WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing world proceedings

  1. Managing nuclear weapons in a changing world: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The Center for Security and Technology Studies was established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to support long-range technical studies on issues of importance to US national security. An important goal of the Center is to bring together Laboratory staff and the broader outside community through a program of technical studies, visitors, symposia, seminars, workshops, and publications. With this in mind, the Center and LLNL`s Defense Systems Program sponsored a conference on Managing Nuclear Weapons in a Changing World held on November 17--18,1992. The first day of the meeting focused on nuclear weapons issues in the major geographical areas of the world. On the second day, the conference participants discussed what could be done to manage, control, and account for nuclear weapons in this changing world. Each of the talks and the concluding panel discussion are being indexed as separate documents.

  2. Managing nuclear weapons in a changing world: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for Security and Technology Studies was established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to support long-range technical studies on issues of importance to US national security. An important goal of the Center is to bring together Laboratory staff and the broader outside community through a program of technical studies, visitors, symposia, seminars, workshops, and publications. With this in mind, the Center and LLNL's Defense Systems Program sponsored a conference on Managing Nuclear Weapons in a Changing World held on November 17--18,1992. The first day of the meeting focused on nuclear weapons issues in the major geographical areas of the world. On the second day, the conference participants discussed what could be done to manage, control, and account for nuclear weapons in this changing world. Each of the talks and the concluding panel discussion are being indexed as separate documents

  3. World Bioenergy 2012. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The conference of 2012 had contributions on the following themes: A: World Pellets 2012, B: Market outlook, C: Energy systems, D: Transportation, E: World biorefinery 2012, F: Sustainable bioenergy day. 52 contributions in A - D. A: World Pellets 2012 is an integrated part of World Bioenergy 2012. A three day 'conference in the conference' covering all aspects of pellets: raw material potentials, innovative pellets production systems, torrefaction, new combustion technologies, trade and market development, health and safety aspects, etc. B) Market outlook: Policy and targets for renewable energy to find an alternative to fossil energy are being put in place, increasing the demand for sustainable modern bioenergy. Global trade and improved logistics open up to the markets. To facilitate international trade in bioenergy commodities, new trading places and indexes are needed, as well as generally accepted standards. Supply and demand must meet to guarantee stable prices. In this session you learn all about current market development, including drivers like incentives and policies. C) Energy Systems: Modern bioenergy is a young industry. Therefore, technical development is rapid, with many new innovations. This session focuses on technical development in the whole bioenergy chain, from harvesting of forest residues to combustion technologies and co-firing. Optimal use of biomass through district heating or cooling - small scale and large scale - and CHP technology for electricity production. D) Transportation: Sustainable transports are one of the key challenges of tomorrow. Can we transport biomass as well as other products sustainably and at what costs? Which are the future fuels for transports and when will biofuels be viewed as profitable? Biofuels for transport are under rapid development with new methods, producers and feedstock entering the markets. The future biofuels will be produced in biorefineries, to increase profitability and optimize feed

  4. Geothermal Program Review XV: proceedings. Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XV in Berkeley, March 24-26, 1997. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focussed on {open_quotes}The Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply.{close_quotes} This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this conference.

  5. Topical issues in nuclear installation safety: Continuous improvement of nuclear safety in a changing world. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , promoting cooperation and sharing of experience between regulatory authorities and integrating the practices and methodologies of international vendors and contractors into diverse cultures. Events at nuclear installations continue to be reported whose root causes call into question the effectiveness of safety at those facilities. These events all have common issues that contributed to non-conservative decisions being taken or omissions in the decision process. More importantly, these events have highlighted issues within both the regulatory authorities and the operating organizations. In addition, there are unique challenges that regulatory authorities face in dealing with the changing environment and related to the long term operation of nuclear facilities. In the light of these developments, it was considered appropriate to convene another conference on the following current topical issues: . Changing Environments: Coping with Diversity and Globalization; . Operating Experience: Managing Changes Effectively; . Regulatory Management Systems: Adapting to Changes in the Environment; . Long Term Operations: Maintaining Safety Margins while Extending Plant Lifetimes. The objective of the conference was to foster the exchange of information of these topical issues in nuclear safety. The conference developed an international consensus on the basic approaches for dealing with these issues in the context of overall safety activities for Member States, the IAEA and the nuclear industry. The conference was successful in identifying future activities for the IAEA and the need for strengthening international cooperation

  6. Changes and events in uranium deposit development, exploration, resources, production and the world supply-demand relationship. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of the proceedings of the Technical Committee Meeting on Recent Changes and Events in Uranium Deposit Development, Exploration, Resources, Production and the World Supply/Demand Relationship, held in co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) in Kiev, Ukraine, from 22 to 26 May 1995. Some of the information from this meeting was also used in preparation of the 1995 edition of ''Uranium - Resources, Production and Demand'' a joint report by the OECD/NEA and the IAEA. At the Beginning of 1995 there were 432 nuclear power plants in operation with a combined electricity generating capacity of 340 GW(e). This represents nearly a 100% increase over the last decade. In 1995 over 2228 TW·h of electricity were generated, equivalent to about 17% of the world's total electricity. To achieve this, about 61,000 t U were required as nuclear fuel. For about a decade and a half uranium production and related activities have been decreasing because of declining uranium prices. For many participants in the nuclear industry there has been little interest in uranium supply because of the oversupplied market condition. The declining production led to the development of a supply and demand balance were production is currently meeting a little over 50% of reactor requirements and the excess inventory is being rapidly drawn down. This very unstable relationship has resulted in great uncertainty about the future supply or uranium. One of the objectives of this Technical Committee meeting was to bring together specialists in the field of uranium supply and demand to collect information on new developments. This helps provide a better understanding of the current situation, as well as providing information to plan for the future. Refs, figs, tabs

  7. CLIMA 2016 - proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 1 + 2 + 3 from track "Building Retrofit".......CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 1 + 2 + 3 from track "Building Retrofit"....

  8. CLIMA 2016 - proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 14 + 15 + 16 from track "Energy Flexibility & Storage".......CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 14 + 15 + 16 from track "Energy Flexibility & Storage"....

  9. CLIMA 2016 - proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 34 + 35 +36 from track "Commissioning, Control & Energy Mangement".......CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 34 + 35 +36 from track "Commissioning, Control & Energy Mangement"....

  10. CLIMA 2016 - proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 31 + 32 + 33 from track "Building Performance".......CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 31 + 32 + 33 from track "Building Performance"....

  11. CLIMA 2016 - proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 from track "Building Technologies".......CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 from track "Building Technologies"....

  12. Proceedings of the Annual International Congress on Challenges to Education: Balancing Unity and Diversity in a Changing World, 1995-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Stanley L., Ed.

    This collection of Proceedings of the Annual International Congress on Challenges to Education consists of four separate issues: 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998. The 1995 Proceedings contains abstracts for 69 papers grouped under Literacy; Correctional Education; Multicultural and Issues of Diversity; Tolerance; Technology; Higher Education;…

  13. CLIMA 2016 - proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 8 + 9 + 10 + 11 + 12 + 13 from track "Sustainable Energy".......CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 8 + 9 + 10 + 11 + 12 + 13 from track "Sustainable Energy"....

  14. CLIMA 2016 - proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 17 + 18 + 19 + 20 +21 + 22 + 23 from track "Ventilation & Air Distribution".......CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 17 + 18 + 19 + 20 +21 + 22 + 23 from track "Ventilation & Air Distribution"....

  15. CLIMA 2016 - proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 24 + 25 +26 + 27 + 28 +29 + 30 from track "Building Performance".......CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 24 + 25 +26 + 27 + 28 +29 + 30 from track "Building Performance"....

  16. CLIMA 2016 - proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains the sessions number 37 + 38 +39 + 40 from track "Heating and Cooling Systems" and the session number 41 from track...

  17. CLIMA 2016 - proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016 in Aalborg north of Denmark. Full reviewed papers presented at CLIMA 2016 is published in the conference proceedings. This volume contains "Topical Sessions" from track listed here: IEA EBCAnnex 59 (session 1) IEA EBC Annex 61 (session 2) IEA EBC Annex 64...

  18. The changing world of climate change: Oregon leads the states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following on the heels of recent national and international developments in climate change policy, Oregon's open-quote best-of-batch close-quote proceeding has validated the use of CO2 offsets as a cost-effective means of advancing climate change mitigation goals. The proceeding was a first in several respects and represents a record commitment of funds to CO2 mitigation by a private entity. In December 1995, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), issued its Second Assessment Report. The IPCC's conclusion that open-quotes[t]he balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climateclose quotes fundamentally changed the tenor of the policy debate regarding potential threats associated with global climate change. At the Climate Change Convention's Conference of the Parties (COP) in Geneva in July 1996, most countries, including the United States, advocated adopting the IPCC report as the basis for swift policy movement toward binding international emissions targets. The next COP, in December 1997, is scheduled to be the venue for the signing of a treaty protocol incorporating such targets. Binding targets would have major consequences for power plant operators in the US and around the world. Recent developments in the state of Oregon show the kinds of measures that may become commonplace at the state level in addressing climate change mitigation. First, Oregon recently completed the first administrative proceeding in the US aimed at offsetting the greenhouse gas emissions of a new power plant. Second, a legislatively mandated energy facility siting task force recently recommended that Oregon adopt a carbon dioxide (CO2) standard for new power plant construction and drop use of the open-quotes need for powerclose quotes standard. This article reviews these two policy milestones and their implications for climate change mitigation in the United States

  19. Guidelines for a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jo Nell; Brack, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the issues surrounding teachers' use of social networking media and their First Amendment rights. It focuses on the need to develop a school district policy outlining specific guidelines for the use of technology and social networking. It also focuses on the changing world of technology and social networking as well as…

  20. China and the Changing World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xuetong

    2006-01-01

    @@ A time comparison is necessary for analyzing the changes that have taken place in international relations. The September 11 attacks took place in 2001, hence the need for a comparison of the situation before and after the events. Here we mean the time starting from the end of the Cold War to the present. I would like to make a comparison of the differences in the international situation in 1992-2000 and thereafter. First, I will make some comments about the changes in the features of the state players, international structure, international rules and major contradictions in the world. I will then attempt to analyze Chinese foreign policy.

  1. Organising, Educating... Changing the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, John

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years a constellation of social movements and organisations concerned with issues of globalisation and world poverty have exploded onto the world stage. They have mobilised demonstrations, organised mass gatherings and conferences, created e-networks and websites and become major players in international political lobbying and…

  2. Proceedings of the 4. World TRIGA Users Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-10-29

    This document gathers 30 presentations given at the 2008 Conference of the World TRIGA reactor Users. Most presentations are in the form of slides only, and few ones have an additional summary or are presented as an article only. All aspects of TRIGA-type reactors are approached, from upgrading to decommissioning, from radiotherapy to isotope production, from research program management to training, etc.

  3. Proceedings of the 4. World TRIGA Users Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers 30 presentations given at the 2008 Conference of the World TRIGA reactor Users. Most presentations are in the form of slides only, and few ones have an additional summary or are presented as an article only. All aspects of TRIGA-type reactors are approached, from upgrading to decommissioning, from radiotherapy to isotope production, from research program management to training, etc

  4. Proceedings of the world heavy oil congress 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The World Heavy Oil Congress 2011 took place March 2011 in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. This congress is an international gathering of heavy oil experts and professionals which takes place every 18 months to discuss issues and opportunities facing the heavy oil industry in terms of commercial, technical, regulatory and geo-political areas. Innovative solutions for improving performance, reducing costs and mitigating environmental impacts are presented. Hundreds of presentations were made, courses were delivered, and over 100 companies from 30 countries exhibited. The congress had support from various companies and government entities.This conference featured 133 papers, all of have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  5. Proceedings of the 10th world clean air congress. Impacts and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaemaeri, J.; Tolvanen, M.; Anttila, P.; Salonen, R.O. [eds.

    1995-12-31

    Rapid economical growth and expansion of human population have produced a number of environmental problems with varying geographic dimensions. While local problems remain near the pollution sources, the focus of the scientific community is more and more shifted towards regional, continental and global consequences of air pollutants. The theme of the 10th Clean Air Congress `Growing Challenges from Local to Global` reflects the growing demand from the scientific and professional community working in air pollution prevention and environmental protection - more and more complex mechanisms should be understood on a growing spatial scale. The 10th World Clean Air Congress addresses in its more than 400 presentations, documented in three Volumes of Proceedings, the history, the present and the potential futures of the air pollution problems. This volume includes all papers of paths C `Pollutant Impacts`, D `Pollution Management`, and E `Health Effects`. Path C includes numerous highly relevant papers dealing with climate change and greenhouse gases, as well as with environmental effects of air pollutants mostly on materials and vegetation. The most critical issues on air pollutant management throw light on national and regional abatement strategies and on the applicability of various tools for pollution management. The path on effects on human health includes a session on `Air pollution epidemiology` sponsored by the Economic Commission for Europe and a session on `Health effect control strategies` sponsored by the UN World Health Organization. In these sessions invited speakers describe the current understanding of human responses to air pollution exposure

  6. Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World--Online Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences. Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.--August 26 to September 1, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alan; Raymond, Carol; ,

    2007-01-01

    Overview: The International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences (ISAES) is held once every four years to provide an international forum for presenting research results and new ideas and for planning future Antarctic geoscience research projects. This Tenth ISAES coincides with the International Polar Year (IPY; 50th Anniversary of the International Geophysical Year) and has been structured to showcase the great breadth of geoscience research being done in Antarctic regions by more than more than 100 institutions located in over 30 countries. The science program of the Symposium encompasses six broad themes that cover key topics on evolution and interactions of the geosphere, cryosphere and biosphere and their cross-linkages with past and historic paleoclimates. Emphasis is also on deciphering the climate records in ice cores, geologic cores, rock outcrops and those inferred from climate models. New technologies for the coming decades of geoscience data collection are also highlighted. Ten keynote presentations at the symposium outline the foundation for the research sessions of the symposium and the structure of the Online Proceedings and Proceedings Book for the Tenth ISAES. The ISAES is traditionally a cornerstone meeting for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). In recognition of the Tenth ISAES being held in the U.S. for the first time in 30 years and during IPY, the publication of the symposium proceedings is being handled as a special collaborative effort of the U.S. National Science Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey, The National Academies Polar Research Board and The National Academies Press. The National Academies Polar Research Board oversees the activities of SCAR in the U.S. Special attention has been directed at publication formats for the symposium, to expedite the open and wide sharing of mature and preliminary research results presented in talks and posters at the Tenth ISAES. All symposium presentations are documented by a

  7. Child injury in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, E; Towner, J

    2009-01-01

    The importance of child injuries has now been recognised as a significant public health problem internationally. The World Health Organisation (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) have recently published the first world report on child injury prevention. As infectious diseases decline, the relative importance of injury has increased, but the pace of change of global processes means that absolute increases in injury may occur over the next 20-30 years. This paper examines child injury in a changing world by outlining the ways in which the forces of globalisation, urbanisation, motorisation and environmental change could have an impact on injury epidemiology and policy. We consider how those in public health and those in the injury field should respond to the changing world of injury. Child injury prevention needs to be incorporated into planning for the rapidly changing urban environments of low-income countries and strategies devised for the large numbers of people displaced by environmental change. PMID:19513912

  8. How much has the world changed?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Feng

    2006-01-01

    @@ The U. S. president responded quickly to the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Confronted by a changing world, the United States had to implement new strategies in order to deal with problems of the post- 9/11 era, one of these strategies being its war on terrorism. Bush's policy at home and abroad, in particular the strategic transformation of international security is based on an assessment that the world has changed. How much has the world changed over the past five years and in what way? The answers to these questions are keys to understand the current international situation.

  9. Global precipitations and climate change. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desbois, M. (ed.) (Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique); Desalmand, F. (ed.) (Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique)

    1994-01-01

    The workshop reviewed the present status of knowledge concerning the past and present evolution of the distribution of precipitations at global scale, related to climate evolution at different time scales. This review was intended to assess the availability and quality of data which could help, through validation and initialization of model studies, to improve our understanding of the processes determining these precipitation changes. On another hand, the modelling specialists presented their actual use of precipitation data. Exchanges of views between the modelling and observing communities were thus made possible, leading to a set of recommendations for future studies. Sessions were then devoted to specific themes: (1) Paleoclimatology, (2) data collection, history and statistics, programmes, (3) methodologies and accuracy of large scale estimation of precipitation from conventional data, (4) estimation of precipitation from satellite data, (5) modelling studies. (orig.)

  10. Global precipitations and climate change. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop reviewed the present status of knowledge concerning the past and present evolution of the distribution of precipitations at global scale, related to climate evolution at different time scales. This review was intended to assess the availability and quality of data which could help, through validation and initialization of model studies, to improve our understanding of the processes determining these precipitation changes. On another hand, the modelling specialists presented their actual use of precipitation data. Exchanges of views between the modelling and observing communities were thus made possible, leading to a set of recommendations for future studies. Sessions were then devoted to specific themes: 1) Paleoclimatology, 2) data collection, history and statistics, programmes, 3) methodologies and accuracy of large scale estimation of precipitation from conventional data, 4) estimation of precipitation from satellite data, 5) modelling studies. (orig.)

  11. Book review: Gyrfalcons and Ptarmigan in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    The Peregrine Fund has published proceedings of several conferences over the years and has become experts, and this 2 volume set is no exception. The title of the proceedings sounded especially interesting in this era of almost daily accounts in the media about climate change, its causes and its effects on the planet, including its flora and fauna. This 772-page Proceedings is loaded with useful information regarding Gyrfalcons and their prey and should be in the library of all serious raptor bibliophiles. The sponsors are to be commended for supporting the conference and for publishing the proceedings. Proceedings are available at http://www.peregrinefund.org/gyr-conf

  12. How the World Changed Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Daniel; Costa, Elisabetta; Haynes, Nell; McDonald, Tom; Nicolescu, Razvan; Sinanan, Jolynna; Spyer, Juliano; Venkatraman, Shriram; Wang, Xinyuan

    2016-01-01

    How the World Changed Social Media is the first book in Why We Post, a book series that investigates the findings of nine anthropologists who each spent 15 months living in communities across the world. This book offers a comparative analysis summarising the results of the research and exploring the impact of social media on politics and gender, education and commerce. What is the result of the increased emphasis on visual communication? Are we becoming more individual or more social? Why is ...

  13. The internet is changing our world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VÎRJAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to bring the importance of the internet into discussion, given that it has changed the way we organize the functioning of our social and economical lives, if this change is towards the better or the worse and how we could go about to make use of the internet to improve humanity's social and economical lives at a global level. The appearance and development of the internet has led to fantastically rapid changes to our world, from day to day or even major changes within hours, instantly changing our vision of the world, forcing us to adapt our thinking and beliefs to new tendencies and discoveries of a technical level, of a technological level and of innovation. Those which succeed in adapting to these global changed, from all points of view, it's them who will hold the key to success, and the internet is the gate house to success.

  14. Changing Instructor's Roles in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Zane L.

    2008-01-01

    Berge's Instructor's Roles Model categorized the instructor's roles as pedagogical, social, managerial, and technical. Developed more than a decade ago, this model described changing roles for instructors as they transitioned from in-person classrooms to teaching online. Today, as virtual worlds emerge and are being used as educational platforms,…

  15. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

  16. Energy the enabler, in our changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical industrial and social development made possible by energy technologies throughout the world serves as a paradigm for looking into the future. Energy usage is directly responsible for productivity. World population is increasing rapidly necessitating still more energy. The number of college students (a measure of new ideas and demands) has also increased rapidly. The U.S. has led in energy usage and the resultant growth in transportation and communication but changes are occurring. Urbanization - another effect of energy - shows the majority of high density populations now are in developing countries. Societies are changing from single nation states to interdependent loosely-knit larger socio-economic-environmental areas - Economic Communities. Successful technology must now engage producers, users, governments, as well as communities of interest. Political management systems must recognize these changes to permit the continued development of energy technologies. Looking toward the 21st Century and our continued development in a changing world necessitates recognition of the need for a systems orientation, interdisciplinary approach to find multi-answers to problems. All must participate in the decision making process - looking for solutions (rather than identification of problems) learning together and from each other - and most importantly, managing conflict before it manages us. (orig.)

  17. 20 Engineering Technologies Which Changed The World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Sik; Shin, Dong Won; Mun, Jung Yang and others

    2004-07-15

    This book deals with 20 engineering technologies which changed the world, these are about a, compass, papermaking, a lens, gunpowder, machine watch, printing technique, vaccine, a suspension bridge, a railroad, a loom, photograph, petroleum, automobile, electricity, wireless communications, synthetic medicine, a jet engine and a rocket, nuclear bombs, ENIAC, and polymerase chain reaction method. Each skill is introduced with history and the detailed reports by other persons.

  18. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  19. Software project management in a changing world

    CERN Document Server

    Ruhe, Günther

    2014-01-01

    By bringing together various current direc­tions, Software Project Management in a Changing World focuses on how people and organizations can make their processes more change-adaptive. The selected chapters closely correspond to the project management knowledge areas introduced by the Project Management Body of Knowledge, including its extension for managing software projects. The contributions are grouped into four parts, preceded by a general introduction. Part I "Fundamentals" provides in-depth insights into fundamental topics including resource allocation, cost estimation and risk manage

  20. Energy policy in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outlook of world energy markets was described with a focus on the prospects for oil and gas supply and reserves. Implications of this outlook for energy policy-making were discussed. The three major projections of world primary energy demand were described. According to these projections world primary energy demand will grow steadily. Demand is expected to rise 46 per cent between now and 2010. Fossil-based fuels will account for almost 90 per cent of total primary energy demand in 2010 which is about the same share as today. A structural shift in the shares of different regions in world commercial energy demand is likely to occur, i.e. the OECD share of world energy demand will fall in favour of that of the developing regions. It was also projected that oil will remain the dominant fuel with a share of about 40 per cent in 2010. World gas demand was also projected to grow at an average annual rate of 3 per cent over the outlook period. The rising fossil fuel consumption implies rising greenhouse gas emissions. It was noted that by 2010, without active policy intervention to change the course of energy demand, the world energy-related carbon emissions could be almost 50 per cent greater than 1990 levels. It was suggested that the main role for governments should be to establish a framework to enable competitive energy markets to function efficiently while ensuring that energy security and environmental concerns are addressed. Emergency response measures should be maintained in relation to oil, and the implications of growing dependence on imports of oil and gas from remote and potentially insecure countries should be monitored. The role of government should also include regulation of the environmental consequences of energy supply and use at the local, regional and global level. Government should also regulate the natural monopoly elements of the grid-based industries. There is also a role for government in continuing to encourage research and development

  1. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These 1974 Proceedings of the European Society of Nuclear Methods in Agriculture contain reports in the form of minutes of the meetings of various working groups of the Society, the programme and official addresses of the fifth annual meeting including annual reports of the chairman and the secretary of the Society, and the reports of each of the eleven working groups as well as the four following surveys entitled: 1) some aspects of research in plant breeding, conservation of genetic resources in connection with irradiation processes (by A. Jacques from FAO), 2) our responsibility for the environment (by D. Zeeuw from ITAL), 3) pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge (by A. Suesz from Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Bodenkultur und Pflanzenbau, Munich), 4) nuclear agronomy in France (by P. Guerin de Montgareuil from CEN, Cadarache). Summaries and provisional papers on presented topics will be published in ''ESNA Newsletter''

  2. Proceedings:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, S.S. (comp.)

    1987-12-01

    With increasingly stringent requirements on the performance of accelerators and storage rings, there is a wide interest in modeling-based control. The organizers recognized the need to have an overview and discussion on the current status of modeling-based accelerator control and how advances in computer technology, software engineering, and expert systems can impact control and diagnosis. As a result, a workshop was organized at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on August 17-18, 1987. It was made possible by the joint support of the AGS, NSLS and Applied Mathematics Departments of BNL. The talks and discussions were divided into three main topics: elements of modeling, knowledge representation, and integration of modeling-based control systems with AI and workstations. This volume is the unedited collection of papers, presented at the Workshop. Separate abstracts were prepared for 10 papers in these proceedings.

  3. Inferring relevance in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models of human and animal learning usually concentrate on how we learn the relationship between different stimuli or actions and rewards. However, in real world situations stimuli are ill-defined. On the one hand, our immediate environment is extremely multi-dimensional. On the other hand, in every decision-making scenario only a few aspects of the environment are relevant for obtaining reward, while most are irrelevant. Thus a key question is how do we learn these relevant dimensions, that is, how do we learn what to learn about? We investigated this process of representation learning experimentally, using a task in which one stimulus dimension was relevant for determining reward at each point in time. As in real life situations, in our task the relevant dimension can change without warning, adding ever-present uncertainty engendered by a constantly changing environment. We show that human performance on this task is better described by a suboptimal strategy based on selective attention and serial hypothesis testing rather than a normative strategy based on probabilistic inference. From this, we conjecture that the problem of inferring relevance in general scenarios is too computationally demanding for the brain to solve optimally. As a result the brain utilizes approximations, employing these even in simplified scenarios in which optimal representation learning is tractable, such as the one in our experiment.

  4. Proceedings of the 14. forum: Croatian Energy Day: Energy: Its reality and outlook - World - Europe - Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year the Croatian Energy Society is organizing its 14. Forum. For this occasion we chose the topic Energy perspectives today and tomorrow, World-Europe-Croatia, which in recent years is increasingly in the focus of interest not only of energy experts but of broad public as well. Namely, the end of the 20. and beginning of the 21st century saw the changes that, in many ways, influenced the energy market development. Views on the future and energy supply stability as they were in the era of divisions (free and communist world, developed and undeveloped world) must be substantially and urgently changed, because the geopolitical landscape of the world has been changing as well as development dynamics of countries and parts of continents. For Europe (Croatia included), which has deficit of primary energy sources and depends on energy import, reliability, availability security and economy of imported energy are key assumptions of sustainable economic and ecological development. The Forum shall discuss the following issues, which strongly influence or will influence the energy perspectives in the next 50 years: Reserves and potentials (size, geo-allocation of resources, transport possibilities, renewable sources); Technologies (exploitation, production, transport, distribution, consumption: appliances, consumers, and processes); Economic development and energy demand (development levels, richness and poverty, price of energy and social influence, energy efficiency); Environmental protection (Kyoto Protocol, legislation, economic capacities, nuclear energy); Energy trade liberalization (market development, restructuring, common legislation, privatization); Security of supply (local, European and global level); Population growth; Political changes and conflicts, military conflicts, terrorism. World Energy Council (WEC) initiated work on global study on energy development: Energy Scenario to 2050. The energy community around the world is equally interested in this study

  5. The Changing World of Toys and Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, David

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the changing world of toys and toy play. Children learn about themselves and their world from their play with toys. Over the past half century there has been a remarkable transformation of the toy world of children. Toys have changed in quantity, quality, and level of technology. Mass production has made…

  6. Proceedings of the study of environmental change using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and other Greenhouse Gases, has published technical documents on isotope measurement techniques for greenhouse gases (IAEATECDOC-1268 and 1269) and hosted international symposia on Applications of Isotope Techniques in Studying Past and Current Environmental Changes in the Hydrosphere and the Atmosphere in 1993 and on Isotope Techniques in the Study of Environmental Change in 1997. The International Conference on The Study of Environmental Change Using Isotope Techniques, held in Vienna in April 2001, was jointly co-ordinated by the Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences (NAPC) and the Marine Environment Laboratory (NAML) of the IAEA and co-sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Japanese Science and Technology Corporation. The conference was attended by experts from 39 Member States and international organizations. The major themes included isotope tracing of atmosphere - hydrosphere and atmosphere - ocean interactions, palaeoclimate archives, and development of new analytical techniques. These proceedings are anticipated to serve as a valuable resource for those involved in research on climate change and on the impact of climate change on water resources. Each of the 94 contributions contained in this publication was indexed separately

  7. Public health in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Andreeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several months in 2013 and 2014 have been a hardly predictable time in Ukraine, and the situation is still far from being stable. This made the editorial team of TCPHEE based in Ukraine postpone publishing consecutive issues. However, while the situation still requires practical steps, many aspects including those related to public health require analysis and debate. Thus we invite opinion pieces and studies addressing all different spheres of how public health should function under changing social circumstances. There might be a wide range of such related topics. The most obvious ones are those linked to changing living conditions. Many studies have been undertaken and published with regard to health threats to refugees, people involved in natural or technical disasters (Noji, 2005. Along with environmental health threats, there might be mental health disturbances (World Health Organization, 1992 resulting from long-term strain, losses et cetera. Another important focus is related to changes in health services provision. Crimea, which is a former Ukrainian territory now occupied by the Russian Federation, was among those in Ukraine highly affected with HIV (Dehne, Khodakevich, Hamers, & Schwartlander, 1999. This was responded by several NGOs actively providing harm reduction services to high-risk groups along with methadone substitution therapy to opiate users and antiretroviral medicines to those HIV-infected (Curtis, 2010. However, there are news reports that Russia is going to stop provision of methadone (kommersant.ru, 2014. As opiate substitution programs have been shown an effective approach towards preventing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (MacArthur et al., 2012, such change in public health policies might affect not only most at risk populations but their partners and population as a whole as well resulting in a rapid spread of HIV. Yet another related topic is that of how health services can be organized at times of

  8. Leaders in Computing Changing the digital world

    CERN Document Server

    IT, BCS -The Chartered Institute for; Booch, Grady; Torvalds, Linus; Wozniak, Steve; Cerf, Vint; Spärck Jones, Karen; Berners-Lee, Tim; Wales, Jimmy; Shirley, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This collection of interviews provides a fascinating insight into the thoughts and ideas of influential figures from the world of IT and computing, such as Sir Tim Berners-Lee, Donald Knuth, Linus Torvalds, Jimmy Wales and Steve Wozniak. It gives an excellent overview of important developments in this diverse field over recent years.

  9. World Wind Tools Reveal Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Originally developed under NASA's Learning Technologies program as a tool to engage and inspire students, World Wind software was released under the NASA Open Source Agreement license. Honolulu, Hawaii based Intelesense Technologies is one of the companies currently making use of the technology for environmental, public health, and other monitoring applications for nonprofit organizations and Government agencies. The company saved about $1 million in development costs by using the NASA software.

  10. Inferring relevance in a changing world

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Reinforcement learning models of human and animal learning usually concentrate on how we learn the relationship between different stimuli or actions and rewards. However, in real-world situations “stimuli” are ill-defined. On the one hand, our immediate environment is extremely multidimensional. On the other hand, in every decision making scenario only a few aspects of the environment are relevant for obtaining reward, while most are irrelevant. Thus a key question is how do we learn these re...

  11. Monetary policy in a changing world

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M. Hoenig

    2000-01-01

    In a speech given to the Money Marketeers in New York in September, bank president Thomas M. Hoenig offered a long-term perspective on some current and future challenges facing monetary policy due to ongoing changes in the structure of the economy and financial markets. These changes can affect monetary policy in several ways. Some complicate the process of deciding when a policy action should be taken--that is, when the FOMC should change the federal funds rate target. Others may affect the ...

  12. Positioning Fisheries in a Changing World

    OpenAIRE

    Grafton, R. Q.; Hilborn, R.; Ridgeway, L.; Squires, D.; Williams, M.(Sezione INFN, Bologna, Italy); Garcia, S.; Groves, T; Joseph, J.; Kelleher, K; Kompas, T.; Libecap, G.; Lundin, C. G.; Makino, M.; Matthiasson, T.; McLoughlin, R.

    2008-01-01

    Marine capture fisheries face major and complex challenges: habitat degradation, poor economic returns, social hardships from depleted stocks, illegal fishing, and climate change, among others. The key factors that prevent the transition to sustainable fisheries are information failures, transition costs, use and non-use conflicts and capacity constraints. Using the experiences of fisheries successes and failures it is argued only through better governance and institutional change that encomp...

  13. CISBAT 2005 proceedings. Renewables in a changing climate - Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems; CISBAT 2005 proceedings. Energies renouvelables et climat - Enveloppes et systemes environnementaux innovatifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scartezzini, J. L. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    These proceedings include the contributions presented at the 2005 CISBAT conference, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. Hosted by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne and jointly organised by the Solar Energy and Buildings Physics Laboratory at the EPFL, Cambridge University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), this international conference looked at 'Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems'. Along with three keynote presentations on climate change, the use of renewables in the European Union and Swiss policies on solar energy, these 632-page conference proceedings include the conference's 106 presentations grouped in 10 sections. These cover the following topics: Design and renovation of building envelopes (33 contributions); solar collectors (16 contributions); active and passive cooling (9 contributions); indoor environment quality and health (10 contributions); optimisation of daylighting and electric lighting (5 contributions); advanced building control systems (2 contributions); environmental impacts of construction (4 contributions); networks and decentralised energy production (1 contribution); sustainable urban development (12 contributions) and software and new information technologies (14 contributions). Organised each second year, the two-day CISBAT international conference 2005 attracted more than 200 participants from all over the world.

  14. Plant fitness in a rapidly changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jill T

    2016-04-01

    81 I. 81 II. 82 III. 84 IV. 84 V. 85 85 References 85 SUMMARY: Modern reliance on fossil fuels has ushered in extreme temperatures globally and abnormal precipitation patterns in many regions. Although the climate is changing rapidly, other agents of natural selection such as photoperiod remain constant. This decoupling of previously reliable environmental cues shifts adaptive landscapes, favors novel suites of traits and likely increases the extinction risk of local populations. Here, I examine the fitness consequences of changing climates. Meta-analyses demonstrate that simulated future climates depress viability and fecundity components of fitness for native plant species in the short term, which could reduce population growth rates. Contracting populations that cannot adapt or adjust plastically to new climates might not be capable of producing sufficient migrants to track changing conditions. PMID:26445400

  15. Towards a nuclear-weapon-free world. Proceedings of the forty-fifth Pugwash conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fiftieth year after the nuclear destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Council of the Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, rededicates itself to the goals of the Russel-Einstein Manifesto of 1955 that initiated the Pugwash movement, to the abolition of nuclear weapons and abolition of war. Under dramatic changes in the post Cold War period, and the difficulties that United Nations are facing, it is concluded that United Nations role is indispensable. Within the framework of achieving a nuclear weapon-free world, the Conference Working group dealt with the implementation of START talks, dismantlement and disposition of nuclear weapons, international control, elimination of the relevance of nuclear weapons in military policies and international relations. Another major topic was related to reducing proliferation risks including Non-Proliferation Treaty, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, expanding and internationalizing the verification and control regime, IAEA safeguards, managing proliferation risks from civilian and weapon-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium. An important topic was the security in the Asia-Pacific region

  16. Soft Approaches for a Changing World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2001-01-01

    The education of engineers needs to focus on abilities to facilitate change processes, involving participants actively and be able to view the problem in relation to a dynamic context of different environments. The essence of the future demands of engineers' social and technical qualification...

  17. Sound localization in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Peter; King, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    In natural environments, neural systems must be continuously updated to reflect changes in sensory inputs and behavioral goals. Recent studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation and learning involve multiple mechanisms that operate at different timescales and stages of processing, with other sensory and motor-related inputs playing a key role. We are only just beginning to understand, however, how these processes interact with one another to produce adaptive changes at the level of neuronal populations and behavior. Because there is no explicit map of auditory space in the cortex, studies of sound localization may also provide much broader insight into the plasticity of complex neural representations that are not topographically organized. PMID:26126152

  18. Species coexistence in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eValladares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of global change for the maintenance of species diversity will depend on the sum of each species responses to the environment and on the interactions among them. A wide ecological literature supports that these species-specific responses can arise from factors related to life strategies, evolutionary history and intraspecific variation, and also from environmental variation in space and time. In the light of recent advances from coexistence theory combined with mechanistic explanations of diversity maintenance, we discuss how global change drivers can influence species coexistence. We revise the importance of both competition and facilitation for understanding coexistence in different ecosystems, address the influence of phylogenetic relatedness, functional traits, phenotypic plasticity and intraspecific variability, and discuss lessons learnt from invasion ecology. While most previous studies have focused their efforts on disentangling the mechanisms that maintain the biological diversity in species-rich ecosystems such as tropical forests, grasslands and coral reefs, we argue that much can be learnt from pauci-specific communities where functional variability within each species, together with demographic and stochastic processes becomes key to understand species interactions and eventually community responses to global change.

  19. Will E-books change the world?

    OpenAIRE

    Hillesund, Terje

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues that the evolution of e-book technology is related to the penetrating impact of networks and information technology on society. It defines the concept of e-book and describes some aspects of e-book technology. By focusing on book production processes, the paper examines what probable consequences the development of e-books and a global network economy will have for publishers and book industries. E-books, along with other electronic formats, will trigger major changes as the...

  20. Proceedings of the workshop on world oil supply-demand analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, K.C. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    Twelve papers and four panel discussions are included. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. The panel discussions were on: technical and physical policy elements affecting world oil supply and demand; financial, tax, and tariff issues in world oil supply and demand; the world economy as influenced by world oil prices and availability; the use of models and analysis in the policy process. (DLC)

  1. The collision that changed the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wally Broecker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In connection with the Anthropocene, one might ask how climate is likely to evolve in the absence of man’s intervention and whether humans will be able to purposefully alter this course. In this commentary, I deal with the situation for very long time scales. I make a case that fifty million years ago, the collision between the northward drifting Indian land mass and Asia set the Earth’s climate on a new course. Ever since then, it has cooled. In the absence of some other dramatic disruption in the movement of the plates which make up our planet’s crust, on the time scale of tens of millions of years, this drift would cause the Earth to freeze over as it did during the late Precambrian. Evidence for this change in course comes from records of oxygen and lithium isotopic composition of foraminifer shells. It is reinforced by records of Mg to Ca in halite-hosted fluid inclusions and in marine CaCO3. In addition, the collision appears to have created abrupt changes in the sulfur isotope composition of marine barite and the carbon isotope composition of amber. Not only did this collision create the Himalaya, but more important, it led to a reorganization of the crustal plate motions. Through some combination of the building of mountains and lowering of sea level, these changes generated a mismatch between the supply of CO2 by planetary outgassing and that of calcium by the weathering of silicate rock. The tendency toward an oversupply of calcium has been compensated by a drawdown of the atmosphere’s CO2 content. This drawdown cooled the Earth, slowing down the supply of calcium. Although we are currently inadvertently compensating for this cooling by burning fossil fuels, the impacts of this CO2 on Earth climate will last no more than a tenth of a million years. So, if humans succeed in avoiding extinction, there will likely be a long-term effort to warm the planet.

  2. USGS science for a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deborah R. Hutchinson

    2006-04-01

    This final report to the Department of Energy for Task DE-AT26-97FT34343 covers the period from 1997 to April, 2005 and summarizes the larger research accomplishments, which can be divided in field and laboratory experiments. The geophysical and sampling field programs include 5 experiments conducted between 1998 and 2003 in the Gulf of Mexico (four cruises) and on the Blake Ridge (one cruise). Significant results from the Gulf of Mexico include advancing knowledge of gas hydrate as a potential hazard to drilling at a time when petroleum exploration and production move into deeper water on the continental slope. Anomalous bright reflections called high-reflectivity zones (HRZ's) were identified as possible seismic indicators of gas hydrate. Subsequent sampling through coring identified how methane flux changes from vent regions into mini-basins, and could explain the lack of a known Bottom Simulating Reflection (BSR) in much of the Gulf. In conjunction with the Chevron Gulf of Mexico JIP project, two site surveys were run to characterize gas hydrate prior to drilling in 2005, including detailed analysis of a BSR reflection at one of the sites. The one cruise to the Blake Ridge collected core samples to test the origin and age of the Blake Ridge collapse feature. While the cruise results were equivocal, they results raised new questions about the timing of methane release from hydrate in this well-studied natural laboratory field site. These field programs, particularly in the Gulf of Mexico, helped further DOE goals of understanding gas hydrates in areas where deep-water drilling and production were likely to penetrate the gas hydrate stability zone. Laboratory experiments were generally integrated with field studies but addressed specific questions about methane hydrate behavior and properties. Studies in the Gas Hydrate and Sediment Testing Laboratory Instrument (GHASTLI) performed some of the first physical property measurements on hydrate-sediment mixtures

  3. Posterior cingulate cortex: adapting behavior to a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, John M; Heilbronner, Sarah R; Barack, David L; Hayden, Benjamin Y; Platt, Michael L

    2011-04-01

    When has the world changed enough to warrant a new approach? The answer depends on current needs, behavioral flexibility and prior knowledge about the environment. Formal approaches solve the problem by integrating the recent history of rewards, errors, uncertainty and context via Bayesian inference to detect changes in the world and alter behavioral policy. Neuronal activity in posterior cingulate cortex - a key node in the default network - is known to vary with learning, memory, reward and task engagement. We propose that these modulations reflect the underlying process of change detection and motivate subsequent shifts in behavior.

  4. Two Worlds of Change: On the Internationalisation of Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trondal, Jarle

    2010-01-01

    Institutional change entails balancing multiple competing, inconsistent and often loosely coupled demands and concerns, often simultaneously. This article poses the following question: How are patterns of internationalisation of research among academic staff at universities balancing two worlds of change, that is, governance by the university…

  5. “New Particles” of the Changing World Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuSui; WangWei

    2004-01-01

    The world situation, as always complicated and volatile, has seen some “new particles” after the war on Iraq. This is a special war that has affected the whole world. The course and consequences of the war have exemplified the fever pitch of the U.S. unilateralism and the heavy cost thus paid by the U.S. They have also resulted in the changes of relations between major powers,

  6. Research on climate effects. Effects of climate changes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global changes affecting the earth are at the forefront of public interest, possibly caused by climate alterations amongst other things. The public expects appropriate measures from politics to successfully adapt to unavoidable climate changes. As well as an investigation into the causes of climatic changes and the corollaries between the different scientific phenomena, the effects on the economy and society must also be examined. The Federal Minister for Research and Technology aims to make a valuable German contribution to international Global Change Research with the focal point ''Effects of Climate Changes on the Ecological and Civil System''. The aim of the workshop was to give an outline of current scientific knowledge, sketch out research requirements and give recommendations on the focal point with regard to the BMFT. (orig.)

  7. Incorporating climate change into corporate business strategies. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This document contains the papers presented at the International Climate Change Conference and Technologies Exhibition June 12-13, 1997. Topics include energy supply and electricity generation; forestry and agriculture; and the chemical, energy, and manufacturing industries.

  8. Proceedings from the sustainable development and climate change workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Olhoff, A.

    2001-07-01

    The specific objectives of the workshop were: 1) To consider how longer-term development priorities link with climate change concerns. 2) To identify options for meeting developing countries needs and priorities while contributing to sustainable development both locally and globally. 3) To discuss possible longer term action at domestic and international levels by countries to further the sustainable development and climate change discussion. First of all, it was recognised that there has been a strong support, endorsement, and agreement among all participants on using sustainable development as a framework for climate change olicies, and this agreement is very encouraging for further activities and collaboration. Furthermore, there is a need for new innovative international financial schemes taht can support sustainable development investments with large climate change benefits. This is maybe beyond the scope of the UNFCCC, but will maybe be more important than the convention in controlling global GHG emissions. It was several times emphasised in the discussion that capacity building and institutional strengthening in developning countries are needed to implement long-term global strategies. Several national examples of sustainable development policies with large impacts on climate change were given at the workshop. These include: 1) The ethanol programme of Brazil. 2)Energy efficiency programmes in China that are part of general economic development strategies. 3) Development of natural gas supply through investment in a pipeline project in Shanghai in China. 4) Energy efficiency and renewable energy programme in India that are linked to economic development programmes. Detailed national programmes for forestry, agriculture and land use sectors. 5) National development programmes including climate change policies in South Korea with broad stakeholder participation, and the use of market instruments. 6) The South Africa approach to use sustainable development

  9. Proceedings from the sustainable development and climate change workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific objectives of the workshop were: 1) To consider how longer-term development priorities link with climate change concerns. 2) To identify options for meeting developing countries needs and priorities while contributing to sustainable development both locally and globally. 3) To discuss possible longer term action at domestic and international levels by countries to further the sustainable development and climate change discussion. First of all, it was recognised that there has been a strong support, endorsement, and agreement among all participants on using sustainable development as a framework for climate change olicies, and this agreement is very encouraging for further activities and collaboration. Furthermore, there is a need for new innovative international financial schemes taht can support sustainable development investments with large climate change benefits. This is maybe beyond the scope of the UNFCCC, but will maybe be more important than the convention in controlling global GHG emissions. It was several times emphasised in the discussion that capacity building and institutional strengthening in developning countries are needed to implement long-term global strategies. Several national examples of sustainable development policies with large impacts on climate change were given at the workshop. These include: 1) The ethanol programme of Brazil. 2)Energy efficiency programmes in China that are part of general economic development strategies. 3) Development of natural gas supply through investment in a pipeline project in Shanghai in China. 4) Energy efficiency and renewable energy programme in India that are linked to economic development programmes. Detailed national programmes for forestry, agriculture and land use sectors. 5) National development programmes including climate change policies in South Korea with broad stakeholder participation, and the use of market instruments. 6) The South Africa approach to use sustainable development

  10. The many facets of climate change - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference day on climate change was organized by the French meteorological society (SMF) at the Ecole Normale Superieure of Paris. This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference. Eight presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Climate change today and tomorrow, the research stakes (Herve Le Treut, IPSL); 2 - Rise of sea levels: estimations and regional variability (Guy Woeppelmann, La Rochelle Univ.); 3 - Polar ice caps and continental cryo-sphere as seen from space (A. Kouraev, F. Remy, E. Berthier, LEGOS); 4 - Impacts of climate change on exploited marine populations: projections and uncertainties (Patrick Lehodey, CLS); 5 - Climate change stakes on agricultural and winery activities in France (Eric Duchene, INRA); 6 - Impacts of climate change on forest trees phenology and their consequences on trees life and survival (Francois Lebourgeois, ENGREF); 7 - Remote-epidemiology: a health-aid in a climate change context (Murielle Lafaye, CNES); 8 - Socio-economic aspects and adaptation: a climate history, for what? (Emmanuel Garnier, Caen Univ.)

  11. Changing the world – developing Critical ethnographies from below

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    Line Lerche Mørck is at present researching major identity formation, expansive learning and belongings – movements beyond gang involvement. Lines Lerche Mørcks approach seeks to learn ‘from the societal margins’. Line will give a lecture about “Changing the world – developing Critical ethnograph......Line Lerche Mørck is at present researching major identity formation, expansive learning and belongings – movements beyond gang involvement. Lines Lerche Mørcks approach seeks to learn ‘from the societal margins’. Line will give a lecture about “Changing the world – developing Critical...... ethnographies from below”...

  12. ELT in a changing world innovative approaches to new challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Azra; Saleem, Faiza; Cane, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    A novel ELT resource for language specialists and teachers across the world, this selection of papers is a collection of the most compelling and innovative ideas presented at a seminar hosted by the Centre of English Language, Aga Khan University, Pakistan, in January 2011, entitled 'ELT in a Changing World: Innovative Approaches to New Challenges'.The book is divided into three sections, the first of which is 'Global change and language learning'. This section offers a guided tour of language teaching evolution, highlighting the merits of enhanced language awareness, self-immersive and input/

  13. Engineering Asset Management and Infrastructure Sustainability : Proceedings of the 5th World Congress on Engineering Asset Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Lin; Tan, Andy; Weijnen, Margot; Lee, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Engineering Asset Management 2010 represents state-of-the art trends and developments in the emerging field of engineering asset management as presented at the Fifth World Congress on Engineering Asset Management (WCEAM). The proceedings of the WCEAM 2010 is an excellent reference for practitioners, researchers and students in the multidisciplinary field of asset management, covering topics such as: Asset condition monitoring and intelligent maintenance Asset data warehousing, data mining and fusion Asset performance and level-of-service models Design and life-cycle integrity of physical assets Education and training in asset management Engineering standards in asset management Fault diagnosis and prognostics Financial analysis methods for physical assets Human dimensions in integrated asset management Information quality management Information systems and knowledge management Intelligent sensors and devices Maintenance strategies in asset management Optimisation decisions in asset management Risk management ...

  14. Proceedings from the Sustainable Development and Climate Change Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Olhoff, Anne

    national examples of sustainable development policies with large impacts on climate change were given at the workshop. These include: 1) The ethanol programme of Brazil. 2) Energy efficiency programmes in China that are part of general economic development strategies. 3) Development of natural gas supply...... through investment in a pipeline project in Shanghai in China. 4) Energy efficiency and renewable energy programme in India that are linked to economic development programmes. Detailed national programmes for forestry, agriculture and land use sectors. 5) National development programmes including climate...... change policies in South Korea with broad stakeholder participation, and the use of market instruments. 6) The South Africa approach to use sustainable development indicators in relation project evaluations, and the establishment of a national climate change polity strategy that has a comprehensive list...

  15. Proceedings of the Bio-Energy '80 world congress and exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Many countries are moving with increasing urgency to obtain larger fractions of their energy from biomass. Over 1800 leading experts from 70 countries met on April 21 to 24 in Atlanta to conduct a World Congress and Exposition on Bio-Energy. This summary presents highlights of the Congress and thoughts stimulated by the occasion. Topics addressed include a comparison of international programs, world and country regionalism in the development of energy supplies, fuel versus food or forest products, production of ethyl alcohol, possibilities for expanded production of terrestrial vegetation and marine flora, and valuable chemicals from biomass. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 164 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  16. Travelling through a warming world: climate change and migratory species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, A.; Crick, H.Q.P.; Learmonth, J.A.; Maclean, I.M.D.; Thomas, C.D.; Bairlein, F.; Forchhammer, M.C.; Francis, C.M.; Gill, J.A.; Godley, B.J.; Harwood, J.; Hays, G.C.; Huntley, B.; Hutson, A.M.; Pierce, G.J.; Rehfisch, M.M.; Sims, D.W.; Vieira dos Santos, M.C.; Sparks, T.H.; Stroud, D.; Visser, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Long-distance migrations are among the wonders of the natural world, but this multi-taxon review shows that the characteristics of species that undertake such movements appear to make them particularly vulnerable to detrimental impacts of climate change. Migrants are key components of biological sys

  17. A Small State Maneuvering in the Changing World Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.

    2016-01-01

    , especially the Danish approach to the BRICs, has developed in recent years, I show how Denmark – a small state – is trying to maneuver in the changing world order through a “creative agency” approach characterized by pragmatic low-profile activism. I develop a neoclassical realist framework and use...

  18. A Call for Change in a Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Richard L; Minkoff, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The practice of obstetrics and gynecology in the United States has changed substantially over the past 50 years, but the structure of our residency programs has not evolved at a comparable pace. The number of hours available for training during the workweek has decreased significantly, whereas the amount of essential material to learn and clinical skills to acquire has increased dramatically. The switch to minimally invasive surgical approaches has reduced the number of open abdominal cases available for training, and the aptitude required to perform difficult laparoscopic and robotic cases for benign disease is such that many programs do not have enough surgical patients to teach all of their residents how to adequately master those procedures. Obstetric patients are older and heavier than those encountered several decades ago, and the comorbidities of some of these women make their antepartum and intrapartum management extremely complex. Furthermore, the explosion of genetic knowledge has made prenatal counseling infinitely more challenging. In this commentary we review these and related issues and then address the question of whether current training programs are preparing our graduates to optimally perform in the clinical arena they will enter after finishing their residencies. Some ways in which the current system could be modified are suggested, and a plea is made for the creation of a high-level task force to address this problem on a national level.

  19. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  20. Conventional and Unconventional World Natural Gas Resources. Proceedings of the Fifth IIASA Conference on Energy Resources

    OpenAIRE

    DELAHAYE, C.; M. Grenon

    1983-01-01

    Against a background of increasing energy demands and diminishing reserves of fossil fuels there is a clear need to intensify the search for conventional fuels and also to identify and develop new and unconventional energy technologies. But when trying to obtain a relatively complete picture of the level and distribution of energy resources around the world, information on petroleum reserves (oil and gas) is particularly difficult to obtain. The Fifth IIASA Conference on Energy Resources fo...

  1. 2016 World Federation of Chiropractic/Association of Chiropractic Colleges Education Conference proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In October 2016, the World Federation of Chiropractic and Association of Chiropractic Colleges Education Conference was held in Montreal, Canada. This summary provides the titles of the contributed presentations. The full set of abstracts for this meeting are published online at www.journalchiroed.com as an exclusively electronic publication that is part of volume 30, issue 2 (October 2016) of the Journal of Chiropractic Education. PMID:27749117

  2. Proceedings of the fourth international conference and exhibition: World Congress on superconductivity. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held at the Marriott Orlando World Center, Orlando, Florida, June 27--July 1, 1994. This conference encompassed research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. Specifically, the areas of research, technology, and development covered during the conference included high-temperature materials, thin films, C-60 based superconductors, persistent magnetic fields and shielding, fabrication methodology, space applications, physical applications, performance characterization, device applications, weak link effects and flux motion, accelerator technology, superconductivity energy, storage, future research and development directions, medical applications, granular superconductors, wire fabrication technology, computer applications, technical and commercial challenges, and power and energy applications. The key objective of this conference was to provide a forum for the world community to share technological results of recent advances made in the field of superconductivity and to discuss translation of the research to technology which will benefit humanity. More than 150 presentations were made at this conference. Individual papers are indexed separately on the Energy Data Bases

  3. Proceedings of the fourth international conference and exhibition: World Congress on superconductivity. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishen, K.; Burnham, C. [eds.] [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX (United States). Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    1994-12-31

    This document contains papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held at the Marriott Orlando World Center, Orlando, Florida, June 27--July 1, 1994. This conference encompassed research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. Specifically, the areas of research, technology, and development covered during the conference included high-temperature materials, thin films, C-60 based superconductors, persistent magnetic fields and shielding, fabrication methodology, space applications, physical applications, performance characterization, device applications, weak link effects and flux motion, accelerator technology, superconductivity energy, storage, future research and development directions, medical applications, granular superconductors, wire fabrication technology, computer applications, technical and commercial challenges, and power and energy applications. The key objective of this conference was to provide a forum for the world community to share technological results of recent advances made in the field of superconductivity and to discuss translation of the research to technology which will benefit humanity. More than 150 presentations were made at this conference. Individual papers are indexed separately on the Energy Data Bases.

  4. Long-range scenarios for climate change. Policy analysis. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenarios are conceivable future states of affairs given certain assumptions about the present and the course of events in the intervening period. They are particularly useful for investigating uncertainty and its consequences for decision making. Scenarios explicitly recognize that our ability to forecast the future course of events is very limited. Accordingly they identify the key areas of uncertainty and look at the consequences of different outcomes in those key areas. From the wide-ranging discussion held at the workshop, the criteria and principles listed below were developed to guide the process of scenario building in the particular context of climate change policy analysis. Such criteria should also help to avoid the inappropriate use of scenarios by policy makers and others. (author)

  5. What Does China's Changes Mean to the World?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Mengzi

    2008-01-01

    Although the severe snowstorms that hit Southern China in January and big earthquake in Sichuan in May uncovered a number of weaknesses, they could not conceal the rising power's historical achievements over the past three decades. The reform and opening-up policies have benefited China considerably. The international media, attracted by the Beijing Olympics, will focus on these miraculous changes and the outside world will gain a deeper understanding of China. No matter what anyone says, there will be a new and general recognition of China's rise and the increasing interdependence between China and the world outside.

  6. The EU's Normative Power in Changing World Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    global order: 1) what is the concept of normative power in world politics?; 2) what is an effective EU toolbox for tackling new challenges?; 3) how does the EU go beyond self-perception and rhetoric?; 4) what is the raison d'etre of the EU?; and 5) how might normative power in EU external policies lead......This chapter sets out what role the European Union (EU) could and should play in changing world politics, with an emphasis on the concept of 'normative power'. To do this, the chapter addresses five interrelated questions regarding the normative power and external politics of the EU in any new...

  7. U.S. Competitiveness in the World Wheat Market. Proceedings of a Research Conference (Washington, D.C., June 17-18, 1986).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    These proceedings contain presentations and summaries of papers presented at a Wheat Competitiveness Conference. They begin with two presentations--"The Wheat Prototype Study within an Overall Conceptual Framework of Competitiveness" (James Langley) and "U.S. Competitiveness in the World Wheat Market: A Prototype Study" (Jerry Sharples). The 23…

  8. Mobile as a Mainstream – Towards Future Challenges in Mobile Learning. Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (mLearn 2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Bayyurt, Yasemin; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning, mLearn 2014, held in Istanbul, Turkey, in November 2014. The 20 revised full papers and 17 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 65 submissions. The papers are organized i

  9. Proceedings of the fourth international conference and exhibition: World Congress on superconductivity. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of the World Congress on Superconductivity (WCS) have been to establish and foster the development and commercial application of superconductivity technology on a global scale by providing a non-adversarial, non-advocacy forum where scientists, engineers, businessmen and government personnel can freely exchange information and ideas on recent developments and directions for the future of superconductive research. Sessions were held on: accelerator technology, power and energy, persistent magnetic fields, performance characterization, physical properties, fabrication methodology, superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES), thin films, high temperature materials, device applications, wire fabrication, and granular superconductors. Individual papers are indexed separately

  10. Proceedings of the fourth international conference and exhibition: World Congress on superconductivity. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishen, K.; Burnham, C. [eds.] [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX (United States). Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    1994-12-31

    The goals of the World Congress on Superconductivity (WCS) have been to establish and foster the development and commercial application of superconductivity technology on a global scale by providing a non-adversarial, non-advocacy forum where scientists, engineers, businessmen and government personnel can freely exchange information and ideas on recent developments and directions for the future of superconductive research. Sessions were held on: accelerator technology, power and energy, persistent magnetic fields, performance characterization, physical properties, fabrication methodology, superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES), thin films, high temperature materials, device applications, wire fabrication, and granular superconductors. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  11. "To change the world." Cairo conference reaches consensus on plan to stabilize world growth by 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    After 6 days of debate and 200 speakers during September 5-13, 1994, participants from 180 countries at the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) agreed on a strategy for curbing global population growth over the next 20 years. The objective was sustained economic growth and sustainable development. In his opening remarks, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali said that the objective was to balance humanity and the environment with the means to sustain life, and that the efficacy of the world economic order depended to some extent on the ICPD. Participants were urged to use rigor, tolerance, and conscience in conference deliberations. Men and women should have the right and the means to choose their families' futures. The preamble stated that the ICPD would probably be the last opportunity in the twentieth century to address globally the issues relating to population and development. UN Population Fund Executive Director Nafis Sadik remarked that the ICPD had the potential to change the world. Egyptian President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak was elected president of the ICPD. Mubarak stated that solutions to population problems must go beyond demographic accounting and incorporate change in social, economic, and cultural conditions. Norway's Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland stated that development in many countries never reached many women. She called it a hypocritical morality that allowed women to suffer and die from unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortions, and miserable living conditions. US Vice President Albert Gore called for comprehensive and holistic solutions. The essential features of social change would involve democracy, economic reform, low rates of inflation, low levels of corruption, sound environmental management, free and open markets, and access to developed country markets. Pakistan's Prime Minister Benazir urged the empowerment of women. Many expressed the concern about unsustainable consumption in industrialized

  12. Summary of proceedings of the second World Congress on Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwonka, Lukasz; Freeman, Jeremy; McIver, Bryan; Randolph, Gregory W; Shah, Jatin P; Shaha, Ashok R; Sherman, Steven I; Tuttle, R Michael; Witterick, Ian J

    2014-07-01

    The second World Congress on Thyroid Cancer was held from July 10 to July 14, 2013, in Toronto, Canada. Its purpose was to provide a platform for the multidisciplinary discussion on research, education, and patient management of thyroid malignancy. Herein, we summarize the latest major trends and controversies within the field of thyroid oncology as discussed in the Congress including the use of ultrasound, standardization of cytology, role of molecular testing, treatment options for small recurrence including ablation and observation, management of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, importance of identification of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, role of minimally invasive thyroid surgery, trends in radioactive iodine treatment, advancements in targeted agents, and the importance of personalizing treatment to individual patients.

  13. [Inflammatory changes of oral cavity proceeding appearance of clinical symptoms of Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczeklik, Katarzyna; Darczuk, Dagmara; Owczarek, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    Crohn's disease belongs to the inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflammatory changes can be located in any part of the gastrointestinal tract including rarely oral cavity. We present a case of a 21 years old woman with unhealed by the local treatment, and verified by histological examination, inflammatory changes of oral cavity. These changes had proceed the diagnosis of typical changes in gastrointestinal tract for 6 months. Changes were located in terminal ileum and colon and were confirmed by colonoscopic, histologic and radiologic studies. Standard therapy of Crohn's disease with antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs led to the healing of oral changes. We point out on the necessity of proper differential diagnosis of problematic unhealing changes, particularly with ulcerations of oral mucosa in young patients. Dental examination with histological confirmation of mucosal changes may be helpful in proper diagnosis of Crohn's disease in the young group of patients. PMID:21591368

  14. The Role Of Labour Unions In A Changing World Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter W

    2004-01-01

    Trade unions have been important institutions of industrial society; they have helped deliver significant outcomes in terms of improved living standards, equity and justice to workers all over the world. However, at the end of the twentieth century, unions face a situation marked by the universal trend towards greater liberalization of economic and political regimes. The changing environment requires new approaches and strategies on the part of unions if they are to remain major social actors...

  15. The next waves: migration theory for a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolberg, A R

    1989-01-01

    In the last quarter of a century, migration theory has undergone fundamental change, moving from the classic "individual relocation" genre initiated by Ravenstein a century ago, to a variety of new approaches which nevertheless share important elements: they tend to be historical, structural, globalist, and critical. Historicization implies a constant modification of theoretical concerns and emphases in the light of changing social realities, and a commitment to a critical approach entails a view of research as 1 element in a broader project concerned with the elucidation of social and political conditions. The article uses elements from 2 major theoretical traditions - a modified world-systems approach and state theory - to project current trends. Global inequality is considered as a structural given. The article then reviews major topics, including the persistence of restrictive immigration policies as barriers to movement, changing patterns of exploitation of foreign labor, liberalization of exit from the socialist world, and the refugee crisis in the developing world. It concludes with a brief consideration of the normative implications of these trends. PMID:12282787

  16. The Changing World of Breast Cancer: A Radiologist's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Christiane K

    2016-01-01

    Compared with other fields of medicine, there is hardly an area that has seen such fast development as the world of breast cancer. Indeed, the way we treat breast cancer has changed fundamentally over the past decades. Breast imaging has always been an integral part of this change, and it undergoes constant adjustment to new ways of thinking. This relates not only to the technical tools we use for diagnosing breast cancer but also to the way diagnostic information is used to guide treatment. There is a constant change of concepts for and attitudes toward breast cancer, and a constant flux of new ideas, new treatment approaches, and new insights into the molecular and biological behavior of this disease. Clinical breast radiologists and even more so, clinician scientists, interested in breast imaging need to keep abreast with this rapidly changing world. Diagnostic or treatment approaches that are considered useful today may be abandoned tomorrow. Approaches that seem irrelevant or far too extravagant today may prove clinically useful and adequate next year. Radiologists must constantly question what they do, and align their clinical aims and research objectives with the changing needs of contemporary breast oncology. Moreover, knowledge about the past helps better understand present debates and controversies. Accordingly, in this article, we provide an overview on the evolution of breast imaging and breast cancer treatment, describe current areas of research, and offer an outlook regarding the years to come. PMID:26933985

  17. The Changing World of Breast Cancer: A Radiologist's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Christiane K

    2015-09-01

    Compared with other fields of medicine, there is hardly an area that has seen such fast development as the world of breast cancer. Indeed, the way we treat breast cancer has changed fundamentally over the past decades. Breast imaging has always been an integral part of this change, and it undergoes constant adjustment to new ways of thinking. This relates not only to the technical tools we use for diagnosing breast cancer but also to the way diagnostic information is used to guide treatment. There is a constant change of concepts for and attitudes toward breast cancer, and a constant flux of new ideas, new treatment approaches, and new insights into the molecular and biological behavior of this disease. Clinical breast radiologists and even more so, clinician scientists, interested in breast imaging need to keep abreast with this rapidly changing world. Diagnostic or treatment approaches that are considered useful today may be abandoned tomorrow. Approaches that seem irrelevant or far too extravagant today may prove clinically useful and adequate next year. Radiologists must constantly question what they do, and align their clinical aims and research objectives with the changing needs of contemporary breast oncology. Moreover, knowledge about the past helps better understand present debates and controversies. Accordingly, in this article, we provide an overview on the evolution of breast imaging and breast cancer treatment, describe current areas of research, and offer an outlook regarding the years to come.

  18. 18{sup th} world hydrogen energy conference 2010 (WHEC 2010). Proceedings. Speeches and plenary talks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolten, Detlef; Emonts, Bernd (eds.)

    2012-07-03

    A comprehensive and renowned conference offers the opportunity to extend the scope beyond mere technical issues. It allows for having strategic presentations and discussing aspects of market introduction, industrial and Governmental target setting as well as approaches to and actions for implementation. The 18th World Hydrogen Conference 2010, WHEC2010, succeeded in exploiting this opportunity and satisfied the expectations. Strong political support in Germany and in the State of North Rhine Westphalia in particular made it possible to have high profile decision makers at the conference presenting their strategies first hand. Hence, a full day was dedicated to plenary speeches and overview talks. The WHEC2010 came handy at a time when fuel cells are developed to suit the requirements for vehicles, except for cost and durability. At a time when the competition with batteries and whether or how a hydrogen infrastructure can be established and afforded were hot topics in the public debate, which needed answers on a well informed basis. Considering fuel cells and hydrogen at a time at one conference and supplementing it with the current knowledge on batteries and hybridization clarity on the future role of these technologies was gained. Very likely fuel cells and batteries will coexist in a future of electrified vehicular transport. Their different technical characteristics will open the doors to different market segments. Implementing hydrogen infrastructure, being a requirement for fuel cells in transport, is considered doable and affordable. This book presents the speeches and overview papers from the plenary session of the WHEC2010 on May 17, 2010. Six further books of this issue contain the papers of the oral and poster presentations, except for the introductory talks of the sessions. The latter are published separately by Wiley in a book named Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. In total the 18th WHEC is documented on over 3800 pages in a structured way in order to reach

  19. "To change the world." Cairo conference reaches consensus on plan to stabilize world growth by 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    After 6 days of debate and 200 speakers during September 5-13, 1994, participants from 180 countries at the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) agreed on a strategy for curbing global population growth over the next 20 years. The objective was sustained economic growth and sustainable development. In his opening remarks, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali said that the objective was to balance humanity and the environment with the means to sustain life, and that the efficacy of the world economic order depended to some extent on the ICPD. Participants were urged to use rigor, tolerance, and conscience in conference deliberations. Men and women should have the right and the means to choose their families' futures. The preamble stated that the ICPD would probably be the last opportunity in the twentieth century to address globally the issues relating to population and development. UN Population Fund Executive Director Nafis Sadik remarked that the ICPD had the potential to change the world. Egyptian President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak was elected president of the ICPD. Mubarak stated that solutions to population problems must go beyond demographic accounting and incorporate change in social, economic, and cultural conditions. Norway's Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland stated that development in many countries never reached many women. She called it a hypocritical morality that allowed women to suffer and die from unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortions, and miserable living conditions. US Vice President Albert Gore called for comprehensive and holistic solutions. The essential features of social change would involve democracy, economic reform, low rates of inflation, low levels of corruption, sound environmental management, free and open markets, and access to developed country markets. Pakistan's Prime Minister Benazir urged the empowerment of women. Many expressed the concern about unsustainable consumption in industrialized

  20. Mobile as a Mainstream – Towards Future Challenges in Mobile Learning. Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (mLearn 2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Kalz, Marco; Bayyurt, Yasemin; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning, mLearn 2014, held in Istanbul, Turkey, in November 2014. The 20 revised full papers and 17 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 65 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on technologies and interaction; tablets and ebook readers; learning and teaching inside and outside the classroom; learning design and design implications; evaluation and review...

  1. Bayesian theories of conditioning in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courville, Aaron C; Daw, Nathaniel D; Touretzky, David S

    2006-07-01

    The recent flowering of Bayesian approaches invites the re-examination of classic issues in behavior, even in areas as venerable as Pavlovian conditioning. A statistical account can offer a new, principled interpretation of behavior, and previous experiments and theories can inform many unexplored aspects of the Bayesian enterprise. Here we consider one such issue: the finding that surprising events provoke animals to learn faster. We suggest that, in a statistical account of conditioning, surprise signals change and therefore uncertainty and the need for new learning. We discuss inference in a world that changes and show how experimental results involving surprise can be interpreted from this perspective, and also how, thus understood, these phenomena help constrain statistical theories of animal and human learning.

  2. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B. [eds.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with the polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; and (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks, (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosol and trace gases.

  3. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks; (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosols and trace gases

  4. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B. [eds.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks; (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosols and trace gases.

  5. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with the polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; and (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks, (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosol and trace gases

  6. Breeding to Optimize Agriculture in a Changing World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiankang; Wang; Jose; Luis; Araus; Jianmin; Wan

    2015-01-01

    Breeding to Optimize Chinese Agriculture(OPTICHINA) was a three-year EU–China project launched in June of 2011. As designed, the project acted as a new strategic model to reinforce systematic cooperation on agricultural research between Europe and China. The OPTICHINA International Conference "Breeding to Optimize Agriculture in a Changing World" was held in Beijing, May 26–29, 2014. The conference included six thematic areas:(1) defining and protecting the yield potential of traits and genes;(2) high-throughput precision phenotyping in the field;(3) molecular technologies in modern breeding;(4) plant ideotype;(5) data analysis,data management, and bioinformatics; and(6) national challenges and opportunities for China. The 10 articles collected in this special issue represent key contributions and topics of this conference. This editorial provides a brief introduction to the OPTICHINA project, followed by the main scientific points of articles published in this special issue. Finally, outcomes from a brainstorming discussion at the end of the conference are summarized, representing the authors’ opinions on trends in breeding for a changing world.

  7. Decadal Changes in the World's Coastal Latitudinal Temperature Gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Baumann

    Full Text Available Most of the world's living marine resources inhabit coastal environments, where average thermal conditions change predictably with latitude. These coastal latitudinal temperature gradients (CLTG coincide with important ecological clines,e.g., in marine species diversity or adaptive genetic variations, but how tightly thermal and ecological gradients are linked remains unclear. A first step is to consistently characterize the world's CLTGs. We extracted coastal cells from a global 1°×1° dataset of weekly sea surface temperatures (SST, 1982-2012 to quantify spatial and temporal variability of the world's 11 major CLTGs. Gradient strength, i.e., the slope of the linear mean-SST/latitude relationship, varied 3-fold between the steepest (North-American Atlantic and Asian Pacific gradients: -0.91°C and -0.68°C lat(-1, respectively and weakest CLTGs (African Indian Ocean and the South- and North-American Pacific gradients: -0.28, -0.29, -0.32°C lat(-1, respectively. Analyzing CLTG strength by year revealed that seven gradients have weakened by 3-10% over the past three decades due to increased warming at high compared to low latitudes. Almost the entire South-American Pacific gradient (6-47°S, however, has considerably cooled over the study period (-0.3 to -1.7°C, 31 years, and the substantial weakening of the North-American Atlantic gradient (-10% was due to warming at high latitudes (42-60°N, +0.8 to +1.6°C,31 years and significant mid-latitude cooling (Florida to Cape Hatteras 26-35°N, -0.5 to -2.2°C, 31 years. Average SST trends rarely resulted from uniform shifts throughout the year; instead individual seasonal warming or cooling patterns elicited the observed changes in annual means. This is consistent with our finding of increased seasonality (i.e., summer-winter SST amplitude in three quarters of all coastal cells (331 of 433. Our study highlights the regionally variable footprint of global climate change, while emphasizing

  8. Societal resilience to hydroclimatic change in the Roman World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermody, Brian; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc; Dekker, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The Romans were masters of water resource management. They employed sophisticated irrigation techniques alongside a highly integrated food redistribution system that provided stable food supplies under the variable hydroclimatic regime within the Roman World. However, a number of paleoclimate studies have demonstrated hydroclimatic changes during the Roman Period that exceeded the amplitude and persistence of normal climate variability. In particular, there was a shift from warmer and more stable hydroclimatic conditions in the Roman Warm Period (c.250 BC - 250 AD) to cooler and more variable conditions in Late Roman Period (after c.250 AD). In this study we use a socio-hydrological model of the Roman world to explore the impact of hydroclimatic changes between the Roman Warm Period and Late Roman Period on the Roman food production and redistribution system. We calculate crop yields based on temperature and water resource availability using PC Raster Global Water Balance model (PCR-GLOBWB). PCR-GLOBWB is forced with reanalysis climate fields reflecting reconstructions of Roman Warm Period to the Late Roman climate patterns. Cropland areas and settlement patterns are derived from a database of 14,700 Roman settlement sites and crop suitability maps. We simulate food redistribution using a multi-agent food redistribution network with link weights based on Orbis: The Stanford Geospatial Network of the Roman World. Our analysis indicates a reduction in crop yields during the Late Roman Period compared with the Roman Warm Period owing to cooler temperatures. In addition, our simulations indicate that increased hydroclimatic variability decreased the stability of yields in the Late Roman period. Crop yields in the Western Empire are simulated to have been impacted most by the change in climate owing to cooler average temperatures and greater hydroclimatic variability compared with the Eastern part of the Empire. The food redistribution network was essential to buffer

  9. Summary proceedings: Workshop on REDD+ and legal regimes of mangroves, peatlands and other wetlands: ASEAN and the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovleen Bhullar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This report summarises the proceedings of the workshop as interpreted by the assigned rapporteur and editors of the Asia-Pacific Centre for Environmental Law, which were reviewed and approved by the presenters.

  10. Human norovirus transmission and evolution in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Miranda; van Beek, Janko; Koopmans, Marion P G

    2016-07-01

    Norovirus infections are a major cause of gastroenteritis, and outbreaks occur frequently. Several factors are currently increasing the challenge posed by norovirus infections to global health, notably the increasing number of infections in immunocompromised individuals, who are more susceptible to disease, and the globalization of the food industry, which enables large norovirus outbreaks to occur on an international scale. Furthermore, the rapid rate of the genetic and antigenic evolution of circulating noroviruses complicates the development of vaccines and therapies that are required to counter these challenges. In this Review, we describe recent advances in the study of the transmission, pathogenesis and evolution of human noroviruses, and consider the ongoing risk of norovirus outbreaks, together with the future prospects for therapeutics, in a rapidly changing world. PMID:27211790

  11. One Health in a world with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, P F; Butler, C D

    2014-08-01

    The One Health movement, as defined in this paper, has progressed from a focus on emerging infectious diseases to a broader set of challenges that include food security and food safety. These interact with climate change, a so-called 'wicked problem' that has links to all human activity. Climate change acts as a threat multiplier that interacts both directly and indirectly with variables, such as disease, food production, food security, food safety and poverty. A number of these interactions are briefly described in this paper before issues of complexity and interconnectedness between these variables are discussed. A common thread underpinning this current global challenge to civilisation is that the system is now dominated by the activities of humans--and many scientists label the current epoch the 'Anthropocene'. Specifically, humans have for the first time collectively overloaded the Earth's capacity to supply, absorb, replenish and stabilise. Many scientists now observe that the ecological and environmental foundations of civilisation appear to be at risk. This paper suggests that, for the One Health movement to address such challenges, the range and number of disciplines that need to be involved must be expanded. In particular, in addition to the insights provided by technical specialists, we need to engage disciplines with the capacity to advance political, economic and social reforms. This will not be easy, but it is argued that this is what is required from the One Health movement in a world with climate change. PMID:25707177

  12. Irrigation in a changing world: a global systems analysis perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doell, P.

    2003-04-01

    The global issues of water security and food security are closely linked. Sustainable plant production requires a sustained provisioning of water, either in the form of "green" or of "blue" water (as introduced by Malin Falkenmark in 1993). Green water is defined as the fraction of water that is evapotranspirated, i.e. the water supply for all non-irrigated vegetation. Blue water refers to the water flows in groundwater and surface water. It represents the water that can be withdrawn, e.g. for irrigation. In areas without enough green water in the soil to achieve satisfactory crop growth, crops can be irrigated with blue water. The distinction between green and blue water helps to understand the linkages between rainfall, soil, land productivity and water availability for irrigation and other human uses. Today, about 67% of the current global water withdrawals and about 87% of the consumptive water use (withdrawal minus return flow) is for irrigation purposes. Irrigated land comprises less than one-fifth of all cropped area but produces about two-fifth of the world's cereals. Due to the high and reliable productivity of irrigated land, an extension of irrigation appears to be an appropriate strategy to feed the world's growing population However, will there be enough water available for the necessary extension? To assess this question, both water availability and demand must be analyzed. At the global scale, such an assessment is supported by the global model of water resources and use model WaterGAP 2, which, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees, computes both water resources and water use by irrigation, livestock, households, manufacturing and thermal power plants. WaterGAP is applied to derive scenarios that show the impact of climate change as well as demographic, economic and technological changes. The Global Irrigation Model of WaterGAP computes, for example, the impact of climate change on irrigation requirements on net irrigation requirements. This is

  13. Breeding to Optimize Agriculture in a Changing World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiankang Wanga; Jose Luis Arausb; Jianmin Wana

    2015-01-01

    Breeding to Optimize Chinese Agriculture (OPTICHINA) was a three-year EU–China project launched in June of 2011. As designed, the project acted as a new strategic model to reinforce systematic cooperation on agricultural research between Europe and China. The OPTICHINA International Conference“Breeding to Optimize Agriculture in a Changing World”was held in Beijing, May 26–29, 2014. The conference included six thematic areas: (1) defining and protecting the yield potential of traits and genes;(2) high-throughput precision phenotyping in the field;(3) molecular technologies in modern breeding;(4) plant ideotype;(5) data analysis, data management, and bioinformatics; and (6) national challenges and opportunities for China. The 10 articles collected in this special issue represent key contributions and topics of this conference. This editorial provides a brief introduction to the OPTICHINA project, followed by the main scientific points of articles published in this special issue. Finally, outcomes from a brainstorming discussion at the end of the conference are summarized, representing the authors' opinions on trends in breeding for a changing world.

  14. Breeding to Optimize Agriculture in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankang Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding to Optimize Chinese Agriculture (OPTICHINA was a three-year EU–China project launched in June of 2011. As designed, the project acted as a new strategic model to reinforce systematic cooperation on agricultural research between Europe and China. The OPTICHINA International Conference “Breeding to Optimize Agriculture in a Changing World” was held in Beijing, May 26–29, 2014. The conference included six thematic areas: (1 defining and protecting the yield potential of traits and genes; (2 high-throughput precision phenotyping in the field; (3 molecular technologies in modern breeding; (4 plant ideotype; (5 data analysis, data management, and bioinformatics; and (6 national challenges and opportunities for China. The 10 articles collected in this special issue represent key contributions and topics of this conference. This editorial provides a brief introduction to the OPTICHINA project, followed by the main scientific points of articles published in this special issue. Finally, outcomes from a brainstorming discussion at the end of the conference are summarized, representing the authors' opinions on trends in breeding for a changing world.

  15. WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION – REFORM IT OR CHANGE IT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterian Maria Gabriela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The failure of Doha Round is a serious step backward for the WTO and the multilateral trading system. Some analysts already discussed in their research about the round as being already closed and they propose the developing of a new program within the organization. WTO still remains a very important institution due to its proven role in encouraging states not to take protectionist measures during the recent economic crisis, but the global trade governance reform must reflect all the changes and realities. The transition is being made toward a more regionalized and preferential global trade and the emergence of strong developing countries shape the whole multilateral trade negotiations. The important growth rates in emerging countries are translated also in strong demand for representation in global trade governance. Objectives: This paper aims to underline the role of multilateralism as form of international cooperation, the link with global economic governance and what concerns academic community in terms of having a reform of it. Prior Work: It has been tried to emphasizing the concepts already developed by known researchers in the field. Approach: The approach is a more theoretic one done in a comparative manner with emphasis on results and future research. The critical method approach is done with qualitative results. Results: The key results are related to pros and cons of reforming the World Trade Organization, as well as presenting the criticisms and proposals for having a second World Trade Organization. Implications: The implications are varied in terms of studying the concepts and addresses researchers in the field, but also lecturers and students. Value: The main added value is the compared approach of the traditional WTO as it derived from General Agreement on Tariff and Trade and the proposal for a new one and its formal relationship with the global economic governance.

  16. A decade of democracy: environmental management in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Aucamp

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The world’s focus on the environment started in 1972 with the Conference of the United Nations on the Human Environment in Stockholm. This led to the formation of the United Nations’ Environmental Programme (UNEP. The new interest in the role of the humans in the environment only picked up momentum after the publication of the report, Our Common Future by the World Commission on Development and the Environment, led by Harlem Gro Brundtland and the follow-up Conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 (The Earth Summit. The main products from this conference were the Earth Charter and the Agenda 21 principles and action plans. Not long after this event South Africa had a change in government in 1994. The new Constitution that was accepted in 1996 is one of the few constitutions that contain pertinent clauses pertaining to the protection of the environment. Environmental legislation such as the new National Environmental Management Act, a National Water Act, a Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, an Air Quality Management Bill has been adapted since 1994. A huge number of non-governmental organisations (NGOs attended the Rio Conference. Some, like Greenpeace (and locally Earthlife Africa, developed pressure groups that pressurised governments to give more attention to the protection of the environment and to improve environmental management. During this period results of scientific research that had a large impact on humankind’s perception of the environment, were published. The discovery of the hole in the ozone layer and of the increase in global warming led to great public interest. This led to conventions and protocols that have been ratified by most countries in the world, for example 189 out of a possible 191 countries ratified the Montreal Protocol for the Protection of the Ozone Layer by June 2004. The private sector responded and today it is the norm to report about the “Triple Bottom-line” (economic, social and

  17. Preparing for Change: Challenges and Opportunities in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Sabine

    2009-03-01

    Our world is becoming increasingly global. This may sound like a clich'e, yet it is true nonetheless, and poses unprecedented challenges for graduate education. For the new generation of researchers, teachers and professionals to be successful they must be prepared in more than the content area of their chosen field. They must also acquire proficiency in global awareness, cultural literacy, multicultural teamwork and language facility. These global skill sets form the basis for effective multicultural collaboration and will become increasingly important even for those who do not intend to study or work abroad. Knowledge has become more portable in the internet age; large data bases and reports can be accessed in real time from various locations around the globe; information is exchanged in multifaceted knowledge networks; collaborative research takes place within and outside of the traditional venue of the research university in the private sector, research institutes, and associations; research networks span multiple disciplines as progress invariably occurs at the intersection of previously discrete fields of inquiry. Global collaboration thus is no longer dependent on the physical proximity of collaborators but can take place anywhere any time. This then requires yet another set of skills, namely the ability to adapt to change, exhibit flexibility and transfer skills to a range of contexts and applications. Effective graduate education must address these realities and expose students to learning opportunities that will enable them to acquire these much needed global skills sets.

  18. Considerations on nonproliferation regime meeting in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, Hiroyoshi; Kikuchi, Masahiro [Nuclear Material Control Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes the past history of worldwide nonproliferation regime, then proposes the future improvements on the regime. Present worldwide nonproliferation regime have been formulated during the cold war era. Therefore, the structure and measures of the regime were heavily influenced by the features of cold war era. Though the cold war was over, still new international order does not seem to be on the horizon, we need to review the present regime and to improve the regime compatible to new world situation. Generally speaking, the nonproliferation regime have gained moderate success so far. We could point out the following features as a kind of success: (1) No increase of overt Nuclear Weapon State (NWS), (2) All five NWSs have finally participated to the NPT, (3) South Africa has destroyed its nuclear weapons and became Non-Nuclear Weapon State (NNWS), (4) Successful conclusions of some regional arrangements, such as Tlatelolco, Ralotonga, and (5) Strengthening of export control on sensitive items. On the other hand, we recognize the following points as the failures of the regime. (6) India, Pakistan and Israel reject to join the NPT, (7) Existence of some violation against NPT regime, i.e. Iraqi case and DPRK case, (8) Insufficient effective measures against brain drain problem, (9) Risk exists for the long term extension of NPT, and (10) Insufficient flexibility to meet changing boundary conditions. We would propose the various measures for strengthening to meet changing boundary conditions, as follows: (11) Measures to be taken along with future civil use of Plutonium, (12) Strengthening and rationalizing international safeguards, (13) Countermeasures for emerging new types of nuclear proliferation, (14) Strengthening nuclear material control in NWS, (15) Measures to be taken for nuclear material from dismantled nuclear weapons, and (16) Nuclear disarmament. (author).

  19. Isotopes in Hydrology, Marine Ecosystems and Climate Change Studies, Vol. 2. Proceedings of the International Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humanity is facing many water related challenges, including access to safe water, pollution of continental and coastal waters and ocean acidification, as well as the growing impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle. Many countries are confronted by increasingly stressed water resources due to rapidly growing populations, increasing agricultural and energy production demands, industrial development, and pollution. The greatest issues of the 21st century, including competition for resources and possible related conflicts, may well focus on the role of water in food and energy security. For more than 50 years, the IAEA has played a key role in advancing and promoting the development and use of isotope techniques to address global environmental issues, such as water resources assessment and management, the study of marine ecosystems, and more recently the impact of climate change. This symposium was jointly organized by the Water Resources Programme and IAEA Environment Laboratories to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the IAEA laboratory in the Principality of Monaco, and represented the 13th edition of the quadrennial symposium on isotope hydrology and water resources management, which has been regularly organized by the IAEA since 1963. The main objectives of the symposium were to review the state of the art in isotope hydrology, the use of isotopes in the study of climatic systems and in marine ecosystems and to outline recent developments in the application of isotope techniques, as well as to identify future trends and developments for research and applications. The contributions submitted by the authors are included in two volumes of proceedings with editorial corrections. These proceedings are intended to serve as an aid for those using isotopes for applied problems in hydrology as well as for the research community

  20. Proceedings of the World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering (San Antonio, Texas, August 6-12, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John W., Ed.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of a joint meeting of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering and the International Organization for Medical Physics. Participants from over 50 countries were in attendance. The theme of the program, "Challenges for the Year 2000," was a reminder of the challenges which confront…

  1. The World Religions Paradigm Time for a Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of religions has long relied on the World Religions paradigm to guide curricula throughout education, which has led to a widening gap, on the one hand, between what is taught in schools and in universities and, on the other, between research and teaching. While the World Religions paradigm has allowed the inclusion of non-Christian…

  2. Nuclear power plant life management in a changing business world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 1999, there were 348 nuclear power plants connected to the grid in OECD Member countries, representing a total capacity of 296 GWe and generating some 24% of their electricity. One third of these nuclear power plants had been in operation for over 20 years. The demand for electricity throughout OECD countries is increasing steadily but the construction of new nuclear power plants has become increasingly difficult. Many utilities would like to keep existing nuclear power plants operating for as long as they can continue to function safely and economically because. extending the lifetime of nuclear power plants is a substitute to constructing new plants. Therefore, nuclear plant life management (PLIM) has been carried out in many OECD Member countries and has played a very important role in the nuclear generation field. Nuclear power plant owners seek to economically optimise the output from their plants, taking into consideration internal and external influences, as well as equipment reliability and maintenance workload. Nuclear power plant life management and extension is generally an attractive option for utilities supplying electricity because of its low marginal cost and low investment risk. PLIM has become an important issue in the context of changing business circumstances caused by regulatory reform of the electricity market. Specifically, the economic aspect of PLIM has become an important focus in the competitive electricity market. The international workshop on 'Plant Life Management in a Changing Business World' was hosted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) in co-operation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) in Washington, DC, on 26-27 June 2000. Some 50 senior utility executives and policy makers from 12 Member countries, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the European Commission (EC) attended the meeting. The objective of the workshop was to examine the status of

  3. Observing, studying, and managing for change-Proceedings of the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, Nicolas; Patterson, Glenn; Parker, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    These proceedings contain the abstracts, manuscripts, and posters of presentations given at the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds-Observing, Studying, and Managing for Change, held at the Westmark Hotel in Fairbanks, Alaska, September 26-30, 2011. The conference was jointly hosted by the Bureau of Land Management and the National Park Service.

  4. ON THE ETHICS OF HUMAN DIGNITY IN TODAY'S CHANGING WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOROPAEVA Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article indicates the relevance of considering the ethics of human dignity in modern globalized world. Due to the fact that the basis of understanding of the new world is its recognition as a whole, there’s an important question of researching new supranational values ​​ where the fundamental value is the ethical category of «human dignity».

  5. New trends in accident prevention due to the changing world of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeck, R. op de; Heuverswyn, K. van; Lemkowitz, S.; Saari, J.; Sundström-Frisk, C.; Zwetsloot, G.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the world of work can give rise to new risk areas or they can change the way that occupational safety and health needs to be managed. This has implications for workplaces themselves and also for the occupational safety and health system. For this reason the 'changing world of work' has be

  6. [Medical tourism: changing a world trend into a national resource].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, Amitai; Toker, Asaf; Mor-Yossef, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    Medical tourism is a new world trend that has great potential. Many countries, especially in the Far East, invest in this emerging industry in order to build a modern medical infrastructure that will attract foreigners and will create a new source of income, while improving the medical services provided to the local community. This article reviews relevant Literature and recent research on medical tourism. We suggest that israel adopt a health policy that will use local know-how to turn it into a world leader in medical tourism. PMID:19320386

  7. China’s soft power: changing the world perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Chaudhry Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited China has focused on improving its image in the world by relying more on its soft power by investing billions of dollars simply to convince the world to accept its rise in the international system. This paper uses both quantitative and qualitative methods in order to grade and assess China’s success with these efforts. While I could not find any significant relationship between China’s tools of soft power and its positive perception bu...

  8. TRANSFORMATION OF THE WORLD BANKING SYSTEM IN CHANGING GLOBAL IMBALANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shestopalova O. O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the processes of transformation in the global banking system amid the global financial and monetary crisis. The author argues that the globalization of the world economy has a significant impact on the development of the banking system as an important integral part of the financial system. The author comes to the conclusion that the crisis state of the U.S. economy and individual countries in Western Europe led to the transformation of the monetary and banking sector globally. Banking system world's leading economies are now in “at risk” because the instability of the U.S. dollar and the euro continues to make chaotic

  9. Sino-Pakistani Relations In a Changing World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JAMSHED; AYAZ; KHAN; M.; RAMZAN; ALI

    2006-01-01

    Pakistan and China share strong common bonds of history, culture and geography Every time we went to China we witnessed a different country, given its sustained development. China is building everywhere, or rather it is rebuilding at an amazing rate that has not been equaled anywhere except perhaps in Europe, rising from the ashes of the Second World War. The

  10. A Changing Child in Changing World: Psychological and Educational Problems of the New School

    OpenAIRE

    David I.Feldstein

    2011-01-01

    The article is devoted to a number of urgent problems of mental and physical health of people who live in the global community. How we understand what is the world around us, what kind of society we live in and what are behavioural patterns and developmental features in the contemporary situation, and what the requirements of this society are. Changes in the modern child are influenced by an intense evolutionary self-development of modern man. Special attention should be paid to the developme...

  11. The changing world demography of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Hirsch, Niels Christian; Pramming, Stig Krøger

    2003-01-01

    In recent years it has been estimated that the current global prevalence of type 2 diabetes amounts to about 150 million patients. Projections suggest that by the year 2025 the number of prevalent patients in the world will reach approximately 300 million. It is assumed that the increase in the n......In recent years it has been estimated that the current global prevalence of type 2 diabetes amounts to about 150 million patients. Projections suggest that by the year 2025 the number of prevalent patients in the world will reach approximately 300 million. It is assumed that the increase...... indicators. We suggest that the currently available methods for the estimation of the future global burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus yield underestimates. Further modifications and validity tests of the modelling techniques are necessary in order to develop a reliable instrument to globally monitor...

  12. Discoveries that changed the world: 1932 – 1942

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the discovery of the neutron (1932) to the first demonstration of controlled fission (1942) was just ten years; a period that took physics from an occupation of a small number of eccentric gentlemen and (even fewer) ladies to something of concern to, and funding decisions of, Governments all over the world. The shadows of those tumultuous years are still with us, for better or worse

  13. Multitasking in the rural world: technological change and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Noronha Vaz, de, T.; P. Nijkamp

    2009-01-01

    The rural world offers a heterogeneous picture caused by a rich past and varied responses to a diversity of socio-economic, demographic and political challenges. The present paper aims to trace new opportunities for rurality in the context of a metamorphosis of current production and consumption systems. Addressing issues like diversification, local competition or networking, rural firms are adapting to new conditions by segmenting and moving towards less concentrated forms,...

  14. World's LPG supply picture will change by 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middle East LPG producers will continue to dominate world export markets in 1996. Led by Saudi Arabia, the Middle East will produce nearly 26 million metric tons of LPG in million metric tons of LPG in 1996, more than 54% of the world's almost 48 million metric tons of export LPG. In 2000, however, with world exports of LPG expanding to 58.9 million metric tons, Middle East suppliers; share will have remained flat, making up 31.7 million metric tons, or 53.9%. Saudi Arabia's contribution will exceed 15 million metric tons, reflecting essentially no growth since 1995. These and other patterns, from data compiled by Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, and published earlier this year, show other suppliers of LPG, especially African (Algeria/Nigeria), North Sea, and Latin American (Venezuela/Argentina), picking up larger shares in the last 5 years of this decade. This scenario assumes completion of several major supply projects that are either panned, under construction, or nearing start up in most of these areas. The paper discusses the global picture, the supply situation in the Middle East, Africa, the North Sea, and South America

  15. Climate change and its effect on world food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February of 1972 earth-orbiting artificial satellites revealed the existence of a greatly increased area of the snow and ice cover of the north polar cap as compared to all previous years of space age observations. Some scientists believe that this may have presaged the onset of the dramatic climate anomalies of 1972 that brought far-reaching adversities to the world's peoples. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that the bad climate of 1972 may be the forerunner of a long series of less favorable agricultural crop years that lie ahead for most world societies. Thus widespread food shortages threaten just at the same time that world populations are growing to new highs. Indeed, less favorable climate may be the new global norm. The Earth may have entered a new 'little ice age'. Perhaps this future period will not be so extreme as that around 1700 AD, but it seems likely, at least, to be a cooler period resembling the hemispheric climatic regimes of the period from 1880-1920. (author)

  16. Thoughts on China' s Diplomacy in a Changing World%Thoughts on China' s Diplomacy in a Changing World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le Yucheng

    2012-01-01

    On the eve of the disintegration of the Soviet Bloc, the "End of History" theory arose in international relations. Two decades on, faced with a vastly transformed world, its originator, Francis Fukuyama, was obliged to acknowledge that he may have overstated his position. Growing global multipolarity, economic globalization and the information revolution,

  17. Identity Change in the World of International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cornelia BALAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this new publication, Cristina Cormoş professionally addresses a sensitive issue, complex and difficult in the same time, and ambitiously manages to give us a picture of international migration viewed through identity change. Starting from the hypothesis that "migration is a change that simultaneously occurs in both physical and socio-cultural realms, which implies not only movement from one community to another, but also the disintegration of structural bonds in the departure area, paralleled by a cultural assimilation of the destination environment", the author analyzes identity changes of the emigrants throughout the entire migration process, the factors underlying these changes, as well as the consequences and implications of these factors in the return migration. The issues addressed within this book also cover the changes occurred in the family and community of origin as a result of the absence of one of its members and of the manifestation of identity changes respectively.

  18. ORGANISATIONAL RESILIENCE: BUILDING BUSINESS VALUE IN A CHANGING WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    Quendler, Erika

    2015-01-01

    As an indication of development ecological, economic and social frame conditions change due to global adjustments. More competition, open markets, changes in political frameworks, structural changes etc. form the challenges for economies as a whole, organisations and employees. On the whole, however, the discussion about challenges often forgets the consequences for ‘organisational’ resilience, i.e. an organisation’s capacity to anticipate disturbance, adapt to events, and create lasting valu...

  19. Economic conditions of technical changes in world civil air transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna HAWLENA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world economic environment of the turn of the century produced many new challenges to civil aviation in expectation of a continued growth in the transportation of passengers and cargo. To meet this growing demand, it will be necessary to increase the fleet and to modernise infrastructure – a process hampered by finances and capacity constraints.Such constraints are especially pressing with regard to the acquisition of new types of large aircraft such as the Airbus A380 and the Boeing 787 and 747-8. Future dominance of the market is, however, difficult to predict, as this will be the outcome of a combination of uncertain parameters.

  20. Perceptions of a changing world induce hope and promote peace in intractable conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Crisp, Richard J; Halperin, Eran

    2015-04-01

    The importance of hope in promoting conciliatory attitudes has been asserted in the field of conflict resolution. However, little is known about conditions inducing hope, especially in intractable conflicts, where reference to the outgroup may backfire. In the current research, five studies yielded convergent support for the hypothesis that hope for peace stems from a general perception of the world as changing. In Study 1, coders observed associations between belief in a changing world, hope regarding peace, and support for concessions. Study 2 revealed the hypothesized relations using self-reported measures. Studies 3 and 4 established causality by instilling a perception of the world as changing (vs. unchanging) using narrative and drawing manipulations. Study 5 compared the changing world message with a control condition during conflict escalation. Across studies, although the specific context was not referred to, the belief in a changing world increased support for concessions through hope for peace. PMID:25713171

  1. Disturbance and landscape dynamics in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Monica G

    2010-10-01

    Disturbance regimes are changing rapidly, and the consequences of such changes for ecosystems and linked social-ecological systems will be profound. This paper synthesizes current understanding of disturbance with an emphasis on fundamental contributions to contemporary landscape and ecosystem ecology, then identifies future research priorities. Studies of disturbance led to insights about heterogeneity, scale, and thresholds in space and time and catalyzed new paradigms in ecology. Because they create vegetation patterns, disturbances also establish spatial patterns of many ecosystem processes on the landscape. Drivers of global change will produce new spatial patterns, altered disturbance regimes, novel trajectories of change, and surprises. Future disturbances will continue to provide valuable opportunities for studying pattern-process interactions. Changing disturbance regimes will produce acute changes in ecosystems and ecosystem services over the short (years to decades) and long-term (centuries and beyond). Future research should address questions related to (1) disturbances as catalysts of rapid ecological change, (2) interactions among disturbances, (3) relationships between disturbance and society, especially the intersection of land use and disturbance, and (4) feedbacks from disturbance to other global drivers. Ecologists should make a renewed and concerted effort to understand and anticipate the causes and consequences of changing disturbance regimes. PMID:21058545

  2. Coming Clean about Organizational Change: Leadership in the Real World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jerry

    This book examines change, leadership, and resilience, including levels of change, what constitutes effective leadership, and characteristics of organizational resilience. It describes ways to build organizational resilience and describes 12 harsh realities that people and organizations bring to reform, such as the reality that most people act…

  3. A Changing Child in Changing World: Psychological and Educational Problems of the New School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I.Feldstein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a number of urgent problems of mental and physical health of people who live in the global community. How we understand what is the world around us, what kind of society we live in and what are behavioural patterns and developmental features in the contemporary situation, and what the requirements of this society are. Changes in the modern child are influenced by an intense evolutionary self-development of modern man. Special attention should be paid to the development of science on the whole and psychological, psychophysiological, psychological and didactic branches in particular whose ba¬sis are stipulated in the textbooks and manuals of a qualitatively new generation.

  4. Fluvial flood risk management in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, B.; Hall, J.; Disse, M.; Schumann, A.

    2010-03-01

    Flood risk emerges from the interaction of hazard and vulnerability. Over recent decades the notion of risk being the basis for flood management decisions has become widely accepted and operationalised through the use of models and quantified risk analysis providing the evidence for risk-informed decision making. However, it is now abundantly apparent that changes in time, at a range of scales, of pertinent variables that determine risk are not a second order consideration but, instead, fundamentally challenge the conventional approach to flood risk management. The nature of some of these changes, particularly those that operate on extended timescales, are highly uncertain, yet decisions that may have implications for several decades still have to be taken. In this paper we explore how flood risk management may be adapted to address processes of uncertain future change. We identify a range of levels at which change may be incorporated in decision making: in the representation of uncertain non-stationary quantities; in the rules that are used to identify preferred options; in the variety of options that may be contemplated for flood risk management; in the scope of problem definition, which increasingly extends to address multiple hazards and multiple functions of river basins; and in the social and organizational characteristics that promote adaptive capacity. Integrated responses to changing flood risk need to attend to each of these levels of decision making, from the technicalities of non-stationarity, to the promotion of resilient societies.

  5. Saudi oil policy and the changing world energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    The author draws on his seven years of experience in Saudi Arabia and his knowledge of the interrelationship between changing technology in the hydrocarbon field and economic and financial factors to trace the long-term pattern of the Kingdom's oil policy and its impact on today's oil market.

  6. A Paradigm for Learning in a World of Continuous Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Through ongoing rapid-fire changes in the nature of communications, the social, professional, and political landscapes of our time are rapidly transforming. But the prevailing paradigm in most schools and school systems is a relic of the industrial revolution. Schools and school systems must adopt a new paradigm for learning if they are to remain…

  7. Big data and positive change in the developing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Taylor; J. Cowls; R. Schroeder; E.T. Meyer

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the product of a workshop that brought together practitioners, researchers, and data experts to discuss how big data is becoming a resource for positive social change in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We include in our definition of big data sources such as social media data

  8. Widespread plant species: Natives versus aliens in our changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Pysek, P.; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.U.; Murray, B.R.; Phillips, M.L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Widespread plant species: natives vs. aliens in our changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Pauchard, Aníbal; Winter, Marten; Pino, Joan; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R.U.; Murray, Brad R.; Phillips, Megan L.; Ming-yang, Li; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Font, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments.

  10. Temporal constraints on predation risk assessment in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habitat degradation takes various forms and likely represents the most significant threat to our global biodiversity. Recently, we have seen considerable attention paid to increasing global CO2 emissions which lead to ocean acidification (OA). Other stressors, such as changing levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), also impact biodiversity but have received much less attention in the recent past. Here we examine fundamental questions about temporal aspects of risk assessment by coral reef damselfish and provide critical insights into how OA and UVR influence this assessment. Chemical cues released during a predator attack provide a rich source of information that other prey animals use to mediate their risk of predation and are the basis of the majority of trait-mediated indirect interactions in aquatic communities. However, we have surprisingly limited information about temporal aspects of risk assessment because we lack knowledge about how long chemical cues persist after they are released into the environment. Here, we showed that under ambient CO2 conditions (∼ 385 μatm), alarm cues of ambon damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis) did not degrade within 30 min in the absence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), but were degraded within 15 min when the CO2 was increased to ∼ 905 μatm. In experiments that used filters to eliminate UVR, we found minimal degradation of alarm cues within 30 min, whereas under ambient UVR conditions, alarm cues were completely degraded within 15 min. Moreover, in the presence of both UVR and elevated CO2, alarm cues were broken down within 5 min. Our results highlight that alarm cues degrade surprisingly quickly under natural conditions and that anthropogenic changes have the potential to dramatically change rates of cue degradation in the wild. This has considerable implications for risk assessment and consequently the importance of trait-mediated indirect interactions in coral-reef communities. - Highlights: • We have limited

  11. Temporal constraints on predation risk assessment in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chivers, Douglas P., E-mail: doug.chivers@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2 (Canada); Ramasamy, Ryan A.; McCormick, Mark I.; Watson, Sue-Ann [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville Qld4811 (Australia); School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville Qld4811 (Australia); Siebeck, Ulrike E. [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane Qld4072 (Australia); Ferrari, Maud C.O. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, WCVM, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7W 5B4 (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    Habitat degradation takes various forms and likely represents the most significant threat to our global biodiversity. Recently, we have seen considerable attention paid to increasing global CO{sub 2} emissions which lead to ocean acidification (OA). Other stressors, such as changing levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), also impact biodiversity but have received much less attention in the recent past. Here we examine fundamental questions about temporal aspects of risk assessment by coral reef damselfish and provide critical insights into how OA and UVR influence this assessment. Chemical cues released during a predator attack provide a rich source of information that other prey animals use to mediate their risk of predation and are the basis of the majority of trait-mediated indirect interactions in aquatic communities. However, we have surprisingly limited information about temporal aspects of risk assessment because we lack knowledge about how long chemical cues persist after they are released into the environment. Here, we showed that under ambient CO{sub 2} conditions (∼ 385 μatm), alarm cues of ambon damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis) did not degrade within 30 min in the absence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), but were degraded within 15 min when the CO{sub 2} was increased to ∼ 905 μatm. In experiments that used filters to eliminate UVR, we found minimal degradation of alarm cues within 30 min, whereas under ambient UVR conditions, alarm cues were completely degraded within 15 min. Moreover, in the presence of both UVR and elevated CO{sub 2}, alarm cues were broken down within 5 min. Our results highlight that alarm cues degrade surprisingly quickly under natural conditions and that anthropogenic changes have the potential to dramatically change rates of cue degradation in the wild. This has considerable implications for risk assessment and consequently the importance of trait-mediated indirect interactions in coral-reef communities. - Highlights:

  12. Evolutionary traps and range shifts in a rapidly changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Robin; Morrongiello, John R; Swearer, Stephen E

    2016-06-01

    Humans are altering the environment at an unprecedented rate. Although behavioural plasticity has allowed many species to respond by shifting their ranges to more favourable conditions, these rapid environmental changes may cause 'evolutionary traps', whereby animals mistakenly prefer resources that reduce their fitness. The role of evolutionary traps in influencing the fitness consequences of range shifts remains largely unexplored. Here, we review these interactions by considering how climate change may trigger maladaptive developmental pathways or increase the probability of animals encountering traps. We highlight how traps could selectively remove some phenotypes and compromise population persistence. We conclude by highlighting emerging areas of research that would improve our understanding of when interactions between evolutionary traps and range shifts are likely to be most detrimental to animals. PMID:27330167

  13. Changing World, Unchanging Accounting? Cost Systems for Hungarian Agricultural Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Musinszki

    2011-01-01

    The literature of agricultural cost accounting has defined the definition of cost centres and cost bearers, the contents of the accounts, the procedures and methods for cost accounting and unit cost calculation without any significant changes for decades now. Do the agricultural companies set up and operate their own cost allocation and unit cost calculation systems on procedures made for state owned farms and cooperatives, or do they align their cost system with the challenges of our times? ...

  14. The vital issues process: Strategic planning for a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.; Glicken, J.

    1995-05-01

    The Vital Issues process (VIp) is a strategic planning tool initially developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Office of Foreign Intelligence (OFI)* of the US Department of Energy (DOE). It was further developed and refined through its application to a variety of strategic purposes for a range of public and semipublic organizations. The VIp provides a structured mechanism for assisting organizations in accomplishing specified objectives by identifying and prioritizing a portfolio of strategic issues, programmatic areas, or responses to a specified problem. It employs day-long panel meetings in a specified format to elicit a broad range of perspectives on a particular issue in a nonconfrontational manner and to facilitate the interaction and synthesis of diverse viewpoints on a specific topic. The VIp is unique in its incorporation of two primary approaches in each panel session: a qualitative or transactional segment, which entails the synthesis of the alternatives through negotiations or discussion, and a quantitative or net benefit maximization segment, an analytical approach, which involves prioritization of the alternatives using pairwise comparisons. This combination of facilitated group discussion and quantitative ranking provides input to strategic management decisions in the form of stakeholder-defined and -prioritized items as well as information on potential barriers to the implementation of policies and programs. This is the final volume in the series Identifying Vital Issues: New Intelligence Strategies for a New World, a three-volume set that gives an accounting of the VIp as implemented for OFI. This volume provides an in-depth description of the methodology used in the VIp.

  15. The Changing Strategic Context of Nuclear Weapons and Its Implications for the New Nuclear World Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Ever since the nuclear bombing at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, nuclear weapons have become one of the defining elements in shaping the world strategic situation for better or worse. The end of the Cold War has led to dramatic changes in the world security landscape. The international

  16. Teacher Education around the World: Changing Policies and Practices. Teacher Quality and School Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling-Hammond, Linda, Ed.; Lieberman, Ann, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers are the most important single element of the education system but what does it take to create high quality teachers in today's world? Around the world, countries are struggling to understand how to change their schools to meet global demands. International comparisons have shown that schools in Finland lead the league tables, but why is…

  17. On the world's ice ages and changing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All known ice ages during the earth's history are reviewed. The oldest glaciation occurred around 2.3 billion years ago, followed by a series of large glaciations 950-650, 450-430 and 310-270 million years ago. Continental drift played a major role in these long-term climatic changes. The present Quaternary ice age actually began 17 million years ago, when a large ice mass grew over Antarctica. A detailed account is given of the climatic fluctuations during the Quaternary period (over 2.5 million years). Different stratigraphic records, and the relationship of climatic variations to orbital forcing are discussed. Large environmental changes took place in the course of the climate oscillations. Large ice sheets waxed and waned, global sea-levels fluctuated, forests disappeared from many regions during cold times and advanced during favourable times. The ice masses depressed the earth's crust markedly, and this then rose rapidly when the ice melted. The extent of glacial erosion is also discussed. Finally the postglacial climatic history of the earth is described and the consequences of the possible greenhouse effect are considered.(orig.)

  18. A new world natural vegetation map for global change studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Lapola

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a new world natural vegetation map at 1 degree horizontal resolution for use in global climate models. We used the Dorman and Sellers vegetation classification with inclusion of a new biome: tropical seasonal forest, which refers to both deciduous and semi-deciduous tropical forests. SSiB biogeophysical parameters values for this new biome type are presented. Under this new vegetation classification we obtained a consensus map between two global natural vegetation maps widely used in climate studies. We found that these two maps assign different biomes in ca. 1/3 of the continental grid points. To obtain a new global natural vegetation map, non-consensus areas were filled according to regional consensus based on more than 100 regional maps available on the internet. To minimize the risk of using poor quality information, the regional maps were obtained from reliable internet sources, and the filling procedure was based on the consensus among several regional maps obtained from independent sources. The new map was designed to reproduce accurately both the large-scale distribution of the main vegetation types (as it builds on two reliable global natural vegetation maps and the regional details (as it is based on the consensus of regional maps.Elaborou-se um novo mapa global de vegetação natural naresolução horizontal de 1 grau para uso em modelos climáticos de circulação geral. Utilizou-se a classificação de vegetação de Dorman e Sellers com a inclusão de um novo bioma: floresta tropical estacional, que compreende as florestas tropicais decíduas e semidecíduas. Para este novo tipo de bioma, apresentaram-se os valores de parâmetros biogeofísicos domodelo de processos à superfície SSiB. Sob essa nova classificação de vegetação, obteve-se um mapa de consenso entre dois mapas globais de vegetação natural amplamente utilizados em estudos climáticos. Mostrou-se que esses dois mapas alocam biomas diferentes em cerca

  19. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT & ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN A CHANGING WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona NICOLAE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to emphasize how the dynamic changes in the economic sectors affect the Human Resource Management and the entrepreneurship education. Nowadays the Human Resource Management (HRM has to be beyond its limits because phenomena like head hunting, migration and brain drain are more and more present in any modern organization’s life. Also, the entrepreneurship involves competences in solving conflicts, rising productivity and creating an adequate social climate in the firm. As a result, entrepreneurship education becomes very important in order to prevent and solve all the problems that can appear in a modern firm. The paper will present entrepreneurship education as it is seen both in E.U. and United States. The importance of entrepreneurship has become a highlighted theme in E.U. from 2001 when “developing the spirit of enterprise” was declared one of the most important objectives that should be taking in account by the education and training system in E.U. In U.S.A. this subject was approached for a long time ago and nowadays is seen as a way to success not only in business but even in personal life.

  20. Forests in a water limited world under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate on ecological and climatic benefits of planted forests at the sensitive dry edge of the closed forest belt (i.e. at the ‘xeric limits’) is still unresolved. Forests sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide, accumulate biomass, control water erosion and dust storms, reduce river sedimentation, and mitigate small floods. However, planting trees in areas previously dominated by grassland or cropland can dramatically alter the energy and water balances at multiple scales. The forest/grassland transition zone is especially vulnerable to projected drastic temperature and precipitation shifts and growing extremes due to its high ecohydrological sensitivity. We investigated some of the relevant aspects of the ecological and climatic role of forests and potential impacts of climate change at the dryland margins of the temperate-continental zone using case studies from China, the United States and SE Europe (Hungary). We found that, contrary to popular expectations, the effects of forest cover on regional climate might be limited and the influence of forestation on water resources might be negative. Planted forests generally reduce stream flow and lower groundwater table level because of higher water use than previous land cover types. Increased evaporation potential due to global warming and/or extreme drought events is likely to reduce areas that are appropriate for tree growth and forest establishment. Ecologically conscious forest management and forestation planning should be adjusted to the local, projected hydrologic and climatic conditions, and should also consider non-forest alternative land uses. (paper)

  1. Chemical engineering and chemistry: education in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijenga Jetse C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Current trends in science and engineering research are analyzed, together with an inventory of changes in the field of employment and practice in industry. The resulting demands on the university education of chemists and chemical engineers have been translated into a more or less continuous updating of the curriculum at the Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry of the Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. In general it can be said that the emphasis within education will have to shift from the knowledge of facts, towards the ability to apply this knowledge to the process of solving problems in a realistic setting. Two topics will be highlighted. Multidisciplinary project group work was successfully introduced to enable students to apply theoretical knowledge to real life situations in a professional (industrial context, resulting among others in a sharper focus on communication skills. On the other hand, knowledge of theory and experimental practice are combined and augmented by the increased use of experiment simulations for illustration, demonstration and experimentation purposes. Here, the increased use of information technology facilities and skills is essential.

  2. Coral reef recovery dynamics in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, N. A. J.; Nash, K. L.; Kool, J. T.

    2011-06-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are degrading through multiple disturbances that are becoming more frequent and severe. The complexities of this degradation have been studied in detail, but little work has assessed characteristics that allow reefs to bounce back and recover between pulse disturbance events. We quantitatively review recovery rates of coral cover from pulse disturbance events among 48 different reef locations, testing the relative roles of disturbance characteristics, reef characteristics, connectivity and anthropogenic influences. Reefs in the western Pacific Ocean had the fastest recovery, whereas reefs in the geographically isolated eastern Pacific Ocean were slowest to recover, reflecting regional differences in coral composition, fish functional diversity and geographic isolation. Disturbances that opened up large areas of benthic space recovered quickly, potentially because of nonlinear recovery where recruitment rates were high. The type of disturbance had a limited effect on subsequent rates of reef recovery, although recovery was faster following crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks. This inconsequential role of disturbance type may be in part due to the role of unaltered structural complexity in maintaining key reef processes, such as recruitment and herbivory. Few studies explicitly recorded potential ecological determinants of recovery, such as recruitment rates, structural complexity of habitat and the functional composition of reef-associated fish. There was some evidence of slower recovery rates within protected areas compared with other management systems and fished areas, which may reflect the higher initial coral cover in protected areas rather than reflecting a management effect. A better understanding of the driving role of processes, structural complexity and diversity on recovery may enable more appropriate management actions that support coral-dominated ecosystems in our changing climate.

  3. Doctors in society. Medical professionalism in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Medicine bridges the gap between science and society. Indeed, the application of scientific knowledge to human health is a crucial aspect of clinical practice. Doctors are one important agent through which that scientific understanding is expressed. But medicine is more than the sum of our knowledge about disease. Medicine concerns the experiences, feelings, and interpretations of human beings in often extraordinary moments of fear, anxiety, and doubt. In this extremely vulnerable position, it is medical professionalism that underpins the trust the public has in doctors. This Working Party was established to define the nature and role of medical professionalism in modern society. Britain's health system is undergoing enormous change. The entry of multiple health providers, the wish for more equal engagement between patients and professionals, and the ever-greater contribution of science to advances in clinical practice all demand a clear statement of medicine's unifying purpose and doctors' common values. What is medical professionalism and does it matter to patients? Although evidence is lacking that more robust professionalism will inevitably lead to better health outcomes, patients certainly understand the meaning of poor professionalism and associate it with poor medical care. The public is well aware that an absence of professionalism is harmful to their interests. The Working Party's view, based on the evidence it has received, is that medical professionalism lies at the heart of being a good doctor. The values that doctors embrace set a standard for what patients expect from their medical practitioners. The practice of medicine is distinguished by the need for judgement in the face of uncertainty. Doctors take responsibility for these judgements and their consequences. A doctor's up-to-date knowledge and skill provide the explicit scientific and often tacit experiential basis for such judgements. But because so much of medicine's unpredictability calls for

  4. Sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply. Political and legal challenges of the 21th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book on sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply as political challenges in the 21th century includes contributions on the following topics: sustainability and environment, energy and climatic change, agriculture and world food supply.

  5. The 5th World Congress of chemical engineering: Technologies critical to a changing World. Volume II: Agriculture, food biotechnology biomedical electric power process safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Volume 2 of the proceedings from the 5th World Congress of Chemical Engineering covers four major topic areas from which papers were selected for the database: Agriculture, Food; Biotechnology; Electric Power, and Process Safety. Pertinent subtopics include: Renewable Resource Engineering; Special Processes in the Food Industry; Advances in Metabolite Production; Advances in Fermentation and Cell Culture Engineering; Coal and Nuclear Central Station Power Plants; Large Natural Gas Fired Power Stations; Distributed Generation; Potential Impact of Biomass Energy; and Chemical Hazards in Plant Design. 29 papers were selected from Volume 1 for the database.

  6. GREENIFY: A Real-World Action Game for Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joey J.; Ceyhan, Pinar; Jordan-Cooley, William; Sung, Woonhee

    2013-01-01

    The literature on climate change education recommends social, accessible action-oriented learning that is specifically designed to resonate with a target audience's values and worldview. This article discusses GREENIFY, a real-world action game designed to teach adult learners about climate change and motivate informed action. A pilot study…

  7. Coastal seas in a changing world: Anthropogenic impact and environmental responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Gao, Xuelu; Ishizaka, Joji; Lebel, Louis

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades, human-driven environmental change caused by the modification of river discharges, the exploitation of marine resources, the burning of fossil fuels, and various shoreline developments and engineering activities, has accelerated; and evidence of this is seen around the world. Linking continents with open oceans, coastal seas trap most land-based discharge and consequently face varying degrees of anthropogenic change.

  8. Proceedings of the CanSIA solar conference 2005 : the world of solar. CD-ROM ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference focused on recent activities promoting solar energy as a major energy supplier, as well as on actions needed to overcome barriers to greater solar deployment. The potential of solar energy technologies in overcoming energy supply problems was examined, as well as the value of solar energy in achieving greenhouse gas reduction targets and creating jobs and wealth for local economies. Various solar energy programs in Canada were reviewed, as well as greenhouse gas offset systems and domestic hot water programs. Standard Offer Contracts in Ontario were discussed. Various university and industry partnerships in solar energy research were described. Issues concerning interconnection standards and industry updates were reviewed. Financing programs for solar energy projects were presented, including Renewable Energy Deployment Initiative (REDI) program statistics. Performance standards for photovoltaic (PV) modules were reviewed, as well as changes in various building codes relating to the solar energy industry. Issues concerning sustainable energy education, marketing and training were examined. The role of solar energy in Ontario's electricity supply was discussed. An overview of current solar energy projects funded by the Canadian government was provided. Thirty-nine papers were presented at this conference, of which 5 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Riedy; Jade Herriman

    2011-01-01

    On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews). WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15) in December 2009. In this paper, we examine t...

  10. Structure, dynamics and directions of changes on the world beer market

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew Gołaś; Mariusz Ścibek

    2009-01-01

    The report shows the results of analysis of a structure and dynamics of changes in the world beer market. In the article there are analysed production and sale of beer, the beer foreign trade, brands and consumption of beer in years 1999-2004. The research carried out shows that Europe plays the major role in the world beer production, it is the region of the biggest beer tradition in the world. However, the market leader position belongs to China, which in case of beer production has already...

  11. Changing education in a changing world : the case of environmental education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praamsma, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in societal structures lead to changes in educational practices. The relationship between both changes however is not always quite clear. I want to show the close relation? ship between social change and educational reform and the necessity of the close analyses of the one to come to the pro

  12. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Peter L. [Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Brisbane, 4111 (Australia)

    2010-03-15

    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  13. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  14. Botany and a changing world: introduction to the special issue on global biological change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Stephen G; Suding, Katharine; Sakai, Ann K

    2013-07-01

    The impacts of global change have heightened the need to understand how organisms respond to and influence these changes. Can we forecast how change at the global scale may lead to biological change? Can we identify systems, processes, and organisms that are most vulnerable to global changes? Can we use this understanding to enhance resilience to global changes? This special issue on global biological change emphasizes the integration of botanical information at different biological levels to gain perspective on the direct and indirect effects of global change. Contributions span a range of spatial scales and include both ecological and evolutionary timescales and highlight work across levels of organization, including cellular and physiological processes, individuals, populations, and ecosystems. Integrative botanical approaches to global change are critical for the ecological and evolutionary insights they provide and for the implications these studies have for species conservation and ecosystem management. PMID:23825138

  15. Changing knowledge perspective in a changing world: The Adriatic multidisciplinary TDS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, Andrea; Carniel, Sandro; Nativi, Stefano; Signell, Richard P.; Benetazzo, Alvise; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Bonaldo, Davide; Minuzzo, Tiziano; Sclavo, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    The use and exploitation of the marine environment in recent years has been increasingly high, therefore calling for the need of a better description, monitoring and understanding of its behavior. However, marine scientists and managers often spend too much time in accessing and reformatting data instead of focusing on discovering new knowledge from the processes observed and data acquired. There is therefore the need to make more efficient our approach to data mining, especially in a world where rapid climate change imposes rapid and quick choices. In this context, it is mandatory to explore ways and possibilities to make large amounts of distributed data usable in an efficient and easy way, an effort that requires standardized data protocols, web services and standards-based tools. Following the US-IOOS approach, which has been adopted in many oceanographic and meteorological sectors, we present a CNR experience in the direction of setting up a national Italian IOOS framework (at the moment confined at the Adriatic Sea environment), using the THREDDS (THematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services) Data Server (TDS). A TDS is a middleware designed to fill the gap between data providers and data users, and provides services allowing data users to find the data sets pertaining to their scientific needs, to access, visualize and use them in an easy way, without the need of downloading files to the local workspace. In order to achieve this results, it is necessary that the data providers make their data available in a standard form that the TDS understands, and with sufficient metadata so that the data can be read and searched for in a standard way. The TDS core is a NetCDF- Java Library implementing a Common Data Model (CDM), as developed by Unidata (http://www.unidata.ucar.edu), allowing the access to "array-based" scientific data. Climate and Forecast (CF) compliant NetCDF files can be read directly with no modification, while non-compliant files can

  16. Post-Car World: Why Laugh at Change? Definitions of the Car and Potential Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Rigal, Alexandre; Rudler, Jade

    2014-01-01

    Far from the sirens of Modernism and the models founded on a standard vision of humanity, the scope of the Post-Car World research project is pluralistic. This project, funded by the Fonds National (Synergia), aims to create urban planning scenarios, focusing on the role of the car. Originally based on our investigation of people’s relationship with the car, the plurality of practices and their possible (and desired) alternatives will likewise enhance these scenarios. This plurality of views ...

  17. Theological and ethical dimensions of addressing climate change : reflections from the World Council of Churches (WCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, D.G. [World Council of Churches, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The World Council of Churches (WCC) has supported regional workshops around the world which focus on examining climate change issues from a theological and ethical perspective. The human responsibility is one dimension of the ethics of climate change and is supplemented by the fact that the problem is caused largely by rich industrialized countries, the consequences of which will be suffered in most part by the poor and politically weak developing nations and by future generations. When the WCC delivered a statement at the Kyoto Climate Conference in December 1997, they integrated these two ethical dimensions and spoke of climate change as an issue of justice. Their point of view was that as individuals and as societies, particularly in the over-developed parts of the world, we must be held responsible for the destructive impact of our actions which are leading to climate change and threatening vulnerable human communities, other species and broader ecosystems. Justice implies that we must be accountable for promises that we make to limit the emissions of greenhouse gases. The WCC has been actively involved in the climate change issue since 1988 through the education of its member churches around the world and through monitoring the inter-governmental negotiations through the UN, as well as through advocacy at national levels. In May 2000, the WCC held an international consultation to examine the issue of emissions trading from a perspective of equity. This paper included 2 appendices: Appendix A entitled Statement by the World Council of Churches to the high level segment of the third session of the Conference of the Parties (COP3) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and Appendix B entitled The atmosphere as a global commons : responsible caring and equitable sharing.

  18. Innovation in a warming world. Research tackling Europe's grand challenge of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Usanov, A.; Gehem, M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is arguably the largest environmental challenge facing humankind. Though the impact will be gradual and difficult to predict, we slowly start to understand how this process will affect our planet. The study "Innovation in a Warming World" spells out these effects, specifically for Eur

  19. Full Speed Ahead: Our Leadership Summit Examines the Wildly Changing World of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The face of reading is changing, and it is happening at a much faster rate than most people had imagined. Where is it all going? What factors are driving the most significant developments? And what role do librarians play in this rapidly evolving world? These are some of the key questions that stakeholders--including educators, publishers,…

  20. Adapting to a Changing World--Challenges and Opportunities in Undergraduate Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Adapting to a Changing World" was commissioned by the National Science Foundation to examine the present status of undergraduate physics education, including the state of physics education research, and, most importantly, to develop a series of recommendations for improving physics education that draws from the knowledge we have about…

  1. Climate Change Draws World Attention: The 2007 Nobel Peace Award Goes to Gore and IPCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisland, Beverly Milner; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, the Nobel Committee awarded their Peace Prize to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (a scientific intergovernmental body set up by the World Meteorological Organization and by the United Nations Environment Program) and to former Vice-President Al Gore, Jr. The committee praised the United Nations panel for creating…

  2. "Productivity Change and Mine Dynamics: The Coal Industry in Japan during World War II"

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuji Okazaki

    2012-01-01

    In the 1930s and 1940s, the Japanese coal industry experienced huge fluctuations in production and labor productivity. In this paper, I explore the micro-aspects of labor productivity change in the coal industry during World War II, using mine-level data, compiled from official statistics and original documents of the Coal Control Association (Sekitan Toseikai). The coal industry in this period was characterized by dynamic changes in market structure: a number of mines entered and exited the ...

  3. Proceedings of the REMPAN 97: 7. Coordination meeting of World Health Organization collaborating centers in radiation emergency medical preparedness and assistance network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Special reports and panels are presented in these proceedings covering the following subjects: emergency planning and preparedness, biology, biological effects, radiation effects and therapy, internal contamination and irradiation, and national programs and activities related to radiation accident preparedness and assistance

  4. Climate change mitigation in Asia and financing Mechanisms.Proceedings of a Regional Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three primary objectives of the conference, which was organized by the UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Environment Department of the World Bank, at Goa in India from May 4 to 6, 1998, were: 1) to share the GHG mitigation experiences from Asian developing countries; 2) to disseminate the standard methodological approach for mitigation analysis developed by UNEP and its applications in different countries; and 3) assess the role and efficacy of financial mechanisms and to, specifically, seek feedback on the Prototype Carbon Fund proposed by the World Bank. Follwing these objectives, the workshop presentations and discussions were structured in three parts. In the first part, participants from eleven Asian developing countries made presentations that were followed by discussions. The second part included the presentations by the experts from UCCEE, UNFCCC and other invited experts who presented the mitigation methodology and the issues and experiences relating to various co-operative implementation mechanisms. The third part included the presentations by the World Bank representatives on the Prototype Carbon Fund and the discussions on financial mechanisms. (EG)

  5. Reality is broken why games make us better and how they can change the world

    CERN Document Server

    McGonigal, Jane

    2011-01-01

    We are living in a world full of games. More than 31 million people in the UK are gamers. The average young person will spend 10,000 hours gaming by the age of twenty-one. The future belongs to those who play games. In this ground-breaking book, visionary game designer Jane McGonigaI challenges conventional thinking and shows that games - far from being simply escapist entertainment - have the potential not only to radically improve our own lives but to change the world.

  6. Climate Change, Disaster Risk, and the Urban Poor : Cities Building Resilience for a Changing World

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    Poor people living in slums are at particularly high risk from the impacts of climate change and natural hazards. They live on the most vulnerable land within cities, typically areas deemed undesirable by others and thus affordable. This study analyzes the key challenges facing the urban poor, given the risks associated with climate change and disasters, particularly with regard to the del...

  7. The ten most important changes in psychiatry since World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micale, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    Writing the recent history of a subject is notoriously difficult because of the lack of perspective and impartiality. One way to gain insight and understanding into the recent past of a discipline of knowledge is to consult directly the living practitioners who actually experienced first-hand the major changing circumstances in the discipline during the period under study. This article seeks to explore the most significant changes occurring in Western, and especially American, psychiatry from the end of World War II up to the present by interrogating a representative selection of psychiatrists and psychologists about the subject. Over a three-year period, the author surveyed approximately 200 mental health experts on their perceptions of change in the world of psychiatric theory and practice during this enormously eventful 70-year period. After presenting the survey results, the article then attempts to analyse the answers that the author did (and did not) obtain from his poll-taking subjects.

  8. Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Riedy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews. WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15 in December 2009. In this paper, we examine the role that deliberative mini-publics can play in facilitating the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response. We pursue this intent through a reflective evaluation of the Australian component of the World Wide Views on Global Warming project (WWViews. Our evaluation of WWViews is mixed. The Australian event was delivered with integrity and feedback from Australian participants was almost universally positive. Globally, WWViews demonstrated that it is feasible to convene a global mini-public to deliberate on issues of global relevance, such as climate change. On the other hand, the contribution of WWViews towards the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response was limited and it achieved little influence on global climate change policy. We identify lessons for future global mini-publics, including the need to prioritise the quality of deliberation and provide flexibility to respond to cultural and political contexts in different parts of the world. Future global mini-publics may be more influential if they seek to represent discourse diversity in addition to demographic profiles, use designs that maximise the potential for transmission from public to empowered space, run over longer time periods to build momentum for change and experiment with ways of bringing global citizens together in a single process instead of discrete national events.

  9. Structure, dynamics and directions of changes on the world beer market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The report shows the results of analysis of a structure and dynamics of changes in the world beer market. In the article there are analysed production and sale of beer, the beer foreign trade, brands and consumption of beer in years 1999-2004. The research carried out shows that Europe plays the major role in the world beer production, it is the region of the biggest beer tradition in the world. However, the market leader position belongs to China, which in case of beer production has already overtaken position of longstanding beer market leader – United States. Geography and dynamics of beer sale have been changed as well. Distinct slowing down in beer sale on markets of the biggest beer traditions can be noticed, while on the area of Central East Europe, East Europe and Asia the strong dynamics of sale can be observed. The reasons of such a trend are various, mostly the changes are triggered by strongly differentiated level of beer consumption per capita and changes in costumers tastes, much more focused on consuming soft alcoholic drinks.

  10. Energy, world should not chose nuclear energy to fight against climatic change. Nuclear and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes an abstract of the conclusions of an expert group, the Oxford Research Group, which criticizes the today boost in favor of the electricity from nuclear energy. They explain that the nuclear energy should not be a solution for the fight against the climatic change. (A.L.B.)

  11. Serious Simulation Role-Playing Games for Transformative Climate Change Education: "World Climate" and "Future Climate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-Varga, J. N.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.; Jones, A.; Merhi, H.; Hunt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change, its mitigation, and adaption to its impacts are among the greatest challenges of our times. Despite the importance of societal decisions in determining climate change outcomes, flawed mental models about climate change remain widespread, are often deeply entrenched, and present significant barriers to understanding and decision-making around climate change. Here, we describe two simulation role-playing games that combine active, affective, and analytical learning to enable shifts of deeply held conceptions about climate change. The games, World Climate and Future Climate, use a state-of-the-art decision support simulation, C-ROADS (Climate Rapid Overview and Decision Support) to provide users with immediate feedback on the outcomes of their mitigation strategies at the national level, including global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and concentrations, mean temperature changes, sea level rise, and ocean acidification. C-ROADS outcomes are consistent with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMS), such as those used by the IPCC, but runs in less than one second on ordinary laptops, providing immediate feedback to participants on the consequences of their proposed policies. Both World Climate and Future Climate role-playing games provide immersive, situated learning experiences that motivate active engagement with climate science and policy. In World Climate, participants play the role of United Nations climate treaty negotiators. Participant emissions reductions proposals are continually assessed through interactive exploration of the best available science through C-ROADS. Future Climate focuses on time delays in the climate and energy systems. Participants play the roles of three generations: today's policymakers, today's youth, and 'just born.' The game unfolds in three rounds 25 simulated years apart. In the first round, only today's policymakers make decisions; In the next round, the young become the policymakers and inherit the

  12. Sustainability in a changing world: integrating human health and wellbeing, urbanisation, and ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    KUSCH Sigrid; Fleming, Aysha; Cradock-Henry, Nicholas; Schmitz, Nele; Pereira, Laura; Vogt, Jess; Lim, Michelle; Kharrazi, Ali; Evoh, Chijioke J.; Hamel, Perrine; Bollmohr, Silke; Patterson, James; Adler, Carolina; Waterlander, Wilma; Sugiura, Ai

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to address interlinked sustainability issues in a world challenged by inequality, finite resources and unprecedented changes across Earth’s systems. As Future Earth Fellows, based on our collective expertise in a diverse range of sustainability issues, here we identify a specific need to recognise and respond appropriately to the nexus between human health and wellbeing, urbanisation, and ecosystem services (the ‘WUE nexus’). This nexus is a priority area for research...

  13. Structural changes in the organisation of world trade and implications for the shipping industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnland, Dag; Hernes, Tor; Omtvedt, Petter C.

    2002-01-01

    The report documents the results of a research and technical development (RTD) project focusing on the implication for the shipping industry of structural changes in the organisation of world trade. Among the many driving forces behind globalisation of trade and of business trends in logistics and supply chains have been identified and looked into. Characteristic features of leading firms have been identified. The recommendations for the shipping companies comprise the development of an a...

  14. Book review: Understanding American power: the changing world of US foreign policy by Bryan Mabee

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Richard

    2014-01-01

    "Understanding American Power: The Changing World of US Foreign Policy." Bryan Mabee. Palgrave Macmillan. October 2013. --- In this book Bryan Mabee presents a broad-ranging assessment of US power in the twenty-first century that covers not just the nature and mechanics of foreign policy but the broad array of economic, military, political, social and ideational forces that shape America’s global position and role, all set in a clear historical context. Anyone looking to understand American p...

  15. Proceedings of the upwind downwind 2008 conference : climate change and healthy cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference provided a forum to examine the effects of poor air quality on public health. It was attended by urban planners, public health officials, policy makers, environmental managers, non-government organizations, academics, industry, community groups and politicians. The first session of the conference focused on research in cardiovascular and respiratory health impacts, linkages and actions to improve air quality and address climate change. The session on urban and transportation planning focused on how the implementation of transportation systems and land use patterns through urban design can impact health and air quality. It examined green buildings, standards and their linkages to improving local air quality. The session on climate change and local partnerships focused on local actions that cities, organizations and individuals can take to improve air quality and address climate change. One of the 16 presentations featured at this conference has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Changing Teacher Practices: Proceedings of a National Conference (Austin, Texas, October 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defino, Maria E., Ed.; Carter, Heather, Ed.

    In this report of a working conference, experts in the teacher education field considered the adequacy of current research on teaching practices and obstacles in the implementation of changes based on research findings. In "How Useful Are the Findings from the Research on Teaching," Jane A. Stallings discussed findings from research on teaching…

  17. Proceedings of the conference days on 'Climate change impacts on coastal risks'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the articles of the presentations given during this conference about the climate change impacts on coastal risks: - Topic 1 - forcing changes: Regional sea level changes rebuilt for the last five decades; Sea level modeling in decennial and centennial experiments of the coupled CNRM-CERFACS model; Sea level state simulations in the Atlantic ocean between 1960 and 2100 for 3 climate change scenarios; Wave trends and characteristics variability in the Bay of Biscay from 1958 to 2001; Climate change impacts on storm events affecting the European coastline, the MICORE project; CECILE project: coastal environmental changes, impacts of sea level rise; Hydro-dynamism of a meso-tidal bay-shore in modal conditions and in storm conditions, Suscinio Bay, South-Brittany; - Topic 2 - impacts on unforeseen turns of events: VULSACO - vulnerability of sandy coastal systems in front of climate changes and anthropic pressures, methods, tools, results and lessons learnt; Climate change vulnerability with a 2DH modeling on 4 French beaches; Analysis of the 'Truc-Vert' beach (Gironde) evolution over a decennial period, link with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO); Impact of the reduction of the Rhone river solid fraction on the delta coastline mobility since the Little Ice Age; Mega-blocs of the eastern side of the Fos Gulf as markers of exceptional SW-oriented storms; Implementation of a multi-model approach to evaluate the Languedoc coast exposure to marine submersions in a climate change context; Continuous video observation of the littoral: multi-scales and multi-processes; - Topic 3 - Socio-economic impacts: Climate change and coastal risk evaluation in North Africa; Assessment of damage from storm surge and sea level rise to coastal cities: lessons from the Miami area; Construction and environmental protection of centre-west Atlantic coastal communities: contribution of geo-history; Consideration of climate change effects in new coastal protection schemes

  18. Landscape genetics in a changing world: disentangling historical and contemporary influences and inferring change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Clinton W; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2015-12-01

    Landscape genetics seeks to determine the effect of landscape features on gene flow and genetic structure. Often, such analyses are intended to inform conservation and management. However, depending on the many factors that influence the time to reach equilibrium, genetic structure may more strongly represent past rather than contemporary landscapes. This well-known lag between current demographic processes and population genetic structure often makes it challenging to interpret how contemporary landscapes and anthropogenic activity shape gene flow. Here, we review the theoretical framework for factors that influence time lags, summarize approaches to address this temporal disconnect in landscape genetic studies, and evaluate ways to make inferences about landscape change and its effects on species using genetic data alone or in combination with other data. Those approaches include comparing correlation of genetic structure with historical versus contemporary landscapes, using molecular markers with different rates of evolution, contrasting metrics of genetic structure and gene flow that reflect population genetic processes operating at different temporal scales, comparing historical and contemporary samples, combining genetic data with contemporary estimates of species distribution or movement, and controlling for phylogeographic history. We recommend using simulated data sets to explore time lags in genetic structure, and argue that time lags should be explicitly considered both when designing and interpreting landscape genetic studies. We conclude that the time lag problem can be exploited to strengthen inferences about recent landscape changes and to establish conservation baselines, particularly when genetic data are combined with other data.

  19. 78 FR 35360 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Name Change-Allied World Reinsurance Company (NAIC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Name Change--Allied World Reinsurance Company (NAIC 22730) AGENCY: Bureau of the Fiscal Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury... 22730) has formally changed its name to Allied World Insurance Company effective December 11,...

  20. Co-benefits of addressing climate change can motivate action around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Paul G.; Milfont, Taciano L.; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Bilewicz, Michał; Doron, Guy; Garðarsdóttir, Ragna B.; Gouveia, Valdiney V.; Guan, Yanjun; Johansson, Lars-Olof; Pasquali, Carlota; Corral-Verdugo, Victor; Aragones, Juan Ignacio; Utsugi, Akira; Demarque, Christophe; Otto, Siegmar; Park, Joonha; Soland, Martin; Steg, Linda; González, Roberto; Lebedeva, Nadezhda; Madsen, Ole Jacob; Wagner, Claire; Akotia, Charity S.; Kurz, Tim; Saiz, José L.; Schultz, P. Wesley; Einarsdóttir, Gró; Saviolidis, Nina M.

    2016-02-01

    Personal and political action on climate change is traditionally thought to be motivated by people accepting its reality and importance. However, convincing the public that climate change is real faces powerful ideological obstacles, and climate change is slipping in public importance in many countries. Here we investigate a different approach, identifying whether potential co-benefits of addressing climate change could motivate pro-environmental behaviour around the world for both those convinced and unconvinced that climate change is real. We describe an integrated framework for assessing beliefs about co-benefits, distinguishing social conditions (for example, economic development, reduced pollution or disease) and community character (for example, benevolence, competence). Data from all inhabited continents (24 countries; 6,196 participants) showed that two co-benefit types, Development (economic and scientific advancement) and Benevolence (a more moral and caring community), motivated public, private and financial actions to address climate change to a similar degree as believing climate change is important. Critically, relationships were similar for both convinced and unconvinced participants, showing that co-benefits can motivate action across ideological divides. These relationships were also independent of perceived climate change importance, and could not be explained by political ideology, age, or gender. Communicating co-benefits could motivate action on climate change where traditional approaches have stalled.

  1. Older Adults' Current and Potential Uses of Information Technologies in a Changing World: A Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hall, Amanda K; Thielke, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    Technologies have become a major force in people's lives. They change how people interact with the environment, even as the environment changes. We propose that technology use in the setting of changing environments is motivated by essential needs and tensions experienced by the individual. We apply three developmental and behavioral theories (Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model) to explain technology-related behaviors among older adults. We consider how technology use has addressed and can address major ecological changes, in three areas: health promotion, natural disasters, and disparities. We propose that considering these theories can help researchers and developers ensure that technologies will help promote a healthier world for older adults.

  2. Older Adults' Current and Potential Uses of Information Technologies in a Changing World: A Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hall, Amanda K; Thielke, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    Technologies have become a major force in people's lives. They change how people interact with the environment, even as the environment changes. We propose that technology use in the setting of changing environments is motivated by essential needs and tensions experienced by the individual. We apply three developmental and behavioral theories (Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model) to explain technology-related behaviors among older adults. We consider how technology use has addressed and can address major ecological changes, in three areas: health promotion, natural disasters, and disparities. We propose that considering these theories can help researchers and developers ensure that technologies will help promote a healthier world for older adults. PMID:26215298

  3. Older Adults’ Current and Potential Uses of Information Technologies in a Changing World: A Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hall, Amanda K.; Thielke, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Technologies have become a major force in people’s lives. They change how people interact with the environment, even as the environment changes. We propose that technology use in the setting of changing environments is motivated by essential needs and tensions experienced by the individual. We apply three developmental and behavioral theories (Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model) to explain technology-related behaviors among older adults. We consider how technology use has addressed and can address major ecological changes, in three areas: health promotion, natural disasters, and disparities. We propose that considering these theories can help researchers and developers ensure that technologies will help promote a healthier world for older adults. PMID:26215298

  4. Improving the Social Responsiveness of Medical Schools: Proceedings of the 1998 Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates/World Health Organization Invitational Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Nancy E., Ed.; Boelen, Charles, Ed.; Gastel, Barbara, Ed.; Ayers, William, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the conference on improving the social responsiveness of medical schools include papers on the role of medical schools in relation to societal needs, the missions of medical schools (from North American, European, African, and Asian perspectives), measuring social responsiveness (perspective of the United Kingdom, standard-setting,…

  5. It's my hair which is covered...but ahhh my brain is uncovered : Muslim Kuwaiti women in a changing world.

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh Almutawa, Ghinaa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Kuwait has changed dramatically over the last 50 years and simultaneously the world has changed in terms of economic and financial factors, globalization, technology, and religion. These changes have implications for the lives of women in terms of a range of factors such as clothing, relationships, sexuality, childhood, and parenting. This thesis aimed to explore how women make sense of themselves in the context of this changing world taking three different perspectives. I...

  6. Noah’s Ark or World Wild Web? Cultural Perspectives in Global Scenario Studies and Their Function for Biodiversity Conservation in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carijn Beumer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Scenarios and their assumptions on biodiversity conservation, using a framework based on the cultural theory (CT perspectives. We explored an adaptation of the CT typology and the significance of some underrepresented worldviews for discussions on conservation in a changing world. The evaluation of the assumptions on biodiversity conservation in the scenario studies and storylines adds to our understanding of the socio-cultural dimensions of biodiversity loss in a changing world. It contributes to an understanding of the worldviews underlying the complex debates on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Making such assumptions and world views explicit will help policymakers and conservationists discuss the diversity of conservation strategies in the face of uncertainty.

  7. Proceedings of the workshop cum nineteenth national symposium on environment: climate change and its impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is now recognized as the major environmental problem facing the mankind. The impacts are being felt in the form of melting ice caps in the Polar Regions and increased variability in temperature, rainfall and storms in virtually all regions. In addition to global impacts pollution in India can also be attributed to rapid industrialization, energy production, urbanization and increase in the number of motorized vehicles. Similarly, untreated water from urban settlements and industrial activities, run off from agricultural lands carrying chemicals are primarily responsible for the deterioration of water quality and contamination of lakes, rivers and groundwater aquifers. Other environmental issues such as loss of biodiversity, land degradation and hazardous waste disposal are also a cause of concern. The continuous deterioration of environment is the result of unsustainable patterns of production and consumption processes. Actions to mitigate climate change are only possible with strong policies and technology development and appropriate pollution control measures need to be adopted to mitigate the pollutants in order to achieve a clean environment. Control of air pollution should include promotion of cleaner technologies, strengthening emission standards and monitoring systems. Water pollution control should include technological intervention to enhance effective treatment of wastewater. The discussions of the symposium covered the topics like: Climate change and mitigation strategies, air, water and soil pollution, monitoring and modeling of pollutants and their transport, aerosol characterization and health effects, environmental radioactivity including NORM, speciation studies of toxic pollutants, remote sensing - GIS studies, ecology, environmental awareness and education, bioremediation, waste management and other related areas. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  8. Changing times. Southwest Energy-Minerals Conference Proceedings, Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    This conference was held at the Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, NM, Nov. 2 and 3, 1977. It was sponsored by the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. It contains articles on the leasing of coal deposits (changes and modifications of leasing policy, environmental impact statements, U.S. energy policy (NEP), prices of gas and oil), New Mexico's energy consumption (by the Governor), transport of energy (Santa Fe railroad's plans), the energy crisis and proposed solutions, energy supplies and environmental problems, energy problems of agriculture (fuels, fertilizers and water energy requirements are greater than the energy in the food produced; possibility of biomass conversion, photosynthetic efficiency of using sunlight in arid lands), energy project financing, a review of the recent Law of the Sea conferences (1967 to date) (mining projects), growth economy as no growth and relation to energy supplies and environmental problems, natural gas and petroleum industries (divestiture problems, reserves), raw materials stockpiles (national experience, changing targets), the mining industry and its reserves of metals, taxation, etc.). (LTN)

  9. Human Development report 2007/2008 - Fighting climate change: human solidarity in a divided world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is the defining human development challenge of the 21. Century. Failure to respond to that challenge will stall and then reverse international efforts to reduce poverty. The poorest countries and most vulnerable citizens will suffer the earliest and most damaging setbacks, even though they have contributed least to the problem. Looking to the future, no country - however wealthy or powerful - will be immune to the impact of global warming. The Human Development Report 2007/2008 shows that climate change is not just a future scenario. Increased exposure to droughts, floods and storms is already destroying opportunity and reinforcing inequality. Meanwhile, there is now overwhelming scientific evidence that the world is moving towards the point at which irreversible ecological catastrophe becomes unavoidable. Business-as-usual climate change points in a clear direction: unprecedented reversal in human development in our lifetime, and acute risks for our children and their grandchildren. There is a window of opportunity for avoiding the most damaging climate change impacts, but that window is closing: the world has less than a decade to change course. Actions taken - or not taken - in the years ahead will have a profound bearing on the future course of human development. The world lacks neither the financial resources nor the technological capabilities to act. What is missing is a sense of urgency, human solidarity and collective interest. As the Human Development Report 2007/2008 argues, climate change poses challenges at many levels. In a divided but ecologically interdependent world, it challenges all people to reflect upon how we manage the environment of the one thing that we share in common: planet Earth. It challenges us to reflect on social justice and human rights across countries and generations. It challenges political leaders and people in rich nations to acknowledge their historic responsibility for the problem, and to initiate deep and

  10. The three revolutions (macro-micro-nano that are changing the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Andreta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The world is going through epoch-making changes that are cutting a deep swathe through the way we are, the way we organise our lives and behave, triggered by three consecutive revolutions, macro, micro and nano, sparked by globalisation. We need to follow the continuous thread that runs through them to be able to get to grips with the causes, connections, impacts and trends that will help us live new situations in a profoundly different world, in the Era of Awareness.These powerful changes will need to be understood in order to harness the opportuni- ties they have to offer and to be able to reorganise our socio-economic system along the lines of a new responsible and sustainable development model that will amalgamate growth, competitiveness, employment and quality of life. Changes that have steadily impacted on all levels of society, triggering discontinuity, broken paradigms and serious hardship. A Copernican revolution destined to change our habits and behaviour, that will also influence the way we live and the way we build.

  11. Agile science: creating useful products for behavior change in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Klasnja, Predrag; Riley, William T; Buman, Matthew P; Huberty, Jennifer; Rivera, Daniel E; Martin, Cesar A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence-based practice is important for behavioral interventions but there is debate on how best to support real-world behavior change. The purpose of this paper is to define products and a preliminary process for efficiently and adaptively creating and curating a knowledge base for behavior change for real-world implementation. We look to evidence-based practice suggestions and draw parallels to software development. We argue to target three products: (1) the smallest, meaningful, self-contained, and repurposable behavior change modules of an intervention; (2) "computational models" that define the interaction between modules, individuals, and context; and (3) "personalization" algorithms, which are decision rules for intervention adaptation. The "agile science" process includes a generation phase whereby contender operational definitions and constructs of the three products are created and assessed for feasibility and an evaluation phase, whereby effect size estimates/casual inferences are created. The process emphasizes early-and-often sharing. If correct, agile science could enable a more robust knowledge base for behavior change. PMID:27357001

  12. Changing exposures in a changing world: models for reducing the burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, William A; Mishamandani, Sara

    2016-03-01

    Environmental exposures are changing dramatically in location, intensity, and frequency. Many developing countries are undergoing a transition in which they face the double burden of infectious diseases as well as chronic diseases. Noncommunicable diseases have emerged as the leading cause of death and disability in developing countries. Globally, pollution is insufficiently appreciated and inadequately quantified as a cause of disease. The health burden from both noninfectious diseases and infectious disease, especially parasites, is high among exposed people. Mothers and children are particularly vulnerable to pollution-related diseases in developing countries. Exposures to pollution can cause protracted noncommunicable diseases across their life span. A global initiative to promote human health sciences and technologies would enhance collaborations and communications amongst investigators and public environmental health officials. Existing models that facilitate the transfer of information and research results exist and can provide insight into building such an international network, allowing better prediction of disease risk and provide ways to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants. A global network would bring together scientists from multiple disciplines and countries to work toward a better understanding of the double burden of disease, especially in low and middle income countries, and promote ways to improve public health. PMID:26887030

  13. The Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014: Practicing 'Citizen-Science' in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogwill, C. J.; Turney, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Government funding is the cornerstone of modern science. But with declining investment in science across most of the Western World, a major challenge for society is where best to place what little resource we have. Which research questions should have the greatest priority? Nowhere are these issues more pressing than in the Antarctic, where bases have and continue to play host to 'big-science', multi-year programmes of research, locking up logistical support and costs. But in a warming world, the areas with the greatest effects of climate change aren't always near government research stations. With this in mind, in 2012 a plan was formed to visit Commonwealth Bay, a remote area off the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, where in 2010, an iceberg the size of Rhode Island, known as B09B, dramatically knocked a 60-mile long tongue of ice off the Mertz Glacier into the Southern Ocean, setting off a cascade of change. Inspired by the expeditions of the past, we advertised berths for sale to take citizen scientists south with us, harnessing their interest, experience and investment. People responded far and wide. We were oversubscribed, and the Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014 was born. With the Russian-owned MV Akademik Shokalskiy as the expedition vessel, we set out south from the New Zealand port of Bluff in late November 2013. During our journey south and on the ice we undertook a number of scientific firsts for the region actively engaging the volunteer scientists on board in projects ranging from oceanography, biology, ecology, geology and glaciaology. The expedition demostrated how private funding could support targeted programmes of research and communicate it to the wider world. Small-science research can capture the public's imagination and also reap real scientific outputs. Although it is a funding model developed in the Antarctic a hundred years ago, the beauty is it can applied anywhere in the world.

  14. Powered two wheelers in a changing world-challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, N

    2012-01-01

    Powered two wheelers (PTWs) come in diverse forms and are used for a range of purposes in very different parts of the world. In many parts of the world, the forms and uses of PTWs are changing, influenced by social, economic and demographic changes. Most of the challenges associated with PTWs relate to safety, while the majority of the opportunities relate to mobility. The challenges for improving safety relate to the PTW user, other road users, the road environment, the vehicle, data and research, and socio-political dimensions. The relative importance of particular challenges varies between developed and developing countries, and among developing countries according to whether PTWs are largely used for recreation or for transport. PTWs present a range of psychological, transport, economic and environmental opportunities to individuals and societies. The fun and excitement of riding PTWs is a major motivator for their purchase and use for recreational purposes, both off-road and on-road. The transport and economic advantages to the individual also need to be considered. At a societal level, research has examined the potential for increasing PTW volumes to reduce fossil fuel use and traffic congestion in busy cities. The future of PTWs may differ greatly between countries and environmental and technological changes are leading to an evolution in the form of PTWs to encompass new modes of personal transportation.

  15. Measuring and tracking the flow of climate change adaptation aid to the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Simon D.; Kandlikar, Milind; Webber, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    The developed world has pledged to mobilize at least US 100 billion per year of ‘new’ and ‘additional’ funds by 2020 to help the developing world respond to climate change. Tracking this finance is particularly problematic for climate change adaptation, as there is no clear definition of what separates adaptation aid from standard development aid. Here we use a historical database of overseas development assistance projects to test the effect of different accounting assumptions on the delivery of adaptation finance to the developing countries of Oceania, using machine algorithms developed from a manual pilot study. The results show that explicit adaptation finance grew to 3%-4% of all development aid to Oceania by the 2008-2012 period, but that total adaptation finance could be as high as 37% of all aid, depending on potentially politically motivated assumptions about what counts as adaptation. There was also an uneven distribution of adaptation aid between countries facing similar challenges like Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia. The analysis indicates that data allowing individual projects to be weighted by their climate change relevance is needed. A robust and mandatory metadata system for all aid projects would allow multilateral aid agencies and independent third parties to perform their own analyses using different assumptions and definitions, and serve as a key check on international climate aid promises.

  16. Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegh-Guldberg, O. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1999-07-01

    Sea temperatures in many tropical regions have increased by almost 1{degree}C over the past 100 years, and are currently increasing at about 1-2{degree}C per century. Mass coral bleaching has occurred in association with episodes of elevated sea temperatures over the past 20 years and involves the loss of the zooxanthellae following chronic photoinhibition. Mass bleaching has resulted in significant losses of live coral in many parts of the world. This paper considers the biochemical, physiological and ecological perspectives of coral bleaching. It also uses the outputs of four runs from three models of global climate change which simulate changes in sea temperature and hence how the frequency and intensity of bleaching events will change over the next 100 years. The results suggest that the thermal tolerances of reef-building corals are likely to be exceeded every year within the next few decades. Events as severe as the 1998 event, the worst on record, are likely to become commonplace within 20 years. Most information suggests that the capacity for acclimation by corals has already been exceeded, and that adaptation will be too slow to avert a decline in the quality of the world's reefs.

  17. Is Singapore’s School Geography Relevant to Our Changing World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew-Hung CHANG

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available How school geography should be taught has been a longstanding issue for geography educators. In some countries, state or national level curriculum predicates how the subject should be taught in schools. This paper examines these questions in relation to existing frameworks of conceptualizing school geography, such as the International Charter on Geographical Education. School geography in Singapore has evolved from regional geography to thematic geography to systematic geography. A review of the curriculum in 2007 resulted in a distinct form of school geography unprecedented in Singapore’s education history. Today, school geography in Singapore is learnt conceptually with national level assessment designed to that end. To what extent is this evolution in curriculum design in step with changes in our world? In response to the changes in school geography, pre-service and in-service teacher training has also responded by focusing on conceptual learning and inquiry. This paper will explore the state of school geography curricula in Singapore today, and the curriculum of teacher training, with the intent to critically discuss the state of geography education in Singapore. Although geography has remained a disciplinary subject whose place has yet been disputed, the big question of why study geography in the first place needs to be answered to ensure its continued survival. In particular, school geography will be examined for its relevance to a fast changing world. This critique ends by offering a reason to how geography plays an important role in education for sustainable development, and its relevance to Singaporeans or even any citizen of the world.

  18. What Change Can The New Developments In Energy Sector Bring Into the World`s Energypolitical and Geopolitical Order?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur TUTULMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments bring US to a leading natural gas and oil producer position. The attempts in last 20 years to bring new horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies together have developed a success in shale gas and oil production in US; the production volumes has reached to a position to redefine the market. Last estimations are bringing more information about the shale capacities of the major basins of the world. However, the estimates are based on a wide range of assumptions and consequently their results vary in a large scale. In any case, these developments have crucial economic, political and geopolitical consequences on the energy market, petroleum producer and consumer countries and regions. Despite the wide range of ambiguity of the estimated size of the resources, the estimations show US and North America has one of the biggest potential, already turning technology into the giant production numbers. Some of the estimations allege so big numbers can even mean to a new world order. The asymmetric nature of the potential, can also be said, increases some of the expected impacts too. In this study, basically, we want to supply an initial solid and economical evaluation to this ambiguity. We are trying to shape a frame for the new energy potential and to put it in a place in the current practice of the world. Secondly, in this context, we are underlying here some of the possible economic and geopolitical consequences each of which can constitute a subject of deeper study.

  19. Wiki management a revolutionary new model for a rapidly changing and collaborative world

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Rod

    2013-01-01

    We now live in a "wiki" world where mass collaboration is not only possible-it's often the best solution. Conventional management thought assumes that command-and-control is the most effective way to organize the efforts of large numbers of people, but rapid change and increasing complexity have rendered that model obsolete. As a result, most managers today lack the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in an age when networks are proving smarter and faster than hierarchies. Designing organizations for mass collaboration demands a new and very different model-wiki management.

  20. Ionizing radiation sources: very diversified means, multiple applications and a changing regulatory environment. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about ionizing radiation source means, applications and regulatory environment. Twenty eight presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Overview of sources - some quantitative data from the national inventory of ionizing radiation sources (Yann Billarand, IRSN); 2 - Overview of sources (Jerome Fradin, ASN); 3 - Regulatory framework (Sylvie Rodde, ASN); 4 - Alternatives to Iridium radiography - the case of pressure devices at the manufacturing stage (Henri Walaszek, Cetim; Bruno Kowalski, Welding Institute); 5 - Dosimetric stakes of medical scanner examinations (Jean-Louis Greffe, Charleroi hospital of Medical University); 6 - The removal of ionic smoke detectors (Bruno Charpentier, ASN); 7 - Joint-activity and reciprocal liabilities - Organisation of labour risk prevention in case of companies joint-activity (Paulo Pinto, DGT); 8 - Consideration of gamma-graphic testing in the organization of a unit outage activities (Jean-Gabriel Leonard, EDF); 9 - Radiological risk control at a closed and independent work field (Stephane Sartelet, Areva); 10 - Incidents and accidents status and typology (Pascale Scanff, IRSN); 11 - Regional overview of radiation protection significant events (Philippe Menechal, ASN); 12 - Incident leading to a tritium contamination in and urban area - consequences and experience feedback (Laurence Fusil, CEA); 13 - Experience feedback - loss of sealing of a calibration source (Philippe Mougnard, Areva); 14 - Blocking incident of a 60Co source (Bruno Delille, Salvarem); 15 - Triggering of gantry's alarm: status of findings (Philippe Prat, Syctom); 16 - Non-medical electric devices: regulatory changes (Sophie Dagois, IRSN; Jerome Fradin, ASN); 17 - Evaluation of the dose equivalent rate in pulsed fields: method proposed by the IRSN and implementation test (Laurent Donadille, IRSN); 18

  1. DeSocio- spatial change in the world heritage site Valparaíso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo, Rodrigo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Valparaíso’s old town is one of five world heritage sites in Chile. Its districts of Puerto and Financiero on the coastal platform, together with the surrounding hills of Cerros Concepción a nd Alegre make up 0.9 % of the total urbanised area. The unique urban ensemble with its heritage of early industrialisation, the harbour installations and the many wooden funiculars have led UNESCO to make these districts a protected area. However, protection does not only mean conservation. Many morphological, functional and socio-spatial changes have taken place since the declaration as a heritage site. Some of them are due to the effects of natural and man-made disasters, but many are a result of the new function as a heritage site. Based on a morphological and functional analysis and a deeper look at the socio-spatial changes, the study returns contradictory results. Initial trends of gentrification can be observed, which may favour the conservation of the built environment, but weaken the social situation. A more severe degradation of the building stock has been halted; however, in many respects dilapidation has only been slowed down. The negative demographic trend has been exacerbated by the activities of ruthless developers who have bought up buildings with speculation in mind. Such activities have a long-term destructive effect on the immaterial cultural heritage, i.e. the vibrant and locally specific urban life in the old town. The main question is how the declaration as a world heritage site has influenced the social and economic fabric of the old town, and how the changes can be evaluated. This paper investigates the socio-economic changes, social transformations and other processes of change.

  2. Assessing Climate Change Effect on the World's Largest Lakes Using Satellite Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Gabriel, R.; Norouzi, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Landsat program offers the longest continuous global record of the Earth's surface using satellite imagery for over forty years (1972-2014). Millions of images and relevant data have since been acquired using the instrument on the Landsat satellite to monitor the Earth's interesting phenomena. There are Landsat receiving stations around the world including the United States that process and archive the images that are a unique resource for global change research and applications in agriculture, forestry, regional planning, geology, cartography and global warming. So far, National Oceanic Atmospheric and Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), have launched a total of eight successfully orbiting satellites throughout its forty-two years of service. The main objective of this project aims to use Landsat images to monitor the changes of the world's largest lakes from 1972 to present. We focus on areas around the planet that are home to large scale lakes such as Lake Urmia, Lake Vanern, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Albert and Lake Mweru. Then using U.S Geological Survey (USGS) database as a source for gathering cloud free images that are covering each lake, we were able to download and obtain necessary data. For larger lakes, images were mosaic to cover the entire area of the lake and using a Maximum Likelihood technique images were specifically classified into land and water content using ENVI software. The extent of the water content was quantified for each year and a temporal analysis of the area was performed. It is also found that the lakes which locates near the equator or at low latitude are seriously facing threats of becoming mostly dry. Future work is needed for establishing the dynamic characteristic of more lakes' water extent changes and also to compare them with other available information such as precipitation and soil moisture in each region. In lakes where high latitude, the change in extent of ice during winter

  3. Noah’s Ark or World Wild Web? Cultural Perspectives in Global Scenario Studies and Their Function for Biodiversity Conservation in a Changing World

    OpenAIRE

    Carijn Beumer; Pim Martens

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we review the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Scenarios and their assumptions on biodiversity conservation, using a framework based on the cultural theory (CT) perspectives. We explored an adaptation of the CT typology and the significance of some underrepresented worldviews for discussions on conservation in a changing world. The evaluation of the assumptions on biodiversity conservation in the scenario studies and storylines a...

  4. Networks of European cities in worlds of global economic and environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Derudder

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Geographers use a variety of economic, social, and demographic data to measure the importance of global cities and the linkages between cities. We analyze the importance and connectedness of European cities using hyperlinks, or the electronic information provided by the Google Search engine. Hyperlinks are Web sites representing information that is produced; they are especially useful in measuring the impact of contemporary crises. We use the phrases economic slowdown and global financial crisis to derive a Global Financial Score (GFS for 16 core, semiperiphery and peripheral European cities and global warming and climate change to derive a Global Environmental Score (GES. London and Paris are in the European core; Rome, Dublin, Madrid and Prague are in the semiperiphery; while Tallinn, Riga, and Belgrade are in the periphery. A strong positive relationship exists between the GES and GFS. We examine the linkages of the 16 cities to the 100 largest world cities and illustrate, with “clockgrams,” the linkages London, Brussels and Athens have with other world cities. We calculated the number of linkages each of the 16 cities had with other world cities to identify Europe’s urban cores, semiperipheries, peripheries, and deep peripheries. New York is in the core of both the economic and environmental maps. Some world cities are in the semiperiphery of one category and periphery of another. Milan, Istanbul, and Delhi are in the deep periphery for the GFS while Toronto and Athens are for the GES. Hyperlinks represent valuable databases to measure the impact of crises and regional and global urban linkages.

  5. Introduction: The provision of animal health services in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, C

    2004-04-01

    In the future, animal health services in developing countries will need to operate in a continuously changing policy, institutional and commercial environment. Firstly, the changing policies and priorities of national policy-makers regarding public and private sector roles, reinforced in Africa by the donors, have reduced funding and support for the large number of tasks that animal health services have traditionally performed, and there is continuing pressure from policy-makers to focus on what the public sector can do best. Secondly, poverty reduction has become one of the main criteria guiding the allocation of official development assistance, which has major implications for the main target clientele of veterinary services. Thirdly, population growth, increasing income and urbanisation are causing a marked increase in demand for livestock products in the developing world. As a result, the entire livestock commodity chain is undergoing major structural changes, which has significant implications for the definition and control of food safety standards. Fourthly, globalisation, and increasing trade and travel have greatly increased the risk of disease transmission between different countries and continents. Veterinary institutions in the developing world need to adapt to these challenges. They will have to be able to focus on the essential public sector roles. At the same time they must deliver those essential services to the poor, and provide the policy framework to ensure that the inevitable structural changes in the commodity chain take place in an equitable and sustainable fashion, with an acceptable level of health risk for the consumer. According to the weight given to these different objectives, changes in the institutional set-up need to be considered. This issue of the Scientific and Technical Review addresses these challenges. It begins by reviewing the basic economic characteristics underlying the provision of animal health services, and then examines

  6. The Association of Geoscientists for International Development (AGID) : Adapting to a changing world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DrAntonyJReedman

    2004-01-01

    It is just two years since a profile of AGID appeared in Episodes ( Vol 25, No 3, p. 218).At that time we recounted the many achievements of the organization, first established in 1974, but also noted that 'an awareness of the relevance of geoscience to many aid projects, and the proliferation of NGO's, both large and small, working in the environmental and resource sectors has radically changed the world in which AGID seeks to operate'. We also noted that the change has happened to such an extent that AG1D has 'to address the question as to whether the time has come either for it to wind up its operations and retire gracefully from the international scene or to continue'.

  7. Can singular examples change implicit racial attitudes in the real-world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie E. Roos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or IAT revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes towards African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or ALPS and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words – similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes.

  8. Supersymmetry: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some lectures in these proceedings examine the theoretical basis for supersymmetry, recent developments in theories with compact dimensions, and experimental searches for supersymmetric signatures. Technologies are explored for obtaining very high energy electron-positron colliding beams. Separate abstracts were prepared for 35 papers in these conference proceedings

  9. Supersymmetry: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, E.C. (ed.)

    1985-07-01

    Some lectures in these proceedings examine the theoretical basis for supersymmetry, recent developments in theories with compact dimensions, and experimental searches for supersymmetric signatures. Technologies are explored for obtaining very high energy electron-positron colliding beams. Separate abstracts were prepared for 35 papers in these conference proceedings. (LEW)

  10. Frontier Lecture in Hydrological Science: Land Use and the Changing Nature of World Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    Historically, land use has mainly been considered a local environmental issue, but it is fast becoming a force of global significance. Worldwide changes to forests and farmlands, coastlines and waterways are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, fresh water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Such changes in land use - including a significant expansion of global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas in recent decades - have also been accompanied by large increases in global energy, freshwater, and fertilizer consumption. All together, these changes in land use practices have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet's resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of terrestrial hydrological systems and aquatic ecosystems to maintain clean, reliable freshwater resources, and their accompanying ecosystem services. We now face the challenge of managing "trade-offs" between meeting immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of watersheds and aquatic ecosystems to provide goods and services in the long term. In this presentation, I will discuss the impacts of land use and land cover change on the state of global water resources. In particular, this talk will explore linkages among changing land cover, regional climate patterns, surface hydrological processes, the hydrology of large rivers, and the continued flow of ecosystem goods and services from the large watersheds of the world.

  11. Global assessment of technological innovation for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenle, Ademola A; Azadi, Hossein; Arbiol, Joseph

    2015-09-15

    Concerns about mitigating and adapting to climate change resulted in renewing the incentive for agricultural research investments and developing further innovation priorities around the world particularly in developing countries. In the near future, development of new agricultural measures and proper diffusion of technologies will greatly influence the ability of farmers in adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Using bibliometric approaches through output of academic journal publications and patent-based data, we assess the impact of research and development (R&D) for new and existing technologies within the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We show that many developing countries invest limited resources for R&D in relevant technologies that have great potential for mitigation and adaption in agricultural production. We also discuss constraints including weak infrastructure, limited research capacity, lack of credit facilities and technology transfer that may hinder the application of innovation in tackling the challenges of climate change. A range of policy measures is also suggested to overcome identified constraints and to ensure that potentials of innovation for climate change mitigation and adaptation are realized.

  12. When the world collapses: changed worldview and social reconstruction in a traumatized community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Corkalo Biruski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic experience can affect the individual's basic beliefs about the world as a predictable and safe place. One of the cornerstones in recovery from trauma is reestablishment of safety, connectedness, and the shattered schema of a worldview. Objective: This study explored the role of negatively changed worldview in the relationship between war-related traumatization and readiness for social reconstruction of intergroup relations in a post-conflict community measured by three processes: intergroup rapprochement, rebuilding trust, and need for apology. It was hypothesized that more traumatized people are less supportive of social reconstruction and that this relationship is mediated by the changed worldview. Method: The study included a community random sample of 333 adults in the city of Vukovar, Croatia, that was most devastated during the 1991–1995 war. Six instruments were administered: Stressful Events Scale, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Changed Worldview Scale, and three scales measuring the post-conflict social reconstruction processes: Intergroup Rapprochement, Intergroup Trust and Need for Apology. Results: Mediation analyses showed that the worldview change fully mediated between traumatization and all three aspects of social reconstruction. Conclusions: In a population exposed to war traumatization the worldview change mediates post-conflict social recovery of community relations.

  13. The Changing Face of War in Textbooks: Depictions of World War II and Vietnam, 1970-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, Richard; Mitchell, Lacy

    2014-01-01

    How have U.S. high school textbook depictions of World War II and Vietnam changed since the 1970s? We examined 102 textbooks published from 1970 to 2009 to see how they treated U.S. involvement in World War II and Vietnam. Our content analysis of high school history textbooks finds that U.S. textbooks increasingly focus on the personal experiences…

  14. Climate Change: A Future of Less Water and More people - Strategies for a Water Constrained World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahai, D.

    2010-12-01

    Today, the fact that the Earth is warming is indisputable. The evidence of climate change is already all around us, with the occurence of ever more intense weather events, droughts, heat waves, floods and sea level rise. Predictions of greater calamities in the future without swift action must be taken seriously. However, while international summits have focused on means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, these are largely strategies of containment, not of cure. Even if emissions were to cease today, the current effects of climate change would remain with us for millenia. This is clear from the 2007 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The world must not only tackle the causes of global warming; it must adapt to the damage already done. This need is most acute where water supply is concerned. The world already faces daunting chalenges. According to United Nations' reports, even today 1.8 million children under 5 die from water related diseases every year; 900 million people lack access to safe drinking water; and 2.6 billion go without basic sanitation. In the developing world, 90% of sewage is discharged to water bodies without adequate treatment contributing to "dead zones". Population increases will make matters worse (an addition of around 3 billion people by 2050 is expected) and climate change will compound the crisis. It is forecast that, as the Earth warms, deserts will expand and droughts will intensify causing demographic shifts even as the world's population burgeons. We are already seeing different regions react to water shortages. Many countries are pursuing seawater desalination. However, seawater desalination has numerous drawbacks; it remains the most expensive of water treatment options and the most energy intensive. Some societies may have no choice but to turn to the sea; others should look to other alternatives first. Such frontrunners could include: (1) enhanced conservation, utilizing public education programs, price

  15. New NIH-funded Ultrasound Technology is Changing Lives around the World | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. New NIH-funded Ultrasound Technology is Changing Lives around the World Past Issues / ... monitor pregnancies, and much more. At the 2010 Olympic Games in Vancouver, health professionals used handheld Vscans ...

  16. Climate change and the long-term viability of the World's busiest heavy haul ice road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Donal; Swindles, Graeme; Patterson, Tim; Galloway, Jennifer; Macumber, Andrew; Falck, Hendrik; Crossley, Laura; Chen, Jie; Pisaric, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Climate models project that the northern high latitudes will warm at a rate in excess of the global mean. This will pose severe problems for Arctic and sub-Arctic infrastructure dependent on maintaining low temperatures for structural integrity. This is the case for the economically important Tibbitt to Contwoyto Winter Road (TCWR)—the world's busiest heavy haul ice road, spanning 400 km across mostly frozen lakes within the Northwest Territories of Canada. In this study, future climate scenarios are developed for the region using statistical downscaling methods. In addition, changes in lake ice thickness are projected based on historical relationships between measured ice thickness and air temperatures. These projections are used to infer the theoretical operational dates of the TCWR based on weight limits for trucks on the ice. Results across three climate models driven by four RCPs reveal a considerable warming trend over the coming decades. Projected changes in ice thickness reveal a trend towards thinner lake ice and a reduced time window when lake ice is at sufficient thickness to support trucks on the ice road, driven by increasing future temperatures. Given the uncertainties inherent in climate modelling and the resultant projections, caution should be exercised in interpreting the magnitude of these scenarios. More certain is the direction of change, with a clear trend towards winter warming that will reduce the operation time window of the TCWR. This illustrates the need for planners and policymakers to consider future changes in climate when planning annual haulage along the TCWR.

  17. Europe's Southeastern Gateway: Responding to Rapidly Changing Patterns of World Shipping. The University's Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger E. HAMLIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available World trade and transportation are changing dramatically. Energy prices and transport sustainability concerns are reinvigorating ocean freighter shipping. An ever-increasing portion of trade is in containers, and container ships are getting larger quickly. Many ports, nations and continents are not keeping up with ship size increases putting them at a trade disadvantage. Major canals and seaways must also upgrade or be rendered obsolete, causing a change in the pattern of world trade. Ports have to do more than expand vessel size limits. Port regions must also invest in infrastructure that improves multi-modal access to the port and augments hand-off of containers to smaller seaway ships, trains and trucks. With heightened security and evolving emphasis on flexible and efficient logistics, ports must become high-tech logistics hubs with improved real-time data about port throughput. Constanţa, Romania provides an example of an attempt to respond to this rapid change. Near the Danube Delta, on the Black Sea, Constanţa offers a potential southeastern gateway to Europe for the Black Sea, the Eastern Mediterranean and beyond. Ships from Asia, entering via the Suez Canal can easily access Constanţa, and thus save more than ten days of shipping time for destinations in southeastern Europe compared to shipping through Rotterdam or Hamburg. But Constanţa needs to make all the improvements mentioned above. Universities have several roles in this endeavor, including identifying and forecasting trends, providing the technical knowledge to develop high-tech logistics hubs, pursing publicprivate partnerships for infrastructure development and offering training.

  18. Challenges and Opportunities for Hydrology Education in a Changing World - The Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Brian; Wagener, Thorsten; Marshall, Lucy; McGuire, Kevin; Meixner, Thomas; Weiler, Markus; Gooseff, Michael; Kelleher, Christa; Gregg, Susan

    2010-05-01

    ‘It takes a village to raise a child', but who does it take to educate a hydrologist who can solve today's and tomorrow's problems? Hydrology is inherently an interdisciplinary science, and therefore requires interdisciplinary training. We believe that the demands on current and future hydrologists will continue to increase, while training at undergraduate and graduate levels has not kept pace. How do we, as university faculty, educate hydrologists capable of solving complex problems in an interdisciplinary environment considering that current educators have often been taught in narrow traditional disciplines? We suggest a unified community effort to change the way that hydrologists are educated. The complexity of the task is ever increasing. Analysis techniques and tools required for solving emerging problems have to evolve away from focusing mainly on the analysis of past behavior because baselines are shifting as the world changes. The difficulties of providing an appropriate education are also increasing, especially given the growing demands on faculty time. To support hydrology educators and improve hydrology education, we have started a faculty community of educators (REACH) and implemented the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA, http://www.mocha.psu.edu/). The goal of this effort is to support hydrology faculty as they educate hydrologists that can solve interdisciplinary problems that go far beyond the traditional disciplinary biased hydrology education most of us have experienced as students. Our current objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for university hydrology education, based on modern pedagogical standards, freely available to and developed and reviewed by the worldwide hydrologic community. We seek to establish an online faculty learning community for hydrology education and capacity building. In this presentation we discuss the results of a recent survey on current hydrology education (to compare with the state of

  19. Importance of the glucocorticoid stress response in a changing world: theory, hypotheses and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Wingfield, John C

    2013-09-01

    In this perspective paper, we emphasize the importance that integrative mechanisms, and especially the GC (glucocorticoid) stress response, can play in the ability of vertebrates to cope with ongoing global change. The GC stress response is an essential mediator of allostasis (i.e., the responses of an organism to a perturbation) that aims at maintaining stability (homeostasis) despite changing conditions. The GC stress response is a complex mechanism that depends on several physiological components and aims at promoting immediate survival at the expense of other life-history components (e.g., reproduction) when a labile perturbation factor (LPF) occurs. Importantly, this mechanism is somewhat flexible and its degree of activation can be adjusted to the fitness costs and benefits that result from the GC stress response. Therefore, this GC stress response mediates life-history decisions and is involved in the regulation of important life-history trade-offs. By inducing abrupt and rapid changes in the regime of LPFs, we believe that global change can affect the efficiency of the GC stress response to maintain homeostasis and to appropriately regulate these trades-offs. This dysfunction may result in an important mismatch between new LPFs and the associated GC stress response and, thus, in the inability of vertebrates to cope with a changing world. In that context, it is essential to better understand how the GC stress response can be adjusted to new LPFs through micro-evolution, phenotypic plasticity and phenotypic flexibility (habituation and sensitization). This paper sets up a theoretical framework, hypotheses and new perspectives that will allow testing and better understanding how the GC stress response can help or constrain individuals, populations and species to adjust to ongoing global change.

  20. Annual meeting 1997 - Nondestructive materials evaluation: NDT as a service in a changed industrial environment. Proceedings, book of posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second volume of the proceedings presents the contributions of the poster session, devoted to the following subject fields of main interest: ultrasonic testing methods, magnetic testing methods, industrial radiography, materials characterization, NDT in the building trade, aspects of vocational training. Fifteen of the contributions were analysed and indexed for separate retrieval from the ENERGY database

  1. Annual meeting 1997 - Nondestructive materials evaluation: NDT as a service in a changed industrial environment. Proceedings, book of papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 1 of the conference proceedings presents the full papers. They discuss aspects of the following subjects of main interest: NDT services, ultrasonic testing, industrial radiography, eddy current testing, materials characterization, NDT in the building trade, acoustic emission analysis. Eighteen of the papers were analysed and indexed for separate retrieval from the ENERGY database. (MM)

  2. Can the World's Farmers Feed a World of 10 Billion People In Spite of Climate Change? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterling, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    The rapid rise in agricultural productivity due to technological innovation and science-based methods was one of the great human achievements of the 20th century. We now face the prospect of needing to double agricultural output by the latter third of the current century to match the growth of demand for food and fiber—albeit the pace of growth in demand shows signs of slowing in the future. How farmers and the agricultural industry deal with climate change will, in large measure, determine success or failure. The Earth is committed to about the same amount of warming in the future as has been experienced over the past hundred years regardless of future greenhouse gas emissions trajectories; such will require adaptive responses by plants, animals, producers and consumers if society’s goals for global food security are to be met. In this paper, I summarize the state-of-the science of how climate change may affect our global agricultural production system. I review the latest thinking on the combined effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes on crop productivity across the globe. Prospects for adaptation in agriculturally important regions are examined. While it appears that global food production will be adequate to meet global food demand in spite of advancing climate change, it is clear that many parts of the tropics and dry sub-tropics will see yield decreases and possible loss of comparative advantage. In those regions, continued large population growth and deleterious climate changes will contribute to declining per capita agricultural production. Increasing numbers of people at risk of hunger are probable there.

  3. Few believe the world is flat: How embodiment is changing the scientific understanding of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenberg, Arthur M

    2015-06-01

    Science has changed many of our dearly held and commonsensical (but incorrect) beliefs. For example, few still believe the world is flat, and few still believe the sun orbits the earth. Few still believe humans are unrelated to the rest of the animal kingdom, and soon few will believe human thinking is computer-like. Instead, as with all animals, our thoughts are based on bodily experiences, and our thoughts and behaviors are controlled by bodily and neural systems of perception, action, and emotion interacting with the physical and social environments. We are embodied; nothing more. Embodied cognition is about cognition formatted in sensorimotor experience, and sensorimotor systems make those thoughts dynamic. Even processes that seem abstract, such as language comprehension and goal understanding, are embodied. Thus, embodied cognition is not limited to 1 type of thought or another: It is cognition. PMID:26010024

  4. Changes in the economical updated world by means of the diffuse logia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Maylén Pérez López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the organization world many changes have occurred In last years of last centuries and the first ones, due to the advance of Technologies and Communications (TIC and to the need of getting truthful information in less possible time, the markets globalization and the doubts in taking decisions have favored the development of new techniques of artificial Intelligence applied to a numerous of activities accomplished by human beings and to the field of Economics. In present work a compilation of techniques and applications of artificial intelligence to economy's field is made. It is proposed also a procedure to treat the lack of certainty and the subjectivity as main characteristic of related techniques.

  5. Tourism-Induced Livelihood Changes at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Xu, Kejian

    2016-05-01

    Although tourism has the potential to improve the wellbeing of residents, it may also disrupt livelihood systems, social processes, and cultural traditions. The livelihood changes at three rural villages at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China, are assessed to determine the extent to which tourism strategies are contributing to local livelihoods. A sustainable livelihood framework is adopted to guide the analysis. The three villages exhibit different development patterns due to institutional, organizational, and location factors. New strategies involving tourism were constructed and incorporated into the traditional livelihood systems and they resulted in different outcomes for residents of different villages. Village location, including the relationship to the site tourism plan, affected the implications for rural livelihoods. High dependence on tourism as the single livelihood option can reduce sustainability. Practical implications are suggested to enhance livelihood sustainability at such rural heritage tourism sites.

  6. Tourism-Induced Livelihood Changes at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Xu, Kejian

    2016-05-01

    Although tourism has the potential to improve the wellbeing of residents, it may also disrupt livelihood systems, social processes, and cultural traditions. The livelihood changes at three rural villages at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China, are assessed to determine the extent to which tourism strategies are contributing to local livelihoods. A sustainable livelihood framework is adopted to guide the analysis. The three villages exhibit different development patterns due to institutional, organizational, and location factors. New strategies involving tourism were constructed and incorporated into the traditional livelihood systems and they resulted in different outcomes for residents of different villages. Village location, including the relationship to the site tourism plan, affected the implications for rural livelihoods. High dependence on tourism as the single livelihood option can reduce sustainability. Practical implications are suggested to enhance livelihood sustainability at such rural heritage tourism sites.

  7. Contemporary Trans-regional Cooperation between Europe and Asia in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beginda Pakpahan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with contemporary trans-regional cooperation between Europe and Asia in a changing world. It examines the emerging economic relationship between the EU and Asia and possible challenges and implications facing both regions. It argues that Europe - Asia economic and commercial ties are likely in the future to result in unbalanced economic development between both these regions; in short, future agreements are likely to disproportionately favour Europe. Therefore, the economic and commercial ties between these two regions should aim to develop the least advanced countries in Asia. The article argues that ASEM can be empowered as a common flexible framework for bilateral and inter-regional trade initiatives between both regions; it can be empowered to manage and monitor these trade initiatives and their social implications for vulnerable ASEM countries. The main objective of this article is to contribute a clearer understanding of the current EU - Asia relationship in the context of ASEM.

  8. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  9. World Health Organization guidelines should not change the CD4 count threshold for antiretroviral therapy initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Geffen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO currently recommends that HIV-positive adults start antiretroviral therapy (ART at CD4 counts <350 cells/μl. Several countries have changed their guidelines to recommend ART irrespective of CD4 count or at a threshold of 500 CD4 cells/μl. Consequently, WHO is currently revising its treatment guidelines and considering recommending ART initiation at CD4 counts <500 cells/μl. Such decisions are critically important, as WHO guidelines inform healthcare policies in developing countries and are used by activists in their advocacy work. Changing the CD4 initiation point from 350 to 500 cells/μl would, however, be premature and have profound cost implications on Global Fund, President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR and developing country health budgets. We should be willing to campaign for such a change in guidelines despite cost implications, if supported by evidence. However, the evidence remains outstanding. S Afr J HIV Med 2013;14(1:6-7. DOI:10.7196/SAJHIVMED.906

  10. Preserving the World Second Largest Hypersaline Lake under Future Irrigation and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Ludwig, Fulco; van Vliet, Michelle; Pastor, Amandine; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Urmia Lake, the world second largest hypersaline lake, has been largely desiccated over the last two decades resulting in socio-environmental consequences similar or even larger than the Aral Sea disaster. To rescue the lake a new water management plan has been proposed, a rapid 40% decline in irrigation water use replacing a former plan which intended to develop reservoirs and irrigation. However, none of these water management plans, which have large socio-economic impacts, have been assessed under future changes in climate and water availability. By adapting a method of environmental flow requirements (EFRs) for hypersaline lakes, we estimated annually 3.9•109 m3 water is needed to preserve Urmia Lake. Then, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was forced with bias-corrected climate model outputs for both the lowest (RCP2.6) and highest (RCP8.5) greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios to estimate future water availability and impacts of water management strategies. Results showed a 10% decline in future water availability in the basin under RCP2.6 and 27% under RCP8.5. Our results showed that if future climate change is highly limited (RCP2.6) inflow can be just enough to meet the EFRs by implementing the reduction irrigation plan. However, under more rapid climate change scenario (RCP8.5) reducing irrigation water use will not be enough to save the lake and more drastic measures are needed. Our results showed that future water management plans are not robust under climate change in this region. Therefore, an integrated approach of future land-water use planning and climate change adaptation is therefore needed to improve future water security and to reduce the desiccating of this hypersaline lake.

  11. Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a world experiencing anthropogenic and climatic-induced change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmful (toxic, food web altering, hypoxia generating) cyanobacterial algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are proliferating world-wide due to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, and they represent a serious threat to the use and sustainability of our freshwater resources. Traditionally, phosphorus (P) input reductions have been prescribed to control CyanoHABs, because P limitation is widespread and some CyanoHABs can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to satisfy their nitrogen (N) requirements. However, eutrophying systems are increasingly plagued with non N2 fixing CyanoHABs that are N and P co-limited or even N limited. In many of these systems N loads are increasing faster than P loads. Therefore N and P input constraints are likely needed for long-term CyanoHAB control in such systems. Climatic changes, specifically warming, increased vertical stratification, salinization, and intensification of storms and droughts play additional, interactive roles in modulating CyanoHAB frequency, intensity, geographic distribution and duration. In addition to having to consider reductions in N and P inputs, water quality managers are in dire need of effective tools to break the synergy between nutrient loading and hydrologic regimes made more favorable for CyanoHABs by climate change. The more promising of these tools make affected waters less hospitable for CyanoHABs by 1) altering the hydrology to enhance vertical mixing and/or flushing and 2) decreasing nutrient fluxes from organic rich sediments by physically removing the sediments or capping sediments with clay. Effective future CyanoHAB management approaches must incorporate both N and P loading dynamics within the context of altered thermal and hydrologic regimes associated with climate change. - Research Highlights: → Toxic cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs) increasingly threaten global water supplies. → Human (nutrient) and climate (hydrology, temperature) changes synergistically promote CyanoHABs. → CyanoHAB control involves

  12. Preserving the world second largest hypersaline lake under future irrigation and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Ludwig, Fulco; van Vliet, Michelle T H; Pastor, Amandine; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-07-15

    Iran Urmia Lake, the world second largest hypersaline lake, has been largely desiccated over the last two decades resulting in socio-environmental consequences similar or even larger than the Aral Sea disaster. To rescue the lake a new water management plan has been proposed, a rapid 40% decline in irrigation water use replacing a former plan which intended to develop reservoirs and irrigation. However, none of these water management plans, which have large socio-economic impacts, have been assessed under future changes in climate and water availability. By adapting a method of environmental flow requirements (EFRs) for hypersaline lakes, we estimated annually 3.7·10(9)m(3) water is needed to preserve Urmia Lake. Then, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was forced with bias-corrected climate model outputs for both the lowest (RCP2.6) and highest (RCP8.5) greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios to estimate future water availability and impacts of water management strategies. Results showed a 10% decline in future water availability in the basin under RCP2.6 and 27% under RCP8.5. Our results showed that if future climate change is highly limited (RCP2.6) inflow can be just enough to meet the EFRs by implementing the reduction irrigation plan. However, under more rapid climate change scenario (RCP8.5) reducing irrigation water use will not be enough to save the lake and more drastic measures are needed. Our results showed that future water management plans are not robust under climate change in this region. Therefore, an integrated approach of future land-water use planning and climate change adaptation is therefore needed to improve future water security and to reduce the desiccating of this hypersaline lake.

  13. Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a world experiencing anthropogenic and climatic-induced change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paerl, Hans W., E-mail: hpaerl@email.unc.edu; Hall, Nathan S.; Calandrino, Elizabeth S.

    2011-04-15

    Harmful (toxic, food web altering, hypoxia generating) cyanobacterial algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are proliferating world-wide due to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, and they represent a serious threat to the use and sustainability of our freshwater resources. Traditionally, phosphorus (P) input reductions have been prescribed to control CyanoHABs, because P limitation is widespread and some CyanoHABs can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N{sub 2}) to satisfy their nitrogen (N) requirements. However, eutrophying systems are increasingly plagued with non N{sub 2} fixing CyanoHABs that are N and P co-limited or even N limited. In many of these systems N loads are increasing faster than P loads. Therefore N and P input constraints are likely needed for long-term CyanoHAB control in such systems. Climatic changes, specifically warming, increased vertical stratification, salinization, and intensification of storms and droughts play additional, interactive roles in modulating CyanoHAB frequency, intensity, geographic distribution and duration. In addition to having to consider reductions in N and P inputs, water quality managers are in dire need of effective tools to break the synergy between nutrient loading and hydrologic regimes made more favorable for CyanoHABs by climate change. The more promising of these tools make affected waters less hospitable for CyanoHABs by 1) altering the hydrology to enhance vertical mixing and/or flushing and 2) decreasing nutrient fluxes from organic rich sediments by physically removing the sediments or capping sediments with clay. Effective future CyanoHAB management approaches must incorporate both N and P loading dynamics within the context of altered thermal and hydrologic regimes associated with climate change. - Research Highlights: {yields} Toxic cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs) increasingly threaten global water supplies. {yields} Human (nutrient) and climate (hydrology, temperature) changes synergistically promote CyanoHABs. {yields

  14. Preserving the world second largest hypersaline lake under future irrigation and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Ludwig, Fulco; van Vliet, Michelle T H; Pastor, Amandine; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-07-15

    Iran Urmia Lake, the world second largest hypersaline lake, has been largely desiccated over the last two decades resulting in socio-environmental consequences similar or even larger than the Aral Sea disaster. To rescue the lake a new water management plan has been proposed, a rapid 40% decline in irrigation water use replacing a former plan which intended to develop reservoirs and irrigation. However, none of these water management plans, which have large socio-economic impacts, have been assessed under future changes in climate and water availability. By adapting a method of environmental flow requirements (EFRs) for hypersaline lakes, we estimated annually 3.7·10(9)m(3) water is needed to preserve Urmia Lake. Then, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was forced with bias-corrected climate model outputs for both the lowest (RCP2.6) and highest (RCP8.5) greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios to estimate future water availability and impacts of water management strategies. Results showed a 10% decline in future water availability in the basin under RCP2.6 and 27% under RCP8.5. Our results showed that if future climate change is highly limited (RCP2.6) inflow can be just enough to meet the EFRs by implementing the reduction irrigation plan. However, under more rapid climate change scenario (RCP8.5) reducing irrigation water use will not be enough to save the lake and more drastic measures are needed. Our results showed that future water management plans are not robust under climate change in this region. Therefore, an integrated approach of future land-water use planning and climate change adaptation is therefore needed to improve future water security and to reduce the desiccating of this hypersaline lake. PMID:27070383

  15. Drastic Changes in the Middle East and Future of the Arab World%Drastic Changes in the Middle East and Future of the Arab World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Zhichao

    2011-01-01

    The present severe turbulences in the Middle East reflect, by nature, the Arab World' s efforts in rethinking about and re-defining its own history and the destiny, serving as the Second Renaissance after the World War II for all Arab nations.

  16. Sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply. Political and legal challenges of the 21th century; Nachhaltigkeit, Energiewende, Klimawandel, Welternaehrung. Politische und rechtliche Herausforderungen des 21. Jahrhunderts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, Ines (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    The book on sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply as political challenges in the 21th century includes contributions on the following topics: sustainability and environment, energy and climatic change, agriculture and world food supply.

  17. Changing the world with hydrogen and nuclear: From past successes to shaping the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation reviews the past history of hydrogen and nuclear energy, while considering how they had been important forever, how they have been used to change the world when they were discovered and understood, and how they will likely shape our future to face specific challenges of the 21. century. Content: 1 - hydrogen and nuclear reactions at the origin of the universe: the universe and supernovae, the sun, the blue planet, the evolution of man; 2 - understanding and first uses of hydrogen: the discovery of hydrogen, hydrogen balloons, airships or dirigibles, the discovery of the electrolysis and the fuel cell, Jules Vernes; 3 - development of nuclear over the 20. century: pioneers of nuclear energy, Fermi reactor, EBR-1; 4 - development of hydrogen over the 20. century, expanding uses of hydrogen over the second half of the 20. century; 5 - four major endeavours gathering hydrogen and nuclear: light water reactors, naval reactors, nuclear rockets, controlled fusion, the PNP-500 project; 6 - stakes in hydrogen and nuclear production in the 21. century: energy challenge for the 21. century, peaking of fossil fuel production, renaissance of nuclear energy, changes in transportation model, hydrogen market, technologies for nuclear hydrogen production, carbon taxes, the path forward: international demonstrations towards industrialisation, a new generation of scientists for our dreams come true

  18. Sir Nicholas Harold Ridley.He Changed the World, So that We Might Better See It.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivedi Rupal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL implantation has become the most common and most successful of all operations in medicine. Sir Harold Ridley′s first cataract extraction with implantation of an IOL marked the beginning of a major change in the practice of ophthalmology. Millions of patients worldwide have benefited from Sir Ridley′s invention, and are likely to continue to derive benefit from this device. However, the development of the IOL was not without its share of ups and downs. Sir Harold Ridley, the inventor of IOL, died at the age of 94, on 25 May 2001, and ophthalmology lost one of its greatest and most influential practitioners. We are happy that he lived to enjoy the fruits of his labour - to see the amazing improvements and the expansive growth that evolved in the cataract-IOL technique, from early and unsatisfactory operations in previous decades, to the superb results attainable today. The invention of the IOL has not been just the addition of one new form of treatment, but rather, Sir Harold′s tiny disc-shaped sliver of plastic has changed the world so that our patients may better see it . This article presents a brief biographical sketch of Sir Harold and lists his major inventions and contributions to ophthalmology.

  19. Proceedings: 9th World Congress on Preventive Dentistry (WCPD): "Community Participation and Global Alliances for Lifelong Oral Health for All," Phuket, Thailand, September 7-10, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarkson, J; Watt, R G; Rugg-Gunn, A J;

    2010-01-01

    Information is presented about the 9th World Congress on Preventive Dentistry which was hosted by the International Association for Dental Research in Phuket, Thailand on September 7-10, 2009. The conference's theme, "Community Participation and Global Alliances for Lifelong Oral Health for All,"...

  20. Reading for All; Proceedings of the IRA (International Reading Association) World Congress on Reading (4th, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 3-5, 1972).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains papers presented at the Fourth International Reading Association World Congress on Reading in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in August 1972. The contents of the book are divided into three parts: "Literacy and Literature" includes papers on libraries, books, and reading by Jorge Borges, the future of reading by Theodore Harris, the…

  1. Bridging Services: Drug Abuse, Human Services and the Therapeutic Community. Proceedings of the World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (9th, San Francisco, California, September 1-6, 1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    The World Federation of Therapeutic Communities is an international association of drug treatment centers that use the "Therapeutic Community" (TC) to combat chemical dependency and drug addiction. Their 1985 conference focused on bridging services between the TC and the traditional human service systems. A total of 85 separate papers were…

  2. Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a world experiencing anthropogenic and climatic-induced change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, Hans W; Hall, Nathan S; Calandrino, Elizabeth S

    2011-04-15

    Harmful (toxic, food web altering, hypoxia generating) cyanobacterial algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are proliferating world-wide due to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, and they represent a serious threat to the use and sustainability of our freshwater resources. Traditionally, phosphorus (P) input reductions have been prescribed to control CyanoHABs, because P limitation is widespread and some CyanoHABs can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N(2)) to satisfy their nitrogen (N) requirements. However, eutrophying systems are increasingly plagued with non N(2) fixing CyanoHABs that are N and P co-limited or even N limited. In many of these systems N loads are increasing faster than P loads. Therefore N and P input constraints are likely needed for long-term CyanoHAB control in such systems. Climatic changes, specifically warming, increased vertical stratification, salinization, and intensification of storms and droughts play additional, interactive roles in modulating CyanoHAB frequency, intensity, geographic distribution and duration. In addition to having to consider reductions in N and P inputs, water quality managers are in dire need of effective tools to break the synergy between nutrient loading and hydrologic regimes made more favorable for CyanoHABs by climate change. The more promising of these tools make affected waters less hospitable for CyanoHABs by 1) altering the hydrology to enhance vertical mixing and/or flushing and 2) decreasing nutrient fluxes from organic rich sediments by physically removing the sediments or capping sediments with clay. Effective future CyanoHAB management approaches must incorporate both N and P loading dynamics within the context of altered thermal and hydrologic regimes associated with climate change.

  3. Asymmetric adjustment of retail gasoline prices in turkey to world crude oil price changes: the role of taxes

    OpenAIRE

    C. Emre Alper; Orhan Torul

    2009-01-01

    We empirically investigate the impact of shocks to world crude oil prices on retail gasoline prices in Turkey during the 1991-2007 period. Using a Structural-VAR methodology and monthly frequency data, we report that Turkish retail gasoline prices respond significantly to increasing world crude oil prices, but not to decreases. During the estimation period, 70 to 80% of the retail gasoline price was attributable to taxes which were subject to frequent changes by the council of ministers. Alth...

  4. Climate change, its consequences in the Arctic and around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayer, Sophie; Le Divenah, Claudie; Rosetti, Alexandra

    2010-05-01

    CLIMATE CHANGE, ITS CONSEQUENCES IN THE ARCTIC AND AROUND THE WORLD This project has been led in a French European Class either in physics, chemistry, geology, biology and English by: - Sophie Jayer (Biology and geology teacher) - Claudie Le Divenah (Physics and Chemistry teacher) - Alexandra Rosetti (English teacher) As it was a European class, all the classes were held in English. The goals were - to have the students study both sciences and English - to show them that all these subjects were linked in real life and how important English was for scientists - To give them a glimpse of what scientific researches were both in the field and in a lab - To get them involved in the polar year - To make them work on the notion of world citizenship and raise their awareness about the issue of sustainable development We first introduced the Damocles and Tara project to the pupils. Then we studied the Arctic's geography, their inhabitants and ecosystem (Biology and English). In physics and chemistry, they talked about their working conditions, equipments and what kind of analysis they would do. In geology, we studied the evolution of the sea ice and its consequences but also climate changes of the past, the influence of climate on human history and the evidences of global warming nowadays (the pupils had to find information and to make a presentation about different climate events that could be evidence of global warming). A man who works on a research boat for a French national organization came in our class and was able to present his work, the conditions of life on board and to answer the pupils' questions. This is a quick summary of our work. If you need any additional information before the GIFT, please contact me at: sophie.jayer@neuf.fr or Sophie Jayer 61 A route de Paris 78550 Bazainville 0033 (0)1 34 87 61 06 0033 (0)6 20 53 84 65 (mobile) Our group teaches at Emilie de Breteuil High School In Montigny le Bretonneux, 30 km southwest of Paris Lycée Emilie de

  5. Proceedings of a USGS Workshop on Facing Tomorrow's Challenges Along the U.S.-Mexico Border - Monitoring, Modeling, and Forecasting Change Within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Hirsch, Derrick D.; Ward, A. Wesley

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO THE WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS Competition for water resources, habitats, and urban areas in the Borderlands has become an international concern. In the United States, Department of Interior Bureaus, Native American Tribes, and other State and Federal partners rely on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide unbiased science and leadership in the Borderlands region. Consequently, the USGS hosted a workshop, ?Facing Tomorrow?s Challenges along the U.S.-Mexico Border,? on March 20?22, 2007, in Tucson, Ariz., focused specifically on monitoring, modeling, and forecasting change within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

  6. Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Sustainable Development in a Changing World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important changes concerning nuclear energy are coming to the fore, such as economic competitiveness compared to other energy resources, requirement for severe measures to mitigate man-made greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, due to the rise of energy demand in Central and Eastern Europe and Asia and to the greater public concern with respect to the nuclear safety, particularly related to spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal. Global safety culture, as well as well focused nuclear research and development programs for safer and more efficient nuclear technology manifest themselves in a stronger and effective way. Information and data on nuclear technology and safety are disseminated to the public in timely, accurate and understandable fashion. Nuclear power is an important contributor to the world's electricity needs. In 1999, it supplied roughly one sixth of global electricity. The largest regional percentage of electricity generated through nuclear power last year was in western Europe (30%). The nuclear power shares in France, Belgium and Sweden were 75%, 58% and 47%, respectively. In North America, the nuclear share was 20% for the USA and 12% for Canada. In Asia, the highest figures were 43% for the Republic of Korea and 36% for Japan. In 1998, twenty-three nations produced uranium of which, the ten biggest producers (Australia, Canada, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Niger, the Russian Federation, South Africa, Ukraine, USA and Uzbekistan) supplied over 90% of the world's output. In 1998, world uranium production provided only about 59% of world reactor requirements. In OECD countries, the 1998 production could only satisfy 39% of the demand. The rest of the requirements were satisfied by secondary sources including civilian and military stockpiles, uranium reprocessing and re-enrichment of depleted uranium. With regard to the nuclear fuel industry, an increase in fuel burnup, higher thermal rates, longer fuel cycle and the use of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX

  7. Medical education for a changing world: moving beyond cultural competence into transnational competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Peter H; Swick, Herbert M

    2006-06-01

    Given rapidly changing global demographic dynamics and the unimpressive evidence regarding health outcomes attributable to cultural competence (CC) education, it is time to consider a fresh and unencumbered approach to preparing physicians to reduce health disparities and care for ethnoculturally and socially diverse patients, including migrants. Transnational competence (TC) education offers a comprehensive set of core skills derived from international relations, cross-cultural psychology, and intercultural communication that are also applicable for medical education. The authors discuss five limitations (conceptual, vision, action, alliance, and pedagogical) of current CC approaches and explain how an educational model based on TC would address each problem area.The authors then identify and discuss the skill domains, core principles, and reinforcing pedagogy of TC education. The five skill domains of TC are analytic, emotional, creative, communicative, and functional; core principles include a comprehensive and consistent framework, patient-centered learning, and competency assessment. A central component of TC pedagogy is having students prepare a "miniethnography" for each patient that addresses not only issues related to physical and mental health, but also experiences related to dislocation and adaptation to unfamiliar settings. The TC approach promotes advances in preparing medical students to reduce health disparities among patients with multiple and diverse backgrounds, health conditions, and health care beliefs and practices. Perhaps most important, TC consistently directs attention to the policy and social factors, as well as the individual considerations, that can alleviate suffering and enhance health and well-being in a globalizing world. PMID:16728804

  8. Medical education for a changing world: moving beyond cultural competence into transnational competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Peter H; Swick, Herbert M

    2006-06-01

    Given rapidly changing global demographic dynamics and the unimpressive evidence regarding health outcomes attributable to cultural competence (CC) education, it is time to consider a fresh and unencumbered approach to preparing physicians to reduce health disparities and care for ethnoculturally and socially diverse patients, including migrants. Transnational competence (TC) education offers a comprehensive set of core skills derived from international relations, cross-cultural psychology, and intercultural communication that are also applicable for medical education. The authors discuss five limitations (conceptual, vision, action, alliance, and pedagogical) of current CC approaches and explain how an educational model based on TC would address each problem area.The authors then identify and discuss the skill domains, core principles, and reinforcing pedagogy of TC education. The five skill domains of TC are analytic, emotional, creative, communicative, and functional; core principles include a comprehensive and consistent framework, patient-centered learning, and competency assessment. A central component of TC pedagogy is having students prepare a "miniethnography" for each patient that addresses not only issues related to physical and mental health, but also experiences related to dislocation and adaptation to unfamiliar settings. The TC approach promotes advances in preparing medical students to reduce health disparities among patients with multiple and diverse backgrounds, health conditions, and health care beliefs and practices. Perhaps most important, TC consistently directs attention to the policy and social factors, as well as the individual considerations, that can alleviate suffering and enhance health and well-being in a globalizing world.

  9. A business to change the world – moral responsibility in textbooks for International Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Andersson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an empirical analysis of textbooks for International Economics in upper secondary schools with a focus on moral responsibility for environment and society. The purpose is to analyse the meanings offered to students regarding the scope of taking moral responsibility in relation to the role of a business person. Four different meanings are formulated as a result of the study: one states that a business only can take responsibility inorder to obey laws and respond to consumer demands, a second and third meaning imply that, a business can make demands, to different extents, on subcontractors. A fourth meaning includes that a business (apart from making profit also can be a tool for change. The different meanings are discussed in relation to different functions of education (Biesta 2008, Säfström 2005 and Education for Sustainable Development. The main argument is that a tool forchange-meaning, contributing to a subjectification function of education, ought to have an increased space in education, if we want students who are engaged in sustainability issues regarding the environment and the society also to see a future working within the business world. This is equally important if we want business students to see a future working for sustainable development.

  10. Agriculture and resource availability in a changing world: The role of irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Timm; HavlíK, Petr; Schneider, Uwe A.; Schmid, Erwin; Kindermann, Georg; Obersteiner, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Fertile land and freshwater constitute two of the most fundamental resources for food production. These resources are affected by environmental, political, economic, and technical developments. Regional impacts may transmit to the world through increased trade. With a global forest and agricultural sector model, we quantify the impacts of increased demand for food due to population growth and economic development on potential land and water use until 2030. In particular, we investigate producer adaptation regarding crop and irrigation choice, agricultural market adjustments, and changes in the values of land and water. In the context of resource sustainability and food security, this study accounts for the spatial and operational heterogeneity of irrigation management to globally assess agricultural land and water use. Agricultural responses to population and economic growth include considerable increases in irrigated area and water use but reductions in the average water intensity. Different irrigation systems are preferred under different exogenous biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Negligence of these adaptations would bias the burden of development on land and water scarcity. Without technical progress, substantial price adjustments for land, water, and food would be required to equilibrate supply and demand.

  11. Karst water resources in a changing world: Review of hydrological modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A.; Goldscheider, N.; Wagener, T.; Lange, J.; Weiler, M.

    2014-09-01

    Karst regions represent 7-12% of the Earth's continental area, and about one quarter of the global population is completely or partially dependent on drinking water from karst aquifers. Climate simulations project a strong increase in temperature and a decrease of precipitation in many karst regions in the world over the next decades. Despite this potentially bleak future, few studies specifically quantify the impact of climate change on karst water resources. This review provides an introduction to karst, its evolution, and its particular hydrological processes. We explore different conceptual models of karst systems and how they can be translated into numerical models of varying complexity and therefore varying data requirements and depths of process representation. We discuss limitations of current karst models and show that at the present state, we face a challenge in terms of data availability and information content of the available data. We conclude by providing new research directions to develop and evaluate better prediction models to address the most challenging problems of karst water resources management, including opportunities for data collection and for karst model applications at so far unprecedented scales.

  12. How a change in Brazil's sugar policies would affect the world sugar market

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell, Brent

    1991-01-01

    Although Brazil is the world's largest sugarcane producer, only one-third of the cane it grows is used to produce sugar; the rest is used to produce ethanol as fuel for automobiles. Still, Brazil is the world's fourth largest sugar producer. This paper asks what it would mean for Brazil and for the world sugar market if Brazil were to shift largely away from ethanol to sugar production. This question is of keen interest for the world sugar market because such a shift -- although politically d...

  13. Model or Myopia? Exploiting Water Markets to Address Population and Drought Risks in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change, population demands, and evolving land-use represent strong risks to the sustainable development and stability of world-wide urban water supplies. There is a growing consensus that non-structural supply management instruments such as water markets have significant potential to reduce the risks and vulnerabilities in complex urban water systems. This paper asks a common question, what are the tradeoffs for a city using water market supply instruments?. This question emerges quickly in policy and management, but its answer is deceptively difficult to attain using traditional planning tools and management frameworks. This research demonstrates new frameworks that facilitate rapid evaluation of hypotheses on the reliability, resiliency, adaptability, and cost-effectiveness of urban water supply systems. This study considers a broader exploration of the issues of "nonstationarity" and "uncertainty" in urban water planning. As we invest in new information and prediction frameworks for the coupled human-natural systems that define our water, our problem definitions (i.e., objectives, constraints, preferences, and hypotheses) themselves evolve. From a formal mathematical perspective, this means that our management problems are structurally uncertain and nonstationary (i.e., the definition of optimality changes across regions, times, and stakeholders). This uncertainty and nonstationarity in our problem definitions needs to be more explicitly acknowledged in adaptive management and integrated water resources management. This study demonstrates the potential benefits of exploring these issues in the context of a city in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas, USA determining how to use its regional water market to manage population and drought risks.

  14. The Impact of Climate Change on Livestock Production amongst the Resource-Poor Farmers of Third World Countries: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Musemwa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is currently experiencing average high temperatures and low precipitation, frequent droughts and scarcity of both ground and surface water. The damaging effects of global climate change are increasing and most damages are predicted to occur in developing countries due to their over-reliance on low-input rain-fed agricultural production and their low adaptive capacity. Due to the erratic rainfall and high incidence of droughts which make crop production not feasible, the majority of the rural population in Third World Countries depends on livestock production for their livelihoods. The livestock sector is, however, considered very vulnerable to climate variability and change. Floods, droughts, diseases and poor grazing conditions are some of the factors currently causing significant livestock losses. The problems being encountered by the livestock farmers in most of the Third World Countries are expected to worsen in future due to the effects of climate change. This therefore makes the study of impact of climate change on livestock production a vital concern in the world, particularly in developing countries where many rural households depend on livestock production for their livelihoods. This article therefore looks at both the direct and indirect effects of climate change on livestock production. Strategies to curtail the effect of climate change on livestock production are also recommended in the paper.

  15. Non-equilbrium dynamics of ecosystem processes in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Joseph Pignatello

    The relatively mild and stable climate of the last 10,000 years betrays a history of environmental variability and rapid changes. Humans have recently accelerated global environmental change, ushering in the Anthropocene. Meeting accelerating demands for food, energy, and goods and services has accelerated species extinctions, shows of reactive nitrogen and phosphorus, and warming of the atmosphere. I address the over- arching question of how ecosystems will respond to changing and variable environments through several focused studies. Each study examines an ecosystem response to ex- pected environmental changes in the future. To address how the changing environment affects the sizes and turnover rates of slowly and quickly cycling soil carbon pools, I analyzed the responses of grassland soils to simulated species diversity loss, increased deposition of nitrogen and increased atmospheric CO2. I used a soil respiration experiment to fit models of soil carbon pool turnover to respired carbon dioxide. Species diversity, nitrogen deposition and atmospheric CO2 had no effect on the total soil carbon after 8 years of treatments. Although total soil carbon did not change, the rates of cycling in the fast and slow pools changed in response to elevated CO2 and diversity loss treatments. Nitrogen treatments increased the size of the slowly cycling carbon pool. Precipitation variability has increased around most of the world since the industrial revolution. I used plant mesocosms in a greenhouse experiment to manipulate rainfall variability and mycorrhizal associations. I hypothesized that 1) rewetting events re- sult in higher nitrogen uxes from dry soils than moist soils, 2) a repeated pattern of events caused by low-frequency simulated rainfall results in higher nitrogen uxes and 3) the better ability of ectomycorrhizal fungi relative to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to decompose and assimilate organic nitrogen reduces leaching losses of nitrogen caused by both rewetting

  16. 75 FR 50847 - Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... operators must report to CCC. ] Adjusted World Price--Removing Obsolete Definitions CCC published a final... Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation, USDA... implemented the 2008 Farm Bill provisions for the cotton program. The correction removes definitions that...

  17. CNA proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings comprise keynote addresses, biographies, and 22 papers organized under the following headings: international CANDU operations, challenges in the uranium industry, public acceptance - gaining support, strategies for success in the nuclear business, nuclear power and the environment, initiatives in nuclear regulation, other opportunities. Individual papers published which come within the scope of INIS have been abstracted separately

  18. Human activities and climate variability drive fast-paced change across the world's estuarine-coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Abreu, Paulo C.; Carstensen, Jacob; Chauvaud, Laurent; Elmgren, Ragnar; Grall, Jacques; Greening, Holly; Johansson, John O.R.; Kahru, Mati; Sherwood, Edward T.; Xu, Jie; Yin, Kedong

    2016-01-01

    Time series of environmental measurements are essential for detecting, measuring and understanding changes in the Earth system and its biological communities. Observational series have accumulated over the past 2–5 decades from measurements across the world's estuaries, bays, lagoons, inland seas and shelf waters influenced by runoff. We synthesize information contained in these time series to develop a global view of changes occurring in marine systems influenced by connectivity to land. Our review is organized around four themes: (i) human activities as drivers of change; (ii) variability of the climate system as a driver of change; (iii) successes, disappointments and challenges of managing change at the sea-land interface; and (iv) discoveries made from observations over time. Multidecadal time series reveal that many of the world's estuarine–coastal ecosystems are in a continuing state of change, and the pace of change is faster than we could have imagined a decade ago. Some have been transformed into novel ecosystems with habitats, biogeochemistry and biological communities outside the natural range of variability. Change takes many forms including linear and nonlinear trends, abrupt state changes and oscillations. The challenge of managing change is daunting in the coastal zone where diverse human pressures are concentrated and intersect with different responses to climate variability over land and over ocean basins. The pace of change in estuarine–coastal ecosystems will likely accelerate as the human population and economies continue to grow and as global climate change accelerates. Wise stewardship of the resources upon which we depend is critically dependent upon a continuing flow of information from observations to measure, understand and anticipate future changes along the world's coastlines.

  19. Climate change adaptation under uncertainty in the developing world: A case study of sea level rise in Kiribati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, S. D.; Webber, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have the greatest impact in parts of the developing world. At the 2010 meeting of U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change in Cancun, industrialized countries agreed in principle to provide US$100 billion per year by 2020 to assist the developing world respond to climate change. This "Green Climate Fund" is a critical step towards addressing the challenge of climate change. However, the policy and discourse on supporting adaptation in the developing world remains highly idealized. For example, the efficacy of "no regrets" adaptation efforts or "mainstreaming" adaptation into decision-making are rarely evaluated in the real world. In this presentation, I will discuss the gap between adaptation theory and practice using a multi-year case study of the cultural, social and scientific obstacles to adapting to sea level rise in the Pacific atoll nation of Kiribati. Our field research reveals how scientific and institutional uncertainty can limit international efforts to fund adaptation and lead to spiraling costs. Scientific uncertainty about hyper-local impacts of sea level rise, though irreducible, can at times limit decision-making about adaptation measures, contrary to the notion that "good" decision-making practices can incorporate scientific uncertainty. Efforts to improve institutional capacity must be done carefully, or they risk inadvertently slowing the implementation of adaptation measures and increasing the likelihood of "mal"-adaptation.

  20. Change of Building Use in Old Residential Quarter of Melaka City, Malaysia as a UNESCO World Heritage Site

    OpenAIRE

    Deguchi, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses about the trend of building use change in the old residential quarter of Melaka City - a World Heritage Site. In late 2008, a study was conducted to access the situation of use change, by recording existing ground and second floor primary building uses, and compared them with uses recorded 10 years ago. Finding shows that over the past 10 years, warehouses, service uses and vacant buildings have increased, whereas residential and retail uses decreased. Finding also indica...

  1. Inequality in the distribution of personal income in the world: How it is changing and why

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, T. Paul

    1998-01-01

    The variance in the logarithms of per capita GDP in purchasing-power-parity prices increased prices increased in the world from 1960 to 1968 and decreased since the mid 1970s. In the later period the convergence in intercountry incomes more than offset any increase in within country inequality. Approximately two-thirds of this measure of world inequality is intercountry, three-tenths interhousehold within country inequality, and one-twentieth between gender differences in education. If China ...

  2. What Matters Now How to Win in a World of Relentless Change, Ferocious Competition, and Unstoppable Innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Hamel, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This is not a book about one thing. It's not a 250-page dissertation on leadership, teams or motivation. Instead, it's an agenda for building organizations that can flourish in a world of diminished hopes, relentless change and ferocious competition. This is not a book about doing better. It's not a manual for people who want to tinker at the margins. Instead, it's an impassioned plea to reinvent management as we know it-to rethink the fundamental assumptions we have about capitalism, organizational life, and the meaning of work. Leaders today confront a world where the unprecedented is the no

  3. The Fate of the World is in your hands: computer gaming for multi-faceted climate change education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is a multi-faceted (or 'wicked') problem. True climate literacy therefore requires understanding not only the workings of the climate system, but also the current and potential future impacts of climate change and sea level rise on individuals, communities and countries around the world, as noted in the US Global Change Research Program's (2009) Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The asymmetric nature of climate change impacts, whereby the world's poorest countries have done the least to cause the problem but will suffer disproportionate consequences, has also been widely noted. Education in climate literacy therefore requires an element of ethics in addition to physical and social sciences. As if addressing these multiple aspects of climate change were not challenging enough, polling data has repeatedly shown that many members of the public tend to see climate change as a far away problem affecting people remote from them at a point in the future, but not themselves. This perspective is likely shared by many students. Computer gaming provides a possible solution to the combined problems of, on the one hand, addressing the multi-faceted nature of climate change, and, on the other hand, making the issue real to students. Fate of the World, a game produced by the company Red Redemption, has been used on several occasions in a small (20-30 students) introductory level general education course on global warming at Weber State University. Players are required to balance difficult decisions about energy investment while managing regional political disputes and attempting to maintain minimum levels of development in the world's poorer countries. By providing a realistic "total immersion" experience, the game has the potential to make climate change issues more immediate to players, and presents them with the ethical dilemmas inherent in climate change. This presentation reports on the use of Fate of the World in an educational

  4. Impacts of Global Change Scenarios on Ecosystem Services from the World's Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Water is an essential building block of the Earth system and is critical to human prosperity. At the same time, humans are rapidly embedding themselves into the basic character of the water cycle without full knowledge of the consequences. Major sources of water system change include mismanagement and overuse, river flow distortion, pollution, watershed disturbance, invasive species, and greenhouse warming. A pandemic syndrome of risk to rivers-the chief renewable water supply supporting humans and aquatic biodiversity—is evident at the fully global scale, with a costly price-tag ($0.5Tr/yr) required for engineering-based management solutions aimed at fixing rather than preventing problems before they arise. A new project funded under the NSF's Coupled Natural-Human Systems program aims to improve our current understanding of the geography of water-related ecosystem services, accounting for both biophysical and economic controls on these services, and assessing how new management strategies could enhance the resiliency of the global water system over a 100-year time horizon. Within the context of the many sources of threat summarized above, we see the coupling of human-natural systems to be intrinsic to the science at hand, through which we have formulated our central hypothesis: Human-derived stresses imposed on the global water system will intensify over the 21st century, reducing water-related freshwater ecosystem provisioning and supporting services, increasing the costs of their remediation, limiting and shifting the geography of key economic sector outputs, and threatening biodiversity. Addressing this hypothesis has forced a substantial advancement in current capabilities, namely to (i) extend analysis into the 21st century through scenarios, (ii) develop explicit links to freshwater ecosystem services, (iii) assess how the condition of ecosystem services influences the world economy through individual sectors (food, energy, domestic water supply

  5. Health Consequences of Environmental Exposures in Early Life: Coping with a Changing World in the Post-MDG Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, William; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Stein, Renato T; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Carpenter, David O; Neira, Maria; Sly, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Despite overall progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals, large health discrepancies persist between developed and developing countries. The world is rapidly changing and the influences of societal change and climate change will disproportionately affect the world's most vulnerable populations, thus exacerbating current inequities. Current development strategies do not adequately address these disproportionate impacts of environmental exposures. The aim of this study was to propose a new framework to address the health consequences of environmental exposures beyond 2015. This framework is transdisciplinary and precautionary. It is based on identifying social and economic determinants of health, strengthening primary health systems, and improving the health of vulnerable populations. It incorporates deliberate plans for assessment and control of avoidable environmental exposures. It sets specific, measurable targets for health and environmental improvement. PMID:27325065

  6. How World War 1 changed global attitudes to war and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2014-11-01

    World War 1 was a key transition point towards scientific medicine. Medical officers incorporated Louis Pasteur's discoveries into their understanding of microorganisms as the cause of infectious diseases, which were therefore susceptible to rational control and treatment measures even in the pre-antibiotic era. Typhoid vaccination led to the successful evasion of the disastrous epidemics of previous wars. The incidence of tetanus was probably decreased by giving millions of doses of horse antitoxin to wounded soldiers. Quinine treated but could not control malaria; its use required mass compulsion. Tuberculosis was not a great military problem during World War 1, although mortality in civilian populations increased substantially. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections remained a matter of aversive conditioning, with invasive antiseptics used in the absence of antibiotics. Pandemic influenza in 1918-19 killed more people than died during the entire war, showing how much remained beyond the capability of the scientists and doctors who fought infectious diseases during World War 1.

  7. Orderly Change in a Stable World: The Antisocial Trait as a Chimera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Gerald R.

    1993-01-01

    Used longitudinal data from Oregon Youth Study to examine quantitative and qualitative change. Used latent growth models to demonstrate changes in form and systematic changes in mean level for subgroup of boys. Factor analyses carried out at three ages showed that, over time, changes in form and addition of new problems were quantifiable and thus…

  8. Learning World Culture or Changing It? Human Rights Education and the Police in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how local law enforcers in India respond to NGO efforts to disseminate world culture through human rights education. Law enforcement officers do not merely decouple from human rights discourse by superficially endorsing it. They also go further than infusing rights with local meaning. Officers use the language and logic of…

  9. Preserving the world second largest hypersaline lake under future irrigation and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Ludwig, Fulco; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.; Pastor, Amandine; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Iran Urmia Lake, the world second largest hypersaline lake, has been largely desiccated over the last two decades resulting in socio-environmental consequences similar or even larger than the Aral Sea disaster. To rescue the lake a new water management plan has been proposed, a rapid 40% decline

  10. Finnish Lessons: What Can the World Learn from Educational Change in Finland? Series on School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    "Finnish Lessons" is a first-hand, comprehensive account of how Finland built a world-class education system during the past three decades. The author traces the evolution of education policies in Finland and highlights how they differ from the United States and other industrialized countries. He shows how rather than relying on competition,…

  11. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  12. Risk assessment and predator learning in a changing world: understanding the impacts of coral reef degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Douglas P.; McCormick, Mark I.; Allan, Bridie J. M.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat degradation is among the top drivers of the loss of global biodiversity. This problem is particularly acute in coral reef system. Here we investigated whether coral degradation influences predator risk assessment and learning for damselfish. When in a live coral environment, Ambon damselfish were able to learn the identity of an unknown predator upon exposure to damselfish alarm cues combined with predator odour and were able to socially transmit this learned recognition to naïve conspecifics. However, in the presence of dead coral water, damselfish failed to learn to recognize the predator through alarm cue conditioning and hence could not transmit the information socially. Unlike alarm cues of Ambon damselfish that appear to be rendered unusable in degraded coral habitats, alarm cues of Nagasaki damselfish remain viable in this same environment. Nagasaki damselfish were able to learn predators through conditioning with alarm cues in degraded habitats and subsequently transmit the information socially to Ambon damselfish. Predator-prey dynamics may be profoundly affected as habitat degradation proceeds; the success of one species that appears to have compromised predation assessment and learning, may find itself reliant on other species that are seemingly unaffected by the same degree of habitat degradation. PMID:27611870

  13. Risk assessment and predator learning in a changing world: understanding the impacts of coral reef degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Douglas P; McCormick, Mark I; Allan, Bridie J M; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2016-01-01

    Habitat degradation is among the top drivers of the loss of global biodiversity. This problem is particularly acute in coral reef system. Here we investigated whether coral degradation influences predator risk assessment and learning for damselfish. When in a live coral environment, Ambon damselfish were able to learn the identity of an unknown predator upon exposure to damselfish alarm cues combined with predator odour and were able to socially transmit this learned recognition to naïve conspecifics. However, in the presence of dead coral water, damselfish failed to learn to recognize the predator through alarm cue conditioning and hence could not transmit the information socially. Unlike alarm cues of Ambon damselfish that appear to be rendered unusable in degraded coral habitats, alarm cues of Nagasaki damselfish remain viable in this same environment. Nagasaki damselfish were able to learn predators through conditioning with alarm cues in degraded habitats and subsequently transmit the information socially to Ambon damselfish. Predator-prey dynamics may be profoundly affected as habitat degradation proceeds; the success of one species that appears to have compromised predation assessment and learning, may find itself reliant on other species that are seemingly unaffected by the same degree of habitat degradation. PMID:27611870

  14. CHANGES AND EXPECTATIONS: THE WHITE UNION DEFENCE FORCE SOLDIER PRIOR TO AND DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR

    OpenAIRE

    Francois Oosthuizen

    2012-01-01

    At the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, the South African economy had experienced a transition from a predominantly mining and agricultural economy to a more diversified one. The changing structure of the economy is reflected in the relative decline in the contribution of agriculture and mining to the National Income, and the increase in manufacturing (15,4% in 1930 to 17,7%in 1939).

  15. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  16. Building a New World: An Ecosystemic Approach for Global Change & Development Design

    OpenAIRE

    Pilon, André Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Problems of difficult settlement or solution in the world cannot be solved by segmented academic formats, market-place interests or mass-media headlines; instead of dealing with taken for granted issues (the apparent “bubbles” in the surface), public policies, research and teaching programmes should detect the issues and deal with them deep inside the boiling pot. Policy discussions and policy making require new paradigms of growth, power, wealth, work and freedom embedded into the cultural, ...

  17. Preserving the world second largest hypersaline lake under future irrigation and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Shadkam, S.; Ludwig, F.; van Vliet, M.; Pastor, A.; Kabat, P.

    2016-01-01

    Iran Urmia Lake, the world second largest hypersaline lake, has been largely desiccated over the last two decades resulting in socio-environmental consequences similar or even larger than the Aral Sea disaster. To rescue the lake a new water management plan has been proposed, a rapid 40% decline in irrigation water use replacing a former plan which intended to develop reservoirs and irrigation. However, none of these water management plans, which have large socio-economic impacts, have been a...

  18. Changing conceptions of self and world through the spectrum of HIV disease. Implications for psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Farber, Eugene W.; Schwartz, Jennifer A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Individuals with HIV disease face ongoing and phasic challenges that may generate psychological stress or clinically significant distress. Such distress may in part be understood as a response to challenges to fundamental personal conceptions of self and world. The authors describe models generated from social cognition research and the stress response literature and then apply them to common psychological themes that are salient for persons with HIV disease. Implications fo...

  19. Agriculture, Population, Land and Water Scarcity in a Changing World – The Role of Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Timm; HAVLIK Petr; Schneider, Uwe A.; Kindermann, Georg E; Obersteiner, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Fertile land and fresh water constitute two of the most fundamental resources for food production. These resources are affected by environmental, political, economic, and technical developments. Regional impacts may transmit to the world through increased trade. With a global forest and agricultural sector model, we quantify the impacts of increased demand for food due to population growth and economic development on potential land and water use. In particular, we investigate producer adaptat...

  20. Co-benefits of addressing climate change can motivate action around the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bain, Paul G.; Milfont, Taciano L.; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Bilewicz, Michal; Doron, Guy; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B.; Gouveia, Valdiney V.; Guan, Yanjun; Johansson, Lars-Olof; Pasquali, Carlota; Corral-Verdugo, Victor; Aragones, Juan Ignacio; Utsugi, Akira; Demarque, Christophe; Otto, Siegmar; Park, Joonha; Soland, Martin; Steg, Linda; Gonzalez, Roberto; Lebedeva, Nadezhda; Madsen, Ole Jacob; Wagner, Claire; Akotia, Charity S.; Kurz, Tim; Saiz, Jose L.; Schultz, P. Wesley; Einarsdottir, Gro; Saviolidis, Nina M.

    2016-01-01

    Personal and political action on climate change is traditionally thought to be motivated by people accepting its reality and importance. However, convincing the public that climate change is real faces powerful ideological obstacles(1-4), and climate change is slipping in public importance in many c

  1. Post-Fordist technology and the changing patterns of women's employment in the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, M

    2000-01-01

    Literate but unskilled--and largely female--labor has thus far fueled the tremendous increase in manufactured exports of garments and microelectronic products from the Third World to the industrially advanced economies of the North. The future growth of these sectors, however, may require literate and skilled workers--a category in which women are woefully under-represented, especially in the Third World. In the case of the garment industry, defensive innovation in the industrially advanced countries, including automation and flexible management, has initiated a relocation of jobs to these countries or to offshore locations geographically close to their markets. Automated garment production in these countries requires fewer but computer-literate workers. In the case of microelectronics, development policies of East Asian countries and the competitive pressures on start-up companies in the North have led to an increased demand for computer-literate, skilled technicians over the unskilled and overwhelmingly female workforce of manual-assembly workers. Women's continued employment and advancement in these industries globally will depend upon their acquisition of new technical skills. The ratification by the 1995 international women's conference at Beijing of the demand for better access to education and skills training for women, especially in the Third World, is a step in the right direction. PMID:12179946

  2. Post-Fordist technology and the changing patterns of women's employment in the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, M

    2000-01-01

    Literate but unskilled--and largely female--labor has thus far fueled the tremendous increase in manufactured exports of garments and microelectronic products from the Third World to the industrially advanced economies of the North. The future growth of these sectors, however, may require literate and skilled workers--a category in which women are woefully under-represented, especially in the Third World. In the case of the garment industry, defensive innovation in the industrially advanced countries, including automation and flexible management, has initiated a relocation of jobs to these countries or to offshore locations geographically close to their markets. Automated garment production in these countries requires fewer but computer-literate workers. In the case of microelectronics, development policies of East Asian countries and the competitive pressures on start-up companies in the North have led to an increased demand for computer-literate, skilled technicians over the unskilled and overwhelmingly female workforce of manual-assembly workers. Women's continued employment and advancement in these industries globally will depend upon their acquisition of new technical skills. The ratification by the 1995 international women's conference at Beijing of the demand for better access to education and skills training for women, especially in the Third World, is a step in the right direction.

  3. "The gate-keepers in a changing world: integrating microbial diversity and dynamics with global change biology."

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessica L.M. Gutknecht and Kathryn M. Docherty

    2011-11-01

    Microorganisms (Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi) are the gate-keepers of many ecosystem-scale biogeochemical cycles. Although there have been measurable changes in ecosystem function due to human activities such as greenhouse gas production, nutrient loading, land-use change, and water consumption, few studies have connected microbial community dynamics with these changes in ecosystem function. Specifically, very little is known about how global changes will induce important functional changes in microbial biodiversity. Even less is known about how microbial functional changes could alter rates of nutrient cycling or whether microbial communities have enough functional redundancy that changes will have little impact on overall process rates. The proposed symposium will provide an overview of this emerging research area, with emphasis on linking the microorganisms directly to important ecological functions under the influence of global change dynamics. The session will include both broad overviews as well as specific case-studies by researchers who examine microbial communities from a variety of taxonomic levels and from various environments. The session will begin broadly, with speakers discussing how microbial communities may inform ecosystem-scale global change studies, and help to make microbial ecological knowledge more tangible for a broad range of ecologists. The session will continue with case studies of microbial community information informing process in global change experiments. Finally, the session will close with speakers discussing how microbial community information might fit into global change models, and what types of information are useful for future studies. We have requested that speakers particularly incorporate their views on what types of microbial data is useful and informative in the context of larger ecosystem processes. We foresee that this session could serve as a focal point for global change microbial ecologists to meet and discuss their

  4. Predictors of public climate change awareness and risk perception around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien Ming; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Howe, Peter D.; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is a threat to human societies and natural ecosystems, yet public opinion research finds that public awareness and concern vary greatly. Here, using an unprecedented survey of 119 countries, we determine the relative influence of socio-demographic characteristics, geography, perceived well-being, and beliefs on public climate change awareness and risk perceptions at national scales. Worldwide, educational attainment is the single strongest predictor of climate change awareness. Understanding the anthropogenic cause of climate change is the strongest predictor of climate change risk perceptions, particularly in Latin America and Europe, whereas perception of local temperature change is the strongest predictor in many African and Asian countries. However, other key factors associated with public awareness and risk perceptions highlight the need to develop tailored climate communication strategies for individual nations. The results suggest that improving basic education, climate literacy, and public understanding of the local dimensions of climate change are vital to public engagement and support for climate action.

  5. Observations of climate change among subsistence-oriented communities around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savo, V.; Lepofsky, D.; Benner, J. P.; Kohfeld, K. E.; Bailey, J.; Lertzman, K.

    2016-05-01

    The study of climate change has been based strongly on data collected from instruments, but how local people perceive such changes remains poorly quantified. We conducted a meta-analysis of climatic changes observed by subsistence-oriented communities. Our review of 10,660 observations from 2,230 localities in 137 countries shows that increases in temperature and changes in seasonality and rainfall patterns are widespread (~70% of localities across 122 countries). Observations of increased temperature show patterns consistent with simulated trends in surface air temperature taken from the ensemble average of CMIP5 models, for the period 1955-2005. Secondary impacts of climatic changes on both wild and domesticated plants and animals are extensive and threaten the food security of subsistence-oriented communities. Collectively, our results suggest that climate change is having profound disruptive effects at local levels and that local observations can make an important contribution to understanding the pervasiveness of climate change on ecosystems and societies.

  6. Farmer managed irrigation systems in the changed context: Proceedings of the Second International Seminar held on 18-19 April 2002, Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, P.; Gautam, U

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record In these conference proceedings, multiple scholars contributed research and analysis regarding the institutional arrangements used to govern irrigation systems in multiple countries.

  7. Climate change in Bavaria. Responses of the plant agriculture. Proceedings; Klimaaenderung in Bayern. Antworten des Pflanzenbaus. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    The following topics were dealt with: Effects of the climate change on natural yields, climate tolerance at barley, leaf-spot complex at barley, challenges of the climate change on the weed control, potato yield and quality assurance with drop irrigation, permanent roadways and strip processing. (HSI)

  8. Time for change: a roadmap to guide the implementation of the World Anti-Doping Code 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Jiri; Baume, Norbert; Botré, Francesco; Broséus, Julian; Budgett, Richard; Frey, Walter O; Geyer, Hans; Harcourt, Peter Rex; Ho, Dave; Howman, David; Isola, Victor; Lundby, Carsten; Marclay, François; Peytavin, Annie; Pipe, Andrew; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Reichel, Christian; Robinson, Neil; Rodchenkov, Grigory; Saugy, Martial; Sayegh, Souheil; Segura, Jordi; Thevis, Mario; Vernec, Alan; Viret, Marjolaine; Vouillamoz, Marc; Zorzoli, Mario

    2014-05-01

    A medical and scientific multidisciplinary consensus meeting was held from 29 to 30 November 2013 on Anti-Doping in Sport at the Home of FIFA in Zurich, Switzerland, to create a roadmap for the implementation of the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code. The consensus statement and accompanying papers set out the priorities for the antidoping community in research, science and medicine. The participants achieved consensus on a strategy for the implementation of the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code. Key components of this strategy include: (1) sport-specific risk assessment, (2) prevalence measurement, (3) sport-specific test distribution plans, (4) storage and reanalysis, (5) analytical challenges, (6) forensic intelligence, (7) psychological approach to optimise the most deterrent effect, (8) the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and confounding factors, (9) data management system (Anti-Doping Administration & Management System (ADAMS), (10) education, (11) research needs and necessary advances, (12) inadvertent doping and (13) management and ethics: biological data. True implementation of the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code will depend largely on the ability to align thinking around these core concepts and strategies. FIFA, jointly with all other engaged International Federations of sports (Ifs), the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), are ideally placed to lead transformational change with the unwavering support of the wider antidoping community. The outcome of the consensus meeting was the creation of the ad hoc Working Group charged with the responsibility of moving this agenda forward.

  9. Time for change: a roadmap to guide the implementation of the World Anti-Doping Code 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Jiri; Baume, Norbert; Botré, Francesco; Broséus, Julian; Budgett, Richard; Frey, Walter O; Geyer, Hans; Harcourt, Peter Rex; Ho, Dave; Howman, David; Isola, Victor; Lundby, Carsten; Marclay, François; Peytavin, Annie; Pipe, Andrew; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Reichel, Christian; Robinson, Neil; Rodchenkov, Grigory; Saugy, Martial; Sayegh, Souheil; Segura, Jordi; Thevis, Mario; Vernec, Alan; Viret, Marjolaine; Vouillamoz, Marc; Zorzoli, Mario

    2014-05-01

    A medical and scientific multidisciplinary consensus meeting was held from 29 to 30 November 2013 on Anti-Doping in Sport at the Home of FIFA in Zurich, Switzerland, to create a roadmap for the implementation of the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code. The consensus statement and accompanying papers set out the priorities for the antidoping community in research, science and medicine. The participants achieved consensus on a strategy for the implementation of the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code. Key components of this strategy include: (1) sport-specific risk assessment, (2) prevalence measurement, (3) sport-specific test distribution plans, (4) storage and reanalysis, (5) analytical challenges, (6) forensic intelligence, (7) psychological approach to optimise the most deterrent effect, (8) the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and confounding factors, (9) data management system (Anti-Doping Administration & Management System (ADAMS), (10) education, (11) research needs and necessary advances, (12) inadvertent doping and (13) management and ethics: biological data. True implementation of the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code will depend largely on the ability to align thinking around these core concepts and strategies. FIFA, jointly with all other engaged International Federations of sports (Ifs), the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), are ideally placed to lead transformational change with the unwavering support of the wider antidoping community. The outcome of the consensus meeting was the creation of the ad hoc Working Group charged with the responsibility of moving this agenda forward. PMID:24764550

  10. Building world narratives for climate change impact, adaptation and vulnerability analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Hallegatte, Stéphane; Valentin, Przyluski; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien

    2011-01-01

    International audience The impacts of climate change on human systems depend not only on the level of emissions but also on how inherently vulnerable these systems are to the changing climate. The large uncertainties over future development and structure of societies and economies mean that the assessment of climate change efects is complex. One way to deal with this complexity is by using scenario analysis that takes account of these socio-economic diferences. The challenge is to identify...

  11. Older Adults’ Current and Potential Uses of Information Technologies in a Changing World: A Theoretical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Backonja, Uba; Hall, Amanda K.; Thielke, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Technologies have become a major force in people’s lives. They change how people interact with the environment, even as the environment changes. We propose that technology use in the setting of changing environments is motivated by essential needs and tensions experienced by the individual. We apply three developmental and behavioral theories (Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model) to explain technology-related behavio...

  12. Accommodating Two Worlds in One Organization: Changing Board Models in Agricultural Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Bijman, Jos; Hendrikse, George; van Oijen, A.A.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhile most economic organisation literature on cooperatives has focused on changes in income rights, we study changes in the allocation of decision rights between board of directors (representing members) and managers. The traditional role of the board is to direct the activities of the managers. However, professional management increasingly makes most strategic decisions, pushing the board into a supervisory role. We present two groups of findings on changing board – management r...

  13. Changing Permafrost in a Warming World and Feedbacks to the Earth system

    OpenAIRE

    Grosse, GUido; Goetz, Scott; McGuire, A. D.; Romanovsky, V. E.; E. A. G. Schuur

    2016-01-01

    The permafrost component of the cryosphere is changing dramatically, but the permafrost region is not well monitored and the consequences of change are not well understood. Changing permafrost interacts with ecosystems and climate on various spatial and temporal scales. The feedbacks resulting from these interactions range from local impacts on topography, hydrology, and biology to complex influences on global scale biogeochemical cycling. This review contributes to this focus issue by synthe...

  14. Climate change: Evolving technologies, U.S. business, and the world economy in the 21. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harter, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    The International Climate Change Partnership presents this report as one of its efforts to present current information on climate change to the public. One often hears about the expenses entailed in protecting the environment. Unfortunately, one hears less about the economic benefits that may be associated with prudent actions to counter environmental threats. This conference is particularly useful because it focuses attention on profitable business opportunities in the United States and elsewhere that arise from practical efforts to mitigate the risks of climate change. The report contains a brief synopsis of each speaker`s address on climate change.

  15. Seven experiments that could change the world a do-it-yourself guide to revolutionary science

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldrake, Rupert

    1994-01-01

    Seven experiments are proposed in this book that the author believes, if any are successful, will alter how the reader perceives the world. The purpose of the book is to draw attention to areas of research neglected as a result of conventional habits of thought. The descriptions of the experiments are intended to focus the topics under discussion. One of the experiments in the book aims to test the hypothesis that many dogs and cats know that their owners are coming home before they actually arrive. Rupert Sheldrake has also written "The Presence of the Past" and "The Rebirth of Nature".

  16. Einstein's genius club the true story of a group of scientists who changed the world

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Burton

    2011-01-01

    As World War II wound down and it became increasingly clear that the Allies would emerge victorious, Albert Einstein invited three close friends-all titans of contemporary science and philosophy-to his home at 112 Mercer Street in Princeton, New Jersey, to discuss what they loved best-science and philosophy. His guests were the legendary philosopher and pacifist, Bertrand Russell; the boy wonder of quantum physics, Wolfgang Pauli; and the brilliant logician, Kurt Gödel. Their casual meetings took place far from the horrific battlefields of the war and the (then) secret lair of exp

  17. A change of heart? British policies towards tubercular refugees during 1959 World Refugee Year

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Becky

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at Britain’s response to the World Refugee Year (1959–60), and in particular the government’s decision to allow entry to refugees with tuberculosis and other chronic illnesses. In doing so, it broke the practice established by the 1920 Aliens’ Order which had barred entry to immigrants with a range of medical conditions. This article uses the entry of these sick refugees as an opportunity to explore whether government policy represented as much of a shift in attitude and pr...

  18. Coping with Social Change: Programs That Work. Proceedings of a Conference (Acapulco, Mexico, June 1989) = Como enfrentarse al cambio social: programas eficaces. Actas de uno Conferencia (Acapulco, Mexico, Junio de 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Irene, Ed.

    Written in English and Spanish, this document contains the proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Gerontology on concerns about the impact of rapid social change on the well-being of older women and families in Latin American and the Caribbean and about effective programs that address the needs of the older populations. The first…

  19. Identifying the world's most climate change vulnerable species: a systematic trait-based assessment of all birds, amphibians and corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foden, Wendy B; Butchart, Stuart H M; Stuart, Simon N; Vié, Jean-Christophe; Akçakaya, H Resit; Angulo, Ariadne; DeVantier, Lyndon M; Gutsche, Alexander; Turak, Emre; Cao, Long; Donner, Simon D; Katariya, Vineet; Bernard, Rodolphe; Holland, Robert A; Hughes, Adrian F; O'Hanlon, Susannah E; Garnett, Stephen T; Sekercioğlu, Cagan H; Mace, Georgina M

    2013-01-01

    Climate change will have far-reaching impacts on biodiversity, including increasing extinction rates. Current approaches to quantifying such impacts focus on measuring exposure to climatic change and largely ignore the biological differences between species that may significantly increase or reduce their vulnerability. To address this, we present a framework for assessing three dimensions of climate change vulnerability, namely sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity; this draws on species' biological traits and their modeled exposure to projected climatic changes. In the largest such assessment to date, we applied this approach to each of the world's birds, amphibians and corals (16,857 species). The resulting assessments identify the species with greatest relative vulnerability to climate change and the geographic areas in which they are concentrated, including the Amazon basin for amphibians and birds, and the central Indo-west Pacific (Coral Triangle) for corals. We found that high concentration areas for species with traits conferring highest sensitivity and lowest adaptive capacity differ from those of highly exposed species, and we identify areas where exposure-based assessments alone may over or under-estimate climate change impacts. We found that 608-851 bird (6-9%), 670-933 amphibian (11-15%), and 47-73 coral species (6-9%) are both highly climate change vulnerable and already threatened with extinction on the IUCN Red List. The remaining highly climate change vulnerable species represent new priorities for conservation. Fewer species are highly climate change vulnerable under lower IPCC SRES emissions scenarios, indicating that reducing greenhouse emissions will reduce climate change driven extinctions. Our study answers the growing call for a more biologically and ecologically inclusive approach to assessing climate change vulnerability. By facilitating independent assessment of the three dimensions of climate change vulnerability, our approach can

  20. Identifying the world's most climate change vulnerable species: a systematic trait-based assessment of all birds, amphibians and corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy B Foden

    Full Text Available Climate change will have far-reaching impacts on biodiversity, including increasing extinction rates. Current approaches to quantifying such impacts focus on measuring exposure to climatic change and largely ignore the biological differences between species that may significantly increase or reduce their vulnerability. To address this, we present a framework for assessing three dimensions of climate change vulnerability, namely sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity; this draws on species' biological traits and their modeled exposure to projected climatic changes. In the largest such assessment to date, we applied this approach to each of the world's birds, amphibians and corals (16,857 species. The resulting assessments identify the species with greatest relative vulnerability to climate change and the geographic areas in which they are concentrated, including the Amazon basin for amphibians and birds, and the central Indo-west Pacific (Coral Triangle for corals. We found that high concentration areas for species with traits conferring highest sensitivity and lowest adaptive capacity differ from those of highly exposed species, and we identify areas where exposure-based assessments alone may over or under-estimate climate change impacts. We found that 608-851 bird (6-9%, 670-933 amphibian (11-15%, and 47-73 coral species (6-9% are both highly climate change vulnerable and already threatened with extinction on the IUCN Red List. The remaining highly climate change vulnerable species represent new priorities for conservation. Fewer species are highly climate change vulnerable under lower IPCC SRES emissions scenarios, indicating that reducing greenhouse emissions will reduce climate change driven extinctions. Our study answers the growing call for a more biologically and ecologically inclusive approach to assessing climate change vulnerability. By facilitating independent assessment of the three dimensions of climate change vulnerability

  1. Communication in a Changing World: Contemporary Perspectives on Business Communication Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldeck, Jennifer; Durante, Cathryn; Helmuth, Briana; Marcia, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Communication in and around business organizations has changed due to new technologies, the demand for intercultural communication skills, the changing person-organization relationship, and the global nature of organizing. As a result, new communication competencies may be required. The author's objective was to identify specific communication…

  2. Accommodating Two Worlds in One Organization: Changing Board Models in Agricultural Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.J. Bijman (Jos); G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); A.A.C.J. van Oijen

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhile most economic organisation literature on cooperatives has focused on changes in income rights, we study changes in the allocation of decision rights between board of directors (representing members) and managers. The traditional role of the board is to direct the activities of the

  3. Exploring a model for finding meaning in the changing world of work (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Burger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article explores the role that meaning, as logotherapy conceptualises it, can play to facilitate organisational changes.Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore further a model an earlier paper proposed for using employees’ experiences of meaning in work contexts to facilitate changes.Motivation for the study: The researchers could not find a comprehensive model in the literature for addressing employees’ experiences of meaning in, or at, work during organisational changes. A previous paper proposed such a model, but it addressed only one component fully. This article seeks to explore this model further to address this apparent gap in the literature.Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a literature review to conduct the study. The components of the model directed this review in order to find meaning at work.Main findings: The actions of organisations, which aim to create positive organisational contexts (through practices for improving meaning at work and transcendence and to frame changes using ‘Logo-OD’, can improve employees’ experiences of meaning during organisational changes.Practical/managerial implications: Understanding the relationship between meaning and organisational change, and applying the model this article presents, can contribute to the overall success of change initiatives.Contribution/value-add: This study’s primary contribution stems from the novel framework it presents for organisations to use the knowledge about how employees search for meaning to facilitate changes.

  4. Estimates of mortality and population changes in England and Wales over the two World Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgueni Andreev

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost one million soldiers from England and Wales died during the First and Second World War whilst serving in the British Armed Forces. Although many articles and books have been published that commemorate the military efforts of the British Armed Forces, data on the demographic aspects of British army losses remain fragmentary. Official population statistics on England and Wales have provided continuous series on the civilian population, including mortality and fertility over the two war periods. The combatant population and combatant mortality have not been incorporated in the official statistics, which shows large out-migration at the beginning and large in-migration towards the end of the war periods. In order to estimate the dynamics of the total population and its excess mortality, we introduce in this paper a model of population flows and mortality in times of war operations. The model can be applied to a detailed reconstruction of war losses, using various shapes of the input data. This enables us to arrive at detailed estimates of war-related losses in England and Wales during the two world wars. Our results agree with elements of data provided by prior studies.

  5. The many facets of climate change - Conference proceedings; Les multiples facettes du changement climatique - Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    This conference day on climate change was organized by the French meteorological society (SMF) at the Ecole Normale Superieure of Paris. This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference. Eight presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Climate change today and tomorrow, the research stakes (Herve Le Treut, IPSL); 2 - Rise of sea levels: estimations and regional variability (Guy Woeppelmann, La Rochelle Univ.); 3 - Polar ice caps and continental cryo-sphere as seen from space (A. Kouraev, F. Remy, E. Berthier, LEGOS); 4 - Impacts of climate change on exploited marine populations: projections and uncertainties (Patrick Lehodey, CLS); 5 - Climate change stakes on agricultural and winery activities in France (Eric Duchene, INRA); 6 - Impacts of climate change on forest trees phenology and their consequences on trees life and survival (Francois Lebourgeois, ENGREF); 7 - Remote-epidemiology: a health-aid in a climate change context (Murielle Lafaye, CNES); 8 - Socio-economic aspects and adaptation: a climate history, for what? (Emmanuel Garnier, Caen Univ.)

  6. The world is not flat: defining relevant thermal landscapes in the context of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Michael W; Raskin, Evan; Angilletta, Michael J

    2011-11-01

    Although climates are rapidly changing on a global scale, these changes cannot easily be extrapolated to the local scales experienced by organisms. In fact, such generalizations might be quite problematic. For instance, models used to predict shifts in the ranges of species during climate change rarely incorporate data resolved to local scale, depending on vegetation, geology, and topography. Furthermore, this variation in abiotic factors ignores thermoregulatory behaviors that many animals use to balance heat loads. Through a set of simulations, we demonstrate how variability in elevational topography can attenuate the effects of warming climates. These simulations suggest that changing climates do not always impact organisms negatively. Importantly, these simulations involve well-known relationships in biophysical ecology that show how no two organisms experience the same climate in the same way. We suggest that, when coupled with thermoregulatory behavior, variation in topographic features can mask the acute effect of climate change in many cases. PMID:21937668

  7. Changing the world is easy. Changing the Academy is hard: Systemic Action Research and the recreation of higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Brydon-Miller, Mary;

    2015-01-01

    whole system change has to be underpinned by processes of in-depth inquiry, multi-stakeholder analysis, experimental action and experiential learning, enacted across a wide terrain. Systemic action research offers a learning architecture for this sort of change process.” This process can begin...... in research centers and other units, enclaves within larger academic organizations, which can serve as sites for innovative learning and as transitional settings for larger institutional change (Friedman, 2011). What links these efforts is a common values stance of action research which has been defined as......’ work on Systemic Action Research, Friedman’s discussions of enclaves, and the literature on ethics and values in action research (Brydon-Miller, ; Hilsen, 2006), along with specific examples of feasible utopias of the university founded in an action research framework already in existence to open...

  8. Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress '99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The congress discussed the following subjects, 1. The role of renewable energy in the next millenium; 2. Challenges in the commercialization of renewable energy; 3. The role and agenda for renewable energy towards sustainable development. Topics covered in the technical session were biomass conversion; solar thermal technologies and systems; solar photovoltaic s; renewable energy economics, financing and policy; renewable energy education; climate and the environment; energy and architecture; energy management; wind and hydro technologies and systems; hydrogen and fuel cell

  9. Bio-physical vs. Economic Uncertainty in the Analysis of Climate Change Impacts on World Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, T. W.; Lobell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that agricultural production could be greatly affected by climate change, but there remains little quantitative understanding of how these agricultural impacts would affect economic livelihoods in poor countries. The recent paper by Hertel, Burke and Lobell (GEC, 2010) considers three scenarios of agricultural impacts of climate change, corresponding to the fifth, fiftieth, and ninety fifth percentiles of projected yield distributions for the world’s crops in 2030. They evaluate the resulting changes in global commodity prices, national economic welfare, and the incidence of poverty in a set of 15 developing countries. Although the small price changes under the medium scenario are consistent with previous findings, their low productivity scenario reveals the potential for much larger food price changes than reported in recent studies which have hitherto focused on the most likely outcomes. The poverty impacts of price changes under the extremely adverse scenario are quite heterogeneous and very significant in some population strata. They conclude that it is critical to look beyond central case climate shocks and beyond a simple focus on yields and highly aggregated poverty impacts. In this paper, we conduct a more formal, systematic sensitivity analysis (SSA) with respect to uncertainty in the biophysical impacts of climate change on agriculture, by explicitly specifying joint distributions for global yield changes - this time focusing on 2050. This permits us to place confidence intervals on the resulting price impacts and poverty results which reflect the uncertainty inherited from the biophysical side of the analysis. We contrast this with the economic uncertainty inherited from the global general equilibrium model (GTAP), by undertaking SSA with respect to the behavioral parameters in that model. This permits us to assess which type of uncertainty is more important for regional price and poverty outcomes. Finally, we undertake a

  10. Inciting Change in Secondary English Language Programs: The Case of Cherry High School. Secondary Education in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles-Ritchie, Marilee

    2009-01-01

    The way many secondary schools are structured limits the ability of immigrant English Learners to achieve academically and develop social networks, often resulting in hyper-segregated learning experiences. This book explores the journey of a group of teachers in a secondary school as they work to change the ESL program for immigrants in their…

  11. AVHRR, MODIS and Landsat Time Series for the Monitoring of Vegetation Changes Around the World (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beurs, K.; Owsley, B.; Julian, J.; Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    A confluence of computing power, cost of storage, ease of access to data, and ease of product delivery make it possible to harness the power of multiple remote sensing data streams to monitor land surface dynamics. Change detection has always been a fundamental remote sensing task, and there are myriad ways to perceive differences. From a statistical viewpoint, image time series of the vegetated land surface are complicated data to analyze. The time series are often seasonal and have high temporal autocorrelation. These characteristics result in the failure of the data to meet the assumption of most standard parametric statistical tests. Failure of statistical assumptions is not trivial and the use of inappropriate statistical methods may lead to the detection of spurious trends, while any actual trends and/or step changes might be overlooked. While the analysis of messy data, which can be influenced by discontinuity, missing observation, non-linearity and seasonality, is still developing within the remote sensing community, other scientific research areas routinely encounter similar problems and have developed statistically appropriate ways to deal with them. In this talk we describe the process of change analysis as a sequence of tasks: (1) detection of changes; (2) quantification of changes; (3) assessment of changes; (4) attribution of changes; and (5) projection of the potential consequences of changes. To detect, quantify, and assess the significance of broad scale land surface changes, we will first apply the nonparametric Seasonal Kendall (SK) trend test corrected for first-order temporal autocorrelation to MODIS image time series. We will then discuss three case studies, situated in the USA, Russia, and New Zealand in which we combine or fuse satellite data at two spatial resolutions (30m Landsat and 500m MODIS) to assess and attribute changes at fine spatial and temporal scales. In the USA we will investigate changes as a result of urban development, in

  12. U.S. Cotton Prices and the World Cotton Market: Forecasting and Structural Change

    OpenAIRE

    Isengildina-Massa, Olga; MacDonald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze structural changes that took place in the cotton industry in recent years and develop a statistical model that reflects the current drivers of U.S. cotton prices. Legislative changes authorized the U.S. Department of Agriculture to resume publishing cotton price forecasts for the first time in 79 years. In addition, systematic problems have become apparent in the forecasting models used by USDA and elsewhere, highlighting the need for an updated review...

  13. Natural hazards in a changing world: a case for ecosystem-based management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne L Nel

    Full Text Available Communities worldwide are increasingly affected by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves. However, the causes of these increases remain underexplored, often attributed to climate changes or changes in the patterns of human exposure. This paper aims to quantify the effect of climate change, as well as land cover change, on a suite of natural hazards. Changes to four natural hazards (floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves were investigated through scenario-based models using land cover and climate change drivers as inputs. Findings showed that human-induced land cover changes are likely to increase natural hazards, in some cases quite substantially. Of the drivers explored, the uncontrolled spread of invasive alien trees was estimated to halve the monthly flows experienced during extremely dry periods, and also to double fire intensities. Changes to plantation forestry management shifted the 1:100 year flood event to a 1:80 year return period in the most extreme scenario. Severe 1:100 year storm-waves were estimated to occur on an annual basis with only modest human-induced coastal hardening, predominantly from removal of coastal foredunes and infrastructure development. This study suggests that through appropriate land use management (e.g. clearing invasive alien trees, re-vegetating clear-felled forests, and restoring coastal foredunes, it would be possible to reduce the impacts of natural hazards to a large degree. It also highlights the value of intact and well-managed landscapes and their role in reducing the probabilities and impacts of extreme climate events.

  14. Evaluation of Talent in a Changing World: The Case of Major League Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Groothuis; Kurt W. Rotthoff; Mark C. Strazicich

    2013-01-01

    Comparing talent across time is difficult as productivity changes. To compare talent across time we utilize Major League baseball data from 1871-2010 and time series techniques to determine if the mean and standard deviation of five performance measures are stationary and if structural breaks exist. We identify two structural breaks in the mean slugging percentage: in 1921, the free swinging era of Babe Ruth, and in 1992, the steroid era. Given that productivity changes over time, we develop ...

  15. Proceedings from glaciation and hydrogeology. Workshop on the impact of climate change and glaciations on rock stresses, groundwater flow and hydrochemistry - Past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King-Clayton, L.; Chapman, N. [eds.] [QuantiSci Ltd (United Kingdom); Ericsson, L.O. [ed.] [SKB, Stockholm (Sweden); Kautsky, F. [ed.] [SKI, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    Assessment of the long term safety of radioactive waste disposal requires assimilation of evidence for the impact of climate change and especially glaciation on the geosphere, particularly in terms of its implications for: the distribution and stability of stress regimes, groundwater flux and flow patterns, groundwater chemistry, and thermal conditions. This workshop was intended to promote informal scientific discussion and the exchange of information and ideas between a wide range of disciplines such as climatology, glaciology, hydrology, hydrochemistry, rock mechanics and structural geology. Participants from outside the radioactive waste community were welcome. Of particular need were palaeosignatures, direct observational information and models of the impact of continental ice sheets and periglacial conditions on crystalline bedrock. The workshop has highlighted the fact that there is a great deal of interest in the area of climate change and its impact on the performance of a deep geological repository, but that there are still many issues remaining that require further resolution. The first half of these proceedings gives overviews of the discussions and conclusions from the different sessions at the workshop, as well as the general conclusion and summary. In the second half, summaries of 49 contributions to the workshop are printed. These summaries have been indexed separately.

  16. Proceedings from glaciation and hydrogeology. Workshop on the impact of climate change and glaciations on rock stresses, groundwater flow and hydrochemistry - Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the long term safety of radioactive waste disposal requires assimilation of evidence for the impact of climate change and especially glaciation on the geosphere, particularly in terms of its implications for: the distribution and stability of stress regimes, groundwater flux and flow patterns, groundwater chemistry, and thermal conditions. This workshop was intended to promote informal scientific discussion and the exchange of information and ideas between a wide range of disciplines such as climatology, glaciology, hydrology, hydrochemistry, rock mechanics and structural geology. Participants from outside the radioactive waste community were welcome. Of particular need were palaeosignatures, direct observational information and models of the impact of continental ice sheets and periglacial conditions on crystalline bedrock. The workshop has highlighted the fact that there is a great deal of interest in the area of climate change and its impact on the performance of a deep geological repository, but that there are still many issues remaining that require further resolution. The first half of these proceedings gives overviews of the discussions and conclusions from the different sessions at the workshop, as well as the general conclusion and summary. In the second half, summaries of 49 contributions to the workshop are printed. These summaries have been indexed separately

  17. Geology for a changing world 2010-2020-Implementing the U.S. Geological Survey science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Linda C.S.; Belnap, Jayne; Goldhaber, Martin; Goldstein, Arthur; Haeussler, Peter J.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Jones, John W.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Thompson, Robert S.; Back, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a science strategy for the geologic activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the years 2010-2020. It presents six goals with accompanying strategic actions and products that implement the science directions of USGS Circular 1309, 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges-U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017.' These six goals focus on providing the geologic underpinning needed to wisely use our natural resources, understand and mitigate hazards and environmental change, and understand the relationship between humans and the environment. The goals emphasize the critical role of the USGS in providing long-term research, monitoring, and assessments for the Nation and the world. Further, they describe measures that must be undertaken to ensure geologic expertise and knowledge for the future. The natural science issues facing today's world are complex and cut across many scientific disciplines. The Earth is a system in which atmosphere, oceans, land, and life are all connected. Rocks and soils contain the answers to important questions about the origin of energy and mineral resources, the evolution of life, climate change, natural hazards, ecosystem structures and functions, and the movements of nutrients and toxicants. The science of geology has the power to help us understand the processes that link the physical and biological world so that we can model and forecast changes in the system. Ensuring the success of this strategy will require integration of geological knowledge with the other natural sciences and extensive collaboration across USGS science centers and with partners in Federal, State, and local agencies, academia, industry, nongovernmental organizations and, most importantly, the American public. The first four goals of this report describe the scientific issues facing society in the next 10 years and the actions and products needed to respond to these issues. The final two goals focus on the expertise and

  18. Social-Ecological Controls Over Earth-System Stewardship: a Framework for Sustainability in a Rapidly Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F. S.; Power, M. E.; Pickett, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Carter, D.; Harden, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Human actions are having large and accelerating effects on Earth’s climate, environment, and ecosystems, thereby degrading ecosystem services required by society. This unsustainable trajectory demands a dramatic change in the relationship of humans with the environment and life-support systems of the planet. Earth-system stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster social-ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing world. This builds on problem-relevant research about the social-ecological interactions that drive earth-system change. These include spiraling consumption in developed nations and the broadening gap between the livelihoods of rich and poor people within and among countries. Science that contributes effectively to reversing these trends requires an ongoing dialogue between scientists and users at multiple scales, communicated with sensitivity to social and cultural norms. Such science must motivate behavioral change and deliver information that is perceived as objective, timely, and useful to problem-solving. Recent developments identify four strategies that use current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: (1) reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses; (2) focusing on proactive policies that shape change; and (3) avoiding or escaping unsustainable social-ecological traps. All social-ecological systems are vulnerable to change but have sources of adaptive capacity and resilience that can sustain ecosystem services and human well-being. Discovering and nurturing these sources of adaptive capacity requires, and defines active ecosystem stewardship.

  19. Insurance World in Transition: Changes in Global Risk Taking and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Gero; Tiampo, Kristy

    2015-04-01

    Catastrophe insurance risk assessment, risk taking, and regulation has evolved over the last 20 years and is gearing up for significant further change in the years ahead. Changes in regulation and influx of capital have put profit margins for catastrophe risk products under pressure despite the fact that changes in climate as well as increasing insurance penetration is expected to heighten demand. As a result, reinsurance strategies are moving away from catastrophe risk. In addition, lower margins require cheaper and more efficient risk assessment methods and processes which are contrary to evolving analytical tools and methods that had increased expenses in line with growing margins over the last decade. New capital providers are less familiar with and less willing to accept complex supply chains for risk management, relationship-driven business and tedious data exchange and management processes. Risk takers claim new measures and ask for more flexibility in the use of tools. The current concepts of catastrophe insurance risk assessment are hence under thorough scrutiny. This presentation deals with the changing landscape in catastrophe insurance risk assessment and risk hedging and discusses changes in catastrophe risk assessment products and demand. How likely is it that private, small and nimble hazard and risk consulting groups - increasingly emanating from larger science organizations - will replace large established firms in their role to assess risk? What role do public-private academic partnerships play in assuming risk for catastrophe insurance and what role could they play in the future? What are the opportunities and downsides of the current changes in risk taking and hedging? What is needed from the scientific community in order to fill the gaps in risk management and who is likely to take advantage of the current changes?

  20. Review and synthesis: Changing permafrost in a warming world and feedbacks to the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Guido; Goetz, Scott; McGuire, Anthony; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Schuur, Edward A.G.

    2016-01-01

    The permafrost component of the cryosphere is changing dramatically, but the permafrost region is not well monitored and the consequences of change are not well understood. Changing permafrost interacts with ecosystems and climate on various spatial and temporal scales. The feedbacks resulting from these interactions range from local impacts on topography, hydrology, and biology to complex influences on global scale biogeochemical cycling. This review contributes to this focus issue by synthesizing its 28 multidisciplinary studies which provide field evidence, remote sensing observations, and modeling results on various scales. We synthesize study results from a diverse range of permafrost landscapes and ecosystems by reporting key observations and modeling outcomes for permafrost thaw dynamics, identifying feedbacks between permafrost and ecosystem processes, and highlighting biogeochemical feedbacks from permafrost thaw. We complete our synthesis by discussing the progress made, stressing remaining challenges and knowledge gaps, and providing an outlook on future needs and research opportunities in the study of permafrost–ecosystem–climate interactions.

  1. Changing permafrost in a warming world and feedbacks to the Earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Guido; Goetz, Scott; McGuire, A. Dave; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Schuur, Edward A. G.

    2016-04-01

    The permafrost component of the cryosphere is changing dramatically, but the permafrost region is not well monitored and the consequences of change are not well understood. Changing permafrost interacts with ecosystems and climate on various spatial and temporal scales. The feedbacks resulting from these interactions range from local impacts on topography, hydrology, and biology to complex influences on global scale biogeochemical cycling. This review contributes to this focus issue by synthesizing its 28 multidisciplinary studies which provide field evidence, remote sensing observations, and modeling results on various scales. We synthesize study results from a diverse range of permafrost landscapes and ecosystems by reporting key observations and modeling outcomes for permafrost thaw dynamics, identifying feedbacks between permafrost and ecosystem processes, and highlighting biogeochemical feedbacks from permafrost thaw. We complete our synthesis by discussing the progress made, stressing remaining challenges and knowledge gaps, and providing an outlook on future needs and research opportunities in the study of permafrost-ecosystem-climate interactions.

  2. A Matter of Perspective - E and P Strategy in a Changing World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation states that the exploration and production industry sees many new opportunities, as a result of political changes and its own expanding capabilities. There is increasing competition for scarce resources - people, tools, technology, capital and public support. The industry must meet pressing challenges, including low oil prices and changing societal expectations. Investors seek predictable terms that are appropriate for both global and local conditions. They have to assess the risks, value the opportunities, consider whether they have the necessary resources, and satisfy themselves they can maintain standards. Their choices are constrained by economic conditions and commercial realities

  3. The Transformational CIO Leadership and Innovation Strategies for IT Executives in a Rapidly Changing World

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Hunter

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational CIO is chock full of stimulating thought leadership and useful knowledge that will help you leverage new and existing technologies to create business value, generate more revenue, increase profits and improve customer relationships in rapidly changing global markets. This book is a practical guide for senior executives seeking optimal returns on technology investments, now and in the future.Hot-button issues and essential topics covered in the book include:Vision and OrganizationCulture and ChangePartnering with the BusinessThe Art and Science of IT LeadershipTeam Building

  4. The understanding of world climate change; Les connaissances sur le changement climatique mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, M.

    2008-07-01

    After having recalled that the problem of global warming in relationship with human activities has been studied since the end of the nineteenth century and since then by different scientific programs, the author describes how the IPCC's or Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's report is produced. He briefly comments how Earth's temperature is determined and the various natural parameters which influence the climate on Earth. He recalls how the IPCC showed the actual influence of human activities, and which changes have actually been observed

  5. The risk city cities countering climate change : emerging planning theories and practices around the world

    CERN Document Server

    Jabareen, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary cities face phenomenal risks, and they face particularly high levels of mounting social and environmental risks, including social polarization, urban conflicts, riots, terror, and climate change threats. This book suggests that climate change and its resulting uncertainties challenge the concepts, procedures, and scope of conventional approaches to planning, creating a need to rethink and revise current planning methods. Therefore, this book suggests a paradigm shift in our thinking, interrogation, and planning of our cities. Based on the contemporary conditions of risk at cities

  6. Holy water changes EEG and HRV because of both autosuggestion and his information (God Grace, World Mind, Cosmic Energy etc)

    OpenAIRE

    Popovych, I.L.; Babelyuk, V Ye; Gozhenko, A.I.; Zukow, W.; Zubov, P G; Dubkova, G I; Korolyshyn, T A; Nesterova, L F; Barylyak, L G

    2015-01-01

    Popovych I L, Babelyuk V Ye, Gozhenko A I, Zukow W, Zubov P G, Dubkova G I, Korolyshyn T A, Nesterova L F, Barylyak L G. Holy water changes EEG and HRV because of both autosuggestion and his information (God Grace, World Mind, Cosmic Energy etc). Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(1):203-220. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.14881 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%281%29%3A203-220 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/534229 http://dx.doi.org/10.52...

  7. Meteorological conditions, climate change, new emerging factors, and asthma and related allergic disorders. A statement of the World Allergy Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Holgate, Stephen T; Pawankar, Ruby; Ledford, Dennis K; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Al-Ahmad, Mona; Al-Enezi, Fatma; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Ansotegui, Ignacio; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Baker, David J; Bayram, Hasan; Bergmann, Karl Christian; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Buters, Jeroen T M; D'Amato, Maria; Dorsano, Sofia; Douwes, Jeroen; Finlay, Sarah Elise; Garrasi, Donata; Gómez, Maximiliano; Haahtela, Tari; Halwani, Rabih; Hassani, Youssouf; Mahboub, Basam; Marks, Guy; Michelozzi, Paola; Montagni, Marcello; Nunes, Carlos; Oh, Jay Jae-Won; Popov, Todor A; Portnoy, Jay; Ridolo, Erminia; Rosário, Nelson; Rottem, Menachem; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Sibanda, Elopy; Sienra-Monge, Juan José; Vitale, Carolina; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic airway diseases such as asthma and rhinitis has increased dramatically to epidemic proportions worldwide. Besides air pollution from industry derived emissions and motor vehicles, the rising trend can only be explained by gross changes in the environments where we live. The world economy has been transformed over the last 25 years with developing countries being at the core of these changes. Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes. Many of these changes are considered to have negative effects on respiratory health and to enhance the frequency and severity of respiratory diseases such as asthma in the general population. Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and especially carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere have already warmed the planet substantially, causing more severe and prolonged heat waves, variability in temperature, increased air pollution, forest fires, droughts, and floods - all of which can put the respiratory health of the public at risk. These changes in climate and air quality have a measurable impact not only on the morbidity but also the mortality of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases. The massive increase in emissions of air pollutants due to economic and industrial growth in the last century has made air quality an environmental problem of the first order in a large number of regions of the world. A body of evidence suggests that major changes to our world are occurring and involve the atmosphere and its associated climate. These changes, including global warming induced by human activity, have an impact on the biosphere, biodiversity, and the human environment. Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges. This statement of the World Allergy Organization (WAO) raises the importance of this health hazard and highlights the facts on climate-related health impacts

  8. Meteorological conditions, climate change, new emerging factors, and asthma and related allergic disorders. A statement of the World Allergy Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Holgate, Stephen T; Pawankar, Ruby; Ledford, Dennis K; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Al-Ahmad, Mona; Al-Enezi, Fatma; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Ansotegui, Ignacio; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Baker, David J; Bayram, Hasan; Bergmann, Karl Christian; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Buters, Jeroen T M; D'Amato, Maria; Dorsano, Sofia; Douwes, Jeroen; Finlay, Sarah Elise; Garrasi, Donata; Gómez, Maximiliano; Haahtela, Tari; Halwani, Rabih; Hassani, Youssouf; Mahboub, Basam; Marks, Guy; Michelozzi, Paola; Montagni, Marcello; Nunes, Carlos; Oh, Jay Jae-Won; Popov, Todor A; Portnoy, Jay; Ridolo, Erminia; Rosário, Nelson; Rottem, Menachem; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Sibanda, Elopy; Sienra-Monge, Juan José; Vitale, Carolina; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic airway diseases such as asthma and rhinitis has increased dramatically to epidemic proportions worldwide. Besides air pollution from industry derived emissions and motor vehicles, the rising trend can only be explained by gross changes in the environments where we live. The world economy has been transformed over the last 25 years with developing countries being at the core of these changes. Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes. Many of these changes are considered to have negative effects on respiratory health and to enhance the frequency and severity of respiratory diseases such as asthma in the general population. Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and especially carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere have already warmed the planet substantially, causing more severe and prolonged heat waves, variability in temperature, increased air pollution, forest fires, droughts, and floods - all of which can put the respiratory health of the public at risk. These changes in climate and air quality have a measurable impact not only on the morbidity but also the mortality of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases. The massive increase in emissions of air pollutants due to economic and industrial growth in the last century has made air quality an environmental problem of the first order in a large number of regions of the world. A body of evidence suggests that major changes to our world are occurring and involve the atmosphere and its associated climate. These changes, including global warming induced by human activity, have an impact on the biosphere, biodiversity, and the human environment. Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges. This statement of the World Allergy Organization (WAO) raises the importance of this health hazard and highlights the facts on climate-related health impacts

  9. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by

  10. The future of hydrology: An evolving science for a changing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, T.; Sivapalan, M.; Troch, P.A.; McGlynn, B.L.; Harman, C.J.; Gupta, H.V.; Kumar, P.; Rao, P.S.C.; Basu, N.B.; Wilson, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Human activities exert global-scale impacts on our environment with significant implications for freshwater-driven services and hazards for humans and nature. Our approach to the science of hydrology needs to significantly change so that we can understand and predict these implications. Such an adju

  11. Work and Change. Labor Market Adjustment Policies in a Competitive World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee for Economic Development, New York, NY. Research and Policy Committee.

    The net effect on employment of structural changes now occurring in the United States will be determined by the actions that government, management, and labor take to create and support the conditions for new opportunity and to encourage people to move from old to new work. Many of the measures that need to be taken to ensure profitability involve…

  12. A Bridge between Worlds: Understanding Network Structure to Understand Change Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Alan J.; Finnigan, Kara S.

    2010-01-01

    A number of scholars are exploring district and site relations in organizational change efforts in the larger policy context of No Child Left Behind. These studies suggest the importance of the central office as a support to the work of reform and offer strategies for building relations between district offices and sites in order to implement and…

  13. Worlds Have Collided and Modes Have Merged: Classroom Evidence of Changed Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Debates continue in public and in educational policy forums about the "basics" of literacy while many have not recognised that these basics may never be the same again. Rapid changes in digital communication provide facilities for reading and writing to be combined with various and often quite complex aspects of music, photography and film. At the…

  14. Changing constructions of informed consent: qualitative research and complex social worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tina; Boulton, Mary

    2007-12-01

    Informed consent is a concept which attempts to capture and convey what is regarded as the appropriate relationship between researcher and research participant. Definitions have traditionally emphasised respect for autonomy and the right to self-determination of the individual. However, the meaning of informed consent and the values on which it is based are grounded in society and the practicalities of social relationships. As society changes, so too do the meaning and practice of informed consent. In this paper, we trace the ways in which the meaning and practice of informed consent has changed over the last 35 years with reference to four qualitative studies of parenting and children in the UK which we have undertaken at different points in our research careers. We focus in particular on the shifting boundaries between the professional and personal, and changing expressions of agency and power in a context of heightened perceptions of risk in everyday life. We also discuss developments in information and communication technologies as a factor in changing both the formal requirements for and the situated practicalities of obtaining informed consent. We conclude by considering the implications for informed consent of both increasing bureaucratic regulation and increasingly sophisticated information and communication technologies and suggest strategies for rethinking and managing 'consent' in qualitative research practice.

  15. Snowmelt and water resources in a changing climate and dustier world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Snow cover and its melt dominate regional climate and water resources in the world's mountain regions, providing for critical agricultural and sustaining populations in otherwise dry regions. Snowmelt timing and magnitude in mountains tend to be controlled by absorption of solar radiation and snow water equivalent, respectively, and yet both of these are very poorly known even in the best-instrumented mountain regions of the globe. In this talk, we discuss developments in the spaceborne and airborne remote sensing of snow properties, and the assimilation of these products into research water cycle modeling and operational forecasting. Our work with the NWS Colorado Basin River Forecast Center has shown marked improvements in runoff forecasting through inclusion of MODIS and VIIRS fractional snow covered area data. Moreover, the analyses have shown that the CBRFC forecasting errors are strongly sensitive to actual dust radiative forcing in snow with rising limb excursions as large as 40%. With MODIS retrievals of dust radiative forcing, the CBRFC will be implementing modifications to forecasts to reduce those errors to order Conejos, and Uncompahgre Basins in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Analyses show that with ASO data, river flows and reservoir inflows from the ASO acquisition date to 1 July can be estimated with uncertainties of less than 2%. The synergy of the ASO and the satellite retrievals will ultimately allow extension of quantitative knowledge to addressing the snowmelt water resources and availability for agricultural regions in sparsely instrumented regions of the globe.

  16. Global Climate Change and Environmental Health: Proceedings of the 1997 Annual Conference of the Society for Occupational and Environmental Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the conference was to bring together a diverse group of occupational and environmental health experts to address the potential effects of climate change and ozone depletion on the current and future incidence of disease, heat stress, food and water supplies, and air pollution; to discuss initial strategies for improving R and D, global health surveillance systems, disease prevention, medical and public health community education, international cooperation, and public outreach; to address this international occupational and environmental health problem; and to explore international challenges and opportunities for collaborative projects in addressing these potential effects

  17. A systematic review of community hand washing interventions leading to changes in hygiene behavior in the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Madhu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Educational interventions in hygienic practices have shown to be cost effective methods of controlling diarrhea and other diseases spread through poor hygiene. Hand washing is one method of breaking the chain of transmission between household contacts, and especially between mother and child. Effective interventions to promote this behavior should be expanded and encouraged in the developing world. Objectives: To determine the extent and credibility of intervention studies done to promote uptake of improved hand washing behaviors in communities. To assess these interventions on their results in terms of behavior change, and identify factors contributing to their success or failure. Methods: The investigators searched the databases SCOPUS, EMBASE (1980-2010, and Pubmed for English papers written about hygiene promotion interventions in developing countries. Interventions included were community based control trials examining the effectiveness of increased hygiene education through measured behavior change. Only studies measuring behavior change using structured observation or demonstration of hand washing skills were used. Results: The search terms: hand washing, health education, hygiene promotion, behavior change, and diarrhea were used, resulting in a total of 330 titles. The investigators scanned the titles and abstracts to narrow down to 13 hygiene interventions measuring behavior change. Only five control trial interventions met the observation measurement criteria. Behavior change measurements were compiled and compared based on the length of intervention and the degree of change noted with each study. Conclusion: Encouraging uptake of hand washing behavior is possible using educational interventions to promote improved hygiene. The most significant impacts were seen from interventions running for longer periods of time. More robust and long term control trials are necessary to gather conclusive data on the sustainability of

  18. On the Use of Arabic Tweets to Predict Stock Market Changes in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid AlKhatib

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Social media users nowadays express their opinions and feelings about many event occurring in their lives. For certain users, some of the most important events are the ones related to the financial markets. An interesting research field emerged over the past decade to study the possible relationship between the fluctuation in the financial markets and the online social media. In this research we present a comprehensive study to identify the relation between Arabic financial-related tweets and the change in stock markets using a set of the most active Arab stock indices. The results show that there is a Granger Causality relation between the volume and sentiment of Arabic tweets and the change in some of the stock markets.

  19. Gross world product and consumption in a global warming model with endogenous technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlagh, Reyer; Van der Zwaan, Bob [IVM/VU, Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2003-02-01

    This paper analyzes the macro-economic costs and effects on consumption and energy demand of limiting the global average atmospheric temperature increase to 2C. We use a macro-economic model in which there are two competing energy technologies (carbon and non-carbon, respectively), technological change is represented endogenously, and energy is aggregated through a CES function implying positive demand for the relatively expensive non-carbon technology. Technological change is represented through a learning curve describing decreasing energy production costs as a function of cumulative experience. We find that energy savings constitutes an important mechanism for decreasing abatement costs in the short- and medium-term, while the acquisition of additional learning experience substantially decreases abatement costs in the longer-term.

  20. Proceedings of the Ninth forum: Croatian Energy Day: Restructuring, Privatisation and Market Changes of Grid-bound Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restructuring, privatisation and market changes of grid-bound energy systems present processes that characterise the energy sector of today, and the achieved level of these processes vary considerably from one country to another and there is no ideal model. Therefore, the exchange of experiences and broad co-operation in the field is of vital importance. For the first time the concept of the future Croatian energy legislation, presently in the focus of domestic energy related attention, will be introduced. Restructuring includes the changes in organisation anbd economic relations in order to enhance efficiency and reduce operational costs, in keeping with the market trends. Privatisation is a process that should enable the creation of markets and competition. When defining the concept of privatisation, we should primarily design the market, determine the position of individual functioning during market creation, and then determine the course of privatisation. Experiences of developed countries tell us that it is necessary to find a balance between markets and state interventions, as well as among technological-technical, economic and social aspects of energy use

  1. Climate-Change Problem Solving: Structured Approaches Based on Real-World Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, R. B.; Briley, L. J.; Brown, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Nearly two decades of experience using both seasonal and long-term climate model projections has led to the identification of a set of characteristics of the successful use of climate knowledge in planning and adaptation applications. These characteristics include end-to-end knowledge systems, co-generation or co-production of solution approaches by scientists and practitioners, and tailoring climate model information to the decision-making processes of the specific application. Glisaclimate.org strives to apply the growing body of research into the successful use of climate knowledge using a set of prototype, real-world applications. We describe an online problem-solving environment whose design is based on the characteristics of the successful use of climate predictions and projections by practitioners such as resource managers, urban planners, public health professionals, and policy makers. Design features of Glisaclimate.org include: Based on principles extracted from social science studies of the use of climate information. Anchored on structured templates of problem solving with the identification of common steps in problem solving that are repeated in one application to the next. Informed by interviews with real-world users who desire to incorporate climate-science knowledge into their decision making. Built with open-source tools to allow participation of a community of developers and to facilitate the sustainability of the effort. A structured approach to problem solving is described by four functions of information management. At the foundation of problem solving is the collection of existing information, an inventory stage. Following the collection of the information there are analysis and evaluation stages. In the analysis stage interfaces are described and knowledge gaps are identified. The evaluation stage assesses the quality of the information and the relevance of the information to the specific attributes of the problem. The development of plans

  2. Antarctic fish in a changing world: metabolic, osmoregulatory and endocrine stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Guerreiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish around Antarctic Peninsula are exposed to the fastest climate change rate in the planet, up to ten times higher than the global average. The evolution in extreme stenothermal isolation was a strong selective pressure for the development of a highly endemic fish fauna, with likely structural and functional constraints. To which extent can coastal notothenioid fish adjust to the conditions forecasted by the models of climate change? Experiments were run in the Arctowski (PL station at Admiralty Bay, King George Island, in 2012/13. Fish, Notothenia rossii and N. coriiceps, were collected by boat at 5-25 meter deep using fishing poles and were transferred to experimental tanks in cold rooms acclimated to natural temperatures (0-2°C. Fish were exposed to rapid/ gradual changes in water temperature or/and salinity (to 6-8°C using thermostat-controlled heaters, to 20-10‰ by addition of freshwater to recirculating tanks, over a period of up to 10 days to evaluate the response of several physiological processes. The stress endocrine axis was tested by injecting known blockers/ agonists of cortisol release and receptors. Exposure to altered conditions had no effect in immediate mortality. Increased temperature reduced overall activity and behavioral response to stimuli, although it had no clear effect on mobilization of energetic substrate. Both cortisol and gene expression of metabolic-related proteins and glucocorticoid- and mineralocorticoid receptors were modified after heat shock, but that the cortisol response to handling was reduced. The rise in temperature induced a dependent decrease in plasma osmolality while increasing branchial Na+/K+-ATPase activity, thus decreasing osmoregulatory efficiency. In conclusion, Antarctic fish are reactive to environmental change, but that their ability to accommodate rapid or adaptive responses may be compromised.

  3. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT – A CHANGE TO THE FACE OF THE WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    RAJA AMBETHKAR M

    2013-01-01

    From the times immemorial- urbanization, industrialization, change in livingconditions, a fundamental increase in consumer's habits in India have created a rapidandsteady rise in the production of solid wastes. Parallel to this increase, thepopulation of urban centers is constantly growing. The result of these developmentsmeans that the amount of solid wastes produced in urban area has swelled considerably.Effective and efficient way of collecting, transportation and treating thesewastes hasb...

  4. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, N

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by this industry, impacts of implementation of various international trade rules on the apparel industry, consequences of Bangladesh's attempts to enter in bilateral and regional free trade agreements...

  5. Turkey’s Central Asia policy in the changing world: priorities, policies and actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhad ALIMUKHAMEDOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey’s Central Asia policy offers an interesting perspective for analysing political and economic interests of Ankara in the region after the collapse of USSR. The political place of Central Asia in Turkish foreign policy priorities has changed slowly, but constantly from 90s to now. Although all Turkish governments and presidents followed friendly cooperation with Turkic speaking countries, the centrality of the region was lost and geoeconomic interests became dominant. However, among institutional cooperation possibilities TİKA has developed major arguments and increasingly intense activities towards the region. The article seeks to understand the reasons behind the changes of Turkish Foreign Policy and the role of Central Asian countries in Turkey’s agenda. Its objective is to underline how the geoeconomic interests may change foreign policy vectors of the countries and show the increasing dependence and involvements of Ankara on bordering countries. Besides enumerating the reasons, we also propose institutional cooperation between Turkey and Central Asian countries which seems to have more positive impact both in bilateral and multilaretal relations. The paper tries to frame the relations from Turkey’s perspective and explain the chronology of Ankara’s involvement post-Soviet Central Asia. The datas referring to the policies and starategies are primarily taken from the research articles, but also from reports. The literature review shows also that majority of research and papers are focused on early 90s and post 2000 period, indicating Turkey’s most active periods towards the region. The papers outcomes are based on qualitative method and try to explore foreign policy priorities and changes occurring based on geoeconomic interests. We try to describe the variations in Ankara’s policies and explain the relationships between Turkic capitals and leaders of Turkic states. We used open-ended questions such as followings to conduct

  6. Imaging Sciences Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.

    1996-11-21

    This report contains the proceedings of the Imaging Sciences Workshop sponsored by C.A.S.LS., the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences. The Center, established primarily to provide a forum where researchers can freely exchange ideas on the signal and image sciences in a comfortable intellectual environment, has grown over the last two years with the opening of a Reference Library (located in Building 272). The Technical Program for the 1996 Workshop include a variety of efforts in the Imaging Sciences including applications in the Microwave Imaging, highlighted by the Micro-Impulse Radar (MIR) system invented at LLNL, as well as other applications in this area. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Speech, Acoustic Ocean Imaging, Radar Ocean Imaging, Ultrasonic Imaging, and Optical Imaging discuss various applica- tions of real world problems. For the more theoretical, sessions on Imaging Algorithms and Computed Tomography were organized as well as for the more pragmatic featuring a session on Imaging Systems.

  7. Metabolic changes during a field experiment in a world-class windsurfing athlete: a trial with multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Nathália Maria; de Magalhães Neto, Anibal Monteiro; Bachini, Flávio; de Castro, Luis Eduardo Viveiros; Bassini, Adriana; Cameron, L C

    2011-10-01

    Physical exercise affects hematological equilibrium and metabolism. This study evaluated the biochemical and hematological responses of a male world-class athlete in sailing who is ranked among the top athletes on the official ISAF ranking list of windsurfing, class RS:X. The results describe the metabolic adaptations of this athlete in response to exercise in two training situations: the first when the athlete was using the usual training and dietary protocol, and the second following training and nutritional interventions based on a careful analysis of his diet and metabolic changes measured in a simulated competition. The intervention protocol for this study consisted of a 3-month facility-based program using neuromuscular training (NT), aerobic training (AT), and nutritional changes to promote anabolism and correct micronutrient malnutrition. Nutritional and training intervention produced an increase in the plasma availability of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids (AAAs), alanine, glutamate, and glutamine during exercise. Both training and nutritional interventions reduced ammonemia, uricemia, and uremia. In addition, we are able to correct a significant drop in potassium levels during races by correct supplementation. Due to the uniqueness of this experiment, these results may not apply to other windsurfers, but we nonetheless had the opportunity to characterize the metabolic adaptations of this athlete. We also proposed the importance of in-field metabolic analyses to the understanding, support, and training of world-class elite athletes. PMID:21978397

  8. Promoting the health of Europeans in a rapidly changing world: a historical study of the implementation of World Health Organisation policies by the Nursing and Midwifery Unit, European Regional Office, 1970-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Christine; Wagner, Lis

    2011-01-01

    Organisation (WHO) was inaugurated in 1948. Formed in a period of post-war devastation, WHO aimed to develop and meet goals that would rebuild the health of shattered populations. The historical study reported here examined the work of the Nursing and Midwifery Unit (NMU) of WHO's European Regional Office......HALLETT C and WAGNER L. Nursing Inquiry 2011; 18: 359-368 Promoting the health of Europeans in a rapidly changing world: a historical study of the implementation of World Health Organisation policies by the Nursing and Midwifery Unit, European Regional Office, 1970-2003 The World Health...

  9. Structural Change and Income Inequality – Agricultural Development and Inter-sectoral Dualism in the Developing World, 1960-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. Andersson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural change consists of the long-term changes in the sectoral composition of output and employment. We introduce a structural change perspective to the study of income inequality in 27 countries of the developing world for the period 1960-2010. The service sector has become the main employer, but the agricultural sector is central to the income distribution because poverty is mostly rural, and the labor surplus is high. We decompose the sectoral composition of aggregate labor productivity at the country level, divide the countries into agrarian, dual (beginner, intermediate and advanced, and mature economies and use the inter-sectoral productivity gap to test the effect of structural change on income inequality. We confirm increases in agricultural productivity everywhere and find that the inter-sectoral gap is positively associated with income inequality. The effect is negligible in agrarian and advanced economies but powerful in dual beginner economies: an increase of 1% in the inter-sectoral gap increases income inequality by 0.5%. The effect peters out in dual intermediate economies and disappears completely in dual advanced economies. Finally, redistribution has been the key to compensating the losers in the income changes, particularly for those entering the non-agricultural economy.

  10. Gender difference and age-related changes in performance at the long distance duathlon world championship

    OpenAIRE

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Pfeifer, Susanne; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Senn, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The differences in gender and the age-related changes in triathlon (i.e. swimming, cycling, and running) performances have been previously investigated, but data are missing for duathlon (i.e. running, cycling, and running). We investigated the participation and performance trends, as well as the gender difference and the age-related decline in performance, at the 'Powerman Zofingen' long-distance duathlon (10km run, 150km cycle, and 30km run) from 2002 to 2011. During this period, there were...

  11. Infrastructuring, Collaboration and Evolving Socio-material Practices of Changing Our World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Ehn, Pelle; Karasti, Helena;

    2014-01-01

    The workshop will examine issues around emerging participation in (re-)designing technological and/or societal infrastructures. Contributions should provide cases and/or methodological reflections on connecting ongoing social or professional practices involving infrastructure usages with emerging...... and/or collaborative processes of changing/improving those infrastructures. Contributions may provide an analytical perspective or methods/tools to stimulate and support processes and activities of infrastructuring.......The workshop will examine issues around emerging participation in (re-)designing technological and/or societal infrastructures. Contributions should provide cases and/or methodological reflections on connecting ongoing social or professional practices involving infrastructure usages with emerging...

  12. Twitter for Good Change the World One Tweet at a Time

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Ortiz, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Silver Medal Winner, Social Networking, 2012 Axiom Business Book AwardsSilver Medal Winner, Business and Leadership, 2012 Nautilus Book Awards The official word from Twitter on how to harness the power of the platform for any cause. As recent events in Japan, the Middle East, and Haiti have shown, Twitter offers a unique platform to connect individuals and influence change in ways that were unthinkable only a short time ago. In Twitter for Good, Claire Diaz Ortiz, Twitter's head of corporate social innovation and philanthropy, shares the same strategies she offers to organizations launching

  13. The status of the Nordic populations of the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in a changing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Söderquist, Pär; Christensen, Thomas Kjær;

    2013-01-01

    trends, and productivity measures indicated stable or increasing trends. Major knowledge gaps were identified, namely the size of hunting bags, the influence of the released Mallards and the role of short-stopping in explaining changing patterns of wintering abundance across the North-West European......, none of the indicators showed alarming signs for the Mallard population in the Nordic countries when consid- ered in isolation. However, the widespread decline in wintering numbers elsewhere across North-western Europe requires urgent pan-European action....

  14. How Much Do We Know about the Storage Changes in the Major River Basins of the World? Analysis of Storage Change from GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.; Verdin, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Change in storage is an important component of water cycle that is often ignored in large-scale hydrologic studies due to limited data and difficulty in measurement. For the first time, this study quantifies and inter-compares storage changes in major river basins of the world. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) monthly mass deviation in storage (MDS) data over 2003-2013 is used to compute monthly, annual and long-term change in storage (ΔS) for 51 major river basins of the world (> 200,000 km2). For each river basin, GRACE ΔS is analyzed to understand a) temporal variability in ΔS b) magnitude of ΔS at annual and decadal time scales and c) duration of storage cycle (time taken by a basin in months to return to initial storage condition). This study identified that 11, 33 and 7 out of 51 basins showed high, medium and low month to month variability in storage changes, respectively. Compared to basin precipitation, 48 out of 51 river basins showed storage to be considerable (5 - 35% of basin annual precipitation). Only 3 basins (Irrawaddy, St. Lawrence, and Brahmaputra) showed minimum variability in storage (river basins showed negligible storage changes (river basins. Future study would focus on the analysis of ΔS over large river basins within the United States. Such analysis and estimates of ΔS would help to (i) improve our knowledge of water availability and (ii) meet the goals of the WaterSMART (Sustain and Manage America's Resources for Tomorrow) project.

  15. The Use of Filter-feeders to Manage Disease in a Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Colleen A; Closek, Collin J; Friedman, Carolyn S; Groner, Maya L; Jenkins, Cody M; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Welsh, Jennifer E

    2016-10-01

    Rapid environmental change is linked to increases in aquatic disease heightening the need to develop strategies to manage disease. Filter-feeding species are effective biofilters and can naturally mitigate disease risk to humans and wildlife. We review the role of filter-feeders, with an emphasis on bivalves, in altering disease outcomes via augmentation and reduction. Filtration can reduce transmission by removing pathogens from the water column via degradation and release of pathogens in pseudofeces. In other cases, filtration can increase pathogen transmission and disease risk. The effect of filtration on pathogen transmission depends on the selectivity of the filter-feeder, the degree of infectivity by the pathogen, the mechanism(s) of pathogen transmission and the ability of the pathogen to resist degradation. For example, some bacteria and viruses can resist degradation and accumulate within a filter-feeder leading to disease transmission to humans and other wildlife upon ingestion. Since bivalves can concentrate microorganisms, they are also useful as sentinels for the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. While somewhat less studied, other invertebrates, including ascidians and sponges may also provide ecosystem services by altering pathogen transmission. In all scenarios, climate change may affect the potential for filter-feeders to mitigate disease risk. We conclude that an assessment including empirical data and modeling of system-wide impacts should be conducted before selection of filter-feeders to mitigate disease. Such studies should consider physiology of the host and microbe and risk factors for negative impacts including augmentation of other pathogens. PMID:27371383

  16. Cassava: The Drought, War and Famine Crop in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Burns

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is the sixth most important crop, in terms of global annual production. Cassava is grown primarily for its starchy tuberous roots, which are an important staple for more than 800 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, but also in other parts of Africa, Asia, the Pacific and South America. Cassava is important for both small-scale farmers and larger-scale plantations due to its low requirement for nutrients, ability to tolerate dry conditions and easy low-cost propagation. It is sometimes referred to as the “drought, war and famine crop of the developing world” and reliance upon this crop is expected to increase in the coming years as the global climate changes. As with all crops, cassava presents some challenges which need to be addressed, especially if its production is to continue to expand. We highlight here a number of key issues around the continued and increased reliance upon cassava as a staple food crop. Cassava contains cyanogenic glycosides that release hydrogen cyanide and many cultivars are toxic if not processed before consumption. The degree of toxicity is altered by plant breeding, agricultural practice, environmental conditions and methods of food preparation. We conclude that use of cassava has the potential to help many countries achieve food security in a sustainable manner, in the face of significant environmental change, but that its introduction should be accompanied by appropriate education about its toxicity.

  17. Peat in horticulture and conservation: the UK response to a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peat bogs are increasingly recognised as valuable habitats for wildlife and important stores of carbon. Yet the UK horticultural industry relies heavily on peat sourced from bogs in the UK and Republic of Ireland. Environmentalists, government and horticultural businesses in the UK now recognise the environmental consequences of using peat in horticulture, and the industry is turning increasingly to sustainable raw materials. In this paper, the strengths and weaknesses of campaigning since 1990 to implement this change are analysed, with the intention of providing useful information for other countries facing similar challenges. The campaign encountered deeply-ingrained practices so that the shift in behaviour has been slow and, although now widespread, still meets resistance in some quarters. The UK Government introduced targets for peat replacement which have helped stimulate the industry to develop suitable alternatives. The major gardening retailers have included peat replacement targets in their environmental codes of practice, and these are being met through incremental peat dilution with alternative materials such as green compost and processed timber by-products. Legislative requirements for European biodiversity conservation have led the UK government to terminate peat extraction on significant areas of former commercial extraction. The importance of peatlands for carbon sequestration and the major issue of climate change are increasingly focusing attention on peatland conservation, pointing towards the need for a more consistent approach to the use of peat across the European Community.

  18. A change navigation-based, scenario planning process within a developing world context from an Afro-centric leadership perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A. Geldenhuys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In the hyper turbulent context faced currently by organisations, more flexible strategic planning approaches, such as scenario planning which take into account a more comprehensive range of possible futures for an organisation, will position organisations better than conventional forecast and estimates that depend only on a single, linearly extrapolated, strategic response.Research purpose: This study aimed to investigate how scenario-based planning (a strictly cognitive management tool can be combined with organisational change navigation (a practice addressing the emotionality of change and how this integrated process should be aligned with the prerequisites imposed by a developing country context and an Afro-centric leadership perspective in order to make the process more context relevant and aligned.Motivation for the study: The integration of organisational change navigation with conventional scenario based planning, as well as the incorporation of the perquisites of a developing countries and an Afro-centric leadership perspective, will give organisations a more robust, holistic strategic management tool that will add significantly more value within a rapidly, radically and unpredictably changing world.Research design, approach and method: The adopted research approach comprised a combination of the sourcing of the latest thinking in the literature (the ‘theory’ as well as the views of seasoned practitioners of scenario planning (the ‘practice’ through an iterative research process, moving between theory and practice, back to practice and finally returning to theory in order to arrive at a validated expanded and enhanced scenario-based planning process which is both theory and practice ‘proof’.Main findings: A management tool incorporating the change navigation and the unique features of developing countries and Afro-centric leadership was formulated and empirically validated. This management tool is referred to as

  19. A global strategy of economic development financing and energy use in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes are highlighted that occurred in the structure of energy markets worldwide in the late 1980s. Special attention is paid to oil production and sources in Iraq, Russia and Saudi Arabia. Other countries such as some of the former Soviet republics, Algeria, and Vietnam also begin to play a role, and a rapid increase in oil demand in those countries is expected to appear in this decade. The role of the government reduces gradually while competition and market mechanisms begin to establish. The problems of power industry financing in developing countries are closely related to the conditions for capital transfer in these countries. A competition-oriented organization with clearly defined and transparent framework conditions is a prerequisite for a participation of the private sector. This transition requires a simultaneous reform of the banking system and the capital market. (J.B.)

  20. Changes in number and intensity of world-wide tropical cyclones

    CERN Document Server

    Briggs, W M

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian statistical models were developed for the number of tropical cyclones and the rate at which these cyclones became hurricanes in the North Atlantic, North and South Indian, and East and West Pacific Oceans. We find that there is small probability that the number of cyclones has increased in the past thirty years. The rate at which these storms become hurricanes appears to be constant. The rate at which hurricanes evolve into category 4 and higher major storms does appear to have increased. We also investigate storm intensity by measuring the distribution of individual storm lifetime in days, storm track length, and Emanuel's power dissiptation index. We find little evidence that, overall, the mean of the distribution of individual storm intensity is changing through time, but the variability of the distribution has increased. The cold tongue index and the North Atlantic oscillation index were found to be strongly associated with storm quality in the Western, and to a smaller extent, the Eastern Pacifi...

  1. Uncovering the volatile nature of tropical coastal marine ecosystems in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exton, Dan A; McGenity, Terry J; Steinke, Michael; Smith, David J; Suggett, David J

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), in particular dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and isoprene, have fundamental ecological, physiological and climatic roles. Our current understanding of these roles is almost exclusively established from terrestrial or oceanic environments but signifies a potentially major, but largely unknown, role for BVOCs in tropical coastal marine ecosystems. The tropical coast is a transition zone between the land and ocean, characterized by highly productive and biodiverse coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, which house primary producers that are amongst the greatest emitters of BVOCs on the planet. Here, we synthesize our existing understanding of BVOC emissions to produce a novel conceptual framework of the tropical marine coast as a continuum from DMS-dominated reef producers to isoprene-dominated mangroves. We use existing and previously unpublished data to consider how current environmental conditions shape BVOC production across the tropical coastal continuum, and in turn how BVOCs can regulate environmental stress tolerance or species interactions via infochemical networks. We use this as a framework to discuss how existing predictions of future tropical coastal BVOC emissions, and the roles they play, are effectively restricted to present day 'baseline' trends of BVOC production across species and environmental conditions; as such, there remains a critical need to focus research efforts on BVOC responses to rapidly accelerating anthropogenic impacts at local and regional scales. We highlight the complete lack of current knowledge required to understand the future ecological functioning of these important systems, and to predict whether feedback mechanisms are likely to regulate or exacerbate current climate change scenarios through environmentally and ecologically mediated changes to BVOC budgets at the ecosystem level. PMID:25311223

  2. World environmental policy. Conceptual approaches of German political science in response to the challenges of Global Change; Weltumweltpolitik - Global Change als Herausforderung fuer die deutsche Politikwissenschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, F. [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Potsdam (Germany); Dingwerth, K. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Politik- und Sozialwissenschaften

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes, first, the international community of social scientists working on global change, and elaborates on possible contributions to this community by German political scientists. Second, the paper examines three new conceptual approaches to analysing global change, namely the Syndromes of Global Change approach, Earth System Analysis, and Sustainability Science. The paper then elaborates on a number of ways in which German political science could respond to the academic and political challenges posed by global change. It concludes by emphasizing the need for a new approach, focusing on 'world environmental policy analysis' that would bridge traditional (environmental) policy analysis, international relations research, and comparative politics. (orig.) [German] Der Aufsatz beschreibt die Wissenschaftslandschaft der internationalen sozialwissenschaftlichen Global-Change-Forschung mit besonderem Augenmerk auf moegliche Beitraege der deutschen Politologie. Mit den 'Syndromen des Globalen Wandels', der 'Erdsystemanalyse' und der 'Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaft' werden drei neuere konzeptionelle Innovationen vorgestellt, mit denen der Herausforderung des Globalen Wandels begegnet werden soll. Anschliessend werden Wege skizziert, wie die Politikwissenschaft auf die neuen gesellschaftlichen und wissenschaftlichen Probleme des Globalen Wandels reagieren koennte. Eine Schlussfolgerung ist ein Plaedoyer fuer die Entwicklung einer eigenstaendigen Weltumweltpolitik-Analyse an der Schnittstelle von traditioneller Policy-Analyse, Internationalen Beziehungen/Aussenpolitik sowie Komparatistik. (orig./CB)

  3. Climate change and the distribution and conservation of the world's highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyckens, G. A. E.; Christie, D. A.; Domic, A. I.; Malizia, L. R.; Renison, D.

    2016-02-01

    Climate change is becoming an increasing threat to biodiversity. Consequently, methods for delineation, establishment and management of protected areas must consider the species' future distribution in response to future climate conditions. Biodiversity in high altitude semiarid regions may be particularly threatened by future climate change. In this study we assess the main environmental variables that best explain present day presence of the world's highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano, and model how climate change may affect the future distribution of this unique ecosystem under different climate change scenarios. These woodlands are dominated by Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae), a species that forms unique biological communities with important conservation value. Our results indicate that five environmental variables are responsible for 91% and 90.3% of the present and future P. tarapacana distribution models respectively, and suggest that at the end of the 21st century, there will be a significant reduction (56%) in the potential habitat for this species due to more arid conditions. Since it is predicted that P. tarapacana's potential distribution will be severely reduced in the future, we propose a new network of national protected areas across this species distribution range in order to insure the future conservation of this unique ecosystem. Based on an extensive literature review we identify research topics and recommendations for on-ground conservation and management of P. tarapacana woodlands.

  4. Impact of Real-world Factors Influencing Investment Decisions on the Costs and Distribution of Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J.; Iyer, G.; McJeon, H. C.; Leon, C.; Hultman, N.

    2015-12-01

    Strategies to mitigate dangerous anthropogenic climate change require a dramatic transformation of the energy system to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, that in turn requires large-scale investments. Investment decisions depend not only on investment capital availability but also on investment risks. A number of factors such as national policy environments, quality of public and private institutions, sector, firm and technology specific characteristics can affect investors' assessments of risks, leading to a wide variation in the business climate for investment. Such heterogeneity in investment risks can have important implications, as investors usually respond to risks by requiring higher returns for riskier projects; delaying or forgoing the investments; or preferring to invest in existing, familiar projects. We study the impact of variation in investment risks on regional patterns of emissions mitigation, the cost of emissions mitigation and patterns of technology deployment. We modify an integrated assessment model, widely used in global climate policy analyses (the Global Change Assessment Model) and incorporate decisions on investments based on risks along two dimensions. Along the first dimension, we vary perceived risks associated with particular technologies. To do so, we assign a higher cost of capital for investment in low-carbon technologies as these involve intrinsically higher levels of regulatory and market risk. The second dimension uses a proxy to vary investment risks across regions, based on an institutional quality metric published by the World Economic Forum. Explicit representation of investment risks has two major effects. First, it raises the cost of emissions mitigation relative to a world with uniform investment risks. Second, it shifts the pattern of emissions mitigation, with industrialized countries mitigating more, and developing countries mitigating less. Our results suggest that institutional reforms aimed at lowering investment

  5. Nuclear power plant life management in a changing business world: technology aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants at present contribute roughly one quarter of electricity generation in the OECD member countries, which makes them an important economic and ecological component of energy supply. They contribute greatly to meeting international goals of environmental protection, especially with respect to avoiding and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. As current plants are advancing in age, and framework conditions and requirements must be met by new plants, i.e. cost pressure due to market changes and the not-in-my-backyard attitude vis-a-vis new plants, their future contribution to energy supply cannot possibly be estimated at the present time. It is for this reason that measures extending the operating life of current plants are of great economic as well as ecological significance. These activities, which are summarized under the term of Plant Life Management (PLIM), involve the joint efforts by operators, industry, politics, and regulatory authorities. Framework conditions must be defined jointly which ensure safe, reliable, and economic operation of nuclear power plants. In a number of OECD countries, such as the USA, work along these lines has advanced far, allowing operating permits for a number of nuclear power plants to be extended by another twenty years. Technical questions, licensing issues, and economic perspectives must be discussed by the parties involved in the light of the solutions envisaged. (orig.)

  6. Connecting climate model projections of global temperature change with the real world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Ed; Sutton, Rowan

    2016-04-01

    Current state-of-the-art global climate models produce different values for Earth's mean temperature. When comparing simulations with each other and with observations it is standard practice to compare temperature anomalies with respect to a reference period. It is not always appreciated that the choice of reference period can affect conclusions, both about the skill of simulations of past climate, and about the magnitude of expected future changes in climate. We discuss some of the key issues that arise when using anomalies relative to a reference period to generate climate projections and highlight that there is no perfect choice of reference period. When evaluating models against observations, a long reference period should generally be used, but how long depends on the quality of the observations available. The IPCC AR5 choice to use a 1986-2005 reference period for future global temperature projections was reasonable, but a case-by-case approach is needed for different purposes and when assessing projections of different climate variables. Finally, we recommend that any studies that involve the use of a reference period should explicitly examine the robustness of the conclusions to alternative choices.

  7. Global trends in wildfire and its impacts: perceptions versus realities in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Stefan H; Santín, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Wildfire has been an important process affecting the Earth's surface and atmosphere for over 350 million years and human societies have coexisted with fire since their emergence. Yet many consider wildfire as an accelerating problem, with widely held perceptions both in the media and scientific papers of increasing fire occurrence, severity and resulting losses. However, important exceptions aside, the quantitative evidence available does not support these perceived overall trends. Instead, global area burned appears to have overall declined over past decades, and there is increasing evidence that there is less fire in the global landscape today than centuries ago. Regarding fire severity, limited data are available. For the western USA, they indicate little change overall, and also that area burned at high severity has overall declined compared to pre-European settlement. Direct fatalities from fire and economic losses also show no clear trends over the past three decades. Trends in indirect impacts, such as health problems from smoke or disruption to social functioning, remain insufficiently quantified to be examined. Global predictions for increased fire under a warming climate highlight the already urgent need for a more sustainable coexistence with fire. The data evaluation presented here aims to contribute to this by reducing misconceptions and facilitating a more informed understanding of the realities of global fire.This article is part of themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216515

  8. A brave new world: the lung microbiota in an era of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Leopoldo N; Blaser, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    The development of culture-independent techniques has revolutionized our understanding of how our human cells interact with the even greater number of microbial inhabitants of our bodies. As part of this revolution, data are increasingly challenging the old dogma that in health, the lung mucosa is sterile. To understand how the lung microbiome may play a role in human health, we identified five major questions for lung microbiome research: (1) Is the lung sterile? (2) Is there a unique core microbiome in the lung? (3) How dynamic are the microbial populations? (4) How do pulmonary immune responses affect microbiome composition? and (5) Are the lungs influenced by the intestinal immune responses to the gut microbiome? From birth, we are exposed to continuous microbial challenges that shape our microbiome. In our changing environment, perturbation of the gut microbiome affects both human health and disease. With widespread antibiotic use, the ancient microbes that formerly resided within us are being lost, for example, Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. Animal models show that antibiotic exposure in early life has developmental consequences. Considering the potential effects of this altered microbiome on pulmonary responses will be critical for future investigations.

  9. Creativity and Democratic Governance. Adult Learning: A Strategic Choice. Proceedings of the ICAE World Assembly (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, August 9-12, 2001) = Creativite et Gouvernance Democratique. L'apprentissage des Adultes: Un Choix Strategique. Actes de la Assemblee Mondiale du CIEA (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaique, 9 au 12 aout 2001) = Creatividad y Gobernabilidad Democratica. Educacion de Adultos: Una Eleccion Estrategica. Actas de la Asamblea Mundial del ICAE (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, Agosto 9-12, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Stephan, Ed.

    This document contains information from and about a world assembly on creativity and democratic governance in adult learning that was held by the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE) and its partner organizations in the Caribbean. The proceedings begin with English, French, and Spanish translations of the address…

  10. Vulnerability on the Roof of the World: Resilience to Climate Change and Natural Resource Policies on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J. A.; Hopping, K. A.; Yeh, E.; Hu, J.; Nyima, Y.; Boone, R.; Galvin, K.; Kang, S.; Ojima, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    ecological shifts than to gradual climate changes. Herder perceptions about climate trends often contradict local weather station data, but herders tend to be in strong agreement that grassland health has declined. These results suggest that rangeland degradation has occurred, and that climate warming may be one driver responsible for these changes. While additional snow may improve ecological conditions, the warming-induced degradation may make the social-ecological system more vulnerable to large snowstorm events. Our findings suggest that climate adaptation strategies should address the effects of both warming and extreme weather events and should also encourage land use policies that will maintain these systems under change. The vulnerability of ecosystems on the roof of the world has implications for the 1x109 people living downstream and for feedbacks to the Earth’s climate system.

  11. Range-wide latitudinal and elevational temperature gradients for the world's terrestrial birds: implications under global climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A La Sorte

    Full Text Available Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface temperature gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding ranges of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in temperature along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these temperature gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (range size, shape, and orientation and projected changes in temperature under climate change. Elevational temperature gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal temperature gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in temperature. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational temperature gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' ranges, how and why these gradients vary among

  12. Range-wide latitudinal and elevational temperature gradients for the world's terrestrial birds: implications under global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Butchart, Stuart H M; Jetz, Walter; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface temperature gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding ranges of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in temperature along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these temperature gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (range size, shape, and orientation) and projected changes in temperature under climate change. Elevational temperature gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal temperature gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in temperature. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational temperature gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' ranges, how and why these gradients vary among species, and the capacity

  13. Proceedings with confidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    1992-01-01

    Nobody loves published conference proceedings. I certainly don't, as readers of this magazine may remember (Forum, 14 December 1991). Proceedings are too big and unwieldy, and waste authors' time by insisting that they write papers to a rigid format. Publications in proceedings are unrefereed, add l

  14. Enhancing the role of geodiversity and geoheritage in environmental management and policy in a changing world: challenges for geoscience research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity delivers or underpins many key ecosystem processes and services that deliver valuable benefits for society. With a growing recognition of the wider economic, social and environmental relevance of geodiversity, it is timely to consider the research requirements and priorities that are necessary to underpin a broader interdisciplinary approach to geodiversity that incorporates the links between natural and human systems in a changing world. A key challenge is to develop the scientific framework of geodiversity and at the same time to enhance the protection of geoheritage. Research that helps to support environmental policy and meet the wider needs of society for sustainable development and improved human wellbeing is fundamental both to improve the recognition of geodiversity and to demonstrate the wider relevance and value of geoheritage and geoconservation. Within this wider context, priorities for research include: 1) assessment of geoheritage and best-practice management of geosites for multiple uses including science, education and tourism; 2) evaluation of geodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides, both in economic and non-economic terms, to help build policy support and public awareness; 3) understanding the functional links between geodiversity and biodiversity across a range of spatial and temporal scales to help assess ecosystem sensitivity and inform management adaptations to climate change, particularly in dynamic environments such as the coast, river catchments and mountain areas; 4) providing a longer time perspective on ecosystem trends and services from palaeoenvironmental records; 5) applications of geodiversity in terrestrial and marine spatial planning.

  15. European Research Framework Programme. Research on Climate Change. Prepared for the Third World Climate Conference (WCC-3) and the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP-15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication gathers the abstracts of European research projects on climate change and related to climate change which have been completed recently or are ongoing under the sixth and seventh framework programmes for research. This document aims at providing a relevant overview of research activities on climate change funded by the European Community to participants to the third World Climate Conference held in Geneva in August 2009 and to the UNFCCC 15th Conference of the Parties meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009.

  16. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  17. The Shi'ites, the West and the Future of Democracy: Reframing Political Change in a Religio-secular World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Rees

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article critically reviews Paul McGeough’s important analysis of the most recent Iraq war within a broader consideration of secular-religious relations in international affairs. The thesis of Mission Impossible: The Sheikhs, the US and the Future of Iraq (2004 can be summarised around two ideas: that the US strategy in Iraq was flawed because it wilfully bypassed the traditional power structures of Iraqi society; and that these structures, formed around the tribe and the mosque, are anti-democratic thus rendering attempts at democratisation impossible. The article affirms McGeough’s argument concerning the inadequacy of the US strategy, but critically examines the author’s fatalism toward the democratic capacity of Iraqi structures, notably the structure of the mosque. By broadening the notion of democracy to include religious actors and agendas, and by an introductory interpretation of the Shi’ite community as vital players in an emerging Iraqi democracy, the article attempts to deconstruct the author’s secularist view that the world of the mosque exists in a ‘parallel universe’ to the liberal democratic West. Reframing the Shi’ites as essential actors in the democratic project thus situates political discourse in a ‘religio-secular world’ and brings the ‘other worlds’ of religion and secularism together in a sphere of interdependence. Such an approach emphasises the importance of post-secular structures in the discourses on democratic change.

  18. Changes in Cortical Thickness in 6-Year-Old Children Open Their Mind to a Global Vision of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Poirel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if objectively presented with similar visual stimuli, children younger than 6 years of age exhibit a strong attraction to local visual information (e.g., the trees, whereas children older than 6 years of age, similar to adults, exhibit a visual bias toward global information (e.g., the forest. Here, we studied the cortical thickness changes that underlie this bias shift from local to global visual information. Two groups, matched for age, gender, and handedness, were formed from a total of 30 children who were 6 years old, and both groups performed a traditional global/local visual task. The first group presented a local visual bias, and the other group presented a global visual bias. The results indicated that, compared with the local visual bias group, children with a global visual bias exhibited (1 decreased cortical thickness in the bilateral occipital regions and (2 increased cortical thickness in the left frontoparietal regions. These findings constitute the first structural study that supports the view that both synaptic pruning (i.e., decreased cortical thickness and expansion mechanisms (i.e., increased cortical thickness cooccur to allow healthy children to develop a global perception of the visual world.

  19. Changes in cortical thickness in 6-year-old children open their mind to a global vision of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Nicolas; Leroux, Elise; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier; Simon, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    Even if objectively presented with similar visual stimuli, children younger than 6 years of age exhibit a strong attraction to local visual information (e.g., the trees), whereas children older than 6 years of age, similar to adults, exhibit a visual bias toward global information (e.g., the forest). Here, we studied the cortical thickness changes that underlie this bias shift from local to global visual information. Two groups, matched for age, gender, and handedness, were formed from a total of 30 children who were 6 years old, and both groups performed a traditional global/local visual task. The first group presented a local visual bias, and the other group presented a global visual bias. The results indicated that, compared with the local visual bias group, children with a global visual bias exhibited (1) decreased cortical thickness in the bilateral occipital regions and (2) increased cortical thickness in the left frontoparietal regions. These findings constitute the first structural study that supports the view that both synaptic pruning (i.e., decreased cortical thickness) and expansion mechanisms (i.e., increased cortical thickness) cooccur to allow healthy children to develop a global perception of the visual world. PMID:25110675

  20. Plasticity-induced characteristic changes of pattern dynamics and the related phase transitions in small-world neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase transitions widely exist in nature and occur when some control parameters are changed. In neural systems, their macroscopic states are represented by the activity states of neuron populations, and phase transitions between different activity states are closely related to corresponding functions in the brain. In particular, phase transitions to some rhythmic synchronous firing states play significant roles on diverse brain functions and disfunctions, such as encoding rhythmical external stimuli, epileptic seizure, etc. However, in previous studies, phase transitions in neuronal networks are almost driven by network parameters (e.g., external stimuli), and there has been no investigation about the transitions between typical activity states of neuronal networks in a self-organized way by applying plastic connection weights. In this paper, we discuss phase transitions in electrically coupled and lattice-based small-world neuronal networks (LBSW networks) under spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). By applying STDP on all electrical synapses, various known and novel phase transitions could emerge in LBSW networks, particularly, the phenomenon of self-organized phase transitions (SOPTs): repeated transitions between synchronous and asynchronous firing states. We further explore the mechanics generating SOPTs on the basis of synaptic weight dynamics. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. The Proceedings of the Panel “Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health, Air Pollution Problem in the World, Turkey and Our Region” (The Conference Hall of Dicle University, Diyarbakır 24.12.2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bayram

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution still exceeds safe limits worldwide, particularly in big metropolitans, despite regular monitoring facilities and measures taken. It is usually originated from industrial activities, fossil fuel use in domestic settings and vehicle exhaust emission. Although there is a decrease in air pollution in big cities of Turkey due to use of natural gas, it is still a serious health concern. In Diyarbakır, because of a rapid increase in its population recently, wrong urbanisation and a relative increase in industrialisation, air pollution leads to dangerous levels, particularly in the winter. Epidemiological studies from all over the world, and Turkey have reported a close relation between air pollution and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Studies investigating the mechanisms underlying respiratory effects of air pollution demonstrated that pollutants lead to increased respiratory symptoms, decreased respiratory function and induce inflammatory changes in airways. In vitro studies have shown that air pollutants exert their effects by causing cellular injury directly, and by activating intracellular oxidative pathways indirectly. The attempts to reduce air pollution levels have been implemented in Turkey and worldwide. In order to solve the problem in Diyarbakır, several measures such as prevention the use of out standardized fuel, use of reliable burning techniques, and a close car emission monitoring system need to be implemented.

  2. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  4. The World of Journalism – The World of Public Relations Assessment of Changes in Relations Between Journalists and PR Managers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawroński Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative look at the results of similar studies relating to the diagnosis of cooperation between the journalists and representatives of the PR industry in Poland. Comparable subjects, arising from the similarity of used research tools, as well as comparable attempts of the research on both environments provide good opportunities of drawing overlapping conclusions from the two research projects. Although standardization of the cooperation between journalists and PR professionals is very difficult and its description is limited by a number of variables and differentiating factors, comparing both studies makes it possible to draw conclusions about some changes or elements that have remained unchanged in relations PR managers - journalists in Poland over the last 11 years.

  5. Landscaping climate change: a mapping technique for understanding science and technology debates on the world wide web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Rogers; N. Marres

    2000-01-01

    New World Wide Web (web) mapping techniques may inform and ultimately facilitate meaningful participation in current science and technology debates. The technique described here "landscapes" a debate by displaying key "webby" relationships between organizations. "Debate-scaping" plots two organizati

  6. The World Will Be Changed by the Development of Supply Chain%世界因供应链而变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁俊发

    2015-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century,with the deepening of reform and opening up,and led by land,labor and scale economy,the advantages of new manufacturing industry has been gained,and the new global manufacturing center has been built;but there are still some problems in terms of the extensive operation of China’s national economy. Paying more attention to the development of China’s logistics industry,especially the development of supply chain,is one of the important strategies for us to change the pattern of economic development;it is the evitable way for us to realize the transformation and upgrade of China’ s enterprises;it is not only a good way to promote reform and development,but also a good way to promote the implementation of“made in China 2025”. Supply chain is not only a kind of strategic way of thinking,but also a pattern of innovation and technological progress. We should build the global value chain,global supply chain and global industrial chain,and make the supply chain to be the national strategy. We should promote and optimize the management of supply chain in China,change the pattern of national economic development,industrial development,urban development and the development of enterprises,and promote the transformation from economic extensive operation to intensive operation. We need“internet plus”,and we also need“supply chain plus”. The world has been changed significantly by the Internet,and the world will also be changed by the development of supply chain. We should not only pay attention to the development of Internet,but also pay attention to the development of supply chain.%20世纪末,随着改革开放的不断深入,我国以土地、劳动力和规模经济为主导,形成了新的制造业优势,成为新的全球制造业中心,但我国国民经济粗放经营问题依然严重,距离工业强国的目标还很远。大力推动我国物流业特别是供应链管理的发展,是改变我国经济发

  7. From the 2014 Brazil World Cup Change in Today’s World Football Tactics%从2014巴西世界杯看当今世界足坛战术打法的变革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟

    2014-01-01

    Through literature research methods, statistics, observation and analysis,etc. ,to 2014 Brazil World Cup finals for the study,to explore the World Cup Soccer Tac-tics features, combined with 2010 World Cup finals in South Africa as a whole and tactics,from theoretical point of comparative analysis, points out the changes in the 2014 World Cup in Brazil in the World Cup last Legco tactics and trends in today’s world football tactics develop-ment. 2014 Brazil World Cup overall tactical features still appear as a direct-controlled play and pass play of the contest,established in Spain TikiTaka pass play based on the German-controlled New Biography control doctrine football final victory. In today’s world of football tactics growing trend of homogenization, the direct play of the team to strengthen the sense of rhythm control,and trans-mission control type of team play ball also strengthened spirit of adventure. Argentina World Cup team is a direct pass-controlled play and play the most significant integra-tion team,but also in today’s world of football tactics tend homogenization typical team.%通过文献资料调研、数理统计、观察分析等方法,以2014年巴西世界杯决赛阶段比赛为研究对象,探讨本届世界杯足球战术打法特征;并结合2010年南非世界杯决赛阶段比赛整体战术运用情况,从理论角度进行对比分析,指出2014年巴西世界杯较上届世界杯在战术打法上的变革之处及当今世界足坛战术发展的趋势。2014年巴西世界杯的整体战术特征仍然呈现为直接型打法和传控型打法的角力,在西班牙队Ti-ki-Taka传控型打法基础上建立起来的德国新传控主义足球最终取得了胜利。当今世界足球战术打法越来越趋向同质化,直接型打法的球队加强了节奏控制的意识,而传控型打法的球队亦加强了传球的冒险精神。阿根廷队是本届世界杯直接型打法和传控型打法融合最为显

  8. Race-Class Relations and Integration in Secondary Education: The Case of Miller High. Secondary Education in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Eick explores the history of a comprehensive high school from the world views of its assorted student body, confronting issues of race, ethnicity, class, gender, nationality, and religion. Her case study examines the continuities and differences in student relationships over five decades. While she discusses the "dark side" of the high school…

  9. Changing Perspectives of Education for Development: emergent issues concerning substance and location of training programmes for third world development workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.O. van Nieuwenhuijze

    1978-01-01

    textabstractSince the early 1950s a number of institutions in the socalled rich countries have been set up or adapted to offer programmes of training, sometimes combined with research, geared to the needs of people intending to work in Third World countries. Some of these institutions have tended to

  10. CTI capacity building seminar for CEE/FSU countries. Climate technology and energy efficiency. Challenges and changes for climate technology. Seminar proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, Sybille; Moench, Harald (eds.); Mez, Lutz; Krug, Michael (comps.) [Free Univ. Berlin (DE). Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU)

    2005-01-15

    Within the CTI Capacity Building Seminar for CEE/FSU Countries at 20th to 24th September, 2003 in Tutzing (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Excursion to fuel cell pilot project (Peter Fleischmann); (2) How to construct a climate change program - some basics (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (3) The EU emissions trading directive (Felix Matthes); (4) Emissions trading - The implementation of the EU-Directive in Germany (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (5) Emissions trading from a buyer's perspective (Albrecht von Ruffer); (6) Emissions trading from a seller's perspective: Czech Republic (Toma Chmelik); (7) Discussant notes: Emissions trading (Sonja Butzengeiger); (8) Carbon finance and the world bank: Chances, experiences, lessons learned (Charlotte Streck); (9) Joint implementation: Relationship to and compatibility with the emission trading scheme (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (10) Clean development mechanism in Central Asia (Liliya Zavyalova); (11) Creating a national CDM system in Georgia (Paata Janelidze); (12) Experiences from the certification of JI/CDM projects (Michael Rumberg); (13) Discussant notes Session JI and CDM (Tiit Kallaste); (14) The EU Directive on electricity from renewable energy sources 2001/77/EC (Volkmar Lauber); (15) Amending the Renewable Energy Source Act (Thorsten Mueller); (16) The new renewables support scheme in te Czech Republic (Martin Busik); (17) Replacing nuclear energy by renewables. The case of Lithunia (Kestutis Buinevicius); (18) Renewables in the New Energy Acts of Estonia (Villu Vares); (19) Discussant notes: Session incentive schemes for renewables (Hans-Joachim Ziesing); (20) Bankable energy efficiency projects - How to get energy efficiency investment financed (Petra Opitz); (21) Clear contract - clearinghouse for contracting (Ralf Goldmann); (22) CHP as an important element of a sustainable energy use in Germany (Juergen Landrebe); (23) The European CHP Directive - a step towards the smarter

  11. LHC Nobel Symposium Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelöf, Tord

    2013-12-01

    In the summer of 2012, a great discovery emerged at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva. A plethora of new precision data had already by then been collected by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at LHC, providing further extensive support for the validity of the Standard Model of particle physics. But what now appeared was the first evidence for what was not only the last unverified prediction of the Standard Model, but also perhaps the most decisive one: the prediction made already in 1964 of a unique scalar boson required by the theory of François Englert and Peter Higgs on how fundamental particles acquire mass. At that moment in 2012, it seemed particularly appropriate to start planning a gathering of world experts in particle physics to take stock of the situation and try to answer the challenging question: what next? By May 2013, when the LHC Nobel Symposium was held at the Krusenberg Mansion outside Uppsala in Sweden, the first signs of a great discovery had already turned into fully convincing experimental evidence for the existence of a scalar boson of mass about 125 GeV, having properties compatible with the 50-year-old prediction. And in October 2013, the evidence was deemed so convincing that the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics to Englert and Higgs for their pioneering work. At the same time the search at the LHC for other particles, beyond those predicted by the Standard Model, with heavier masses up to—and in some cases beyond—1 TeV, had provided no positive result. The triumph of the Standard Model seems resounding, in particular because the mass of the discovered scalar boson is such that, when identified with the Higgs boson, the Standard Model is able to provide predictions at energies as high as the Planck mass, although at the price of accepting that the vacuum would be metastable. However, even if there were some feelings of triumph, the ambience at the LHC Nobel Symposium was more one of

  12. From Socialist Showcase to Mezzogiorno? Lessons on the Role of Technical Change from East Germany's Post-World War II Growth Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Keller

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we emphasize the contribution of technical change, broadly defined, towards productivity growth in explaining the relative East Germany-West Germany performance during the post-World War II era. We argue that previous work was excessively focused on physical capital investments determining productivity differentials, which consequently led to an overestimation of the East German performance during the Socialist era, and an overly pessimistic assessment of the East German prospec...

  13. Exploring a model for finding meaning in the changing world of work (Part 3: Meaning as framing context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Burger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article, the final in a series of three papers, locates organisational change, specifically within the context of individuals’ experience of ‘meaning’, as conceptualised in Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy.Research purpose: The purpose of this theoretical paper is to investigate the context of meaning in organisational change by exploring the relationship between meaning and change.Motivation for the study: Although literature on change management is available in abundance, very little research has been focussed on the micro-level issues pertaining to organisational change, and virtually no research relating to the ‘existential meaning’ context of such change could be found.Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted by means of a review of literature, guided by the theoretical perspectives of logotherapy.Main findings: Whilst systems to which individuals traditionally turned for meaning decline, organisations become increasingly important for employees’ experience of meaning. As organisational change threatens such meaning, resistance to change may occur, which inhibits organisations’ ability to change. Logotherapy provides a useful framework for understanding this meaning context, which could be utilised to inform frameworks to guide change implementation more successfully.Practical and managerial implications: An understanding of the role that meaning can play in causing − and hence reducing − resistance to change may be of great value to organisations attempting to implement change initiatives.Contribution: The value-add of the article is grounded on its exploration of the relatively uncharted territory of how the experience of meaning by employees may impact organisational change. This article therefore provides a novel perspective for conceptualising change. In addition, it suggests specific recommendations for utilising an understanding of the meaning change relationship with the

  14. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  15. Radiofrequency plasma heating: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference proceedings include sessions on Alfven Wave Heating, ICRF Heating and Current Drive, Lower Hybrid Heating and Current Drive, and ECRF Heating. Questions of confinement, diagnostics, instabilities and technology are considered. Individual papers are cataloged separately

  16. Invitation to the 17th international congress on photosynthesis research in 2016: photosynthesis in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2016-02-01

    The 17th International Congress on Photosynthesis will be held from August 7 to 12, 2016 in Maastricht, The Netherlands. The congress will include an opening reception, 15 plenary lectures, 28 scientific symposia, many poster sessions, displays by scientific companies, excursions, congress dinner, social activities, and the first photosynthesis soccer world championship. See http://www.ps2016.com/ . The congress is organized as an official event of the International Society of Photosynthesis Research (see http://www.photosynthesisresearch.org/).

  17. Proceedings of the Third International Csound Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Gleb G. Rogozinsky

    2016-01-01

    Dear reader, You have before you the proceedings of a unique conference. Csound is a computer music language that has been continually evolving since its inception in 1986. During that time it has united people of all ages from around the world and from a wide range of disciplines: audio technology, media programming, contemporary, academic and avant-garde music, digital signal processing, telecommunications and electronic dance music. The Csound community presents a unique forum of users...

  18. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.; Leith, C.; Canavan, G.; Marion, J.; Wood, L.

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate baseline exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will at least somewhat uncertain.

  19. Climate change negotiation simulations for students: responses across gender and age.A case study: San Francisco State University World Climate Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheva, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    For decades, role-play and simulation exercises have been utilized for learning and policy decision making. While the power of Model UN simulations in building first-person experience and understanding of complex international issues is well known, the effectiveness of simulations for inspiring citizen engagement in scientific public-policy issues is little studied. My work hypothesizes that climate-change negotiation simulations can enhance students' scientific literacy and policy advocacy. It aims to determine how age and gender influence the responsiveness of students to such simulations. During the 2015 fall semester, I am conducting World Climate exercises for fellow graduate and undergraduate students at San Francisco State University. At the end of the exercise, I will have collected the responses to an anonymous questionnaire in which the participants indicate age and gender. The questionnaire asks participants to describe their hopes and fears for the future and to propose public and personal actions for achieving a strong climate change agreement. I am tracking differences to determine whether participants' age and gender correlate with particular patterns of feeling and thinking. My future research will aim to determine whether and how strongly the World Climate Exercise has affected participants' actual policy engagement. This work will also reflect on my experiences as a World Climate facilitator. I will describe the facilitation process and then discuss some of my observations from the sessions. I will specify the challenges I have encountered and suggest strategies that can strengthen the learning process. World Climate is a computer-simulation-based climate change negotiations role-playing exercise developed by Climate Interactive in partnership with the System Dynamics Group at the MIT Sloan School of Management.

  20. Identifying the World's Most Climate Change Vulnerable Species: A Systematic Trait-Based Assessment of all Birds, Amphibians and Corals

    OpenAIRE

    Foden, Wendy B.; Stuart H M Butchart; Simon N Stuart; Jean-Christophe Vié; H Resit Akçakaya; Ariadne Angulo; DeVantier, Lyndon M.; Alexander Gutsche; Emre Turak; Long Cao; Donner, Simon D.; Vineet Katariya; Rodolphe Bernard; Holland, Robert A.; Hughes, Adrian F.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change will have far-reaching impacts on biodiversity, including increasing extinction rates. Current approaches to quantifying such impacts focus on measuring exposure to climatic change and largely ignore the biological differences between species that may significantly increase or reduce their vulnerability. To address this, we present a framework for assessing three dimensions of climate change vulnerability, namely sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity; this draws on specie...

  1. Global policy change and women's access to safe abortion: the impact of the World Health Organization's guidance in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessini, Leila; Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Crane, Barbara B

    2006-12-01

    Along with governments from around the world, African leaders agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994 to address unsafe abortion as a major public health problem. At the five-year review of the ICPD, they decided further that health systems should make safe abortion services accessible for legal indications. Based on this mandate, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed norms and standards for quality abortion services, Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems, released in 2003. While abortion-related maternal mortality and morbidity remains very high in many African countries, stakeholders are increasingly using WHO recommendations in conjunction with other global and regional policy frameworks, including the African Union Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa, to spur new action to address this persistent problem. Efforts include: reforming national laws and policies; preparing service-delivery guidelines and regulations; strengthening training programs; and expanding community outreach programs. This paper reviews progress and lessons learned while drawing attention to the fragility of the progress made thus far and the key challenges that remain in ensuring access to safe abortion care for all African women.

  2. IMMANUEL WALLERSTEIN'S WORLD SYSTEM THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Cosma Sorinel

    2010-01-01

    World-systems analysis is not a theory, but an approach to social analysis and social change developed, among others by the Immanuel Wallerstein. Professor Wallerstein writes in three domains of world-systems analysis: the historical development of the modern world-system; the contemporary crisis of the capitalist world-economy; the structures of knowledge. The American anlyst rejects the notion of a "Third World", claiming there is only one world connected by a complex network of economic ex...

  3. Developed and developing world contributions to climate system change based on carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Yan, Qing; Chou, Jieming; Yang, Zhiyong; Tian, Di

    2016-05-01

    One of the key issues in international climate negotiations is the formulation of targets for emissions reduction for all countries based on the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities". This formulation depends primarily on the quantitative attribution of the responsibilities of developed and developing countries for historical climate change. Using the Commuity Earth System Model (CESM), we estimate the responsibilities of developed countries and developing countries for climatic change from 1850 to 2005 using their carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide emissions. The results indicate that developed countries contribute approximately 53%-61%, and developing countries approximately 39%-47%, to the increase in global air temperature, upper oceanic warming, sea-ice reduction in the NH, and permafrost degradation. In addition, the spatial heterogeneity of these changes from 1850 to 2005 is primarily attributed to the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in developed countries. Although uncertainties remain in the climate model and the external forcings used, GHG emissions in developed countries are the major contributor to the observed climate system changes in the 20th century.

  4. Modeling and participatory farmer-led approaches to food security in a changing world: A case study from Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snapp, S.; Kerr, R.B.; Smith, A.; Ollenburger, M.H.; Mhango, W.; Shumba, L.; Gondwe, T.; Kanyama-Phiri, G.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Crop diversification has a long history in Africa, as a foundation for more resilient and sustainable farming systems. However, success has often been mixed. Variable weather and changing climate requires a focus on supporting farmer capacity to adapt and innovate. Participatory research and simulat

  5. School Counselors' Strategies for Social Justice Change: A Grounded Theory of What Works in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Urbano, Alessandra; Haston, Meg; McMahon, Eleanor

    2010-01-01

    A qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to explore the strategies that 16 school counselors who self-identified as social justice agents used to advocate for systemic change within their school communities. Findings included seven overarching themes: (a) using political savvy to navigate power structures, (b) consciousness raising,…

  6. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Proceedings of the October 3 - 7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Volume 2 contains information on environmental restoration at federal facilities, waste disposal technology, quality assurance, contingency planning and emergency response, decontamination and decommissioning, environmental restoration, and public involvement in waste management

  7. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 4 include site characterization and remediation projects, environmental monitoring and modeling; disposal site selection and facility design, risk assessment, safety and health issues, and site remediation technology

  8. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 1 are Environmental Data Management, Site characterization technology, Wastewater treatment, Waste management in foreign countries, Transuranic waste management, and Groundwater characterization and treatment.

  9. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3--7, 1988 DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 5 include environmental assessments and program strategies, waste treatment technologies, and regulations and compliance studies.

  10. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Proceedings of the October 3 - 7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 3 include treatment of soils, waste characterization and certification, waste minimization site remediation management plans and programs, and training programs

  11. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Proceedings of the October 3--7, 1988 DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 5 include environmental assessments and program strategies, waste treatment technologies, and regulations and compliance studies

  12. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3 - 7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 3 include treatment of soils, waste characterization and certification, waste minimization site remediation management plans and programs, and training programs.

  13. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 1 are Environmental Data Management, Site characterization technology, Wastewater treatment, Waste management in foreign countries, Transuranic waste management, and Groundwater characterization and treatment

  14. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 4 include site characterization and remediation projects, environmental monitoring and modeling; disposal site selection and facility design, risk assessment, safety and health issues, and site remediation technology.

  15. Design change management in regulation of nuclear fleets: World nuclear association's working groups on Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing (CORDEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 60 year life of a reactor means that a plant will undergo change during its life. To ensure continuing safety, changes must be made with a full understanding of the design intent. With this aim, regulators require that each operating organisation should have a formally designated entity responsible for complete design knowledge in regard to plant safety. INSAG-19 calls such an entity 'Design Authority'. This requirement is difficult to achieve, especially as the number of countries and utilities operating plants increases. Some of these operating organisations will be new, and some will be small. For Gen III plants sold on a turnkey basis, it is even more challenging for the operating company to develop and retain the full knowledge needed for this role. CORDEL's Task Force entitled 'Design Change Management' is investigating options for effective design change management with the aim to support design standardization throughout a fleet's lifetime by means of enhanced international cooperation within industry and regulators. This paper starts with considering the causes of design change and identifies reasons for the increased beneficial involvement of the plant's original vendor in the design change process. A key central theme running through the paper is the definition of responsibilities for design change. Various existing mechanisms of vendor-operator interfaces over design change and how they are managed in different organisational and regulatory environments around the world are considered, with the functionality of Owners Groups and Design Authority being central. The roles played in the design change process by vendors, utilities, regulators, owners' groups and other organisations such as WANO are considered The aerospace industry approach to Design Authority has been assessed to consider what lessons might be learned. (authors)

  16. Environmental change in refugee-affected areas of the Third World: the role of policy and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R

    1994-06-01

    This paper reviews the current nature of policy responses to environmental change in refugee assistance programmes. Based on a review of existing documentary material and a survey of UK-based NGOs, it is suggested that although refugee assistance agencies are aware of environmental issues, this is rarely translated into effective policy measures to identify and combat environmental degradation. Various existing methods used to calculate environmental impacts are considered, but a number of pitfalls are identified. It is suggested that little is known about the processes that lead to accelerated environmental change in situations of forced displacement, and that research providing deeper understanding of local environments and resource management systems is required for environmental policies to be effective.

  17. Simulating tropical carbon stocks and fluxes in a changing world using an individual-based forest model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Rico; Huth, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Large areas of tropical forests are disturbed due to climate change and human influence. Experts estimate that the last remaining rainforests could be destroyed in less than 100 years with strong consequences for both developing and industrial countries. Using a modelling approach we analyse how disturbances modify carbon stocks and carbon fluxes of African rainforests. In this study we use the process-based, individual-oriented forest model FORMIND. The main processes of this model are tree growth, mortality, regeneration and competition. The study regions are tropical rainforests in the Kilimanjaro region and Madagascar. Modelling above and below ground carbon stocks, we analyze the impact of disturbances and climate change on forest dynamics and forest carbon stocks. Droughts and fire events change the structure of tropical rainforests. Human influence like logging intensify this effect. With the presented results we could establish new allometric relationships between forest variables and above ground carbon stocks in tropical regions. Using remote sensing techniques, these relationships would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above ground carbon stored in the vegetation.

  18. HUGS at CEBAF: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the proceedings of the 6th consecutive Hampton University Graduate Studies (HUGS) at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). These proceedings are composed of articles produced by graduate students. The participants were divided into smaller groups. Each group chose a lecturer's presentation to focus on and write up for these proceedings. There were some cross over students; that is there were students who participated in more am one group. In addition, there were participants who pursued topics considerably further than being confined to the scope of a given lecture; these participants contributed additional articles which can also be found here. All of the HUGS at CEBAF participants worked very hard and had a good time doing it. The students lived on the Hampton University campus and attended lecture sessions at CEBAF. The atmosphere of the river front campus of Hampton and the stimulation readily available at CEBAF made for a wonderful mix. These proceedings are divided into two sections: Section 1 contain articles that were generated by the HUGS participants from lecturers' notes and discussions among the student groups and lecturers, and Section 2 contains original work generated by the HUGS participants. Section 3 contains the contributions from the lecturers. Some of the articles were reviewed by the lecturer more closely connected to the particular subject matter. The appendices contain a list of the HUGS enrollment, lecturers, schedule, and lecture assignment

  19. FINPIE/97. Workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This publication contains the proceedings of 1997 Finnish Workshop on Power and Industrial Electronics, held in Espoo, Finland, on 26 August, 1997. The programme consisted of technical sessions on Advanced AC Motor Control, Electric Machines and Drives, Advanced Control and Measurement, Power Electronics Systems, Modelling and Simulation, and Power Converters

  20. FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress are selected from nearly 2,000 papers submitted to the 34th FISITA World Automotive Congress, which is held by Society of Automotive Engineers of China (SAE-China ) and the International Federation of Automotive Engineering Societies (FISITA). This proceedings focus on solutions for sustainable mobility in all areas of passenger car, truck and bus transportation. Volume 8: Vehicle Design and Testing (II) focuses on: •Automotive Reliability Technology •Lightweight Design Technology •Design for Recycling •Dynamic Modeling •Simulation and Experimental Validation •Virtual Design, Testing and Validation •Testing of Components, Systems and Full Vehicle Above all researchers, professional engineers and graduates in fields of automotive engineering, mechanical engineering and electronic engineering will benefit from this book.   SAE-China is a national academic organization composed of enterprises and professionals who focus on research, design a...

  1. Woodland dynamics at the northern range periphery: a challenge for protected area management in a changing world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L Powell

    Full Text Available Managers of protected natural areas increasingly are confronted with novel ecological conditions and conflicting objectives to preserve the past while fostering resilience for an uncertain future. This dilemma may be pronounced at range peripheries where rates of change are accelerated and ongoing invasions often are perceived as threats to local ecosystems. We provide an example from City of Rocks National Reserve (CIRO in southern Idaho, positioned at the northern range periphery of pinyon-juniper (P-J woodland. Reserve managers are concerned about P-J woodland encroachment into adjacent sagebrush steppe, but the rates and biophysical variability of encroachment are not well documented and management options are not well understood. We quantified the rate and extent of woodland change between 1950 and 2009 based on a random sample of aerial photo interpretation plots distributed across biophysical gradients. Our study revealed that woodland cover remained at approximately 20% of the study area over the 59-year period. In the absence of disturbance, P-J woodlands exhibited the highest rate of increase among vegetation types at 0.37% yr(-1. Overall, late-successional P-J stands increased in area by over 100% through the process of densification (infilling. However, wildfires during the period resulted in a net decrease of woody evergreen vegetation, particularly among early and mid-successional P-J stands. Elevated wildfire risk associated with expanding novel annual grasslands and drought is likely to continue to be a fundamental driver of change in CIRO woodlands. Because P-J woodlands contribute to regional biodiversity and may contract at trailing edges with global warming, CIRO may become important to P-J woodland conservation in the future. Our study provides a widely applicable toolset for assessing woodland ecotone dynamics that can help managers reconcile the competing demands to maintain historical fidelity and contribute meaningfully

  2. Recent radiation of Brachystelma and Ceropegia (Apocynaceae) across the Old World against a background of climatic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyns, P V; Klak, C; Hanáček, P

    2015-09-01

    The genera Brachystelma Sims and Ceropegia L. of the Ceropegieae (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae) consist of ±320 species of geophytes and slender climbers with a tendency to stem-succulence in Ceropegia. They occur in and around the semi-arid, mainly tropical parts of the Old World. For 146 species (around half of the total) from most of the geographic range of the genera, we analysed data from two nuclear and five plastid regions. The evolution of Ceropegia is very complex, with at least 13 mostly well-supported lineages, one of which is sister to the ±350 species of stapeliads. Species of Brachystelma have evolved at least four times, with most of them nested within two separate major lineages. So, neither Brachystelma nor Ceropegia is monophyletic. We recover a broad trend, in two separate major lineages, from slender climbers to small, geophytic herbs. Several clades are recovered in which all species possess an underground tuber. Small, erect, non-climbing, geophytic species of Ceropegia with a tuber are nested among species of Brachystelma. Consequently, the distinctive tubular flowers used to define Ceropegia do not reflect relationships. This re-iterates the great floral plasticity in the Ceropegieae, already established for the stapeliads. Both major lineages exhibit a trend from tubular flowers with faint, often fruity odours, pollinated by very small Dipteran flies, to flatter flowers often with a bad odour, pollinated by larger flies. Most of the diversity in Brachystelma and Ceropegia is recent and arose within the last 3my against a background of increased aridification or extreme climatic variability during the Pliocene. In the ingroup, diversity is highest in Southern Africa, followed by Tropical East Africa and other arid parts of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and India. Many disjunctions are revealed and these are best explained by recent, long distance dispersal. In Africa, the diversity arises from the presence of many different lineages over

  3. Proceedings of the 65. conference of the Ordre des agronomes du Quebec : Effects of climate change on agriculture and agri-food sectors : local solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference provided a forum for the exchange of scientific knowledge concerning new management tools and agricultural practices that will ensure sustainable development in the agriculture and agri-food sectors in Quebec in light of climate change. Agricultural practices were examined in an effort to see how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be reduced. A review of the knowledge accumulated to date on climate change was presented along with a look at the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on Quebec's agricultural sector. Climate and the greenhouse effect were discussed, with particular emphasis on a European perspective of the agricultural sector. Nine presenters also participated in 3 smaller conferences on specific themes which examined GHG sources and methods to reduce emissions in animal and plant production. The impacts of climate change and adaptation methods in Quebec were discussed. Twelve of the 13 papers were indexed separately for inclusion in this database

  4. U.S. Geological Survey environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2013-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, quality of life, and economic prosperity lead to environmental change. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will compound the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, synthetic chemicals and substances, natural earth materials, toxins, and other biogenic compounds.

  5. Gross world product and consumption in a global warming model with endogenous technological change. A study with DEMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Zwaan, B.C.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Gerlagh, R. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-06-01

    This paper analyzes the macro-economic costs and effects on consumption and energy demand of limiting the global average atmospheric temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius. We use a macro-economic model (DEMETER: DE-carbonization Model with Endogenous Technologies for Emission Reduction) in which there are two competing energy technologies (carbon and non-carbon, respectively), technological change is represented endogenously, and energy is aggregated through a CES function implying positive demand for the relatively expensive non-carbon technology. Technological change is represented through a learning curve describing decreasing energy production costs as a function of cumulative experience. We compare scenarios that (1) allow for energy savings, versus scenarios that assume energy demand following an exogenous path, and scenarios that (2) allow for enhanced learning effects resulting from increased experience obtained with the carbon and non-carbon technologies, versus scenarios that assume production costs following an exogenous path. We find that energy savings constitutes an important mechanism for decreasing abatement costs in the short and medium term, while the acquisition of additional learning experience substantially decreases abatement costs in the longer term.

  6. The German Radiation Protection Ordinance as amended in 2000. The new regulations and their potential to initiate changes in practice. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers presented at the meeting of experts focus on the new regulations of the statutory ordinance on radiation protection (StrlSchV) and the resulting changes in practical implementation, as for instance with respect to occupational exposure and population exposure. All papers of the meeting have been analysed and indexed for separate retrieval from the ENERGY database. (orig./CB)

  7. Multiple Stressors in a Changing World: The Need for an Improved Perspective on Physiological Responses to the Dynamic Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Alex R.; Armstrong, Eric J.; Stillman, Jonathon H.

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic conditions (e.g., temperature and pH) fluctuate through time in most marine environments, sometimes passing intensity thresholds that induce physiological stress. Depending on habitat and season, the peak intensity of different abiotic stressors can occur in or out of phase with one another. Thus, some organisms are exposed to multiple stressors simultaneously, whereas others experience them sequentially. Understanding these physicochemical dynamics is critical because how organisms respond to multiple stressors depends on the magnitude and relative timing of each stressor. Here, we first discuss broad patterns of covariation between stressors in marine systems at various temporal scales. We then describe how these dynamics will influence physiological responses to multi-stressor exposures. Finally, we summarize how multi-stressor effects are currently assessed. We find that multi-stressor experiments have rarely incorporated naturalistic physicochemical variation into their designs, and emphasize the importance of doing so to make ecologically relevant inferences about physiological responses to global change.

  8. 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry: Crop, Environment, and Public Health Protection, Technologies for a Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Laura L; Racke, Kenneth D; Hapeman, Cathleen J; Seiber, James N

    2016-01-13

    This introductory paper provides an overview of Perspectives papers written by plenary speakers from the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry held in San Francisco, CA, USA, in August 2014. This group of papers emphasizes some of the emerging issues and challenges at the forefront of agricultural research: sustainability; agriculture's response to climate change and population growth; pollinator health and risk assessment; and global food production and food security. In addition, as part of the Congress, a workshop on "Developing Global Leaders for Research, Regulation, and Stewardship of Crop Protection Chemistry in the 21st Century" identified specific recommendations to attract the best scientists to agricultural science, to provide opportunities to study and conduct research on crop protection chemistry topics, and to improve science communication skills. PMID:26709728

  9. The world's biggest experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Gregson, Liz

    2008-01-01

    According to CERN, our understanding of the Universe is about the change. Meet the Imperial alumni and staff who are involved in CERN's Large Hadron Collider, the world's biggest experiment. (3 pages)

  10. Proceedings of the third resilience engineering symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceeding from Third Resilience Engineering Symposium collects the papers presented on October 28-30, 2008, in Antibes-Juan-les-Pins, France. The Symposium provided a much appreciated forum for people working within the area of Resilience Engineering to become updated with the latest scientific achievements as well as more practical oriented applications, and exchange views and idea within the area. Resilience Engineering represents a new way of thinking about safety that has already given rise to several practical applications. In contrast to established risk management approaches that are based on hindsight and emphasise error tabulation and calculation of failure probabilities, Resilience Engineering looks for ways to enhance the ability of organisations to create processes that are robust yet flexible, to monitor and revise risk models, and to use resources pro-actively in the face of disruptions or ongoing production and economic pressures. In Resilience Engineering failures do not stand for a breakdown or malfunctioning of normal system functions, but rather represent the converse of the adaptations necessary to cope with the real world complexity. Individuals and organisations must always adjust their performance to the current conditions; and because resources and time are finite it is inevitable that such adjustments are approximate. Success has been ascribed to the ability of groups, individuals, and organisations to anticipate the changing shape of risk before damage occurs; failure is simply the temporary or permanent absence of that. Three papers were selected for INIS, these are: - Resilience and Brittleness in a Nuclear Emergency Response Simulation: Focusing on Team Coordination Activity (Costa, W.S. et al.); - Resilience and the Training of Nuclear Operators - A View from the Shop Floor (Hildebrandt, M. et al.); and - Complexity of Resilient Power Distribution Networks (May, M.)

  11. Model investigations of the potential effect of climate changes on the world food supply; Modellhafte Ueberlegungen zu potentiellen Auswirkungen der sich veraendernden Klimabedingungen auf die Weltversorgungslage mit Nahrungsmitteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrarpolitik, Marktforschung und Wirtschaftssoziologie

    1993-05-21

    This investigation aims to contribute towards assessing the implications of possible climate changes on the world food situation. First of all, the causes and implications of climate change are analyzed and printed out. Then, suitable models for describing climate change are investigated and described. Furthermore, suitable mathematical yield models for calculating the impact of climate changes on plant growth are analyzed and described. Finally, the national economy`s gain and loss in the farming sector is established within the framework of a welfare analysis. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Zielsetzung dieser Untersuchung ist es, einen Beitrag zur Abschaetzung der Auswirkungen moeglicher Klimaveraenderungen auf die Weltversorgungslage mit Nahrungsmitteln zu leisten. Hierzu werden zunaechst die Ursachen und Auswirkungen der Klimaveraenderung analysiert und aufgezeigt werden. Des weiteren werden geeignete Modelle zur Beschreibung der Klimaveraenderung untersucht und vorgestellt werden. Ausserdem werden die zur Berechnung klimatischer Veraenderungen in ihrer Wirkung auf das Pflanzenwachstum geeigneten mathematischen Ertragsmodelle analysiert und beschrieben. Abschliessend wird im Rahmen einer Wohlfahrtsanalyse der volkswirtschaftliche Gewinn und Verlust fuer den landwirtschaftlichen Sektor aufgezeigt. (orig./KW)

  12. A space-based, high-resolution view of notable changes in urban NO x pollution around the world (2005-2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Bryan N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Lamsal, Lok N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Goddard Earth Sciences Technology and Research, Universities Space Research Association, Columbia Maryland USA; Thompson, Anne M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Yoshida, Yasuko [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Greenbelt Maryland USA; Lu, Zifeng [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA; Streets, David G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA; Hurwitz, Margaret M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; GESTAR, Morgan State University, Baltimore Maryland USA; Pickering, Kenneth E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA

    2016-01-20

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are produced during combustion processes and, thus may serve as a proxy for fossil fuel-based energy usage and coemitted greenhouse gases and other pollutants. We use high-resolution nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to analyze changes in urban NO2 levels around the world from 2005 to 2014, finding complex heterogeneity in the changes. We discuss several potential factors that seem to determine these NOx changes. First, environmental regulations resulted in large decreases. The only large increases in the United States may be associated with three areas of intensive energy activity. Second, elevated NO2 levels were observed over many Asian, tropical, and subtropical cities that experienced rapid economic growth. Two of the largest increases occurred over recently expanded petrochemical complexes in Jamnagar (India) and Daesan (Korea). Third, pollution transport from China possibly influenced the Republic of Korea and Japan, diminishing the impact of local pollution controls. However, in China, there were large decreases over Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta, which were likely associated with local emission control efforts. Fourth, civil unrest and its effect on energy usage may have resulted in lower NO2 levels in Libya, Iraq, and Syria. Fifth, spatial heterogeneity within several megacities may reflect mixed efforts to cope with air quality degradation. We also show the potential of high-resolution data for identifying NOx emission sources in regions with a complex mix of sources. Finally, intensive monitoring of the world's tropical/subtropical megacities will remain a priority, as their populations and emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases are expected to increase significantly.

  13. A space-based, high-resolution view of notable changes in urban NOx pollution around the world (2005-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Thompson, Anne M.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Pickering, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are produced during combustion processes and, thus may serve as a proxy for fossil fuel-based energy usage and coemitted greenhouse gases and other pollutants. We use high-resolution nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to analyze changes in urban NO2 levels around the world from 2005 to 2014, finding complex heterogeneity in the changes. We discuss several potential factors that seem to determine these NOx changes. First, environmental regulations resulted in large decreases. The only large increases in the United States may be associated with three areas of intensive energy activity. Second, elevated NO2 levels were observed over many Asian, tropical, and subtropical cities that experienced rapid economic growth. Two of the largest increases occurred over recently expanded petrochemical complexes in Jamnagar (India) and Daesan (Korea). Third, pollution transport from China possibly influenced the Republic of Korea and Japan, diminishing the impact of local pollution controls. However, in China, there were large decreases over Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta, which were likely associated with local emission control efforts. Fourth, civil unrest and its effect on energy usage may have resulted in lower NO2 levels in Libya, Iraq, and Syria. Fifth, spatial heterogeneity within several megacities may reflect mixed efforts to cope with air quality degradation. We also show the potential of high-resolution data for identifying NOx emission sources in regions with a complex mix of sources. Intensive monitoring of the world's tropical/subtropical megacities will remain a priority, as their populations and emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases are expected to increase significantly.

  14. [Changes in the legislation regulating the legal status of artificial abortion in the world in the past 10 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, D

    1981-01-01

    Current status of abortion legislation in different countries is reviewed. During the period from 1967-1977, a total of 43 countries introduced certain changes in their legislation. Of these 43 countries, 40 liberalized abortion procedures and 3 countries limited the rights of abortion seekers. Liberalization of abortion legislation in France and Italy was associated with women's rights movement and adoption of Human Rights Declaration. Austria, France, East Germany, West Germany, Italy, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark have the most liberal abortion policy, while Rumania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria have the most restricted legislation. Liberalization of abortion does not necessarily mean availability on demand. High cost in private clinics and hospitals prevents many women from seeking a legal abortion. In Asia, Singapore, China, and India permit abortions, while in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Burma abortions are banned. In Northern and Latin America, abortions are legalized in the US and Cuba; liberalization of abortion legislation is recorded in Guatemala, El Salvador, Uruguay, Chile, and Colombia. In spite of a general liberalization of legislation, abortion policies are still affected by religious and political groups. Ban on legal abortion increases the frequency of criminal abortion, which in turn leads to increase in maternal mortality. PMID:7030096

  15. ICU director data: using data to assess value, inform local change, and relate to the external world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David J; Ogbu, Ogbonna C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2015-04-01

    Improving value within critical care remains a priority because it represents a significant portion of health-care spending, faces high rates of adverse events, and inconsistently delivers evidence-based practices. ICU directors are increasingly required to understand all aspects of the value provided by their units to inform local improvement efforts and relate effectively to external parties. A clear understanding of the overall process of measuring quality and value as well as the strengths, limitations, and potential application of individual metrics is critical to supporting this charge. In this review, we provide a conceptual framework for understanding value metrics, describe an approach to developing a value measurement program, and summarize common metrics to characterize ICU value. We first summarize how ICU value can be represented as a function of outcomes and costs. We expand this equation and relate it to both the classic structure-process-outcome framework for quality assessment and the Institute of Medicine's six aims of health care. We then describe how ICU leaders can develop their own value measurement process by identifying target areas, selecting appropriate measures, acquiring the necessary data, analyzing the data, and disseminating the findings. Within this measurement process, we summarize common metrics that can be used to characterize ICU value. As health care, in general, and critical care, in particular, changes and data become more available, it is increasingly important for ICU leaders to understand how to effectively acquire, evaluate, and apply data to improve the value of care provided to patients. PMID:25846533

  16. Imagine the World you Want to Live in: A Study on Developmental Change in Doctor-Patient Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Engeström

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on talk and cognition in terms of action. It outlines methodological alternatives for approaches addressing meaning construction and the accounts people give of their actions. There are studies, rooted especially in phenomenology and ethnomethodology, that manifest the idea of intersubjective reality seen as achievements of situated actions. In this framework, conversation and communication are seen per se as significant forms of social action. Instead of intersubjective reality, often brought about with an inductive research method, the article argues for instrumental reality as the context for understanding talk and cognition in terms of action. The aim is a method that studies multivoicedness of activity in terms of situated actions. The method integrates situational features in dialogue with the cultural-historical processes of meaning construction. It is based on the theoretical notion of activity as a system that emerges and changes in time and place through internal contradictions. In the context of instrumentality, dialogical processes are also considered historically emerging and internally conflicting processes of rationality. I discuss this method with data on conversations between a patient and a doctor at a primary health care consultation. The study considers medical knowledge less as a substance than as a historically produced perspective through which the rationality of problem solving is accomplished by doctor and patient. The study aims to break away from the epistemological dualism of conflicting domains of meaning: the one of medicine that is objective and the one of experience that is subjective. The context of instrumentality includes a working hypothesis of a zone of proximal development of the doctor-patient relationship.

  17. How communication changes when we cannot mime the world: Experimental evidence for the effect of iconicity on combinatoriality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth; Lewandowski, Jirka; Galantucci, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    Communication systems are exposed to two different pressures: a pressure for transmission efficiency, such that messages are simple to produce and perceive, and a pressure for referential efficiency, such that messages are easy to understand with their intended meaning. A solution to the first pressure is combinatoriality--the recombination of a few basic meaningless forms to express an infinite number of meanings. A solution to the second is iconicity--the use of forms that resemble what they refer to. These two solutions appear to be incompatible with each other, as iconic forms are ill-suited for use as meaningless combinatorial units. Furthermore, in the early stages of a communication system, when basic referential forms are in the process of being established, the pressure for referential efficiency is likely to be particularly strong, which may lead it to trump the pressure for transmission efficiency. This means that, where iconicity is available as a strategy, it is likely to impede the emergence of combinatoriality. Although this hypothesis seems consistent with some observations of natural language, it was unclear until recently how it could be soundly tested. This has changed thanks to the development of a line of research, known as Experimental Semiotics, in which participants construct novel communication systems in the laboratory using an unfamiliar medium. We conducted an Experimental Semiotic study in which we manipulated the opportunity for iconicity by varying the kind of referents to be communicated, while keeping the communication medium constant. We then measured the combinatoriality and transmission efficiency of the communication systems. We found that, where iconicity was available, it provided scaffolding for the construction of communication systems and was overwhelmingly adopted. Where it was not available, however, the resulting communication systems were more combinatorial and their forms more efficient to produce. This study enriches

  18. Interglacial/glacial changes in coccolith-rich deposition in the SW Pacific Ocean: An analogue for a warmer world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bella; Carter, Lionel; Dunbar, Gavin; Bostock, Helen; Neil, Helen; Scott, George; Hayward, Bruce W.; Sabaa, Ashwaq

    2016-09-01

    Satellite observations of middle to high latitudes show that modern ocean warming is accompanied by increased frequency and poleward expansion of coccolithophore blooms. However, the outcomes of such events and their causal processes are unclear. In this study, marine sediment cores are used to investigate past coccolithophore production north and south of the Subtropical Front. Calcareous pelagites from subtropical waters off northernmost New Zealand (site P71) and from subantarctic waters on Campbell Plateau (Ocean Drilling Program [ODP] site 1120C) record marked changes in pelagite deposition. At both locations, foraminiferal-rich sediments dominate glacial periods whereas coccolith-rich sediments characterise specific interglacial periods. Sediment grain size has been used to determine relative abundances of coccoliths and foraminifers. Results show coccoliths prevailed around certain Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) transitions, at MIS 7b/a and MIS 2/1 at P71, and at MIS 6/5e at ODP 1120C. Palaeo-environmental proxies suggest that coccolithophore production and deposition at P71 reflect enhanced nutrient availability associated with intense winter mixing in the subtropical Tasman Sea. An increased inflow of that warm, micronutrient-bearing subtropical water in concert with upper ocean thermal stratification in late spring/summer, led to peak phytoplankton production. At ODP 1120C during MIS 6/5e, an increased inflow of subtropical water, warm sea surface temperatures and a thermally stratified upper ocean also favoured coccolithophore production. These palaeo-environmental reconstructions together with model simulations suggest that (i) future subtropical coccolithophore production at P71 is unlikely to reach abundances recorded during MIS 7b/a but (ii) future subantarctic production is likely to dominate sedimentation over Campbell Plateau as modern conditions trend towards those prevalent during MIS 5e.

  19. Proceedings of the 6th European VLBI Network Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Eduardo; Porcas, Richard W.; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Zensus, J. Anton

    This volume contains the papers presented at the 6th Symposium of the European VLBI Network, held in Bonn on 25-28 June 2002. The initial aim of these biennial gatherings of European VLBI practitioners was to review in a timely manner new results and technical developments related to Very Long Baseline Interferometry. Now, however, interest and participation in the EVN Symposia reaches far beyond Europe, reflecting the fact that scientific research and development programs are carried out to a high degree in international and often truly global collaborations. More than 120 scientists from around the world registered for participation in the Symposium. The Symposium was hosted by the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie and was held at the Gustav Stresemann Institut. In addition to the scientific sessions and poster presentations, the program included an EVN Users Meeting, an MPIfR versus Rest-of-the-World football match (highly appropriate given the competing World Cup event!), a visit to the MPIfR's 100m radio telescope in Effelsberg, and a Conference Dinner held in the nearby old walled town of Bad Müunstereifel. To maximize the usefulness of these proceedings (and possibly as a daring precedent) the Editors decided to demand the written versions of talks and posters and to complete the editorial work before the meeting, and to deliver the book to the participants at the beginning of the Symposium. We thank the authors for their cooperation in delivering publication-ready electronic manuscripts and for meeting the strict deadlines. It is highly gratifying that only a handful of the 100 presentations are not represented in this volume. The editors have made minor changes to some of the contributions in order to improve readability, and take responsibility for any errors arising from these changes. Besides the authors, many individuals have contributed to the preparation of the meeting and its proceedings. In addition to many members of the MPIfR staff, we

  20. GEXcel Work in Progress Report Volume IV : Proceedings from Gexcel Theme 1: Gender, Sexuality and Global Change. Conference of Workshops. 22 – 25 May, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This work-in-progress report comprises short summaries of most of the presentations given at GEXcel’s first research conference, which took place at Örebro University on May 22-25, 2008. The conference rounded off the main activities of GEXcel’s Research Theme 1, Gender, Sexuality and Global Change, run from August 2007 through August 2008. The conference was organized in workshop format around three sub-themes: 1) Sexuality, Love and Social Theory , 2) Power and Politics: A Feminist View, an...

  1. International seminar on structural investigations on pulsed neutron sources. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the International seminar on structural investigations using pulsed neutron sources are presented. The seminar is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Yu.M. Ostanevich, a world acknowledged physicist. The problems of structural analysis using pulsed neutron source at the IBR-2 reactor are discussed

  2. Proceedings of a course on veterinary nursing, Massey University 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference proceedings consists of 15 papers by 15 authors, which deal with veterinary nursing around the world, skills required for dealing with clients and selling drugs, safe handling of animals, samples and drugs, radiation safety, monitoring anaesthesia and post-operative monitoring, canine diabetes mellitus, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization and collection of blood and urine samples from dogs, cats and birds

  3. Quantum interaction. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruza, Peter [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). Faculty of Science and Technology; Sofge, Donald [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States). Naval Research Lab.; Lawless, William [Paine Coll., Augusta, GA (United States); Rijsbergen, Keith van [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Computing Science; Klusch, Matthias (eds.) [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2009, held in Saarbruecken, Germany, in March 2009. The 21 revised full papers presented together with the 3 position papers were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, decision theory, information retrieval, information systems, social interaction, computational linguistics and finance. (orig.)

  4. The changing world of gas exploration present and future trends; Les evolutions dans le secteur de l'exploration du gaz tendances actuelles et futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, B.C. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Maisonnier, G. [Gedigaz, France (France)

    2000-07-01

    The industry has, in the past decade, added much more gas than it has produced, resulting in a 36% increase in world reserves. Therefore the resource base is no longer considered a serious constraint in satisfying the industry's needs. Under such circumstances, one may ask the question: is exploration for gas still needed? One way in which we may deal with this major issue would be to analyse the changes that occur in the upstream world, in relation to technology, the general business context and industry's strategies and their potential impact on future trends. Dramatic advancements in exploration technologies have helped to improve success ratios and prediction of fluid, and to open new prospective areas, while also reducing costs. From a State point of view, exploration constitutes a long term objective to contend with natural gas consumption growth without depending too much on imports, or to develop resources for exports. From a company perception, exploration appears as a necessity not only for future growth but also for geographical or geopolitical opportunities. Gas reserve additions will come increasingly from a combination of exploration and production deals. The numerous new opportunities created by a more open business environment will facilitate such developments. (authors)

  5. Computer Science and Convergence : CSA 2011 & WCC 2011 Proceedings

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Han-Chieh; Obaidat, Mohammad; Kim, Jongsung

    2012-01-01

    Computer Science and Convergence is proceedings of the 3rd FTRA International Conference on Computer Science and its Applications (CSA-11) and The 2011 FTRA World Convergence Conference (FTRA WCC 2011). The topics of CSA and WCC cover the current hot topics satisfying the world-wide ever-changing needs. CSA-11 will be the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in computer science and its applications and will provide an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of CSA. In addition, the conference will publish high quality papers which are closely related to the various theories and practical applications in CSA. Furthermore, we expect that the conference and its publications will be a trigger for further related research and technology improvements in this important subject. The main scope of CSA-11 is as follows: -      Mobile and ubiquitous computing -      Dependable, reliable and autonomic computi...

  6. ISMB Conference Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresa, Gaasterand [UCSD; Martin, Vingron

    2011-07-01

    significant discussion of the merits of the papers first between referees and the Area Chairs, and then between Area Chairs and the proceedings chairs. Initial decisions to accept papers were made during a comprehensive conference call with the Area Chairs, and several papers underwent a further evaluation by additional Area Chairs before acceptance decisions were finalized. We appreciate that in several cases reviewers' opinions might have changed with additional input or further clarifications from the authors; because the ISMB/ECCB 2011 timeline did not allow for a second round of reviews, however, only papers where referees suggested minor revisions could be accepted. For several papers where referee comments might have been unclear to the authors, Area Chairs added additional comments and explanations. In total, 48 papers were conditionally accepted, pending revision. After acceptance notices were sent, the authors had 2 weeks to modify their papers according to the suggestions made by the reviewers and to respond to the reviewers' comments. Modified papers and authors' responses were reexamined during the next week to ensure each paper was modified appropriately in response to the reviewers' comments. We were pleased that all 48 conditionally accepted papers were finally accepted for the conference. The final acceptance rate was 19%, similar to the rates of 20% and 19% in the two prior years. Collectively, the 48 accepted papers had 185 authors from 18 countries across 6 continents, with 82 authors from North America, 54 from Europe, 25 from Asia (excluding Israel), 10 from Israel, 9 from Australia, 4 from South America and 1 author from Africa. We thank the area chairs and reviewers for their hard work and dedication to maintaining a professional review process. We thank all authors of submitted papers and authors of accepted papers for their diligences in responding to reviewer comments within 2 weeks. We thank Steven Leard's team for

  7. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part III. Effectively effecting and sustaining change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    Reaping the optimal rewards from any quality improvement project mandates sustainability after the initial implementation. In Part III of this three-part ATS Seminars series, we discuss strategies to create a culture for change, improve cooperation and interaction between multidisciplinary teams of clinicians, and position the intensive care unit (ICU) optimally within the hospital environment. Coaches are used throughout other industries to help professionals assess and continually improve upon their practice; use of this strategy is as of yet infrequent in health care, but would be easily transferable and potentially beneficial to ICU managers and clinicians alike. Similarly, activities focused on improving teamwork are commonplace outside of health care. Simulation training and classroom education about key components of successful team functioning are known to result in improvements. In addition to creating an ICU environment in which individuals and teams of clinicians perform well, ICU managers must position the ICU to function well within the hospital system. It is important to move away from the notion of a standalone ("siloed") ICU to one that is well integrated into the rest of the institution. Creating a "pull-system" (in which participants are active in searching out needed resources and admitting patients) can help ICU managers both provide better care for the critically ill and strengthen relationships with non-ICU staff. Although not necessary, there is potential upside to creating a unified critical care service to assist with achieving these ends. PMID:24601653

  8. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part III. Effectively effecting and sustaining change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    Reaping the optimal rewards from any quality improvement project mandates sustainability after the initial implementation. In Part III of this three-part ATS Seminars series, we discuss strategies to create a culture for change, improve cooperation and interaction between multidisciplinary teams of clinicians, and position the intensive care unit (ICU) optimally within the hospital environment. Coaches are used throughout other industries to help professionals assess and continually improve upon their practice; use of this strategy is as of yet infrequent in health care, but would be easily transferable and potentially beneficial to ICU managers and clinicians alike. Similarly, activities focused on improving teamwork are commonplace outside of health care. Simulation training and classroom education about key components of successful team functioning are known to result in improvements. In addition to creating an ICU environment in which individuals and teams of clinicians perform well, ICU managers must position the ICU to function well within the hospital system. It is important to move away from the notion of a standalone ("siloed") ICU to one that is well integrated into the rest of the institution. Creating a "pull-system" (in which participants are active in searching out needed resources and admitting patients) can help ICU managers both provide better care for the critically ill and strengthen relationships with non-ICU staff. Although not necessary, there is potential upside to creating a unified critical care service to assist with achieving these ends.

  9. Superhabitable worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world. PMID:24380533

  10. Climate change opportunities: A focus for early action. Proceedings of the joint meeting of the Ministers of Energy and the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, D.B. [Manitoba Energy and Mines, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); McCrae, J. [Manitoba Environment, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    A document tabled at the Joint Meeting of Ministers of Energy and Environment by the Manitoba ministers of Energy and Mines and Environment, regarding the development of renewable hydroelectricity as a major component of Canada`s climate change response to the Kyoto Protocols, is presented. This paper calls for specific actions by the Canadian federal government to create the conditions industry needs to meet the Kyoto commitment. The paper presents some simple policy and fiscal actions that the federal government can implement before the next budget cycle. The federal Renewable Energy Research Strategy (released in 1996) defines small-scale hydro development as the only form of renewable hydroelectricity eligible for federal support. The paper argues that if Canada`s economic hydro potential were fully developed to replace fossil fuel power generation, Canada`s Kyoto commitments would not only be met, but exceeded. Manitoba is asking the federal government to release a clear and unambiguous policy statement which will recognize hydroelectricity (including large-scale development) as a renewable resource. Manitoba also proposes that the federal government work with industry to expand the Federal Income Tax Act regarding incentives for undertaking initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas operations. Manitoba would also like to see the incentives to include biomass-based fuel ethanol production facilities and co-generation projects.

  11. Manifesting the Quantum World

    CERN Document Server

    Mohrhoff, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    In resisting attempts to explain the unity of a whole in terms of a multiplicity of interacting parts, quantum mechanics calls for an explanatory concept that proceeds in the opposite direction: from unity to multiplicity. It concerns the process by which what Sellars called the Manifest Image of the world comes into being. This process consists in the progressive differentiation of an intrinsically undifferentiated entity. By entering into reflexive spatial relations, this gives rise to (i) what looks like a multiplicity of relata if the reflexive quality of the relations is not taken into account, and (ii) what looks like a substantial expanse if the spatial quality of the relations is reified. If there is a distinctly quantum domain, it is a non-spatial and non-temporal dimension across which the transition from the unity of this entity to the multiplicity of the world takes place. Instead of being constituents of the physical world, subatomic particles, atoms, and molecules are instrumental in its manifes...

  12. Manifesting the Quantum World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrhoff, Ulrich

    2014-06-01

    In resisting attempts to explain the unity of a whole in terms of a multiplicity of interacting parts, quantum mechanics calls for an explanatory concept that proceeds in the opposite direction: from unity to multiplicity. Being part of the Scientific Image of the world, the theory concerns the process by which (the physical aspect of) what Sellars called the Manifest Image of the world comes into being. This process consists in the progressive differentiation of an intrinsically undifferentiated entity. By entering into reflexive spatial relations, this entity gives rise to (i) what looks like a multiplicity of relata if the reflexive quality of the relations is not taken into account, and (ii) what looks like a substantial expanse if the spatial quality of the relations is reified. If there is a distinctly quantum domain, it is a non-spatial and non-temporal dimension across which the transition from the unity of this entity to the multiplicity of the world takes place. Instead of being constituents of the physical world, subatomic particles, atoms, and molecules are instrumental in its manifestation. These conclusions are based on the following interpretive principle and its more direct consequences: whenever the calculation of probabilities calls for the addition of amplitudes, the distinctions we make between the alternatives lack objective reality. Applied to alternatives involving distinctions between regions of space, this principle implies that, owing to the indefiniteness of positions, the spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world is incomplete: the existence of a real-valued spatiotemporal background is an unrealistic idealization. This guarantees the existence of observables whose values are real per se, as against "real by virtue of being indicated by the values of observables that are real per se." Applied to alternatives involving distinctions between things, it implies that, intrinsically, all fundamental particles are numerically

  13. Superhabitable Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host star...

  14. The Changed World of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Francie; Naidoo, Rajen

    2016-08-01

    The majority of workers in the global south, and increasing numbers in the north, work in the informal economy. Most are de facto or de jure excluded from services and regulation of occupational health and safety. Significant recent improvements in classification of status of informal employment have enabled improved labor force data; it has not been matched by progress with data collection on work-related risks, hazards, and health outcomes for informal workers. This special edition describes some of the risks and hazards, but focuses on strategies and interventions-such as taking occupational health and safety services to markets where informal workers operate, legal reforms, and designing appropriate equipment. The diversity of occupations and work places (many in public space) mean that new stakeholders such as local municipalities, informal workers associations and unions, as well as health professionals, need to be considered when striving for a more inclusive occupational health and safety. PMID:27296975

  15. The Changed World of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Francie; Naidoo, Rajen

    2016-08-01

    The majority of workers in the global south, and increasing numbers in the north, work in the informal economy. Most are de facto or de jure excluded from services and regulation of occupational health and safety. Significant recent improvements in classification of status of informal employment have enabled improved labor force data; it has not been matched by progress with data collection on work-related risks, hazards, and health outcomes for informal workers. This special edition describes some of the risks and hazards, but focuses on strategies and interventions-such as taking occupational health and safety services to markets where informal workers operate, legal reforms, and designing appropriate equipment. The diversity of occupations and work places (many in public space) mean that new stakeholders such as local municipalities, informal workers associations and unions, as well as health professionals, need to be considered when striving for a more inclusive occupational health and safety.

  16. A Nomad Girl's Changing Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Doomtso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sonam Doomtso (b. 1987 describes her lived experiences and recollections encompassing the first twenty years of her life. These include living on the grassland in Sichuan Province, experiences with relatives and neighbors; attending schools; moving to Lhasa; religious fasting; pilgrimage; encounters with marmot hunters; attending school in Xining City; and the death of her beloved grandfather.

  17. Proceedings of biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the proceedings of Biodegradation. Topics include:biodegradation using the tools of biotechnology, basic science aspects of biodegradation, the physiological characteristics of microorganisms, the use of selective techniques that enhance the process of microbial evolution of biodegradative genes in nature, the genetic characteristics of microorganisms allowing them to biodegrade both natural and synthetic toxic chemicals, the molecular techniques that allow selective assembly of genetic segments form a variety of bacterial strains to a single strain, and methods needed to advance biodegradation research as well as the high-priority chemical problems important to the Department of Defense or to the chemical industry

  18. ITER council proceedings: 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume of the ITER EDA Documentation Series presents records of the 12th ITER Council Meeting, IC-12, which took place on 23-24 July, 1997 in Tampere, Finland. The Council received from the Parties (EU, Japan, Russia, US) positive responses on the Detailed Design Report. The Parties stated their willingness to contribute to fulfil their obligations in contributing to the ITER EDA. The summary discussions among the Parties led to the consensus that in July 1998 the ITER activities should proceed for additional three years with a general intent to enable an efficient start of possible, future ITER construction

  19. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  20. Virtual Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, František

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis is focused on highlighting the development of virtual worlds. The paper summarizes the evolution of virtual reality. Current virtual worlds are compared in fundamental aspects, such as sociology, economics and education. Social sphere describes the interaction in virtual reality and its specialities. Economical sphere is focused on comparison of real and virtual economies, including their economic indicators. Educational sphere describes the sciences, which are best usea...

  1. World science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the Third World Network of Scientific Organizations (TWNSO), established last year with its headquarters in Trieste, Italy, is to promote the role of science and technology in developing countries. TWNSO, under the presidency of Abdus Salam, is an offshoot of the Third World Academy of Sciences, which has pushed the cause of international scientific collaboration since its establishment in 1983. (orig./HSI).

  2. Auroral Tomography Workshop, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ionospheric and atmospheric physics the importance of multi-station imaging has grown as a consequence of the availability of scientific grade CCD cameras with digital output and affordable massive computing power. Tomographic inversion techniques are used in many different areas, e.g. medicine, plasma research and space physics. The tomography workshop was announced to gather a limited group of people interested in auroral tomography or tomographic inversion methods in general. ALIS (Auroral Large Imaging System) is a multi-station ground-based system developed primarily for three-dimensional auroral imaging, however other non-auroral objects can be studied with ALIS, e.g. stratospheric clouds. Several of the contributions in the workshop dealt with problems related to geometries similar to the ALIS-configuration. The Proceedings contain written contributions received either in abstract form or as full papers. The Proceedings also contain contributions intended for the Workshop but not presented due to the absence of the speaker. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 15 of the 17 papers

  3. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  4. Changing gull diet in a changing world: a 150-year stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) record from feathers collected in the Pacific Northwest of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blight, Louise K; Hobson, Keith A; Kyser, T Kurt; Arcese, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The world's oceans have undergone significant ecological changes following European colonial expansion and associated industrialization. Seabirds are useful indicators of marine food web structure and can be used to track multidecadal environmental change, potentially reflecting long-term human impacts. We used stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) analysis of feathers from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) in a heavily disturbed region of the northeast Pacific to ask whether diets of this generalist forager changed in response to shifts in food availability over 150 years, and whether any detected change might explain long-term trends in gull abundance. Sampled feathers came from birds collected between 1860 and 2009 at nesting colonies in the Salish Sea, a transboundary marine system adjacent to Washington, USA and British Columbia, Canada. To determine whether temporal trends in stable isotope ratios might simply reflect changes to baseline environmental values, we also analysed muscle tissue from forage fishes collected in the same region over a multidecadal timeframe. Values of δ(13)C and δ(15)N declined since 1860 in both subadult and adult gulls (δ(13)C, ~ 2-6‰; δ(15)N, ~4-5‰), indicating that their diet has become less marine over time, and that birds now feed at a lower trophic level than previously. Conversely, forage fish δ(13)C and δ(15)N values showed no trends, supporting our conclusion that gull feather values were indicative of declines in marine food availability rather than of baseline environmental change. Gradual declines in feather isotope values are consistent with trends predicted had gulls consumed less fish over time, but were equivocal with respect to whether gulls had switched to a more garbage-based diet, or one comprising marine invertebrates. Nevertheless, our results suggest a long-term decrease in diet quality linked to declining fish abundance or other anthropogenic influences, and may help to explain regional

  5. Asymetric change of daily temperature range: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers presented at the MINIMAX workshop. Topics include; temperature fluxes, influence of clouds on temperature, anthropogenic influences on temperature flux, and carbon dioxide and aerosol induced greenhouse effect

  6. Changing patterns of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008: assessing progress toward eradication after the World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Cohen, Ted; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-03

    We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted in 1999-2001 and again in 2007-2008. Two alternate spatial cluster methods were used to identify spatial clusters of cases: Anselin's Local Moran's I test and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. Substantial reductions in the burden of schistosomiasis were found after the end of the WBLP, but the spatial extent of schistosomiasis was not reduced across the study area. Spatial clusters continued to occur in three regions: Chengdu Plain, Yangtze River Valley, and Lancang River Valley during the two periods, and regularly involved five counties. These findings suggest that despite impressive reductions in burden, the hilly and mountainous regions of Southwest China remain at risk of schistosome re-emergence. Our results help to highlight specific locations where integrated control programs can focus to speed the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

  7. The family's experience of the child and/or teenager in palliative care: fluctuating between hope and hopelessness in a world changed by losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Deguer Misko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to understand the family's experience of the child and/or teenager in palliative care and building a representative theoretical model of the process experienced by the family.METHODOLOGY: for this purpose the Symbolic Interactionism and the Theory Based on Data were used. Fifteen families with kids and/or teenagers in palliative care were interviewed, and data were collected through semi-structured interviews.RESULTS: after the comparative analysis of the data, a substantive theory was formed "fluctuating between hope and hopelessness in a world changed by losses", composed by: "having a life shattered ", "managing the new condition", "recognizing the palliative care" and "relearning how to live". Hope, perseverance and spiritual beliefs are determining factors for the family to continue fighting for the life of their child in a context of uncertainty, anguish and suffering, due to the medical condition of the child. Along the way, the family redefines values and integrates palliative care in their lives.CONCLUSION: staying with the child at home is what was set and kept hope of dreaming about the recovery and support of the child's life, but above all, what takes it away even though temporarily is the possibility of their child's death when staying within the context of the family.

  8. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base

  9. Feedwater heater workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The March 13-14, 1979 EPRI sponsored workshop on design, operation and maintenance problems with nuclear feedwater heaters identified a large number of significant technical areas of concern. The reported problems relate to nearly all facets of feedwater heater technology. In particular, hydrometallurgical problems such as stress corrosion of stainless tubing, erosion/corrosion wear of tube-tubesheet joints, and flashing related tube erosion at the entrance to the drain cooler region were reviewed in depth. Shortcomings in current design standards and design specifications were also discussed. Solutions to specific technical problems such as mechanics of flow induced vibration failures, improved synthesis of feedwater heater orientation with plant layout, and drain outlet piping design were presented. A list of important technical problems requiring additional research and development for improved design guidelines was developed. The proceedings contain all edited material of archival quality developed in this workshop

  10. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  11. Where WE Stands: Approaches, Issues, and Debate in World Englishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Kingsley

    2005-01-01

    This paper sets out to review current approaches to world Englishes from a range of perspectives, from English studies to sociolinguistics, applied linguistics, lexicography, popularizers and critical linguistics. It then proceeds to consider current debates on English worldwide and world Englishes, noting the recent criticisms of the world…

  12. High intensity interval training in a real world setting: a randomized controlled feasibility study in overweight inactive adults, measuring change in maximal oxygen uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lunt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In research clinic settings, overweight adults undertaking HIIT (high intensity interval training improve their fitness as effectively as those undertaking conventional walking programs but can do so within a shorter time spent exercising. We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility (pilot study aimed at extending HIIT into a real world setting by recruiting overweight/obese, inactive adults into a group based activity program, held in a community park. METHODS: Participants were allocated into one of three groups. The two interventions, aerobic interval training and maximal volitional interval training, were compared with an active control group undertaking walking based exercise. Supervised group sessions (36 per intervention were held outdoors. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake, results expressed in ml/min/kg, before and after the 12 week interventions. RESULTS: On ITT (intention to treat analyses, baseline (N = 49 and exit (N = 39 [Formula: see text]O2 was 25.3±4.5 and 25.3±3.9, respectively. Participant allocation and baseline/exit VO2max by group was as follows: Aerobic interval training N =  16, 24.2±4.8/25.6±4.8; maximal volitional interval training N = 16, 25.0±2.8/25.2±3.4; walking N = 17, 26.5±5.3/25.2±3.6. The post intervention change in VO2max was +1.01 in the aerobic interval training, -0.06 in the maximal volitional interval training and -1.03 in the walking subgroups. The aerobic interval training subgroup increased VO2max compared to walking (p = 0.03. The actual (observed, rather than prescribed time spent exercising (minutes per week, ITT analysis was 74 for aerobic interval training, 45 for maximal volitional interval training and 116 for walking (p =  0.001. On descriptive analysis, the walking subgroup had the fewest adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to earlier studies, the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness in a

  13. World armament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary of consequences on: Armament expenditure of the world, arms trade, arms race and nuclear weapon arsenals, nuclear weapon proliferation, nuclear safety controls, nuclear carrier systems, international nuclear trade, nuclear weapon accidents, chemical wars, war law, ecological wars, armament limitations. (HP)

  14. World Englishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心; 周丽

    2014-01-01

    In the current days, the search for information and the need for global communication have already promoted English from being the language of people in different countries as the international language. This essay will give some arguments about the inevitability of variety of world Englishes and its characteristics, and then explain that what Standard English is and examples about the standards in English.

  15. Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Gases, and Climate Change. Proceedings of a Joint Symposium by the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate and the Committee on Global Change, National Research Council (Washington, D.C., March 23, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    The motivation for the organization of this symposium was the accumulation of evidence from many sources, both short- and long-term, that the global climate is in a state of change. Data which defy integrated explanation including temperature, ozone, methane, precipitation and other climate-related trends have presented troubling problems for…

  16. World Government: Utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahram Ayvazyan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the possibility of having a world government, which world has been facing overarching changes since the end of Cold war, where bipolar world order has evolved into multipolar system through unipolarity. Analysis method in this paper have the sistematics: discussion of human nature and philosophical dimensions vis-à-vis individual, society and government, as well as society of societies; then briefly analyse globalization, the impact of individuals on interdependency of the current international arena and examine the individualism as the ongoing ideology “by individuals and for individuals.”; and then take the conclusion that the world government is not a utopia

  17. Immigrants and Refugees in a Changing Nation: Research and Training. Proceedings of a Conference Held at the Catholic University of America (Washington, District of Columbia, May 13-14, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lucy M., Ed.; Grossnickle, Mary Ann, Ed.

    The conference upon which these proceedings are based was held to draw together scholars, public officials, and representatives of private agencies in order to explore priority issues in research and training for professionals who work with new immigrants and refugees. Following a preface, which outlines the themes addressed by conference…

  18. The Olympia Proceedings. Section VIII. Synthesis and Editorial Comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas T.; Cardon, Bartell W.

    1982-01-01

    Funding for educational and psychological services, research and development needs, and the relationship of school psychologists to parents are among the areas discussed in reviewing the Olympia proceedings. It is argued that current school psychology service strategies must change to meet the demands of changes in the fundamental educational…

  19. 76 FR 12400 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Countervailing and Anti-Dumping Duties on Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Countervailing and Anti-Dumping... World Trade Organization (``WTO Agreement'') with the People's Republic of China (``China'') concerning... States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Office of the...

  20. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teller, E; Leith, C; Canavan, G; Marion, J; Wood, L

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate base line exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will be at least somewhat uncertain. The contemporary technology base provides ways-and-means for commencing the development of such a meteorological measurement-intensive climate baseline, moreover with a program budget far less than the {approx}$2.5 B/year which the US. currently spends on ''global change'' studies. In particular, the recent advent of satellite-based global telephony enables real-time control of, and data-return from, instrument packages of very modest scale, and Silicon Revolution-based sensor, data-processing and -storage advances permit 'intelligent' data-gathering payloads to be created with 10 gram-scale mass budgets. A geophysical measurement system implemented in such modern technology is a populous constellation 03 long-lived, highly-miniaturized robotic weather stations deployed throughout the weather-generating portions of the Earths atmosphere, throughout its oceans and across its land surfaces. Leveraging the technological advances of the OS, the filly-developed atmospheric weather station of this system has a projected weight of the order of 1 ounce, and contains a satellite telephone, a GPS receiver, a full set of atmospheric sensing instruments and a control computer - and has an operational life of the order of 1 year and a mass-production cost of the order of $20. Such stations are effectively &apos