstructure, mechanical properties and dislocation density was studied by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), microhardness measurements and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The coarsening of the fine-grained structure at higher temperatures was accompanied by a gradual decrease of the microhardness and decrease of dislocation density. Mechanism of grain growth was studied by general equation for grain growth and Arrhenius equation. Activation energies for grain growth were calculated to be 115, 33 and 164 kJ/mol in temperature ranges of 170–210 °C, 210–400 °C and 400–500 °C (443–483 K, 483–673 K and 673–773 K), respectively. - Highlights: • Microhardness of UFG AZ31 alloy decreases with increasing annealing temperature. • This fact has two reasons: dislocation annihilations and/or grain growth. • The activation energies for grain growth were calculated for all temperature ranges.

  18. Effect of equal channel angular pressing on structure and superplasticity of non-heat hardenable Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhametdinova, Oksana; Avtokratova, Elena; Sitdikov, Oleg; Markushev, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Microstructure and superplastic behavior of the aluminum alloy 1570C (Al-5Mg-0.2Sc-0.08Zr) after equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) to the strains of e ˜ 3 and 8 at the temperature of 325°C have been analyzed. ECAP to e ˜ 3 resulted in the partially recrystallized structure with the volume fraction and size of new grains of about 30% and 1-2 µm, consequently. The alloy with such structure exhibited the high-strain rate superplasticity with elongations >2000% at strain rates ˜10-2 s-1 and temperatures 475-520°C. After ECAP to e ˜ 8, the structure became more uniform with ˜70% of grains of ˜1 μm in size. This promoted both low-temperature and high-strain rate superplasticity with maximum elongations ˜1000 and 3300% at 350°C and 1.4×10-2 s-1 and at 475°C and 5.6×10-2 s-1, respectively. The nature of the alloy superplastic behavior is discussed.

  19. Structure, texture, and mechanical properties of an MA2-1hp magnesium alloy after two-stage equal-channel angular pressing and intermediate annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryany, V. N.; Perezhogin, V. Yu.; Raab, G. I.; Kopylov, V. I.; Tabachkova, N. Yu.; Sirotinkin, V. P.; Dobatkin, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of two-stage equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) on the microstructure, the texture, and the mechanical properties of an MA2-1hp magnesium alloy is analyzed. ECAP leads to the formation of a submicrocrystalline structure with an average grain size of 640 nm, which includes Mg17Al12 phase particles with an average grain size of 240 nm and a volume fracture of 5.5%. A scattered tilted basal texture forms after ECAP, and its experimental pole figures are used for calculating orientation distribution functions and determining the volume fractions of the main orientations and the Schmid factors for different deformation systems. An increased activation of basal slip is found after both the first and the second stages of ECAP. As a result of two-stage ECAP, the strength properties of the alloy that correspond to the minimum acceptable values achieved by direct compression are obtained. Ductility is 44 and 18% after the first stage of ECAP plus subsequent annealing and after the second stage, respectively, which is almost four and two times higher than the initial value. The resulting strength mechanical properties of the alloy after the first and the second ECAP stages are analyzed using the Hall-Petch relation.

  20. Structure and properties of an Mg-0.3% ca magnesium alloy after multiaxial deformation and equal-channel angular pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobatkin, S. V.; Rokhlin, L. L.; Salishchev, G. A.; Kopylov, V. I.; Serebryany, V. N.; Stepanov, N. D.; Tarytina, I. E.; Kuroshev, I. S.; Martynenko, N. S.

    2014-11-01

    Multiaxial deformation (MAD) of an Mg-0.3% Ca alloy is performed when temperature decreases within the ranges 425-375 and 400-325°C. A decrease in the temperature at the end of MAD causes a decrease in the grain size from 7-8 to 0.5-2 μm and the spread of a sharp prismatic texture, which determine a high strength (σu = 194 MPa) and plasticity (δ = 39%). After MAD in the range 425-375°C, the Mg-0.3% Ca alloy is subjected to equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at temperatures of 275 and 325°C. ECAP causes a decrease in the grain size from 7-8 μm to 2 and 5 μm, respectively. The texture also changes from prismatic to tilted basal texture. This results in an increase in the strength to 170-160 MPa at plasticity δ = 25-30%. It is shown that MAD can be used as both final and preliminary processing before ECAP to form an ultrafine-grained structure in the Mg-0.3% Ca alloy.

  1. Influence of Intermediate Annealing on the Nanostructure and Mechanical Properties of Pure Copper Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing and Cold Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar Bahadori, Shahab; Dehghani, Kamran

    2015-07-01

    The effects of intermediate heat treatment on the nanostructure and the mechanical properties of pure copper samples processed by four passes of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and cold rolling (CR) with a total reduction of 55 pct were investigated. The annealing treatments were done at 423 K, 463 K, and 523 K (150 °C, 190 °C and 250 °C) for 15 minutes. Microstructural examinations revealed no trace of a recrystallization after annealing at 423 K (150 °C). X-ray diffraction analysis illustrated that employing annealing treatment at 463 K (190 °C) decreased the coherent domain size and, consequently, increased the microstrain value. Moreover, nucleation of the newly formed grains resulted from discontinuous static recrystallization decreased the mean grain size. The yield and the tensile strength were also enhanced due to the reduction of the coherent domain size, the internal stress augmentation, and the presence of the new fine grains. Annealing at 523 K (250 °C) increased the fraction of the recrystallized structure and, consequently, decreased the fraction of the grains created by ECAP. As a result, the typical rolling texture intensified.

  2. Microstructural development of adiabatic shear bands in ultra-fine-grained low-carbon steels fabricated by equal channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microstructural development of adiabatic shear bands formed in ultra-fine-grained low-carbon steels fabricated by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was investigated in this study. Dynamic torsional tests were conducted on four steel specimens, two of which were annealed after ECAP, using a torsional Kolsky bar. The ECAP'ed specimen consisted of fine equiaxed grains of 0.2 μm in size, which were slightly coarsened and had an equiaxed shape after annealing. Some adiabatic shear bands were observed at the gage center of the dynamically deformed torsional specimen, and their width was narrower in the ECAP'ed specimen than in the 1-h annealed specimen. Detailed transmission electron microscopic analysis on adiabatic shear bands indicated that very fine equiaxed grains of 0.05-0.2 μm in size were developed within the adiabatic shear band, and that cell structures were formed in the shear band flank by partitioning elongated ferrites. These phenomena were explained by dynamic recovery and recrystallization due to the highly localized plastic deformation and temperature rise occurring in the shear band. The temperature rise in the shear band formation process was estimated to be above 540 deg. C by observing spheroidized cementites inside pearlite grains

  3. Microstructure, mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of Cu–0.3Mg–0.05Ce alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing and subsequent annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Minor Ce addition can deprive harmful elements and purify the Cu–Mg alloy. • Decrease of Mg content can effectively enhance the conductivity of Cu–Mg alloy. • Ultrafine-grained Cu–Mg–Ce alloy was successfully gained by 8 passes of ECAP. • The strength of Cu–Mg–Ce alloy can be significantly improved by ECAP. • Better comprehensive properties than the commercial Cu–Mg alloy are gained. - Abstract: A Cu–0.3 wt.%Mg–0.05 wt.%Ce alloy was designed and prepared by melting and casting. After hot rolled, the ingot was cut into rod-shape samples for equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) with different passes at room temperature. The microstructure evolutions were investigated using transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The severe plastic deformation (SPD) caused by ECAP made the grains elongated significantly. With the increase of ECAP passes, the fraction of high-angle boundaries (HABs) (θ ⩾ 15°) increased and the microstructure was refined. Tension testing results indicated that the tensile strength was remarkably improved from 273.4 MPa before ECAP to 587.5 MPa after 8 passes of ECAP, maintaining an appropriate elongation of 11.4% and good electrical conductivity of 73.1%IACS. After annealing treatment at 300 °C for 2 h, the ECAP samples still maintained excellent comprehensive properties: tensile strength was 558.2 MPa, electrical conductivity was 74.7%IACS, and elongation was 13.2%, which showed bright prospect in high-speed railway as a contact wire material

  4. Influence of second-phase particles on grain growth in AZ31 magnesium alloy during equal channel angular pressing by phase field simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ri; Wang, Mingtao; Zhang, Xiangang; Yaping Zong, Bernie

    2016-06-01

    A phase-field model was established to simulate the refinement effect of different morphological factors of second-phase particles such as Al2O3 on the grain growth of AZ31 magnesium alloy during equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) in realistic spatiotemporal evolution. The simulation results agreed well with limited existing experimental data for the ECAP-processed AZ31 magnesium alloy and were consistent with the law of Zener. Simulations were performed to evaluate the influences of the fraction, size, distribution, and shape of incoherent second-phase particles. The simulation results showed that during high-temperature ECAP processes, the addition of 2 wt.% Al2O3 particles resulted in a strong refinement effect, reducing the grain size by 28.7% compared to that of the alloy without the particles. Nevertheless, when the fraction of particles was greater than 4 wt.%, adding more particles had little effect. In AZ31 Mg alloy, it was found that second-phase particles should have a critical size of 0.5–0.8 μm for the grain refinement effect to occur. If the size is smaller than the critical size, large particles will strongly hinder grain growth; in contrast, if the size is larger than the critical size, large particles will exhibit a weaker hindering effect than small particles. Moreover, the results showed that the refinement effect increased with increasing particle fraction located at grain boundaries with respect to the total particle content. However, the refinement effect was less pronounced when the fraction of particles located at boundaries was greater than 70%. Further simulations indicated that spherical second-phase particles hindered grain growth more than ellipsoid particles and much more than rod-shaped particles when the volume fraction of reinforcing particles was 2%. However, when the volume fraction was greater than 8%, rod-shaped particles best hindered grain growth, and spherical particles exhibited the weakest effect.

  5. Microstructure, mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of Cu–0.3Mg–0.05Ce alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing and subsequent annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Guang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Zhou, E-mail: lizhou6931@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Changsha 410083 (China); Yuan, Yuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Lei, Qian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Minor Ce addition can deprive harmful elements and purify the Cu–Mg alloy. • Decrease of Mg content can effectively enhance the conductivity of Cu–Mg alloy. • Ultrafine-grained Cu–Mg–Ce alloy was successfully gained by 8 passes of ECAP. • The strength of Cu–Mg–Ce alloy can be significantly improved by ECAP. • Better comprehensive properties than the commercial Cu–Mg alloy are gained. - Abstract: A Cu–0.3 wt.%Mg–0.05 wt.%Ce alloy was designed and prepared by melting and casting. After hot rolled, the ingot was cut into rod-shape samples for equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) with different passes at room temperature. The microstructure evolutions were investigated using transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The severe plastic deformation (SPD) caused by ECAP made the grains elongated significantly. With the increase of ECAP passes, the fraction of high-angle boundaries (HABs) (θ ⩾ 15°) increased and the microstructure was refined. Tension testing results indicated that the tensile strength was remarkably improved from 273.4 MPa before ECAP to 587.5 MPa after 8 passes of ECAP, maintaining an appropriate elongation of 11.4% and good electrical conductivity of 73.1%IACS. After annealing treatment at 300 °C for 2 h, the ECAP samples still maintained excellent comprehensive properties: tensile strength was 558.2 MPa, electrical conductivity was 74.7%IACS, and elongation was 13.2%, which showed bright prospect in high-speed railway as a contact wire material.

  6. Effect of equal-channel angular pressing and aging on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an Al-Cu-Mg-Si alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazizov, M. R.; Dubina, A. V.; Zhemchuzhnikova, D. A.; Kaibyshev, R. O.

    2015-07-01

    The effect of intermediate equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) and final aging at 170°C on the mechanical properties and microstructure of aluminum alloy belonging to Al-Cu-Mg-Si system stress with a Cu/Mg ratio (AA2014) is considered. After quenching and aging (treatment T6), the yield stress (σ0.2) and ultimate tensile strength (σu) are ˜415 and ˜450 MPa, respectively; the elongation to fracture (δ) is 4.2%. The precipitation strengthening is reached due to the precipitation of θ″-, θ'-, β″-, and Q'/ C-phase particles. After intermediate ECAP and subsequent aging for 0.5 h, σ0.2 and σu increase to 470 and 535 MPa, respectively; δ increases to ˜9.5%. The plastic deformation leads to the formation of a microstructure that consists of deformation bands characterized by a high density of dislocations. During aging for 0.5 h, the partial decomposition of supersaturated solid solution and formation of segregations within grains and at dislocations and precipitation of the Guinier-Preston zones and β″ phase also occur; all of this ensure the maximum increase in the strength of the AA2014 alloy. As the aging time increases to 8 h, the slight decrease in both σ0.2 and σu to 465 and 515 MPa and δ to ˜6% takes place. It has been shown that the intermediate ECAP does not affect the sequence of the precipitation of main strengthening θ″ and θ' phases during aging. However, in this case, the volume fraction of strengthening particles decreases significantly and their dispersivity increases.

  7. In vitro and in vivo studies on nanocrystalline Ti fabricated by equal channel angular pressing with microcrystalline CP Ti as control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, F L; Zheng, Y F; Wei, S C; Wang, D S; Yu, Z T; Salimgareeva, G K; Polyakov, A V; Valiev, R Z

    2013-06-01

    Bulk nanocrystalline Ti bars (Grade 4, Φ4 × 3000 mm(3)) were massively fabricated by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) via follow-up conform scheme with the microcrystalline CP Ti as raw material. Homogeneous nanostructured crystals with the average grain size of 250 nm were identified for the ECAPed Ti, with extremely high tensile/fatigue strength (around 1240/620 MPa) and adorable elongation (more than 5%). Pronounced formation of bonelike apatite for the nanocrystalline Ti group after 14 days static immersion in simulated body fluids (SBF) reveals the prospective in vitro bioactive capability of fast calcification, whereas an estimated 17% increment in protein adsorption represents good bioaffinity of nanocrystalline Ti. The documentation onto the whole life circle of osteoblast cell lines (MG63) revealed the strong interactions and superior cellular functionalization when they are co-incubated with bulk nanocrystalline Ti sample. Moreover, thread-structured specimens were designed and implanted into the tibia of Beagles dogs till 12 weeks to study the in vivo responses between bone and metallic implant made of bulk nanocrystalline Ti, with the microcrystalline Ti as control. For the implanted nanostructured Ti group, neoformed bone around the implants underwent the whole-stage transformation proceeding from originally osteons or immature woven bone to mature lamellar bone (skeletonic trabecular), even with the remodeling being finished till 12 weeks. The phenomenal osseointegration of direct implant-bone contact can be revealed from the group of the ECAPed Ti without fibrous tissue encapsulation in the gap between the implant and autogenous bone. PMID:23184756

  8. Mechanical properties, microstructure and texture of single pass equal channel angular pressed 1050, 5083, 6082 and 7010 aluminum alloys with different dies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Four different commercial aluminum alloys namely; 1050, 5083, 6082 and 7010AA are subjected to a single ECAP pass in two different dies. → Evolution of mechanical properties (hardness, compression stress - strain response) were documented. → Microstructure (grain size, cell size and misorientation angle, fraction of low angle grain boundaries) was quantitatively investigated. → Texture (pole figures and ODF plots) and the intensity of texture fibers were quantified for all alloys. -- Abstract: Four important commercial aluminum alloys, namely 1050, 5083, 6082 and 7010AA are processed through a single pass via two equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) dies with different geometries (die angles of 90o and 120o). Electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) is applied on the flow plane of the processed samples. Large scans with a step size of 7 μm for grain size distribution and texture measurements, as well as small scans with a step size of 0.1 μm for determination of cell size distribution, were performed. Hardness and simple compression are employed to evaluate the mechanical properties of the ECAP processed samples. Shear bands in the ECAP processed 7010AA was a major feature that led to failure in all samples subjected to further simple compression. The hardness as well as the stress-strain behavior was similar in the ECAP processed 6082 and 5083AA. The die geometry and the strain involved in the single pass influenced the overall texture intensity developed in the wrought alloys (1050 and 5083AA) and had minimal influence on the texture intensity of the heat treatable alloys (6082 and 7010AA). Low angle grain boundaries dominated the microstructure of all alloys for all testing conditions.

  9. Microstructure and anisotropy of the mechanical properties in commercially pure titanium after equal channel angular pressing with back pressure at room temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jäger, Aleš; Gärtnerová, Viera; Tesař, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 644, Sep (2015), s. 114-120. ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : equal channel angular processing * nanostructured materials * phase transformation * grain refinement * mechanical anisotropy * high pressure omega phase Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.567, year: 2014

  10. Estimation of the mechanical properties of aluminium and an aluminium composite after equal channel angular pressing by means of the small punch test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobeš, Ferdinand; Dymáček, Petr; Besterci, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 626, FEB (2015), s. 313-321. ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1452; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Mechanical characterization * Aluminium alloys * Composite s * Equal channel angular processing * Grain refinement Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 2.567, year: 2014

  11. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on creep behaviour of pure Al and a Cu-0.2 wt% Zr alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Jiří; Sklenička, Václav; Betekhtin, V. I.; Kadomtsev, A. G.; Král, Petr; Kvapilová, Marie; Svoboda, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 584, NOV (2013), s. 103-113. ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/2260; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Equal-channel angular processing * Nanostructured materials * Mechanical characterization * Electron microscopy * Grain boundaries Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.409, year: 2013

  12. Structure of Al-Ni alloy after equichannel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural-phase state of the Al-Li alloy rods, obtained under different conditions of the equichannel angular (ECA) pressing is studied. The fine-grained structure is formed in the ECA-pressing process, whereby the more fine grains correspond to the lower pressing temperatures. The dislocation substructure, including the subgrains, limited by the dislocation boundaries, is formed in the majority of the grains. The most developed substructure is formed in the process of pressing at the increased temperatures, when the largest grains are formed. Only the samples with such a structure manifested the superplasticity

  13. Effect of molybdenum addition on aluminium grain refined by titanium on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics in the as cast condition and after pressing by the equal angular channel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium and its alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in industrial and engineering applications due to their attractive characteristics. However, they solidify in columnar structure which tends to reduce their surface quality and mechanical strength. It is therefore, grain refined by grain refiners i.e. titanium or titanium+boron. The equal angular channel pressing, ECAP, process is a recent method for producing severe plastic deformation in materials. In this research work, the effect of addition of molybdenum either alone or in the presence of titanium to commercially pure aluminium on microstructure and mechanical behaviour is investigated in two conditions; first, in the as cast condition, and second after pressing by the ECAP process at room temperature. It was found that addition of Ti alone at a rate of 0.15% weight to commercially pure Al resulted in grain refining of microstructure and a grain size of 91μm was obtained. However, after pressing by the ECAP process further refinement was achieved and the grain size was reduced to 18μm. Addition of Mo alone to aluminium at a rate of 0.1% resulted in grain size of 76μm in the as cast condition and 32μm after pressing by the ECAP process. The combination of the two elements Ti and Mo together resulted in 48μm grain size in the as cast condition, compared to 40μm after pressing by the ECAP process. Furthermore, it was found that in the as cast condition: addition of Ti alone to Al resulted in enhancement of its mechanical behaviour by an increase of 5.2% increase in its flow stress at 20% true strain, whereas addition of Mo either alone or in the presence of Ti resulted in decrease of its flow stress at 20% by 9% and 5.6% respectively. However, after pressing by ECAP: it was found that addition of Ti or Mo either alone or together to Al resulted in increase of its flow stress at 20 % strain by the following percentages 5.49, 4.74 and 10.3% respectively

  14. Elaboration de matériaux composites à matrice de Titane et à nanorenfortsTiC et TiB par différents procédés de métallurgie des poudres : frittagepar hydruration/déshydruration et densification par déformation plastiquesévère (Equal Channel Angular Pressing : ECAP)

    OpenAIRE

    Bardet, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Titanium based composites using nano-sized reinforcements are goodcandidates for the improvement in mechanical properties without affecting ductility. Thisstudy is dedicated to fabrication and characterisation of Ti-based composites using twodifferent powder metallurgy processes: Densification using severe plastic deformation viaEqual Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) and Hydrogenation/Dehydrogenation (HDH)sintering processes (pressureless sintering and hot pressing).ECAP is a fast process base...

  15. On Angular Sampling Methods for 3-D Spatial Channel Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Jämsä, Tommi; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses generating three dimensional (3D) spatial channel models with emphasis on the angular sampling methods. Three angular sampling methods, i.e. modified uniform power sampling, modified uniform angular sampling, and random pairing methods are proposed and investigated in detail....... The random pairing method, which uses only twenty sinusoids in the ray-based model for generating the channels, presents good results if the spatial channel cluster is with a small elevation angle spread. For spatial clusters with large elevation angle spreads, however, the random pairing method would...

  16. Mechanical, microstructural and electrical evolution of commercially pure copper processed by equal channel angular extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Higuera Cobos, Oscar Fabián; Cabrera Marrero, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Samples of commercially pure copper (ETP copper) were subjected to equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) for up to 16 passes at room temperature following route Bc. Microstructural evolution was determined by oriented image microscopy (OIM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to estimate the stored deformation energy and the recrystallization temperature after each ECAP pass. On the other hand, electrical properties were correlated with the associated energy that results from...

  17. Creep in copper processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Jiří; Sklenička, Václav; Král, Petr; Svoboda, Milan; Saxl, Ivan

    UFA, Russia: Ufa State Aviation Technical University, 2009. ISBN 978-5-86911-971-1. [Bulk nanostructured materials. 22.09.2009-26.09.2009, Ufa] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2041301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : creep * ECAP * coper Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery

  18. Equal channel angular extrusion of niobium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niobium single crystals were deformed by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) with one, four, and eight passes at room temperature. Microstructural characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron-backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The microstructure of the sample deformed after one ECAE pass displays uniformly spaced coarse parallel sets of shear bands. After four passes, the shear bands intersect each other throughout the sample giving rise to the development of fine-grained crystallites at their intersections. In the most deformed specimen (eight ECAE passes), the microstructure becomes more uniform and consists of fine grains with sizes of about 1 μm and elongated subgrains lying nearly parallel to the extrusion direction. The fraction of high angle boundaries is about 48%

  19. Computational analysis of effect of route on strain uniformity in equal channel angular extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of route method (A, B C, B A, C) on strain uniformity after multi-pressing by ECAP (equal channel angular pressing) to the same workpiece (up to four passes) was examined in 3D using a commercial FVM code capable of dealing with very large plastic deformation. Strain uniformity could be evaluated by using particle tracking method and measuring strain distribution on the cross sectional and longitudinal planes of the workpieces. Average of total strain accumulated up to four passes was independent of the route method but strain uniformity largely depended on the route method. By using B A and A routes, strain uniformity could not be achieved anywhere in the workpiece, whereas it could be obtained to the reasonable level in the steady strain region near the center of the workpiece after every four passes in B C route and after every two passes in C route. Among the four routes investigated, the route C yields the best result in strain uniformity. Effect of route method on the strain distribution on the cross sectional area could be explained based on the result of particle tracking mode. The maximum strains measured near the sharp die corner in route A and B A after four passes are very close to the values predicted by the theoretical analysis based on ideal shear deformation, while those measured at other positions and in other routes (B C and C) is less than the theoretical value

  20. Ultrafine grain formation during equal channel angular extrusion in an Al-Mg-Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kander

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The possibility of including a new methods into classical technologies is one of reasons which for writing this paper.Design/methodology/approach: Microstructural development of aluminium alloy 6082 during equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP. Analysis of structure was made by light microscopy and SEM analysis.Findings: This procedure makes it possible to obtain after 4 passes the grain size of approx. 1 µm. In order to obtain an optimum micro-structure it is necessary to apply more passes with turning of the sample between individual passes by 90° about the longitudinal axis.Research limitations/implications: In this process (ECAP was one of head problems a impossibility of application other shapes material. One of eventuality solving in respect thereof is using DECAP process.Practical implications: Radii of rounding of working edges of extruding channel must correspond to conditions for laminar flow of metal.Originality/value: Aluminium alloy 6082 was used to ECAP process, and found to be that this material can to change substructure structure, mechanical properties, respectively. Achieved quality level of mechanical properties is a function of number of passes as well as used technological route.

  1. Exposure of Equal-Channel Angular Extruded Tungsten to Deuterium Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Xu, Yuping; Zhou, Haishan; Zhao, Sixiang; Li, Bo; Lyu, Guanghong; Yuan, Yue; Hao, Ting; Luo, Guangnan

    2015-07-01

    Surface morphology and deuterium retention in ultrafine-grained tungsten fabricated by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) have been examined after exposure to a low energy, high-flux deuterium (D) plasma at fluences of 3×1024 D/m2 and 1×1025 D/m2 in a temperature range of 100°C-150°C. The methods used were scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Sparse and small blisters (∼0.1 μm) were observed by SEM after D plasma irradiation on every irradiated surface; yet they did not exhibit significant structure or plasma fluence dependence. Larger blisters or protrusions appeared after subsequent TDS heating up to 1000°C. The TDS results showed a single D desorption peak at ∼220°C for all samples and the D retention increased with increasing numbers of extrusion passes, i.e., the decrease of grain sizes. The increased D retention in this low temperature range should be attributed to the faster diffusion of D along the larger volume fraction of grain boundaries introduced by ECAP. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB105001, 2013GB105002, 2015GB109001), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11305213, 11405201), Technological Development Grant of Hefei Science Center of CAS (No. 2014TDG-HSC003), and China National Funds for Distinguished Young Scientists (No. 51325103)

  2. Relation between Press Intensity and Angular Velocity at a RPPP Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Şenay Baydaş; Bülent Karakaş

    2011-01-01

    We study some properties of RPPP. RPPP is discussed by rising with constant velocity along a given axis. The constant pressure which it stresses on a constant axis is defined by the increasing PPP. Some relations between the increase at PPP and angular velocity at R are analyzed and relations of correlation are investigated at Matlab.

  3. Relation between Press Intensity and Angular Velocity at a RPPP Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay Baydaş

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study some properties of RPPP. RPPP is discussed by rising with constant velocity along a given axis. The constant pressure which it stresses on a constant axis is defined by the increasing PPP. Some relations between the increase at PPP and angular velocity at R are analyzed and relations of correlation are investigated at Matlab.

  4. Fang angular folding code for channel theory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the FANG code for performing channel analysis is documented. An input description is provided for users, as well as a brief description of the basic channel theory concepts. A sample streaming problem is described, for which FANG input and output are given

  5. 等通道转角挤压制备7075Al/AZ31复合板界面组织及结合强度%Interfacial microstructure and bonding strength of 7075Al/AZ31 composite plates fabricated by equal channel angular pressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任广笑; 王红霞; 周斌; 刘一鸣; 王斌兵

    2016-01-01

    在573 K,通过等通道转角挤压成功制备了7075 Al/AZ31复合板,并采用SEM、EDS、XRD和剪切实验研究了挤压道次及退火温度对复合板界面层组织和性能的影响及剪切断裂面的组成.结果表明:1道次等通道转角挤压制备的复合板界面处形成厚度为20μm均匀致密的扩散层,由Al3Mg2相和Mg17Al12相组成,Al3 Mg2相层厚(17 μm)是Mg17Al12相层厚(3μm)的5.6倍.2道次等通道挤压后,扩散层厚度无变化,但是出现了裂纹,剪切强度大幅下降,剪切断裂面发生在Al3Mg3相层.复合板界面层在473 K退火,扩散层厚度无变化,裂纹无改善,剪切强度略有提高;573 K退火,复合板扩散层中的Al3 Mg2相层和β-Mg17Al12相层均急剧增厚,微裂纹被焊合,剪切强度均大幅下降.在相同处理状态下,1道次ECAP复合板剪切强度均高于2道次ECAP复合板,473 K退火处理后,强度高出30.11%.573 K退火处理后,强度高出12.4%.故利用等通道转角挤压法制备7075Al/AZ31复合板,1道次比较合适,扩散层退火温度不宜超过473 K.%7075Al/AZ31 laminated composites were successfully fabricated by equal channel angular processing (ECAP) at 573 K.The effect of ECAP passes arid annealing temperature on microstructure evolution,phase constituent and bonding strength near the joining interface of the laminated composites was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy,X-ray diffraction and shear tests.The results indicate that diffusion layer with thickness of 20 μm is observed at the joining interface of the laminated composites prepared by one ECAP pass.The diffusion layer is mainly composed of Al3Mg2 and β-Mg17Al12 phases.After two ECAP passes,the change of the diffusion layer thickness is not obvious,while the formation of crack in the diffusion layer leads to the bonding strength decreasing.After annealing at 473 K,the thickness of the diffusion layer and the crack remains unchange,while the bonding strength increass

  6. Modeling channel interference in an orbital angular momentum-multiplexed laser link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita, Jaime A.; Neifeld, Mark A.; Vasic, Bane V.

    2009-08-01

    We study the effects of optical turbulence on the energy crosstalk among constituent orbital angular momentum (OAM) states in a vortex-based multi-channel laser communication link and determine channel interference in terms of turbulence strength and OAM state separation. We characterize the channel interference as a function of C2n and transmit OAM state, and propose probability models to predict the random fluctuations in the received signals for such architecture. Simulations indicate that turbulence-induced channel interference is mutually correlated across receive channels.

  7. Dynamic polarization effects on the angular distributions of protons channeled through carbon nanotubes in dielectric media

    OpenAIRE

    Borka, D.; Mowbray, D. J.; Mišković, Z. L.; Petrović, S.; Nešković, N.

    2008-01-01

    The best level of ordering and straightening of carbon nanotube arrays is often achieved when they are grown in a dielectric matrix, so such structures present the most suitable candidates for future channeling experiments with carbon nanotubes. Consequently, we investigate here how the dynamic polarization of carbon valence electrons in the presence of various surrounding dielectric media affects the angular distributions of protons channeled through (11,~9) single-wall carbon nanotubes. Pro...

  8. Orbital angular momentum crosstalk of single photons propagation in a slant non-Kolmogorov turbulence channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-xin; Wang, Yang-guang; Xu, Jian-cai; Wang, Jian-yu; Jia, Jian-jun

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the orbital angular momentum (OAM) crosstalk of single photons propagation through low-order atmospheric turbulence. The probability models of the orbital angular momentum crosstalk for single photons propagation in the channel with the non-Kolmogorov turbulence tilt, coma, and astigmatism and defocus aberration have been established. It is found, for α = 11/3, that the turbulent tilt is the dominant aberration which causes the orbital angular momentum crosstalk, the coma is second and the astigmatism is third, but the defocus aberration has no impact on OAM. The results also indicate that the regularities of orbital angular momentum crosstalk caused by the tilt, the coma and the astigmatism are almost the same, respectively. The crosstalk probability of the orbital angular momentum increases as the azimuth mode index p of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam increases, the turbulent strength Cn2 enhances, the orbital angular momentum quantum number rises, the diameter of circular sampling aperture D and the channel zenith angle θ increase.

  9. Angular distribution of ions axially channeled in a very thin crystal: Experimental and theoretical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the angular distributions for 6--30-MeV Cq+ (q=4--6) and 2--9-MeV H+ ions axially channeled in the [001] direction of a thin silicon crystal (1792 and 1900 A). We report highly structured two-dimensional angular distributions that depend sensitively on the projectile's velocity and incident charge state and the target's thickness and azimuthal orientation. Some structure in the angular contour maps is the result of a rainbow effect in axial channeling (i.e., extrema in the classical deflection function). State-to-state charge-state distributions, which are required to interpret the data accurately, have also been measured. All measured angular distributions have been explained via Monte Carlo trajectory calculations using Moliere's approximation to the Thomas-Fermi screening function and a screening length given by target electrons alone. The calculations indicate that all projectile velocity and charge-state effects and the target-thickness effects observed are the result of the projectile's transverse oscillatory motion in the channel. Using this information, we show that swift heavy-ion and proton angular distributions are simply related using a scaling law that depends only on the projectile's velocity and charge-to-mass ratio and on the crystal thickness

  10. The role of flux-focusing in the origin of shoulders in ion channeling angular scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the effect of ion channeling flux-focusing on the origin of high near-surface shoulders in channeling angular scans of single crystals. We simulate 2 MeV He ion planar channeling in Si{100} and analyze the variation of ion flux distribution within the channel with respect to the angle of incidence. It is observed that at the angle of incidence corresponding to the channeling shoulder, the primary channeling focus overlaps with lattice atoms and dramatically enhances the ion flux density at atomic sites, increasing the ion–atom close encounter probability. We show that the so increased close encounter probability originates high near-surface shoulders in channeling. -- Highlights: ► We study the effect of ion flux-focusing on origin of channeling shoulders. ► We simulate variation of ion channeling flux focus with incidence angle. ► Near channeling critical angle, flux focus superimposes on atomic sites. ► Ion flux focus superposition with atomic sites originates shoulders.

  11. Numerical simulation of temperature field of AZ91D magnesium alloy during equal channel angular extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The temperature field of AZ91D magnesium alloy extruded by equal channel angular extrusion(ECAE) has been simulated using finite element method(FEM).A series of tests were designed to obtain the simulation parameters:flow stress of AZ91D,friction factor and heat transfer coefficient.The simulated temperature agrees well with the measured one.The evolution of temperature and influencing factor was discussed in details.Furthermore,the extrusion pressure of ECAE was analyzed.

  12. Analysis of Crystallographic Textures in Aluminum Plates Processed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Saiyi; Mishin, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    A modeling and experimental investigation has been conducted to explore the effect of processing route on texture evolution during equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) of aluminum plate samples. It is found that although the textures in the plates develop along orientation fibers previously...... identified for ECAE-processed rods and bars, the main components and strength of these textures vary significantly with processing route, which may lead to considerable differences in the plastic anisotropy of the plates....

  13. Dynamic approach to description of entrance channel effects in angular distributions of fission fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremenko, D. O.; Drozdov, V. A.; Fotina, O. V.; Platonov, S. Yu.; Yuminov, O. A.

    2016-07-01

    Background: It is well known that the anomalous behavior of angular anisotropies of fission fragments at sub- and near-barrier energies is associated with a memory of conditions in the entrance channel of the heavy-ion reactions, particularly, deformations and spins of colliding nuclei that determine the initial distributions for the components of the total angular momentum over the symmetry axis of the fissioning system and the beam axis. Purpose: We develop a new dynamic approach, which allows the description of the memory effects in the fission fragment angular distributions and provides new information on fusion and fission dynamics. Methods: The approach is based on the dynamic model of the fission fragment angular distributions which takes into account stochastic aspects of nuclear fission and thermal fluctuations for the tilting mode that is characterized by the projection of the total angular momentum onto the symmetry axis of the fissioning system. Another base of our approach is the quantum mechanical method to calculate the initial distributions over the components of the total angular momentum of the nuclear system immediately following complete fusion. Results: A method is suggested for calculating the initial distributions of the total angular momentum projection onto the symmetry axis for the nuclear systems formed in the reactions of complete fusion of deformed nuclei with spins. The angular distributions of fission fragments for the 16O+232Th,12C+235,236,238, and 13C+235U reactions have been analyzed within the dynamic approach over a range of sub- and above-barrier energies. The analysis allowed us to determine the relaxation time for the tilting mode and the fraction of fission events occurring in times not larger than the relaxation time for the tilting mode. Conclusions: It is shown that the memory effects play an important role in the formation of the angular distributions of fission fragments for the reactions induced by heavy ions. The

  14. Features of texture and structure development in zirconium under equal channel angular pressing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perlovich, Y; Isaenkova, M; Fesenko, [No Value; Grekhov, M; Yu, SH; Hwang, SK; Shin, DH; Horita, Z

    2006-01-01

    A detailed X-ray study of Zr rods, subjected to ECAP at 350 degrees C by routes C and B-C, was conducted by the new X-ray method of Generalized Pole Figures, combining texture measurement with registration of X-ray line profiles. The data analysis is based on conceptions of the texture formation the

  15. Some factors affecting the creep behaviour of metallic materials processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenička, Václav; Dvořák, Jiří; Král, Petr; Svoboda, Milan; Saxl, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 6 (2009), s. 762-766. ISSN 1862-5282. [ISPMA 11. International symposium on physics of materials /11./. Praha, 24.08.2008 - 28.08.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : creep * ECAP * aluminium * cooper Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.862, year: 2009

  16. The link between microstructure and creep in aluminum processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saxl, Ivan; Sklenička, Václav; Ilucová, Lucia; Svoboda, Milan; Dvořák, Jiří; Král, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 503, 1-2 (2009), s. 82-85. ISSN 0921-5093. [1st International Symposium on Bulk Nanostructures Materials - From Fundamentals to Innovations. Ufa, 14.08.2007-18.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2041301; GA ČR GA201/06/0302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503; CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : aluminum * ECAP * grain structure * homogeneity * creep life Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.901, year: 2009

  17. Microstructure evolution of AA7050 Al alloy during Equal-Channel Angular Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Regina Cardoso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available High strength AA7050 aluminum alloy was processed by ECAP through route A in the T7451 condition. Samples were processed at 423 K, with 1 and 3 passes. The resulting microstructure was evaluated by optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD using monochromatic Cu Kα radiation. Rockwell B hardness and tensile tests were performed for assessment of mechanical properties. The microstructure was refined by the formation of deformation bands, with dislocation cells and elongated subgrains, with an average width of 240 nm, inside these bands. The number of deformation bands increased with the number of passes. A reduction of precipitates size was observed with increase in the number of passes, when compared to initial condition, probably resulting from particle fragmentation during ECAP. After three passes the precipitates tend to a more equiaxed morphology and have sizes smaller than 10 nm. Phases Η' and Η coexist in the microstructure, but Η is the dominant phase, mainly after three passes. The hardness of alloy after the first pass of ECAP is almost equal to the initial condition. After three passes the hardness showed a slight reduction which must be result from recovery process. There was a slight improvement in the yield strength and elongation after one pass, when compared to the initial T7451 condition. The improvement in the ultimate tensile strength was less significant.

  18. Equal Channel Angular Pressing of Al-SiC Composites Fabricated by Stir Casting

    OpenAIRE

    Farouk Shehata; Nahed ElMahallawy; Mohamed Arab; Mohamed Agwa

    2013-01-01

    Stir casting method was used to produce conventional metal matrix composites (MMC) with fairly homogenous dispersion of reinforcement material. Commercial pure aluminum and silicon carbide particles (50 μm) were selected as matrix and reinforcement materials respectively. The matrix was first completely melt and kept constant at 750°C. Then SiC powder preheated to 800°C was added during stirring action. No wetting agents were used. The melt mixture was poured into a metallic mold. The compos...

  19. Microstructure evolution of AA7050 Al alloy during Equal-Channel Angular Pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Regina Cardoso; Dilermando Nagle Travessa; Alberto Moreira Jorge Junior; Walter José Botta

    2012-01-01

    High strength AA7050 aluminum alloy was processed by ECAP through route A in the T7451 condition. Samples were processed at 423 K, with 1 and 3 passes. The resulting microstructure was evaluated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using monochromatic Cu Kα radiation. Rockwell B hardness and tensile tests were performed for assessment of mechanical properties. The m...

  20. Texture evolution in oriented magnesium single crystals processed by equal channel angular pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedá, Petra; Ostapovets, Andriy; Jäger, Aleš; Lejček, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 10 (2012), s. 1223-1237. ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ECAP * texture * EBSD * magnesium * single crystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.596, year: 2012

  1. Modeling texture development in a magnesium single crystal during equal channel angular pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostapovets, Andriy; Šedá, Petra; Jäger, Aleš; Lejček, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 1 (2012), s. 76-79. ISSN 1062-8738 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ECAP * magnesium * single crystals Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  2. Formation of grain boundaries in magnesium single crystal during equal channel angular pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedá, P.; Jäger, Aleš; Lejček, Pavel; Triguero, P.R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 10 (2014), s. 1095-1111. ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnesium * ECAP * single crystal * EBSD * recrystallization Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.825, year: 2014

  3. Seafloor classification of the mound and channel provinces of the Porcupine Seabight: An application of the multibeam angular backscatter data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Beyer, A.; Chakraborty, B.; Schenke, H.W.

    for the angular backscatter data of GLORIA side scan sonar was implemented by [ ]. Such classification technique for the seafloor sections involves the shape, variance, and magnitude of the angular response of the measured multi-beam angular backscatter strength... in the section three along with a presentation of the shape invariant backscatter results from the mounds and the channel seafloor. An semi-empirical method is applied to the multi-beam dataset to employ seafloor classification in section four. 2 Multi...

  4. Quantitative Microstructural Characterization of Thick Aluminum Plates Heavily Deformed Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Segal, V.M.; Ferrasse, S.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the microstructure has been performed in three orthogonal planes of 15-mm-thick aluminum plates heavily deformed via two equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) routes. One route was a conventional route A with no rotation between passes. Another route involved....... Comparing the plate and bar samples, the most refined and least heterogeneous microstructure was observed in the route Bc bar sample. The differences in the microstructure are reflected in the hardness data; the hardness is lowest after ECAE via route A and greatest in the bar sample processed using route...

  5. Effects of equal channel angular extrusion on microstructure, strength and ballistic performance of AA5754 plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Hong, Chuanshi; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure, hardness, tensile properties and ballistic performance have been investigated in thick plates of the AA5754 alloy both in a coarse-grained as-received condition and after 4 passes of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) conducted at elevated temperatures. It is found that ECAE...... refines the microstructure to an average subgrain size of 0.3 μm, which results in significantly increased hardness and strength. Although ductility decreases due to ECAE, the uniform elongation is still fairly large, ~10%. The ballistic performance of the ECAE-processed material is found to be...

  6. Siegert pseudostate formulation of scattering theory: Nonzero angular momenta in the one-channel case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Siegert pseudostate (SPS) formulation of scattering theory, originally developed by Tolstikhin, Ostrovsky, and Nakamura [Phys. Rev. A, 58, 2077 (1998)] for s-wave scattering in a spherically symmetric finite-range potential, is generalized to nonzero angular momenta. The orthogonality and completeness properties of SPSs are established and SPS expansions for the outgoing-wave Green's function, physical states, and scattering matrix are obtained. The present formulation completes the theory of SPSs in the one-channel case, making its application to three-dimensional problems possible. The results are illustrated by calculations for several model potentials

  7. Numerical Investigation of Plastic Deformation in Two-turn Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mitsak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a number of investigations in recent years reporting on the structure and properties of materials deformed to super plastic deformation (SPD. During SPD new textures can be formed and abnormal characteristics are displayed, attracting a growing research interest.¶ Equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE is a method often used to obtain large plastic strains. However, according to experimental results, there is a large tensile stress in the sample during deformation, which may lead in some cases, to cracking in metallic alloys and large curvature in polymeric materials. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the ECAE process can be conducted at high temperatures. But this contributes significantly to a decreased level of plastic deformation induced in the sample. Hence, a tool with multi-pass seems to be a very appropriate solution. In this paper, a new geometry die composed of two elbows has been simulated by finite element method aiming to provide an insight into the mechanisms of deformation and to determine the optimum geometry of the tool. The numerical results show that the length and the section of the second channel play a significant role on the homogeneity of the plastic strain distribution. It has been found that good homogeneity was obtained when the second channel has the same section as that of the entrance and the exit channels and with a length equal to three times of its width.

  8. An investigation on diffusion bonding of aluminum to copper using equal channel angular extrusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, P; Taheri, A Karimi

    2011-06-30

    A new method for production of bimetallic rods, utilizing the equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) process has been introduced before by previous researchers, but no attempt has been made to assess the effect of different temperatures and holding times in order to achieve a diffusional bond between the mating surfaces. In present research copper sheathed aluminum rods have been ECAEed at room temperature and subsequently held at a constant ECAE pressure, at different temperatures and holding times to produce a diffusional bond between the copper sheath and the aluminum core. The bonding quality of the joints was examined by shear strength test and a sound bonding interface was achieved. Based on the results, a bonding temperature of 200 °C and holding time of 60-80 min yielded the highest shear strength value. PMID:21760654

  9. Equal channel angular extrusion of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Steven D; Engler, Alexander J; Carlson, Evan M; Van Citters, Douglas W

    2016-10-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), a common bearing surface in total joint arthroplasty, is subject to material property tradeoffs associated with conventional processing techniques. For orthopaedic applications, radiation-induced cross-linking is used to enhance the wear resistance of the material, but cross-linking also restricts relative chain movement in the amorphous regions and hence decreases toughness. Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) is proposed as a novel mechanism by which entanglements can be introduced to the polymer bulk during consolidation, with the aim of imparting the same tribological benefits of conventional processing without complete inhibition of chain motion. ECAE processing at temperatures near the crystalline melt for UHMWPE produces (1) increased entanglements compared to control materials; (2) increasing entanglements with increasing temperature; and (3) mechanical properties between values for untreated polyethylene and for cross-linked polyethylene. These results support additional research in ECAE-processed UHMWPE for joint arthroplasty applications. PMID:27287161

  10. Superplastic behaviour of an AZ61 alloy processed by equal channel angular extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is concerned with microstructural and mechanical characterization of the superplastic behaviour of a magnesium base AZ61 alloy processed by equal channel angular extrusion (ECA). Microscopic examinations showed that the microstructure after ECA was homogeneous and the grain size was about 5 μm. The extruded material showed better mechanical properties than the rolled material. The strain rate sensitivity exponent, at 250 degree centigree, was 0.5 at stain rates ranging from 10''-4 to 5.10''-4 s''-1. Under these conditions, the maximum elongation obtained was 250% and the microstructure remained homogeneous and stable. Furthermore, the stress strain curves showed strong strain hardening which was not attributed exclusively to dynamic grain growth. (Author)

  11. Dynamic polarization effects on the angular distributions of protons channeled through carbon nanotubes in dielectric media

    CERN Document Server

    Borka, D; Mišković, Z L; Petrović, S; Nešković, N

    2008-01-01

    The best level of ordering and straightening of carbon nanotube arrays is often achieved when they are grown in a dielectric matrix, so such structures present the most suitable candidates for future channeling experiments with carbon nanotubes. Consequently, we investigate here how the dynamic polarization of carbon valence electrons in the presence of various surrounding dielectric media affects the angular distributions of protons channeled through (11,~9) single-wall carbon nanotubes. Proton speeds between 3 and 10 a.u., corresponding to energies of 0.223 and 2.49 MeV, are chosen with the nanotube's length varied between 0.1 and 1 $\\mu$m. We describe the repulsive interaction between a proton and the nanotube's atoms in a continuum-potential approximation based on the Doyle-Turner potential, whereas the attractive image force on a proton is calculated using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the dynamic response of the nanotube valence electrons, while assigning to the surrounding medium an appropri...

  12. Effect of equal channel angular extrusion on Al-6063 bending fatigue characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, J.; Majzoobi, G. H.; Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Azmah Hanim, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to refine the grains of annealed 6063 aluminum alloy and to improve its yield stress and ultimate strength. This was accomplished via the equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) process at a temperature of 200°C using route A, with a constant ram speed of 30 mm/min through a die angle of 90° between the die channels for as many as 6 passes. The experiments were conducted on an Avery universal testing machine. The results showed that the grain diameter decreased from 45 μm to 2.8 μm after 6 extrusion passes. The results also indicated that the major improvement in fatigue resistance occurred after the first pass. The subsequent passes improved the fatigue life but at a considerably lower rate. A maximum increase of 1100% in the case of low applied stresses and an approximately 2200% increase in fatigue resistance in the case of high applied stresses were observed after 5 passes. The improvement of fatigue resistance is presumed to be due to (1) a reduction in the size and the number of Si crystals with increasing number of ECAE passes, (2) the aggregation of Cu during the ECAE process, (3) the formation and growth of CuAl2 grains, and (4) grain refinement of the Al-6063 alloy during the ECAE process.

  13. Nano grained AZ31 alloy achieved by equal channel angular rolling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equal channel angular rolling (ECAR) is a severe plastic deformation process which is carried out on large, thin sheets. The grain size could be significantly decreased by this process. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet by this process to nanometer. The effect of the number of ECAR passes on texture evolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy was investigated. ECAR temperature was controlled to maximize the grain refinement efficiency along with preventing cracking. The initial microstructure of as-received AZ31 sheet showed an average grain size of about 21 μm. The amount of grain refinement increased with increasing the pass number. After 10 passes of the process, significant grain refinement occurred and the field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) micrographs showed that the size of grains were decreased significantly to about 14-70 nm. These grains were formed at the grain boundaries and inside some of the previous larger micrometer grains. Observation of optical microstructures and X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) showed the formation of twins after ECAR process. Micro-hardness of material was studied at room temperature. There was a continuous enhancement of hardness by increasing the pass number of ECAR process. At the 8th pass, hardness values increased by 53%. At final passes hardness reduced slightly, which was attributed to saturation of strain in high number of passes.

  14. Improvements in the microstructure and fatigue behavior of pure copper using equal channel angular extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J Nemati; GH Majzoobi; S Sulaiman; BTHT Baharudin; MAAzmah Hanim

    2014-01-01

    In this study, annealed pure copper was extruded using equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) for a maximum of eight passes. The fatigue resistance of extruded specimens was evaluated for different passes and applied stresses using fatigue tests, fractography, and metallography. The mechanical properties of the extruded material were obtained at a tensile test velocity of 0.5 mm/min. It was found that the maximum increase in strength occurred after the 2nd pass. The total increase in ultimate strength after eight passes was 94%. The results of fatigue tests indicated that a significant improvement in fatigue life occurred after the 2nd pass. In subsequent passes, the fatigue life con-tinued to improve but at a considerably lower rate. The improved fatigue life was dependent on the number of passes and applied stresses. For low stresses (or high-cycle fatigue), a maximum increase in fatigue resistance of approximately 500%was observed for the extruded material after eight passes, whereas a maximum fatigue resistance of 5000%was obtained for high-applied stresses (or low-cycle fatigue). Optical microscopic examinations revealed grain refinements in the range of 32 to 4 µm. A maximum increase in impact energy absorption of 100%was achieved after eight passes. Consistent results were obtained from fractography and metallography examinations of the ex-truded material during fatigue tests.

  15. Microstructural characterization and mechanical properties of nanostructured AA1070 aluminum after equal channel angular extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → An investigation into the microstructure (sub-grain size, dislocation density, misorientation angle). → The quantification of texture for 1070 aluminum alloy throughout eight ECAE passes. → Evolution of mechanical properties (hardness, tension stress-strain response). → The models with good quality model fits for use in calculation of strength and HAGBs. -- Abstract: In the present research, equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) of commercial purity aluminum (1070) was conducted using route BC. For ECAE processing a proper die set was designed and constructed. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to evaluate the microstructure and texture of the extruded materials. The results reveal two distinct processing regimes: from 1 to 4 passes the microstructure evolves from elongated subgrains to a rather equiaxed array of ultrafine grains and from 4 to 8 passes there is no strict change in the average grain size. The boundary misorientation angle and the fraction of high-angle boundaries increase rapidly up to 4 passes and at a slower rate from 4 to 8 passes. Also, the variation of hardness and yield stress with number of extrusion was documented up to 8 passes. The present results showed that first ECAE pass has resulted in enhancement of mechanical properties more than four times over the annealed condition. Further ECAE processing has resulted in slight improvement. Based on two strengthening mechanisms, variations of the strength as a function of the pass numbers were related to the calculated dislocation densities and the average boundary spacing.

  16. Equal Channel Angular Deformation (ECAD) of As-Cast AM60 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng LUO; Xiaolin WU; Kenong XIA

    2003-01-01

    As-cast AM60 magnesium alloy ingot with grains coarser than those of as-extruded AZ series is more liable to produce cracks under ECAD with severe shear strain. A feasible scheme of equal channel angular deformation (ECAD) for as-cast AM60 magnesium alloy ingot was proposed in this paper. The tests were conducted on Instron machine with hydraulic back-force machine. Through analysing load vs displacement curves, the effects of ECAD processing conditions on deformability and microstructure of as-cast magnesium AM60 billets were discussed. During testing,the back-force employment was helpful to keep ECAD processing more stable. And with back-force, it was observed that the number of ECAD passes in different routes could tremendously affect the deformability and microstructure of magnesium specimens. It was concluded that ECAD processing is entirely feasible for as-cast magnesium AM60alloy under severe shear strain, and back-force employment, multi-passes deformation and lubrication of graphite paper are the factors primarily beneficial to improvement of deformability and refinement of grained structure. This work provides a way to produce magnesium alloy with fine-grained structure directly from casting ingot by ECAD technique.

  17. Tensile anisotropy of AZ91 magnesium alloy by equal channel angular processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The 60 mm diameter billets in this study have an advantage for anisotropy study in three orthogonal directions by tensile test. • Without homogenization treatment, the β phase was broken and make an Particle Stimulating Nucleation (PSN) mechanism and pinning the dislocation motion of AZ91 magnesium alloy processed by ECAE. • Lower temperature (225 °C) for ECAE make rapid refinement effect for AZ91 magnesium alloy. - Abstract: An AZ91 magnesium alloy with a diameter of 60 mm was processed by the method of equal-channel angular processing (ECAP), after which it was examined along three orthogonal orientations in tensile test. The techniques of optical microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to test microstructure and basal texture, respectively. The results revealed a significant anisotropy in its mechanical behavior. Crystal grain was refined rapidly by broken β phase under lower ECAP temperature. The basal texture dominated the tensile deformation mechanism at room temperature, which was responsible for the anisotropy

  18. Angular momentum transfer of Laguerre - Gaussian laser pulses and quasi-static magnetic field generation in plasma channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To generate a strong axial and azimuthal quasi-static magnetic field, we propose to study the interaction of Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams in a parabolic plasma channel. Our study shows that the higher-order modes with orbital angular momentum generate a stronger magnetic field in comparison to the lower-order modes of the laser beam. The contribution of the effective mass of photon on the orbital angular momentum and the polarization state of the beam are analyzed analytically and with 2D Particle in Cell (PIC) simulation. These effects have been put forwarded in analyzing the magnetic field generation. (author)

  19. Equal Channel Angular Extrusion Progress Report for March 1998 - May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macheret, Yevgeny; Watkins, Arthur Deloss; Korth, Gary Elvan; Lillo, Thomas Martin; Flinn, John Elwood Jr.; Herling, D. R.; Smith, M. T.; Schwarz, R. B.

    1999-10-01

    Pure copper and Alloy 5083 aluminum were processed by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE); their microstructural evolution and corresponding mechanical properties were investigated. Work also began on the possible use of ECAE to synthesize advanced materials or to consolidate metal powders or powder mixtures. The die tooling used for ECAE is described and selected microstructural and mechanical property results for ECAE-processed copper and cold-rolled (conventionally-processed) copper in the as-processed and annealed condition are compared. Results thus far show that the “pure” metal is prone to low temperature recrystallization after large strain hardening—more beneficial effects are expected in the dispersion-strengthened and precipitation-hardening alloys. The large range of tensile properties and grain sizes from the copper allowed a flow stress analysis to be performed. From this analysis, a new model for flow stress behavior is proposed. An evaluation of ECAE processing of material for spot welding electrodes began. Results to date include electrodes of ECAE-processed commercially pure copper (Alloy 101). Future work involving Glidcop® (Al2O3 oxide dispersionstrengthened copper) and CuCrZr (Cr-Zr precipitation dispersion) materials will be required to fully investigate the benefits of ECAE for electrode life extension. Initial work on Aluminum Alloy 5083 showed that ECAE led to grain refinement as well as broke up and more uniformly dispersed the hardening precipitates. This is desirable for enhancing superplastic behavior. Study of ECAE for consolidating metal powder began. Early results with a Cu-Ag powder indicate that near 100% density was achieved with room temperature consolidation.

  20. Study of angular momentum variation due to entrance channel effect in heavy ion fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    2014-05-01

    A systematic investigation of the properties of hot nuclei may be studied by detecting the evaporated particles. These emissions reflect the behavior of the nucleus at various stages of the deexcitation cascade. When the nucleus is formed by the collision of a heavy nucleus with a light particle, the statistical model has done a good job of predicting the distribution of evaporated particles when reasonable choices were made for the level densities and yrast lines. Comparison to more specific measurements could, of course, provide a more severe test of the model and enable one to identify the deviations from the statistical model as the signature of other effects not included in the model. Some papers have claimed that experimental evaporation spectra from heavy-ion fusion reactions at higher excitation energies and angular momenta are no longer consistent with the predictions of the standard statistical model. In order to confirm this prediction we have employed two systems, a mass-symmetric (31P+45Sc) and a mass-asymmetric channel (12C+64Zn), leading to the same compound nucleus 76Kr* at the excitation energy of 75 MeV. Neutron energy spectra of the asymmetric system (12C+64Zn) at different angles are well described by the statistical model predictions using the normal value of the level density parameter a = A/8 MeV-1. However, in the case of the symmetric system (31P+45Sc), the statistical model interpretation of the data requires the change in the value of a = A/10 MeV-1. The delayed evolution of the compound system in case of the symmetric 31P+45Sc system may lead to the formation of a temperature equilibrated dinuclear complex, which may be responsible for the neutron emission at higher temperature, while the protons and alpha particles are evaporated after neutron emission when the system is sufficiently cooled down and the higher g-values do not contribute in the formation of the compound nucleus for the symmetric entrance channel in case of charged

  1. On the quantum-channel capacity for orbital angular momentum-based free-space optical communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yequn; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Gao, Xin

    2012-08-01

    Inspired by recent demonstrations of orbital angular momentum-(OAM)-based single-photon communications, we propose two quantum-channel models: (i) the multidimensional quantum-key distribution model and (ii) the quantum teleportation model. Both models employ operator-sum representation for Kraus operators derived from OAM eigenkets transition probabilities. These models are highly important for future development of quantum-error correction schemes to extend the transmission distance and improve date rates of OAM quantum communications. By using these models, we calculate corresponding quantum-channel capacities in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. PMID:22859154

  2. Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Asher J; Ren, Yongxiong; Xie, Guodong; Zhao, Zhe; Cao, Yinwen; Li, Long; Ahmed, Nisar; Wang, Zhe; Yan, Yan; Liao, Peicheng; Liu, Cong; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Boyd, Robert W; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

    2015-12-15

    We explore the use of the spatial domain as a degree of freedom for data encoding and channel hopping. We experimentally demonstrate data encoding at 20  Gbit/s using four possible orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. The influence of mode spacing and time misalignment between modal channels on the switching crosstalk and bit-error rates is investigated. We find that the use of adjacent modes with a mode spacing of one introduces an extra power penalty of 3.2 dB compared with a larger mode spacing. Moreover, we demonstrate reconfigurable hopping of a 100  Gbit/s quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) data channel between four OAM modes with a 2 ns switching guard time. The results show that the power penalties for different hopping rates and mode spacings are less than 5.3 dB. PMID:26670518

  3. Generation and detection of broadband multi-channel orbital angular momentum by micrometer-scale meta-reflectarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinpeng; Min, Changjun; Lei, Ting; Du, Luping; Yuan, Yangsheng; Wei, Shibiao; Wang, Yiping; Yuan, X-C

    2016-01-11

    We theoretically demonstrate the generation and detection of broadband multi-channel Orbital Angular Momentum(OAM) by a micrometer-scale meta-reflectarray. The meta-reflectarray composed of patterned silicon bars on a silver ground plane can be designed to realize phase modulation and work as chip-level OAM devices. Compared to traditional methods of OAM generation and detection, our approach shows superiorities of very compact structure size, broadband working wavelength (1250-1750nm), high diffraction efficiency (~70%), simultaneously handling multiplex OAMs, and tunable reflection angle (0-45°). These fascinating advantages provides great potential applications in photonic integrated devices and systems for high-capacity and multi-channel OAM communication. PMID:26832252

  4. Investigation on the effect of Equal-Channel Angular Pressing process on the pure copper grain size

    OpenAIRE

    BAGHERİ, Mohammad Javad; SARAEIAN, Payam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Severe plastic deformation is a general concept for the explanation of a group of metal-working methods that apply many strains without changing the overall dimensions of the work piece. In other words, due to the special geometry of tools, the deformation of tools is restrained which applying this process will prevent the flow of materials, thus, creating enormous hydrostatic pressure. This pressure along with high shear strain results in high-density defects in the crystal lattice...

  5. Formation of texture and structure in rods of copper and titanium under equal-channel angular pressing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perlovich, Y; Isaenkova, M; Fesenko, [No Value; Grekhov, M; Alexandrov, [No Value; Beyerlein, IJ; Horita, Z

    2006-01-01

    New data on structure and texture features of Cu and Ti rods, subjected to ECAP at 20 degrees C and 400 degrees C respectively, were obtained by means of advanced X-ray diffractometric methods. A deformation inhomogeneity through rod's cross-section was studied by reduced cubic samples 3x3x3 mm, cut

  6. Multi-temperature equal channel angular pressing of Mg-3 wt%Al-1 wtA%Zn alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnár, Peter; Jäger, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 27 (2013), s. 3612-3626. ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GPP108/12/P054 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnesium alloys * EBSD * microstructural characterization Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.427, year: 2013

  7. Durability and static strength of microcrystalline titanium VT1-0 obtained by equal-channel angular pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Betekhtin, V. I.; Dvořák, Jiří; Kadomtsev, A. G.; Kardashev, B. K.; Narykova, M. V.; Raab, G. K.; Sklenička, Václav; Faizova, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2015), s. 80-82. ISSN 1063-7850 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : titanium * creep * ECAP * mechanical stability Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.574, year: 2014

  8. New misorientation scheme for a visco-plastic self-consistent model: Equal channel angular pressing of magnesium single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostapovets, Andriy; Šedá, Petra; Jäger, Aleš; Lejček, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 29, FEB (2012), s. 1-12. ISSN 0749-6419 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100801; GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : metallic material * visco-plastic material * terial * anisotropic material * grain boundaries * grain misorientation distribution Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.356, year: 2012

  9. Effect of temperature on grain refinement of Mg-3Al-1Zn alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnár, Peter; Jäger, Aleš; Lejček, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 461-464. ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials, ISPMA /12./. Praha, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnesium alloy * ECAP * EBSD * shear band Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012 http://przyrbwn.icm.edu.pl/APP/PDF/122/a122z3p09.pdf

  10. Microhardness and EBSD microstructure mapping in partially-pressed al and cu through 90º ECAP die

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander P. Zhilyaev; Terence G. Langdon

    2013-01-01

    Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is widely recognized as an effective method for processing ultrafine-grained and even nanostructured materials. Important details on processes occurring in the die intersections can be obtained by mapping the microhardness and EBSD microstructures in partially-pressed aluminum and copper through the 90º die of ECAP. Precise measurements were made using grids of partially-pressed Al and Cu and detailed color maps were plotted and compared with EBSD maps. A...

  11. Orbital angular momentum in four channel spatial domain multiplexing system for multi-terabit per second communication architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Syed H.; Muralikrishnan, Hari P.; Kozaitis, Samuel P.

    2012-06-01

    Bandwidth increase has always been an important area of research in communications. A novel multiplexing technique known as Spatial Domain Multiplexing (SDM) has been developed at the Optronics Laboratory of Florida Institute of Technology to increase the bandwidth to T-bits/s range. In this technique, space inside the fiber is used effectively to transmit up to four channels of same wavelength at the same time. Experimental and theoretical analysis shows that these channels follow independent helical paths inside the fiber without interfering with each other. Multiple pigtail laser sources of exactly the same wavelength are used to launch light into a single carrier fiber in a fashion that resulting channels follow independent helical trajectories. These helically propagating light beams form optical vortices inside the fiber and carry their own Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM). The outputs of these beams appear as concentric donut shaped rings when projected on a screen. This endeavor presents the experimental outputs and simulated results for a four channel spatially multiplexed system effectively increasing the system bandwidth by a factor of four.

  12. 半自动等径角挤压模设计%Semi-automatic extrusion die for equal channel angular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪达; 于云程; 徐波

    2013-01-01

    针对传统等径角挤压模结构相对滞后的情况,设计了瓣合式旋转挤压筒、模具自旋转、滑动支撑台等结构,模具一次装夹即可实现材料的多角度多道次挤压,节省了制备超细晶材料的成本和时间。%A semi-automatic extrusion die for equal channel angular was developed in which structures like split type rotary extrusion cylinder, die’s auto-rotating and sliding support-ing platform were applied. In one clamping can the multi-angle and multi-pass extrusion of materials be realized.

  13. Turbulence Mitigation Scheme for Optical Communications using Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing Based on Channel Coding and Wavefront Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Shengmei; Zhou, Li; Gong, Longyan; Cheng, Wenwen; Sheng, Yubo; Zheng, Baoyu

    2014-01-01

    The free-space optical (FSO) communication links with orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing have been demonstrated that they can largely enhance the systems' capacity without a corresponding increase in spectral bandwidth, but the performance of the system is unavoidably disturbed by atmospheric turbulence (AT). Different from the existed AT disturbance, the OAM-multiplexed systems will cause both the burst and random errors for a single OAM state carrier and the `crosstalk' interference between the different OAM states carriers. In this paper, we propose a turbulence mitigation method to improve AT tolerance of OAM-multiplexed FSO communication links. In the proposed scheme, we use channel codes to correct the burst and random errors caused by AT for a single OAM state carrier; And we use wavefront correction method to correct the `crosstalk' interference between the different OAM states carriers. The improvements of AT tolerance are discussed by comparing the performance of OAM-multiplexed FSO communi...

  14. Uniformity and continuity of effective strain in AZ91D processed by multi-pass equal channel angular extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-hua; LUO Shou-jing; DU Zhi-ming

    2008-01-01

    AZ91D magnesium alloy was processed by equal channel angular extrusion(ECAE). The influence of extrusion temperature, extrusion pass and extrusion route on the ultimate strength of the extruded billet was analyzed. The process of multi-pass extrusion was simulated with the method of finite element analysis, and the continuity and uniformity of effective strain in multi-pass extrusion were investigated. The results show that extrusion pass plays the most important role in improving the ultimate strength of AZ91D magnesium alloy, the extrusion route is the second, and the extrusion temperature is the last. From the numerical simulation, there exists the continuity of the accumulated deformation in multi-pass extrusion and the effective strain increases linearly. The tendency of the strain uniformity is different in multi-pass extrusion with extrusion routes. The results of experiment agree with those of numerical simulation.

  15. Deformation temperature and postdeformation annealing effects on severely deformed TiNi alloy by equal channel angular extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Micron TiNi alloy blocks were fabricated at high temperature by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) using hotforged Ti-50.3at%Ni alloy as the raw material and the effects of deformation temperature and postdeformation annealing on the severely deformed TiNi alloy by ECAE were investigated. The results show that the TiNi alloy processed by ECAE undergoes severe plastic deformation, and lowering the deformation temperature and increasing the number of extrusions contribute to grain refinement. When the annealing temperature is below 873 K, static recovery is the main restoration process; when the temperature rises to 973 K, static recrystallization occurs. It is found that fine particles are precipitated when the TiNi alloy processed by ECAE is annealed at 773 K.

  16. Effect of Equal Channel Angular Extrusion on the Microstructures and Properties of Two Extruded Al-Mg-Si Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Cai; G. W. Lorimer

    2005-01-01

    The effect of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) on the microstructure of two Al-Mg-Si extrusion alloys was investigated by high resolution electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) using a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Two contrasting alloys: a dilute alloy, based on alloy 6061 and a concentrated alloy, based on alloy 6069 were employed for this research. It has been found that prior ECAE to extrusion promotes high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) in the extrusions, and the increase in HAGBs ratio is due to the large shear deformation involved in the processof ECAE. Tensile testing results show that a further ageing treatment strengthens the alloys after extrusion and the ECAE processedextrusions are more ductile than conventional extrusions.

  17. Microstructure evolution of processed Mg-Al-Zn alloy by equal channel angular extrusion in semi-solid isothermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ju-fu; LUO Shou-jing

    2006-01-01

    Microstructure evolution of processed Mg-Al-Zn alloy by equal channel angular extrusion(ECAE) in semi-solid isothermal treatment was investigated. The results show that with increasing semi-solid isothermal treatment temperature, the α phase solid grain size of processed Mg-Al-Zn alloy by ECAE increases firstly due to coarsening of α phase solid grains, then decreases due to melting of α phase solid grains. With the increase of extrusion passes during ECAE, the α phase solid grain size in the following semi-solid isothermal treatment decreases. The α phase solid grain size of processed Mg-Al-Zn alloy by ECAE under route BC is the smallest, while the α phase solid grain size of processed material by ECAE under route A is the largest. The primary mechanism of spheroid formation depends on the melting of recrystallizing boundaries and diffusion of solute atoms in the semi-solid state.

  18. WBAN Off-Body Channel Angular Structure Comparison between SAGE Estimation and Ray Tracing Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Amiot, Nicolas; Mhedhbi, Meriem; Uguen, Bernard; Derrico, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a comparison between Off-Body channel characteristics estimated with Space-Alternating Generalized Expectation-Maximization (SAGE) algorithm from measurement data and those obtained from ray-tracing simulated data. Measurement data were obtained considering a body-worn antenna on a phantom and an external one simulating an access point. The chosen simulation approach takes into account the influence of the body directly into the antenna radiation pattern, and not by ...

  19. Influence of thermo-mechanical treatments using equal-channel multi-angle pressing and low-temperature drawing on the superconducting properties of niobium-titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of combined deformation, including equal-channel multi-angle pressing (ECMAP), low-temperature (77 K) drawing and thermal treatment on the critical current density of wire superconductors based on Nb-Ti alloys is investigated. For the alloy NT-50 rational parameters of the thermo-mechanical treatment using ECMAP are mounted that improve the functional properties of the superconductor on its base. Performed a qualitative analysis of vortex pinning on structure nonuniformities of the alloys

  20. An angular fluidic channel for prism-free surface-plasmon-assisted fluorescence capturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Fukuda, Nobuko; Wang, Xiaomin; Fujimaki, Makoto

    2013-12-01

    Surface plasmon excitation provides stronger enhancement of the fluorescence intensity and better sensitivity than other sensing approaches but requires optimal positioning of a prism to ensure optimum output of the incident light. Here we describe a simple, highly sensitive optical sensing system combining surface plasmon excitation and fluorescence to address this limitation. V-shaped fluidic channels are employed to mimic the functions of a prism, sensing plate, and flow channel in a single setup. Superior performance is demonstrated for different biomolecular recognition reactions on a self-assembled monolayer, and the sensitivity reaches 100 fM for biotin-streptavidin interactions. Using an antibody as a probe, we demonstrate the detection of intact influenza viruses at 0.2 HA units ml-1 levels. The convenient sensing system developed here has the advantages of being prism-free and requiring less sample (1-2 μl), making this platform suitable for use in situations requiring low sample volumes.

  1. Investigation of through thickness residual stress distribution in equal channel angular rolled Al 5083 alloy by layer removal technique and X-ray diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoodi, M; Sedighi, M.; Tanner, D.A

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed The layer removal technique and the X-ray diffraction method have been employed to evaluate the residual stresses through the thickness of aluminum alloy 5083 processed by equal channel angular rolling (ECAR). ECAR is a severe plastic deformation process that introduces shear deformation to sheet metals. The process has been completed on 2 mm thick strips passed three times through die channels in a continuous manner. In this work, the profile of residual stresses was quantit...

  2. Microstructure development and segment formation during ECA pressing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deformed microstructures of Ti-6Al-4V alloys with either equiaxed or Widmanstaetten structure processed by equal channel angular pressing at 600 deg. C were examined by transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the slip system and the flow localization were dependent on the initial microstructures, which was discussed in relation with α/β interfaces

  3. Effect of severe ausforming via equal channel angular extrusion on the shape memory response of a NiTi alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of severe plastic deformation via equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) and cold drawing followed by low temperature annealing on the shape memory behavior of the Ti50.27Ni49.73 alloy were comparatively investigated. The ECAE billets were processed at 300 deg. C using a 90o angle ECAE tool while 30% cold drawing was performed at room temperature followed by a low temperature annealing treatment. Transformation temperatures, and transformation and irrecoverable strain levels were revealed using thermal cyclic experiments under various constant tensile stress levels. Considerable improvement in the thermal cyclic stability of transformation temperatures and transformation strains and reduction in irrecoverable strains under high stress levels were achieved in the ECAE processed material. More interestingly, the thermal hysteresis was notably lower in the ECAE case. This was attributed to the formation of favorable dislocation substructure and microstructural refinement due to the deformation twinning in austenite. The results showed that the severe ausforming via ECAE has certain advantageous over cold deformation followed by annealing process in enhancing the shape memory properties of NiTi alloys

  4. Interfacial Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al Alloy/Mg Alloy Laminated Composite Plates Fabricated by Equal Channel Angular Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guorui; ZHAO Dong; ZHAO Yaojiang; ZHOU Bin; WANG Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    KAl (7075) alloy /Mg (AZ31) alloy laminated composite plates were successfully fabricated by the equal channel angular processing (ECAP) by using route A for 1, 2, and 3 passes at 573 K, respectively. After fabrication, the 1-pass ECAPed laminated composite plates were annealed at different temperatures. The microstructure evolution, phase constituent, and bonding strength near the joining interface of Al (7075) alloy /Mg (AZ31) alloy laminated composites plates were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and shear tests. The experimental results indicated that a 20 μm diffusion layer was observed at the joining interface of Al (7075) alloy /Mg (AZ31) alloy laminated composites plates fabricated by the 1-pass ECAP, which mainly included Al3Mg2 and Mg17Al12 phases. With the increase of passes, the increase of diffusion layer thickness was not obvious and the form of crack in these processes led to the decrease of bonding strength. For 1-pass ECAPed composites, the thickness of diffusion layer remained unchanged after annealed at 473 K, while the bonding strength reached its maximum value 29.12 MPa. However, after elevating heat treatment temperature to 573 K, the thickness of diffusion layer increased rapidly, and thus the bonding strength decreased.

  5. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Semi-continuous Equal-channel Angular Extruded Interstitial-free Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo YAN; Si-hai JIAO; Dian-hua ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    An innovative method called semi-continuous equal-channel angular extrusion (SC-ECAE)has been devel-oped to produce ultrafine grained steel by inducing severe plastic deformation.In contrast to the external forces that are exerted on specimens in traditional ECAE,the driving forces are applied on the dies in the novel SC-EACE process.Commercial interstitial-free steel sheets with width of 160 mm and thickness of 2 mm were processed re-peatedly to various passes at room temperature using this method.The microstructural evolution was characterized using high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD),and the mechanical properties were investigated by tensile testing.The EBSD images indicated that the fraction of high-angle boundaries (HABs)began to increase gradually after four passes;after six passes,elongated HAB structures with nearly submicron-scale average spacings were formed.The tensile testing results showed that strengthening was accompanied by a decrease in tensile ductili-ty,but no significant anisotropy was observed.After 10 passes,a final HAB fraction of about 90% and an overall grain size of 0�55μm,yield strength of 638�7 MPa,an ultimate tensile strength (UTS)of 710�3 MPa,and a total elongation of 1 2�0% were obtained.

  6. Dependence of deep-inelastic processes on entrance channel asymmetry and excitation energy. [506 to 732 MeV, angular distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.P.

    1978-05-01

    The dependence of deep-inelastic processes on entrance channel asymmetry and on excitation energy was investigated. Thin targets of /sup nat/At, /sup 159/Tb, /sup 181/Ta and /sup 197/Au were bombarded with 620 MeV /sup 86/Kr ions. Additional measurements were performed on the reactions /sup nat/Ag + /sup 86/Kr and /sup 197/Au + /sup 86/Kr at 506 and 732 MeV incident energy. The energy spectra, the charge distributions and the angular distributions of these fragments were measured. At 620 MeV the energy spectra show that the distinction between quasi-elastic and deep-inelastic processes diminishes as the target mass is increased. The charge distributions, which are peaked at symmetry for /sup nat/Ag, tend to become increasingly asymmetric for the heavier systems. Likewise, the angular distributions exhibit a strong dependence on the entrance channel asymmetry. For the lightest system, /sup nat/Ag + /sup 86/Kr, the angular distributions are essentially forward peaked, aside from a separable quasi-elastic component. For the heaviest system, /sup 197/Au + /sup 86/Kr, the angular distributions are side-peaked. The transition between these two regimes occurs smoothly with increasing target mass. The results at 506 and 732 MeV show that the widths of the charge distributions are strongly dependent on the excitation energy. The angular distributions for the reaction /sup nat/Ag + /sup 86/Kr become increasingly more forward peaked at higher bombarding energies. The angular distributions for /sup 197/Au + /sup 86/Kr, which are strongly focused at 506 MeV, also tend to be more forward peaked at the highest incident energy. The results are interpreted by assuming that the projectile and target form an intermediate complex and that they exchange mass via a diffusion process. Because of the systematic nature of this study, the data should serve as a guide in the development of models of deep-inelastic processes.

  7. Role of strain path change in grain refinement by severe plastic deformation: A case study of equal channel angular extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equal-channel angular extrusion (ECAE) provides exciting opportunities to explore the role of strain path change (SPC) in grain refinement by severe plastic deformation (SPD). In this study, crystal plasticity simulations were carried out using a viscoplastic self-consistent model for a face-centered cubic model material processed via an extended range of processing routes and with two die angles (90° and 120°). Each processing route was defined according to the interpass billet rotation angle (χ), which varied from 0° to 180° at intervals of 15°. Based on a statistical analysis of the simulated slip activities, it is proposed that differences in grain refinement among these cases can be best correlated to key differences in the slip activities, i.e. the significance of newly activated slip systems at pass-to-pass transitions corresponding to macroscopic SPCs. Accordingly, grain refinement is anticipated to be most efficient for routes with χ near 75° for the 90° die or 0–45° for the 120° die, and least efficient with χ near 180° for both dies. The relative grain refinement efficiencies thus predicted are in good overall agreement with those indicated by the generation of high-angle boundaries and reduction of grain size in pure copper measured by electron back-scatter diffraction. It is suggested that the effect of SPC and the resulting characteristic slip activities should be incorporated in understanding the effectiveness of grain refinement and unpinning the underlying grain subdivision mechanisms in SPD with different SPCs

  8. Quantification of microstructure refinement in aluminium deformed by equal channel angular extrusion: Route A vs. route Bc in a 90o die

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microstructures in the centre of two commercial purity aluminium billets extruded through a 90o die either with or without 90o rotations between passes have been investigated using electron backscatter diffraction after eight passes of equal channel angular extrusion. Local heterogeneities in the form of low misorientation regions were present in both samples. The fraction of high-angle boundaries was found to be slightly greater in the sample extruded without rotation.

  9. Characterization of creep behaviour and microstructure changes in pure copper processed by equal-channel angular pressing. Part II. The microstructural characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saxl, Ivan; Sklenička, Václav; Ilucová, Lucia; Svoboda, Milan; Král, Petr; Dvořák, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2010), s. 233-240. ISSN 1606-5131. [International Symposium on Bulk Nanostructures Materials /2./. Ufa, 22.09.2009-26.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/06/0302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503; CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : creep * copper * ECAP aluminum Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2010 http://www.ipme.ru/e-journals/RAMS/no_32510/saxl.pdf

  10. Equal-channel angular pressing of medium- to high-strength precipitation hardening aluminium wrought alloys; ECAP-Umformung mittel- und hochfester ausscheidungshaertbarer Aluminiumknetlegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockauf, M.; Schoenherr, R.; Wagner, S.; Meyer, L.W. [Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Lehrstuhl Werkstoffe des Maschinenbaus, Erfenschlager Str. 73, 09125 Chemnitz (Germany); Podlesak, H.; Muecklich, S.; Wielage, B.; Weber, D. [Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Professur fuer Verbundwerkstoffe (Germany); Krueger, L. [Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik (Germany); Hahn, F. [Hochschule Mittweida, Fachbereich Maschinenbau/Feinwerktechnik (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    The study deals with the optimisation of medium- to high-strength aluminium wrought alloys. The goal is to define processing routes in order to improve the mechanical properties if compared to their commercial counterparts. It is shown for the Al-Mg-Si and the Al-Cu-Mg-Si system that the application of ECAP enables a significant increase in strength. The strengthening as well as the grain size reduction respectively, benefit from increasing alloying as well as from the degree of aging. It is also shown that the presence of a considerably fine particulate reinforcement hardens the material tremendously during ECAP. The combination of a pre- or post-ECAP heat treatment enables the improvement of the workability on the one hand, reducing the loads on the die, and also gives a better ductility on the other hand. This positive effect is particularly pronounced for low alloying contents and high aging temperatures and can be attributed to the interaction of deformation induced defects and the precipitation activity. The combination of an appropriate set of ECAP parameters (heat treatment condition, ECAP-strain, -temperature, -backpressure) enables the efficient production of outstanding properties. Due to the low workability of AA7075 (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu system) no significant improvement in properties was achieved. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die Studie befasst sich mit der Eigenschaftsoptimierung verschiedener mittel- und hochfester Aluminiumknetlegierungen. Im Fokus steht die Optimierung von Prozessabfolgen mit denen im Vergleich zu den kommerziell verfuegbaren Referenzzustaenden deutlich bessere mechanische Eigenschaften eingestellt werden koennen. Fuer das Al-Mg-Si- und das Al-Cu-Mg-Si-System wird gezeigt, dass die ECAP-Umformung sehr hohe Festigkeiten ermoeglicht. Je groesser der Legierungsgehalt bzw. Aushaertegrad ist, desto hoehere Festigkeiten und geringere Korngroessen koennen durch ECAP erreicht werden. Ebenso extrem verfestigend wirkt sich das Vorhandensein einer keramischen Verstaerkungskomponente in Partikelform aus. Durch die Kombination der ECAP-Umformung mit einer vor- bzw. nachgelagerten Waermebehandlung kann einerseits die Umformbarkeit verbessert werden, was die Werkzeugbelastungen reduziert, und andererseits die Duktilitaet des Werkstoffes angehoben werden. Dieser positive Effekt wird insbesondere bei niedrigen Legierungsgehalten bzw. hohen Auslagerungstemperaturen beobachtet und kann mit der Wechselwirkung von verformungsinduzierten Gitterdefekten und Ausscheidungen erklaert werden. Durch eine geeignete Wahl der Prozessparameter (Waermebehandlungszustand, ECAP-Umformgrad, -temperatur, -gegendruck) laesst sich so eine optimale Kombination von Festigkeit und Duktilitaet mit herausragenden Eigenschaftswerten sehr wirtschaftlich einstellen. Aufgrund der allgemein schlechten Umformbarkeit der hoechstfesten Legierung EN AW-7075 (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu - System) konnte mit Hilfe der ECAP-Umformung bisher keine signifikante Eigenschaftsverbesserung erzielt werden. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Visco-plastic self-consistent modelling of a grain boundary misorientation distribution after equal-channel angular pressing in an AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostapovets, Andriy; Molnár, Peter; Jäger, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 5 (2013), s. 2123-2134. ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100801; GA ČR GPP108/12/P054; GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnesium * VPSC * texture * grain boundaries Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.305, year: 2013

  12. Twin nucleation at grain boundaries in Mg-3wt.%Al-1wt.%Zn alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnár, Peter; Jäger, Aleš; Lejček, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 5 (2012), s. 467-470. ISSN 1359-6462 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043; GA ČR GPP108/12/P054 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnesium alloys * twinning * ECAP * grain boundaries Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.821, year: 2012

  13. Effect of equal – channel angular pressing (ECAP) on microstructure and creep behaviour of Al-3Mg-0.2Sc alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Jiří; Král, Petr; Kvapilová, Marie; Sklenička, Václav

    Brno: Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, 2005 - (Šandera, P.), s. 294-297 ISBN 80-214-3085-0. [NANO '05. Brno (CZ), 08.11.2005-10.11.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA2041301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904; CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : CREEP * ECAP * Ultrafine - grained microstructure Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  14. Study of CP Symmetry Violation in the Charmonium-K*(892) Channel By a Complete Time Dependent Angular Analysis (BaBar Experiment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T' Jampens, Stephane; /Orsay

    2006-09-18

    This thesis presents the full-angular time-dependent analysis of the vector-vector channel B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}(K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})*{sup 0}. After a review of the CP violation in the B meson system, the phenomenology of the charmonium-K*(892) channels is exposed. The method for the measurement of the transversity amplitudes of the B {yields} J/{psi}K*(892), based on a pseudo-likelihood method, is then exposed. The results from a 81.9 fb{sup -1} of collected data by the BABAR detector at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance peak are |A{sub 0}|{sup 2} = 0.565 {+-} 0.011 {+-} 0.004, |A{sub {parallel}}|{sup 2} = 0.206 {+-} 0.016 {+-} 0.007, |A{sub {perpendicular}}|{sup 2} = 0.228 {+-} 0.016 {+-} 0.007, {delta}{sub {parallel}} = -2.766 {+-} 0.105 {+-} 0.040 and {delta}{sub {perpendicular}} = 2.935 {+-} 0.067 {+-} 0.040. Note that ({delta}{sub {parallel}}, {delta}{sub {perpendicular}}) {yields} (-{delta}{sub {parallel}}, {pi} - {delta}{sub {perpendicular}}) is also a solution. The strong phases {delta}{sub {parallel}} and {delta}{sub {perpendicular}} are at {approx}> 3{sigma} from {+-}{pi}, signing the presence of final state interactions and the breakdown of the factorization hypothesis. The forward-backward analysis of the K{pi} mass spectrum revealed the presence of a coherent S-wave interfering with the K*(892). It is the first evidence of this wave in the K{pi} system coming from a B meson. The particularity of the B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}(K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})*{sup 0} channel is to have a time-dependent but also an angular distribution which allows to measure sin 2{beta} but also cos2{beta}. The results from an unbinned maximum likelihood fit are sin 2{beta} = -0.10 {+-} 0.57 {+-} 0.14 and cos 2{beta} = 3.32{sub -0.96}{sup +0.76} {+-} 0.27 with the transversity amplitudes fixed to the values given above. The other solution for the strong phases flips the sign of cos 2{beta}. Theoretical considerations based on the s-quark helicity

  15. Effect of equal channel angular extrusion on wear and corrosion behavior of the orthopedic Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, K.S. [Department of Materials. Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Geetha, M., E-mail: geethamanivasagam@vit.ac.in [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore (India); Richard, C. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et de Rheologie EA 2640, Polytech' Tours, 37000 Tours (France); Landoulsi, J. [Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface, UMR 7197 CNRS, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie - Paris VI, 4 Place Jussieu, Case 178, F-75252 Paris (France); Ramasawmy, H. [University of Mauritius, Faculty of Engineering, Reduit (Mauritius); Suwas, S. [Department of Materials. Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Asokamani, R. [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2012-05-01

    We report investigations on the texture, corrosion and wear behavior of ultra-fine grained (UFG) Ti-13Nb-Zr alloy, processed by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) technique, for biomedical applications. The microstructure obtained was characterized by X-ray line profile analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). We focus on the corrosion resistance and the fretting behavior, the main considerations for such biomaterials, in simulated body fluid. To this end, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the UFG alloy in Hanks solution at 37 Degree-Sign C. The fretting wear behavior was carried out against bearing steel in the same conditions. The roughness of the samples was also measured to examine the effect of topography on the wear behavior of the samples. Our results showed that the ECAE process increases noticeably the performance of the alloy as orthopedic implant. Although no significant difference was observed in the fretting wear behavior, the corrosion resistance of the UFG alloy was found to be higher than the non-treated material. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relevancy of ECAE process applied to titanium alloy for biomedical applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant improvement of mechanical properties of the surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noticeable increase of the corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid.

  16. Effect of equal channel angular extrusion on wear and corrosion behavior of the orthopedic Ti–13Nb–13Zr alloy in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report investigations on the texture, corrosion and wear behavior of ultra-fine grained (UFG) Ti–13Nb–Zr alloy, processed by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) technique, for biomedical applications. The microstructure obtained was characterized by X-ray line profile analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). We focus on the corrosion resistance and the fretting behavior, the main considerations for such biomaterials, in simulated body fluid. To this end, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the UFG alloy in Hanks solution at 37 °C. The fretting wear behavior was carried out against bearing steel in the same conditions. The roughness of the samples was also measured to examine the effect of topography on the wear behavior of the samples. Our results showed that the ECAE process increases noticeably the performance of the alloy as orthopedic implant. Although no significant difference was observed in the fretting wear behavior, the corrosion resistance of the UFG alloy was found to be higher than the non-treated material. Highlights: ► Relevancy of ECAE process applied to titanium alloy for biomedical applications. ► Significant improvement of mechanical properties of the surface. ► Noticeable increase of the corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid.

  17. La presse

    OpenAIRE

    Bret, Patrice; Chappey, Jean-Luc; Conforti, Maria; Kury, Lorelai; Laboulais, Isabelle; Lacour, Pierre-Yves; Marcil, Yasmine; Martin, Virginie; Weiss, Clément

    2012-01-01

    Organisée en novembre 2009 par l’Institut d’histoire de la Révolution française (Université de Paris I / Ea 127) en collaboration avec le Centre de recherche en histoire des sciences et des techniques (Centre Alexandre Koyré / CNRS-EHESS-MNHN / UMR 8560) et le département CIM Communication Information Médias / Ea 1484 (Université de Paris III), la rencontre sur les usages de l’encyclopédisme dans la presse savante autour de la Révolution française marque une nouvelle étape dans une réflexion ...

  18. Angular Cheilitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A This image displays a frequent location for candida infection (angular cheilitis), the corners of the mouth. Overview ... infection, those affected may also have thrush (oral candidiasis). The areas are generally slightly painful. The condition ...

  19. Press Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Casper

    This level sets the stage for the design philosophy called “Triadic Game Design” (TGD). This design philosophy can be summarized with the following sentence: it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Before the philosophy is further explained, this level will first delve into what is meant by a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Many terms and definitions have seen the light and in this book I will specifically orient at digital games that aim to have an effect beyond the context of the game itself. Subsequently, a historical overview is given of the usage of games with a serious purpose which starts from the moment we human beings started to walk on our feet till our contemporary society. It turns out that we have been using games for all kinds of non-entertainment purposes for already quite a long time. With this introductory material in the back of our minds, I will explain the concept of TGD by means of a puzzle. After that, the protagonist of this book, the game Levee Patroller, is introduced. Based on the development of this game, the idea of TGD, which stresses to balance three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play, came into being. Interested? Then I suggest to quickly “press start!”

  20. Angular momentum in subbarrier fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the ratio of the isomer to ground-state yields of 137Ce produced in the fusion reactions 128Te(12C,3n), 133Cs(7Li,3n), 136Ba(3He,2n), 136Ba(4He,3n), and 137Ba(3He,3n), from energies above the Coulomb barrier to energies typically 20--30% below the barrier by observing the delayed x- and γ-ray emission. We deduce the average angular momentum, , from the measured isomer ratios with a statistical model. In the first three reactions we observe that the values of exhibit the behavior predicted for low energies and the expected variation with the reduced mass of the entrance channel. We analyze these data and the associated cross sections with a barrier penetration model that includes the coupling of inelastic channels. Measurements of average angular momenta and cross sections made on other systems using the γ-multiplicity and fission-fragment angular correlation techniques are then analyzed in a similar way with this model. The discrepancies with theory for the γ-multiplicity data show correlations in cross section and angular momentum that suggest a valid model can be found. The measurements of angular momentum using the fission fragment angular correlation technique, however, do not appear reconcilable with the energy dependence of the cross sections. This systematic overview suggests, in particular, that our current understanding of the relationship of angular momentum and anisotropy in fission fragment angular correlations is incomplete. 26 refs

  1. Professional WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Hal; Williams, Brad

    2010-01-01

    An in-depth look at the internals of the WordPress system.As the most popular blogging and content management platform available today, WordPress is a powerful tool. This exciting book goes beyond the basics and delves into the heart of the WordPress system, offering overviews of the functional aspects of WordPress as well as plug-in and theme development. What is covered in this book?: WordPress as a Content Management System; Hosting Options; Installing WordPress Files; Database Configuration; Dashboard Widgets; Customizing the Dashboard; Creating and Managing Content; Categorizing Your Cont

  2. 穴位循经按压治疗儿童多动症的临床研究%Clinical research of treatmeng for hyperkinetic syndrome of children with pressing acupuncture points according to the channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世英; 黄玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨中医穴位循经按压治疗儿童多动症的疗效.方法 将153例多动症儿童随机分为治疗组76例和对照组77例.治疗组采用穴位循经按压方法治疗,对照组给予哌醋甲酯口服.用ICD-10标准作出诊断,用CCMD-3诊断与评分标准作出病情分级,参考CPT注意测验作为有注意障碍的客观指标,参考CRT标准化自动化智测筛除低智并平衡智力因素对观察的影响.2组治疗4周后评定疗效.结果 治疗组总有效率95%,对照组总有效率75%,2组比较有显著性差异(P<0.005).治疗组不良反应发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.005).结论 循经穴位按压治疗儿童多动症疗效好,患儿易接受,可避免多种不良反应.%Objective It is to explore the curative effect of pressing acupuncture points according to the channel of Chinese medicine on hyperkinetic syndrome of children ( HSC ). Methods 153 hyperkinetic syndrome children were randomly divided into two groups, group A with 76 cases were treated with the method of pressing acupuncture points according to the channel, and group B were given Methylphenidate ( Ritalin ) by oral administration. Making the diagnosis according to the standard of ICD -10, getting the disease classification based on both the CCMD -3 diagnosis and the standard for evaluation, achieving the objective indicator of the attention deficit disorder through referring to the continuous performance task ( CPT ), based on the standardization and automation of CRT intelligence test to screen out the low intelligence levels and balance the influence of intelligence factors to the observation. After 4 weeks treatment, the curative effects in both groups were evaluated. Results The total effective rate was 95% in treatment group and that was 75% in control group. Compared with each other, the difference was significant P <0.005 ). The incidence of side effect in treatment group was obviously lower than that in control group( P < 0. 005

  3. Study of orbital angular momentum entangled photons entanglement in atmospheric channel%大气信道中单光子轨道角动量纠缠特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铁; 谌娟; 柯熙政; 吕宏

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe orbital angular momentum entangled photon pair entanglement in atmospheric channel. The Von Karman spectrum of turbulence is used to create a model of two-photon pair entanglement. The effects of atmospheric turbulence on the entanglement of entangled photon pairs of different orbital angular momentum bases are analyzed. The obtained results are as follows because of the presence of atmospheric turbulence, the entanglement of entangled photon pairs decreases with the increase of the propagation distance z in the atmosphere channel. The entanglement of the entangled photon pairs decreases with the increase of transmission distance. The bigger the turbulence intensity, the faster the entanglement decline and the shorter the propagation distanceis. In the same intensity of atmospheric turbulence of the atmospheric channel, the bigger the orbital angular momentum index, the slower the entanglement decline and the further the propagation distanceis.%本文讨论了大气信道中轨道角动量纠缠光子对的纠缠度,并利用vonKarman大气湍流谱来建立双光子纠缠度的模型,分析了大气湍流对不同轨道角动量纠缠光子对纠缠度的影响.研究表明:在大气信道中,由于大气湍流的存在,纠缠光子对的纠缠度随着传输距离Z的增加而减小;大气湍流强度越大,纠缠光子对的纠缠度下降的越快,纠缠光子对传输的距离越小;在湍流强度相同的大气信道轨道角动量指数越大的纠缠光子对,纠缠度下降得越慢,纠缠光子对传输的距离越远.

  4. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  5. The Global University Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world's understanding of American university press has long been shaped by university-press books. American university-press books are good international advertisements for the universities whose logos grace their spines. The growth of transnational scholarship and the expansion of digital communications networks are converging in ways…

  6. Search for anomalous couplings in the $Wtb$ vertex from the measurement of double differential angular decay rates of single top quarks produced in the $t$-channel with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; 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    2016-01-01

    The electroweak production and subsequent decay of single top quarks is determined by the properties of the $Wtb$ vertex. This vertex can be described by the complex parameters of an effective Lagrangian. An analysis of angular distributions of the decay products of single top quarks produced in the $t$-channel constrains these parameters simultaneously. The analysis described in this paper uses 4.6 fb$^{-1}$ of proton--proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC.Two parameters are measured simultaneously in this analysis. The fraction $f_1$ of decays containing transversely polarised $W$ bosons is measured to be $0.37 \\pm 0.07$ (stat.$\\oplus$syst.). The phase $\\delta_{-}$ between amplitudes for transversely and longitudinally polarised $W$ bosons recoiling against left-handed $b$-quarks is measured to be $-0.14\\pi \\pm 0.036\\pi$ (stat.$\\oplus$syst.).The correlation in the measurement of these parameters is $0.15$. These values result in two-dimensional limits at th...

  7. Search for anomalous couplings in the W tb vertex from the measurement of double differential angular decay rates of single top quarks produced in the t-channel with the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

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C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-04-01

    The electroweak production and subsequent decay of single top quarks is determined by the properties of the Wtb vertex. This vertex can be described by the complex parameters of an effective Lagrangian. An analysis of angular distributions of the decay products of single top quarks produced in the t -channel constrains these parameters simultaneously. The analysis described in this paper uses 4.6 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at √{s}=7 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Two parameters are measured simultaneously in this analysis. The fraction f 1 of decays containing transversely polarised W bosons is measured to be 0 .37 ± 0 .07 (stat.⊕syst.). The phase δ - between amplitudes for transversely and longitudinally polarised W bosons recoiling against left-handed b-quarks is measured to be -0 .014 π ± 0 .036 π (stat.⊕syst.). The correlation in the measurement of these parameters is 0 .15. These values result in two-dimensional limits at the 95% confidence level on the ratio of the complex coupling parameters g R and V L, yielding Re[ g R /V L] ∈ [-0 .36 , 0 .10] and Im[ g R /V L] ∈ [-0 .17 , 0 .23] with a correlation of 0 .11. The results are in good agreement with the predictions of the Standard Model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

  9. Professional AngularJS

    CERN Document Server

    Karpov, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to AngularJS, Google's open-source client-side framework for app development. Most of the existing guides to AngularJS struggle to provide simple and understandable explanations for more advanced concepts. As a result, some developers who understand all the basic concepts of AngularJS struggle when it comes to building more complex real-world applications. Professional AngularJS provides a thorough understanding of AngularJS, covering everything from basic concepts, such as directives and data binding, to more advanced concepts like transclusion, build systems, and auto

  10. bbPress complete

    CERN Document Server

    Wynne, Rhys

    2013-01-01

    A concise guide, written in an easy-to-follow format.This book is aimed at ambitious website or blog owners looking to add a forum to their site quickly and easily. Basic experience in WordPress and with managing a website is expected. Knowledge of HTML and PHP will be a bonus, though it isn't necessary.

  11. PREMIER MEETS THE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On March 14, Premier Wen Jiabao addressed the Chinese and foreign media at a press conference after the closing meeting of the Third Session of the 11th National People’s Congress. Edited highlights on a number of economic and social issues follow:

  12. PREMIER MEETS THE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ March 14.Premier Wen Jiabao addressed the Chinese and foreign media at a press conference after the closing meeting of the Third Session of the 1 lth National People's Congress.Edited highlights on a number of economic and social issues follow:

  13. Press-On Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Jon C.

    1972-01-01

    The article discusses the design, application, and clinical uses of press-on optics which are descirbed as 1 millimeter thick, flexible lenses or prisms that may be produced in virtually any desired plus or minus dioptric power as ophthalmic lenses, or in any range of usable prism diopter power. (GW)

  14. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asy...

  15. Partonic orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh; Shahveh, Abolfazl

    2013-04-01

    Ji's decomposition of nucleon spin is used and the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluon are calculated. We have utilized the so called valon model description of the nucleon in the next to leading order. It is found that the average orbital angular momentum of quarks is positive, but small, whereas that of gluon is negative and large. Individual quark flavor contributions are also calculated. Some regularities on the total angular momentum of the quarks and gluon are observed.

  16. Nonzero orbital angular momentum superfluidity in ultracold Fermi gases

    OpenAIRE

    Iskin, M.; de Melo, C. A. R. Sá

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of superfluidity for nonzero orbital angular momentum channels from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) limit in three dimensions. First, we analyze the low energy scattering properties of finite range interactions for all possible angular momentum channels. Second, we discuss ground state ($T = 0$) superfluid properties including the order parameter, chemical potential, quasiparticle excitation spectrum, momentum distribution, ...

  17. ISS Expedition 15 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 15 from 04/2007-10/2007. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  18. ISS Expedition 38 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 38 from 09/2013-03/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  19. ISS Expedition 03 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 03 from 08/2001-12/2001. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  20. ISS Expedition 08 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 08 from 10/2003-04/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  1. ISS Expedition 42 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 42 from 09/2014-03/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  2. ISS Expedition 43 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 43 from 11/2014-06/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  3. ISS Expedition 40 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 40 from 03/2014-11/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  4. ISS Expedition 01 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 01 from 10/2000-03/2001. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  5. ISS Expedition 33 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 33 from 07/2012-11/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  6. ISS Expedition 32 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 32 from 05/2012-09/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  7. ISS Expedition 06 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 06 from 11/2002-05/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  8. ISS Expedition 23 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 23 from 12/2009-09/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  9. ISS Expedition 37 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 37 from 05/2013-11/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  10. ISS Expedition 28 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 28 from 04/2011-11/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  11. ISS Expedition 17 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 17 from 04/2008-10/2008. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  12. ISS Expedition 07 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 07 from 04/2003-10/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  13. ISS Expedition 13 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 13 from 03/2006-09/2006. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  14. ISS Expedition 19 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 19 from 03/2009-05/2009. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  15. ISS Expedition 14 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 14 from 09/2006-04/2007. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  16. ISS Expedition 39 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 39 from 11/2013-05/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  17. ISS Expedition 16 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 16 from 10/2007-04/2008. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  18. ISS Expedition 34 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 34 from 12/2012-03/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  19. ISS Expedition 35 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 35 from 03/2013-09/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  20. ISS Expedition 02 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 02 from 03/2001-08/2001. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  1. ISS Expedition 09 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 09 from 04/2004-10/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  2. ISS Expedition 41 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 41 from 05/2014-11/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  3. ISS Expedition 31 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 31 from 12/2011-07/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  4. ISS Expedition 25 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 25 from 06/2010-03/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  5. ISS Expedition 26 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 26 from 10/2010-05/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  6. ISS Expedition 05 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 05 from 06/2002-12/2002. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  7. ISS Expedition 20 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 20 from 05/2009-10/2009. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  8. ISS Expedition 11 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 11 from 04/2005-10/2005. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  9. ISS Expedition 36 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 36 from 03/2013-09/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  10. ISS Expedition 18 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 18 from 10/2008-04/2009. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  11. ISS Expedition 10 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 10 from 10/2004-04/2005. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  12. ISS Expedition 30 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 30 from 11/2011-07/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  13. ISS Expedition 12 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 12 from 10/2005-04/2006. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  14. ISS Expedition 24 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 24 from 04/2010-11/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  15. ISS Expedition 27 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 27 from 12/2010-09/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  16. ISS Expedition 04 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 04 from 12/2001-06/2002. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  17. WordPress multisite administration

    CERN Document Server

    Longren, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    This is a simple, concise guide with a step-by-step approach, packed with screenshots and examples to set up and manage a network blog using WordPress.WordPress Multisite Administration is ideal for anyone wanting to familiarize themselves with WordPress Multisite. You'll need to know the basics about WordPress, and having at least a broad understanding of HTML, CSS, and PHP will help, but isn't required.

  18. Which Freedom of the Press?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo

    2010-01-01

     privileged freedom of the organised press to gather and report on information of public interest. These two conceptions have very different answers to the question of whether the press should enjoy some privilege to be exempt from ordinary legislation when such legislation restricts the access of the press to inform...

  19. Rotations and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of rotational invariance and the properties of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. In particular, the problem of addition of angular momenta is treated in detail, and tables of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are included

  20. Angular momentum transfer in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measured γ-ray multiplicities as a function of exit channel kinetic energy and mass asymmetry for the reactions Au, Ho, Ag + 620 MeV Kr are compared with a diffusion calculation based exclusively upon particle transfer and which reproduces the Z distributions as well as the angular distributions as function of Z. The model correctly predicts the energy and Z dependence of the γ-ray multiplicities, thus lending support to the one-body model on one hand and to the angular-momentum fractionation along the mass asymmetry coordinate on the other

  1. WordPress for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The bestselling WordPress guide, fully updated to cover the 2013 enhancements WordPress has millions of users, and this popular guide has sold more than 105,000 copies in its previous editions. With the newest releases of WordPress, author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson has completely updated the book to help you use and understand all the latest features. You'll learn about both the hosted WordPress.com version and the more flexible WordPress.org, which requires third-party hosting. Whether you're switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just beginning to blog, you'll

  2. DVL Angular Velocity Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Wolfgang

    1944-01-01

    In many studies, especially of nonstationary flight motion, it is necessary to determine the angular velocities at which the airplane rotates about its various axes. The three-component recorder is designed to serve this purpose. If the angular velocity for one flight attitude is known, other important quantities can be derived from its time rate of change, such as the angular acceleration by differentiations, or - by integration - the angles of position of the airplane - that is, the angles formed by the airplane axes with the axis direction presented at the instant of the beginning of the motion that is to be investigated.

  3. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  4. Hot pressing aluminum nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiment was performed on the hot pressing of aluminum nitride, using three kinds of powder which are: a) made by electric arc method, b) made by nitrifying aluminum metal powder, and c) made from alumina and carbon in nitrogen atmosphere. The content of oxygen of these powders was analyzed by activation analysis using high energy neutron irradiation. The density of hot pressed samples was classified into two groups. The high density group contained oxygen more than 3 wt. %, and the low density group contained about 0.5 wt %. Typical density vs. temperature curves have a bending point near 1,5500C, and the sample contains iron impurity of 0.5 wt. %. Needle crystals were found to grow near 1,5500C by VLS mechanism, and molten iron acts a main part of mechanism as a liquid phase. According to the above-mentioned curve, the iron impurity in aluminum nitride prevents densification. The iron impurity accelerates crystal growth. Advance of densification may be expected by adding iron impurity, but in real case, the densification is delayed. Densification and crystal growth are greatly accelerated by oxygen impurity. In conclusion, more efforts must be made for the purification of aluminum nitride. In the present stage, the most pure nitride powder contains about 0.1 wt. % of oxygen, as compared with good silicon carbide crystals containing only 10-5 wt. % of nitrogen. (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. Optical Angular Momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years the Institute of Physics has published books on hot topics based on a collection of reprints from different journals, including some remarks by the editors of each volume. The book on Optical Angular Momentum, edited by L Allen, S M Barnett and M J Padgett, is a recent addition to the series. It reproduces forty four papers originally published in different journals and in a few cases it provides direct access to works not easily accessible to a web navigator. The collection covers nearly a hundred years of progress in physics, starting from an historic 1909 paper by Poynting, and ending with a 2002 paper by Padgett, Barnett and coworkers on the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon. The field of optical angular momentum has expanded greatly, creating an interdisciplinary attraction for researchers operating in quantum optics, atomic physics, solid state physics, biophysics and quantum information theory. The development of laser optics, especially the control of single mode sources, has made possible the specific design of optical radiation modes with a high degree of control on the light angular momentum. The editors of this book are important figures in the field of angular momentum, having contributed to key progress in the area. L Allen published an historical paper in 1999, he and M J Padgett (together with M Babiker) produced few years ago a long review article which is today still the most complete basic introduction to the angular momentum of light, while S M Barnett has contributed several high quality papers to the progress of this area of physics. The editors' choice provides an excellent overview to all readers, with papers classified into eight different topics, covering the basic principles of the light and spin and orbital angular momentum, the laboratory tools for creating laser beams carrying orbital angular momentum, the optical forces and torques created by laser beams carrying angular momentum on

  6. Average Angular Velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Van Essen, H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the separation of rotational and internal motion. It introduces the concept of average angular velocity as the moment of inertia weighted average of particle angular velocities. It extends and elucidates the concept of Jellinek and Li (1989) of separation of the energy of overall rotation in an arbitrary (non-linear) $N$-particle system. It generalizes the so called Koenig's theorem on the two parts of the kinetic energy (center of mass plus internal) to th...

  7. Angular velocity discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  8. Orbital angular momentum effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that in the context of the parton model description of baryon structure orbital angular momentum effects have long been considered negligible. However, recent results obtained within the framework of QCD and presented in this talk indicate that a substantial fraction of the baryon spin may be carried as orbital angular momentum of its constituents. These results are of particular relevance in the light of new data on the spin structure of the proton recently published by the EMC collaboration

  9. WordPress For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The bestselling guide to WordPress, fully updated to help you get your blog going! Millions of bloggers rely on WordPress, the popular, free blogging platform. This guide covers all the features and improvements in the most up-to-date version of WordPress. Whether you are switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just starting your first blog, you'll find the advice in this friendly guide gets you up to speed on both the free-hosted WordPress.com version and WordPress.org, which requires the purchase of web hosting services, and figure out which version is best for you. You'll b

  10. Beginning WordPress 3

    CERN Document Server

    Leary, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most popular open source blogging and content management systems, WordPress lets you create a website to promote yourself or your business quickly and easilyi' "and better yet, it's free. WordPress is a flexible, user-friendly system, and it can be extended with a variety of themes and plugins. Beginning WordPress 3 is a complete guide for the beginning developer who wants to start using WordPress. You'll learn how to publish and manage online content, add media, create widgets and plugins, and much more. What you'll learn * How to get started with Wordpress, create new content

  11. WordPress Top Plugins

    CERN Document Server

    Corbin, Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Time flies when you're having fun. This is the right way to describe this WordPress Top Plugins book by Brandon Corbin. With real world examples and by showing you the perks of having these plugins installed on your websites, the author is all set to captivate your interest from start to end. Regardless of whether this is your first time working with WordPress, or you're a seasoned WordPress coding ninja, WordPress Top Plugins will walk you through finding and installing the best plugins for generating and sharing content, building communities and reader base, and generating real advertising r

  12. Orbital angular momentum photonic quantum interface

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2014-01-01

    Light carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) has great potential in enhancing the information channel capacity in both classical and quantum optical communications. Long distance optical communication requires the wavelengths of light are situated in the low-loss communication windows, but most quantum memories currently being developed for use in a quantum repeater work at different wavelengths, so a quantum interface to bridge the wavelength gap is necessary. So far, such an interface for ...

  13. Sealing device for extrusion or compression press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sealing device for an extrusion or compression press is presented. It consists of two parts fitting one inside the other play along a common axis, separated peripherally by a deformable tightness joint. The two parts forming the press chamber are subjected to an axial thrust which compresses an element in the chamber kept under hydrostatic pressure of a liquid or a lubricant. One of the parts is provided with a narrow flange resting against the joint and extending perpendiculary to the axis. The other has an inclined surface pressing against the joint and directed towards the outside of this part. When thrust is applied on the parts the joint is first deformed under pressure. The part in contact with the liquid under hydrostatic pressure in the chamber is equipped to balance the pressures in the chamber on the one hand and in the gap between the two parts on the other. This pressure equilibrium is set up immediately after deformation of the joint sealing the parts from the inner surface of the chamber. The means employed to balance the pressures consist of at least one narrow channel passing through the part in contact with the liquid in the chamber and associated with a calibrated valve

  14. Fourier relationship between angular position and optical orbital angular momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, E.; Franke-Arnold, S.; Courtial, J.; Barnett, S.; Padgett, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the Fourier relationship between angular position and angular momentum for a light mode. In particular we measure the distribution of orbital angular momentum states of light that has passed through an aperture and verify that the orbital angular momentum distribution is given by the complex Fourier-transform of the aperture function. We use spatial light modulators, configured as diffractive optical components, to define the initial orbital angular momentum state of the beam, ...

  15. Fluidic angular velocity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluidic sensor providing a differential pressure signal proportional to the angular velocity of a rotary input is described. In one embodiment the sensor includes a fluid pump having an impeller coupled to a rotary input. A housing forming a constricting fluid flow chamber is connected to the fluid input of the pump. The housing is provided with a fluid flow restrictive input to the flow chamber and a port communicating with the interior of the flow chamber. The differential pressure signal measured across the flow restrictive input is relatively noise free and proportional to the square of the angular velocity of the impeller. In an alternative embodiment, the flow chamber has a generally cylindrical configuration and plates having flow restrictive apertures are disposed within the chamber downstream from the housing port. In this embodiment, the differential pressure signal is found to be approximately linear with the angular velocity of the impeller.

  16. Metamaterial broadband angular selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yichen; Ye, Dexin; Wang, Li; Celanovic, Ivan; Ran, Lixin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate how broadband angular selectivity can be achieved with stacks of one-dimensionally periodic photonic crystals, each consisting of alternating isotropic layers and effective anisotropic layers, where each effective anisotropic layer is constructed from a multilayered metamaterial. We show that by simply changing the structure of the metamaterials, the selective angle can be tuned to a broad range of angles; and, by increasing the number of stacks, the angular transmission window can be made as narrow as desired. As a proof of principle, we realize the idea experimentally in the microwave regime. The angular selectivity and tunability we report here can have various applications such as in directional control of electromagnetic emitters and detectors.

  17. Metamaterial Broadband Angular Selectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yichen; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Li; Celanovic, Ivan; Ran, Lixin; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate how broadband angular selectivity can be achieved with stacks of one-dimensionally periodic photonic crystals, each consisting of alternating isotropic layers and effective anisotropic layers, where each effective anisotropic layer is constructed from a multilayered metamaterial. We show that by simply changing the structure of the metamaterials, the selective angle can be tuned to a broad range of angles; and, by increasing the number of stacks, the angular transmission window can be made as narrow as desired. As a proof of principle, we realize the idea experimentally in the microwave regime. The angular selectivity and tunability we report here can have various applications such as in directional control of electromagnetic emitters and detectors.

  18. The origin of angular momentum in dark matter halos

    CERN Document Server

    Vitvitska, M; Kravtsov, A V; Bullock, J S; Wechsler, R H; Primack, Joel R

    2002-01-01

    We propose a new explanation for the origin of angular momentum in galaxies and their dark halos, in which the halos obtain their spin through the cumulative acquisition of angular momentum from satellite accretion. In our model, the build-up of angular momentum is a random walk process associated with the mass assembly history of the halo's major progenitor. We assume no correlation between the angular momenta of accreted objects. Using the extended Press-Schechter approximation, we calculate the growth of mass, angular momentum, and spin parameter $\\lambda$ for many halos. Our random walk model reproduces the key features of the angular momentum of halos found in N-body simulations: a lognormal distribution in $\\lambda$ with an average of $ \\approx 0.04$, independent of mass and redshift. The evolution of the spin parameter in individual halos in this model is quite different from the steady increase with time of angular momentum in the tidal torque picture. We find both in N-body simulations and in our ran...

  19. BuddyPress theme development

    CERN Document Server

    Lister, Tammie

    2013-01-01

    This book is a hands-on tutorial guide to using BuddyPress.This book is great for designers and developers who are looking to learn how to develop BuddyPress themes. It's assumed that the reader has some understanding of Wordpress and is familiar with CSS and HTML.

  20. Average Angular Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Essén, H

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the separation of rotational and internal motion. It introduces the concept of average angular velocity as the moment of inertia weighted average of particle angular velocities. It extends and elucidates the concept of Jellinek and Li (1989) of separation of the energy of overall rotation in an arbitrary (non-linear) $N$-particle system. It generalizes the so called Koenig's theorem on the two parts of the kinetic energy (center of mass plus internal) to three parts: center of mass, rotational, plus the remaining internal energy relative to an optimally translating and rotating frame.

  1. Angular Scaling In Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  2. Head First WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Siarto, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Whether you're promoting your business or writing about your travel adventures, Head First WordPress will teach you not only how to make your blog look unique and attention-grabbing, but also how to dig into the more complex features of WordPress 3.0 to make your website work well, too. You'll learn how to move beyond the standard WordPress look and feel by customizing your blog with your own URL, templates, plugin functionality, and more. As you learn, you'll be working with real WordPress files: The book's website provides pre-fab WordPress themes to download and work with as you follow al

  3. Asymmetry in the angular distributions of spectator-nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asymmetry in the angular distributions of spectator-nucleons has been studied in dp interactions, and it has been found that the sign of the asymmetry depends on the reaction channel. It is shown that in the momentum interval 0-200 MeV/c of spectators basic features of the angular distributions can be reproduced in the framework of the spectator model taking into account the energy dependence of the NN cross section and the flux-factor

  4. Smashing WordPress Themes Making WordPress Beautiful

    CERN Document Server

    Hedengren, Thord Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The ultimate guide to WordPress Themes - one of the hottest topics on the web today WordPress is so much more than a blogging platform, and Smashing WordPress Themes teaches readers how to make it look any way they like - from a corporate site, to a photography gallery and moreWordPress is one of the hottest tools on the web today and is used by sites including The New York Times, Rolling Stone, flickr, CNN, NASA and of course Smashing MagazineBeautiful full colour throughout - web designers expect nothing lessSmashing Magazine will fully support this book by by promoting it through their webs

  5. Hot-pressing steatite bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements for some special nuclear engineering ceramic shapes are: big size, impervious, dimensional accuracy and good mechanical and dielectric properties. Limitations of te conventional methods and advantages of te hot pressing techniques for the manufacturing of these shapes are discussed. Hot pressing characteristics of a certain steatite powder are studied. Occurrence of an optimum densification temperature just above the tale decomposition range is found. Experimental data show that the height/diameter ratio of the specimen has no effect on the sintering conditions. Increasing darkness from the graphite mould is detected above the optimum temperature. The hot-pressed steatite is compared with a fired dry-pressed sample of the same composition. (Author) 13 refs

  6. Press Coverage and Political Accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, James; Strömberg, David

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the impact of press coverage on citizen knowledge, politicians' actions, and policy. We find that a poor fit between newspaper markets and political districts reduces press coverage of politics. We use variation in this fit due to redistricting to identify the effects of reduced coverage. Exploring the links in the causal chain of media effects -- voter information, politicians' actions and policy -- we find statistically significant and substantively important effec...

  7. Angular momentum projected semiclassics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, Rainer W.

    1987-06-01

    By using angular momentum projected plane waves as wave functions, we derive semiclassical expressions for the single-particle propagator, the partition function, the nonlocal density matrix, the single-particle density and the one particle-one hole level density for fixed angular momentum and fixed z-component or summed over the z-components. Other quantities can be deduced from the propagator. In coordinate space ( r, r') the relevant quantities depend on |r-r'| instead of | r- r'| and in Wigner space ( R, P) they become proportional to the angular momentum constraints δ(| R × P|/ h̵-l) and δ( R × P) z/ h̵-m) . As applications we calculate the single-particle and one-particle-one hole level densities for harmonic oscillator and Hill-Wheeler box potentials and the imaginary part of the optical potential and its volume integral with an underlying harmonic oscillator potential and a zero range two-body interaction.

  8. Optimization of a Pressing Diagram in OSB Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Hrázský

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the results of a pressing diagram optimization based on changes in pressure, temperature and distance between frames of a continuous press during Oriented Strand Boards (OSB pressing. Tests of selected mechanical properties were carried out on OSB/3 boards with a nominal thickness of 18 mm - a basic type with urea-formaldehyd (UF glue in surface layers and isocyanate glue (PMDI in the central layer and further an ECO type with PMDI glue in all layers produced by a prominent manufacturer of OSB boards in the Czech Republic. OSB/3 boards are intended for structural purposes for use in wet environments. Changes in the pressing diagram were carried out at the stage of “press opening”, which signifi cantly affects mechanical and physical properties of OSB boards. In order to be able to compare the effects of changes in the pressing curve, the same setting of production parameters was used with all tested boards. The results of laboratory tests were compared with the values given in the ČSN EN 300 Standard. Optimization of the pressing process ranks among the most effective measures to increase the quality of particle boards at zero or minimum costs. The control of production processes is increasingly perfect thanks to the development of electronics, control and computer technology. At present, not only in our country but also worldwide, marked development of wooden constructions occurs thanks to the development of new types of wood-based composite materials and to the development of technologies in building industry. OSB boards are an important representative of wood-based composite materials for wooden constructions. As compared to natural material, OSB boards show a homogenous structure not including natural defects typical of solid wood. From the point of view of physical and mechanical properties, OSB boards are of orthotropic character.

  9. A new approach to determine press stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Wanheim, Tarras

    2004-01-01

    deflections are designed. The press stiffness is presented as a 6 by 6 flexibility matrix. The approach has been tested by measuring the stiffness of a 5000 kN O-frame, ring element, hydraulic press, a 10000 kN O-frame, pillar element, hydraulic press and a 10000 kN O-frame, ring element mechanical press......A new procedure is proposed for measuring press stiffness, including separated horizontal and vertical loading of the press frame. The load can be eccentrically positioned for measuring rotational stiffnesses. Two loading devices and corresponding measuring equipment for registration of press...

  10. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Generalized parton distributions provide information on the distribution of quarks in impact parameter space. For transversely polarized nucleons, these impact parameter distributions are transversely distorted and this deviation from axial symmetry leads on average to a net transverse force from the spectators on the active quark in a DIS experiment. This force when acting along the whole trajectory of the active quark leads to transverse single-spin asymmetries. For a longitudinally polarized nucleon target, the transverse force implies a torque acting on the quark orbital angular momentum (OAM). The resulting change in OAM as the quark leaves the target equals the difference between the Jaffe-Manohar and Ji OAMs.

  11. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Generalized parton distributions provide information on the distribution of quarks in impact parameter space. For transversely polarized nucleons, these impact parameter distributions are transversely distorted and this deviation from axial symmetry leads on average to a net transverse force from the spectators on the active quark in a DIS experiment. This force when acting along the whole trajectory of the active quark leads to transverse single-spin asymmetries. For a longitudinally polarized nucleon target, the transverse force implies a torque acting on the quark orbital angular momentum (OAM). The resulting change in OAM as the quark leaves the target equals the difference between the Jaffe-Manohar and Ji OAMs.

  12. AngularJS directives

    CERN Document Server

    Vanston, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This book uses a practical, step-by-step approach, starting with how to build directives from the ground up before moving on to creating web applications comprised of multiple modules all working together to provide the best user experience possible.This book is intended for intermediate JavaScript developers who are looking to enhance their understanding of single-page web application development with a focus on AngularJS and the JavaScript MVC frameworks.It is expected that readers will understand basic JavaScript patterns and idioms and can recognize JSON formatted data.

  13. A Three-Dimensional Angular Scattering Response Including Path Powers

    OpenAIRE

    Mammasis, Kostantinos; Santi, Paolo; Goulianos, Angelos

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the angular power spectrum exhibited under a three-dimensional (3-D) Gaussian scatter distribution at fixed observation points in space is investigated. Typically, these correspond to the mobile and base units respectively. Unlike other spatial channel models, the derived model accounts for the distance to each scatterer from the observation point and transforms distances into power values under the assumption of free-space propagation. The proposed 3-D spatial channel model fol...

  14. Angular momentum evolution of galaxies in EAGLE

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, Claudia del P; Stevens, Adam R H; Cortese, Luca; Padilla, Nelson D; Davis, Timothy A; Contreras, Sergio; Croton, Darren

    2016-01-01

    We use EAGLE to study the specific angular momentum of galaxies, j, at z1.2, and then increase as lstars~a. Galaxy mergers reduce lstars by a factor of 2-3. These tracks are driven by both the evolution of the total jstars but also its radial distribution. Regardless of the aperture used to measure j, two distinct channels leading to low jstars in galaxies at z=0 are identified: (i) galaxy mergers, and (ii) early formation of most of the stars.

  15. WordPress 3 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Shreves, Ric

    2011-01-01

    This is a Packt Cookbook, which means it contains step-by-step instructions to achieve a particular goal or solve a particular problem. There are plenty of screenshots and explained practical tasks to make comprehension quick and easy. This book is not specifically for developers or programmers; rather it can be used by anyone who wants to get more out of their WordPress blog by following step-by-step instructions. A basic knowledge of PHP/XHTML/CSS/WordPress is desirable but not necessary.

  16. Transport of Orbital-Angular-Momentum Entanglement through a Turbulent Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Pors, Bart-Jan; Monken, C. H.; Eliel, Eric R.; Woerdman, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally how orbital-angular-momentum entanglement of two photons evolves under influence of atmospheric turbulence. We find that the quantum channel capacity is surprisingly robust: Its typical horizontal decay distance is of the order of 2 kilometers, demonstrating the potential of photonic orbital angular momentum for free-space quantum communication in a metropolitan environment.

  17. NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WEB SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Academy Press is the publisher for the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. Through this web site, you have access to a virtual treasure trove of books, reports and publicatio...

  18. Recrystallization of pressed technical uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this task was to study changes originating from heat treatment of uranium by metallographic methods and by measuring the hardness. Correlation of previously determined textures with the present study would improve the knowledge on the recrystallization process of pressed uranium

  19. Local and international press digest

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The following are the top stories in the Maltese and the international press today. The Times gives prominence to the Prime Minister's flying visit to Geneva yesterday, where he signed a research cooperation agreement with CERN, the European nuclear research organisation.

  20. Research on Simulation of Giant Forging Hydraulic Press Decoupling Control for Synchronous Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Xinliang Liu; Yingjian Deng; Zhongwei Liu

    2013-01-01

    A giant forging hydraulic press active synchronous control system is a mutually-coupled multi-input and multi-output system. To solve the elimination of the multi-channel interference, a multiple-input and multiple-output mathematical model center on active-beam is established; multi-channel synchronous decoupling control strategy is studied. The simulation results show that: the system eliminates the role of strong interference between multi-channel accesses to very good inhibitory effect of...

  1. Orbital angular momentum microlaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Feng, Liang

    2016-07-01

    Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes.

  2. Orbital angular momentum microlaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M; Feng, Liang

    2016-07-29

    Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes. PMID:27471299

  3. On the relation between angular momentum and angular velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J. P.; Tavares, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Students of mechanics usually have difficulties when they learn about the rotation of a rigid body. These difficulties are rooted in the relation between angular momentum and angular velocity, because these vectors are not parallel, and we need in general to utilize a rotating frame of reference or a time dependent inertia tensor. We discuss a series of problems that introduce both difficulties.

  4. Teach yourself visually WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Majure, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Get your blog up and running with the latest version of WordPress WordPress is one of the most popular, easy-to-use blogging platforms and allows you to create a dynamic and engaging blog, even if you have no programming skills or experience. Ideal for the visual learner, Teach Yourself VISUALLY WordPress, Second Edition introduces you to the exciting possibilities of the newest version of WordPress and helps you get started, step by step, with creating and setting up a WordPress site. Author and experienced WordPress user Janet Majure shares advice, insight, and best practices for taking full

  5. Smashing WordPress Beyond the Blog

    CERN Document Server

    Hedengren, Thord Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate guide to WordPress, from the world's most popular resource for web designers and developers As one of the hottest tools on the web today for creating a blog, WordPress has evolved to be much more that just a blogging platform and has been pushed beyond its original purpose. With this new edition of a perennially popular WordPress resource, Smashing Magazine offers you the information you need so you can maximize the potential and power of WordPress. WordPress expert Thord Daniel Hedengren takes you beyond the basic blog to show you how to leverage the capabilities of WordPress to

  6. Violation of Angular Momentum Selection Rules in Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, A; Melé, Barbara; Datta, Anindya; Gabrielli, Emidio; Mele, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    A simple consequence of the angular momentum conservation in quantum field theories is that the interference of s-channel amplitudes exchanging particles with different spin $J$ vanishes after complete angular integration. We show that, while this rule holds in scattering processes mediated by a massive graviton in Quantum Gravity, a massless graviton s-channel exchange breaks orthogonality when considering its interference with a scalar-particle s-channel exchange, whenever all the external states are massive. To this regard, the Einstein massless graviton propagator behaves as if it was carrying a further scalar degree of freedom. This result reveals new aspects of the well-known van Dam - Veltman - Zakharov discontinuity.

  7. Modularity of Pressing Tools for Screw Press Producing Solid Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Miloš Matúš; Peter Križan

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of the newly-patented structure of a screw briquetting machine for compacting biomass into a solid biofuel. The design of the machine is based on the results of a comprehensive study of the complicated process of biomass compaction. The patented structure meets two main goals: the elimination of axial forces, leading to increased lifetime of the bearings, and the new modular design of a pressing chamber and tools with their geometry based on the applicati...

  8. ISS Expedition 21/22 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 21/22 from 10/2009-03/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  9. Hot isostatic pressing of ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, K.

    1985-01-01

    A mixture containing glass 70 to 95 and BN or B4C powder (0.1-10 microns) 5 to 30 vol. % is used as a secondary pressure medium in hot isostatic pressing of ceramics. Thus, Pyrex beads were mixed with 15% vol. BN powder (average diameter 2 microns), fused at 1400 deg for 2 h, cooled, crushed, and put into a graphite crucible. A Si3N4 sintered body was embedded in the powder, heated in vacuum at 1200 deg for 2 h, treated in a hot isostatic press furnace at 1700 deg and 1000 atm. for 1 h, and cooled to give a Si3N4 ceramic. It was easily separated from the crucible.

  10. Angular signal radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panyun; Zhang, Kai; Bao, Yuan; Ren, Yuqi; Ju, Zaiqiang; Wang, Yan; He, Qili; Zhu, Zhongzhu; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi; Zhu, Peiping

    2016-03-21

    Microscopy techniques using visible photons, x-rays, neutrons, and electrons have made remarkable impact in many scientific disciplines. The microscopic data can often be expressed as the convolution of the spatial distribution of certain properties of the specimens and the inherent response function of the imaging system. The x-ray grating interferometer (XGI), which is sensitive to the deviation angle of the incoming x-rays, has attracted significant attention in the past years due to its capability in achieving x-ray phase contrast imaging with low brilliance source. However, the comprehensive and analytical theoretical framework is yet to be presented. Herein, we propose a theoretical framework termed angular signal radiography (ASR) to describe the imaging process of the XGI system in a classical, comprehensive and analytical manner. We demonstrated, by means of theoretical deduction and synchrotron based experiments, that the spatial distribution of specimens' physical properties, including absorption, refraction and scattering, can be extracted by ASR in XGI. Implementation of ASR in XGI offers advantages such as simplified phase retrieval algorithm, reduced overall radiation dose, and improved image acquisition speed. These advantages, as well as the limitations of the proposed method, are systematically investigated in this paper. PMID:27136780

  11. A Conversation with Frank Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, Judith R.

    Geophysicist Frank Press was director of Caltech's Seismological Laboratory from 1957 to 1965. In this interview, he recalls his work with Maurice Ewing at Columbia's Lamont Geological Observatory; his directorship of Caltech's Seismological Laboratory and colleagues Charles Richter, Beno Gutenberg, and Hugo Benioff; his work on the free oscillations of the earth; and his part in establishing the worldwide network of seismographs for the detection of nuclear weapons testing.

  12. EVALUATION OF SPECTRAL SELECTED PRESS SEQUENCE IN BREAST LESION CHARACTERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Lu; Pei-fang Liu; Run-xian Bao; Fei Sun

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of 1H spetral selected point-resolved spectroscopy (SS-PRESS) sequence in distinguishing benign from malignant breast lesions by the malignancy marker of choline peak and to investigate the factors influencing the diagnosis.Methods A total of 131 patients (aged 24-83 years,average 44.8 years) were enrolled in this study.The examinations were performed on a 1.5T scanner with four-channel phased array breast coil.Single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) was acquired by SS-PRESS sequence in these patients referred to surgical or biopsy consultation.Results Among these patients,74 were proved to have breast carcinomas and 57 have benign lesions by histopathological examinations.Thirty-one elevated choline peaks were observed in these 74 confirmed malignant lesions,and 5 detectable choline peaks were demonstrated in the 57 benign lesions.The sensitivity and specificity of 1H SS-PRESS MRS were 41.9% and 91.2%,respectively.The main factors influencing the diagnosis were signal-to-noise ratio and pathological type.Conclusions 1H SS-PRESS MRS can provide a noninvasive,biochemical measurement of metabolism and improve the specificity of breast magnetic resonance imaging.Choline peak in vivo is a specific but not sensitive marker of malignancy.Technique factors and histopathological characterization of lesions influence the detection rate.

  13. Incremental Pressing Technique in Explosive Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A pressing technique has become available that might be useful for compressing granular explosives. If the height-diameter ratio of the charge is unfavorable,the high quality charge can not be obtained with the common single-action pressing. This paper presents incremental pressing technique, which can obtain the charge with higher overall density and more uniform density.

  14. Effect of Orbital Angular Momentum on Nondiffracting Ultrashort Optical Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornigotti, Marco; Conti, Claudio; Szameit, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    We introduce a new class of nondiffracting optical pulses possessing orbital angular momentum. By generalizing the X -wave solution of the Maxwell equation, we discover the coupling between angular momentum and the temporal degrees of freedom of ultrashort pulses. The spatial twist of propagation invariant light pulse turns out to be directly related to the number of optical cycles. Our results may trigger the development of novel multilevel classical and quantum transmission channels free of dispersion and diffraction. They may also find application in the manipulation of nanostructured objects by ultrashort pulses and for novel approaches to the spatiotemporal measurements in ultrafast photonics.

  15. A Remark on the Estimation of Angular Power Spectra in the Presence of Foregrounds

    CERN Document Server

    White, M

    1998-01-01

    It is common practice to estimate the errors on the angular power spectrum which could be obtained by an experiment with a given angular resolution and noise level. Several authors have also addressed the question of foreground subtraction using multi-frequency observations. In such observations the angular resolution of the different frequency channels is rarely the same. In this report we point out how the ``effective'' beam size and noise level change with ell in this case, and give an expression for the error on the angular power spectrum as a function of ell.

  16. Simultaneous veneers incising and lower pressing temperatures?the effect on the plywood pressing time

    OpenAIRE

    Kurowska, A; Borysiuk, P.; Mamiński, M. Ł.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract It was shown that incising of veneers (60?15 m/m2) prior to plywood bonding allowed reduction of pressing time by 8?9% for a pressing temperature of 90?C when compared to the controls. Nevertheless, with pressing temperatures lower than normal and shortened pressing times the shear strengths of the plywood met the requirements of the respective standards.

  17. Modularity of Pressing Tools for Screw Press Producing Solid Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Matúš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the development of the newly-patented structure of a screw briquetting machine for compacting biomass into a solid biofuel. The design of the machine is based on the results of a comprehensive study of the complicated process of biomass compaction. The patented structure meets two main goals: the elimination of axial forces, leading to increased lifetime of the bearings, and the new modular design of a pressing chamber and tools with their geometry based on the application of a mathematical model.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPACTING PRESSURE AND CONDITIONS IN PRESSING CHAMBER DURING BIOMASS PRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Križan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will present the impact of the conditions in pressing chambers during the pressing of wooden briquettes. The conditions in pressing chambers can significantly impact the resulting compacting pressure required for the pressing of briquettes. In the introduction, we show which parameters of the pressing chamber during pressing can impact the resulting compacting pressure. The experiment results which are shown in this paper described the detected impact of some important pressing chamber parameters. This experiment aims to detect the pressing chamber length impact and the impact of the way of pressing. By setting the pressing conditions, we will be able to achieve the suitable resulting compacting pressure with respect to the required final briquettes quality.

  19. Professional WordPress design and development

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Brad; Stern, Hal

    2014-01-01

    The highest rated WordPress development and design book on the market is back with an all new third edition. Professional WordPress is the only WordPress book targeted to developers, with advanced content that exploits the full functionality of the most popular CMS in the world. Fully updated to align with WordPress 4.1, this edition has updated examples with all new screenshots, and full exploration of additional tasks made possible by the latest tools and features. You will gain insight into real projects that currently use WordPress as an application framework, as well as the basic usage a

  20. AngularJS testing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who have an understanding of the basic principles behind both AngularJS and test-driven development. You, as a developer, are interested in eliminating the fear related to either introducing tests to an existing codebase or starting out testing on a fresh AngularJS application. If you're a team leader or part of a QA team with the responsibility of ensuring full test coverage of an application, then this book is ideal for you to comprehend the full testing scope required by your developers. Whether you're new to or are well versed with AngularJS, this book

  1. The integration of angular velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A common problem in physics and engineering is determination of the orientation of an object given its angular velocity. When the direction of the angular velocity changes in time, this is a nontrivial problem involving coupled differential equations. Several possible approaches are examined, along with various improvements over previous efforts. These are then evaluated numerically by comparison to a complicated but analytically known rotation that is motivated by the important astrophysical...

  2. Achromatic orbital angular momentum generator

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, Frédéric; Mand, Harjaspreet; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel approach for generating light beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) by means of total internal reflection in an isotropic medium. A continuous space-varying cylindrically symmetric reflector, in the form of \\textit{two glued hollow axicons}, is used to introduce a nonuniform rotation of polarisation into a linearly polarised input beam. This device acts as a full spin-to-orbital angular momentum convertor. It functions by switching the helicity of the incoming be...

  3. MBL Experiment in Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Paul

    2002-04-01

    Among the series of beautiful take-home experiments designed by A.P. French and J.G. King for MIT students, the one on angular momentum studies the loss and conservation of angular momentum using a small dc motor as generator. Here we describe a version of the experiment that increases its accuracy, enables students to perform detailed rotational dynamics calculations, and sharpens the ability to isolate the region where the collision occurs.

  4. Dynamics modeling and simulation of a new nine-bar press with hybrid-driven mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel hybrid-driven mechanical press for precision drawing is presented. This new press is composed of a ninebar linkage which has two degrees of freedom determined by inputs from a dc constant speed motor and a dc servomotor. Therefore, the generalized coordinates are the angular displacement of two cranks. The kinetic energy, potential energy and generalized torques are analyzed. According to the equivalent circuit of the dc motor and the brushless servomotor, their dynamical model and position negative feedback model are developed separately. Then, a dynamical model for the hybrid-driven press is developed by using Lagrange's formulation. The dynamical equation is then transformed into a system of first order equations. Six first order differential equations are obtained in the state variables. In the end, the fourth fourth order Runge-Kutta method, an explicit method, is chosen as the integration technique of computer simulation. Two motors' current, two cranks' position and two cranks' angular velocity are treated as unknowns and the time response of the hybrid-driven press is obtained by integrating the system of first order equations through time

  5. Pengaruh Tekanan Pada Screw Press Terhadap Persentase Kehilangan Minyak Kelapa Sawit Yang Terdapat Pada Ampas Press

    OpenAIRE

    Saragih, Nataniel

    2010-01-01

    Percentage loss of palm oil from the pulp press influence the quality of palm oil. Pressing process is influenced by the type of the screw press, screw press working pressure, and water dilution. Percentage loss of palm oil from the pulp press is 3,12 – 2,90 % where the value is taken from the percentage of oil that had not dry the air. Percentage loss of palm oil from the pulp press fit standard factory that is 3,0 – 3,7 %. 072409001

  6. Proton angular distribution following multiphoton dissociative ionization of H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution of protons ejected following resonant (2+1)-photon dissociative ionization of H2 by 193-nm radiation through the E,F state has been obtained. The analysis shows that the Π character of the degenerate continuum states is approximately eight times larger than the Σ character, which is consistent with previous single-photon measurements. The analysis presented here, together with a previous analysis of the proton energy distribution, reveals the ionization channel to be significantly stronger than both the dissociation and dissociative ionization channels

  7. Angular momentum effects in fusion reactions near the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections and γ-ray multiplicities have been measured for neutron evaporation channels in the reactions 16O + 144Nd, 37Cl + 123Sb, 64Ni + 96Zr and 80Se + 80Se leading to the compound system 160Er at common excitation energies. In the near-barrier energy regime average angular momentum transfers depend dramatically on the asymmetry of the entrance channel. The results can be interpreted in terms of barrier fluctuations induced by target and projectile ground-state vibrations

  8. Smashing WordPress Beyond the Blog

    CERN Document Server

    Hedengren, Thord Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Smashing WordPress shows you how to utilize the power of the WordPress platform, and provides a creative spark to help you build WordPress-powered sites that go beyond the obvious. The second edition of Smashing WordPress has been updated for WordPress 3.1+, which includes internal, custom post types, the admin bar, and lots of other useful new features. You will learn the core concepts used to post types, the admin bar, and lots of other useful new features. You will learn the core concepts used to build just about anything in WordPress, resulting in fast deployments and greater design flexib

  9. High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Xie, Guodong; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Huang, Hao; Ahmed, Nisar; Bao, Changjing; Ren, Yongxiong; Cao, Yinwen; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Molisch, Andreas F.; Tur, Moshe; Padgett, Miles J.; Willner, Alan E.

    2014-01-01

    One property of electromagnetic waves that has been recently explored is the ability to multiplex multiple beams, such that each beam has a unique helical phase front. The amount of phase front ‘twisting’ indicates the orbital angular momentum state number, and beams with different orbital angular momentum are orthogonal. Such orbital angular momentum based multiplexing can potentially increase the system capacity and spectral efficiency of millimetre-wave wireless communication links with a single aperture pair by transmitting multiple coaxial data streams. Here we demonstrate a 32-Gbit s−1 millimetre-wave link over 2.5 metres with a spectral efficiency of ~16 bit s−1 Hz−1 using four independent orbital–angular momentum beams on each of two polarizations. All eight orbital angular momentum channels are recovered with bit-error rates below 3.8 × 10−3. In addition, we demonstrate a millimetre-wave orbital angular momentum mode demultiplexer to demultiplex four orbital angular momentum channels with crosstalk less than −12.5 dB and show an 8-Gbit s−1 link containing two orbital angular momentum beams on each of two polarizations. PMID:25224763

  10. High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Xie, Guodong; Lavery, Martin P J; Huang, Hao; Ahmed, Nisar; Bao, Changjing; Ren, Yongxiong; Cao, Yinwen; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Molisch, Andreas F; Tur, Moshe; Padgett, Miles J; Willner, Alan E

    2014-01-01

    One property of electromagnetic waves that has been recently explored is the ability to multiplex multiple beams, such that each beam has a unique helical phase front. The amount of phase front 'twisting' indicates the orbital angular momentum state number, and beams with different orbital angular momentum are orthogonal. Such orbital angular momentum based multiplexing can potentially increase the system capacity and spectral efficiency of millimetre-wave wireless communication links with a single aperture pair by transmitting multiple coaxial data streams. Here we demonstrate a 32-Gbit s(-1) millimetre-wave link over 2.5 metres with a spectral efficiency of ~16 bit s(-1) Hz(-1) using four independent orbital-angular momentum beams on each of two polarizations. All eight orbital angular momentum channels are recovered with bit-error rates below 3.8 × 10(-3). In addition, we demonstrate a millimetre-wave orbital angular momentum mode demultiplexer to demultiplex four orbital angular momentum channels with crosstalk less than -12.5 dB and show an 8-Gbit s(-1) link containing two orbital angular momentum beams on each of two polarizations. PMID:25224763

  11. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  12. WordPress 3.7 complete

    CERN Document Server

    Król, Karol

    2013-01-01

    WordPress 3.5 Complete: Third Edition is a comprehensive and step-by-step tutorial packed with screenshots and examples to make it easy and quick to pick it up.This WordPress book is a guide to WordPress for online publishers and web developers. If you are new to blogging and want to create your own blog or website from scratch, then ""WordPress 3.5 Complete: Third Edition"" is for you. No prior knowledge of HTML/CSS or PHP is required.

  13. Activation of Selected Core Muscles during Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Nesser

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unstable surface training is often used to activate core musculature during resistance training. Unfortunately, unstable surface training is risky and leads to detraining. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine core muscle activation during stable surface ground-based lifts. Methods: Fourteen recreational trained and former NCAA DI athletes (weight 84.2 ± 13.3 kg; height 176.0 ± 9.5 cm; age 20.9 ± 2.0 years volunteered for participation. Subjects completed two ground-based lifts: overhead press and push-press. Surface EMG was recorded from 4 muscles on the right side of the body (Rectus Abdominus (RA, External Oblique (EO, Transverse Abdominus (TA, and Erector Spinae (ES. Results: Paired sample T-tests identified significant muscle activation differences between the overhead press and the push-press included ES and EO. Average and peak EMG for ES was significantly greater in push-press (P<0.01. Anterior displacement of COP was significantly greater in push-press compared to overhead press during the eccentric phase. Conclusion: The push-press was identified as superior in core muscle activation when compared to the overhead pressing exercise.Keywords: torso, stability, weight lifting, resistance training

  14. IDEAL: ACADEMIC PRESS JOURNALS ONLINE

    CERN Multimedia

    The Library

    2001-01-01

    All Academic Press journals are available online to CERN users for a test period which will last until the end of July. The service 'IDEALIBRARY' includes 174 scientific journals that cover several domains, ranging from engineering to mathematics, computing and physics. Titles covered are among others 'Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables', 'Nuclear Data Sheets', 'Annals of Physics', 'Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing'. Reference citations present in each article are linked to the corresponding full text, when the latter is published by a member of the CrossRef consortium (members are: Elsevier, APS, AIP and others). Therefore, the navigation between articles and references is uninterrupted. A search engine allows queries by author, title and publication year. See http://www.idealibrary.com. At present the Library is evaluating a site license offer proposed by the publisher.

  15. Achromatic orbital angular momentum generator

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, Frédéric; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel approach for generating light beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) by means of total internal reflection in an isotropic medium. A continuous space-varying cylindrically symmetric reflector, in the form of \\textit{two glued hollow axicons}, is used to introduce a nonuniform rotation of polarisation into a linearly polarised input beam. This device acts as a full spin-to-orbital angular momentum convertor. It functions by switching the helicity of the incoming beam's polarisation, and by conservation of total angular momentum thereby generates a well-defined value of OAM. Our device is broadband, since the phase shift due to total internal reflection is nearly independent of wavelength. We verify the broad-band behaviour by measuring the conversion efficiency of the device for three different wavelengths corresponding to the RGB colours, red, green and blue. An average conversion efficiency of $95\\%$ for these three different wavelengths is observed. %, which confirms its wavelen...

  16. Instant AngularJS starter

    CERN Document Server

    Menard, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is written in an easytoread style, with a strong emphasis on realworld, practical examples. Stepbystep explanations are provided for performing important tasks.This book is for web developers familiar with JavascriptIt doesn't cover the history of AngularJS, and it's not a pitch to convince you that AngularJS is the best framework on the entire web. It's a guide to help you learn everything you need to know about AngularJS in as few pa

  17. Non-Colinearity of Angular Velocity and Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, A. F.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the principles, construction, and operation of an apparatus which serves to demonstrate the non-colinearity of the angular velocity and momentum vectors as well as the inertial tensors. Applications of the apparatus to teaching of advanced undergraduate mechanics courses are recommended. (CC)

  18. Quantum theory of angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monograph pertains to the angular momentum coupling and recoupling coefficients and their relation to generalized hypergeometric functions; their q-generalization; their polynomial zeros; their relation to orthogonal polynomials; and their numerical computation. The book builds on standard textbook material on Angular Momentum Theory and leads the reader to the recent developments in the selected topics. Fortran programs for the computation of the 3-j, 6-j and 9-j coefficients are included for use by atomic, molecular and nuclear physicists/chemists. (orig.)

  19. Process Characteristics and Applications of Continuous Variable Cross-section Recycled Extrusion and Equal Channel Angular Pressing%连续变断面循环挤压与等通道转角挤压技术的工艺特征及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 刘莹莹; 王庆娟; 尤雪磊; 王坤

    2014-01-01

    分别论述了等通道转角挤压法与连续变断面循环挤压法这两种大塑性变形方法的工艺原理、工艺流程、模具结构、变形特征以及累积应变量与模具结构参数之间的关系;并系统介绍了这两种方法在制备纯铝、镁合金及钛合金细晶材料方面的应用,明确了连续变断面循环挤压法与等通道转角挤压法均是细化合金组织,提高材料强度、塑性等综合性能的有效途径.通过分析对比,提出这两种大塑性变形方法各自的优势和存在的问题,以及未来的发展方向.

  20. The Pedagogical Press: Problems and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presents a discussion by journalists, scientists, and writers on educational problems in the Soviet Union. Focuses on the the role of the pedagogical press in restructuring public education in light of perestroika. Calls for press involvement in defining and developing public education. Lists questions for consideration and invites responses. (NL)

  1. The Mythology of the Penny Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerone, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines common scholarly characterizations of the American penny press of the 1830s and 40s that together provide a myth of origins of the contemporary U.S. press. Criticizes inaccuracies and misleading elements in this mythology and its implications for subsequent debate about U.S. journalism. (JK)

  2. Fabrication of lithium ceramics by hot pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1982-03-01

    Controlled density LiA10/sub 2/, Li/sub 2/Zr0/sub 3/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/ and Li/sub 2/O pellets were fabricated by hot pressing for irradiation testing as candidate tritium breeding materials. Pellet specifications, characterization data, and procedures for hot pressing, pellet grinding and halide removal are discussed.

  3. Turbodrill rod angular velocity indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogachev, O.K.; Belozerova, L.P.; Konenkov, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper outlines shortcomings of existing types of telemetry systems which resulted in production of the IChT-1 unit. Unit is intended for control of angular velocity of serially produced turbodrill rods, during drilling of wells up to 5000 m deep, and bottomhole temperatures to 100C. The paper provides a detailed description and diagrams for installing this unit.

  4. Fission at high angular momenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By studies on the system 40Ar+165Ho by means of selected measuring methods which made a differential selection of certain angular momentum ranges and by this a discrimination between ''fast fission'' and compound-nucleus fission possible the validity of fundamental predictions of the model of the ''fast fission'' hitherto experimentally no yet confirmed was studied: 1) At the turning point of the trajectory for ''fast fission'' calculated by Gregoire the corresponding shape of which must be responsible for the angular distribution the centers of the two fragments must be separated by about 11 fm. 2) The widths of the mass distributions after ''fast fission'' and compound-nucleus fission must be different by a factor 2. The measurements of the angular dependence showed that both prediction cannot be simultaneously brought into accordance with the experimental results. The results of coincidence measurements between fission fragments and alpha particles confirmed the assumption mentioned under topic 2. The analysis of the angular dependence then yielded for the shape of the nuclear complex leading to ''fast fission'' a more compact shape than that indicated by Gregoire, namely with a distance of the fragments of about 7 fm. (orig.)

  5. Refractive elements for the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon.

    OpenAIRE

    Lavery M.P.J.; Robertson D.J.; Berkhout G.C.G.; Love G.D.; Padgett M.J.; Courtial J.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a mode transformer comprising two custom refractive optical elements which convert orbital angular momentum states into transverse momentum states. This transformation allows for an efficient measurement of the orbital angular momentum content of an input light beam. We characterise the channel capacity of the system for 50 input modes, giving a maximum value of 3.46 bits per photon. Using an electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD) camera with a laser source attenuated such that on...

  6. Inverse cascades of angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most theoretical and computational studies of turbulence in Navier-Stokes fluids and/or guiding-centre plasmas have been carried out in the presence of spatially periodic boundary conditions. In view of the frequently reproduced result that two-dimensional and/or MHD decaying turbulence leads to structures comparable in length scae to a box dimension, it is natural to ask if periodic boundary conditions are an adequate representation of any physical situation. Here, we study, computationally, the decay of two-dimensional turbulence in a Navier-Stokes fluid or guiding-centre plasma in the presence of circular no-slip rigid walls. The method is wholly spectral, and relies on a Galerkin approximation by a set of functions that obey two boundary conditions at the wall radius (analogues of the Chandrasekhar-Reid functions). It is possible to explore Reynolds numbers up to the order of 1250, based on an RMS velocity and a box radius. It is found that decaying turbulence is altered significantly by the no-slip boundaries. First, strong boundary layers serve as sources of vorticity and enstrophy and enhance the early-time energy decay rate, for a given Reynolds number, well above the periodic boundary condition values. More importantly, angular momentum turns out to be an even more slowly decaying ideal invariant than energy, and to a considerable extent governs the dynamics of the decay. Angular momentum must be taken into account, for example, in order to achieve quantitative agreement with the prediction of maximum entropy, or 'most probable', states. These are predictions of conditions that are established after several eddy turnover times but before the energy has decayed away. Angular momentum will cascade to lower azimuthal mode numbers, even if absent there initially, and the angular momentum modal spectrum is eventually dominated by the lowest mode available. When no initial angular momentum is present, no behaviour that suggests the likelihood of inverse cascades

  7. RFI channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mceliece, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A class of channel models is presented which exhibit varying burst error severity much like channels encountered in practice. An information-theoretic analysis of these channel models is made, and conclusions are drawn that may aid in the design of coded communication systems for realistic noisy channels.

  8. Towards a more responsible press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimur ul Hassan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses Pakistan’s newspapers’ performance with regard to civil society in2003 by using content analysis approach. There is no gainsaying that a strong civil society guaranteesa strong democracy. In Pakistan, spells of military rule have stunted the growth of democracy,adversely affecting civil society. Media too has suffered as a result. Normative theories of media callfor laying down norms and conventions for media. In democracy, all sections of society should berepresented in media. In Pakistan’s case, due to military regimes and quasi democratic governments,combined with the demands of market economy, the media have largely not been able to fulfill thisresponsibility towards society. Social Responsibility demands that the media must fulfill itsresponsibility towards society, while giving a free space to all voices of society. In Pakistan, whethernewspapers played that role in 2003 when civil society had accelerated its campaign to end honorkillings and crimes against women is investigated. The findings show that newspapers did supportcivil society, showing a gradual movement towards a more responsible press.

  9. Research on Simulation of Giant Forging Hydraulic Press Decoupling Control for Synchronous Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinliang Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A giant forging hydraulic press active synchronous control system is a mutually-coupled multi-input and multi-output system. To solve the elimination of the multi-channel interference, a multiple-input and multiple-output mathematical model center on active-beam is established; multi-channel synchronous decoupling control strategy is studied. The simulation results show that: the system eliminates the role of strong interference between multi-channel accesses to very good inhibitory effect of synchronization error, eliminating the system's external disturbance on the synchronization precision control impact.

  10. Fission fragment angular distribution in 24Mg induced reactions on 192Os and 197Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distributions of fission fragments have been measured in 24Mg + 192Os and 24Mg + 197Au reactions at Elab = 128 MeV which is close to entrance channel Coulomb barrier. Experimental angular anisotropies were in reasonably good agreement with those calculated using the statistical theory. Analysis of the angular distribution data of the present study and of our earlier measurement in 19F + 197Au reaction has shown that contribution from non-compound nucleus fission in these systems is not significant. (author)

  11. Some important aspects of fragment angular momentum in medium energy fission of 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Independent isomeric yield ratios of 131Te, 133Te and 134I have been determined at five different energies in the range of 25-44 MeV alpha particle induced fission of 238U using radiochemical and gamma spectrometric techniques. From the independent isomeric yield ratios, fragment angular momenta (Jrms) have been deduced using a statistical model analysis. The Jrms were also calculated theoretically based on thermal equilibration of various collective modes after considering the occurrence of multichance fission. These data and the literature data for various fragments in the mass region 126-136 in 238U (α,f), 238U (p,f) and 238U (γ,f) show the following important features: (i) Both the entrance channel excitation energy and input angular momentum affect the fragment angular momentum in the exit channel. (ii) There are two groups of fission products from the point of view of change of fragment angular momentum with increase in excitation energy and input angular momentum. (iii) Fragment angular momentum depends on nuclear structure effect such as shell closure proximity and odd-even effect. (iv) The fragment angular momentum calculated theoretically based on statistical equilibration of various collective modes are in good agreement with the experimental values indicating the validity of such an assumption

  12. Angular Approach Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchuk, Andrew; Tokar, Sergiy; Gopal, Sahana; Sanchez-Alonso, Jose L; Tarasov, Andrei I; Vélez-Ortega, A Catalina; Chiappini, Ciro; Rorsman, Patrik; Stevens, Molly M; Gorelik, Julia; Frolenkov, Gregory I; Klenerman, David; Korchev, Yuri E

    2016-05-24

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a super-resolution live imaging technique that uses a glass nanopipette as an imaging probe to produce three-dimensional (3D) images of cell surface. SICM can be used to analyze cell morphology at nanoscale, follow membrane dynamics, precisely position an imaging nanopipette close to a structure of interest, and use it to obtain ion channel recordings or locally apply stimuli or drugs. Practical implementations of these SICM advantages, however, are often complicated due to the limitations of currently available SICM systems that inherited their design from other scanning probe microscopes in which the scan assembly is placed right above the specimen. Such arrangement makes the setting of optimal illumination necessary for phase contrast or the use of high magnification upright optics difficult. Here, we describe the designs that allow mounting SICM scan head on a standard patch-clamp micromanipulator and imaging the sample at an adjustable approach angle. This angle could be as shallow as the approach angle of a patch-clamp pipette between a water immersion objective and the specimen. Using this angular approach SICM, we obtained topographical images of cells grown on nontransparent nanoneedle arrays, of islets of Langerhans, and of hippocampal neurons under upright optical microscope. We also imaged previously inaccessible areas of cells such as the side surfaces of the hair cell stereocilia and the intercalated disks of isolated cardiac myocytes, and performed targeted patch-clamp recordings from the latter. Thus, our new, to our knowledge, angular approach SICM allows imaging of living cells on nontransparent substrates and a seamless integration with most patch-clamp setups on either inverted or upright microscopes, which would facilitate research in cell biophysics and physiology. PMID:27224490

  13. Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bowin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4 E+27 kgm2s−1. Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates. Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth. The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant velocity on the crests of convection cells driven by rising heat. These results imply that spreading centers are primarily passive reactive

  14. A spring-driven press device for hot embossing and thermal bonding of PMMA microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2010-08-01

    A novel spring-driven press device was designed and manufactured for hot embossing and thermal bonding of PMMA microfluidic chips in this work. This simple device consisted of two semi-cylinder silicone rubber press heads, three steel clamping plates, and three compression springs that were assembled together using two screw bolts and two butterfly nuts. The three springs were clamped between the upper and the middle clamping plates, whereas the two press heads were assembled between the middle and the lower clamping plates. After an epoxy template covered by a PMMA plate or a PMMA channel plate together with a cover were sandwiched between two microscopic glass slides for embossing or bonding, respectively, they were clamped between the two elastic press heads of the press device by fastening the screw nuts on the upper clamping plate. Because the convex press heads applied pressure along the middle line of the glass slides, they would deform resulting in a negative pressure gradient from the middle to the sides so that air bubbles between the sandwiched parts could be squeezed out during embossing and bonding processes. High-quality PMMA microfluidic chips were prepared by using this unique device and were successfully applied in the electrophoretic separation of several cations. PMID:20665912

  15. Experimental confirmation of physical metal penetration generation and press casting production considering molten metal's pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Tasaki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique for controlling the pressure of a molten metal when using a new type of iron casting method called sand mold press casting to realize high productivity and obtain high-quality products. The past test results using this method showed a casting yield of 90% to 95%, while conventional methods only show a casting yield of 60% to 70%. Although the press casting method does not require a sprue cup or runner channel casting defects such as metal penetration are often caused by the high pressure in the high-velocity pressing part of this casting process. Therefore, we proposed a pressure control method with a mathematical model of molten metal pressure, and with it we achieved experimental confirmation of the successful production of brake drums at different pressing temperatures. Results show that the proposed pressing control method can realize sound, penetration-free casting production. However, the theoretical analysis and design of this pressing process had not previously been studied sufficiently, and therefore this paper presents the theoretical design algorithm for the process as well as its experimental confirmation.

  16. Mechanical Properties from PBX 9501 Pressing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff Thompson, Darla; Wright, Walter J.

    2004-07-01

    A PBX 9501 pressing study was conducted by researchers in ESA-WMM, LANL, to identify the hydrostatic pressing parameters most important in fabricating high-density parts with uniform density. In this study, 31 charges were pressed using a full permutation of six pressing parameters. Five charges from the set of 31 were selected for an evaluation of their mechanical properties, specifically uniaxial compression and tension. Charges were selected to 1) span the density range of the study, and 2) allow two direct comparisons of pressing parameters independent of bulk density (density has a well-established affect on some material properties). Three PBX 9501 charges pressed isostatically at Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX were also included in the study. The tensile properties of the 8 charges varied significantly. Careful evaluation of the results suggests that an increase in pressing temperature may correlate with an increase in tensile stress (strength) and a decrease in strain (ductility). Trends in compression exist but are less pronounced. In an effort to explore the relationship between pressing temperature and tensile strength, four sheets of Estane polymer (a component of the PBX 9501 binder) were compression molded at 70, 90, 110 and 130°C. The tensile strength of Estane was observed to increase by a factor of nearly 20 when the molding temperature was increased from 70 to 90°C (strength increase was negligible beyond 90°C). We present an outline of ongoing work that will irrefutably quantify the mechanical property affects of both pressing temperature and dwell time on PBX 9501.(LA-UR 03-4842).

  17. Angular dispersion of protons transmitted through thin gold films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distributions of protons travelling through thin polycrystalline gold targets (∝15 nm) with incident energies in the range of 4-10 keV have been measured. The results confirm previous experiments at higher energies showing deviations from theoretical predictions based on the standard multiple scattering theory. In order to prove that the effect of crystal structure is one of the main causes of these deviations we have performed numerical simulations. To simulate the polycrystalline structure in a realistic way, we have made an analysis of the target by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Including these characteristics in the simulation, together with the effect of vibrations and crystal disorder we analyzed the corresponding angular distribution. To evaluate the role of channeling, we also measured angular distributions of protons in a left angle 100 right angle gold foil and made the corresponding numerical simulations. The results show the critical influence of the target structure in the angular spectra of transmitted ions. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. WordPress web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Ratnayake, Rakhitha Nimesh

    2013-01-01

    An extensive, practical guide that explains how to adapt WordPress features, both conventional and trending, for web applications.This book is intended for WordPress developers and designers who have the desire to go beyond conventional website development to develop quality web applications within a limited time frame and for maximum profit. Experienced web developers who are looking for a framework for rapid application development will also find this to be a useful resource. Prior knowledge with of WordPress is preferable as the main focus will be on explaining methods for adapting WordPres

  19. Teach yourself visually complete WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Majure, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Take your WordPress skills to the next level with these tips, tricks, and tasks Congratulations on getting your blog up and running with WordPress! Now are you ready to take it to the next level? Teach Yourself VISUALLY Complete WordPress takes you beyond the blogging basics with expanded tips, tricks, and techniques with clear, step-by-step instructions accompanied by screen shots. This visual book shows you how to incorporate forums, use RSS, obtain and review analytics, work with tools like Google AdSense, and much more.Shows you how to use mobile tools to edit a

  20. Powder pressing in a macrosonic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protipopescu, A.; Dragan, O.; Ciovica, D.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to extend the technology of powder product manufacturing to new forms and sizes, to improve their quality as well as pressing efficiency and to reduce waste. In the course of metal and nonmetal powder briquette pressing, macrosounds were associated with the external static pressing force, which led to an increase in the relative height, density and physicomechanical characteristics of the briquettes. This method permits the extension of the range of products that can be manufactured from powders and the improvement of their quality.

  1. Professional WordPress Plugin Development

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Brad; Tadlock, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Taking WordPress to the next level with advanced plugin developmentWordPress is used to create self-hosted blogs and sites, and it's fast becoming the most popular content management system (CMS) on the Web. Now you can extend it for personal, corporate and enterprise use with advanced plugins and this professional development guide. Learn how to create plugins using the WordPress plugin API: utilize hooks, store custom settings, craft translation files, secure your plugins, set custom user roles, integrate widgets, work with JavaScript and AJAX, create custom post types. You'll find a practic

  2. WordPress 24-Hour Trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Plumley, George

    2011-01-01

    The eagerly anticipated second edition, completely updated for WordPress 3.1 As an open source content management system, WordPress allows users to easily build feature-rich web sites with no programming experience. This unique book-and-video package is a friendly, self-paced beginners guide to the latest release of WordPress. Lessons are focused on practical, everyday tasks that users will need to create and maintain their sites: entering new content, creating new pages, managing menus, making content search-engine friendly. Plus you'll find lots of tips based on years of experience teaching

  3. WordPress web design for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Updated, full-color guide to creating dynamic websites with WordPress 3.6 In this updated new edition, bestselling For Dummies author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson makes it easy for anyone with a basic knowledge of the WordPress software to create a custom site using complementary technologies such as CSS, HTML, PHP, and MySQL. You'll not only get up to speed on essential tools and technologies and further advance your own design skills, this book also gives you pages of great case studies, so you can see just how other companies and individuals are creating compelling, customized, a

  4. Probability distribution of primordial angular momentum and formation of massive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Susa, H; Tanaka, T; Hajime Susa; Misao Sasaki; Takahiro Tanaka

    1994-01-01

    Abstract{ We consider the joint probability distribution function for the mass contrast and angular momentum of over-density regions on the proto- galactic scale and investigate the formation of massive black holes at redshift z\\gsim10. We estimate the growth rate of the angular momentum by the linear perturbation theory and the decay rate by the Compton drag and apply the Press-Schechter theory to obtain the formation rate of massive black holes, assuming the full reionization of the universe at z=z_{ion}\\gg 10. We find the correlation between the mass contrast and angular momentum vanishes in the linear theory. However, application of the Press-Schechter theory introduces a correlation between the mass contrast and angular momentum of bound objects. Using thus obtained probability distribution, we calculate the mass fraction of black holes with M\\sim10^6-10^8M_{\\odot} in the universe. We find that it crucially depends on the reionization epoch z_{ion}. Specifically, for the standard CDM power spectrum with ...

  5. Orbital angular momentum in phase space

    OpenAIRE

    Rigas, I.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L.; Klimov, A. B.; Rehacek, J.; Hradil, Z.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive theory of the Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum is presented. Special attention is paid to the problems linked to rotational periodicity and angular-momentum discreteness.

  6. AngularJS test-driven development

    CERN Document Server

    Chaplin, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This book is for developers who want to learn about AngularJS development by applying testing techniques. You are assumed to have a basic knowledge and understanding of HTML, JavaScript, and AngularJS.

  7. Phonons with orbital angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayub, M. K. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mendonca, J. T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.

  8. Phonons with orbital angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.

  9. Angular momentum in QGP holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett McInnes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quark chemical potential is one of the fundamental parameters describing the quark–gluon plasma produced by sufficiently energetic heavy-ion collisions. It is not large at the extremely high temperatures probed by the LHC, but it plays a key role in discussions of the beam energy scan programmes at the RHIC and other facilities. On the other hand, collisions at such energies typically (that is, in peripheral collisions give rise to very high values of the angular momentum density. Here we explain that holographic estimates of the quark chemical potential of a rotating sample of plasma can be very considerably improved by taking the angular momentum into account.

  10. Angular distribution of coherent bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution of the linearly polarised photon beam produced by coherent bremsstrahlung from an aligned diamond radiator has been measured at the MAMI A2 tagged photon facility. The measurements were made with a prototype position sensitive photon detector which utilises the pair production process and a double sided silicon strip detector. This polarised photon beam is used for nuclear and hadronic experiments and in their analysis the polarisation is obtained from a calculation, which matches the experimental intensity spectrum. As the polarisation is related to the photon beam angular distribution, the present measurements can be used to test this calculation. The overall agreement is found to be good although there are some regions where significant discrepancies exist.

  11. The integration of angular velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Boyle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A common problem in physics and engineering is determination of the orientation of an object given its angular velocity. When the direction of the angular velocity changes in time, this is a nontrivial problem involving coupled differential equations. Several possible approaches are examined, along with various improvements over previous efforts. These are then evaluated numerically by comparison to a complicated but analytically known rotation that is motivated by the important astrophysical problem of precessing black-hole binaries. It is shown that a straightforward solution directly using quaternions is most efficient and accurate, and that the norm of the quaternion is irrelevant. Integration of the generator of the rotation can also be made roughly as efficient as integration of the rotation. Both methods will typically be twice as efficient naive vector- or matrix-based methods. Implementation by means of standard general-purpose numerical integrators is stable and efficient, so that such problems can ...

  12. On Dunkl angular momenta algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, Misha; Hakobyan, Tigran

    2015-11-01

    We consider the quantum angular momentum generators, deformed by means of the Dunkl operators. Together with the reflection operators they generate a subalgebra in the rational Cherednik algebra associated with a finite real reflection group. We find all the defining relations of the algebra, which appear to be quadratic, and we show that the algebra is of Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt (PBW) type. We show that this algebra contains the angular part of the Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian and that together with constants it generates the centre of the algebra. We also consider the gl( N ) version of the subalge-bra of the rational Cherednik algebra and show that it is a non-homogeneous quadratic algebra of PBW type as well. In this case the central generator can be identified with the usual Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian associated with the Coxeter group in the harmonic confinement.

  13. Elastic and inelastic angular distributions of the 7Li+120Sn system for energies near the Coulomb barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Gasques, L. R.; Alcántara-Núñez, J. A.; Duarte, J. G.; Aguiar, V. P.; Medina, N. H.; Seale, W. A.; Pires, K. C. C.; Freitas, A.; Lubian, J.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Genezini, F. A.; Rossi, E. S., Jr.

    2016-06-01

    The reaction of 7Li+120Sn has been measured at bombarding energies of 21, 24 and 27 MeV. The {2}+\\to {0}+ γ -ray transition in 120Sn was observed and the angular distribution for the 2+ excited state was obtained. Coupled channels and coupled-reaction channels calculations, including the dynamical polarization potential due to the projectile break-up, obtained from continuum discretized coupled channel calculations, were performed. The comparison between the existing experimental elastic angular distribution with the coupled-reaction channels calculations indicates that the 1n stripping transfer is the most intense channel to be coupled and the 2n stripping reaction occurs sequentially rather than directly, however, further data must be analyzed to confirm this indication. The experimental elastic and inelastic scattering data were well described by the calculations, but some discrepancies in these channels may indicate the need for corrections to the nuclear potential and/or the necessity to incorporate further channels.

  14. Integrating rotation from angular velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Zupan, Eva; Saje, Miran

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The integration of the rotation from a given angular velocity is often required in practice. The present paper explores how the choice of the parametrization of rotation, when employed in conjuction with different numerical time-integration schemes, effects the accuracy and the computational efficiency. Three rotation parametrizations – the rotational vector, the Argyris tangential vector and the rotational quaternion – are combined with three different numerical time-integration ...

  15. Orbital angular momentum is dependent on polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chun-Fang

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the momentum density of free electromagnetic field splits into two parts. One has no contribution to the net momentum due to the transversality condition. The other yields all the momentum. The angular momentum that originates from the former part is spin, and the angular momentum that originates from the latter part is orbital angular momentum. Expressions for the spin and orbital angular momentum are given in terms of the electric vector in reciprocal space. The spin and or...

  16. Achromatic orbital angular momentum generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a novel approach for generating light beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) by means of total internal reflection in an isotropic medium. A continuous space-varying cylindrically symmetric reflector, in the form of two glued hollow axicons, is used to introduce a nonuniform rotation of polarization into a linearly polarized input beam. This device acts as a full spin-to-orbital angular momentum convertor. It functions by switching the helicity of the incoming beam's polarization, and by conservation of total angular momentum thereby generates a well-defined value of OAM. Our device is broadband, since the phase shift due to total internal reflection is nearly independent of wavelength. We verify the broad-band behaviour by measuring the conversion efficiency of the device for three different wavelengths corresponding to the RGB colours, red, green and blue. An average conversion efficiency of 95% for these three different wavelengths is observed. This device may find applications in imaging from micro- to astronomical systems where a white vortex beam is needed. (paper)

  17. Spin Angular Momentum Imparted by Gravitational Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, M.

    2007-01-01

    Following the demonstration that gravitational waves impart linear momentum, it is argued that if they are polarized they should impart angular momentum to appropriately placed 'test rods' in their path. A general formula for this angular momentum is obtained and used to provide expressions for the angular momentum imparted by plane and cylindrical gravitational waves.

  18. Angular Momentum Decomposition for an Electron

    OpenAIRE

    Burkardt, Matthias; BC, Hikmat

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the orbital angular momentum of the `quark' in the scalar diquark model as well as that of the electron in QED (to order $\\alpha$). We compare the orbital angular momentum obtained from the Jaffe-Manohar decomposition to that obtained from the Ji relation and estimate the importance of the vector potential in the definition of orbital angular momentum.

  19. AngularJS web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Darwin, Peter Bacon

    2013-01-01

    The book will be a step-by-step guide showing the readers how to build a complete web app with AngularJSJavaScript developers who want to learn AngularJS for developing web apps. Knowledge of JavaScript and HTML is expected. No knowledge of AngularJS is required.

  20. Thermal Conductances of Pressed Copper Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, L.; Kittel, P.; Spivak, A.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes investigation of thermal conductivities of smooth copper contacts pressed together at liquid-helium temperatures. Investigation prompted by need for accurate thermal models for infrared detectors and other cryogenic instruments.

  1. Resilience of hybrid optical angular momentum qubits to turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías, Osvaldo Jiménez; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Taballione, Caterina; Bisesto, Fabrizio; Slussarenko, Sergei; Aolita, Leandro; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Walborn, Stephen P; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Recent schemes to encode quantum information into the total angular momentum of light, defining rotation-invariant hybrid qubits composed of the polarization and orbital angular momentum degrees of freedom, present interesting applications for quantum information technology. However, there remains the question as to how detrimental effects such as random spatial perturbations affect these encodings. Here, we demonstrate that alignment-free quantum communication through a turbulent channel based on hybrid qubits can be achieved with unit transmission fidelity. In our experiment, alignment-free qubits are produced with q-plates and sent through a homemade turbulence chamber. The decoding procedure, also realized with q-plates, relies on both degrees of freedom and renders an intrinsic error-filtering mechanism that maps errors into losses. PMID:25672667

  2. The discourse of neutrality in the press

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Sandra Helena Dias de

    2010-01-01

    The goal here is to show how writing and style handbooks for journalists make a neutral image of news text and the press. Considering that language is not transparent nor simply a tool for communication (FAIRCLOUGH, 2001), I analyzed here how information, the prime object of the press, tends to be seen as an impartial product, based on techniques for standardizing journalistic language. For that purpose, an analysis was made of the handbooks produced by the newspapers Folha de S. Paulo and O ...

  3. Visualization Simulations for Cold Press Die

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Pressing process is a manufacturing method that obtained work piece with certain dimension, shape and capability through die forcing roughcast to produce plastic deformation or separate. This paper focuses on the key problems of visualization simulation in pressing die. The final aim is that numerical simulation system can simulate the process of processing forming technique, which can supply some necessary and accurate key parameters for die design. The detail description of mechanical characteristic an...

  4. CSR-communication in the business press

    OpenAIRE

    Mette MORSING; Langer, Roy

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the construction of corporate social responsibility in the business press as an act of strategic ambiguity. While corporate social responsibility (CSR) generally evokes positive associations in public opinion, this paper demonstrates that these associations are based on a broadly encompassing and ambiguous definition of CSR. Our empirical data shows how the business press in its discourse on CSR provides no clarity on the definition of CSR in terms of a coherent motiv...

  5. WordPress 3 For Business Bloggers

    CERN Document Server

    Thewlis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on book based around a fictitious case study blog, which you will build on a development server using WordPress. The case study grows chapter by chapter, from installing your local development server, right up to the finished blog. This book is for anybody running or starting a business blog using WordPress, whether you plan to use your blog for PR and marketing, or want to profit directly from blogging.

  6. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    In this paper, the public debate following the re-ligion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describ-ing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues....... Historically, the concept of press freedom was linked to a fight for religious freedom in London, as described by Siebert....

  7. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    In this paper, the public debate following the religion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues....... Historically, the concept of press freedom was linked to a fight for religious freedom in London, as described by Siebert....

  8. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the public debate following the re-ligion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describ-ing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues. Historically, the concept of press freedom was linked to a fight for religious freedom in London, as described by Siebert.

  9. Change of Pressing Chamber Conicalness at Briquetting Process in Briquetting Machine Pressing Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Križan; Miloš Matúš; Jaan Kers; Djordje Vukelić

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we will present the impact of the conical shape of a pressing chamber, an important structural parameter. Besides the known impact of the technological parameters of pressing chambers, it is also very important to pay attention to their structural parameters. In the introduction, we present a theoretical analysis of pressing chamber conicalness. An experiment aimed at detecting this impact was performed at our institute, and it showed that increasing the conicalness of a pressi...

  10. Press Consumption in the Digital Age: Habits and Needs Regarding Online Press

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Filipe; Alturas, Bráulio

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the topic of Online Press and the challenge that the press faces to maintain its predominance as a communication media, before a public with new aptitudes, access to new technologies and, above all, to a wider and more dynamic range of alternative communication sources. This study is based on the principle that the solution for a sustainable and attractive marketing strategy for the press, starts with the comprehension of the way its public perceives the products made ...

  11. Measurement of the Orbital Angular Momentum Spectrum of Partially Coherent Fields using Double Angular Slit Interference

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, Mehul; Leach, Jonathan; Boyd, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    We implement an interferometric method using two angular slits to measure the orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode spectrum of a partially coherent field. As the angular separation of the slits changes, an interference pattern for a particular OAM mode is obtained. The visibility of this interference pattern as a function of angular separation is equivalent to the angular correlation function of the field. By Fourier transforming the angular correlation function obtained from the double angular slit interference, we are able to calculate the OAM spectrum of the partially coherent field. This method has potential application for characterizing the OAM spectrum in high-dimensional quantum information protocols.

  12. Dependency injection with AngularJS

    CERN Document Server

    Knol, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on approach to using dependency injection and implementing test-driven development using AngularJS. Dependency Injection with AngularJS is aimed at developers who are aware of AngularJS but need to get started with using it in real life applications. Also, developers who want to get into test-driven development with AngularJS can use this book as practical guide. Even if you know about dependency injection, it can serve as a good reference on how it is used within AngularJS. Readers are expected to have some experience with JavaScript.

  13. Angular Anisotropy and Mass Asymmetry of Thorium-232 Fission Fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of experimental and theoretical papers on the angular distribution of the fission fragments of nuclei indicate that it is satisfactorily described by the parameters of the fissioning nucleus at the saddle point. The problem of the effect of these parameters on the distribution of the fragments according to mass has as yet found no generally accepted solution. It remains unclear to what extent the 'good' quantum numbers characteristic of the nucleus at the saddle point remain equally ''good'' when the nucleus passes from the saddle point to the moment of breakdown. If at the saddle point the nucleus has a set of different configurations, this must be apparent in some way in the distribution of the fragments by mass and in their angular distribution (via the moment of inertia of the nucleus). The paper investigates the angular anisotropy of fragments with different masses in the fission of thorium-232 by fast neutrons. The masses of the fragments were determined by simultaneous recording of the kinetic energy of paired fragments in a double ionization chamber with grids. The direction of flight of the fragments was determined using a mechanical collimator. The neutrons causing fission had an extended spectrum, but the contribution of fissions via the (n, n'f) reaction did not exceed a few per cent. The fragments were sorted out according to energy by a two-dimensional 128 x 128 channel analyser with a memory on ferrite. The dependence of angular anisotropy on the mass of the fragments and on their kinetic energy with fixed mass is discussed. The first dependence makes it possible to judge the degree to which the saddle point affects the distribution of the fragments according to mass, while the second gives information about the degree to which the configuration of the nucleus at the moment of breakdown affects the angular anisotropy of the fragments. (author)

  14. Matter waves with angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Bracher, C; Kleber, M; Bracher, Christian; Kramer, Tobias; Kleber, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    An alternative description of quantum scattering processes rests on inhomogeneous terms amended to the Schr\\"odinger equation. We detail the structure of sources that give rise to multipole scattering waves of definite angular momentum, and introduce pointlike multipole sources as their limiting case. Partial wave theory is recovered for freely propagating particles. We obtain novel results for ballistic scattering in an external uniform force field, where we provide analytical solutions for both the scattering waves and the integrated particle flux. As an illustration of the theory, we predict some properties of vortex-bearing atom laser beams outcoupled from a rotating Bose--Einstein condensate under the influence of gravity.

  15. Two-axis angular effector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new class of coplanar two-axis angular effectors is described. These effectors combine a two-axis rotational joint analogous to a Cardan joint with linear actuators in a manner to produce a wider range of rotational motion about both axes defined by the joint. This new class of effectors also allows design of robotic manipulators having very high strength and efficiency. These effectors are particularly suited for remote operation in unknown surroundings, because of their extraordinary versatility. An immediate application is to the problems which arise in nuclear waste remediation. 11 figs

  16. Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charles W; Barankov, Roman; Huber, Michael G; Arif, Muhammad; Cory, David G; Pushin, Dmitry A

    2015-09-24

    The quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons offers an additional degree of freedom and topological protection from noise. Photonic OAM states have therefore been exploited in various applications ranging from studies of quantum entanglement and quantum information science to imaging. The OAM states of electron beams have been shown to be similarly useful, for example in rotating nanoparticles and determining the chirality of crystals. However, although neutrons--as massive, penetrating and neutral particles--are important in materials characterization, quantum information and studies of the foundations of quantum mechanics, OAM control of neutrons has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate OAM control of neutrons using macroscopic spiral phase plates that apply a 'twist' to an input neutron beam. The twisted neutron beams are analysed with neutron interferometry. Our techniques, applied to spatially incoherent beams, demonstrate both the addition of quantum angular momenta along the direction of propagation, effected by multiple spiral phase plates, and the conservation of topological charge with respect to uniform phase fluctuations. Neutron-based studies of quantum information science, the foundations of quantum mechanics, and scattering and imaging of magnetic, superconducting and chiral materials have until now been limited to three degrees of freedom: spin, path and energy. The optimization of OAM control, leading to well defined values of OAM, would provide an additional quantized degree of freedom for such studies. PMID:26399831

  17. THE ROLE OF PRESS FABRIC PRESSURE UNIFORMITY AND PORE SIZE ON DEWATERING AND REWET DURING PRESSING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolin Fan; Mary Toney; Jorgen Gullbrand; Fawaad Qamar

    2004-01-01

    New procedures for measuring the pressure uniformity and pore size of press fabrics have been developed to study their role in the dewatering efficiency of a wet paper sheet and fabric system during pressing. The press nip profile of a single nip can be simulated in the laboratory using a custom built Servo-hydraulic Press Nip Simulator (SPNS) and is used to evaluate the final dryness and rewet of a handsheet with press fabric(s). Pressure uniformity can be measured with a flexible high-resolution transducer and pore size; both tests measured using water as the fluid are performed on compressed press fabric samples. A strong correlation is found between pressure uniformity parameters, mean flow pore size and final dryness for different sheets. Rewet is measured "directly" using a tracer fluid in the press fabric in our SPNS tester. Preliminary results indicate a significant reduction in rewet for some sheets with the use of an anti-rewet layer in combination withcertain press fabric designs.

  18. AUPress: A Comparison of an Open Access University Press with Traditional Presses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2011-01-01

    This study is a comparison of AUPress with three other traditional (non-open access) Canadian university presses. The analysis is based on the rankings that are correlated with book sales on Amazon.com and Amazon.ca. Statistical methods include the sampling of the sales ranking of randomly selected books from each press. The results of one-way…

  19. SHAPE OF PRESSING CHAMBER FOR WOOD BIOMASS COMPACTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Krizan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this contribution is to present results of analyse of mathematical models of wood biomass compacting. Doesn't exist a lot of models which describes real state in pressing chamber and amount of factors impact at compacting process and thereby on briquette quality. According to our suggestion have also constructional parameters of pressing chamber (pressing spout and pressing ram expressive impact on result briquette quality. We did theoretical analyses which showed us that impact on briquette quality have also change of pressing chamber length, change of friction coefficient, change of pressing chamber conicalness and also change of pressing chamber diameter.

  20. Building disc structure and galaxy properties through angular momentum: The DARK SAGE semi-analytic model

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Adam R H; Mutch, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    We present the new semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution, DARK SAGE, a heavily modified version of the publicly available SAGE code. The model is designed for detailed evolution of galactic discs. We evolve discs in a series of annuli with fixed specific angular momentum, which allows us to make predictions for the radial and angular-momentum structure of galaxies. Most physical processes, including all channels of star formation and associated feedback, are performed in these annuli. We present the surface density profiles of our model spiral galaxies, both as a function of radius and specific angular momentum, and find the discs naturally build a pseduobulge-like component. Our main results are focussed on predictions relating to the integrated mass--specific angular momentum relation of stellar discs. The model produces a distinct sequence between these properties in remarkable agreement with recent observational literature. We investigate the impact Toomre disc instabilities have on shaping this sequenc...

  1. Beyond Higgs couplings: probing the Higgs with angular observables at future e + e - colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Nathaniel; Gu, Jiayin; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Kechen

    2016-03-01

    We study angular observables in the {e}+{e}-to ZHto {ell}+{ell}-boverline{b} channel at future circular e + e - colliders such as CEPC and FCC-ee. Taking into account the impact of realistic cut acceptance and detector effects, we forecast the precision of six angular asymmetries at CEPC (FCC-ee) with center-of-mass energy sqrt{s}=240 GeV and 5 (30) ab-1 integrated luminosity. We then determine the projected sensitivity to a range of operators relevant for he Higgs-strahlung process in the dimension-6 Higgs EFT. Our results show that angular observables provide complementary sensitivity to rate measurements when constraining various tensor structures arising from new physics. We further find that angular asymmetries provide a novel means of both probing BSM corrections to the HZγ coupling and constraining the "blind spot" in indirect limits on supersymmetric scalar top partners.

  2. Beyond Higgs Couplings: Probing the Higgs with Angular Observables at Future $e^+ e^-$ Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Nathaniel; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Kechen

    2015-01-01

    We study angular observables in the $e^+e^-\\to Z H\\to \\ell^+ \\ell^-\\,b\\bar{b}$ channel at future circular $e^+ e^-$ colliders such as CEPC and FCC-ee. Taking into account the impact of realistic cut acceptance and detector effects, we forecast the precision of six angular asymmetries at CEPC (FCC-ee) with center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s} =$ 240 GeV and 5 (30) ${\\rm ab}^{-1}$ integrated luminosity. We then determine the projected sensitivity to a range of operators relevant for the Higgs-strahlung process in the dimension-6 Higgs EFT. Our results show that angular observables provide complementary sensitivity to rate measurements when constraining various tensor structures arising from new physics. We further find that angular asymmetries provide a novel means of both probing BSM corrections to the $H Z \\gamma$ coupling and constraining the "blind spot" in indirect limits on supersymmetric scalar top partners.

  3. Change of Pressing Chamber Conicalness at Briquetting Process in Briquetting Machine Pressing Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Križan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will present the impact of the conical shape of a pressing chamber, an important structural parameter. Besides the known impact of the technological parameters of pressing chambers, it is also very important to pay attention to their structural parameters. In the introduction, we present a theoretical analysis of pressing chamber conicalness. An experiment aimed at detecting this impact was performed at our institute, and it showed that increasing the conicalness of a pressing chamber improves the quality of the final briquettes. The conicalness of the pressing chamber has a significanteffect on the final briquette quality and on the construction of briquetting machines. The experimental findings presented here show the importance of this parameter in the briquetting process.

  4. The decay of massive closed superstrings with maximum angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the decay of a very massive closed superstring (i.e. α'M2 >> 1) in the unique state of maximum angular momentum. This is done in flat ten-dimensional spacetime and in the regime of weak string coupling, where the dominant decay channel is into two states of masses M1, M2. We find that the lifetime surprisingly grows with the first power of the mass M: T=cα'M. We also compute the decay rate for each values of M1, M2. We find that, for large M, the dynamics selects only special channels of decay: modulo processes which are exponentially suppressed, for every decay into a state of given mass M1, the mass M2 of the other state is uniquely determined. (author)

  5. Idealized Compression Ratio for a Screw Briquetting Press

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Biath; Juraj Ondruška

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with issues in determining the ideal compression ratio for a screw briquetting press. First, the principles of operation and a basic description of the main parts of a screw briquetting press are introduced. The next section describes the pressing space by means of 3D software. The pressing space was created using a Boolean subtract function. The final section of the paper measures the partial volumes of the pressing chamber in CATIA V5 by function of measuring. The measured ...

  6. Irene Reti and HerBooks Lesbian Feminist Press

    OpenAIRE

    Reti, Irene

    2001-01-01

    This volume, Irene Reti and HerBooks Feminist Press, is one of a trio of oral histories published by the Regional History Project documenting the history and archives of second-wave feminist presses on deposit in the University Library's Special Collections. They include Alta's history of Shameless Hussy Press and Sandra Kay Martz's, of Papier-Mache Press. The archives are part of the University of California/Stanford University History and Women's Studies Consortium California Feminist Press...

  7. Determination of 6 stiffnesses for a press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Eriksen, Morten; Wanheim, Tarras

    2000-01-01

    The industry is increasingly demanding for better tolerances at cold forged products caused by the tough competition at the market. Near net-shape or net-shape production save resources for machining and reduce therefore also the material costs. During the forming process, the reaction forces from...... the workpiece will result in deflections of the press, which will decrease the tolerances of the component. At present, it is possible to measure the reaction forces from the workpiece, for instance by use of the model material technique as described in [1-2]. If the stiffness and clearances of the...... press is known too, the final dimensions can be predicted by divide the force by the stiffness and add the clearance. If the stiffness of the press is known, it is possible to optimize the orientation of the workpiece too, so the direction, in which the best tolerances is demanded, is equal to the...

  8. The difficulty of measuring orbital angular momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Preece, D; Nieminen, T. A.; Asavei, T.; Heckenberg, N. R.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

    2011-01-01

    Light can carry angular momentum as well as energy and momentum; the transfer of this angular momentum to an object results in an optical torque. The development of a rotational analogue to the force measurement capability of optical tweezers is hampered by the difficulty of optical measurement of orbital angular momentum. We present an experiment with encouraging results, but emphasise the difficulty of the task.

  9. The difficulty of measuring orbital angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Preece

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Light can carry angular momentum as well as energy and momentum; the transfer of this angular momentum to an object results in an optical torque. The development of a rotational analogue to the force measurement capability of optical tweezers is hampered by the difficulty of optical measurement of orbital angular momentum. We present an experiment with encouraging results, but emphasise the difficulty of the task.

  10. Orbital angular momentum and the parton model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliffe, P.G.

    1987-06-25

    The role of orbital angular momentum is discussed within the framework of the parton model. It is shown that a consistent interpretation of the Altarelli-Parisi equations governing the Q/sup 2/-evolution of helicity-weighted parton distributions necessitates the assumption that partons carry a large orbital angular momentum, contrary to popular belief. In developing the arguments presented, the Altarelli-Parisi formalism is extended to include orbital angular momentum dependence.

  11. Photoionization with Orbital Angular Momentum Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Picón, A.; Mompart, J.; de Aldana, J. R. Vázquez; Plaja, L.; Calvo, G. F.; Roso, L.

    2010-01-01

    Intense laser ionization expands Einstein's photoelectric effect rules giving a wealth of phenomena widely studied over the last decades. In all cases, so far, photons were assumed to carry one unit of angular momentum. However it is now clear that photons can possess extra angular momentum, the orbital angular momentum (OAM), related to their spatial profile. We show a complete description of photoionization by OAM photons, including new selection rules involving more than one unit of angula...

  12. Quantum formulation of fractional orbital angular momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Götte, Jörg B; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Zambrini, Roberta; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    The quantum theory of rotation angles (S. M. Barnett and D. T. Pegg, Phys. Rev. A, 41, 3427-3425 (1990)) is generalised to non-integer values of the orbital angular momentum. This requires the introduction of an additional parameter, the orientation of a phase discontinuity associated with fractional values of the orbital angular momentum. We apply our formalism to the propagation of light modes with fractional orbital angular momentum in the paraxial and non-paraxial regime.

  13. Orbital angular momentum induced beam shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosa N.; Merano M.; Aiello A.; Woerdman J.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present experiments on Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) induced beam shifts in optical reflection. Specifically, we observe the spatial Goos-H\\"anchen shift in which the beam is displaced parallel to the plane of incidence and the angular Imbert-Fedorov shift which is a transverse angular deviation from the geometric optics prediction. Experimental results agree well with our theoretical predictions. Both beam shifts increase with the OAM of the beam; we have measured these for OAM indices u...

  14. Orbital angular momentum in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → We propose a comprehensive Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum. → We present a simple and useful toolkit for the practitioner. → We derive simple evolution equations in terms of a star product in the semiclassical limit. - Abstract: A comprehensive theory of the Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum is presented. Special attention is paid to the problems linked to rotational periodicity and angular-momentum discreteness.

  15. Useful angular selectivity in oblique columnar aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, R. J.; Smith, G. B.

    1991-03-01

    A useful magnitude of angular selective transmittance of incident unpolarized light is demonstrated in obliquely deposited aluminum. Required deposition procedures and anisotropic optical properties are discussed. Angular selectivity is very strong at visible wavelengths but both experiment and theory indicate that a single oblique layer with well defined columns gives high transmittance at near-infrared wavelengths compared with normal films. There are ways of reducing this to enhance the energy control capability. Both solar and luminous angular selectivity are reported.

  16. CSR-communication in the Business Press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Mette; Langer, Roy

    In this paper we analyze the construction of corporate social responsibility in the business press as an act of strategic ambiguity. While corporate social responsibility (CSR) generally evokes positive associations in public opinion, this paper demonstrates that these associations are based on a...... broadly encompassing and ambiguous definition of CSR. Our empirical data shows how the business press in its discourse on CSR provides no clarity on the definition of CSR in terms of a coherent motive, a dominant stakeholder or a consistent issue, but rather maintains ambiguity and imprecision about the...

  17. Internet Marketing with WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Mercer, David

    2011-01-01

    The book's accompanying Interactive learning environment on siteprebuilder.com gives you an online place to enhance and extend your practical experience through exercises, consolidate your learning and theoretical knowledge with marked quizzes, interaction with your WordPress marketing community, and fun and exciting extras such as challenges and competitions. This book is for people already using WordPress, who want more visitors, better visitors, and to convert more of them into paying customers. No prior marketing experience is required, although a basic understanding of either hosted or se

  18. Discourse of Mobbing in Turkish Press

    OpenAIRE

    Ece Karadoğan Doruk

    2011-01-01

    Mobbing (Psychological violence in working place) has been researched especially by the scientists making researches in organizational communication for last 20-25 years. In Turkey, mobbing concept is a newer research field. In this study, how the news regarding mobbing has been given in Turkish press will be analyzed with Van Dijk‟s discourse analysis.How the news regarding mobbing has taken place in Turkish press will be analyzed by applying Van Dijk‟s discourse analysis. From the year of 1...

  19. WordPress 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Plumley, George

    2015-01-01

    Create and expand feature-rich sites with no programming experience Ready to build, maintain, and expand your web site with WordPress but have no prior programming experience? WordPress 24-Hour Trainer, 3rd Edition is your book-and-video learning solution that walks you step-by-step through all the important features you will need to know. Lessons range from focused, practical everyday tasks to more advanced, creative features. Learn from an industry professional how to enter content, create pages, manage menus, utilize plug-ins, connect to social media, create membership and e-commerce site

  20. The Angular Momentum of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Rongquin; Guo, Jianpo; Hu, Juanxiu; He, Chaoquiong

    2016-05-01

    The angular momentum of the Solar System is a very important physical quantity to the formation and evolution of the Solar System. Previously, the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets were only taken into consideration, when researchers calculated the angular momentum of the Solar System. Nowadays, it seems narrow and conservative. Using Eggleton's code, we calculate the rotational inertia of the Sun. Furthermore, we obtain that the spin angular momentum of the Sun is 1.8838 x 10^41 kg m^2 s^-1. Besides the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets, we also account for the orbital angular momentum of the Asteroid Belt, the Kuiper Belt, the Oort Cloud, the Ninth Giant Planet and the Solar Companion. We obtain that the angular momentum of the whole Solar System is 3.3212 x 10^45 kg m^2 s^-1.

  1. Resolvability of positron decay channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many data analysis treatments of positron experiments attempt to resolve two or more positron decay or exist channels which may be open simultaneously. Examples of the need to employ such treatments of the experimental results can be found in the resolution of the constituents of a defect ensemble, or in the analysis of the complex spectra which arise from the interaction of slow positrons at or near the surfaces of solids. Experimental one- and two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation experiments in Al single crystals have shown that two defect species (mono- and divacancies) can be resolved under suitable conditions. Recent experiments at LLNL indicate that there are a variety of complex exit channels open to positrons interacting at surfaces, and ultimely these decay channels must also be suitably resolved from one another. 6 refs., 4 figs

  2. Annihilation Of Fast Channeled Positrons

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, A W

    2000-01-01

    Energetic positrons propagating along low index directions in a crystal interact strongly with the periodic array of atoms via a process known as channeling. These channeled positrons are focused into the interstices of a crystal by a series of highly correlated small angle scattering events, thereby suppressing close nuclear collision processes and increasing interactions with valence electrons. Moreover, the positron trajectories can be manipulated to sample different spatial regions in the crystal, simply by changing the direction of the incident positron beam. As this direction deviates from that of the low index crystal direction the positron momentum transverse to this crystal direction increases, and the trajectories penetrate closer to the atomic nuclei of the crystal's atoms. Thus when observing the angular yield of close encounter events with the atomic nuclei, like wide angle Rutherford scattering, a characteristic channeling dip is obtained for positive ions and positrons traversing thin crystals[...

  3. Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin  angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin inherent in edge evanescent waves offers robust spin–direction coupling at optical interfaces (the quantum spin Hall effect of light). Second, we overview the transverse orbital angular momenta of light, which can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. These two types of the transverse orbital angular momentum are produced by spatial shifts of the optical beams (e.g., in the spin Hall effect of light) and their Lorentz boosts, respectively. Our review is underpinned by a unified theory of the angular momentum of light based on the canonical momentum and spin densities, which avoids complications associated with the separation of spin and orbital angular momenta in the Poynting picture. It allows us to construct a comprehensive classification of all known optical angular momenta based on their key parameters and main physical properties

  4. Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y., E-mail: k.bliokh@gmail.com [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nonlinear Physics Centre, RSPhysE, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Nori, Franco [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2015-08-26

    We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin  angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin inherent in edge evanescent waves offers robust spin–direction coupling at optical interfaces (the quantum spin Hall effect of light). Second, we overview the transverse orbital angular momenta of light, which can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. These two types of the transverse orbital angular momentum are produced by spatial shifts of the optical beams (e.g., in the spin Hall effect of light) and their Lorentz boosts, respectively. Our review is underpinned by a unified theory of the angular momentum of light based on the canonical momentum and spin densities, which avoids complications associated with the separation of spin and orbital angular momenta in the Poynting picture. It allows us to construct a comprehensive classification of all known optical angular momenta based on their key parameters and main physical properties.

  5. Free Press in a Constitutional Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucianek, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students will examine several views expressed by the founders to understand the context for including freedom of the press in the First Amendment. Students will be asked to think about the role that the news media and the need to be an informed citizen continue to play in our democracy. Students will…

  6. When International Press Rights "Are" the News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric

    2006-01-01

    In many countries, reporters and editors face criminal prosecution, censorship, self-censorship, exile, tax audits, loss of broadcast and publication licenses, loss of jobs, assault, and even assassination based on how they practice their profession. Press rights and human rights advocacy groups try to draw media and official attention to those…

  7. A Journalist's Guide to the Free Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelhart, Louis

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes the content of the federal constitution and various state constitutions regarding freedom of the press. Examines certain borderline issues, including actions and expressions, pornography, defamation, libel, and copyrighted material. States that regulation of unprotected material must be reasonable, specific, and clear. Discusses what…

  8. World Press Photo'98 / Priit Brennel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brennel, Priit

    1998-01-01

    Pressifoto ülemaailmsest konkursist ja aastaringselt järgnevatest üritustest, mida korraldab World Press Photo Foundation (peakorter Amsterdamis) 1955. aastast. 1998. a. peapreemia - France Pressi fotograafi Hocine'i töö 23. septembri ööl toimunud massimõrvast Alžeerias, Benthalas. Eestist osalesid Tiit Räis, Viktor Vesterinen.

  9. Press freight and shipping guide: Sochi 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This "Press freight and shipping guide" is intended for accredited members of the media. This guide provides a practical insight about how to import and export various types of goods to and from Russia, for use in connection with the Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games.

  10. TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOUR IN PARTICLEBOARD DURING PRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the behaviour of core and face temperatures of particleboard glued with 8% tannin-formaldehyde adhesive. The boards were manufactured with three replication per treatment, with density of 0,7 g/cm³ and 27 kgf/cm² of pressing specific pressure. Pine flakes (40, 75 and 110 mm long and 0,5 and 1,0 mm thick and eucalypt particles were used and two pressing temperatures (140 and 180ºC along with two mat moisture content (17 and 21% were employed. The curves of temperature rise with pressing time indicated a fast temperature rise during the first 100 seconds of pressing, remaining at a plateau possible after reaching water boiling temperature. The temperature increased again, but on a more gradual form, after the lost mat moisture. It was possible to observe that mat formed by flakes of larger thicknesses showed faster initial temperature rise. The main factor that influenced the temperature behaviour at the board core was the mat moisture content. The higher the mat moisture content, the faster the temperature rise.

  11. Press service of the Ukrainian Galician Army

    OpenAIRE

    Vovk, Nataliya

    2013-01-01

    The article the author analyzes the major periodicals of UGA issued with the support of the front-line troops and other military units.The author also gives a brief description of the major press services of state organs of the time.

  12. Trial access to Cambridge University Press ebooks

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2011-01-01

    From 1 August till 31 October, CERN users are invited to enjoy a trial access to all Cambridge University Press electronic books: http://ebooks.cambridge.org/. Please don't hesitate to send feedback to library.desk@cern.ch.

  13. Angular momentum of non-paraxial light beam: Dependence of orbital angular momentum on polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chun-Fang

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the momentum density of free electromagnetic field splits into two parts. One has no contribution to the net momentum due to the transversality condition. The other yields all the momentum. The angular momentum that is associated with the former part is spin, and the angular momentum that is associated with the latter part is orbital angular momentum. Expressions for the spin and orbital angular momentum are given in terms of the electric vector in reciprocal space. The spin ...

  14. A method to calculate and counterbalance the inertia force of slider-crank mechanisms in high-speed presses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jim Wang; Sheng-dun Zhao; Hu-shan Shi; Chun-jian Hua

    2009-01-01

    A new method to calculate and counterbalance the inertia force of slider-crank mechanisms in high-speed mechanical presses was put forward. By analyzing the kinematic characteristics of a center-located slider-crank mechanism whose crank rotates at a constant angular velocity, the kinematic parameters of the slide, connecting rod and crank were formulated approximately. On the basis of the results above, three inertia forces and the input moment in the mechanism during its idle running were investigated and formulated by dynamic analysis. A verification experiment was performed on a slider-crank mechanism at a high-speed press machine. The forces derived from the established formulas were compared respectively with those obtained by the ADAMS software and the classical method of connecting rod mass substitution. It was experimentally found that the proposed formulas have an improved performance over related earlier techniques. By use of these results, a 1000 kN 1250 rpm four-point high-speed press machine was designed and manufactured. The slide of this press is driven by four sets of slider-crank mechanisms with symmetrical layout and opposite rotation directions to counterbalance the horizontal inertia forces. Four eccentric counterbalance blocks were designed to counterbalance the vertical force after their mass and equivalent eccentric radius were formulated. The high-speed press machine designed by the proposed counterbalance method has worked with satisfactory performance and good dynamic balance for more than four years in practical production.

  15. Experimental determination of high angular momentum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current knowledge of the atomic nucleus structure is summarized. A short abstract of the nuclear properties at high angular momentum and a more detailed description of the experimental methods used in the study of high angular momenta is made. (L.C.)

  16. Orbital Angular Momentum in the Nucleon

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Gerald T.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of the measured value of the integrated \\bar{d}-\\bar{u} asymmetry (Ifas = 0.147+-0.027) in the nucleon show it to arise from nucleon fluctuations into baryon plus pion. Requiring angular momentum conservation in these fluctuations shows the associated orbital angular momentum is equal to the value of the flavor asymmetry.

  17. Detecting orbital angular momentum in radio signals

    OpenAIRE

    Then, H.; Thidé, B.; Mendonça, J T; Carozzi, T.D.; Bergman, J.; Baan, W. A.; Mohammadi, S. (Siawoosh); Eliasson, B.

    2008-01-01

    Electromagnetic waves with an azimuthal phase shift are known to have a well defined orbital angular momentum. Different methods that allow for the detection of the angular momentum are proposed. For some, we discuss the required experimental setup and explore the range of applicability.

  18. The Orbital Angular Momentum Sum Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Fatma; Burkardt, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    As an alternative to the Ji sum rule for the quark angular momentum, a sum rule for the quark orbital angular momentum, based on a twist-3 generalized parton distribution, has been suggested. We study the validity of this sum rule in the context of scalar Yukawa interactions as well as in QED for an electron.

  19. Responsive web design with AngularJS

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Sandeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    If you are an AngularJS developer who wants to learn about responsive web application development, this book is ideal for you. Responsive Web Design with AngularJS is intended for web developers or designers with a basic knowledge of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

  20. Exposing Library Services with AngularJS

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Voß; Moritz Horn

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the JavaScript framework AngularJS and specific AngularJS modules for accessing library services. It shows how information such as search suggestions, additional links, and availability can be embedded in any website. The ease of reuse may encourage more libraries to expose their services via standard APIs to allow usage in different contexts.