WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing srs cooling

  1. The influence of Savannah River discharge and changing SRS cooling water requirements on the potential entrainment of ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entrainment (i.e., withdrawal of fish larvae and eggs in cooling water) at the SRS Savannah River intakes is greatest when periods of high river water usage coincide with low river dischargeduring the spawning season. American shad and striped bass are the two species of greatest concern because of their recreational and/or commercial importance and because they produce drifting eggs and larvae vulnerable to entrainment. In the mid-reaches of the Savannah River, American shad and striped bass spawn primarily during April and May. An analysis of Savannah River discharge during April and May 1973--1989 indicated the potential for entrainment of 4--18% of the American shad and striped bass larvae and eggs that drifted past the SRS. This analysis assumed the concurrent operation of L-, K-, and P-Reactors. Additional scenarios investigated were: (1) shutting down L- and P-Reactors, and operating K-Reactor with a recycle cooling tower; and (2) shutting down L- and P-Reactors, eliminating minimum flows to Steel Creek, and operating K-Reactor with a recycle cooling tower. The former scenario reduced potential entrainment to 0.7--3.3%, and the latter scenario reduced potential entrainment to 0.20.8%. Thus, the currently favored scenario of operating K-Reactor with a cooling tower and not operating L- and P-Reactors represents a significant lessening of the impact of SRS operations

  2. History: Cooling and societal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldon, John

    2016-03-01

    The rise and fall of civilizations over the past two millennia was set against a backdrop of climate change. High-resolution climate records evince a link between societal change and a period of cooling in the sixth and seventh centuries.

  3. Change in Annual Heating and Cooling Degree Days by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This service show changes in heating and cooling degree days by state in the US. Both layers in this service were created by comparing the first 60 years of...

  4. Solar Induced Climate Changes and Cooling of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Shahinaz M.

    2011-06-01

    Evidences are given for the cooling effect induced by solar weak cycles. It is forecasted that the coming solar cycle number 24, which has started on January 2008, would be very weak. This cycle would be followed by several weak cycles. Its very start on January 2008 have induced a climate change that forced global cooling, Indeed all global temperature monitors have shown temperature drops. The GISS monitor showed a 0.75°C drop between January 2007 and January 2008. This sharp temperature drop characterizes cooling induced by weak cycles as was evident by historical temperature records. It also happened in the right exact timing of the start of cycle 24. This cooling is real and could last for some time. The cooling well width is location dependant. Last January cooling left many countries in deep freeze. Cooling is very serious and can destroy crops and cause famines. This cooling is instrumentally recorded. This is an appeal to scientists to consider the present cooling seriously, after all the truth ought to be followed. Alert is also given to the reaponsible authorities to work promptly to choose the proper crops that can tolerate the cold otherwise it would be a disaster worldwide.

  5. Cool Science: K-12 Climate Change Art Displayed on Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. F.; Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Thompson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cool science is an art contest where K12 students create placards (7" x 22") to educate the public about climate change. Students are prompted to create their artwork in response to questions such as: What is the evidence for climate change? How does climate change impact your local community? What can you do to reduce the impacts of climate change? In each of three years, 500-600 student entrees have been submitted from more than 12 school districts across Massachusetts. A panel of judges including scientists, artists, rapid transit representatives, and educators chooses elementary, middle, and high school winners. Winners (6), runners-up (6), and honorable mentions (12) and their families and teachers are invited to an annual Cool Science Award Ceremony to be recognized and view winning artwork. All winning artwork is posted on the Cool Science website. The winning artwork (2 per grade band) is converted into placards (11" x 28") and posters (2.5' x 12') that are placed on the inside (placards) and outside (posters) of buses. Posters are displayed for one month. So far, Cool Science was implemented in Lowell, MA where over 5000 public viewers see the posters daily on the sides of Lowell Rapid Transit Authority (LRTA) buses, making approximately 1,000,000 impressions per year. Cool Science acts to increase climate literacy in children as well as the public, and as such promotes intergenerational learning. Using art in conjunction with science learning about climate change appears to be effective at engaging not just traditionally high achieving science students, but also those interested in the creative arts. Hearing winners' stories about how they created their artwork and what this contest meant to them supports the idea that Cool Science attracts a wide diversity of students. Parents discuss climate change with their children. Multiple press releases announcing the winners further promotes the awareness of climate change throughout school districts and their

  6. Preparation of Firefighting Hood for Cooling For Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Hwa Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two types of Phase Change Materials (PCMs which have been developed and adopted in textiles: heat (energy released and cool (energy absorbed. This paper discusses current PCM applications and explores future applications in firefighting gear. Phase change materials are considered latent heat storage units because as they change phase from solid to liquid, liquid to gas and vice versa, energy in the form of heat is absorbed or released. The goal of PCM textiles is to create reusable energy to maintain body temperature, as well as to optimize the performance of protective wear such as hoods. When the wearer’s body temperature increases or decreases, the PCMs applied to the fabric will change state helping to regulate the wearer’s body temperature by providing warmth or cooling. Maintaining a stable body temperature can improve working conditions and comfort.

  7. Preparation of Firefighting Hood for Cooling for Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Hwa Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two types of Phase Change Materials (PCMs which have been developed and adopted in textiles: heat (energy released and cool (energy absorbed. This paper discusses current PCM applications and explores future applications in firefighting gear. Phase change materials are considered latent heat storage units because as they change phase from solid to liquid, liquid to gas and vice versa, energy in the form of heat is absorbed or released. The goal of PCM textiles is to create reusable energy to maintain body temperature, as well as to optimize the performance of protective wear such as hoods. When the wearer’s body temperature increases or decreases, the PCMs applied to the fabric will change state helping to regulate the wearer’s body temperature by providing warmth or cooling. Maintaining a stable body temperature can improve working conditions and comfort.

  8. SRS Public Involvement in Waste Management Has Resulted in Effective Decisions Supported by the Public Including Disposal Changes and Top-to-Bottom Review Initiative Consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Savannah River Site's (SRS') Solid Waste Management Program, a key to success is the Public Involvement Program. The Solid Waste Division at SRS manages the site's transuranic, low-level, mixed, and hazardous wastes. All decisions associated with management of this waste are of interest to the public and successful program implementation would be impossible without a vigorous public involvement program. The SRS Solid Waste Division (SWD) and its Department of Energy (DOE) customer developed, implemented, and maintain a comprehensive public participation and communications program. It is staffed by public participation and technical specialists to ensure information is presented in a manner that is technically accurate while being tailored for understanding by people without a technical background. The program provides the public with accurate, complete, timely information and early meaningful participation opportunities. It also fulfills the public participation activities required by laws, regulations, DOE Orders, and negotiated agreements. The primary goal of the SWD Public Participation Program is to fulfill the objectives of the SWD and SRS Strategic Plans to ''build trust and communicate openly, honestly, and responsibly with employees, customers, stakeholders, and regulators,'' and to ''work to extend the support of external stakeholders for the pursuit of SRS and DOE Complex business goals.'' This paper focuses on the public participation program goals, the implementation through formal plans and objectives, targeted waste management programs and specific audiences, and specific effects of the program on waste management activities. A discussion of the DOE and contractor teaming along with how plans are carried out is also included

  9. Cool storage time of phase change wallboard room in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国会; 陈其针; 黄凯良; 牛润萍; 王琳

    2009-01-01

    More and more attention was paid to phase change energy storage in air conditioning domain and construction energy conservation,and became the focus of the international research. Through the test and analysis of the parameters of the indoor thermal property in phase change wallboard room and ordinary room,the effects of using phase change wallboards on indoor temperature in summer and air conditioning are obtained. The combination of construct enclosure and phase change materials can stabilize indoor temperature,improve indoor thermal comfort,reduce the frequency of the operation of air conditioning facility,cut the initial investment and operation expense,and meanwhile play an practical role in "the power balancing between the peak period and the valley period" policy. Through the experiment and the test of the effects exerted by phase change wallboard room and ordinary room on the indoor thermal environment,it is obtained that the phase change wallboard can reduce the fluctuation range of indoor temperature and the heat flow from the outside into indoor environment in summer. According to the study,it is found that the effect of cool-storing for 5 h is obvious. Through the analysis of the phase change wallboard without air conditioning in daytime,it is obtained that the frequency of the operation of air conditioning in phase change wallboard room is smaller than that in the ordinary room,which can prolong the lifetime of the facility and reduce operation expense.

  10. SRS ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Eric Nelson, E; Nancy Halverson, N; John Mayer, J; Michael Paller, M; Rodney Riley, R; Michael Serrato, M

    2006-03-01

    The SRS Ecology Environmental Information Document (EEID) provides a source of information on the ecology of Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--owned property on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, centered approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Augusta, Georgia. The entire site was designated a National Environmental Research Park in 1972 by the Atomic Energy Commission, the predecessor of DOE. This document summarizes and synthesizes ecological research and monitoring conducted on the three main types of ecosystems found at SRS: terrestrial, wetland and aquatic. It also summarizes the available information on the threatened and endangered species found on the Savannah River Site. SRS is located along the Savannah River and encompasses an area of 80,267 hectares (310 square miles) in three South Carolina counties. It contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, wetlands, streams, reservoirs, and the adjacent Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a variety of plants and animals, including many commercially or recreationally valuable species and several rare, threatened, or endangered species. Soils are the basic terrestrial resource, influencing the development of terrestrial biological communities. Many different soils exist on the SRS, from hydric to well-drained, and from sand to clay. In general, SRS soils are predominantly well-drained loamy sands.

  11. Roadmap to the SRS computing architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.

    1994-07-05

    This document outlines the major steps that must be taken by the Savannah River Site (SRS) to migrate the SRS information technology (IT) environment to the new architecture described in the Savannah River Site Computing Architecture. This document proposes an IT environment that is {open_quotes}...standards-based, data-driven, and workstation-oriented, with larger systems being utilized for the delivery of needed information to users in a client-server relationship.{close_quotes} Achieving this vision will require many substantial changes in the computing applications, systems, and supporting infrastructure at the site. This document consists of a set of roadmaps which provide explanations of the necessary changes for IT at the site and describes the milestones that must be completed to finish the migration.

  12. Cooling of mobile electronic devices using phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, F.L.; Tso, C.P. [Nanyang Technological University (Singapore). School of Mechanical and Production Engineering

    2004-02-01

    An experimental study is conducted on the cooling of mobile electronic devices, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and wearable computers, using a heat storage unit (HSU) filled with the phase change material (PCM) of n-eicosane inside the device. The high latent heat of n-eicosane in the HSU absorbs the heat dissipation from the chips and can maintain the chip temperature below the allowable service temperature of 50{sup o}C for 2 h of transient operations of the PDA. The heat dissipation of the chips inside a PDA and the orientation of the HSU are experimentally investigated in this paper. It was found that different orientation of the HSU inside the PDA could affect significantly the temperature distribution. (author)

  13. Predicted changes in energy demands for heating and cooling due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinar, Mojca; Vidrih, Boris; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka; Medved, Sašo

    In the last 3 years in Slovenia we experienced extremely hot summers and demand for cooling the buildings have risen significantly. Since climate change scenarios predict higher temperatures for the whole country and for all seasons, we expect that energy demand for heating would decrease while demand for cooling would increase. An analysis for building with permitted energy demand and for low-energy demand building in two typical urban climates in Slovenia was performed. The transient systems simulation program (TRNSYS) was used for simulation of the indoor conditions and the energy use for heating and cooling. Climate change scenarios were presented in form of “future” Test Reference Years (TRY). The time series of hourly data for all meteorological variables for different scenarios were chosen from actual measurements, using the method of highest likelihood. The climate change scenarios predicted temperature rise (+1 °C and +3 °C) and solar radiation increase (+3% and +6%). With the selection of these scenarios we covered the spectra of possible predicted climate changes in Slovenia. The results show that energy use for heating would decrease from 16% to 25% (depends on the intensity of warming) in subalpine region, while in Mediterranean region the rate of change would not be significant. In summer time we would need up to six times more energy for cooling in subalpine region and approximately two times more in Mediterranean region. low-energy building proved to be very economical in wintertime while on average higher energy consumption for cooling is expected in those buildings in summertime. In case of significant warmer and more solar energy intensive climate, the good isolated buildings are more efficient than standard buildings. TRY proved not to be efficient for studying extreme conditions like installed power of the cooling system.

  14. MTR radiological database for SRS spent nuclear fuel facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A database for radiological characterization of incoming Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel has been developed for application to the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and L-Basin spent fuel storage facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This database provides a quick quantitative check to determine if SRS bound spent fuel is radiologically bounded by the Reference Fuel Assembly used in the L-Basin and RBOF authorization bases. The developed database considers pertinent characteristics of domestic and foreign research reactor fuel including exposure, fuel enrichment, irradiation time, cooling time, and fuel-to-moderator ratio. The supplied tables replace the time-consuming studies associated with authorization of SRS bound spent fuel with simple hand calculations. Additionally, the comprehensive database provides the means to overcome resource limitations, since a series of simple, yet conservative, hand calculations can now be performed in a timely manner and replace computational and technical staff requirements

  15. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there

  16. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  17. SRS Controlled-Potential Coulometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The Savannah River Site has the analytical measurement capability to perform high-precision plutonium concentration measurements by controlled-potential coulometry. State-of-the-art controlled-potential coulometers were fabricated by the SRS Engineered Equipment and Systems Department and installed in the Analytical Laboratories'' process control laboratory. The Analytical Laboratories uses coulometry for routine accountability measurements of pure plutonium from the PUREX process and for verification of standard preparations used to calibrate other plutonium measurement systems routinely applied to process control, nuclear safety, and other accountability applications. The SRS Coulometer has a demonstrated measurement reliability of approximately 0.05 percent for 10 mg samples. The system has also been applied to the characterization of neptunium standard solutions with a comparable reliability. The SRS coulometer features: a patented current integration system; continuous electrical calibration versus Faraday''s Constants and Ohm''s Law; the control-potential adjustment technique for enhanced application of the Nernst Equation; a wide operating room temperature range; and a fully automated instrument control and data acquisition capability. The system has been operated for 10 years with minimal equipment failures and downtime. The coulometer and instrument controller have been periodically upgraded to remain current with available high-precision potential control and current integration components. A stability of 261 0.0015 percent RSD for the electronic calibration factor has been demonstrated. Most recently the system was converted from an Hewlett Packard computer platform to an IBM Computer Windows-based system. SRS Coulometers were installed at the Tokai-mura Reprocessing Facility in Japan in February 1999 and at the Mayak Production Association in Ozersk Russia in October 1998.'

  18. SRS baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.; Aadland, R.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Sargent, K.A. [Furman Univ., Greenville, SC (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1990-11-01

    Work on the Savannah River Site (SRS) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation began in 1983 when it was determined that the knowledge of the plant hydrogeologic systems needed to be expanded and improved in response to changing stratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic terminology and increased involvement by regulatory agencies (Bledsoe, 1984). Additionally, site-wide data were needed to determine flow paths, gradients, and velocities associated with the different aquifers underlying the plant site. The program was divided into three phases in order to allow the results of one phase to be evaluated and necessary changes and improvements incorporated into the following phases. This report summarizes the results of all three phases and includes modified graphic logs, lithologic descriptions of the different geologic formations, profiles of each cluster site, hydrostratigraphic cross sections, hydrographs of selected wells within each cluster for the first full year of uninterrupted water level measurements, potentiometric maps developed from data collected from all clusters, completion diagrams for each well, and a summary of laboratory tests. Additionally, the proposed new classification of hydrostratigraphic units at SRS (Aadland and Bledsoe, 1990) has been incorporated.

  19. The response of human thermal sensation and its prediction to temperature step-change (cool-neutral-cool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyuan Du

    Full Text Available This paper reports on studies of the effect of temperature step-change (between a cool and a neutral environment on human thermal sensation and skin temperature. Experiments with three temperature conditions were carried out in a climate chamber during the period in winter. Twelve subjects participated in the experiments simulating moving inside and outside of rooms or cabins with air conditioning. Skin temperatures and thermal sensation were recorded. Results showed overshoot and asymmetry of TSV due to the step-change. Skin temperature changed immediately when subjects entered a new environment. When moving into a neutral environment from cool, dynamic thermal sensation was in the thermal comfort zone and overshoot was not obvious. Air-conditioning in a transitional area should be considered to limit temperature difference to not more than 5°C to decrease the unacceptability of temperature step-change. The linear relationship between thermal sensation and skin temperature or gradient of skin temperature does not apply in a step-change environment. There is a significant linear correlation between TSV and Qloss in the transient environment. Heat loss from the human skin surface can be used to predict dynamic thermal sensation instead of the heat transfer of the whole human body.

  20. Cooling vests with phase change material packs: the effects of temperature gradient, mass and covering area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmer, Ingvar

    2010-05-01

    Phase change material (PCM) absorbs or releases latent heat when it changes phases, making thermal-regulated clothing possible. The objective of this study was to quantify the relationships between PCM cooling rate and temperature gradient, mass and covering area on a thermal manikin in a climatic chamber. Three melting temperatures (24, 28, 32 degrees C) of the PCMs, different mass, covering areas and two manikin temperatures (34 and 38 degrees C) were used. The results showed that the cooling rate of the PCM vests tested is positively correlated with the temperature gradient between the thermal manikin and the melting temperature of the PCMs. The required temperature gradient is suggested to be greater than 6 degrees C when PCM vests are used in hot climates. With the same temperature gradient, the cooling rate is mainly determined by the covering area. The duration of the cooling effect is dependent on PCM mass and the latent heat. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The study of factors affecting the cooling rate of personal cooling equipment incorporated with PCM helps to understand cooling mechanisms. The results suggest climatic conditions, the required temperature gradient, PCM mass and covering area should be taken into account when choosing personal PCM cooling equipment. PMID:20432090

  1. Feasibility study on a novel cooling technique using a phase change material in an automotive engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-bum; Choi, Kyung-wook; Kim, Young-jin; Lee, Ki-hyung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 1-dong, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, 426-791 (Korea); Lee, Kwan-soo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Hangdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul, 133-070 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    The size of a cooling inventory is generally designed based on which size can endure the excessive heat load situations that occur sporadically. As a result, cooling systems are often too large for most normal driving modes. There have been numerous efforts to downsize the automotive engine cooling system using novel concepts and strategies. Efficient cooling in automobiles is beneficial in reducing harmful emissions as well as improving fuel economy. A simulation was conducted to validate the feasibility of using a novel cooling strategy that utilized the heat load averaging capabilities of a phase change material (PCM). Three prototypes were designed: full-size, down-sized, and a down-sized prototype with a heat accumulator containing the PCM inside. When the full-size of the cooling inventory was down-sized by 30%, this smaller design failed to dissipate the peak heat load and consequently led to a significant increase in the coolant temperature, around 25 C greater than that in the full-size system. However, the peak heat load was successfully averaged out in the down-sized system with a heat accumulator. This novel cooling concept will contribute to a substantial reduction in the cooling system in terms of volume and hangover. (author)

  2. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  3. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the airmonitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  4. Optimal design variable considerations in the use of phase change materials in indirect evaporative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilakapaty, Ankit Paul

    The demand for sustainable, energy efficient and cost effective heating and cooling solutions is exponentially increasing with the rapid advancement of computation and information technology. Use of latent heat storage materials also known as phase change materials (PCMs) for load leveling is an innovative solution to the data center cooling demands. These materials are commercially available in the form of microcapsules dispersed in water, referred to as the microencapsulated phase change slurries and have higher heat capacity than water. The composition and physical properties of phase change slurries play significant role in energy efficiency of the cooling systems designed implementing these PCM slurries. Objective of this project is to study the effect of PCM particle size, shape and volumetric concentration on overall heat transfer potential of the cooling systems designed with PCM slurries as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). In this study uniform volume heat source model is developed for the simulation of heat transfer potential using phase change materials in the form of bulk temperature difference in a fully developed flow through a circular duct. Results indicate the heat transfer potential increases with PCM volumetric concentration with gradually diminishing returns. Also, spherical PCM particles offer greater heat transfer potential when compared to cylindrical particles. Results of this project will aid in efficient design of cooling systems based on PCM slurries.

  5. Development of a prototype thermoelectric space cooling system using phase change material to improve the performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongliang

    The thermoelectric cooling system has advantages over conventional vapor compression cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no refrigerant, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. However, it has been long suffering from its relatively high cost and low energy efficiency, which has restricted its usage to niche applications, such as space missions, portable cooling devices, scientific and medical equipment, where coefficient of performance (COP) is not as important as reliability, energy availability, and quiet operation environment. Enhancement of thermoelectric cooling system performance generally relies on two methods: improving thermoelectric material efficiency and through thermoelectric cooling system thermal design. This research has been focused on the latter one. A prototype thermoelectric cooling system integrated with phase change material (PCM) thermal energy storage unit for space cooling has been developed. The PCM thermal storage unit used for cold storage at night, functions as the thermoelectric cooling system's heat sink during daytime's cooling period and provides relatively lower hot side temperature for the thermoelectric cooling system. The experimental test of the prototype system in a reduced-scale chamber has realized an average cooling COP of 0.87, with the maximum value of 1.22. Another comparison test for efficacy of PCM thermal storage unit shows that 35.3% electrical energy has been saved from using PCM for the thermoelectric cooling system. In general, PCM faces difficulty of poor thermal conductivity at both solid and liquid phases. This system implemented a finned inner tube to increase heat transfer during PCM charging (melting) process that directly impacts thermoelectric system's performance. A simulation tool for the entire system has been developed including mathematical models for a single thermoelectric module

  6. Status of SRS Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT) is constructing two synchrotron radiation sources (SRS) namely Indus-1 and Indus-2. While the Indus-1 is a 450 MeV storage ring for VUV radiation, which is in the final stages of commissioning, Indus-2 will be a 2 GeV storage ring for X-rays. A 20 MeV injector microtron and a 700 MeV booster synchrotron will inject the electron beam both to Indus-1 and Indus-2, while doing so at a lower energy of 450 MeV for Indus-1. The paper deals with the salient features of Indus-2 which is now under construction. The machine with a circumference of 172.2M has critical wavelength with bending magnet radiation of 3.88A and with high field wiggler of 0.93A. There is provision for 22 beamlines for use of synchrotron radiation from bending magnets and 5 beamlines for using the radiation from insertion devices in straight sections. The paper gives the present status of the design and fabrication of various sub-systems of Indus-2. (author)

  7. Transient state study of electric motor heating and phase change solid-liquid cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellettre, J.; Sartre, V.; Lallemand, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Centre de Thermique de Lyon, Villeurbanne, 69 (France); Biais, F. [AUXILEC, Chatou, 78 (France)

    1997-01-01

    This study reports on modelling of an autosynchronous electric motor stator, operating at transient state. The developed model, of the modal type, includes around 20 nodes. The simulations showed that hot spots are localized on the winding heads and led to the choice of a solid-liquid phase change cooling system. The comparison between simulation and experiment permitted the identification of unknown parameters. The model gives a good accuracy during steady-state and in the rising temperature phase. The modelling of the phase change cooling is realized by the addition of two nodes. The sensitivity analysis to PCM properties shows that the hot spot temperature decreases with increasing conductivities, inertia and latent heat of melting of the PCM and with decreasing melting temperature. Gallium (metal melting at 30{sup o}C) is the best PCM for the cooling of hot spots and P116 paraffin is the best non-metallic PCM. (author)

  8. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Beek, van L.P.H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understandin

  9. Experimental investigations on the cooling of a motorcycle helmet with phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fok S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal comfort of motorcycle helmet during hot weather is important as it can affect the physiological and psychological condition of the rider. This paper examines the use of phase change material (PCM to cool a motorcycle helmet and presents the experimental investigations on the influences of the simulated solar radiation, wind speed, and heat generation rate on the cooling system. The result shows that the PCM-cooled helmet is able to prolong the thermal comfort period compared to a normal helmet. The findings also indicate that the heat generation from the head is the predominant factor that will affect the PCM melting time. Simulated solar radiation and ram-air due to vehicle motion under adiabatic condition can have very little influences on the PCM melting time. The results suggested that the helmet usage time would be influenced by the amount of heat generated from the head. Some major design considerations based on these findings have been included. Although this investigation focuses on the cooling of a motorcyclist helmet, the findings would also be useful for the development of PCM-cooling systems in other applications.

  10. Using multi-shell phase change materials layers for cooling a lithium-ion battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasehi Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the cooling methods in engineering systems is usage of phase change materials. Phase change materials or PCMs, which have high latent heats, are usually used where high energy absorption in a constant temperature is required. This work presents a numerical analysis of PCMs effects on cooling Li-ion batteries and their decrease in temperature levels during intense discharge. In this study, three PCM shells with different thermo-physical specifications located around a battery pack is examined. The results of each possible arrangement are compared together and the best arrangement leading to the lowest battery temperature during discharge is identified. In addition, the recovery time for the system which is the time required for the PCMs to refreeze is investigated.

  11. Investigation of changes in the microflora of brackish water passing through power plant cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the bacterial- and phytoplankton population in the brackish water during the passage of fresh water cooling systems in the community power plant of Kiel (GKK) and in the nuclear power plant of Brunsbuettel were subject of the examinations. In addition, laboratory tests were carried out and a method was developed to determine thermal changes in the bacterial activity (measured as glucose uptake) in the condensator independent on the mechanical influences. Following points describe the starting position in the incoming cooling water of the GKK: 1) The annual cycle of the bacterial activity is temporally delayed in relation to the natural course of the temperature. 2) The annual course of the phytoplankton is primarily regulated by the light and nutrition offered while the temperature is only of indirect importance. 3) The particular organic material is, beside the dissolved organic compounds, important for the biological oxygen household in the Kieler Foerde. Changes in the bacterial population and the phytoplankton flora occur during the passage of the cooling system in the community power plant of Kiel. In the heated water samples behind the condensator, an increase in the bacterial activity by 11% on an average is seen. This increase is also found in the biochemical oxygen consumption after 30 hours. On an average, it is about 19%. Changes in the phytoplankton in the cooling water are only insignificantly due to the thermal influences; here, the hazards are rather due to the mechanical burden. At the KBB, an annual cycle could not be recorded because of the numerous operational disturbances. The bacterial glucose uptake in the river Elbe shows no temperature-dependent fluctuations. (orig./MG)

  12. The effect of lower body cooling on the changes in three core temperature indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rectal (Tre), ear canal (Tear) and esophageal (Tes) temperatures have been used in the literature as core temperature indices in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate if localized lower body cooling would have a different effect on each of these measurements. We hypothesized that prolonged lower body surface cooling will result in a localized cooling effect for the rectal temperature not reflected in the other core measurement sites. Twelve participants (mean ± SD; 26.8 ± 6.0 years; 82.6 ± 13.9 kg; 179 ± 10 cm, BSA = 2.00 ± 0.21 m2) attended one experimental session consisting of sitting on a rubberized raft floor surface suspended in 5 °C water in a thermoneutral air environment (∼21.5 ± 0.5 °C). Experimental conditions were (a) a baseline phase during which participants were seated for 15 min in an upright position on an insulated pad (1.408 K . m2 . W−1); (b) a cooling phase during which participants were exposed to the cooling surface for 2 h, and (c) an insulation phase during which the baseline condition was repeated for 1 h. Temperature data were collected at 1 Hz, reduced to 1 min averages, and transformed from absolute values to a change in temperature from baseline (15 min average). Metabolic data were collected breath-by-breath and integrated over the same temperature epoch. Within the baseline phase no significant change was found between the three indices of core temperature. By the end of the cooling phase, Tre was significantly lower (Δ = −1.0 ± 0.4 °C) from baseline values than from Tear (Δ = −0.3 ± 0.3 °C) and Tes (Δ = −0.1 ± 0.3 °C). Tre continued to decrease during the insulation phase from Δ −1.0 ± 0.4 °C to as low as Δ −1.4 ± 0.5 °C. By the end of the insulation phase Tre had slightly risen back to Δ −1.3 ± 0.4 °C but remained significantly different from baseline values and from the other two core measures. Metabolic data showed no variation throughout the experiment. In conclusion, the local

  13. Modification of exchange bias by cooling field without changing the ferromagnetic magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, cooling fields (HFC) with different signs or magnitudes were applied on ferromagnetic (FM)/antiferromagnetic (AF) films [Pt(10 Å)/Co(4 Å)]4/NiO(tNiO Å) when FM magnetization of Pt/Co multilayers was kept in positive saturation state at room temperature. Compared to results at HFC=+5 kOe, it is seen that HFC=−1 kOe suppressed the exchange bias field (HE) and enhanced the coercivity (HC) at the same time. The phenomenon indicates that AF spins can be modified by cooling field without changing the FM magnetization. The experimental results are understood by the competition between the FM/AF interfacial exchange coupling and Zeeman energy in FM/AF systems with ferromagnetic interfacial coupling. - Highlights: ► Antiferromagnetic (AF) spin configuration is modified only by cooling field. ► Both suppressed exchange bias field (HE) and enhanced coercivity (HC) are achieved at the same time when HFC varies. ► Different cooling fields induce distinct initial non-equilibrium states of AF layer. ► AF domain walls serve as new pinning sites of FM domain walls, leading to the enhancement of HC

  14. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  15. Cool Science: Engaging Adult and K-16 Audiences in Climate Change Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    A team of educators and scientists from the University of Massachusetts Lowell and the University of Massachusetts Boston will report on an informal science learning research project using mass transit spaces in Lowell, MA. Cool Science (CS) uses advertising spaces on buses and terminals to engage the public with an Out of Home Multi-Media (OHMM) learning experience. K-16 classrooms throughout Massachusetts will submit original artwork that conveys a scientific concept central to understanding climate change. The best 6 works submitted will be printed and placed on every bus in the city over a 6 month period during the first half of 2013. CS aims to promote and evaluate learning about climate change science among the general adult public and k-16 students/teachers. Cool Science offers teachers an efficient and effective means of seamlessly bringing the study of climate change into classroom learning both within science and across disciplines. The products of this effort are then used to improve public engagement with the science of climate change in mass transit environments. Cool Science is an example of Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Math education (STEAM). The goals of CS are: 1) Engage professors, teachers, and their respective students in a climate change science communication competition. 2) Run the winning 6 selected placards and posters throughout the LRTA. 3) Identify how different communities of risk among the riding public approach and understand climate change. 4) Identify the advantages and disadvantages of using buses as a context for research on informal science learning. 5) Determine the extent to which student artwork serves as a trusted source of information. As advances in technology allow for more scientific knowledge to be generated, the role of informal education to improve adult understanding of science has never been greater. We see the convergence of circumstances (ISE, climate change, OHMM, mobile technology) as an enormous

  16. Improvements in rf input unit for injector microtron for Indus SRS complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2.5 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) Indus-2 and a 450 MeV SRS Indus-1 are in operation at RRCAT. Electrons are injected into these machines with the help of a common injector system consisting of a 20 MeV microtron and a 450/543 MeV booster synchrotron. In this paper we report the work done towards the development of an improved RF input unit for the 20 MeV injector microtron. The RF input unit is a multifunctional unit and provides arrangements for alignment and positioning of the RF cavity, in-vacuum wave-guide connections, cavity cooling arrangement and cathode powering leads. A microwave window provides isolation of waveguide pressure to the microtron vacuum. While feeding microwave through a WR 284 waveguide, RF input unit provides water circulation to remove heat generated by the cavity losses as well as the cathode heating so as to keep cavity temperature stabilised. The alignment features provide anti-backlash features. Bellow seals as well as rotary O-ring seals have been used to provide various degrees of freedom for the alignment. The new unit consists of kinematically designed adjustable columns and has robust design features to hold the cavity position under changing loads during evacuation and operation. The new design also reduces the overall installation time significantly. The prototype RF input unit has been manufactured and tested. This paper presents the test results of the prototype, design, components and status of actual unit which is under manufacturing. (author)

  17. A Review On Free Cooling Through Heat Pipe by Using Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.Futane ,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal energy storage is renewable source of energy to develop energy storage system, which minimize environmental impact such as ozone depletion and global warming. Thermal energy can be stored as latent heat which is latter use when substance changes from one phase to another phase by either freezing or melting. Now a days need of refrigeration and air conditioning has been increased, which can be achieved by free cooling, for this various substances are use, depending upon required temperature. Phase change materials are one of the substances having low temperature of melting and solidification.

  18. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas.

  19. Groundwater Treatment at SRS: An Innovative Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SRS is located in southwestern South Carolina, occupying an almost circular area of approximately 800 km2 within Aiken, Barnwell, and Allendale counties. The site lies approximately 36 km southeast of Augusta, Georgia, and is bounded by the Savannah River along its southwestern border. Prior to the establishment of the SRS in 1952, the area was largely a rural agricultural community. As part of the defense complex, the SRS produced special nuclear materials for the national defense.From 1955 until 1988, unlined earthen basins were used to dispose of wastewater from the SRS separations facilities located in the F and H areas. Approximately 300 million liters of wastewater was transported annually from the process area through underground piping to the basins. The wastewater was allowed to evaporate and to seep into the underlying formations. There were three basins in the F-Area covering a total of about 3 hectares; while the H-Area was served by four basins covering about 6 hectares. The seepage basins closure was started in 1989 and SCDHEC certified the closures as completed in 1991.Groundwater monitoring conducted in accordance with the provisions of the RCRA Permits determined that the underlying hydrogeologic units were contaminated by tritium, radioactive metals (primarily Cesium 137, Strontium 90, and Uranium 235), nitrate and heavy metals, some of which are defined as hazardous by RCRA. Under the terms and conditions of the RCRA Post- Closure Permits, it was necessary to remediate the contaminated groundwater plumes

  20. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas

  1. Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

    1988-01-01

    During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

  2. Multi-Model Assessment of Global Hydropower and Cooling Water Discharge Potential Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, M. T. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Eisener, S.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding of how climate change may impact the availability and temperature of water resources is therefore of major importance. Here we use a multi-model ensemble to show the potential impacts of climate change on global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential. For the first time, combined projections of streamflow and water temperature were produced with three global hydrological models (GHMs) to account for uncertainties in the structure and parametrization of these GHMs in both water availability and water temperature. The GHMs were forced with bias-corrected output of five general circulation models (GCMs) for both the lowest and highest representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). The ensemble projections of streamflow and water temperature were then used to quantify impacts on gross hydropower potential and cooling water discharge capacity of rivers worldwide. We show that global gross hydropower potential is expected to increase between +2.4% (GCM-GHM ensemble mean for RCP 2.6) and +6.3% (RCP 8.5) for the 2080s compared to 1971-2000. The strongest increases in hydropower potential are expected for Central Africa, India, central Asia and the northern high-latitudes, with 18-33% of the world population living in these areas by the 2080s. Global mean cooling water discharge capacity is projected to decrease by 4.5-15% (2080s). The largest reductions are found for the United States, Europe, eastern Asia, and southern parts of South America, Africa and Australia, where strong water temperature increases are projected combined with reductions in mean annual streamflow. These regions are expected to affect 11-14% (for RCP2.6 and the shared socioeconomic

  3. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Mike [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Herbert, James E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scheele, Patrick W. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and

  4. SRS environmental air surveillance program 1954-2015: General trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-02

    The radiological monitoring program at SRS was established under the DuPont Company in June 1951 and was used as a measurement of the effectiveness of plant controls and as an authoritative record of environmental conditions surrounding the plant. It also served as a method of demonstrating compliance with applicable federal regulations and guidance. This document serves as a general summary of changes made specifically to the environmental air monitoring program since its inception, and a discussion of the general trends seen in the air monitoring program at SRS from 1954 to 2015. Initially, the environmental air surveillance program focused not only on releases from SRS but also on fallout from various weapons testing performed through the end of 1978. Flypaper was used to measure the amount of fallout in the atmosphere during this period, and was present at each of the 10 monitoring stations. By 1959, all site stacks were included in the air monitoring program to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity onsite, and the number of air surveillance samplers rose to 18. This trend of an increased number of sampling locations continued to a peak of 35 sampling locations before shifting to a downward trend in the mid-1990s. In 1962, 4 outer-range samplers were placed in Savannah and Macon, GA, and in Greenville and Columbia, SC. Until 1976, air samplers were simply placed around the perimeter of the various operation locations (after 1959, this included stacks to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity), with the intent of creating as representative a distribution as possible of the air surrounding operations.

  5. RADIOIODINE GEOCHEMISTRY IN THE SRS SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D.; Emerson, H.; Powell, B.; Roberts, K.; Zhang, S.; Xu, C.; Schwer, K.; Li, H.; Ho, Y.; Denham, M.; Yeager, C.; Santschi, P.

    2013-05-16

    Iodine-129 is one of the key risk drivers for several Savannah River Site (SRS) performance assessments (PA), including that for the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility in E-Area. In an effort to reduce the uncertainty associated with the conceptual model and the input values used in PA, several studies have recently been conducted dealing with radioiodine geochemistry at the SRS. The objective of this report was to review these recent studies and evaluate their implications on SRS PA calculations. For the first time, these studies measured iodine speciation in SRS groundwater and provided technical justification for assuming the presence of more strongly sorbing species (iodate and organo-iodine), and measured greater iodine sediment sorption when experiments included these newly identified species; specifically they measured greater sorption coefficients (K{sub d} values: the concentration ratio of iodine on the solid phase divided by the concentration in the aqueous phase). Based on these recent studies, new best estimates were proposed for future PA calculations. The new K{sub d} values are greater than previous recommended values. These proposed K{sub d} values reflect a better understanding of iodine geochemistry in the SRS subsurface environment, which permits reducing the associated conservatism included in the original estimates to account for uncertainty. Among the key contributing discoveries supporting the contention that the K{sub d} values should be increased are that: 1) not only iodide (I{sup -}), but also the more strongly sorbing iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}) species exists in SRS groundwater (average total iodine = 15% iodide, 42% iodate, and 43% organoiodine), 2) when iodine was added as iodate, the measured K{sub d} values were 2 to 6 times greater than when the iodine was added as iodide, and perhaps most importantly, 3) higher desorption (10 to 20 mL/g) than (ad)sorption (all previous studies) K{sub d} values were measured. The implications of this

  6. A Method Based on Radiative Cooling for Detecting Structural Changes in Undercooled Metallic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Aaron J.; Rhim, Won-Kyu

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a structure-sensitive parameter for undercooled melts which can be measured in containerless processing experiments. We have established that the ratio, R(T), of hemispherical total emissivity epsilon(sub T)(T) to constant-pressure specific heat c(sub p)(T) can serve as an indicator which is sensitive to any changes in short range atomic order in undercooled metallic melts. R(T) (triple bonds) epsilon(sub T)(T)/c(sub p)(T) values for nickel, zirconium, and silicon have been obtained using the high temperature electrostatic levitator while the levitated melts were undergoing purely radiative cooling into the deeply undercooled region. R(T) plots for undercooled liquid nickel and zirconium indicate no significant change in short-range structure from their melting temperatures to 15% undercooling. In contrast, liquid silicon shows marked short-range structural changes beginning above its melting temperature and extending throughout the undercooled region. The short-range structure of liquid silicon is related to the highly-directional covalent bonding which characterizes its solid form. The nickel and zirconium data show that epsilon(sub T) varies linearly with T, in support of metal emissivity theories.

  7. Report on SRS activities to March, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this first Annual Report on synchrotron radiation research and related activities since the completion of the storage ring (the SRS) at Daresbury Laboratory a summary is given of progress on the storage ring itself, on beamlines, experimental stations, data acquisition and processing facilities and on the build-up of ancillary laboratories and equipment. In appendices a bibliography of synchrotron radiation research publications from March 1977 to March 1981 and a cumulative list of research grants and agreements approved by the SRFC from March 1977 to March 1981 are given. (U.K.)

  8. Luminescent studies of impurity doped SrS phosphors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijay Singh; Manoj Tiwari; T K Gundu Rao; S J Dhoble

    2005-02-01

    SrS phosphors activated with Ce and Dy ions were prepared by solid-state diffusion method. Photoluminescent study was carried out on SrS : Ce, SrS : Dy and SrS : Dy, Ce. Thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance studies were also carried out on SrS : Dy phosphor. The thermoluminescence glow curve shows a peak at around 142°C. Irradiated SrS : Dy exhibits an ESR line due to a defect centre. Thermal annealing behaviour indicates that this centre correlates with the TL peak at 142°C. The centre is characterized by an isotropic g-value of 2.0039 and is assigned to a + centre.

  9. Ensuring the sustainability of cool-climate Shiraz "peppery" style in the context of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, P.; Barlow, S; Fuentes, S.; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Cool-climate Shiraz is gaining increasing popularity in the past decade for its stylistic savoury and spicy aroma. Black peppery spiciness has been considered as the key identifier of high quality cool climate Shiraz in many Australian cool-climate wine regions. Rotundone, an oxygenated bicyclic sesquiterpene, was firstly identified by Australian researchers as the primary compound responsible for this iconic characteristic. In the past four years, the University of Melbourne p...

  10. SRS stainless steel beneficial reuse program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) has thousands of tons of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSNI). Much of the metal is volumetrically contaminated. There is no {open_quotes}de minimis{close_quotes} free release level for volumetric material, and therefore no way to recycle the metal into the normal commercial market. If declared waste, the metal would qualify as low level radioactive waste (LLW) and ultimately be dispositioned through shallow land buried at a cost of millions of dollars. The metal however could be recycled in a {open_quotes}controlled release{close_quote} manner, in the form of containers to hold other types of radioactive waste. This form of recycle is generally referred to as {open_quotes}Beneficial Reuse{close_quotes}. Beneficial reuse reduces the amount of disposal space needed and reduces the need for virgin containers which would themselves become contaminated. Stainless steel is particularly suited for long term storage because of its resistance to corrosion. To assess the practicality of stainless steel RSM recycle the SRS Benficial Reuse Program began a demonstration in 1994, funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. This paper discusses the experiences gained in this program.

  11. Radiological effects of SRS operations, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion of the offsite effective dose equivalents reported for 1988 SRS releases serves as the basis for this report. Detailed analyses of atmospheric and liquid release trends and their consequences in terms of relative importance among facilities, radionuclides, and exposure pathways have also been included. Releases of radioactivity to the atmosphere were generally lower in 1988 than in 1987. No major unplanned tritium releases were recorded during the year. However, there were three inadvertent releases of Pu-238 from F Area in January, March and October of 160, 32 and 83 uCi, respectively. Radioactive releases to onsite streams from direct discharges and seepage basin migration decreased in 1988. However, as a result of a decrease in the flow rate of the Savannah River in 1988, higher offsite doses were reported. The maximum individual dose, conversely, was down from 1987. This decrease reflected the fact that the maximum individual dose is most significantly affected by the cesium concentration in fish. In terms of largest contributors to dose, the releases were dominated by tritium, Cs-137 and to a much lesser extent Sr-90. With respect to the offsite population, doses from atmospheric releases are generally higher than those from liquid releases, and this trend continued in 1988. Analyses of 1988 data and the data for the preceding decade suggest that radioactive releases from the SRS during this period have not significantly impacted the offsite population

  12. Reducing Pumping Power in Hydronic Heating and Cooling Systems with Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Kristoffer Jason

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are being used increasingly in a variety of thermal transfer and thermal storage applications. This thesis presents the results of a laboratory study into the feasibility of improving the performance of hydronic heating and cooling systems by adding microcapsules filled with a PCM to the water used as heat transport media in these systems. Microencapsulated PCMs (MPCMs) increase the heat carrying capacity of heat transport liquids by absorbing or releasing heat at a constant temperature through a change of phase. Three sequences of tests and their results are presented: 1) Thermal cycling tests conducted to determine the melting temperatures and extent of supercooling associated with the MPCMs tested. 2) Hydronic performance tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped through a fin-and-tube, air-to-liquid heat exchanger and their thermal transfer performance compared against that of ordinary water. 3) Mechanical stability tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped in a continuous loop in order to gauge the extent of rupture due to pumping. It is shown that slurries consisting of water and MPCMs ˜ 14-24 mum in diameter improve thermal performance and offer the potential for power savings in the form of reduced pumping requirements. In addition, it is shown that while slurries of MPCMs 2-5 mum in diameter appear to exhibit better mechanical stability than slurries of larger diameter MPCMs, the smaller MPCMs appear to reduce the thermal performance of air-to-liquid heat exchangers.

  13. RADIOLYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION INSAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) HIGH LEVEL WASTETANKS COMPARISON OF SRS AND HANFORDMODELING PREDICTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C; Ned Bibler, N

    2009-04-15

    In the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), hydrogen is produced continuously by interaction of the radiation in the tank with water in the waste. Consequently, the vapor spaces of the tanks are purged to prevent the accumulation of H{sub 2} and possible formation of a flammable mixture in a tank. Personnel at SRS have developed an empirical model to predict the rate of H{sub 2} formation in a tank. The basis of this model is the prediction of the G value for H{sub 2} production. This G value is the number of H{sub 2} molecules produced per 100 eV of radiolytic energy absorbed by the waste. Based on experimental studies it was found that the G value for H{sub 2} production from beta radiation and from gamma radiation were essentially equal. The G value for H{sub 2} production from alpha radiation was somewhat higher. Thus, the model has two equations, one for beta/gamma radiation and one for alpha radiation. Experimental studies have also indicated that both G values are decreased by the presence of nitrate and nitrite ions in the waste. These are the main scavengers for the precursors of H{sub 2} in the waste; thus the equations that were developed predict G values for hydrogen production as a function of the concentrations of these two ions in waste. Knowing the beta/gamma and alpha heat loads in the waste allows one to predict the total generation rate for hydrogen in a tank. With this prediction a ventilation rate can be established for each tank to ensure that a flammable mixture is not formed in the vapor space in a tank. Recently personnel at Hanford have developed a slightly different model for predicting hydrogen G values. Their model includes the same precursor for H{sub 2} as the SRS model but also includes an additional precursor not in the SRS model. Including the second precursor for H{sub 2} leads to different empirical equations for predicting the G values for H{sub 2} as a function of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in

  14. Rapid atmospheric CO2 changes associated with the 8,200-years-B.P. cooling event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Aaby, B.; Visscher, H.

    2002-01-01

    By applying the inverse relation between numbers of leaf stomata and atmospheric CO2 concentration, stomatal frequency analysis of fossil birch leaves from lake deposits in Denmark reveals a century-scale CO2 change during the prominent Holocene cooling event that occurred in the North Atlantic regi

  15. WASTE MANAGEMENT AT SRS - MAKING IT HAPPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past five years have witnessed a remarkable transition in the pace and scope of waste management activities at SRS. At the start of the new M and O contract in 1996, little was being done with the waste generated at the site apart from storing it in readiness for future treatment and disposal. Large volumes of legacy waste, particularly TRU and Low Level Waste, had accumulated over many years of operation of the site's nuclear facilities, and the backlog was increasing. WSRC proposed the use of the talents of the ''best in class'' partners for the new contract which, together with a more commercial approach, was expected to deliver more results without a concomitant increase in cost. This paper charts the successes in the Solid Waste arena and analyzes the basis for success

  16. On the absence of appreciable half-life changes in alpha emitters cooled in metals to 1 Kelvin and below

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, N J; Richards, P; Stone, J R; Veskovic, M; Williams, D A

    2006-01-01

    The recent suggestion that dramatic changes may occur in the lifetime of alpha and beta decay when the activity, in a pure metal host, is cooled to a few Kelvin, is examined in the light of published low temperature nuclear orientation (LTNO) experiments, with emphasis here on alpha decay. In LTNO observations are made of the anisotropy of radioactive emissions with respect to an axis of orientation. Correction of data for decay of metallic samples held at temperatures at and below 1 Kelvin for periods of days and longer has been a routine element of LTNO experiments for many years. No evidence for any change of half life on cooling, with an upper level of less than 1%, has been found, in striking contrast to the predicted changes, for alpha decay, of several orders of magnitude. The proposal that such dramatic changes might alleviate problems of disposal of long-lived radioactive waste is shown to be unrealistic.

  17. Status of The Indian SRS Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT, formerly called Centre for Advanced Technology) is a prime R and D laboratory of Indian Department of Atomic Energy devoted to developing technologies related to accelerators and lasers as well as their applications. RRCAT is home to 2 synchrotron radiation sources (SRS): Indus-1 (a 100 mA, 450 MeV storage ring) and Indus-2 (a 2.5 GeV booster cum storage ring designed for a current of up to 300 mA), sharing a common injector system, comprising of 20 MeV microtron and 450-700 MeV range booster synchrotron. Most of the accelerator hardware has been built indigenously. Normally beam is injected into Indus-2 (and accumulated) at 550 MeV, and ramped to 2 or 2.5 GeV depending on the user needs. At present we have permission from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (Indian agency charged with radiation protection responsibility in the country) to operate Indus-2 at 2.5 GeV with up to 50 mA and in the next stage we will get authorization to go up to 100 mA. Currently 5 beam lines on Indus-1 and 3 on Indus-2 are operational and work is going on 4 more beam lines on Indus-2 and is progressing well. The 3 completed beam lines on Indus-2 are: high resolution XRD, position sensitive detector based multi channel EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) and EDXRD (Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction). The paper gives an overview of how the SRS program at RRCAT has evolved over the years, where we stand today and also some of our future plans.

  18. Treatability Variance Petition for SRS Raschig Ring Packing Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstrom, T.

    1999-08-31

    The Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) is a vital component in the nation's nuclear weapons complex. When in full operation, SRS produced nuclear material by manufacturing fuel and target components that were then irradiated in nuclear reactors.

  19. Storing, linking, and mining microarray databases using SRS.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Veldhoven (Antoine); D. de Lange (Don); M. Smid (Marcel); V. de Jager (Victor); J.A. Kors (Jan); G.W. Jenster (Guido)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: SRS (Sequence Retrieval System) has proven to be a valuable platform for storing, linking, and querying biological databases. Due to the availability of a broad range of different scientific databases in SRS, it has become a useful platform to incorporate and mine microarray

  20. Significance of Soft Zone Sediments at the SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, R.K.

    2000-02-03

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the origin, extent and stability of ''soft zones'' in the carbonate bearing strata at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As part of this study, a comprehensive historical compendium of how soft zones have been addressed during the past 47 years at SRS is reviewed.

  1. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  2. Local cooling alters neural mechanisms producing changes in peripheral blood flow by spinal cord stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Barron, Kirk W; Chandler, Margaret J; Linderoth, Bengt; Foreman, Robert D

    2003-03-28

    This study was performed to investigate the respective role of sensory afferent and sympathetic fibers in peripheral vasodilatation induced by spinal cord stimulation at different hindpaw skin temperatures. Cooling the skin was used as a strategy to enhance sympathetic activity [Am. J. Physiol.: Heart Circ. Physiol. 263 (1992) H1197]. Cutaneous blood flow in the footpad of anesthetized rats was recorded using laser Doppler flowmetry. Local cooling (copper coil. Spinal cord stimulation delivered at clinically relevant parameters and with 30%, 60%, and 90% of motor threshold induced the early phase of vasodilatation in the cooled and the moderately cooled hindpaw. In addition, spinal cord stimulation at 90% of motor threshold produced the late phase of vasodilatation only in the cooled hindpaw, which was possible to block by the autonomic ganglion-blocking agent, hexamethonium. The early responses to spinal cord stimulation in the moderately cooled hindpaw were not affected by hexamethonium. In contrast, both the early and the late phase responses were eliminated by CGRP (8-37), an antagonist of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor. After dorsal rhizotomy, spinal cord stimulation at 90% of motor threshold elicited hexamethonium-sensitive vasodilatation in the cooled hindpaw (late phase). These results suggest that spinal cord stimulation-induced vasodilatation in the cooled hindpaw (<25 degrees C) is mediated via both the sensory afferent (early phase of vasodilatation) and via suppression of the sympathetic efferent activity (late phase) although the threshold for vasodilatation via the sympathetic efferent fibers is higher than that via sensory nerves. In contrast, vasodilatation via sensory afferent fibers may predominate with moderate temperatures (25-28 degrees C). Thus, two complementary mechanisms for spinal cord stimulation-induced vasodilatation may exist depending on the basal sympathetic tone. PMID:12648613

  3. Impact of middle-atmospheric composition changes on greenhouse cooling in the upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmaev, R. A.; Fomichev, V. I.; Zhu, X.

    2006-12-01

    The greenhouse effect, commonly associated with lower-atmospheric warming, manifests as cooling in the middle and upper atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is the main cooler and its continuing rise has been demonstrated to result in dramatic temperature reductions, particularly in the thermosphere. In a hydrostatic atmosphere, the cooling is associated with a density decrease at a given height. The stratospheric ozone depletion documented in satellite observations since 1979 and a steady increase of water vapor are also expected to introduce a net cooling in the middle atmosphere primarily via a reduced solar heating and increased emissions in the infrared, respectively. These effects are simulated with the global spectral mesosphere/lower thermosphere model (SMLTM) extending approximately from the tropopause to over 200 km. Climatological distributions of the radiatively active gases are prescribed in the model, which makes it suitable for studies with imposed realistic trends in CO2, O3, and H2O approximately corresponding to the period 1980 2000. Although confined to the stratosphere, the ozone depletion has a profound cooling effect on mesospheric temperatures, which is comparable to or exceeding that of the CO2 forcing. The water vapor cooling appears to play a secondary but non-negligible role, especially in the overall density reduction in the lower thermosphere. The additional hydrostatic contraction of the colder middle atmosphere is predicted to result in a local maximum of the density decline near 110 km of up to -6.5% per decade over the twenty-year period.

  4. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  5. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs

  6. Analysis of mercerization process based on the intensity change of deconvoluted resonances of {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR: Cellulose mercerized under cooling and non-cooling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Kento [Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Otake Research Laboratories (Japan); Nakano, Takato, E-mail: tnakano@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biomaterials Design, Division of Forest and Biomaterials Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2015-08-01

    The area intensity change of C1, C4, and C6 in spectrum obtained by {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR and the mutual relationship between their changes were examined for cellulose samples treated with various concentrations of aqueous NaOH solutions under non-cooling and cooling conditions. The area intensity of C1-up and C6-down changed cooperatively with that of C4-down which corresponds to the crystallinity of samples: “-up” and “-down” are the up- and down- field component in a splitting peak of NMR spectrum, respectively. The intensity change of C1-up starts to decrease with decreasing in that of C4-down after that of C6-down is almost complete. These changes were more clearly observed for samples treated under cooling condition. It can be suggested that their characteristic change relates closely to the change in conformation of cellulose chains by induced decrystallization and the subsequent crystallization of cellulose II, and presumed that their changes at microscopic level relate to the macroscopic morphological changes such as contraction along the length of cellulose chains and recovery along the length. - Highlight: • Samples were mercerized at various NaOH concentrations under non-cooling and cooling. • The intensity change of C1 starts immediately after that of C6 is complete. • The creation of cell-II starts when decrystallization proceeds to a certain state. • This change relates closely to the change in conformation of cellulose chains. • The above change is more clearly found for samples treated under cooling.

  7. Structural Changes of α Phase in Furnace Cooled Eutectoid Zn-Al Based Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.H. Zhu; K.C. Chan; G.K.H. Pang; T.M. Yue; W.B. Lee

    2007-01-01

    Furnace cooling is a slow cooling process. It is of importance to study structural evolution and its effects on the properties of alloys during the furnace cooling. Decomposition of aluminium rich α phase in a furnace cooled eutectoid Zn-Al based alloy was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Two kinds of precipitates in the α phase were detected in the FCZA22 alloy during ageing at 170℃. One was the hcp transitional α"m phase which appears as directional rods and the round precipitates. The other was the fcc α'm phase.It was found that the transitional phase α'm grew in three preferential directions of , and . The orientation relationship between the α phase and transitional phase α'm was determined as (02-2)α'm(fcc)//(02-2)α(fcc), [-111]α'm(fcc)//[-233]α(fcc). The non-equilibrium phase decomposition of the α phase is discussed in correlation with the equilibrium phase relationships.

  8. Microstructural changes after control rolling and interrupted accelerated cooling simulations in pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Mourino, Nuria; Petrov, Roumen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 903, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Bae, Jin-Ho; Kim, Kisoo [Sheet Products and Process Research Group, POSCO, Jeonnam, 545-090 (Korea, Republic of); Kestens, Leo A.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 903, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    The {gamma}-{alpha} transformation and final microstructure in pipeline steel was studied by carrying out a number of physical simulations of industrial hot rolling schedules. Particularly, the effect of the reheating temperature, deformation and cooling parameters on the transformation temperatures and final grain size were considered with a goal to obtain an appropriate thermo-mechanical processing route which will generate appropriate microstructures for pipeline applications. The CCT diagram of the steel was derived experimentally by means of dilatometric tests. Hot torsion experiments were applied in a multi-deformation cycle at various temperatures in the austenite region to simulate industrial rolling schedules. By variation of the reheating temperature, equivalent strain, and accelerated cooling, different types of microstructures were obtained. It was found that the deformation increases the transformation temperatures whereas the higher cooling rates after deformation decrease them. Post-deformation microstructure consists of fine bainitic-ferrite grains with dispersed carbides and small amount of dispersed martensite/austenite islands which can be controlled by varying the reheating temperature, deformation and post-deformation cooling. The detailed microstructure characteristics obtained from the present work could be used to optimize the mechanical properties, strength and toughness of pipeline steel grades by an appropriate control of the thermo-mechanical processing. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Changes in central retinal artery blood flow after ocular warming and cooling in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshad M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Retinal perfusion variability impacts ocular disease and physiology. Aim: To evaluate the response of central retinal artery (CRA blood flow to temperature alterations in 20 healthy volunteers. Setting and Design: Non-interventional experimental human study. Materials and Methods: Baseline data recorded: Ocular surface temperature (OST in °C (thermo-anemometer, CRA peak systolic velocity (PSV and end diastolic velocity (EDV in cm/s using Color Doppler. Ocular laterality and temperature alteration (warming by electric lamp/cooling by ice-gel pack were randomly assigned. Primary outcomes recorded were: OST and intraocular pressure (IOP immediately after warming or cooling and ten minutes later; CRA-PSV and EDV at three, six and nine minutes warming or cooling. Statistical Analysis: Repeated measures ANOVA. Results: (n = 20; μ±SD: Pre-warming values were; OST: 34.5±1.02°C, CRA-PSV: 9.3±2.33cm/s, CRA-EDV: 4.6±1.27cm/s. OST significantly increased by 1.96°C (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.37 after warming, but returned to baseline ten minutes later. Only at three minutes, the PSV significantly rose by 1.21cm/s (95% CI: 0.51to1.91. Pre-cooling values were: OST: 34.5±0.96°C, CRA-PSV: 9.7±2.45 cm/s, CRA-EDV: 4.7±1.12cm/s. OST significantly decreased by 2.81°C (95% CI: -2.30 to -3.37 after cooling, and returned to baseline at ten minutes. There was a significant drop in CRA-PSV by 1.10cm/s (95% CI: -2.05 to -0.15 and CRA-EDV by 0.81 (95% CI: -1.47 to -0.14 at three minutes. At six minutes both PSV (95% CI: -1.38 to -0.03 and EDV (95% CI: -1.26 to -0.02 were significantly lower. All values at ten minutes were comparable to baseline. The IOP showed insignificant alteration on warming (95% CI of difference: -0.17 to 1.57mmHg, but was significantly lower after cooling (95% CI: -2.95 to -4.30mmHg. After ten minutes, IOP had returned to baseline. Conclusion : This study confirms that CRA flow significantly increases on warming and decreases on cooling

  10. Autonomous Sampling Platform Development: Radiological Contamination Mapping at SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Nicholas [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Whiteside, Tad [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-01

    From 1961 to 1964, radioactive elements were released from the Savannah River Site into local bodies of water via cooling water charges from the reactors on site. In 1983, the extent of the radioactive contamination was first studied and elements such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, 241Am, 244Cm, and tritium were found to have seeped from local bodies of water into sediment and the surrounding flora and fauna. The current method of tracking and monitoring radioactive contamination at the SRS is to gather samples and conduct measurements in a laboratory. A cheaper, and safer, method to conduct such measurements would be to automate the process by using an autonomous boat that can travel to locations, conduct measurements, and return home all without human intervention. To introduce this idea, the construction of an autonomous boat prototype was completed to demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of such an idea. The prototype travels to a set of waypoints, stops at each waypoint, and returns when all waypoints have been reached. It does this by employing a simple battery-powered boat with an Arduino controller that steers the boat using a steering algorithm incorporated into a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) function. A total of three tests were conducted at two different bodies of water and after working out some hardware problems, the boat drone was able to successfully steer and reach all programmed waypoints. With the prototype complete, the next steps to realizing the final product of the boat drone will include adopting a processing unit with higher bit architecture, using a bigger boat with a more powerful trolling motor, and incorporating a solar panel for continuous power and round-the-clock performance.

  11. Autonomous Sampling Platform Development: Radiological Contamination Mapping at SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Nicholas [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Whiteside, Tad [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-01

    From 1961 to 1964, radioactive elements were released from the Savannah River Site into local bodies of water via cooling water charges from the reactors on site. In 1983, the extent of the radioactive contamination was first studied, and elements such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, 241Am, 244Cm, and tritium were found to have seeped from local bodies of water into sediment and the surrounding flora and fauna. The current method of tracking and monitoring radioactive contamination at the SRS is to gather samples and conduct measurements in a laboratory. A cheaper, and safer, method to conduct such measurements would be to automate the process by using an autonomous boat that can travel to locations, conduct measurements, and return home all without human intervention. To introduce this idea, the construction of an autonomous boat prototype was completed to demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of such an idea. The prototype travels to a set of waypoints, stops at each waypoint, and returns when all waypoints have been reached. It does this by employing a simple battery-powered boat with an Arduino controller that steers the boat using a steering algorithm incorporated into a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) function. A total of three tests were conducted at two different bodies of water; and after working out some hardware problems, the boat drone was able to successfully steer and reach all programmed waypoints. With the prototype complete, the next steps to realizing the final product of the boat drone will include adopting a processing unit with higher-bit architecture, using a bigger boat with a more powerful trolling motor, and incorporating a solar panel for continuous power and round-the-clock performance.

  12. Effects of climate change on regional energy systems focussing on space heating and cooling: A case study of Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hausl Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change affects regions differently and therefore also climate change effects on energy systems need to be analyzed region specific. The objective of the study presented is to show and analyze these effects on regional energy systems following a high spatial resolution approach. Three regional climate scenarios are downscaled to a 1 km resolution and error corrected for three different testing regions in Austria. These climate data are used to analyze effects of climate change on heating and cooling demand until the year 2050. Potentials of renewable energies such as solar thermal, photovoltaic, ambient heat and biomass are also examined. In the last process step the outcomes of the previous calculations are fed into two energy system models, where energy system optimizations are executed, which provide information concerning optimal setups and operations of future energy systems. Due to changing climate strong changes for the energy demand structure are noticed; lower heat demand in winter (between -7 and -15% until 2050 and - strongly differing between regions - higher cooling demand in summer (up to +355%. Optimization results show that the composition of energy supply carriers is barely affected by climate change, since other developments such as refurbishment actions, price developments and regional biomass availabilities are more influencing within this context.

  13. An evaluation of the ecological consequences of partial-power operation of the K Reactor, SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The K Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS) shut-down in spring 1988 for maintenance and safety upgrades. Since that time the receiving stream for thermal effluent, Indian Grave Branch and Pen Branch, have undergone a pattern of post-thermal recovery that is typical of other SRS streams following removal of thermal stress. Divesity of fish and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities has increased and available habitats have been colonized by numerous species of herbaceous and woody plants. K Reactor is scheduled to resume operation in 1991 and operate through 1992 without a cooling tower to cool the discharge. It is likely that the reactor will operate at approximately one-third to one-half of full power (800--1200 MW thermal) during this period and effluent temperatures will be substantially lower than earlier operation at full power. Monthly average discharge temperatures at half-power operation will range from approximately 42 degrees C in winter to 49 degrees C in summer. The volume of water discharged will not be affected by altered power levels and will average approximately 10--11 m3/s. The ecological consequences of this mode of operation on the Indian Grave/Pen Branch stream system have been evaluated

  14. TRENDS IN ATMOPSHERIC CLIMATE PARAMETERS MEASURED AT SRS 1964-2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinbeck, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-20

    Meteorological data collected at SRS since the mid-1960’s have been analyzed for trends in minimum and maximum temperature, heating and cooling degree days, precipitation and relative humidity. The trends in meteorological data collected have been relatively small compared to the interannual variability that is observed. The observed increases, while small, appear to be real (statistically significant). Overnight low temperatures (3.1°F) have increased over twice as fast as the increases in daytime highs (1.4°F). Similarly, there are statistically significant increases in the number of cooling degree days as well. There has been a similar decrease in the number of HDD and freezing days, consistent with the overall increase in overnight low temperatures.

  15. Raman spectroscopic studies on the structural changes of poly(3-methylthiophene)during heating and cooling processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Poly(3-methylthiophene) (PMeT) electrosynthesized by direct oxidation of 3-methylthiophene in boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BFEE) has been studied by Raman spectroscopy in the temperature scale of 123-458 K. Experimental results demonstrate that the thermal stability of PMeT in the oxidized state is much lower than that of the polymer in the neutral state. Furthermore, during the cooling process, the conformation of neutral species changes from a coil-like state into a rod-like state, while the conformation of the oxidized species does not change.

  16. Cementitious Grout for Closing SRS High Level Waste Tanks - 12315

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. Ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks will also be filled to the extent practical. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and to be chemically reducing with a reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400. Grouts with this chemistry stabilize potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  17. Cool Science: Year 2 of Using Children's Artwork about Climate Change to Engage Riders on Mass Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    A team of educators and scientists from the University of Massachusetts Lowell and the University of Massachusetts Boston will report on the second year of an informal science learning research project using mass transit spaces in Lowell, MA. Cool Science (CS) conducts a statewide art competition for K-12 students in the fall challenging them to express climate science understanding through the visual arts. An inter-disciplinary panel of judges evaluates entries and identifies the top 24 works of art. The best six student works of art are then put on public display throughout the spring on the Lowell Regional Transit Authority (LRTA). Displaying student artwork in Out of Home Multi-Media (OHMM) such as bus placards and posters is intended to engage riders with opportunities to learn informally. CS aims to promote and evaluate learning about climate change science among the general public and k-12 students/teachers. The goals of CS are: 1) Engage teachers, students, and parents in a climate change science communication competition. 2) Display the winning 6 artworks from K-12 students throughout the LRTA. 3) Assess the impact of Cool Science on the teaching and learning of climate science in K-12 formal education. 4) Assess the impact of Cool Science artwork on attitudes, awareness, and understanding of climate change among adult bus riders. A naturalistic inquiry employing a mixed methodology approach best describes our research design. The evaluation focuses on providing feedback regarding the potential learning outcomes for the K-12 students who create the media for the project and the general riding public who engage with the student artwork. To identify possible outcomes, data was collected in the several forms: survey, interviews, and online analytics. We see an urgent need to improve both the public's engagement with climate change science and to the profile of climate change science in formal education settings. The Cool Science (CS) project is an opportunity

  18. Repeat Courses of Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS), Deferring Whole-Brain Irradiation, for New Brain Metastases After Initial SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), deferring whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), for distant intracranial recurrences and identify factors associated with prolonged overall survival (OS). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively identified 652 metastases in 95 patients treated with 2 or more courses of SRS for brain metastases, deferring WBRT. Cox regression analyzed factors predictive for OS. Results: Patients had a median of 2 metastases (range, 1-14) treated per course, with a median of 2 courses (range, 2-14) of SRS per patient. With a median follow-up after first SRS of 15 months (range, 3-98 months), the median OS from the time of the first and second course of SRS was 18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 15-24) and 11 months (95% CI 6-17), respectively. On multivariate analysis, histology, graded prognostic assessment score, aggregate tumor volume (but not number of metastases), and performance status correlated with OS. The 1-year cumulative incidence, with death as a competing risk, of local failure was 5% (95% CI 4-8%). Eighteen (24%) of 75 deaths were from neurologic causes. Nineteen patients (20%) eventually received WBRT. Adverse radiation events developed in 2% of SRS sites. Conclusion: Multiple courses of SRS, deferring WBRT, for distant brain metastases after initial SRS, seem to be a safe and effective approach. The graded prognostic assessment score, updated at each course, and aggregate tumor volume may help select patients in whom the deferral of WBRT might be most beneficial

  19. Repeat Courses of Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS), Deferring Whole-Brain Irradiation, for New Brain Metastases After Initial SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, David B.; Modlin, Leslie A.; Jayachandran, Priya; Von Eyben, Rie; Gibbs, Iris C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Choi, Clara Y.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, California (United States); Chang, Steven D.; Harsh, Griffith R.; Li, Gordon; Adler, John R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Hancock, Steven L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Soltys, Scott G., E-mail: sgsoltys@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), deferring whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), for distant intracranial recurrences and identify factors associated with prolonged overall survival (OS). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively identified 652 metastases in 95 patients treated with 2 or more courses of SRS for brain metastases, deferring WBRT. Cox regression analyzed factors predictive for OS. Results: Patients had a median of 2 metastases (range, 1-14) treated per course, with a median of 2 courses (range, 2-14) of SRS per patient. With a median follow-up after first SRS of 15 months (range, 3-98 months), the median OS from the time of the first and second course of SRS was 18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 15-24) and 11 months (95% CI 6-17), respectively. On multivariate analysis, histology, graded prognostic assessment score, aggregate tumor volume (but not number of metastases), and performance status correlated with OS. The 1-year cumulative incidence, with death as a competing risk, of local failure was 5% (95% CI 4-8%). Eighteen (24%) of 75 deaths were from neurologic causes. Nineteen patients (20%) eventually received WBRT. Adverse radiation events developed in 2% of SRS sites. Conclusion: Multiple courses of SRS, deferring WBRT, for distant brain metastases after initial SRS, seem to be a safe and effective approach. The graded prognostic assessment score, updated at each course, and aggregate tumor volume may help select patients in whom the deferral of WBRT might be most beneficial.

  20. An abrupt change in the long-term cooling of the ionosphere of Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, H.; Stallard, T.; Johnson, R.; Miller, S.; Trafton, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    By analysis of ground-based infrared H3+ spectra, the temperature of the ionosphere of Uranus has been monitored on a semi-regular basis since 1992. Prior to 2014, the upper atmosphere was seen to cool slowly over a period of two decades, from ~750 K to ~500 K. However, observations obtained using NASA IRTF SpeX and Keck NIRSPEC during 2014 revealed a reversal in this trend, with all observations obtained in 2014 being warmer than those obtained in 2013. We discuss the importance of this reversal in the context of longterm heating effects and the energy budget of the upper atmosphere.

  1. Faulting and erosion in the Argentine Precordillera during changes in subduction regime: Reconciling bedrock cooling and detrital records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosdick, Julie C.; Carrapa, Barbara; Ortíz, Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    The Argentine Precordillera is an archetypal retroarc fold-and-thrust belt that records tectonics associated with changing subduction regimes. The interactions between exhumation and faulting in the Precordillera were investigated using apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He and apatite fission track thermochronometry from the Precordillera and adjacent geologic domains. Inverse modeling of thermal histories constrains eastward in-sequence rock cooling associated with deformation and erosion from 18 to 2 Ma across the Central Precordillera tracking thrusting during this time. The youngest AHe ages (5-2 Ma) and highest erosion rates are located in the eastern and western extremities of the Precordillera and indicate that recent denudation is concentrated at its structural boundaries. Moreover, synchronous rapid Pliocene cooling of the Frontal Cordillera, Eastern Precordillera, and Sierra del Valle Fértil was coeval with initiation of basement-involved faulting in the foreland. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology from the ca. 16-8.1 Ma Bermejo foreland basin strata suggests fluvial connectivity westward beyond the Frontal Cordillera to the Main Cordillera and Coast Range followed by an important shift in sediment provenance at ca. 10 Ma. At this time, we suggest that a substantial decrease in Permo-Triassic igneous sources in the Frontal Cordillera and concurrent increase in recycled zircons signatures of Paleozoic strata are best explained by uplift and erosion of the Precordillera during widening of the thrust-belt. Bedrock thermochronology and modeling indicate a 2-6 Myr lag time between faulting-related cooling in the hinterland and the detrital record of deformation in the foreland basin, suggesting that for tectonically active semi-arid settings, bedrock cooling may be more sensitive to onset of faulting. We suggest that high erosion rates in the Frontal Cordillera and Eastern Precordillera are associated with increased interplate coupling during shallowing of the

  2. Control of collective FSBS and backscatter SRS through plasma composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Harvey; Lushnikov, Pavel

    2005-10-01

    Nominal NIF parameters are near the collective forward SBS (FSBS) threshold (P. M. Lushnikov and H. A. Rose, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 255003 (2004), ``L&R''). It will be shown that being on this instability edge can be used as a control lever: a small amount of high Z dopant may lead to qualitative change in FSBS regime at fixed laser intensity, possibly reducing backscatter instability losses (Such results have already been observed, but absent SSD, a key aspect of our theory: R. M. Stevenson et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2709 (2004); L. J. Suter et al., 2738, ib.). Ponderomotive FSBS regimes are determined by the parameter I=F^2( vosc / vosc ve . - ve )^2( ne / ne nc . - nc ) / ( ne / ne nc . - nc ) ν . - ν, with ν the dimensionless ion acoustic damping coefficient and F the optic f/#. Analytical results will be presented which show a decrease of I1pt's threshold value through the addition of high Z dopant to low Z plasma, owing to increased thermal contribution to FSBS. Alternatively, one may raise the threshold by managing the value of νby, e.g., adding He to SiO2. For nominal NIF parameters, a range of He fraction in SiO2 plasma is predicted to suppress backscatter SRS while maintaining control of forward SBS.

  3. Morphology change of Mg2Si and strength change in a long isothermal holding test and a long continuous cooling test in Al-Mg-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated high temperature strength change of Mg2Si precipitate hardening type aluminum alloy with TEM observation as light material for a fuel cask. We tested strength changes during both an isothermal holding test at 230degC and a continuous cooling test from 226degC to 191degC up to 10.0 kh. In the isothermal holding test Mg2Si was rod like precipitate parallel to Al and showed like Ostwald ripening. In the continuous cooling test the kinetics of Mg2Si growing can also be explained by an extensive Ostwald ripening theory. In the isothermal holding test high temperature strength gradually decreased. But in the continuous cooling test the strength turned to increase after 3.0 kh. From Ashby's precipitate hardening theory we can consider that is because that the decrease of Mg2Si precipitate hardening effect is smaller than the increase of matrix strengthening with decrease of temperature after 3.0 kh. (author)

  4. Temperature change affected groundwater quality in a confined marine aquifer during long-term heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takeshi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Ueki, Takashi; Ohkubo, Satoshi; Moldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Toshiko

    2016-05-01

    Global warming and urbanization together with development of subsurface infrastructures (e.g. subways, shopping complexes, sewage systems, and Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) systems) will likely cause a rapid increase in the temperature of relatively shallow groundwater reservoirs (subsurface thermal pollution). However, potential effects of a subsurface temperature change on groundwater quality due to changed physical, chemical, and microbial processes have received little attention. We therefore investigated changes in 34 groundwater quality parameters during a 13-month enhanced-heating period, followed by 14 months of natural or enhanced cooling in a confined marine aquifer at around 17 m depth on the Saitama University campus, Japan. A full-scale GSHP test facility consisting of a 50 m deep U-tube for circulating the heat-carrying fluid and four monitoring wells at 1, 2, 5, and 10 m from the U-tube were installed, and groundwater quality was monitored every 1-2 weeks. Rapid changes in the groundwater level in the area, especially during the summer, prevented accurate analyses of temperature effects using a single-well time series. Instead, Dual-Well Analysis (DWA) was applied, comparing variations in subsurface temperature and groundwater chemical concentrations between the thermally-disturbed well and a non-affected reference well. Using the 1 m distant well (temperature increase up to 7 °C) and the 10 m distant well (non-temperature-affected), the DWA showed an approximately linear relationships for eight components (B, Si, Li, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Mg(2+), NH4(+), Na(+), and K(+)) during the combined 27 months of heating and cooling, suggesting changes in concentration between 4% and 31% for a temperature change of 7 °C. PMID:26938497

  5. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many patients with brain metastases, the primary therapeutic aim is symptom palliation and maintenance of neurologic function, but in a subgroup, long-term survival is possible. Local control in the brain, and absent or controlled extracranial sites of disease are prerequisites for favorable survival. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a focal, highly precise treatment option with a long track record. Its clinical development and implementation by several pioneering institutions eventually rendered possible cooperative group randomized trials. A systematic review of those studies and other landmark studies was undertaken. Most clinicians are aware of the potential benefits of SRS such as a short treatment time, a high probability of treated-lesion control and, when adhering to typical dose/volume recommendations, a low normal tissue complication probability. However, SRS as sole first-line treatment carries a risk of failure in non-treated brain regions, which has resulted in controversy around when to add whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). SRS might also be prescribed as salvage treatment in patients relapsing despite previous SRS and/or WBRT. An optimal balance between intracranial control and side effects requires continued research efforts

  6. A hybrid thermal management system for lithium ion batteries combining phase change materials with forced-air cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Heat accumulation in PCM causes failures of passive thermal management systems. • The introduction of forced air convection improves the reliability of PCMs. • Temperature distribution in the hybrid system remains uniform. • Active cooling and PCMs play separate roles in battery thermal management. • Numerical results agree with experiment data and give theoretic insights. - Abstract: Passive thermal management systems using phase change materials (PCMs) provides an effective solution to the overheating of lithium ion batteries. But this study shows heat accumulation in PCMs caused by the inefficient cooling of air natural convection leads to thermal management system failures: The temperature in a battery pack operating continuously outranges the safety limit of 60 °C after two cycles with discharge rate of 1.5 C and 2 C. Here a hybrid system that integrates PCMs with forced air convection is presented. This combined system successfully prevents heat accumulation and maintains the maximum temperature under 50 °C in all cycles. Study on airspeed effects reveals that thermo-physical properties of PCMs dictate the maximum temperature rise and temperature uniformity in the battery pack, while forced air convection plays a critical role in recovering thermal energy storage capacity of PCMs. A numerical study is also carried out and validated with experiment data, which gives theoretic insights on thermo-physical changes in this hybrid battery thermal management system

  7. Technical Review of SRS Dose Reconstrruction Methods Used By CDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, Ali, A

    2005-07-20

    At the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a subcontractor Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc.(ATL) issued a draft report estimating offsite dose as a result of Savannah River Site operations for the period 1954-1992 in support of Phase III of the SRS Dose Reconstruction Project. The doses reported by ATL differed than those previously estimated by Savannah River Site SRS dose modelers for a variety of reasons, but primarily because (1) ATL used different source terms, (2) ATL considered trespasser/poacher scenarios and (3) ATL did not consistently use site-specific parameters or correct usage parameters. The receptors with the highest dose from atmospheric and liquid pathways were within about a factor of four greater than dose values previously reported by SRS. A complete set of technical comments have also been included.

  8. Assessment of SRS radiological liquid and airborne contaminants and pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G.T.

    1997-04-01

    This report compiles and documents the radiological critical-contaminant/critical-pathway analysis performed for SRS. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface water, which are the principal media that carry contaminants off site. During routine operations at SRS, limited amounts of radionuclides are released to the environment through atmospheric and/or liquid pathways. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. Though the groundwater beneath an estimated 5 to 10 percent of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, there is no evidence that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated offsite (Arnett, 1996). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people.

  9. Wastewaters at SRS where heavy metals are a potential problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objective of this report is to identify and prioritize heavy metal-containing wastewaters at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in terms of their suitability for testing of and clean-up by a novel bioremediation process being developed by SRTC. This process involves the use of algal biomass for sequestering heavy metal and radionuclides from wastewaters. Two categories of SRS wastewaters were considered for this investigation: (1) waste sites (primarily non-contained wastes managed by Environmental Restoration), and (2) waste streams (primarily contained wastes managed by Waste Management). An attempt was made to evaluate all sources of both categories of waste throughout the site so that rational decisions could be made with regard to selecting the most appropriate wastewaters for present study and potential future treatment. The investigation included a review of information on surface and/or groundwater associated with all known SRS waste sites, as well as waters associated with all known SRS waste streams. Following the initial review, wastewaters known or suspected to contain potentially problematic concentrations of one or more of the toxic metals were given further consideration

  10. Risk-Dominant Scenarios from Several SRS Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report and associated spreadsheets describe the SRS safety analysis provided for four selected transuranic storage and stabilization facilities. For each of the four sets of analysis, the bounding events in each frequency category are identified, key inputs and assumptions are stated, and final doses tabulated

  11. F 60 and SRs 6300 overburden handling equipment from TAKRAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, K.

    1984-11-01

    The F 60 (bucket chain conveyor) and SRs 6300 (bucket wheel excavator) overburden handling equipment of TAKRAF are reviewed with particular regard to their technical characteristics and performance. Design features, performance parameters and comparable characteristic data are presented; operating data and economic characteristics are compared, and measures to improve the performance are presented.

  12. Rapid atmospheric CO2 changes associated with the 8,200-years-B.P. cooling event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Friederike; Aaby, Bent; Visscher, Henk

    2002-09-17

    By applying the inverse relation between numbers of leaf stomata and atmospheric CO2 concentration, stomatal frequency analysis of fossil birch leaves from lake deposits in Denmark reveals a century-scale CO2 change during the prominent Holocene cooling event that occurred in the North Atlantic region between 8,400 and 8,100 years B.P. In contrast to conventional CO2 reconstructions based on ice cores from Antarctica, quantification of the stomatal frequency signal corroborates a distinctive temperature-CO2 correlation. Results indicate a global CO2 decline of approximately 25 ppm by volume over approximately 300 years. This reduction is in harmony with observed and modeled lowering of North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures associated with a short-term weakening of thermohaline circulation. PMID:12202744

  13. Phoenix light - Heating and cooling with phase-change materials; Phoenix light: Heizen und Kuehlen mit PCM - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haechler, E. [Suiselectra Ingenieurunternehmung AG, Basel (Switzerland); Schneider, B. [Hochschule Esslingen, University of Applied Sciences, Esslingen (Germany)

    2002-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the use of phase-change materials (PCM) in buildings in order to help provide cooling in summer and heating in winter. General information on PCM and its use in the automotive industry, clothing, heating systems and office materials as well as in the electronics industry is provided. The physical and chemical basics are discussed and examples of PCM use in practice are provided. Also, work done in research institutes is mentioned. PCM systems from various manufacturers are noted. The 'phoenix light' system concept is discussed. The 'comfort cooler' concept is introduced and laboratory measurements made at the University of Applied Sciences in Esslingen, Germany, are discussed. Further, measurements made at an installation in an existing building are presented and discussed. Knowledge gained and the optimisation of the system are discussed. Finally, proposals for further work to be done are noted.

  14. Potential for thermal tolerance to mediate climate change effects on three members of a cool temperate lizard genus, Niveoscincus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Amanda J; While, Geoffrey M; Beeton, Nicholas J; Wapstra, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Climatic changes are predicted to be greater in higher latitude and mountainous regions but species specific impacts are difficult to predict. This is partly due to inter-specific variance in the physiological traits which mediate environmental temperature effects at the organismal level. We examined variation in the critical thermal minimum (CTmin), critical thermal maximum (CTmax) and evaporative water loss rates (EWL) of a widespread lowland (Niveoscincus ocellatus) and two range restricted highland (N. microlepidotus and N. greeni) members of a cool temperate Tasmanian lizard genus. The widespread lowland species had significantly higher CTmin and CTmax and significantly lower EWL than both highland species. Implications of inter-specific variation in thermal tolerance for activity were examined under contemporary and future climate change scenarios. Instances of air temperatures below CTmin were predicted to decline in frequency for the widespread lowland and both highland species. Air temperatures of high altitude sites were not predicted to exceed the CTmax of either highland species throughout the 21st century. In contrast, the widespread lowland species is predicted to experience air temperatures in excess of CTmax on 1 or 2 days by three of six global circulation models from 2068-2096. To estimate climate change effects on activity we reran the thermal tolerance models using minimum and maximum temperatures selected for activity. A net gain in available activity time was predicted under climate change for all three species; while air temperatures were predicted to exceed maximum temperatures selected for activity with increasing frequency, the change was not as great as the predicted decline in air temperatures below minimum temperatures selected for activity. We hypothesise that the major effect of rising air temperatures under climate change is an increase in available activity period for both the widespread lowland and highland species. The

  15. Detection of cooling-induced membrane changes in the response of boar sperm to capacitating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunkina, Anna M; Volker, Gabriele; Weitze, Karl-Fritz; Beyerbach, Martin; Töpfer-Petersen, Edda; Waberski, Dagmar

    2005-05-01

    There is a need for methods of rapid and sensitive sperm function assessment. As spermatozoa are not able to fertilize an oocyte before having undergone a series of complex physiological changes collectively called capacitation, it is logical to assess sperm function under fertilizing conditions in vitro. In this study, the responsiveness of sperm to capacitating conditions in vitro was monitored by changes in sperm response to ionophore and by changes in the amount of intracellular calcium ions in stored boar semen. Boar semen was diluted at 32 and 20 degrees C and stored for 24 and 72 h at 16 and 10 degrees C. Ionophore-induced changes and increased intracellular calcium ion content in boar spermatozoa were recorded by flow cytometry and found to progress as a function of time during incubation under capacitating conditions. All responsiveness parameters (increases in proportions of membrane-defective spermatozoa, acrosome-reacted spermatozoa, and cells with high intracellular calcium levels) were shown to be sensitive to subtle physiological changes occurring at low storage temperatures. The initial levels of sperm with a high calcium content were higher in semen stored at 10 degrees C, but the accumulation of internal calcium was lower than in semen stored at 16 degrees C. The loss of membrane integrity and increase in the proportion of acrosome-reacted cells were higher in semen stored at 10 degrees C. Dilution at 20 degrees C had no negative effect on membrane integrity or responsiveness to capacitating conditions. There was no significant difference between semen stored for 24 and 72 h in terms of membrane integrity, acrosome reaction, and intracellular calcium after capacitation treatment. However, dynamics of cell death and acrosome reaction in response to capacitating conditions were somewhat accelerated after 72 h storage, especially in semen stored at 10 degrees C. It can be concluded that the simultaneous use of the sperm membrane responsiveness and

  16. Beyond cool: adapting upland streams for climate change using riparian woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen M; Griffiths, Siân W; Ormerod, Steve J

    2016-01-01

    Managed adaptation could reduce the risks of climate change to the world's ecosystems, but there have been surprisingly few practical evaluations of the options available. For example, riparian woodland is advocated widely as shade to reduce warming in temperate streams, but few studies have considered collateral effects on species composition or ecosystem functions. Here, we use cross-sectional analyses at two scales (region and within streams) to investigate whether four types of riparian management, including those proposed to reduce potential climate change impacts, might also affect the composition, functional character, dynamics and energetic resourcing of macroinvertebrates in upland Welsh streams (UK). Riparian land use across the region had only small effects on invertebrate taxonomic composition, while stable isotope data showed how energetic resources assimilated by macroinvertebrates in all functional guilds were split roughly 50:50 between terrestrial and aquatic origins irrespective of riparian management. Nevertheless, streams draining the most extensive deciduous woodland had the greatest stocks of coarse particulate matter (CPOM) and greater numbers of 'shredding' detritivores. Stream-scale investigations showed that macroinvertebrate biomass in deciduous woodland streams was around twice that in moorland streams, and lowest of all in streams draining non-native conifers. The unexpected absence of contrasting terrestrial signals in the isotopic data implies that factors other than local land use affect the relative incorporation of allochthonous subsidies into riverine food webs. Nevertheless, our results reveal how planting deciduous riparian trees along temperate headwaters as an adaptation to climate change can modify macroinvertebrate function, increase biomass and potentially enhance resilience by increasing basal resources where cover is extensive (>60 m riparian width). We advocate greater urgency in efforts to understand the ecosystem

  17. Thermal and economic assessment of hot side sensible heat and cold side phase change storage combination fo absorption solar cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M. K.; Morehouse, J. H.

    An analysis of a solar assisted absorption cooling system which employs a combination of phase change on the cold side and sensible heat storage on the hot side of the cooling machine for small commercial buildings is given. The year-round thermal performance of this system for space cooling were determined by simulation and compared against conventional cooling systems in three geographic locations: Phoenix, Arizona; Miami, Florida and Washington, D.C. The results indicate that the hot-cold storage combination has a considerable amount of energy and economical savings over hot side sensible heat storage. Using the hot-cold storage combination, the optimum collector areas for Washington, D.C., Phoenix and Miami are 355 m squared, 250 m squared and 495 m squared, respectively. Compared against conventional vapor compression chiller, the net solar fractions are 61, 67 and 69 percent, respectively.

  18. Heat transfer and parametric studies of an encapsulated phase change material based cool thermal energy storage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHERALATHAN M.; VELRAJ R.; RENGANARAYANAN S.

    2006-01-01

    This work investigates the transient behaviour of a phase change material based cool thermal energy storage (CTES)system comprised of a cylindrical storage tank filled with encapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) in spherical container integrated with an ethylene glycol chiller plant. A simulation program was developed to evaluate the temperature histories of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and the phase change material at any axial location during the charging period. The results of the model were validated by comparison with experimental results of temperature profiles of HTF and PCM. The model was also used to investigate the effect of porosity, Stanton number, Stefan number and Peclet number on CTES system performance. The results showed that increase in porosity contributes to a higher rate of energy storage. However, for a given geometry and heat transfer coefficient, the mass of PCM charged in the unit decreases as the increase in porosity. The St number as well as the Ste number is also influential in the performance of the unit. The model is a convenient and more suitable method to determine the heat transfer characteristics of CTES system. The results reported are much useful for designing CTES system.

  19. The Causes of Halo Shape Changes Induced by Cooling Baryons: Disks Versus Substructures

    CERN Document Server

    Debattista, Victor P; Quinn, Thomas; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Maas, Ryan; Mayer, Lucio; Read, Justin; Stadel, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Cold dark matter cosmogony predicts that dark matter halos should be triaxial, whereas observations suggest that halos are rounder. The difference between theory and observation is mostly likely explained by the effect of baryons since their condensation within triaxial dark matter halos is known to lead to rounder halos. This is usually thought to be due to the scattering of box orbits. In order to understand the process by which halos become rounder, we present controlled simulations of disks grown adiabatically inside triaxial dark matter halos. After the disks are grown to full mass we adiabatically evaporate the disks and compare the initial and final shapes of the halos. We find that while the halos are substantially rounder while the disk is at full mass, their final shape after the disk is evaporated is not substantially different from the initial. Thus the condensation of baryons onto the center does not destroy enough of the box/box-like orbits to explain the full intermediate shape change. By follo...

  20. Cooling and societal change during the Late Antique Little Ice Age from 536 to around 660 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Myglan, Vladimir S.; Ljungqvist, Fredrik Charpentier; McCormick, Michael; di Cosmo, Nicola; Sigl, Michael; Jungclaus, Johann; Wagner, Sebastian; Krusic, Paul J.; Esper, Jan; Kaplan, Jed O.; de Vaan, Michiel A. C.; Luterbacher, Jürg; Wacker, Lukas; Tegel, Willy; Kirdyanov, Alexander V.

    2016-03-01

    Climatic changes during the first half of the Common Era have been suggested to play a role in societal reorganizations in Europe and Asia. In particular, the sixth century coincides with rising and falling civilizations, pandemics, human migration and political turmoil. Our understanding of the magnitude and spatial extent as well as the possible causes and concurrences of climate change during this period is, however, still limited. Here we use tree-ring chronologies from the Russian Altai and European Alps to reconstruct summer temperatures over the past two millennia. We find an unprecedented, long-lasting and spatially synchronized cooling following a cluster of large volcanic eruptions in 536, 540 and 547 AD (ref. ), which was probably sustained by ocean and sea-ice feedbacks, as well as a solar minimum. We thus identify the interval from 536 to about 660 AD as the Late Antique Little Ice Age. Spanning most of the Northern Hemisphere, we suggest that this cold phase be considered as an additional environmental factor contributing to the establishment of the Justinian plague, transformation of the eastern Roman Empire and collapse of the Sasanian Empire, movements out of the Asian steppe and Arabian Peninsula, spread of Slavic-speaking peoples and political upheavals in China.

  1. Evaluation of Background Mercury Concentrations in the SRS Groundwater System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury analyses associated with the A-01 Outfall have highlighted the importance of developing an understanding of mercury in the Savannah River Site groundwater system and associated surface water streams. This activity is critical based upon the fact that the EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for this constituent is 0.012mg/L, a level that is well below conventional detection limits of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L. A first step in this process is obtained by utilizing the existing investment in groundwater mercury concentrations (20,242 records) maintained in the SRS geographical information management system (GIMS) database. Careful use of these data provides a technically defensible initial estimate for total recoverable mercury in background and contaminated SRS wells

  2. Evaluation of Background Mercury Concentrations in the SRS Groundwater System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.B.

    1999-03-03

    Mercury analyses associated with the A-01 Outfall have highlighted the importance of developing an understanding of mercury in the Savannah River Site groundwater system and associated surface water streams. This activity is critical based upon the fact that the EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for this constituent is 0.012mg/L, a level that is well below conventional detection limits of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L. A first step in this process is obtained by utilizing the existing investment in groundwater mercury concentrations (20,242 records) maintained in the SRS geographical information management system (GIMS) database. Careful use of these data provides a technically defensible initial estimate for total recoverable mercury in background and contaminated SRS wells.

  3. Methodology of dose calculation for the SRS SAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Safety Analysis Report (SAR) covering K reactor operation assesses a spectrum of design basis accidents. The assessment includes estimation of the dose consequences from the analyzed accidents. This report discusses the methodology used to perform the dose analysis reported in the SAR and also includes the quantified doses. Doses resulting from postulated design basis reactor accidents in Chapter 15 of the SAR are discussed, as well as an accident in which three percent of the fuel melts. Doses are reported for both atmospheric and aqueous releases. The methodology used to calculate doses from these accidents as reported in the SAR is consistent with NRC guidelines and industry standards. The doses from the design basis accidents for the SRS reactors are below the limits set for commercial reactors by the NRC and also meet industry criteria. A summary of doses for various postulated accidents is provided.

  4. Potential for thermal tolerance to mediate climate change effects on three members of a cool temperate lizard genus, Niveoscincus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Amanda J; While, Geoffrey M; Beeton, Nicholas J; Wapstra, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Climatic changes are predicted to be greater in higher latitude and mountainous regions but species specific impacts are difficult to predict. This is partly due to inter-specific variance in the physiological traits which mediate environmental temperature effects at the organismal level. We examined variation in the critical thermal minimum (CTmin), critical thermal maximum (CTmax) and evaporative water loss rates (EWL) of a widespread lowland (Niveoscincus ocellatus) and two range restricted highland (N. microlepidotus and N. greeni) members of a cool temperate Tasmanian lizard genus. The widespread lowland species had significantly higher CTmin and CTmax and significantly lower EWL than both highland species. Implications of inter-specific variation in thermal tolerance for activity were examined under contemporary and future climate change scenarios. Instances of air temperatures below CTmin were predicted to decline in frequency for the widespread lowland and both highland species. Air temperatures of high altitude sites were not predicted to exceed the CTmax of either highland species throughout the 21st century. In contrast, the widespread lowland species is predicted to experience air temperatures in excess of CTmax on 1 or 2 days by three of six global circulation models from 2068-2096. To estimate climate change effects on activity we reran the thermal tolerance models using minimum and maximum temperatures selected for activity. A net gain in available activity time was predicted under climate change for all three species; while air temperatures were predicted to exceed maximum temperatures selected for activity with increasing frequency, the change was not as great as the predicted decline in air temperatures below minimum temperatures selected for activity. We hypothesise that the major effect of rising air temperatures under climate change is an increase in available activity period for both the widespread lowland and highland species. The

  5. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  6. Stochastic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  7. Health effects of SRS non-radiological air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.

    1997-06-16

    This report examines the potential health effects of non radiological emissions to the air resulting from operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this study was limited to the 55 air contaminants for which the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has quantified risk by determining unit risk factors (excess cancer risks) and/or reference concentrations (deleterious non cancer risks). Potential health impacts have been assessed in relation to the maximally exposed individual. This is a hypothetical person who resides for a lifetime at the SRS boundary. The most recent (1994) quality assured SRS emissions data available were used. Estimated maximum site boundary concentrations of the air contaminants were calculated using air dispersion modeling and 24-hour and annual averaging times. For the emissions studied, the excess cancer risk was found to be less than the generally accepted risk level of 1 in 100,000 and, in most cases, was less than 1 in 1,000,000. Deleterious non cancer effects were also found to be very unlikely.

  8. Plutonium Oxidation State Geochemistry in the SRS Subsurface Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental mobility of plutonium (Pu) is profoundly influenced by its oxidation state. Pu(IV) is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude slower moving than Pu(V) or Pu(VI). For performance and risk assessment calculations, Pu waste has been assumed to exist in the less mobile reduced form, Pu(IV). Resent work on the chemistry of Pu02 by Haschke and others (2000) has shown that Pu02 surface is oxidized in the presence of water, forming as much as 27 percent Pu(VI). This has significant implications to existing SRS programs (including the Pu Immobilization, LLW disposal and Remediation of the Old Burial Ground) and future SRS programs (including MOX and pit disassembly). The hypothesis of this Strategic Research and Development study was that even if Pu(VI) is produced in the waste form as suggested by Haschke and others (2000), it will be quickly reduced to Pu(IV) in the SRS subsurface environment. The overall objective of the research was to test this hypothesis through laboratory and computational studies conducted by Savannah River Technology Center and Clemson University scientist

  9. Implications of Climate Change on the Heat Budget of Lentic Systems Used for Power Station Cooling: Case Study Clinton Lake, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; García, Marcelo H

    2016-01-01

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change-in particular higher air temperatures-on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling. PMID:26556581

  10. Implications of climate change on the heat budget of lentic systems used for power station cooling: Case study Clinton Lake, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P. Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2016-01-01

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change--in particular higher air temperatures--on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling.

  11. Implications of Climate Change on the Heat Budget of Lentic Systems Used for Power Station Cooling: Case Study Clinton Lake, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; García, Marcelo H

    2016-01-01

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change-in particular higher air temperatures-on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling.

  12. Studies of Phase Change Materials and a Latent Heat Storage Unit Used for a Natural Circulation Cooling/Latent Heat Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakitani, Katsumi; Honda, Hiroshi

    Experimental and theoretical studies were made of the heat transfer characteristics of a latent heat storage unit used for a natural circulation cooling /latent heat storage system. Heating and cooling curves of the latent heat storage unit undergoing solid-liquid phase change of a PCM (lauric acid) was obtained by using anatural circulation loop of R22 which consisted of an electrically heated evaporater, a water cooled condenser and the latent heat storage unit. The latent heat storage unit showed a heat transfer performance which was high enough for practical use. An approximate theoretical analysis was conducted to investigate transient behavior of the latent heat storage unit. Predictions of the refrigerant and outer surface temperatures during the melting process were in fair agreement with the experimental data, whereas that of the refrigerant temperature during the solidification process was considerably lower than the measurement.

  13. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS FORMULATION FOR A COOLING COIL GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V; Erich Hansen, E

    2008-05-23

    The Tank Closure and Technology Development Groups are developing a strategy for closing the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Two Type IV tanks, 17 and 20 in the F-Area Tank Farm, have been successfully filled with grout. Type IV tanks at SRS do not contain cooling coils; on the other hand, the majority of the tanks (Type I, II, III and IIIA) do contain cooling coils. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with cooling coils is to pump grout into the cooling coils to prevent pathways for infiltrating water after tank closure. This task addresses the use of grout to fill intact cooling coils present in most of the remaining HLW tanks on Site. The overall task was divided into two phases. Phase 1 focused on the development of a grout formulation (mix design) suitable for filling the HLW tank cooling coils. Phase 2 will be a large-scale demonstration of the filling of simulated cooling coils under field conditions using the cooling coil grout mix design recommended from Phase 1. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1, the development of the cooling coil grout formulation. A grout formulation is recommended for the full scale testing at Clemson Environmental Technology Laboratory (CETL) that is composed by mass of 90% Masterflow (MF) 816 (a commercially available cable grout) and 10% blast furnace slag, with a water to cementitious material (MF 816 + slag) ratio of 0.33. This formulation produces a grout that meets the fresh and cured grout requirements detailed in the Task Technical Plan (2). The grout showed excellent workability under continuous mixing with minimal change in rheology. An alternative formulation using 90% MF 1341 and 10% blast furnace slag with a water to cementitious material ratio of 0.29 is also acceptable and generates less heat per gram than the MF 816 plus slag mix. However this MF 1341 mix has a higher plastic viscosity than the MF 816 mix due to the presence of sand in the MF 1341 cable grout and a

  14. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.-S.

    2007-01-01

    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still remain

  15. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have an equivalent standby... cooling system. (b) Each tankship that has a cargo tank with a required cooling system must have a manual that contains: (1) A piping diagram for the cooling system; and (2) Instructions for changing over...

  16. Readout and data acquisition in the NEXT-NEW Detector based on SRS-ATCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Scalable Readout System (SRS) was defined by the CERN RD51 Collaboration as a multi-channel, scalable readout platform for a wide range of front ends. In 2014, SRS was ported to the ATCA (Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture) standard. NEXT is an underground experiment aimed at searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay. NEXT-DEMO, a small-scale demonstrator, was read-out using SRS. NEXT has adopted SRS-ATCA for its first stage, called NEXT-NEW. Our presentation will describe the readout, DAQ and trigger for NEXT-NEW based on SRS-ATCA. This is, to our knowledge, the first experiment operating entirely on SRS-ATCA

  17. Evidence for regional cooling, frontal advances, and East Greenland Ice Sheet changes during the demise of the last interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvalı, Nil; Ninnemann, Ulysses S.; Kleiven, Helga (Kikki) F.; Galaasen, Eirik V.; Morley, Audrey; Rosenthal, Yair

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution lithic and sea surface climate records are used to portray the progression of North Atlantic climate, hydrography, and Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) activity through the peak of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e into the last glacial inception. We use Eirik Drift sediment core MD03-2664 (57°26.34‧N, 48°36.35‧W), recovered south of Greenland, strategically located to monitor fluctuations in GIS extent and iceberg calving events. Our results show that a significant amount of ice-rafted debris (IRD) was present during the early MIS 5e, until gradually tapering off by 122 kyr BP due to a diminishing GIS. Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the northern subpolar gyre reached peak values early in MIS 5e coinciding with peak insolation. Regional cooling leading to the demise of the last interglacial started prior to the end of the MIS 5e benthic δ18O plateau, at approximately 119 kyr BP, as summer insolation waned. This gradual cooling trend is interrupted by an abrupt and brief cooling episode at ∼117 kyr BP. Increased IRD abundance during the 117 kyr BP cooling event suggests that regional ice sheet growth occurred prior to the end of the MIS 5e benthic δ18O plateau, and the major glacial inception. SSTs south of Greenland followed a two-step cooling during the glacial inception similar to the pattern observed across much of the North Atlantic and Europe. Benthic δ18O increases in parallel, suggesting that this two-step cooling is linked to a two-phased intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

  18. Experimental study of passive cooling of building facade using phase change materials to increase thermal comfort in buildings in hot humid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Madhumathi, B. M.C. Sundarraja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of cooler night temperatures using Phase Change Material (PCM energy storage technique, for cooling of ambient air during hot day times can be an alternate of current cooling techniques in building sector. This work presents the results of an experimental set-up to test energy saving potential of phase change materials with typical construction materials in building facade in Hot-Humid Climatic Regions in real conditions. The main objective of this research is to demonstrate experimentally that it is possible to improve the thermal comfort and reduce the energy consumption of a building without substantial increase in the weight of the construction materials with the inclusion of PCM. This research was conducted to study and evaluate the performance of the existing materials integrated with Organic PCM Polyethylene glycol (PEG E600. This research suggested that the heat gain is significantly reduced when the PCM is incorporated into the brick (conventional building material.

  19. Ecological Regime Shifts in Lake Kälksjön, Sweden, in Response to Abrupt Climate Change Around the 8.2 ka Cooling Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsalu-Wendrup, L.; Conley, D.J.; Snowball, I.;

    2012-01-01

    periphytic to planktonic diatom dominance over a 250-year period and a gradual diversification of the periphytic community that spanned c. 150 years. Rapid climate warming following the 8.2 ka event likely caused these changes and both regime shifts are examples of externally driven abrupt ecological change......A detailed diatom record from Lake Ka¨ lksjo¨ n, westcentral Sweden, reveals two periods of abrupt ecological change correlative with the 8.2 ka cooling event. Using a combination of abrupt step changes and piece-wise linear regressions, the diatom data were analyzed for change points over time...... increase in nutrient supply to the lake. The second event was characterized by a substantial shift within the planktonic diatom community from taxa indicative of colder conditions to those indicating warm over 5–10 years at c. 7850 cal. y BP. This event was superimposed on a successive change from...

  20. Critical heat flux analysis on change of plate temperature and cooling water flow rate for rectangular narrow gap with bilateral-heated cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiling heat transfer phenomena on rectangular narrow gap was related to the safety of nuclear reactors. Research done in order to study the safety of nuclear reactors in particular relating to boiling heat transfer and useful on the improvement of next-generation reactor designs. The research focused on calculation of the heat flux during the cooling process in rectangular narrow gap size 1.0 mm. with initial temperatures 200°C. 400°C, and 600°C, also the flow rates of cooling water 0,1 liters/second. 0,2 liters/second. and 0,3 liters/second. Experiments carried out by injecting water at a certain flow rate with the water temperature 85°C. Transient temperature measurement data recorded by the data acquisition system. Transient temperature measurement data is used to calculate the flux of heat gain is then used to obtain the heat transfer coefficient. This research aimed to obtain the correlation between critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient to changes in temperatures and water flow rates for bilaterally-heated cases on rectangular narrow gap. The results obtained for a constant cooling water flow rate, critical heat flux will increase when hot plate temperature also increased. While on a constant hot plate temperature, coefficient heat transfer will increase when cooling water flow rate also increased. Thus it can be said that the cooling water flow rate and temperature of the hot plate has a significant effect on the critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient resulted in quenching process of vertical rectangular narrow gap with double-heated cases. (author)

  1. Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 Prevent Accumulation of Toxic Inter-Homolog Recombination Intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyamura, Kenji; Arai, Kota; Hishida, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Homologous recombination is an evolutionally conserved mechanism that promotes genome stability through the faithful repair of double-strand breaks and single-strand gaps in DNA, and the recovery of stalled or collapsed replication forks. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP-dependent DNA helicase Srs2 (a member of the highly conserved UvrD family of helicases) has multiple roles in regulating homologous recombination. A mutation (srs2K41A) resulting in a helicase-dead mutant of Srs2 was found to be lethal in diploid, but not in haploid, cells. In diploid cells, Srs2K41A caused the accumulation of inter-homolog joint molecule intermediates, increased the levels of spontaneous Rad52 foci, and induced gross chromosomal rearrangements. Srs2K41A lethality and accumulation of joint molecules were suppressed by inactivating Rad51 or deleting the Rad51-interaction domain of Srs2, whereas phosphorylation and sumoylation of Srs2 and its interaction with sumoylated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were not required for lethality. The structure-specific complex of crossover junction endonucleases Mus81 and Mms4 was also required for viability of diploid, but not haploid, SRS2 deletion mutants (srs2Δ), and diploid srs2Δ mus81Δ mutants accumulated joint molecule intermediates. Our data suggest that Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 have critical roles in preventing the formation of (or in resolving) toxic inter-homolog joint molecules, which could otherwise interfere with chromosome segregation and lead to genetic instability. PMID:27390022

  2. Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 Prevent Accumulation of Toxic Inter-Homolog Recombination Intermediates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Keyamura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is an evolutionally conserved mechanism that promotes genome stability through the faithful repair of double-strand breaks and single-strand gaps in DNA, and the recovery of stalled or collapsed replication forks. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP-dependent DNA helicase Srs2 (a member of the highly conserved UvrD family of helicases has multiple roles in regulating homologous recombination. A mutation (srs2K41A resulting in a helicase-dead mutant of Srs2 was found to be lethal in diploid, but not in haploid, cells. In diploid cells, Srs2K41A caused the accumulation of inter-homolog joint molecule intermediates, increased the levels of spontaneous Rad52 foci, and induced gross chromosomal rearrangements. Srs2K41A lethality and accumulation of joint molecules were suppressed by inactivating Rad51 or deleting the Rad51-interaction domain of Srs2, whereas phosphorylation and sumoylation of Srs2 and its interaction with sumoylated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA were not required for lethality. The structure-specific complex of crossover junction endonucleases Mus81 and Mms4 was also required for viability of diploid, but not haploid, SRS2 deletion mutants (srs2Δ, and diploid srs2Δ mus81Δ mutants accumulated joint molecule intermediates. Our data suggest that Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 have critical roles in preventing the formation of (or in resolving toxic inter-homolog joint molecules, which could otherwise interfere with chromosome segregation and lead to genetic instability.

  3. The beam transport system in the SRS-1200

    CERN Document Server

    Ivashchenko, V E

    2002-01-01

    In NSC KIPT the synchrotron radiation source SRS-1200 for the Ukrainian national synchrotron center (Kiev) is developed. An injector for a storage ring is the electron linear accelerator with energy 180 MeV. For compactness of a complex LUE-180 dispose under a storage ring. The transport system provides transport of electron beam from linear accelerator without losses and injection him in the storage ring. The calculations of the performances of transport systems with five-lens and three-lens variants of translation line, and also with use 42 and 45-th of degree rectangular and sector bending magnets were carried out. As a result of the comparative analysis the five-lens symmetric variant of translation line with 42-th degree sector bending magnets was chosen. In the report the basic results of calculations, parameters and performances of transport system of electron beam are submitted.

  4. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    CERN Document Server

    Simpkins, A A

    2002-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response models estimate dose for inhalation and ground shine pathways. A methodology has been developed to incorporate ingestion doses into the emergency response models. The methodology follows a two-phase approach. The first phase estimates site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) which can be compared with predicted ground-level concentrations to determine if intervention is needed to protect the public. This phase uses accepted methods with little deviation from recommended guidance. The second phase uses site-specific data to estimate a 'best estimate' dose to offsite individuals from ingestion of foodstuffs. While this method deviates from recommended guidance, it is technically defensibly and more realistic. As guidance is updated, these methods also will need to be updated.

  5. BioTRIZ Suggests Radiative Cooling of Buildings Can Be Done Passively by Changing the Structure of Roof Insulation to Let Longwave Infrared Pass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salmaan Craig; David Harrison; Andrew Cripps; Daniel Knott

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the application of a design tool called Bio TRIZ. Its developers claim that it can be used to access biological strategies for solving engineering problems. Our aim is to design a roof for hot climates that gets free cooling through radiant coupling with the sky. The insulation in a standard roof stops the sun and convection from warming the thermal mass.But it also restricts the mass's longwave view of the cool sky. Different solutions to this conflict are offered by BioTRIZ. The chosen solution is to replace the standard insulation component with an open cell honeycomb. The vertical cells would allow longwave radiation to pass, while arresting convection. The solutions offered by BioTRIZ's technological counterpart include no such changes in structure. It is estimated that the thermal mass in the biomimetic roof would remain on average 4.5℃ cooler than in a standard roof over a year in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

  6. Cool contrails

    OpenAIRE

    U. Schumann

    2012-01-01

    Contrails are cirrus clouds which warm or cool the Earth depending on flight route and weather. Hence, the climate impact of aviation can be minimised by avoiding warming contrails and allowing for cooling contrails by proper weather dependent route selection. This article summarises recent research results on this topic.

  7. A study on the use of phase change materials (PCMs) in combination with a natural cold source for space cooling in telecommunications base stations (TBSs) in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A technology that combines phase change materials and cold outdoor air is proposed. • The technology is for space cooling of telecommunications base stations. • A prototype unit was built and then tested in an enthalpy difference laboratory. • An experimentally-validated model was used to simulate the unit’s performance. • The simulated average annual adjusted energy efficiency ratio of the unit was 14 W/W. - Abstract: A technology that combines phase change materials (PCMs) with a natural cold source is proposed to reduce the space cooling energy of telecommunications base stations (TBSs). First, a mathematical model was developed to assess this technology. Then, a full-scale prototype, named latent heat storage unit (LHSU), was designed, built, and tested in an enthalpy difference laboratory. The energy efficiency ratio (EER) and the adjusted energy efficiency ratio (AEER) were used as the criteria to evaluate the performance of this unit and to compare it with conventional air conditioners. LHSU performance simulations were carried out based on the unit’s operation in TBSs located in five Chinese cities with different climates. The simulated average annual AEER was 14.04 W/W, which is considerably higher than the limiting value of 3.2 W/W for air conditioners with a cooling capacity of less than 4500 W. The estimated average energy savings potential of the LHSU was 50%. Based on these results, it was concluded that LHSUs could be used in TBSs to reduce a significant amount of their energy consumed in space cooling

  8. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    using SRS sludge tank sample material. A Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) details the experimental plan as outlined by the Technical Task Request (TTR). The TTR identifies that the data produced by this testing and results included in this report will support the technical baseline with portions having a safety class functional classification. The primary goals for SRNL RWT are as follows: (1) to confirm ECC performance with real tank sludge samples, (2) to determine the impact of ECC on fate of actinides and the other sludge metals, and (3) to determine changes, if any, in solids flow and settling behavior.

  9. Testing Of Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Of SRS Actual Waste Tank 5F And Tank 12H Sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    using SRS sludge tank sample material. A Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) details the experimental plan as outlined by the Technical Task Request (TTR). The TTR identifies that the data produced by this testing and results included in this report will support the technical baseline with portions having a safety class functional classification. The primary goals for SRNL RWT are as follows: (1) to confirm ECC performance with real tank sludge samples, (2) to determine the impact of ECC on fate of actinides and the other sludge metals, and (3) to determine changes, if any, in solids flow and settling behavior.

  10. Brief Report: The Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A)-- Initial Results in a German Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a tool for quantitative autism assessment in children and adolescents. The SRS-A addresses social responsiveness in adulthood. Reliability and validity using the German adaptation of the SRS-A was examined in 20 adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 62 with other mental disorders (CLIN) and 163…

  11. Investigating the Clinical Usefulness of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a Tertiary Level, Autism Spectrum Disorder Specific Assessment Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Fiona J.; Gibbs, Vicki M.; Schmidhofer, Katherine; Williams, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS; Constantino and Gruber in Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, 2005) is a commonly used screening tool for identifying children with possible autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study investigated the relationship between SRS scores and eventual diagnostic outcome…

  12. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  13. Improving the measurement of health-related quality of life in adolescent with idiopathic scoliosis: the SRS-7, a Rasch-developed short form of the SRS-22 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronni, Antonio; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire was developed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Rasch analysis (RA) is a statistical procedure which turns questionnaire ordinal scores into interval measures. Measures from Rasch-compatible questionnaires can be used, similar to body temperature or blood pressure, to quantify disease severity progression and treatment efficacy. Purpose of the current work is to present Rasch analysis (RA) of the SRS-22 questionnaire and to develop an SRS-22 Rasch-approved short form. 300 SRS-22 were randomly collected from 2447 consecutive IS adolescents at their first evaluation (229 females; 13.9 ± 1.9 years; 26.9 ± 14.7 Cobb°) in a scoliosis outpatient clinic. RA showed both disordered thresholds and overall misfit of the SRS-22. Sixteen items were re-scored and two misfitting items (6 and 14) removed to obtain a Rasch-compatible questionnaire. Participants HRQL measured too high with the rearranged questionnaire, indicating a severe SRS-22 ceiling effect. RA also highlighted SRS-22 multidimensionality, with pain/function not merging with self-image/mental health items. Item 3 showed differential item functioning (DIF) for both curve and hump amplitude. A 7-item questionnaire (SRS-7) was prepared by selecting single items from the original SRS-22. SRS-7 showed fit to the model, unidimensionality and no DIF. Compared with the SRS-22, the short form scale shows better targeting of the participants' population. RA shows that SRS-22 has poor clinimetric properties; moreover, when used with AIS at first evaluation, SRS-22 is affected by a severe ceiling effect. SRS-7, an SRS-22 7-item short form questionnaire, provides an HRQL interval measure better tailored to these participants.

  14. DECOMMISSIONING THE PHYSICS LABORATORY, BUILDING 777-10A, AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musall, J; Cathy Sizemore, C

    2007-01-17

    SRS recently completed a four-year mission to decommission {approx}250 excess facilities. As part of that effort, SRS decommissioned a 48,000 ft{sup 2} laboratory that housed four low-power test reactors, formerly used by SRS to determine reactor physics. This paper describes and reviews the decommissioning, with a focus on component segmentation and handling (i.e. hazardous material removal, demolition, and waste handling). The paper is intended to be a resource for engineers, planners, and project managers who face similar decommissioning challenges.

  15. A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

    2009-10-20

    Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant

  16. Large power diode laser of phase-change cooling%基于相变冷却的大功率二极管激光器技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高松信; 武德勇; 曹宏章; 王宏; 李弋; 杨波; 刘军; 唐淳

    2011-01-01

    By combining the methods of spray cooling heat transfer and micro-grooves phase change heat transfer, we design a heat sink based on throttle microgrooves phase change cooling theory. It has been proved by experiments that the vaporization rate of the coolant in the microgrooves of the cooler had reached 70%. The cooling efficiency increased rapidly while the coolant flow became smaller and the thermal management unit lighter. At the same time, we investigated the packaging of laser diode stacks with back surface cooling heat sink. Using the new technique of compound heat sink, AuSn alloy solder and the multi inter-face soldering, we completed the packaging of quasi-continuous wave(QCW) 3 kW laser diode stacks, with a packing spacing of 1.3 mm. It has been proved by experiments that this unit stacks device achieved a 3. 01 kW peak output power with duty cycle 10%, and the HWFM of spectrum is smaller than 3. 5 nm. The flow rate of the coolant R134a is 110 mL/min, which is about 10 times lower than that of water.%设计了一种基于相变冷却方式工作的大功率二极管激光器,该激光器的散热器是基于节流式喷射微槽道相变冷却的原理,使冷却液在微槽中的气化率达到了70%,大幅度提高了冷却效果,减小了冷却液流量,在同样制冷功率条件下,冷却液流量仅为水冷方式的1/10.利用相变冷却器进行了背冷式半导体激光器叠阵封装工艺的研究,采用复合热沉与AuSn硬焊料结合的新型封装工艺,完成了准连续3 kW叠阵的封装.实验测试表明,单元叠阵的输出功率达到3.01 kW,占空比10%,封装间距为1.3 mm,光谱宽度小于3.5 nm.最大功率输出时所需R134a冷却液的流量仅为110 mL/min.

  17. Cooling Vest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Because quadriplegics are unable to perspire below the level of spinal injury, they cannot tolerate heat stress. A cooling vest developed by Ames Research Center and Upjohn Company allows them to participate in outdoor activities. The vest is an adaptation of Ames technology for thermal control garments used to remove excess body heat of astronauts. The vest consists of a series of corrugated channels through which cooled water circulates. Its two outer layers are urethane coated nylon, and there is an inner layer which incorporates the corrugated channels. It can be worn as a backpack or affixed to a wheelchair. The unit includes a rechargeable battery, mini-pump, two quart reservoir and heat sink to cool the water.

  18. Large magnetic entropy change and relative cooling power in the rare earth intermetallic HoCo{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 1.75} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Rajib [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Nirmala, R., E-mail: nirmala@physics.iitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Arout Chelvane, J. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Malik, S.K. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59082 -970 (Brazil)

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of cubic Laves phase rare earth intermetallic HoCo{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 1.75} compound have been investigated. Magnetization measurements show that HoCo{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 1.75} orders ferromagnetically at 22 K (T{sub C}). The magnetization vs field (M–μ{sub 0}H) isotherm at 2 K shows negligible hysteresis. The isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub m}) is calculated from the measured M–µ{sub 0}H data near T{sub C.} The maximum value of ΔS{sub m}, ΔS{sub m}{sup max}, is about −18.9 J/kg-K at T{sub C} for a field change of 5 T with a refrigerant capacity of 572 J/kg. The material exhibits large ΔS{sub m}{sup max} of −9.4 J/kg-K even for a low field change of 2 T. Universal master curve is constructed by rescaling ΔS{sub m} vs T curves for various fields to confirm the second order nature of the magnetic transition at T{sub C}. Large ΔS{sub m}{sup max} value, wide temperature span of cooling and high relative cooling power make HoCo{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 1.75} a potential magnetic refrigerant for low temperature applications such as hydrogen liquefaction. - Highlights: • A large magnetocaloric effect is observed in Laves phase HoCo{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 1.75} compound. • The isothermal magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub m} vs T of HoCo{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 1.75} is broad near T{sub C}. • The magnetization vs field isotherms have negligible hysteresis. • A large relative cooling power is realized in HoCo{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 1.75}. • Universal master curve is constructed by rescaling ΔS{sub m} vs T data.

  19. Seismic Hazard Characterization at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS): Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savy, J.B.

    1994-06-24

    The purpose of the Seismic Hazard Characterization project for the Savannah River Site (SRS-SHC) is to develop estimates of the seismic hazard for several locations within the SRS. Given the differences in the geology and geotechnical characteristics at each location, the estimates of the seismic hazard are to allow for the specific local conditions at each site. Characterization of seismic hazard is a critical factor for the design of new facilities as well as for the review and potential retrofit of existing facilities at SRS. The scope of the SRS seismic hazard characterization reported in this document is limited to the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). The goal of the project is to provide seismic hazard estimates based on a state-of-the-art method which is consistent with developments and findings of several ongoing studies which are deemed to bring improvements in the state of the seismic hazard analyses.

  20. SU-E-T-630: Commissioning for SRS Planning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pella, S [South Florida Radiation Oncology and Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Smith, C; Leventouri, T [Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Bacala, A [Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of, Iligan City (Philippines)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: This study will try to find optimal procedures to collect small fields beam data for commissioning in treatment planning systems (TPS), and to provide a protocol to collect output factors for very small field sizes: 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm to 4.0 cm × 4.0 cm.This will help in determining the correct beam configuration methods in TPS planning intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and stereotactic radiosurgery SRS using mini multileaf collimation (mMLC). Methods: Data has been collected for a mMLC linear accelerator (linac) Novalis from 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm to 10 cm × 10 cm (its maximum field size). The TPS chosen is BrainLab, Eclipse and Cyberknife. The beam data collected was modeled and imported in the TPS. Verification plans were generated in solid water to confirm the goodness of the data. 3D and IMRT plans on regular CT scans were generated and verified using Mapcheck. All 3D plans with field sizes above 4 cm × 4 cm verified excellent using a distance to agreement of 2 mm and a 2% tolerance. IMRT plans gave an error of -8%. New scans with new detectors have been taken, new field sizes were introduced, and focus has been applied on determining the dosimetric leaf gap. Results: Although this is still a work in progress, this study brings several issues to light: the importance of the correct technique in beam data collection from the correct watertank to the correct detectors. Readings for rectangular fields have to be taken especially for fields which one side is under 4 cm. Conclusion: The use of equivalent square fields will not provide correct readings for the fields with large differences between the length and the width.

  1. The effect of SRS on pilot-tone detection technique in DWDM system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiguo Gao(高志国); Minghua Chen(陈明华); Hongwei Chen(陈宏伟); Shizhong Xie(谢世钟)

    2004-01-01

    A math model that can describe the effect of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) on pilot-tone detection technique is proposed. Thrugh numerical simulation, it is shown that the effect of SRS could produce ghost-tones. The power of ghost-tones was larger for the channels separated further from the real-tone.The power ratio between real-tone and ghost-tones increases linearly with the increase of transmission length when propagation distance longer than 300 km.

  2. Three-dimensional transient cooling simulations of a portable electronic device using PCM (phase change materials) in multi-fin heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient three-dimensional heat transfer numerical simulations were conducted to investigate a hybrid PCM (phase change materials) based multi-fin heat sink. Numerical computation was conducted with different amounts of fins (0 fin, 3 fins and 6 fins), various heating power level (2 W, 3 W and 4 W), different orientation tests (vertical/horizontal/slanted), and charge and discharge modes. Calculating time step (0.03 s, 0.05 s, and 0.07 s) size was discussed for transient accuracy as well. The theoretical model developed is validated by comparing numerical predictions with the available experimental data in the literature. The results showed that the transient surface temperatures are predicted with a maximum discrepancy within 10.2%. The operation temperature can be controlled well by the attendance of phase change material and the longer melting time can be conducted by using a multi-fin hybrid heat sink respectively. -- Highlights: → Electronic device cooling use phase change materials. → N-eicosane is adapted as phase change materials. → Present surface transient temperatures prediction error is within 10.2%. → Hybrid PCM-heat sink system provides stable operation temperature. → Orientation effects show independent on the phase change performance.

  3. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the internal elements of the typical types of cooling towers currently used, delineates their functions and shows how to upgrade them in the real world for energy savings and profitability of operation. Before and after statistics of costs and profits obtained through optimization of colder water by engineered thermal upgrading are discussed

  4. A Super Cooled, Non-toxic, Non-flammable Phase Change Material Thermal Pack for Portable Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept development and test of a water-based, advanced Phase Change Material (PCM) heat sink is proposed. Utilizing a novel material choice for both an...

  5. A Super Cooled, Non-toxic, Non-flammable Phase Change Material Thermal Pack for Portable Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The continuation of concept development and test of a water-based, advanced Phase Change Material (PCM) heat sink is proposed. Utilizing a novel material choice for...

  6. Effects of climate change on regional energy systems focussing on space heating and cooling: A case study of Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Hausl Stephan; Themessl Matthias; Gadocha Sabine; Schardinger Ingrid; Biberacher Markus; Castellazzi Bernhard; Gobiet Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Climate change affects regions differently and therefore also climate change effects on energy systems need to be analyzed region specific. The objective of the study presented is to show and analyze these effects on regional energy systems following a high spatial resolution approach. Three regional climate scenarios are downscaled to a 1 km resolution and error corrected for three different testing regions in Austria. These climate data are used to analyz...

  7. Enthalpy and entropy changes during physical ageing of 20% polystyrene–80% poly(α-methylstyrene) blend and the cooling rate effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righetti, M.C., E-mail: cristina.righetti@ipcf.cnr.it; Johari, G.P.

    2015-05-10

    Highlights: • Aging of polystyrene–poly(α-methylstyrene) blend studied by DSC. • Model-free thermodynamics used to analyse the temperature, time and cooling rate effects. • Aging kinetics differ from the α-relaxation dynamics. • Fictive temperature’s change interpreted in terms of aging kinetics. - Abstract: Certain compositions of polymer blends remain mixed in the glassy state, and demix on heating and may demix or otherwise change on physical aging. To investigate these effects, we studied the loss of enthalpy and entropy of a 20% polystyrene–80% poly(α-methylstyrene) blend: (i) after aging it for varying periods at a fixed temperature, (ii) after aging it for a fixed period at various temperatures and (iii) after vitrifying it at two different cooling rates prior to the physical aging. The results have been analysed by: (a) fitting the TNM model for a non-exponential, non-linear relaxation, and (b) by determining the enthalpy and entropy loss on aging. A single set of TNM model-fit parameters did not fit the data obtained for different cooling rates, and for the physically aged blend, and for some conditions a sub-T{sub g} feature known from previous studies of pure polymers appeared. The enthalpy and entropy on physical aging are found to decrease non-exponentially, but the exponent, β{sup age}, and the characteristic time, τ{sub a} (i.e., reciprocal of the rate constant of aging-kinetics), differ from the β{sup cal} and τ{sub 0} determined by fitting the TNM model to the data. This indicates that either τ{sub a} itself is time-dependent during the relaxation, and/or β{sup age} varies with the temperature. Since the characteristic time of the α-relaxation process and its non-exponential parameter refer to density and structure fluctuations in a state of fixed volume and energy, these two are neither expected to be the same as the characteristic time and the parameter observed for aging, nor are they found to be the same. We also discuss

  8. Enthalpy and entropy changes during physical ageing of 20% polystyrene–80% poly(α-methylstyrene) blend and the cooling rate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Aging of polystyrene–poly(α-methylstyrene) blend studied by DSC. • Model-free thermodynamics used to analyse the temperature, time and cooling rate effects. • Aging kinetics differ from the α-relaxation dynamics. • Fictive temperature’s change interpreted in terms of aging kinetics. - Abstract: Certain compositions of polymer blends remain mixed in the glassy state, and demix on heating and may demix or otherwise change on physical aging. To investigate these effects, we studied the loss of enthalpy and entropy of a 20% polystyrene–80% poly(α-methylstyrene) blend: (i) after aging it for varying periods at a fixed temperature, (ii) after aging it for a fixed period at various temperatures and (iii) after vitrifying it at two different cooling rates prior to the physical aging. The results have been analysed by: (a) fitting the TNM model for a non-exponential, non-linear relaxation, and (b) by determining the enthalpy and entropy loss on aging. A single set of TNM model-fit parameters did not fit the data obtained for different cooling rates, and for the physically aged blend, and for some conditions a sub-Tg feature known from previous studies of pure polymers appeared. The enthalpy and entropy on physical aging are found to decrease non-exponentially, but the exponent, βage, and the characteristic time, τa (i.e., reciprocal of the rate constant of aging-kinetics), differ from the βcal and τ0 determined by fitting the TNM model to the data. This indicates that either τa itself is time-dependent during the relaxation, and/or βage varies with the temperature. Since the characteristic time of the α-relaxation process and its non-exponential parameter refer to density and structure fluctuations in a state of fixed volume and energy, these two are neither expected to be the same as the characteristic time and the parameter observed for aging, nor are they found to be the same. We also discuss the change in the fictive temperature for

  9. Declining Snow Cover Reduces Radiative Cooling from Historic Land Use Change in the Western Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, B.; Rocha, A. V.; McLachlan, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Anthropocene is characterized by rapid changes in both land use and snow cover. The relative importance of these two forces remains unknown but may have important and long-term biophysical effects that are not adequately incorporated into current modeling efforts. Humans have altered the landscape of the Eastern U.S. both historically through deforestation during European settlement and more recently through climatic reductions in snow cover. Here we empirically reconstruct historic albedo in the Eastern U.S. using both modern and historic data. We focus on the Western Great Lakes region (MI, WI, MN, IL, IN), a global hotspot of historic deforestation that spans latitudes where anthropogenic climate modifications have produced important changes in snow cover. We find that vegetation changes have caused an overall increase in regional albedo that is strongest where intensive land use persists (i.e. agriculture) and weakest where forest regrowth has occurred. Changes in snow cover have caused an overall decrease in regional albedo that is about half as strong as increase in albedo due to vegetation change. Although the negative forcings of historic land use change may currently provide a radiative 'discount' on regional warming, these benefits are likely to disappear with time as snow cover decreases and forest regrowth continues.

  10. Irreversible structure change of the as prepared FeMnP{sub 1−x}Si{sub x}-structure on the initial cooling through the curie temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höglin, Viktor, E-mail: viktor.hoglin@kemi.uu.se [Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Cedervall, Johan [Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Andersson, Mikael Svante; Sarkar, Tapati; Nordblad, Per [Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Sahlberg, Martin [Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-01-15

    FeMnP{sub 0.75}Si{sub 0.25} experiences a first order para- to ferromagnetic transition at about 200 K. In common with some other alloy compositions crystallizing in the Fe{sub 2}P structure, the magnetic transition of the as prepared alloy occurs at a lower temperature than on subsequent cooling events. This virgin effect is found to be accompanied by a magnetostrictively induced irreversible structure change that persists on succeeding cooling heating cycles. These findings provide means to understand and control the thermal hysteresis of the (Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}){sub 2}P{sub 1−y}Si{sub y} alloy system which is a promising material class for use in magnetocaloric refrigerators. - Highlights: • FeMnP{sub 1−x}Si{sub x} exhibits a first order phase transition at the Curie temperature (T{sub c}). • The lattice parameters exhibit a discontinuous change at the transition. • The structure is permanently altered by the initial cooling through T{sub c}. • The transition temperature on cooling is enhanced by initial cooling. • Subsequent cooling/heating does not cause further changes of T{sub c}.

  11. Change On The S-Z Effect Induced By The Cooling Flow CF On The Hot Electronic Gas At The Center OF The Clusters Of Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejd Caca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Building more accurate profiles for temperature and density of hot electronic gas concentrated in the center of clusters of galaxies is a constant problem in survey of Sunyeav Zeldovich effect SZ. An effect that consists in the inverse Compton effect of the hot electronic gas interacting with Cosmic Microwave Back- ground CMB photons passing through Intra Cluster Medium ICM. So far the Isothermal model is used for temperature profiling in the calculation of the inverse Compton effect but based on the recent improved observations from satellites which showed that the hot electronic gas presents a feature called Cooling Flow CF. Temperatures in this model differs towards the edges of the Clusters of Galaxies leading to a change on the Compton parameter in comparison with Isothermal model. In this paper are processed data provided by X-ray satellite Chandra. The X-ray analysis is based on two models for the electron density and temperature profile. A sample of 12 clusters of galaxies are analyzed and by building the temperature profiles using CF model the differences on the Compton parameter are 10-100 in comparison with Isothermal model. Therefore to increase the accuracy of evaluation of the Compton parameter we should take into account the change of the electronic gas tempera- ture change that affect changes in both CMB spectrum and temperature from SZ effect.

  12. A very cool cooling system

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 Gigatracker is a jewel of technology: its sensor, which delivers the time of the crossing particles with a precision of less than 200 picoseconds (better than similar LHC detectors), has a cooling system that might become the precursor to a completely new detector technique.   The 115 metre long vacuum tank of the NA62 experiment. The NA62 Gigatracker (GTK) is composed of a set of three innovative silicon pixel detectors, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. Installed in the heart of the NA62 detector, the silicon sensors are cooled down (to about -20 degrees Celsius) by a microfluidic silicon device. “The cooling system is needed to remove the heat produced by the readout chips the silicon sensor is bonded to,” explains Alessandro Mapelli, microsystems engineer working in the Physics department. “For the NA62 Gigatracker we have designed a cooling plate on top of which both the silicon sensor and the...

  13. Modelling the concentration and dimensional changes in the structural constituents of vermicular graphite cast iron on cooling within the range of solidus-eutectoid temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kapturkiewicz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A mathcmaricaI modcl md a simulation prognm havc bccn dcvclopd lo trace changcs in thc stnlcturc of W-C alloy on ctwliag hp111 ihcsolidus tcmpcraturc to thc !cmpcmtwrc of cutccloid tmsformation. A simplitid schematic rcprcscntatinn OF thc proccss can hc rcrcrml to thccast iron with vcrmicular gnphirc. Thc numerical cxprirncnts using the ncwly dcvcl~pcd program havc proved a significant crfcct of thccooling conditions and stmcturc rcfincmcnt dcgm (~hcdi mensions of austenitc on thc concentration ficld in nustcnilc and. conscr~ucntlyo. nthc dimensional changes of gmphitc within thc cxamincd cooling range. Thc dcvclopcd mcrhds of rnodclling rhc proccss of transrormntioncnablc including thc proccdurc into a cornplcx softwm o p t i n g in a system reproducing in rcal mnnncr the cxt ing configun~ion. whilc thcohtaincd rcsuIts indicate an imponant cffcct of thcrrnophysicaI parameters md hcat transfcr proccss on final aliay an~cturc

  14. On the Method of Air Jet Cooling in Green Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Green cooling is an important technology in green manufacturing. In the way of jetting, cooling airflow is used in the experiments of metal material cutting, by compari- son of the changes of some technological factors, such as cutting heat, surface finish, in the process of jet cooling, pour cooling and natural cooling, we can draw the conclusion that air jet cooling has a better cooling effect and green function. It can be widely used in both aditional and automatic green manufacturing.

  15. Cdk1 targets Srs2 to complete synthesis-dependent strand annealing and to promote recombinational repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Saponaro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cdk1 kinase phosphorylates budding yeast Srs2, a member of UvrD protein family, displays both DNA translocation and DNA unwinding activities in vitro. Srs2 prevents homologous recombination by dismantling Rad51 filaments and is also required for double-strand break (DSB repair. Here we examine the biological significance of Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Srs2, using mutants that constitutively express the phosphorylated or unphosphorylated protein isoforms. We found that Cdk1 targets Srs2 to repair DSB and, in particular, to complete synthesis-dependent strand annealing, likely controlling the disassembly of a D-loop intermediate. Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation controls turnover of Srs2 at the invading strand; and, in absence of this modification, the turnover of Rad51 is not affected. Further analysis of the recombination phenotypes of the srs2 phospho-mutants showed that Srs2 phosphorylation is not required for the removal of toxic Rad51 nucleofilaments, although it is essential for cell survival, when DNA breaks are channeled into homologous recombinational repair. Cdk1-targeted Srs2 displays a PCNA-independent role and appears to have an attenuated ability to inhibit recombination. Finally, the recombination defects of unphosphorylatable Srs2 are primarily due to unscheduled accumulation of the Srs2 protein in a sumoylated form. Thus, the Srs2 anti-recombination function in removing toxic Rad51 filaments is genetically separable from its role in promoting recombinational repair, which depends exclusively on Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation. We suggest that Cdk1 kinase counteracts unscheduled sumoylation of Srs2 and targets Srs2 to dismantle specific DNA structures, such as the D-loops, in a helicase-dependent manner during homologous recombinational repair.

  16. Cdk1 targets Srs2 to complete synthesis-dependent strand annealing and to promote recombinational repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponaro, Marco; Callahan, Devon; Zheng, Xiuzhong; Krejci, Lumir; Haber, James E; Klein, Hannah L; Liberi, Giordano

    2010-02-01

    Cdk1 kinase phosphorylates budding yeast Srs2, a member of UvrD protein family, displays both DNA translocation and DNA unwinding activities in vitro. Srs2 prevents homologous recombination by dismantling Rad51 filaments and is also required for double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here we examine the biological significance of Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Srs2, using mutants that constitutively express the phosphorylated or unphosphorylated protein isoforms. We found that Cdk1 targets Srs2 to repair DSB and, in particular, to complete synthesis-dependent strand annealing, likely controlling the disassembly of a D-loop intermediate. Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation controls turnover of Srs2 at the invading strand; and, in absence of this modification, the turnover of Rad51 is not affected. Further analysis of the recombination phenotypes of the srs2 phospho-mutants showed that Srs2 phosphorylation is not required for the removal of toxic Rad51 nucleofilaments, although it is essential for cell survival, when DNA breaks are channeled into homologous recombinational repair. Cdk1-targeted Srs2 displays a PCNA-independent role and appears to have an attenuated ability to inhibit recombination. Finally, the recombination defects of unphosphorylatable Srs2 are primarily due to unscheduled accumulation of the Srs2 protein in a sumoylated form. Thus, the Srs2 anti-recombination function in removing toxic Rad51 filaments is genetically separable from its role in promoting recombinational repair, which depends exclusively on Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation. We suggest that Cdk1 kinase counteracts unscheduled sumoylation of Srs2 and targets Srs2 to dismantle specific DNA structures, such as the D-loops, in a helicase-dependent manner during homologous recombinational repair. PMID:20195513

  17. A new variable for SRS plan quality evaluation based on normal tissue sparing: The Effect of Prescription Isodose Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Q; Lei, Y; Morgan, B; Driewer, J; Zhang, M; Li, S; Zhou, S; Zhen, W; Thompson, R; Wahl, A; Lin, C; Enke, C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: A new dosimetric variable, dose dropping speed (DDS), was proposed and used to evaluate normal tissue sparing among stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) plans with different prescription isodose lines. Methods: Forty plans were generated for 8 intracranial SRS cases, prescribing to isodose levels (IDLs) ranging from 50% to 90% in 10% increments. Whilst maintaining similar coverage and conformity, plans at different IDLs were evaluated in terms of normal tissue sparing using the proposed DDS. The DDS was defined as the greater decay coefficient in a double exponential decay fit of the dose drop-off outside the PTV, which models the steep portion of the drop-off. Provided that the prescription dose covers the whole PTV, a greater DDS indicates better normal tissue sparing. Results: Among all plans, the DDS was found the lowest for the prescription at 90% IDL and the highest for the prescription at 60% or 70%. Beam profile slope change in penumbra and its field size dependence were explored and given as t...

  18. Assessing autistic traits: cross-cultural validation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz; Constantino, John N

    2008-12-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a quantitative measure of autistic traits in 4- to 18-year-olds, which has been used in behavior-genetic, epidemiological and intervention studies. The US standardization demonstrated a single-factor structure and good to excellent psychometric properties. The cross-cultural validity of the German adaptation of the parent-report SRS in a sample of N=1,436 children and adolescents: 838 typically developing and 527 clinical participants (160 with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)) was examined. Internal consistency (0.91-0.97), test-retest reliability (0.84-0.97), interrater reliability (0.76 and 0.95) and convergent validity with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule as well as the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Social Communication Questionnaire (0.35-0.58) were satisfactory to good. The SRS total score discriminated between ASD and other mental disorders. SRS scores proved to be sufficiently independent of general psychopathology. Principal component analyses yielded single-factor solutions for the normative and clinical subsamples. In addition, construct validity was ensured by consistent correlations with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, the Child Behavior Checklist and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. Normative SRS total scores for girls and boys as well as values for ASD were lower in the German sample, while scores for conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity/conduct disorder combined were higher. Generally, cross-cultural validity of the SRS seems to be sufficiently assured for a large European sample. However, some discrepancies regarding SRS normative and clinical raw score distributions, reliability and validity findings are critically discussed. PMID:19360690

  19. Dynamic changes of emitting electron distribution in the jet of 3C 279: signatures of acceleration and cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Dahai; Liao, Jinyuan; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamic changes of electron energy distribution (EED) through systematically analysing the quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 in different states. With Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique we model fourteen SEDs of 3C 279 using a leptonic model with a three-parameter log-parabola electron energy distribution (EED). The 14 SEDs can be satisfactorily fitted with the one-zone leptonic model. The observed $\\gamma$ rays in 13 states are attributed to Compton scattering of external infrared photons from a surrounding dusty torus. The curved $\\gamma$-ray spectrum observed during 2-8 April 2014 is well explained by the external Compton of dust radiation. It is found that there is a clear positive correlation between the curvature parameter $b$ of the EED and the electron peak energy $\\gamma'_{\\rm pk}$. No clear correlation between $b$ and the synchrotron peak frequency $\

  20. Staying cool in a changing landscape: the influence of maximum daily ambient temperature on grizzly bear habitat selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Karine E; Cardinal, Etienne; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Côté, Steeve D

    2016-08-01

    To fulfill their needs, animals are constantly making trade-offs among limiting factors. Although there is growing evidence about the impact of ambient temperature on habitat selection in mammals, the role of environmental conditions and thermoregulation on apex predators is poorly understood. Our objective was to investigate the influence of ambient temperature on habitat selection patterns of grizzly bears in the managed landscape of Alberta, Canada. Grizzly bear habitat selection followed a daily and seasonal pattern that was influenced by ambient temperature, with adult males showing stronger responses than females to warm temperatures. Cutblocks aged 0-20 years provided an abundance of forage but were on average 6 °C warmer than mature conifer stands and 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks. When ambient temperatures increased, the relative change (odds ratio) in the probability of selection for 0- to 20-year-old cutblocks decreased during the hottest part of the day and increased during cooler periods, especially for males. Concurrently, the probability of selection for 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks increased on warmer days. Following plant phenology, the odds of selecting 0- to 20-year-old cutblocks also increased from early to late summer while the odds of selecting 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks decreased. Our results demonstrate that ambient temperatures, and therefore thermal requirements, play a significant role in habitat selection patterns and behaviour of grizzly bears. In a changing climate, large mammals may increasingly need to adjust spatial and temporal selection patterns in response to thermal constraints.

  1. Summary of the SRS Severe Accident Analysis Program, 1987--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, T.A.; Hyder, M.L.; Britt, T.E.; Allison, D.K.; Chow, S.; Graves, R.D.; DeWald, A.B. Jr.; Monson, P.R. Jr.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Severe Accident Analysis Program (SAAP) is a program of experimental and analytical studies aimed at characterizing severe accidents that might occur in the Savannah River Site Production Reactors. The goals of the Severe Accident Analysis Program are: To develop an understanding of severe accidents in SRS reactors that is adequate to support safety documentation for these reactors, including the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), and other studies evaluating the safety of reactor operation; To provide tools and bases for the evaluation of existing or proposed safety related equipment in the SRS reactors; To provide bases for the development of accident management procedures for the SRS reactors; To develop and maintain on the site a sufficient body of knowledge, including documents, computer codes, and cognizant engineers and scientists, that can be used to authoritatively resolve questions or issues related to reactor accidents. The Severe Accident Analysis Program was instituted in 1987 and has already produced a substantial amount of information, and specialized calculational tools. Products of the Severe Accident Analysis Program (listed in Section 9 of this report) have been used in the development of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), and in the development of technical specifications for the SRS reactors. A staff of about seven people is currently involved directly in the program and in providing input on severe accidents to other SRS activities.

  2. Hydrothermal preparation and persistence characteristics of nanosized phosphor SrS: Eu2+, Dy3+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Xiaoxia; HUANG Shihua; YOU Fangtian; KANG Kai

    2009-01-01

    Nanosized long-persistent phosphors SrS: Eu2+, Dy3+ were prepared by the hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and charge-coupled device spectrometry. The persistence characteristic was studied using the decay curves. The results showed that the emission intensity decreased sharply with temperature increasing, although the particle size increased. The S2- vacancies caused by oxidization served as shallow traps, and Dy3+ served as deep traps in SrS: Eu2+, Dy3+. The afterglow intensity of SrS: Eu2+, Dy3+ was higher than that of SrS: Eu2+ prepared at the same temperature. However, the minimization span of initial afterglow with temperature for the former sample was larger than that for the latter. Binary-doped phosphor decayed more slowly than the singly doped one. The afterglow of SrS: Eu2+, Dy3+ decayed more quickly with the increase of sintering temperature.

  3. Srs2 mediates PCNA-SUMO-dependent inhibition of DNA repair synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Completion of DNA replication needs to be ensured even when challenged with fork progression problems or DNA damage. PCNA and its modifications constitute a molecular switch to control distinct repair pathways. In yeast, SUMOylated PCNA (S-PCNA) recruits Srs2 to sites of replication where Srs2 can disrupt Rad51 filaments and prevent homologous recombination (HR). We report here an unexpected additional mechanism by which S-PCNA and Srs2 block the synthesis-dependent extension of a recombination intermediate, thus limiting its potentially hazardous resolution in association with a cross-over. This new Srs2 activity requires the SUMO interaction motif at its C-terminus, but neither its translocase activity nor its interaction with Rad51. Srs2 binding to S-PCNA dissociates Polδ and Polη from the repair synthesis machinery, thus revealing a novel regulatory mechanism controlling spontaneous genome rearrangements. Our results suggest that cycling cells use the Siz1-dependent SUMOylation of PCNA to limit the extension of repair synthesis during template switch or HR and attenuate reciprocal DNA strand exchanges to maintain genome stability. (authors)

  4. Review of seismicity and ground motion studies related to development of seismic design at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRC response spectra developed in Reg. Guide 1.60 is being used in the studies related to restarting of the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors. Because it envelopes all the other site specific spectra which have been developed for SRS, it provides significant conservatism in the design and analysis of the reactor systems for ground motions of this value or with these probability levels. This spectral shape is also the shape used for the design of the recently licensed Vogtle Nuclear Station, located south of the Savannah River from the SRS. This report provides a summary of the data base used to develop the design basis earthquake. This includes the seismicity, rates of occurrence, magnitudes, and attenuation relationships. A summary is provided for the studies performed and methodologies used to establish the design basis earthquake for SRS. The ground motion response spectra developed from the various studies are also summarized. The seismic hazard and PGA's developed for other critical facilities in the region are discussed, and the SRS seismic instrumentation is presented. The programs for resolving outstanding issues are discussed and conclusions are presented

  5. Cool snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Brock, Steen; Brunsø, Karen;

    2016-01-01

    such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  6. Cool snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Brock, Steen; brunsø, karen;

    2016-01-01

    product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  7. RANGE AND DISTRIBUTION OF TECHNETIUM KD VALUES IN THE SRS SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D

    2008-10-28

    .4 mL/g. The E-Area subsurface is subdivided into three hydrostratigraphic layers: Upper Vadose Zone (11 to 30 ft depth), Lower Vadose Zone (30 to 51 ft depth), and aquifer (51 to 95 ft depth). The Upper Vadose Zone generally contains more clay than the Lower Vadose Zone, and the Aquifer tends to be made up of mostly sand layers with clay strata. The mean K{sub d} values of each of these zones did not differ significantly and the K{sub d} values from each zone were not from the Normal distribution. The ranges of values were greatest in the Upper Vadose Zone and least in the Lower Vadose Zone. Previous Best Estimate Tc K{sub d} values for Sandy Sediment and Clayey Sediment were 0.1 and 0.2 mL/g, respectively (Kaplan 2007a). A more thorough review indicates that the Best Estimates for Sandy Sediment is 0.1 mL/g and for Clayey Sediment is 0.8 mL/g (Kaplan 2007b). This current dataset greatly increases the number of Tc K{sub d} values measured with SRS sediments, but perhaps more importantly, provides a better estimate for E-Area sediments, and provides a measure of Tc K{sub d} distributions. Based on this dataset, the best overall Tc K{sub d} value for E-Area is the mean, 3.4 mL/g, with a log-normal distribution between the 95 percentile values of 2.4 to 4.4 mL/g. This document version differs from the earlier version, SRNS-STI-2008-00286, in that it includes some editorial corrections. This version does not contain any technical changes or changes to the conclusions presented in the earlier version.

  8. ATLAS - Liquid Cooling Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, P.

    1998-01-01

    Photo 1 - Cooling Unit - Side View Photo 2 - Cooling Unit - Detail Manifolds Photo 3 - Cooling Unit - Rear View Photo 4 - Cooling Unit - Detail Pump, Heater and Exchanger Photo 5 - Cooling Unit - Detail Pump and Fridge Photo 6 - Cooling Unit - Front View

  9. Brief Report: The Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A): Initial Results in a German Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Bölte, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a tool for quantitative autism assessment in children and adolescents. The SRS-A addresses social responsiveness in adulthood. Reliability and validity using the German adaptation of the SRS-A was examined in 20 adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 62 with other mental disorders (CLIN) and 163 typically developing (TD) participants. Cronbach’s alpha ranged from .71 (TD) to .89 (ASD). A SRS-A total score of 67 had a sensitivity of .85, and a spec...

  10. Global albedo change and radiative cooling from anthropogenic land-cover change, 1700 to 2005 based on MODIS, land-use harmonization and radiative kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread anthropogenic land-cover change over the last five centuries has influenced the global climate system through both biogeochemical and biophysical processes. Models indicate that warming from carbon emissions associated with land cover conversion have been partially offset if not outweigh...

  11. SRs 320 - a new machine in the bucket wheel excavator series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinel, H.

    1987-05-01

    Design and technical specifications are presented of the SRs 320, produced by TAKRAF. This excavator type was needed by brown coal surface mines in the GDR; the first machine went into operation at the end of 1986. The excavator weighs 350 t, has 745 to 900 kW motor power, cutting height of 15 m, bucket wheel diameter of 6.5 m and a theoretical cutting capacity of 2300 m/sup 3//h. Various schemes and diagrams of the design are provided. Further details discussed include excavator movements, reach of booms, cutting performance, the driver stand, energy supply system, etc. The excavator is part of the TAKRAF SRs 65 to SRs 403 small excavator series with a cutting capacity ranging between 200 and 3,000 m/sup 3//h. The excavator series is technologically adapted for operating in combination with TAKRAF shiftable belt conveyors, mobile transfer conveyors and bucket wheel excavators. 1 ref.

  12. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Sun, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.; McKone, T.E.; Straume, T.; Anspaugh, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    An assessment of the health risks was made for releases of tritium and {sup 137}Cs from the Savannah River Site (SRS) at water-receptor locations downriver. Although reactor operations were shut down at the SRS in 1989, liquid wastes continue to be released to the Savannah River either by direct discharges into onsite surface waters or by groundwater transport into surface waters from waste facilities. Existing state mandates will cause the liquid waste streams from future operations to go directly into surface waters. Two drinking water processing plants take water from the river approximately 129 km downriver from the SRS. Potential incremental risks of cancer fatality to individuals and each population were analyzed for either no further reactor operations or resumption of operation of one specific reactor.

  13. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Sun, C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.; McKone, T.E.; Straume, T.; Anspaugh, L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    An assessment of the health risks was made for releases of tritium and [sup 137]Cs from the Savannah River Site (SRS) at water-receptor locations downriver. Although reactor operations were shut down at the SRS in 1989, liquid wastes continue to be released to the Savannah River either by direct discharges into onsite surface waters or by groundwater transport into surface waters from waste facilities. Existing state mandates will cause the liquid waste streams from future operations to go directly into surface waters. Two drinking water processing plants take water from the river approximately 129 km downriver from the SRS. Potential incremental risks of cancer fatality to individuals and each population were analyzed for either no further reactor operations or resumption of operation of one specific reactor.

  14. Utilization of SRS pond ash in controlled low strength material. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A.; Rajendran, N.

    1995-12-01

    Design mixes for Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) were developed which incorporate pond ashes (fly ashes) from the A-Area Ash Pile, the old F-Area Ash Basin and the D-Area Ash Basin. CLSM is a pumpable, flowable, excavatable backfill used in a variety of construction applications at SRS. Results indicate that CLSM which meets all of the SRS design specifications for backfill, can be made with the A-, D-, and F-Area pond ashes. Formulations for the design mixes are provided in this report. Use of the pond ashes may result in a cost savings for CLSM used at SRS and will utilize a by-product waste material, thereby decreasing the amount of material requiring disposal.

  15. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the health risks was made for releases of tritium and 137Cs from the Savannah River Site (SRS) at water-receptor locations downriver. Although reactor operations were shut down at the SRS in 1989, liquid wastes continue to be released to the Savannah River either by direct discharges into onsite surface waters or by groundwater transport into surface waters from waste facilities. Existing state mandates will cause the liquid waste streams from future operations to go directly into surface waters. Two drinking water processing plants take water from the river approximately 129 km downriver from the SRS. Potential incremental risks of cancer fatality to individuals and each population were analyzed for either no further reactor operations or resumption of operation of one specific reactor

  16. Magnetic entropy and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Some manifestations of magnetism are well-known and utilized on an everyday basis, e.g. using a refrigerator magnet for hanging that important note on the refrigerator door. Others are, so far, more exotic, such as cooling by making use of the magnetocaloric eect. This eect can cause a change...... in the temperature of a magnetic material when a magnetic eld is applied or removed. For many years, experimentalists have made use of dilute paramagnetic materials to achieve milliKelvin temperatures by use of the magnetocaloric eect. Also, research is done on materials, which might be used for hydrogen, helium...... or nitrogen liquefaction or for room-temperature cooling. The magnetocaloric eect can further be used to determine phase transition boundaries, if a change in the magnetic state occurs at the boundary.In this talk, I will introduce the magnetocaloric eect (MCE) and the two equations, which characterize...

  17. Cool visitors

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Pictured, from left to right: Tim Izo (saxophone, flute, guitar), Bobby Grant (tour manager), George Pajon (guitar). What do the LHC and a world-famous hip-hop group have in common? They are cool! On Saturday, 1st July, before their appearance at the Montreux Jazz Festival, three members of the 'Black Eyed Peas' came on a surprise visit to CERN, inspired by Dan Brown's Angels and Demons. At short notice, Connie Potter (Head of the ATLAS secretariat) organized a guided tour of ATLAS and the AD 'antimatter factory'. Still curious, lead vocalist Will.I.Am met CERN physicist Rolf Landua after the concert to ask many more questions on particles, CERN, and the origin of the Universe.

  18. Srs2 and Mus81–Mms4 Prevent Accumulation of Toxic Inter-Homolog Recombination Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyamura, Kenji; Arai, Kota

    2016-01-01

    Homologous recombination is an evolutionally conserved mechanism that promotes genome stability through the faithful repair of double-strand breaks and single-strand gaps in DNA, and the recovery of stalled or collapsed replication forks. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP-dependent DNA helicase Srs2 (a member of the highly conserved UvrD family of helicases) has multiple roles in regulating homologous recombination. A mutation (srs2K41A) resulting in a helicase-dead mutant of Srs2 was found to be lethal in diploid, but not in haploid, cells. In diploid cells, Srs2K41A caused the accumulation of inter-homolog joint molecule intermediates, increased the levels of spontaneous Rad52 foci, and induced gross chromosomal rearrangements. Srs2K41A lethality and accumulation of joint molecules were suppressed by inactivating Rad51 or deleting the Rad51-interaction domain of Srs2, whereas phosphorylation and sumoylation of Srs2 and its interaction with sumoylated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were not required for lethality. The structure-specific complex of crossover junction endonucleases Mus81 and Mms4 was also required for viability of diploid, but not haploid, SRS2 deletion mutants (srs2Δ), and diploid srs2Δ mus81Δ mutants accumulated joint molecule intermediates. Our data suggest that Srs2 and Mus81–Mms4 have critical roles in preventing the formation of (or in resolving) toxic inter-homolog joint molecules, which could otherwise interfere with chromosome segregation and lead to genetic instability. PMID:27390022

  19. Effectiveness-weighted control of cooling system components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Simmons, Robert E.

    2015-12-22

    Energy efficient control of cooling system cooling of an electronic system is provided based, in part, on weighted cooling effectiveness of the components. The control includes automatically determining speed control settings for multiple adjustable cooling components of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on weighted cooling effectiveness of the components of the cooling system, and the determining operates to limit power consumption of at least the cooling system, while ensuring that a target temperature associated with at least one of the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range by provisioning, based on the weighted cooling effectiveness, a desired target temperature change among the multiple adjustable cooling components of the cooling system. The provisioning includes provisioning applied power to the multiple adjustable cooling components via, at least in part, the determined control settings.

  20. Effectiveness-weighted control method for a cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Simons, Robert E.

    2015-12-15

    Energy efficient control of cooling system cooling of an electronic system is provided based, in part, on weighted cooling effectiveness of the components. The control includes automatically determining speed control settings for multiple adjustable cooling components of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on weighted cooling effectiveness of the components of the cooling system, and the determining operates to limit power consumption of at least the cooling system, while ensuring that a target temperature associated with at least one of the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range by provisioning, based on the weighted cooling effectiveness, a desired target temperature change among the multiple adjustable cooling components of the cooling system. The provisioning includes provisioning applied power to the multiple adjustable cooling components via, at least in part, the determined control settings.

  1. TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR SRS RADIOACTIVE TANK OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2013-06-27

    The primary objective of the present work is to perform a heat balance study for type-I waste tank to assess the impact of using submersible mixer pumps during waste removal. The temperature results calculated by the model will be used to evaluate the temperatures of the slurry waste under various tank operating conditions. A parametric approach was taken to develop a transient model for the heat balance study for type-I waste tanks such as Tank 11, during waste removal by SMP. The tank domain used in the present model consists of two SMP's for sludge mixing, one STP for the waste removal, cooling coil system with 36 coils, and purge gas system. The sludge waste contained in Tank 11 also has a decay heat load of about 43 W/m{sup 3} mainly due to the emission of radioactive gamma rays. All governing equations were established by an overall energy balance for the tank domain, and they were numerically solved. A transient heat balance model used single waste temperature model, which represents one temperature for the entire waste liquid domain contained in the tank at each transient time.

  2. Experimental evaluation of the radiological condition of HRVUV beam line of Indus-1 SRS at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indus Accelerator Complex comprises of two Synchrotron Radiation Sources (SRS) namely Indus-1 and Indus-2 with maximum electron beam energy being 450 MeV and 2.5 GeV respectively. Presently there are 5 operational beam lines in Indus-1 and High Resolution Vacuum Ultra Violet (HRVUV) beam line is one among them. This beam line is especially significant from radiation safety point of view due to its position. HRVUV beam line area gets significant radiation field due to beam losses in Indus-1 injection septum, Transport lines 2 and 3 (TL2/TL3) and losses in TL3 in TL3 Tunnel. Due to this reason, entry in HRVUV beam line area was prohibited during various modes of machine operation. So an attempt was made to study the dose rates in this beam line area during various modes of machine operations including worst case scenarios. Subsequent to the study, shielding augmentation/modification to reduce the radiation levels in this area was carried out. (a) A sliding shield door of lead bricks was put at MS Grill Door to stop radiation streaming from TL3 Tunnel side. (b) Shielding augmentation was done at TL2 near SIP 5, (c) at TL3 beam shutter and (d) TL3 Beam Profile Monitor-1 (BPM1). (e) Beam physicist succeeded in reducing beam losses at TL2 by changing kicker delay timings by 9 nano seconds. All these efforts have resulted in significant reduction in radiation field in HRVUV beam line area. Based on the study of radiation levels and the subsequent shielding augmentation, this area is now made accessible during Indus-1 storage as well as during Indus-2 Injection with entry restrictions applicable based on prevailing radiological conditions. This paper presents the study of radiation levels in HRVUV beam line area and the corrective actions taken on the basis of the study. (author)

  3. Knowledges and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Knowledges and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operations: Savannah River Site (SRS) Production Reactors, provides the basis for the development of content-valid certification examinations for Senior Reactor Operators (SROs) and Central Control Room Supervisors (SUP). The position of Shift Technical Engineer (STE) has been included in the catalog for completeness. This new SRS reactor operating shift crew position is held by an individual holding a CCR Supervisor Certification who has received special engineering and technical training. Also, the STE has a Bachelor of Science degree in engineering or a related technical field. The SRS catalog contains approximately 2500 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for SROs and SUPs at heavy water moderated production reactors. Each K/A statement has been rated for its importance to the safe operation of the plant in a manner ensuring the health and safety of the public. The SRS K/A catalog is presently organized into five major sections: Plant Systems grouped by Safety Function, Plant Wide Generic K/As, Emergency Plant Evolutions, Theory and Components (to be developed)

  4. Brief Report: the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A): initial results in a German cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölte, Sven

    2012-09-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a tool for quantitative autism assessment in children and adolescents. The SRS-A addresses social responsiveness in adulthood. Reliability and validity using the German adaptation of the SRS-A was examined in 20 adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 62 with other mental disorders (CLIN) and 163 typically developing (TD) participants. Cronbach's alpha ranged from .71 (TD) to .89 (ASD). A SRS-A total score of 67 had a sensitivity of .85, and a specificity of .83 for ASD versus CLIN/TD. Correlations with established autism scales (ADOS, AQ, SCQ) were moderate to high (r = .25-.83). Results provide adequate preliminary support for the application of the SRS-A. PMID:22183423

  5. A RECOMMENDED PASQUILL-GIFFORD STABILITY CLASSIFICATION METHOD FOR SAFETY BASIS ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELING AT SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, C.

    2012-03-28

    Several of the most common methods for estimating Pasquill-Gifford (PG) stability (turbulence) class were evaluated for use in modeling the radiological consequences of SRS accidental releases using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Ver. 2 (MACCS2). Evaluation criteria included: (1) the ability of the method to represent diffusion characteristics above a predominantly forested landscape at SRS, (2) suitability of the method to provide data consistent with the formulation of the MACCS2 model, and (3) the availability of onsite meteorological data to support implementation of the method The evaluation resulted in a recommendation that PG stability classification for regulatory applications at SRS should be based on measurements of the standard deviation of the vertical component of wind direction fluctuations, {sigma}{sub e}, collected from the 61-m level of the SRS meteorological towers, and processed in full accordance with EPA-454/R-99-005 (EPA, 2000). This approach provides a direct measurement that is fundamental to diffusion and captures explicitly the turbulence generated by both mechanical and buoyant forces over the characteristic surface (forested) of SRS. Furthermore, due to the potentially significant enhancement of horizontal fluctuations in wind direction from the occurrence of meander at night, the use of {sigma}{sub e} will ensure a reasonably conservative estimate of PG stability class for use in dispersion models that base diffusion calculations on a single value of PG stability class. Furthermore, meteorological data bases used as input for MACCS2 calculations should contain hourly data for five consecutive annual periods from the most recent 10 years.

  6. Decommissioning the physics laboratory, building 777-10A, at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SRS recently completed a four year mission to decommission ∼250 excess facilities. As part of that effort, SRS decommissioned a 48,000 ft2 laboratory that housed four low-power test reactors, formerly used by SRS to determine reactor physics. This paper describes and reviews the decommissioning, with a focus on component segmentation and handling (i.e. hazardous material removal, demolition, and waste handling). The paper is intended to be a resource for engineers, planners, and project managers, who face similar decommissioning challenges. Building 777-10A, located at the south end of SRS's A/M-Area, was built in 1953 and had a gross area of ∼48,000 ft2. Building 777-10A had two main areas: a west wing, which housed four experimental reactors and associated equipment; and an east wing, which housed laboratories, and shops, offices. The reactors were located in two separate areas: one area housed the Process Development Pile (PDP) reactor and the Lattice Test Reactor (LTR), while the second area housed the Standard Pile (SP) and the Sub-critical Experiment (SE) reactors. The west wing had five levels: three below and three above grade (floor elevations of -37', -28', -15', 0', +13'/+16' and +27' (roof elevation of +62')), while the east wing had two levels: one below and one above grade (floor elevations of -15' and 0' (roof elevation of +16')). Below-grade exterior walls were constructed of reinforced concrete, ∼1' thick. In general, above-grade exterior walls were steel frames covered by insulation and corrugated, asbestos-cement board. The two interior walls around the PDP/LTR were reinforced concrete ∼5' thick and ∼30' high, while the SP/SE reactors resided in a reinforced, concrete cell with 3.5'-6' thick walls/roof. All other interior walls were constructed of metal studs covered with either asbestos-cement or gypsum board. In general, the floors were constructed of reinforced concrete on cast-in-place concrete beams below-grade and concrete on

  7. Geothermal heat can cool, too

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes a look at how geothermal energy can not only be used to supply heating energy, but also be used to provide cooling too. The article reports on a conference on heating and cooling with geothermal energy that was held in Duebendorf, Switzerland, in March 2008. The influence of climate change on needs for heating and cooling and the need for additional knowledge and data on deeper rock layers is noted. The seasonal use of geothermal systems to provide heating in winter and cooling in summer is discussed. The planning of geothermal probe fields and their simulation is addressed. As an example, the geothermal installations under the recently renewed and extended 'Dolder Grand' luxury hotel in Zurich are quoted. The new SIA 384/6 norm on geothermal probes issued by the Swiss Association of Architects SIA is briefly reviewed.

  8. SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    (NOEMAIL), R

    2005-12-14

    This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The

  9. Long-term risk of radionecrosis and imaging changes after stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Kohutek, Zachary A.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Chan, Timothy A.; Brennan, Cameron W.; Tabar, Viviane; Gutin, Philip H.; Yang, T. Jonathan; Rosenblum, Marc K.; Ballangrud, Åse; Young, Robert J; Zhang, Zhigang; Beal, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Radionecrosis is a well-characterized effect of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and is occasionally associated with serious neurologic sequelae. Here, we investigated the incidence of and clinical variables associated with the development of radionecrosis and related radiographic changes after SRS for brain metastases in a cohort of patients with long-term follow up. 271 brain metastases treated with single-fraction linear accelerator-based SRS were analyzed. Radionecrosis was diagnosed eithe...

  10. SRS scientific and technical abstracts, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This document focuses on the scientific and technical information (STT) reports, articles, and presentations generated at the site by various authors and organizations of Westinghouse Savannah River Company and its subcontractors. Abstracts of these STI products are contained within this document. The abstracts have been compiled as they originally appeared in the source reports. No changes to the content have been made except as necessary to correct errors of spelling, to reduce abstract length, or to ensure that the information is unclassified. The abstracts are organized according to information categories (``UC`` categories) established by the Department of Energy`s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). When reports fall into more than one category, their abstract is included as an entry in the most applicable section of this document. UC-700 General, Miscellaneous, and Progress Reports, UC-701 Chemistry, UC-702 Environmental Sciences, UC-703 Geosciences, UC-704 Materials, UC-705 Mathematics and Computer Sciences, UC-706 Engineering, Equipment, and Instruments, UC-707 Health and Safety, UC-708 Biological Sciences, UC-711 Chemical Separation Processes for Plutonium and Uranium, UC-712 Inertial Confinement Fusion, UC-713 Radioisotope and Radiation Applications, UC-714 Criticality Studies, UC-715 Technology - Feed Materials, UC-721 Defense Waste Management, UC-722 Transportation of Nuclear Materials, UC-731 Nuclear Materials Production, UC-732 Special Isotope Separation (Plutonium), UC-733 Nuclear Raw Materials, UC-741 Chemical High Explosives, UC-742 Applications of Explosions, UC-743 Nuclear Propulsion Systems, UC-744 Aerospace Nuclear Safety, and Index 91.

  11. SRS scientific and technical abstracts, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This document focuses on the scientific and technical information (STT) reports, articles, and presentations generated at the site by various authors and organizations of Westinghouse Savannah River Company and its subcontractors. Abstracts of these STI products are contained within this document. The abstracts have been compiled as they originally appeared in the source reports. No changes to the content have been made except as necessary to correct errors of spelling, to reduce abstract length, or to ensure that the information is unclassified. The abstracts are organized according to information categories ( UC'' categories) established by the Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). When reports fall into more than one category, their abstract is included as an entry in the most applicable section of this document. UC-700 General, Miscellaneous, and Progress Reports, UC-701 Chemistry, UC-702 Environmental Sciences, UC-703 Geosciences, UC-704 Materials, UC-705 Mathematics and Computer Sciences, UC-706 Engineering, Equipment, and Instruments, UC-707 Health and Safety, UC-708 Biological Sciences, UC-711 Chemical Separation Processes for Plutonium and Uranium, UC-712 Inertial Confinement Fusion, UC-713 Radioisotope and Radiation Applications, UC-714 Criticality Studies, UC-715 Technology - Feed Materials, UC-721 Defense Waste Management, UC-722 Transportation of Nuclear Materials, UC-731 Nuclear Materials Production, UC-732 Special Isotope Separation (Plutonium), UC-733 Nuclear Raw Materials, UC-741 Chemical High Explosives, UC-742 Applications of Explosions, UC-743 Nuclear Propulsion Systems, UC-744 Aerospace Nuclear Safety, and Index 91.

  12. A Comprehensive Analysis of the SRS-Schwab Adult Spinal Deformity Classification and Confounding Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, Dennis Winge; Hansen, Lars Valentin; Dragsted, Casper Rokkjær;

    2016-01-01

    confounding variables. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The SRS-Schwab Adult Spinal Deformity Classification includes sagittal modifiers considered important for HRQOL and the clinical impact of the classification has been validated in patients from the International Spine Study Group database; however, equivocal...... results were reported for the Pelvic Tilt modifier and potential confounding variables were not evaluated. METHODS: Between March 2013 and May 2014, all adult spinal deformity patients from our outpatient clinic with sufficient radiographs were prospectively enrolled. Analyses of HRQOL variance and post...... with multivariate proportional odds regressions. P values were adjusted for multiple testing. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-two of 460 eligible patients were included for analyses. The SRS-Schwab Classification significantly discriminated HRQOL scores between normal and abnormal sagittal modifier classifications...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE NPDES STORM WATER COMPLIANCE ALTERNATIVES AT THE SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed and alternative actions to achieve water quality permit compliance at 38 storm water outfalls located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). Effluent monitoring data indicates that some of these outfalls may not presently comply with new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm Water General Permit effluent standards that became effective July 1, 2005 (SCR000000). The NPDES permit requires that best management practices (BMPs) be implemented and maintained, as necessary, to ensure that storm water discharges at SRS do not cause or contribute to the contravention of applicable state water quality standards (WQS).

  14. The threshold reduction of SRS in deuterium by multi-pass configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Cai, Xianglong; Li, Zhonghui; Xia, Xusheng; Zhou, Dongjian; Li, Gang; Cai, Hongxing; Guo, Jingwei; Jin, Yuqi

    2016-11-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in compressed D2 gas pumped with nanosecond laser radiation at 1064 nm in a multi-pass configuration has been studied. The influence of D2 pressure and pass number on Raman thresholds and the conversion efficiencies for the first Stokes (S1) and second Stokes (S2) components has been investigated. It is shown that multi-pass configuration is very efficient for the substantial reducing of SRS thresholds for both S1 and S2 components and increasing their conversion efficiencies. In our work, the S1 threshold is approximately one order of magnitude lower than that reported in previous studies; the S1 conversion efficiency reached (56.1±4.4)% at pump energy of 33 mJ. The lowest S2 threshold in the experiment is 15 mJ (with a peak power of 3 MW), and the S2 conversion efficiency reaches (32.9±3.8)%.

  15. MAXDOSE-SR: A routine release atmospheric dose model used at SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2000-02-09

    MAXDOSE-SR is a PC version of the dosimetry code MAXIGASP, which was used to calculate doses to the maximally exposed offsite individual for routine atmospheric releases of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Complete code description, verification of models, and user's manual have been included in this report. Minimal input is required to run the program, and site specific parameters are used when possible.

  16. The Brazilian version of the SRS-22r questionnaire for idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. F. Camarini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SRS-22r questionnaire is a well-accepted instrument used to measure health-related quality of life in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. No validated tool exists in Brazil for idiopathic scoliosis, and the use of the SRS-22r in non-English Laguage contries requires its transcultural adaptation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to culturally adapt the translated Brazilian version of the SRS-22r questionnaire and to determine its reliability using statistical tests for internal consistency and test-retest reliability. METHOD: The transcultural adaptation process was carried out according to the recommendations of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. The pre-final version was administered to 44 patients with idiopathic scoliosis. The mean age of the participants was 18.93 years and the mean curve magnitude was 54.6°. A subgroup of 30 volunteers completed the questionnaire a second time one week later to determine the scale's reproducibility. Internal consistency was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the test-retest reliability was determined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC. RESULTS: No floor effects were observed using the Brazilian version of the SRS-22r. Ceiling effects were observed in the Pain and Satisfaction with Management domains. The internal consistency values were very good for 3 domains and good for 2 domains. The ICC values were excellent for all domains. CONCLUSIONS: The high values of internal consistency and ICC reproducibility suggest that this version of the questionnaire can be used in Brazilian patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

  17. SRS SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION AND PROCESSING; HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cercy, M.; Peeler, D.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-25

    This report provides a historical overview and lessons learned associated with the SRS sludge batch (SB) qualification and processing programs. The report covers the framework of the requirements for waste form acceptance, the DWPF Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), waste feed acceptance, examples of how the program complies with the specifications, an overview of the Startup Program, and a summary of continuous improvements and lessons learned. The report includes a bibliography of previous reports and briefings on the topic.

  18. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  19. Shedding new light on lipid functions with CARS and SRS microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong; Ramachandran, Prasanna V; Wang, Meng C

    2014-08-01

    Modern optical microscopy has granted biomedical scientists unprecedented access to the inner workings of a cell, and revolutionized our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying physiological and disease states. In spite of these advances, however, visualization of certain classes of molecules (e.g. lipids) at the sub-cellular level has remained elusive. Recently developed chemical imaging modalities - Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy and Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) microscopy - have helped bridge this gap. By selectively imaging the vibration of a specific chemical group, these non-invasive techniques allow high-resolution imaging of individual molecules in vivo, and circumvent the need for potentially perturbative extrinsic labels. These tools have already been applied to the study of fat metabolism, helping uncover novel regulators of lipid storage. Here we review the underlying principle of CARS and SRS microscopy, and discuss the advantages and caveats of each technique. We also review recent applications of these tools in the study of lipids as well as other biomolecules, and conclude with a brief guide for interested researchers to build and use CARS/SRS systems for their own research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions.

  20. Hanford Supplemental Treatment: Literature and Modeling Review of SRS HLW Salt Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. S.; Flach, G. P.; Martino, C. J.; Zamecnik, J. R.; Harris, M. K.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-03-23

    In order to accelerate waste treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste by 2028, the Department of Energy (DOE) and CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CHG), Inc. are evaluating alternative technologies which will be used in conjunction with the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to safely pretreat and immobilize the tank waste. Several technologies (Bulk Vitrification and Steam Reforming) are currently being evaluated for immobilizing the pretreated waste. Since the WTP does not have sufficient capacity to pretreat all the waste going to supplemental treatment by the 2028 milestone, two technologies (Selective Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization) are being considered for pretreatment of salt waste. The scope of this task was to: (1) evaluate the recent Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 41 dissolution campaign and other literature to provide a more complete understanding of selective dissolution, (2) provide an update on the progress of salt dissolution and modeling activities at SRS, (3) investigate SRS experience and outside literature sources on industrial equipment and experimental results of previous fractional crystallization processes, and (4) evaluate recent Hanford AP104 boildown experiments and modeling results and recommend enhancements to the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to improve its predictive capabilities. This report provides a summary of this work and suggested recommendations.

  1. Hanford Supplemental Treatment: Literature and Modeling Review of SRS HLW Salt Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to accelerate waste treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste by 2028, the Department of Energy (DOE) and CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CHG), Inc. are evaluating alternative technologies which will be used in conjunction with the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to safely pretreat and immobilize the tank waste. Several technologies (Bulk Vitrification and Steam Reforming) are currently being evaluated for immobilizing the pretreated waste. Since the WTP does not have sufficient capacity to pretreat all the waste going to supplemental treatment by the 2028 milestone, two technologies (Selective Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization) are being considered for pretreatment of salt waste. The scope of this task was to: (1) evaluate the recent Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 41 dissolution campaign and other literature to provide a more complete understanding of selective dissolution, (2) provide an update on the progress of salt dissolution and modeling activities at SRS, (3) investigate SRS experience and outside literature sources on industrial equipment and experimental results of previous fractional crystallization processes, and (4) evaluate recent Hanford AP104 boildown experiments and modeling results and recommend enhancements to the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to improve its predictive capabilities. This report provides a summary of this work and suggested recommendations

  2. Semidominant mutations in the yeast Rad51 protein and their relationships with the Srs2 helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanet, R; Heude, M; Adjiri, A; Maloisel, L; Fabre, F

    1996-09-01

    Suppressors of the methyl methanesulfonate sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploids lacking the Srs2 helicase turned out to contain semidominant mutations in Rad5l, a homolog of the bacterial RecA protein. The nature of these mutations was determined by direct sequencing. The 26 mutations characterized were single base substitutions leading to amino acid replacements at 18 different sites. The great majority of these sites (75%) are conserved in the family of RecA-like proteins, and 10 of them affect sites corresponding to amino acids in RecA that are probably directly involved in ATP reactions, binding, and/or hydrolysis. Six mutations are in domains thought to be involved in interaction between monomers; they may also affect ATP reactions. By themselves, all the alleles confer a rad5l null phenotype. When heterozygous, however, they are, to varying degrees, negative semidominant for radiation sensitivity; presumably the mutant proteins are coassembled with wild-type Rad51 and poison the resulting nucleofilaments or recombination complexes. This negative effect is partially suppressed by an SRS2 deletion, which supports the hypothesis that Srs2 reverses recombination structures that contain either mutated proteins or numerous DNA lesions. PMID:8756636

  3. Cooling lubricants; Kuehlschmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Breuer, D. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Blome, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Deininger, C. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Hahn, J.U. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Kleine, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Nies, E. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Pflaumbaum, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Stockmann, R. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Willert, G. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Sonnenschein, G. [Maschinenbau- und Metall-Berufsgenossenschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    As a rule, the base substances used are certain liquid hydrocarbons from mineral oils as well as from native and synthetic oils. Through the addition of further substances the cooling lubricant takes on the particular qualities required for the use in question. Employees working with cooling lubricants are exposed to various hazards. The assessment of the concentrations at the work station is carried out on the basis of existing technical rules for contact with hazardous substances. However, the application/implementation of compulsory investigation and supervision in accordance with these rules is made difficult by the fact that cooling lubricants are, as a rule, made up of complicated compound mixtures. In addition to protecting employees from exposure to mists and vapours from the cooling lubricants, protection for the skin is also of particular importance. Cooling lubricants should not, if at all possible, be brought into contact with the skin. Cleansing the skin and skin care is just as important as changing working clothes regularly, and hygiene and cleanliness at the workplace. Unavoidable emissions are to be immediately collected at the point where they arise or are released and safely disposed of. This means taking into account all sources of emissions. The programme presented in this report therefore gives a very detailed account of the individual protective measures and provides recommendations for the design of technical protection facilities. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Als Basisstoffe dienen in der Regel bestimmte fluessige Kohlenwasserstoffverbindungen aus Mineraloelen sowie aus nativen oder synthetischen Oelen. Durch die Zugabe von weiteren Stoffen erlangt der Kuehlschmierstoff seine fuer den jeweiligen Anwendungsabfall geforderten Eigenschaften. Beschaeftigte, die mit Kuehlschmierstoffen umgehen, sind unterschiedliche Gefahren ausgesetzt. Die Beurteilung der Kuehlschmierstoffkonzentrationen in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz erfolgt auf der Grundlage bestehender

  4. Vadose Zone VOC Mass Transfer Testing At The SRS Miscellaneous Chemical Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B

    2005-10-30

    Active remedial activities have been ongoing since 1996 to address low levels of solvent contamination at the Miscellaneous Chemical Basin at SRS. Contaminant levels in the subsurface may be approaching levels where mass transfer limitations are impacting the efficiency of the remedial action. Rate limited mass transfer effects have been observed at other sites in the vadose zone at the SRS, however, detailed measurements and evaluation has not been undertaken. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the mass transfer rates are very slow from the fine grain sediments. This conclusion is based on the observation that measured soil gas concentrations tend to be low in permeable zones relative to the higher concentrations found in fine grain zones. Decreasing soil gas concentration with depth below the ''upland unit'' at several areas at SRS is also evidence of slow diffusion rates. In addition, due to the length of time since disposal ceased at the MCB, we hypothesize that mobile solvents have migrated downward, and the solvent remaining in the upper fine grain zone (''upland unit'') are trapped in fine grain material and are primarily released by gas diffusion (Riha and Rossabi 2004). Natural weathering and other chemical solutions disposed with the solvents can further enhance this effect by increasing the micro-porosity in the clays (kaolinite). This microporosity can result in increased entrapment of water and solvents by capillary forces (Powers, et. al., 2003). Also supporting this conclusion is the observation that active SVE has proven ineffective on VOC removal from the fine grain zones at the SRS. Adsorption and the very slow release phenomenon have been documented similarly in the literature especially for old solvent spills such as at the SRS (Pavlostathis and Mathavan 1992; Oostrom and Lenhard 2003). Mass transfer relationships need to be developed in order to optimize remediation activities and to determine actual

  5. SRS 2010 Vegetation Inventory GeoStatistical Mapping Results for Custom Reaction Intensity and Total Dead Fuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Lloyd A. [Leading Solutions, LLC.; Paresol, Bernard [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR.

    2014-09-01

    This report of the geostatistical analysis results of the fire fuels response variables, custom reaction intensity and total dead fuels is but a part of an SRS 2010 vegetation inventory project. For detailed description of project, theory and background including sample design, methods, and results please refer to USDA Forest Service Savannah River Site internal report “SRS 2010 Vegetation Inventory GeoStatistical Mapping Report”, (Edwards & Parresol 2013).

  6. Digitized Fit of the SRS Stokes Spectrum and Raman Gain%SRS Stokes谱线的数值拟合与Raman放大的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智; 童治; 简水生

    2002-01-01

    本文利用R.H.Stolen的实验结果,拟合得到SRS Stokes谱线的多项式近似表达式.该表达式精度较高,有一定的理论价值.在此基础上,研究了不同光纤的Raman增益和噪声指数.结果表明增益和噪声指数差异主要由光纤的有效纤芯面积引起,因而有效纤芯面积最小的G.653光纤Raman增益和噪声指数最大.

  7. Development of SRS.php, a Simple Object Access Protocol-based library for data acquisition from integrated biological databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Silva, A; Pafilis, E; Ortega, J M; Schneider, R

    2007-12-11

    Data integration has become an important task for biological database providers. The current model for data exchange among different sources simplifies the manner that distinct information is accessed by users. The evolution of data representation from HTML to XML enabled programs, instead of humans, to interact with biological databases. We present here SRS.php, a PHP library that can interact with the data integration Sequence Retrieval System (SRS). The library has been written using SOAP definitions, and permits the programmatic communication through webservices with the SRS. The interactions are possible by invoking the methods described in WSDL by exchanging XML messages. The current functions available in the library have been built to access specific data stored in any of the 90 different databases (such as UNIPROT, KEGG and GO) using the same query syntax format. The inclusion of the described functions in the source of scripts written in PHP enables them as webservice clients to the SRS server. The functions permit one to query the whole content of any SRS database, to list specific records in these databases, to get specific fields from the records, and to link any record among any pair of linked databases. The case study presented exemplifies the library usage to retrieve information regarding registries of a Plant Defense Mechanisms database. The Plant Defense Mechanisms database is currently being developed, and the proposal of SRS.php library usage is to enable the data acquisition for the further warehousing tasks related to its setup and maintenance.

  8. Molecular mapping of split rice spikelet mutant srs-1 and analysis of its homeotic function in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    srs-1, a new floral organ identity gene in rice, was mapped using RAPD and RFLP markers. Firstly, the cross was made between "ZhaiYeQing 8" (ZYQ8, indica) and split rice spikelet (SRS, japonica) mutant. The ratio of wild-type individuals and mutant plants in F2 population is 3:1, which indicates that the mutant characteristics are controlled by single recessive gene, srs-1. Consequently, BSA method was adopted and 520 random 10-mer primers were used to screen polymorphic bands between two bulks. Six primers could amplify polymorphic bands, of which S465 generates the most stable RAPD patterns. Then, S465 that cosegregates in F2 population has been converted into an RFLP marker successfully. Furthermore, srs-1 gene was mapped on chromosome 3 using DH mapping population. The effect of srs-1 gene results in the mutant of split rice spikelet. The mutant has longer and softer palea/lemma than those of wild-type, and two small palea/lemma-like organs between palea and lemma. In addition, there is a flower with three stamens and carpel in the axil of lemma. Thus, there are nine stamens and two carpels in the spikelet of mutant. srs-1 gene may belong to homeotic gene of class A according to the mutant characteristics and ABC model.

  9. Cooling Efficiency of Laminar Cooling System for Plate Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dian-hua; WANG Bing-xing; ZHOU Na; YU Ming; WANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    Heat transfer was researched from a perspective of the industry application.On the basis of the first law of thermodynamics,the cooling efficiency was deduced from the change of enthalpy inside hot plate.The relationship between the cooling efficiency and its influencing parameters was regressed from plenty of data collected from the worksite and discussed in detail.The temperature profiles resulting from the online model and the model modified by regressed formulas were presented and compared.The results indicated that the control accuracy of the modified model was increased obviously.

  10. Debuncher cooling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derwent, P.F.; McGinnis, David; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Vander Meulen, David; Werkema, Steven; /Fermilab

    2005-11-01

    We present measurements of the Fermilab Debuncher momentum and transverse cooling systems. These systems use liquid helium cooled waveguide pickups and slotted waveguide kickers covering the frequency range 4-8 GHz.

  11. The terrestrial carbon inventory on the Savannah River Site: Assessing the change in Carbon pools 1951-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Zhaohua; Trettin, Carl, C.; Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2011-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has changed from an agricultural-woodland landscape in 1951 to a forested landscape during that latter half of the twentieth century. The corresponding change in carbon (C) pools associated land use on the SRS was estimated using comprehensive inventories from 1951 and 2001 in conjunction with operational forest management and monitoring data from the site.

  12. Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Maximum and Minimum Forecast for SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the third phase (Phase III) of the Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Phase I of the forecast, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at SRS, forecasts the yearly quantities of low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste, mixed waste, and transuranic (TRU) wastes generated over the next 30 years by operations, decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration (ER) activities at the Savannah River Site. The Phase II report, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast by Treatability Group (U), provides a 30-year forecast by waste treatability group for operations, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities. In addition, a 30-year forecast by waste stream has been provided for operations in Appendix A of the Phase II report. The solid wastes stored or generated at SRS must be treated and disposed of in accordance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations. To evaluate, select, and justify the use of promising treatment technologies and to evaluate the potential impact to the environment, the generic waste categories described in the Phase I report were divided into smaller classifications with similar physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics. These smaller classifications, defined within the Phase II report as treatability groups, can then be used in the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement process to evaluate treatment options. The waste generation forecasts in the Phase II report includes existing waste inventories. Existing waste inventories, which include waste streams from continuing operations and stored wastes from discontinued operations, were not included in the Phase I report. Maximum and minimum forecasts serve as upper and lower boundaries for waste generation. This report provides the maximum and minimum forecast by waste treatability group for operation, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities

  13. Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Maximum and Minimum Forecast for SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, L.C.

    1994-10-01

    This report is the third phase (Phase III) of the Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Phase I of the forecast, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at SRS, forecasts the yearly quantities of low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste, mixed waste, and transuranic (TRU) wastes generated over the next 30 years by operations, decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration (ER) activities at the Savannah River Site. The Phase II report, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast by Treatability Group (U), provides a 30-year forecast by waste treatability group for operations, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities. In addition, a 30-year forecast by waste stream has been provided for operations in Appendix A of the Phase II report. The solid wastes stored or generated at SRS must be treated and disposed of in accordance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations. To evaluate, select, and justify the use of promising treatment technologies and to evaluate the potential impact to the environment, the generic waste categories described in the Phase I report were divided into smaller classifications with similar physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics. These smaller classifications, defined within the Phase II report as treatability groups, can then be used in the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement process to evaluate treatment options. The waste generation forecasts in the Phase II report includes existing waste inventories. Existing waste inventories, which include waste streams from continuing operations and stored wastes from discontinued operations, were not included in the Phase I report. Maximum and minimum forecasts serve as upper and lower boundaries for waste generation. This report provides the maximum and minimum forecast by waste treatability group for operation, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities.

  14. The Change and Performance Analysis of Peak Load Cooling System Used in 600MW Direct Air Cooling Unit%600MW直接空冷机组加装尖峰冷却装置改造及性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊小朝; 党岳; 史瑞静; 李凤婷; 蒋高峰

    2013-01-01

    The higher operating vacuum pressure of air-cooled power plant greatly affects the safety and power output of steam turbine in summer,so the method of reducing air temperature by peak load cooling system in used.The tide over summer capacity of air cooled condenser can also be improved by this method.This paper states on peak load spray humidification changed in Datang Binchang power generation Co.Ltd.We are contrast and analysis direct air-cooled vacuum after the peak load spray humidification used in different load and different temperature in summer.The vacuum press reduce 4.9kPa,5.1 kPa,3.3kPa in different loading of 600MW,550MW,500MW and different temperature of 26℃ ~31 ℃.The higher efficiency of spray humidification in 550 ~ 600MW,the efficiency will lower in small loading and high air-cooled vacuum; lastly,we are estimate the economy efficiency in full loading of steam turbine.%为解决空冷发电厂夏季高背压运行影响汽轮机安全问题,保证机组的出力,直接空冷机组都采用了尖峰冷却装置,以提高直接空冷机组渡夏能力.介绍大唐彬长电厂机组空冷尖峰喷淋装置的改造,并针对夏季高温时段,不同负荷、不同环境温度下,投运尖峰冷却装置后机组真空的变化进行了对比分析;结果表明,机组在600MW、550MW、500MW负荷运行且环境温度26℃~31℃时,机组的背压分别下降4.9kPa、5.1kPa、3.3kPa.机组在550MW~ 600MW运行时,投运尖峰冷却装置效率最高,负荷越低,背压越低时,投运尖峰冷却装置效率越低;最后对机组在满负荷运行情况下所取得的经济效益进行了评估.

  15. Recommendations for research studies on treatment of idiopathic scoliosis: Consensus 2014 between SOSORT and SRS non-operative management committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Stefano; Hresko, Timothy M; O'Brien, Joseph P; Price, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The two main societies clinically dealing with idiopathic scoliosis are the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS), founded in 1966, and the international Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT), started in 2004. Inside the SRS, the Non-Operative Management Committee (SRS-NOC) has the same clinical interest of SOSORT, that is the Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation (or Non-Operative, or conservative) Management of idiopathic scoliosis patients. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a Consensus among the best experts of non-operative treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis, as represented by SOSORT and SRS, on the recommendation for research studies on treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis. The goal of the consensus statement is to establish a framework for research with clearly delineated inclusion criteria, methodologies, and outcome measures so that future meta- analysis or comparative studies could occur. A Delphi method was used to generate a consensus to develop a set of recommendations for clinical studies on treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis. It included the development of a reference scheme, which was judged during two Delphi Rounds; after this first phase, it was decided to develop the recommendations and 4 other Delphi Rounds followed. The process finished with a Consensus Meeting, that was held during the SOSORT Meeting in Wiesbaden, 8-10 May 2014, moderated by the Presidents of SOSORT (JP O'Brien) and SRS (SD Glassman) and by the Chairs of the involved Committees (SOSORT Consensus Committee: S Negrini; SRS Non-Operative Committee: MT Hresko). The Boards of the SRS and SOSORT formally accepted the final recommendations. The 18 Recommendations focused: Research needs (3), Clinically significant outcomes (4), Radiographic outcomes (3), Other key outcomes (Quality of Life, adherence to treatment) (2), Standardization of methods of non-operative research (6). PMID:25780381

  16. SRS waste removal and D ampersand D program for underground waste tanks (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of radioactive waste from 51 large underground storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS) has been planned. Waste removal equipment and techniques were demonstrated in one tank (Tank No. 16) in 1980. Remote inspection techniques were used to monitor the demonstration. This demonstration provided the basis for planning waste removal from the remaining tanks. Waste removal will allow decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the tanks. Some alternatives for D ampersand D have been evaluated. Facilities are being installed on other tanks with completion of waste removal from problem tanks scheduled for 2001

  17. An Evaluation of Dual-Media Contaminant Transport for SRS Environmental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dual-media approach to contaminant transport modeling has emerged over the years as a clear improvement over the conventional Fickian advection-dispersion, or single-medium model, in an increasing number of settings. Recent application to the MADE-2 tracer test at Columbus Air Force Base has extended interest to field-scale plume migration in unconsolidated sediments. Subsequent application to tritium migration from the SRS F- and H-area seepage basins within this study also demonstrated improved transport predictions

  18. Development of Probabilistic Uncertainty Analysis Methodology for SRS Performance Assessments Maintenance Plan Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An initial uncertainty analysis of the Performance Assessment (PA) model of the Savannah River Site (SRS) trench disposal unit was conducted. Selected input data values were varied for both flow and transport analyses to generate input sets called realizations. Outputs of fluxes to the water table and well concentrations were compared to results from the PA. This stage of the uncertainty analysis served as a prototype for future work. The focus was to lay the foundation for a more comprehensive analysis, generate a limited set of output results, and learn about the process and potential problems

  19. Reliable Mining of Automatically Generated Test Cases from Software Requirements Specification (SRS)

    CERN Document Server

    Raamesh, Lilly

    2010-01-01

    Writing requirements is a two-way process. In this paper we use to classify Functional Requirements (FR) and Non Functional Requirements (NFR) statements from Software Requirements Specification (SRS) documents. This is systematically transformed into state charts considering all relevant information. The current paper outlines how test cases can be automatically generated from these state charts. The application of the states yields the different test cases as solutions to a planning problem. The test cases can be used for automated or manual software testing on system level. And also the paper presents a method for reduction of test suite by using mining methods thereby facilitating the mining and knowledge extraction from test cases.

  20. SRS waste removal and D and D program for underground waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of radioactive waste from 51 large underground storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS) has been planned. Waste removal equipment and techniques were demonstrated in one tank (Tank number-sign 16) in 1980. Remote inspection techniques were used to monitor the demonstration. This demonstration provided the basis for planning waste removal from the remaining tanks. Waste removal will allow decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the tanks. Some alternatives for D ampersand D have been evaluated. Facilities are being installed on other tanks with completion of waste removal from problem tanks scheduled for 2001

  1. SRS-A leukotrienes decrease the activity of human respiratory cilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, M

    1987-01-01

    , yet less so within cell samples from the cell scrapings. We, therefore, evaluated the effect of the test solutions relative to the spontaneous decrease found during simultaneous perfusion with control solution of samples from the same cell scrapings. LTC4, 3-300 nmol/l, caused a highly significantly...... dose-related decrease in the ciliary beat frequency by up to approximately 20% as compared to the corresponding control solution. The effect of LTC4 was significantly inhibited by the SRS-A receptor antagonist FPL 55712 (10 mumol/l), but not by indomethacin (10 mumol/l). LTD4, 300 nmol/l, also...

  2. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS PHASE 2 FULL SCALE COOLING COILS GROUT FILL DEMONSTATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) support for the Tank Closure and Technology Development (TCTD) group's strategy for closing high level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, this task addresses the ability to successfully fill intact cooling coils, presently within the HLW tanks, with grout that satisfies the fresh and cured grout requirements [1] under simulated field conditions. The overall task was divided into two phases. The first phase was the development of a grout formulation that satisfies the processing requirements for filling the HLW tank cooling coils [5]. The second phase of the task, which is documented in this report, was the filling of full scale cooling coils under simulated field conditions using the grout formulation developed in the first phase. SRS Type I tank cooling coil assembly design drawings and pressure drop calculations were provided by the Liquid Waste (LW) customer to be used as the basis for configuring the test assemblies. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with internal cooling coils is to pump grout into the coils to inhibit pathways for infiltrating water. Access to the cooling coil assemblies is through the existing supply/return manifold headers located on top of the Type I tanks. The objectives for the second phase of the testing, as stated in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance plan (TTQAP) [2], were to: (1) Perform a demonstration test to assess cooling coil grout performance in simulated field conditions, and (2) Measure relevant properties of samples prepared under simulated field conditions. SRNL led the actual work of designing, fabricating and filling two full-scale cooling coil assemblies which were performed at Clemson Engineering Technologies Laboratory (CETL) using the South Carolina University Research and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program. A statement of work (SOW) was issued to CETL [6] to perform this work

  3. Experimental investigation of synchrotron and Bremsstrahlung hazards at lithography beam line of Indus-2 SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation hazard at synchrotron radiation (SR) beam lines of Indus-2 Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) consists of synchrotron radiation (SR) and Bremsstrahlung radiation (BR). These hazards were quantified experimentally in Lithography beam line (BL-07) of Indus-2 SRS. Measurement was performed during the initial trial operation of the beam line. Transmission of SR through the beam line was optimized by providing bump to the electron beam, prior to the measurement. Thin window ion chamber was used for the SR measurement in the direct beam. Ion current obtained is converted to exposure rate using a calibration factor obtained w.r.t. 60Co source. Copper absorber of 6 mm thick was used for eliminating SR contribution during BR dose measurement. The exposure rates obtained are 3.83E05 R/h-mA and 0.042 R/h-mA for SR and BR respectively. Energy of Bremsstrahlung radiation was also experimentally evaluated using attenuation technique. Details of these measurement and results are presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Phenotype classification of single cells using SRS microscopy, RNA sequencing, and microfluidics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streets, Aaron M.; Cao, Chen; Zhang, Xiannian; Huang, Yanyi

    2016-03-01

    Phenotype classification of single cells reveals biological variation that is masked in ensemble measurement. This heterogeneity is found in gene and protein expression as well as in cell morphology. Many techniques are available to probe phenotypic heterogeneity at the single cell level, for example quantitative imaging and single-cell RNA sequencing, but it is difficult to perform multiple assays on the same single cell. In order to directly track correlation between morphology and gene expression at the single cell level, we developed a microfluidic platform for quantitative coherent Raman imaging and immediate RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of single cells. With this device we actively sort and trap cells for analysis with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (SRS). The cells are then processed in parallel pipelines for lysis, and preparation of cDNA for high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. SRS microscopy offers three-dimensional imaging with chemical specificity for quantitative analysis of protein and lipid distribution in single cells. Meanwhile, the microfluidic platform facilitates single-cell manipulation, minimizes contamination, and furthermore, provides improved RNA-Seq detection sensitivity and measurement precision, which is necessary for differentiating biological variability from technical noise. By combining coherent Raman microscopy with RNA sequencing, we can better understand the relationship between cellular morphology and gene expression at the single-cell level.

  5. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

    2005-06-29

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

  6. Simulation on Cooling System of Automotive Waste Heat Thermoelectric Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Yuan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The cooling system of automobile waste heat Thermoelectric Generator (TEG is researched in the study. Integrated model of cooling system and vehicle is built based on GT-Cool, analysis of the different cooling ways shows that when using independent cooling system, the ratio between power consumption and output is high and system performance is poor; By using integrated cooling system, the expectation of keep constant engine warm up time and synchronous change of water temperature between different tanks is realized after water tanks are improved.

  7. Biomedical Application of Aerospace Personal Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Lee, Hank C.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which are used by astronauts to alleviate thermal stress during extravehicular activity have been applied to the therapeutic management of multiple sclerosis. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of two passive and two active cooling vests and to measure the body temperature and circulatory changes produced by each cooling vest configuration. The MicroClimate Systems and the Life Enhancement Tech(LET) lightweight liquid cooling vests, the Steele Vest and LET's Zipper Front Garment were used to cool the chest region of 10 male and female subjects (25 to 55 yr.) in this study. Calf, forearm and finger blood flows were measured using a tetrapolar impedance rheograph. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx.22C), were tested for 60 min. with the cooling system operated at its maximum cooling capacity. Blood flows were recorded continuously using a computer data acquisition system with a sampling frequency of 250 Hz. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; respiration; and an activity index were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. In general, the male and female subjects' oral and ear temperature responses to cooling were similar for all vest configurations tested. Oral temperatures during the recovery period were significantly (Pcooling and recovery periods.

  8. Permeability enhancement by shock cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Michael; Reuschlé, Thierry; Baud, Patrick; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The permeability of an efficient reservoir, e.g. a geothermal reservoir, should be sufficient to permit the circulation of fluids. Generally speaking, permeability decreases over the life cycle of the geothermal system. As a result, is usually necessary to artificially maintain and enhance the natural permeability of these systems. One of the methods of enhancement -- studied here -- is thermal stimulation (injecting cold water at low pressure). This goal of this method is to encourage new thermal cracks within the reservoir host rocks, thereby increasing reservoir permeability. To investigate the development of thermal microcracking in the laboratory we selected two granites: a fine-grained (Garibaldi Grey granite, grain size = 0.5 mm) and a course-grained granite (Lanhelin granite, grain size = 2 mm). Both granites have an initial porosity of about 1%. Our samples were heated to a range of temperatures (100-1000 °C) and were either cooled slowly (1 °C/min) or shock cooled (100 °C/s). A systematic microstructural (2D crack area density, using standard stereological techniques, and 3D BET specific surface area measurements) and rock physical property (porosity, P-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability) analysis was undertaken to understand the influence of slow and shock cooling on our reservoir granites. Microstructurally, we observe that the 2D crack surface area per unit volume and the specific surface area increase as a result of thermal stressing, and, for the same maximum temperature, crack surface area is higher in the shock cooled samples. This observation is echoed by our rock physical property measurements: we see greater changes for the shock cooled samples. We can conclude that shock cooling is an extremely efficient method of generating thermal microcracks and modifying rock physical properties. Our study highlights that thermal treatments are likely to be an efficient method for the "matrix" permeability enhancement of

  9. Four foot septifoil cooling experiment unrestricted inlet/outlet case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foti, D.J.; Randolph, H.W.; Geiger, G.T.; Verebelyi, D.T.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-02-01

    The ability to predict the behavior of reactor components to varying coolant flow scenarios constitutes a necessary skill for assessing reactor safety. One tool for performing these calculations is the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC). In order to benchmark the code, the Safety Analysis Group of SRL requested the Equipment Engineering Section (EES) of SRL to conduct a series of experiments to provide measurements of cooling parameters in a well defined physical system utilizing SRS reactor components. The configuration selected consisted of a short length of septifoil with both top and bottom fittings containing five simulated control rods in an {open_quotes}unseated{close_quotes} configuration. Varying power levels were to be supplied to the rods with 3.5 kilowatts per foot the value targeted for modelling during the computer runs. The septifoil segment was to be operated with no forced flow in order to evaluate thermal-hydraulic cooling. Parameters to be measured for comparison with code predictions were basic cooling phenomena, incidence of film boiling, water flow rate, pressure rise, and ratio of heat transfer through the wall of the assembly vs. heat transfer to axial water flow through the assembly. This report documents testing done with unimpeded flow into and out of the septifoil in order to assess basic cooling phenomena, incidence of film boiling and pressure rise. Previous tests have evaluated water flow rate and the ratio of axial to azimuthal heat transfer.

  10. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1978-01-01

    In 1977, in a record-time of 9 months, the magnets of the g-2 experiment were modified and used to build a proton/antiproton storage ring: the "Initial Cooling Experiment" (ICE). It served for the verification of the cooling methods to be used for the "Antiproton Project". Stochastic cooling was proven the same year, electron cooling followed later. Also, with ICE the experimental lower limit for the antiproton lifetime was raised by 9 orders of magnitude: from 2 microseconds to 32 hours. For its previous life as g-2 storage ring, see 7405430. More on ICE: 7711282, 7809081, 7908242.

  11. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  12. High energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomchuk, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Isoproturon-Mineralizing Sphingomonas sp. SRS2, Isolated from an Agricultural Field in the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Sørensen, Sebastian R; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 was the first described pure strain that is capable of mineralizing the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon and some of its related compounds. This strain has been studied thoroughly and shows potential for bioremediation purposes. We present the draft genome sequence of this b......Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 was the first described pure strain that is capable of mineralizing the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon and some of its related compounds. This strain has been studied thoroughly and shows potential for bioremediation purposes. We present the draft genome sequence...

  14. Sisyphus Cooling of Electrically Trapped Polyatomic Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Zeppenfeld, M; Glöckner, R; Prehn, A; Mielenz, M; Sommer, C; van Buuren, L D; Motsch, M; Rempe, G

    2012-01-01

    The rich internal structure and long-range dipole-dipole interactions establish polar molecules as unique instruments for quantum-controlled applications and fundamental investigations. Their potential fully unfolds at ultracold temperatures, where a plethora of effects is predicted in many-body physics, quantum information science, ultracold chemistry, and physics beyond the standard model. These objectives have inspired the development of a wide range of methods to produce cold molecular ensembles. However, cooling polyatomic molecules to ultracold temperatures has until now seemed intractable. Here we report on the experimental realization of opto-electrical cooling, a paradigm-changing cooling and accumulation method for polar molecules. Its key attribute is the removal of a large fraction of a molecule's kinetic energy in each step of the cooling cycle via a Sisyphus effect, allowing cooling with only few dissipative decay processes. We demonstrate its potential by reducing the temperature of about 10^6 ...

  15. Experimental Determination and Thermodynamic Modeling of Electrical Conductivity of SRS Waste Tank Supernate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-01

    SRS High Level Waste Tank Farm personnel rely on conductivity probes for detection of incipient overflow conditions in waste tanks. Minimal information is available concerning the sensitivity that must be achieved such that that liquid detection is assured. Overly sensitive electronics results in numerous nuisance alarms for these safety-related instruments. In order to determine the minimum sensitivity required of the probe, Tank Farm Engineering personnel need adequate conductivity data to improve the existing designs. Little or no measurements of liquid waste conductivity exist; however, the liquid phase of the waste consists of inorganic electrolytes for which the conductivity may be calculated. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Tank Farm Facility Engineering requested SRNL to determine the conductivity of the supernate resident in SRS waste Tank 40 experimentally as well as computationally. In addition, SRNL was requested to develop a correlation, if possible, that would be generally applicable to liquid waste resident in SRS waste tanks. A waste sample from Tank 40 was analyzed for composition and electrical conductivity as shown in Table 4-6, Table 4-7, and Table 4-9. The conductivity for undiluted Tank 40 sample was 0.087 S/cm. The accuracy of OLI Analyzer™ was determined using available literature data. Overall, 95% of computed estimates of electrical conductivity are within ±15% of literature values for component concentrations from 0 to 15 M and temperatures from 0 to 125 °C. Though the computational results are generally in good agreement with the measured data, a small portion of literature data deviates as much as ±76%. A simplified model was created that can be used readily to estimate electrical conductivity of waste solution in computer spreadsheets. The variability of this simplified approach deviates up to 140% from measured values. Generally, this model can be applied to estimate the conductivity within a factor of two. The comparison of the

  16. SRS MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program's preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site(SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. SRS has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 2 or 3 facility with storage of bulk PuO2 and assembly, storage, and shipping of fuel bundles in an S and S Category 1 facility. The total Category 1 approach, which is the recommended option, would be done in the 221-H Canyon Building. A facility that was never in service will be removed from one area, and a hardened wall will be constructed in another area to accommodate execution of the LA fuel fabrication. The non-Category 1 approach would require removal of process equipment in the FB-Line metal production and packaging glove boxes, which requires work in a contamination area. The Immobilization Hot Demonstration Program

  17. SRS MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site(SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. SRS has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 2 or 3 facility with storage of bulk PuO{sub 2} and assembly, storage, and shipping of fuel bundles in an S and S Category 1 facility. The total Category 1 approach, which is the recommended option, would be done in the 221-H Canyon Building. A facility that was never in service will be removed from one area, and a hardened wall will be constructed in another area to accommodate execution of the LA fuel fabrication. The non-Category 1 approach would require removal of process equipment in the FB-Line metal production and packaging glove boxes, which requires work in a contamination area. The Immobilization Hot Demonstration Program

  18. The effect of postharvest calcium application in hydro-cooling water on tissue calcium content, biochemical changes, and quality attributes of sweet cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xie, Xingbin; Long, Lynn E

    2014-10-01

    To improve storage/shipping quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) added to hydro-cooling water on physiological and biochemical processes related to fruit and pedicel quality was investigated on two major cultivars. The fruit tissue Ca content increased up to 29-85% logarithmically for 'Sweetheart' and 39-188% linearly for 'Lapins' as CaCl2 rate increased from 0.2% to 2.0% at 0 °C for 5 min. The increase of fruit tissue Ca content was accompanied by reductions in respiration rate, ascorbic acid degradation, and membrane lipid peroxidation, which enhanced total phenolics content and total antioxidant capacity, and resulted in increases in fruit firmness and pitting resistance and decreases in titratable acidity loss and decay of both cultivars. Pedicel browning was inhibited by CaCl2 at 0.2% and 0.5%, but increased by higher rates at 1.0% and 2.0%, possibly via modifying membrane lipid peroxidation. PMID:24799204

  19. Hemodynamic Responses to Head and Neck Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Carbo, Jorge E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    1994-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which provide head and neck cooling are used in the industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objective of this study was to measure the scalp temperature and circulatory responses during use of one commercially available thermal control system. The Life Support Systems, Inc. Mark VII portable cooling system and a liquid cooling helmet were used in this study. Two EEG electrodes and one skin temperature transducer were placed on the anterior midline of the scalp to measure the scalp blood and temperature. Blood flow was measured using a bipolar impedance rheograph. Ten subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature, were tested at high, medium, moderate, moderate-low and low coolant temperatures. Scalp blood flow was recorded continuously using a computer data acquisition system with a sampling frequency of 200 Hz. Scalp temperature and cooling helmet Inlet temperature was logged periodically during the test period. This study quantifies the effect of head cooling upon scalp temperature and blood flow. These data may also be used to select operational specifications of the head cooling system for biomedical applications such as the treatment of migraine headaches, scalp cooling during chemotherapy, and cooling of multiple sclerosis patients.

  20. Changes in autistic trait indicators in parents and their children with ASD: A preliminary longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Munesue, Toshio; Takesaki, Natsumi; Higashida, Haruhiro; Oi, Manabu; Minabe, Yoshio; Asada, Minoru

    2015-08-30

    This study investigated whether the longitudinal changes in symptom severity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with changes in the parents׳ autistic traits. The results demonstrated two significant correlations between the changes in children׳s Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) score changes in either the father or both parents. Autistic symptom mitigation in ASD children was associated with increased empathy levels in their parents. PMID:26099658

  1. Behavior of mercury, lead, cesium, and uranyl ions on four SRS soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.P.; Marson, D.B.

    1992-03-20

    Samples of four Savannah River Site (SRS) soils were tested for sorption behavior with Hg[sup 2+], Pb[sup 2+], UO[sub 2][sup 2+], and Cs[sup +] ions. The purpose of the study was to determine the selectivity of the different soils for these ions alone and in the presence of the competing cations, H[sup +] and Ca[sup 2+]. Distribution constants, Kd's, for the test ions in various solutions have been determined for the four soils. In general, sorption by all of the soils appeared to be more complex than a simple ion exchange or adsorption process. In particular, the presence of organic matter in soil increased the capacity of the soil due to its chelating ability. Similar soils did not react similarly toward each metal cation.

  2. Behavior of mercury, lead, cesium, and uranyl ions on four SRS soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.P.; Marson, D.B.

    1992-03-20

    Samples of four Savannah River Site (SRS) soils were tested for sorption behavior with Hg{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, and Cs{sup +} ions. The purpose of the study was to determine the selectivity of the different soils for these ions alone and in the presence of the competing cations, H{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}. Distribution constants, Kd`s, for the test ions in various solutions have been determined for the four soils. In general, sorption by all of the soils appeared to be more complex than a simple ion exchange or adsorption process. In particular, the presence of organic matter in soil increased the capacity of the soil due to its chelating ability. Similar soils did not react similarly toward each metal cation.

  3. Finding the Public Voice: A Few Observations After Experience on the SRS Citizens Advisory Board - 12226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Paper reflects my views on some of the difficulties and successes in seeking and reflecting the opinions and input of the typical citizen relative to the Savannah River Site (SRS) cleanup programs. These views are based on four years of membership on the SRS Citizens Advisory Board (CAB). The Savannah River Site Citizens Advisory Board was established by Department of Energy- Environmental Management in 1994 with the goal of improving cleanup decisions by reflecting priorities and concerns of stakeholders and generally improving communication with the public, particularly in the areas most impacted by site operations. The SRS CAB has been a successful venture and has had a notable record of accomplishments with approximately 285 recommendations over its 17-year history. Many of these recommendations have been very specific and have impacted Site priorities on many issues of concern to the public. However, attaining this success and truly reflecting the views of the typical citizen is a difficult proposition. This concept begs such questions as: where do you get the input? how do you get these views? and how do you know when you've gotten it right? As a Board we have had to deal with groups who seem to have a bias either in favor of or strongly opposed to certain cleanup actions or other groups who have a total focus on a single topic such as jobs. It is our role to ensure that a balanced approach is adopted which reflects the sentiments of the general public. After some four years experience on the Board I have formulated a few ideas that should make the Board one that more completely reflects public sentiments and makes useful thoughtful input. Therefore, this paper looks at the manner and difficulty of seeking input and generally communicating with the public while offering some views on how to improve the process. The Citizens Advisory Board was envisioned as a body of private citizens who looked at cleanup activities of the Site and reflected the public

  4. HASILT: An intelligent software platform for HAZOP, LOPA, SRS and SIL verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete process hazard analysis (PHA) and poor knowledge management have been two major reasons that have caused numerous lamentable disasters in the chemical process industry (CPI). To improve PHA quality, a new integration framework that combines HAZOP, layer of protection analysis (LOPA), safety requirements specification (SRS) and safety integrity level (SIL) validation is proposed in this paper. To facilitate the integrated work flow and improve the relevant knowledge management, an intelligent software platform named HASILT has been developed by our research team. Its key components and functions are described in this paper. Furthermore, since the platform keeps all history data in a central case base and case-based reasoning is used to automatically retrieve similar old cases for helping resolve new problems, a recall opportunity is created to reduce information loss which has been cited many times as a common root cause in investigations of accidents.

  5. Exploratory Factor Analysis of SRS-2 Teacher Ratings for Youth with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew T; Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A; Thomeer, Marcus L; Toomey, Jennifer A; Dua, Elissa

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the factor structure and internal consistency of special education teaching staff ratings on the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2; Constantino and Gruber 2012), as well as the percentage of ratings falling above pre-established cut scores, for a sample of lower-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 264). Results of the exploratory factor analysis yielded a four-factor correlated solution. The individual factors and total score demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency reliability for screening purposes. When applying the lowest pre-established cut score (T ≥ 60; minimum indication of clinically significant symptoms/impairments), 85 % of the sample had ratings in that range or higher (more severe). Implications for assessment and future research are provided. PMID:27334872

  6. Groundwater flow and tritium migration from the SRS Old Burial Ground to Fourmile Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this investigation are twofold. The initial goal is to devise and demonstrate a technique for directly incorporating fine-scale lithologic data into heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields, for improved groundwater flow and contaminant transport model accuracy. The ultimate goal is to rigorously simulate past and future tritium migration from the SRS Old Burial Ground towards Fourmile Branch, to better understand the effects of various remediation alternatives such as no action and capping. Large-scale variability in hydraulic conductivity is usually the main influence on field-scale groundwater flow patterns and dispersive transport, following the relative locations of recharge and discharge areas. Incorporating realistic hydraulic conductivity heterogeneity into flow and transport models is paramount to accurate simulations, particularly for contaminant migration. Sediment lithologic descriptions and geophysical logs typically offer finer spatial resolution, and therefore more potential information about heterogeneity, than other site characterization data

  7. Hydrostratigraphy of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, R.K.; Harris, M.K.; Lewis, C.M.; Gaughan, T.F. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Westbrook, T.M. (Dames and Moore, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Detailed analysis and synthesis of geophysical, core, and hydrologic data from 230 wells were used to delineate the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer characteristics of the General Separations Area at SRS. The study area is hydrologically bounded on the north and northwest by Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and on the south by Fourmile Branch (FB). The Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary sequence underlying the study area is divided into two Aquifer Systems; in ascending order, Aquifer Systems I and 11. The study concentrated on Aquifer System U, which includes all the Tertiary sediments above the Black Mingo Group (Paleocene) to the water table. This report includes a series of lithostratigraphic cross-sections, piezometric gradient profiles, head ratio contour maps, aquifer isopach maps, and potentiometric surface maps which illustrate the aquifer characteristics of the study area.

  8. Groundwater flow and tritium migration from the SRS Old Burial Ground to Fourmile Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.; Hamm, L.L.; Harris, M.K. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation are twofold. The initial goal is to devise and demonstrate a technique for directly incorporating fine-scale lithologic data into heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields, for improved groundwater flow and contaminant transport model accuracy. The ultimate goal is to rigorously simulate past and future tritium migration from the SRS Old Burial Ground towards Fourmile Branch, to better understand the effects of various remediation alternatives such as no action and capping. Large-scale variability in hydraulic conductivity is usually the main influence on field-scale groundwater flow patterns and dispersive transport, following the relative locations of recharge and discharge areas. Incorporating realistic hydraulic conductivity heterogeneity into flow and transport models is paramount to accurate simulations, particularly for contaminant migration. Sediment lithologic descriptions and geophysical logs typically offer finer spatial resolution, and therefore more potential information about heterogeneity, than other site characterization data.

  9. Exploratory Factor Analysis of SRS-2 Teacher Ratings for Youth with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew T; Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A; Thomeer, Marcus L; Toomey, Jennifer A; Dua, Elissa

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the factor structure and internal consistency of special education teaching staff ratings on the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2; Constantino and Gruber 2012), as well as the percentage of ratings falling above pre-established cut scores, for a sample of lower-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 264). Results of the exploratory factor analysis yielded a four-factor correlated solution. The individual factors and total score demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency reliability for screening purposes. When applying the lowest pre-established cut score (T ≥ 60; minimum indication of clinically significant symptoms/impairments), 85 % of the sample had ratings in that range or higher (more severe). Implications for assessment and future research are provided.

  10. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  11. Passive evaporative cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzoulis, A.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Passive techniques for cooling are a great way to cope with the energy problem of the present day. This manual introduces passive cooling by evaporation. These methods have been used for many years in traditi

  12. Coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  13. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  14. DOAS, Radiant Cooling Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The article discusses dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) and radiant cooling technologies. Both of these topics were covered in previous ASHRAE Journal columns. This article reviews the technologies and their increasing acceptance. The two steps that ASHRAE is taking to disseminate DOAS information to the design community, available energy savings and the market potential of radiant cooling systems are addressed as well.

  15. MOBILIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COLLOIDS GENERATED FROM CEMENT LEACHATES MOVING THROUGH A SRS SANDY SEDIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.; Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Seaman, J.

    2011-09-20

    Naturally occurring mobile colloids are ubiquitous and are involved in many important processes in the subsurface zone. For example, colloid generation and subsequent mobilization represent a possible mechanism for the transport of contaminants including radionuclides in the subsurface environments. For colloid-facilitated transport to be significant, three criteria must be met: (1) colloids must be generated; (2) contaminants must associate with the colloids preferentially to the immobile solid phase (aquifer); and (3) colloids must be transported through the groundwater or in subsurface environments - once these colloids start moving they become 'mobile colloids'. Although some experimental investigations of particle release in natural porous media have been conducted, the detailed mechanisms of release and re-deposition of colloidal particles within natural porous media are poorly understood. Even though this vector of transport is known, the extent of its importance is not known yet. Colloid-facilitated transport of trace radionuclides has been observed in the field, thus demonstrating a possible radiological risk associated with the colloids. The objective of this study was to determine if cementitious leachate would promote the in situ mobilization of natural colloidal particles from a SRS sandy sediment. The intent was to determine whether cementitious surface or subsurface structure would create plumes that could produce conditions conducive to sediment dispersion and mobile colloid generation. Column studies were conducted and the cation chemistries of influents and effluents were analyzed by ICP-OES, while the mobilized colloids were characterized using XRD, SEM, EDX, PSD and Zeta potential. The mobilization mechanisms of colloids in a SRS sandy sediment by cement leachates were studied.

  16. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTING OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT TO AUGMENT THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-07-10

    In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC), an alternative to the baseline 8 wt% oxalic acid (OA) chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. ECC utilizes a more dilute OA solution (2 wt%) and an oxalate destruction technology using ozonolysis with or without the application of ultraviolet (UV) light. SRNL conducted tests of the ECC process using actual SRS waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. The previous phase of testing involved testing of all phases of the ECC process (sludge dissolution, OA decomposition, product evaporation, and deposition tank storage) but did not involve the use of UV light in OA decomposition. The new phase of testing documented in this report focused on the use of UV light to assist OA decomposition, but involved only the OA decomposition and deposition tank portions of the process. Compared with the previous testing at analogous conditions without UV light, OA decomposition with the use of UV light generally reduced time required to reach the target of <100 mg/L oxalate. This effect was the most pronounced during the initial part of the decomposition batches, when pH was <4. For the later stages of each OA decomposition batch, the increase in OA decomposition rate with use of the UV light appeared to be minimal. Testing of the deposition tank storage of the ECC product resulted in analogous soluble concentrations regardless of the use or non-use of UV light in the ECC reactor.

  17. Results of Macroinvertebrate Sampling Conducted at 33 SRS Stream Locations, July--August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the health of the macroinvertebrate communities of SRS streams, the macroinvertebrate communities at 30 stream locations on SRS were sampled during the summer of 1993, using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers. In addition, three off-site locations in the Upper Three Runs drainage were sampled in order to assess the potential for impact from off-site activities. In interpreting the data, it is important to recognize that these data were from a single set of collections. Macroinvertebrate communities often undergo considerable temporal variation, and are also greatly influenced by such factors as water depth, water velocity, and available habitat. These stations were selected with the intent of developing an on-going sampling program at a smaller number of stations, with the selection of the stations to be based largely upon the results of this preliminary sampling program. When stations within a given stream showed similar results, fewer stations would be sampled in the future. Similarly, if a stream appeared to be perturbed, additional stations or chemical analyses might be added so that the source of the perturbation could be identified. In general, unperturbed streams will contain more taxa than perturbed streams, and the distribution of taxa among orders or families will differ. Some groups of macroinvertebrates, such as Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies), which are collectively called EPT taxa, are considered to be relatively sensitive to most kinds of stream perturbation; therefore a reduced number of EPT taxa generally indicates that the stream has been subject to chemical or physical stressors. In coastal plain streams, EPT taxa are generally less dominant than in streams with rocky substrates, while Chironomidae (midges) are more abundant. (Abstract Truncated)

  18. INITIAL COOLING EXPERIMENT (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    ICE was built in 1977, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring (see 7405430). Its purpose was to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project. Stochastic cooling proved a resounding success early in 1978 and the antiproton project could go ahead, now entirely based on stochastic cooling. Electron cooling was experimented with in 1979. The 26 kV equipment is housed in the cage to the left of the picture, adjacent to the "e-cooler" located in a straight section of the ring. With some modifications, the cooler was later transplanted into LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) and then, with further modifications, into the AD (Antiproton Decelerator), where it cools antiprotons to this day (2006). See also: 7711282, 7802099, 7809081.

  19. INITIAL COOLING EXPERIMENT (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    ICE was built in 1977, in a record time of 9 months, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring. Its purpose was to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project, to be launched in 1978. Already early in 1978, stochastic cooling proved a resounding success, such that the antiproton (p-pbar)project was entirely based on it. Tests of electron cooling followed later: protons of 46 MeV kinetic energy were cooled with an electron beam of 26 kV and 1.3 A. The cage seen prominently in the foreground houses the HV equipment, adjacent to the "cooler" installed in a straight section of the ring. With some modifications, the cooler was later transplanted into LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) and then, with further modifications, into the AD (Antiproton Decelerator), where it cools antiprotons to this day (2006). See also: 7711282, 7802099, 7908242.

  20. The cooling processes of metal billets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miram Andrey Olegovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes various methods for solving problems of nonstationary heat transfer. Nonstationary heat transfer is characterized by the fact that the temperature changes not only from point to point, but also in time. The process of cooling metal blanks must be considered a transient thermal conductivity. When solving the problem of cooling metal blanks we need to find the temperature change in the section. The authors show the complexity of the tasks of nonstationary heat transfer. If we consider the process of cooling metal billets as a complex process, in which the addition of nonstationary heat transfer is presented as a process of heat transfer by radiation, great probability of errors in calculations occurs. There is the feasibility of the use of experimental researches of cooling processes for metal blanks after continuous casting, in order to determine the error in the calculated values.

  1. Confirmation of shutdown cooling effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kotaro, E-mail: ksato@nelted.co.jp; Tabuchi, Masato; Sugimura, Naoki; Tatsumi, Masahiro [Nuclear Engineering, Limited, 1-3-7 Tosabori Nishi-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 550-0001 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    After the Fukushima accidents, all nuclear power plants in Japan have gradually stopped their operations and have long periods of shutdown. During those periods, reactivity of fuels continues to change significantly especially for high-burnup UO{sub 2} fuels and MOX fuels due to radioactive decays. It is necessary to consider these isotopic changes precisely, to predict neutronics characteristics accurately. In this paper, shutdown cooling (SDC) effects of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels that have unusual operation histories are confirmed by the advanced lattice code, AEGIS. The calculation results show that the effects need to be considered even after nuclear power plants come back to normal operation.

  2. Assessing Autistic Traits in a Taiwan Preschool Population: Cross-Cultural Validation of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jessica; Lee, Li-Ching; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The cross-cultural validity of the Mandarin-adaptation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS) was examined in a sample of N = 307 participants in Taiwan, 140 typically developing and 167 with clinically-diagnosed developmental disorders. This scale is an autism assessment tool that provides a quantitative rather than categorical measure of…

  3. Genetic labelling and application of the isoproturon-mineralizing Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 in soil and rhizosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, K.E.; Jacobsen, C.S.; Hansen, L.H.;

    2006-01-01

    into strain SRS2 using conjugational mating. In the transconjugant mutants luciferase was produced in varying levels. The mutants showed significant differences in their ability to degrade isoproturon. One luxAB-labelled mutant maintained the ability to mineralize isoproturon and was therefore selected...

  4. Mechanism of refrigeration cycle on laser cooling of solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youhua Jia; Biao Zhong; Jianping Yin

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed to study the laser cooling of solids. The condition of laser cooling of a solid is developed. By using some parameters of the Yb3+ ion, which is most widely used in laser cooling, we then calculate the cooling power and the cooling efficiency. In order to make a more precise analysis, the effect of fluorescent reabsorption, which is unavoidable in the cooling process, is discussed using the random walk model. Taking Tm3+ ion as an example, we derive the average number of absorption events and determine the change in quantum efficiency due to reabsorption. Finally, we obtain the red-shift of the fluorescent wavelength and the requirement of sample dimension.%A simple model is developed to study the laser cooling of solids.The condition of laser cooling of a solid is developed.By using some parameters of the Yb3+ ion,which is most widely used in laser cooling,we then calculate the cooling power and the cooling efficiency.In order to make a more precise analysis,the effect of fluorescent reabsorption,which is unavoidable in the cooling process,is discussed using the random walk model.Taking Tm3+ ion as an example,we derive the average number of absorption events and determine the change in quantum efficiency due to reabsorption.Finally,we obtain the red-shift of the fluorescent wavelength and the requirement of sample dimension.

  5. Intrinsic Evaporative Cooling by Hygroscopic Earth Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra R. Rempel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phase change of water from liquid to vapor is one of the most energy-intensive physical processes in nature, giving it immense potential for cooling. Diverse evaporative cooling strategies have resulted worldwide, including roof ponds and sprinklers, courtyard fountains, wind catchers with qanats, irrigated green roofs, and fan-assisted evaporative coolers. These methods all require water in bulk liquid form. The evaporation of moisture that has been sorbed from the atmosphere by hygroscopic materials is equally energy-intensive, however, yet has not been examined for its cooling potential. In arid and semi-arid climates, hygroscopic earth buildings occur widely and are known to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures, but evaporation of moisture from their walls and roofs has been regarded as unimportant since water scarcity limits irrigation and rainfall; instead, their cool interiors are attributed to well-established mass effects in delaying the transmission of sensible gains. Here, we investigate the cooling accomplished by daily cycles of moisture sorption and evaporation which, requiring only ambient humidity, we designate as “intrinsic” evaporative cooling. Connecting recent soil science to heat and moisture transport studies in building materials, we use soils, adobe, cob, unfired earth bricks, rammed earth, and limestone to reveal the effects of numerous parameters (temperature and relative humidity, material orientation, thickness, moisture retention properties, vapor diffusion resistance, and liquid transport properties on the magnitude of intrinsic evaporative cooling and the stabilization of indoor relative humidity. We further synthesize these effects into concrete design guidance. Together, these results show that earth buildings in diverse climates have significant potential to cool themselves evaporatively through sorption of moisture from humid night air and evaporation during the following day’s heat. This finding

  6. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  7. Measuring the coolness of interactive products: the COOL questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anders; Raptis, Dimitrios; Kjeldskov, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    is the COOL questionnaire. We based the creation of the questionnaire on literature suggesting that perceived coolness is decomposed to outer cool (the style of a product) and inner cool (the personality characteristics assigned to it). In this paper, we focused on inner cool, and we identified 11 inner cool......, rebelliousness and usability. These factors and their underlying 16 question items comprise the COOL questionnaire. The whole process of creating the questionnaire is presented in detail in this paper and we conclude by discussing our work against related work on coolness and HCI....

  8. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    CERN Document Server

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a preference for a mild non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP represents the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO.

  9. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannotti, Maurizio [Barry Univ., Miami Shores, FL (United States). Physical Sciences; Irastorza, Igor [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Redondo, Javier [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2015-12-15

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a preference for a mild non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP represents the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO.

  10. Temperature enhanced photothermal cooling of a micro-cantilever

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Hao; Mao, Tian-hua; Cao, Gengyu

    2014-01-01

    We present a temperature enhanced photothermal cooling scheme in a micro-cantilever based FP cavity. Experiments at various temperatures show a temperature dependence of photothermal cooling efficiency. And approximate one order of improvement on the cooling efficiency is achieved experimentally when the temperature decreases from 298 K to 100 K. Numerical analysis reveals that the dramatic change of the cooling efficiency is attributed to the temperature dependent dynamics of the photothermal backaction. A high efficient cooling can be achieved by controlling the temperature for an optimized the dynamics of photothermal backaction.

  11. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jie

    1992-09-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  12. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jie.

    1992-01-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  13. LHC cooling gains ground

    CERN Multimedia

    Huillet-Miraton Catherine

    The nominal cryogenic conditions of 1.9 K have been achieved in sectors 5-6 and 7-8. This means that a quarter of the machine has reached the nominal conditions for LHC operation, having attained a temperature of below 2 K (-271°C), which is colder than interstellar space! Elsewhere, the cryogenic system in Sector 8-1 has been filled with liquid helium and cooled to 2K and will soon be available for magnet testing. Sectors 6-7 and 2-3 are being cooled down and cool-down operations have started in Sector 3-4. Finally, preparations are in hand for the cool-down of Sector 1-2 in May and of Sector 4-5, which is currently being consolidated. The LHC should be completely cold for the summer. For more information: http://lhc.web.cern.ch/lhc/Cooldown_status.htm.

  14. Sisyphus Cooling of Lithium

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Paul; Kim, Geena; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Tiarks, Daniel; Müller, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Laser cooling to sub-Doppler temperatures by optical molasses is thought to be inhibited in atoms with unresolved, near-degenerate hyperfine structure in the excited state. We demonstrate that such cooling is possible in one to three dimensions, not only near the standard D2 line for laser cooling, but over a range extending to the D1 line. Via a combination of Sisyphus cooling followed by adiabatic expansion, we reach temperatures as low as 40 \\mu K, which corresponds to atomic velocities a factor of 2.6 above the limit imposed by a single photon recoil. Our method requires modest laser power at a frequency within reach of standard frequency locking methods. It is largely insensitive to laser power, polarization and detuning, magnetic fields, and initial hyperfine populations. Our results suggest that optical molasses should be possible with all alkali species.

  15. CONFERENCE: Electron cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ECOOL 84, held at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) last year, was the first international meeting on electron cooling and related applications and reflected the increasing interest in this area of particle beam physics

  16. Anomalous law of cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Rubí, J. Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergo a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature ma...

  17. Cooling with Superfluid Helium

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P

    2014-01-01

    The technical properties of helium II (‘superfluid’ helium) are presented in view of its applications to the cooling of superconducting devices, particularly in particle accelerators. Cooling schemes are discussed in terms of heat transfer performance and limitations. Large-capacity refrigeration techniques below 2 K are reviewed, with regard to thermodynamic cycles as well as process machinery. Examples drawn from existing or planned projects illustrate the presentation. Keywords: superfluid helium, cryogenics

  18. Alternative Room Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Fazle Rabbi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing population results in an increasing demand for much more residential and commercial buildings, which leads to vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation of those buildings. Natural air ventilation system is not sufficient for conventional building structures. Hence fans and air-conditioners are must to meet the requirement of proper ventilation as well as space conditioning. Globally building sector consumes largest energy in heating, cooling, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be minimized by the application of solar chimney and modification in building structure for heating, cooling, ventilation and space conditioning. Passive solar cooling is a subject of interest to provide cooling by using the sun, a powerful energy source. This is done for ensuring human comfort in hot climates. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers defines Comfort as ‘that state of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment.’ The present paper describes the development of a solar passive cooling system, which can provide thermal cooling throughout the summer season in hot and humid climates. The constructed passive system works on natural convection mode of air. Such system reduces the inside temperature of up to 5°C from the atmospheric temperature. Temperature can further be reduced by the judicious use of night ventilation.

  19. SU-E-P-16: A Feasibility Study of Using Eclipse AAA for SRS Treatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S; LoSasso, T [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To commission Varian Eclipse AAA for SRS treatment and compare the accuracy with Brainlab iPlan system for clinical cases measured with radiochromic film. Methods: A 6MV AAA clinical model for a Varian TrueBeam STx is used as baseline. The focal spot and field size of the baseline model(BASE) are (1.75,0.75) and 40×40cm{sup 2} respectively. Maximum field sizes, output factors(S{sub t}), FWHM focal spot and secondary source sizes are systematically adjusted to obtain an optimized model(OPT) by comparing the calculated PDD’s, profiles, and output factors with measurements taken with a stereotactic diode(SD) and, cc01 and cc04 ion chambers in Blue Phantom. In-phantom dose distributions of clinical SRS fields are calculated using the OPT and the clinical Brainlab iPlan pencil-beam. Within the 90% isodose-line(ROI), the average dose difference between the calculations and radiochromic film measurements are assessed. Results: The maximum field, focal spot and secondary source sizes for the OPT are 15×15cm{sup 2}, (0,0), and 32.3mm respectively. The OPT St input at 1.0 and 2.0cm fields are increased by 4.5% and 1.5% from BASE. The calculated output of the BASE and OPT underestimate by 16.1%–3.2% respectively at 0.5×0.5cm{sup 2} field and 3.1%−0.02% respectively at 1.0×1.0cm{sup 2} field. The depth doses at 10cm are within 3.5% and 0.4% of measurements for 0.5×0.5 and 1.0×1.0cm{sup 2}. The ROI dose of OPT and iPlan are within 1.6% and 0.6% of film measurements for 3.0cm clinical fields. For 1.0cm fields, the ROI dose of OPT underestimate 0.0–2.0% and iPlan overestimates 1.7–2.9% relative to measurements. Conclusion: The small field dose calculation of Eclipse AAA algorithm can be significantly improved by carefully adjusting the input parameters. The larger deviation of the OPT for 0.5×0.5cm{sup 2} field from measurements can be attributed to the lowest 1.0cm field size input limit of AAA. The OPT compares reasonably well with the iPlan pencil

  20. SU-E-P-16: A Feasibility Study of Using Eclipse AAA for SRS Treatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To commission Varian Eclipse AAA for SRS treatment and compare the accuracy with Brainlab iPlan system for clinical cases measured with radiochromic film. Methods: A 6MV AAA clinical model for a Varian TrueBeam STx is used as baseline. The focal spot and field size of the baseline model(BASE) are (1.75,0.75) and 40×40cm2 respectively. Maximum field sizes, output factors(St), FWHM focal spot and secondary source sizes are systematically adjusted to obtain an optimized model(OPT) by comparing the calculated PDD’s, profiles, and output factors with measurements taken with a stereotactic diode(SD) and, cc01 and cc04 ion chambers in Blue Phantom. In-phantom dose distributions of clinical SRS fields are calculated using the OPT and the clinical Brainlab iPlan pencil-beam. Within the 90% isodose-line(ROI), the average dose difference between the calculations and radiochromic film measurements are assessed. Results: The maximum field, focal spot and secondary source sizes for the OPT are 15×15cm2, (0,0), and 32.3mm respectively. The OPT St input at 1.0 and 2.0cm fields are increased by 4.5% and 1.5% from BASE. The calculated output of the BASE and OPT underestimate by 16.1%–3.2% respectively at 0.5×0.5cm2 field and 3.1%−0.02% respectively at 1.0×1.0cm2 field. The depth doses at 10cm are within 3.5% and 0.4% of measurements for 0.5×0.5 and 1.0×1.0cm2. The ROI dose of OPT and iPlan are within 1.6% and 0.6% of film measurements for 3.0cm clinical fields. For 1.0cm fields, the ROI dose of OPT underestimate 0.0–2.0% and iPlan overestimates 1.7–2.9% relative to measurements. Conclusion: The small field dose calculation of Eclipse AAA algorithm can be significantly improved by carefully adjusting the input parameters. The larger deviation of the OPT for 0.5×0.5cm2 field from measurements can be attributed to the lowest 1.0cm field size input limit of AAA. The OPT compares reasonably well with the iPlan pencil-beam and measurements

  1. Magnetic Fields in Cooling Flow Clusters: A Critical View

    CERN Document Server

    Soker, Noam

    2010-01-01

    Shortly after the first results of Chandra and XMM-Newton appeared, many researchers in the field abandoned the term "cooling flow clusters" in favor of the name "cool core clusters". This change, I argue, has been causing damage by promoting the view that there is no substantial cooling in these clusters. In this contribution I discuss the following points, with emphasize on the last one that deals with magnetic fields in cooling flow clusters. (1) Both AGN-feedback and hot-gas cooling to form stars occur during galaxy formation as well as in cooling flow clusters. Ignoring cooling of the intra-cluster medium, as implied by the term "cool core", does not encourage comparative study of AGN feedback in cooling flow clusters with that of galaxy formation. (2) The line of thought that there is no cooling might lead to wrong questions and research directions. (3) A key question in both cooling flow clusters and during galaxy formation is the mode of accretion by the super massive black hole (SMBH). When cooling i...

  2. Technology Roadmaps: Solar Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world’s total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050. This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages that if concerted action is taken by governments and industry, solar energy could annually produce more than 16% of total final energy use for low temperature heat and nearly 17% for cooling. Given that global energy demand for heat represents almost half of the world’s final energy use – more than the combined global demand for electricity and transport – solar heat can make a significant contribution in both tackling climate change and strengthening energy security.

  3. Technology Roadmaps: Solar Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world's total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050. This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages that if concerted action is taken by governments and industry, solar energy could annually produce more than 16% of total final energy use for low temperature heat and nearly 17% for cooling. Given that global energy demand for heat represents almost half of the world's final energy use -- more than the combined global demand for electricity and transport -- solar heat can make a significant contribution in both tackling climate change and strengthening energy security.

  4. Comparing Social Stories™ to Cool versus Not Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Mitchell, Erin; Townley-Cochran, Donna; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compared the cool versus not cool procedure to Social Stories™ for teaching various social behaviors to one individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The researchers randomly assigned three social skills to the cool versus not cool procedure and three social skills to the Social Stories™ procedure. Naturalistic probes…

  5. The initial cooling of pahoehoe flow lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.; Denlinger, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new thermal model for the initial cooling of pahoehoe lava flows. The accurate modeling of this initial cooling is important for understanding the formation of the distinctive surface textures on pahoehoe lava flows as well as being the first step in modeling such key pahoehoe emplacement processes as lava flow inflation and lava tube formation. This model is constructed from the physical phenomena observed to control the initial cooling of pahoehoe flows and is not an empirical fit to field data. We find that the only significant processes are (a) heat loss by thermal radiation, (b) heat loss by atmospheric convection, (c) heat transport within the flow by conduction with temperature and porosity-dependent thermal properties, and (d) the release of latent heat during crystallization. The numerical model is better able to reproduce field measurements made in Hawai'i between 1989 and 1993 than other published thermal models. By adjusting one parameter at a time, the effect of each of the input parameters on the cooling rate was determined. We show that: (a) the surfaces of porous flows cool more quickly than the surfaces of dense flows, (b) the surface cooling is very sensitive to the efficiency of atmospheric convective cooling, and (c) changes in the glass forming tendency of the lava may have observable petrographic and thermal signatures. These model results provide a quantitative explanation for the recently observed relationship between the surface cooling rate of pahoehoe lobes and the porosity of those lobes (Jones 1992, 1993). The predicted sensitivity of cooling to atmospheric convection suggests a simple field experiment for verification, and the model provides a tool to begin studies of the dynamic crystallization of real lavas. Future versions of the model can also be made applicable to extraterrestrial, submarine, silicic, and pyroclastic flows.

  6. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SAVANNAH RIVER SITE (srs) RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTES AND MELTER FEEDS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site, SRS, is currently pursuing an aggressive program to empty its High Level Waste, HLW, tanks and immobilize its radioactive waste into a durable borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF. To create a batch of feed for the DWPF, several tanks of sludge slurry are combined into one of the million gallon, i.e. 3.79E06 liters, feed tanks for DWPF. A batch of feed nominally consists of 500,000 gallons, i.e. 1.89E06 liters. After a batch of feed is prepared, a portion of the batch, 26,500 liters, is transferred to DWPF. This batch is then chemically adjusted in the Chemical Processing Cell, CPC, prior to being fed to the melter to make the final product; canisters filled with glass. During the processing of the third batch, or Sludge Batch 2, of feed through the DWPF CPC, pumping and transfer problems were noted. These problems hindered the processing of the feed through the CPC, and thus impacted canister production in DWPF. In order to investigate the root cause of these problems, data were collected and evaluated for possible trends. One trend noted was the relationship between the pH, solids loading concentration, and temperature of the feed. As any one of these three variables changed, the rheological properties of the feed appeared to change. To determine the dependency of the rheological property, samples were obtained and shipped to Savannah River National Laboratory's, SRNL, Shielded Cells Facility. The samples were processed under two sets of conditions and rheological measurements obtained. The results of the SRNL studies showed that the ending pH of the samples impacted the rheological properties of the sample. Lowering the pH of the sludge slurry resulted in lower plastic viscosity and yield stress values,thus alleviating the processing problems. Increasing the solids loading typically increased both the plastic viscosity and yield stress. There was minimal or no dependency on temperature

  7. Reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of scoliosis research society – 22 (SRS-22 questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christodoulou Evangelos A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SRS-22 is a valid instrument for the assessment of the health related quality of life of patients with Idiopathic scoliosis. The SRS-22 questionnaire was developed in USA and has been widely used in the English speaking countries. Recently it has been translated and validated in many other languages. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of the refined Scoliosis Research Society-22 Questionnaire. Methods Following the steps of cross – cultural adaptation the adapted Greek version of the SRS-22 questionnaire and a validated Greek version of the SF-36 questionnaire were mailed to 68 patients treated surgically for Idiopathic Scoliosis. 51 out of the 68 patients returned the 1st set of questionnaires, while a second set was emailed to 30 randomly selected patients of the first time responders. 20 out of the 30 patients returned the 2nd set. The mean age at the time of operation was16,2 years and the mean age at the time of evaluation was 21,2 years. Descriptive statistics for content analysis were calculated. Reliability assessment was determined by estimating Cronbach's α and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC respectively. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing SRS-22 domains with relevant domains in the SF-36 questionnaire using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r. Results The calculated Cronbach's α of internal consistency for three of the corresponding domains (pain 0.85; mental health 0.87; self image 0.83 were very satisfactory and for two domains (function/activity 0.72 and satisfaction 0.67 were good. The ICC of all domains of SRS-22 questionnaire was high (ICC>0.70, demonstrating very satisfactory or excellent test/retest reproducibility. Considering concurrent validity all correlations were found to be statistically significant at the 0.01 level among related domains and generally demonstrated high correlation coefficient. Conclusion

  8. Ammonia Henry's Law Constants in SRS High Level Waste Pump Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Level Waste Tank Farms store and process high-level liquid wastes from a number of sources including F- and H-Canyons. These wastes are made alkaline prior to transfer to the Tank Farm and are subject to acceptance based on their composition. These wastes may contain significant concentrations of ammonia from flushing of the process vessel vent system. The Authorization Basis for the Tank Farm limits ammonia concentrations in canyon receipts to control flammability in pump tanks and waste tanks. However, during flushing of the canyon process vessel vent systems, the current limits pose significant operational restrictions. It was originally thought that the current limits based on data obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), on a Hanford salt solution might be overly conservative with respect to salt solutions normally found in SRS Pump Tanks. However, on investigation of the possible range of concentrations based on canyon transfer data, it was found that pump tank salt solution concentrations probably did not differ significantly from the salt solution tested by PNNL. This report documents the work performed as originally described in the task technical plan

  9. Reactor Materials Program -- weldment component toughness of SRS PWS piping materials. [Process Water System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    The mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel materials from the reactor systems in the unirradiated (baseline) and the irradiated conditions have been developed previously for structural and fracture analyses of the pressure boundary of the SRS reactor Process Water System (PWS) components. Individual mechanical specimen test results were compiled into three separate weldment components or regions, namely, the base, weld, and weld heat-affected-zone (HAZ), for two orientations (L-C and C-L) with respect to the pipe axis of the source materials and for two test temperatures of 25 and 125[degrees]C. Twelve separate categories were thus defined to assess the effect of test conditions on the mechanical properties and to facilitate selection of properties for structural and fracture analyses. The testing results show high fracture toughness of the materials and support the demonstration of PWS pressure boundary structural integrity under all conditions of reactor operation. The fracture toughness of a fourth weldment component, namely, the weld fusion line region, has been measured to evaluate the potential for a region of low toughness in the interface between the Type 308 stainless steel weld metal and the Type 304 stainless steel pipe. The testing details and results of the weld fusion line toughness are contained in this report.

  10. Study of Change of Refrigerant R22 in Units Cooling through simulation in Ecosimpro; Estudio de Cambio de Gas Refrigerante R22 en Unidades enfriadoras mediante simulacion en Ecosimpro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto Urbano, J.; Molina, M. C.; Gavilan, C.; Olmedo, J.

    2013-07-01

    The project is based on the thermodynamic study of the circuit of cooling of cooling units employing the EcosimPro software, with the objective, through analysis of the theoretical performance of cooling units with different gas cooling, find substitute refrigerant gas more suitable for the analyzed units coolers. This study is being conducted due to the regulations of the EC Regulation No. 2037 / 2000, according to the which, starting from the year 2010, it is prohibited to import, produce, sell, and/or use of R-22 Virgin, while the use of recycled R22 allowed until January 1 of the year 2015.

  11. Three-dimensional numerical study of laminar confined slot jet impingement cooling using slurry of nano-encapsulated phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohib Ur Rehman, M.; Qu, Z. G.; Fu, R. P.

    2016-10-01

    This Article presents a three dimensional numerical model investigating thermal performance and hydrodynamics features of the confined slot jet impingement using slurry of Nano Encapsulated Phase Change Material (NEPCM) as a coolant. The slurry is composed of water as a base fluid and n-octadecane NEPCM particles with mean diameter of 100nm suspended in it. A single phase fluid approach is employed to model the NEPCM slurry.The thermo physical properties of the NEPCM slurry are computed using modern approaches being proposed recently and governing equations are solved with a commercial Finite Volume based code. The effects of jet Reynolds number varying from 100 to 600 and particle volume fraction ranging from 0% to 28% are considered. The computed results are validated by comparing Nusselt number values at stagnation point with the previously published results with water as working fluid. It was found that adding NEPCM to the base fluid results with considerable amount of heat transfer enhancement.The highest values of heat transfer coefficients are observed at H/W=4 and Cm=0.28. However, due to the higher viscosity of slurry compared with the base fluid, the slurry can produce drastic increase in pressure drop of the system that increases with NEPCM particle loading and jet Reynolds number.

  12. PERUBAHAN STRUKTUR PATI GARUT (Maranta arundinaceae SEBAGAI AKIBAT MODIFIKASI HIDROLISIS ASAM, PEMOTONGAN TITIK PERCABANGAN DAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN-PENDINGINAN [Structure Changes of Arrowroot (Maranta arundinaceae Starch as Influenced by Acid Hydrolysis, Debranching and Autoclaving-Cooling Cycle Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didah Nur Faridah1*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of lintnerization (2.2 N HCl, 2 hours, debranching with pullulanase (1.3 U/g and 10.4 U/g starch and/or three-auctoclaving-cooling cycles at 121oC for 15 minutes on the changes of arrowroot starch structures were studied. The structural modifications of amylose and amylopectin were measured by Gel Permiation Chromatography (GPC, and the distribution of degree of polimerization (DP was analyzed by Fluorophore-Assisted Capillary Electrophoresis (FACE. The GPC profile of native starch using Toyopearl HW-65S gel gave mainly two fractions. Fraction I (Fr. I was a high molecular weight component and Fraction II (Fr. II was a low molecular weight component. After acid modification, the carbohydrate content of Fr. II increased while that of Fr. I decreased. The amount of DP of 6 to 8 increased in all modified arrowroot starches. The GPC and FACE analyses showed that all starch modification techniques caused the structural changes of amylopectin molecules to form short chain amyloses.

  13. Challenges to Introduce Advanced Cooling Technology by the Utilization of Plural Cooling Velocity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiyoshi Funatani

    2004-01-01

    The control of cooling power is very important to introduce desired properties. Usually, higher the cooling rate higher the quench hardness and distortion and the optimization of cooling power is the base for good heat treatment. The change of cooling speed during quenching is one of the effective methods to balance hardness and distortion. Different form the general knowledge of the demerit of vapor blanket stage, oil with long vapor blanket stage is also one of effective methods to reduce distortion. The reduction of distortion with enough quench hardness seems to be possible by optimization of cooling condition by the help of computer simulation. The exhibition of higher core hardness than surface in through hardening steels experienced in the "Inverse quench hardening" was introduced by Prof. Tamura and Shimizu. This mechanism is well explained by Arimoto et al, by analysis of computer simulation. In this paper, plural steps cooling methods are compared, in relation with cooling curve and heat transfer coefficient that is necessary to simulate quench results and the possibility of advanced cooling technology is discussed.

  14. Solving the Cooling Flow Problem through Mechanical AGN Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspari, M; Ruszkowski, M

    2012-01-01

    Unopposed radiative cooling of plasma would lead to the cooling catastrophe, a massive inflow of condensing gas, manifest in the core of galaxies, groups and clusters. The last generation X-ray telescopes, Chandra and XMM, have radically changed our view on baryons, indicating AGN heating as the balancing counterpart of cooling. This work reviews our extensive investigation on self-regulated heating. We argue that the mechanical feedback, based on massive subrelativistic outflows, is the key to solving the cooling flow problem, i.e. dramatically quenching the cooling rates for several Gyr without destroying the cool-core structure. Using a modified version of the 3D hydrocode FLASH, we show that bipolar AGN outflows can further reproduce fundamental observed features, such as buoyant bubbles, weak shocks, metals dredge- up, and turbulence. The latter is an essential ingredient to drive nonlinear thermal instabilities, which cause the formation of extended cold gas, a residual of the quenched cooling flow and,...

  15. The definition of cool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.

    2005-05-01

    A new air cooling system at Agnico-Eagle's LaRonde mine, located in the Abitibi Region of Quebec is described. The new system serves a mine operating at 7,250 plus feet level. The system is installed at the surface; it utilizes ammonia to cool water, which cools the air. The system consists of four compressors which lower the temperature of the ammonia to minus 2 degrees C. Water, which at this temperature is 14 degrees, and ammonia pass through a plate heat exchanger simultaneously, however, without coming into contact with each other. The heat transfer that occurs causes the water's temperature to drop to 2 degrees C. The total volume of water cooled is 220 litres per second. The system is capable of reducing 636,000 cfm of air from 30 degrees C to 6 degrees C, to which 214,000 cfm of non-cooled air is added. This mixture, which is maintained at approximately 8 degrees C throughout the summer season, is sent underground to the deepest parts of the mine. The system runs from June to September, depending on the weather. In the evenings, when the temperature dips to around four to five degrees C, the water is shut down and side doors are opened to prevent the water from freezing.

  16. The Cool 100 book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselip, J.; Pointing, D.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of The Cool 100 book is to document 100 inspiring, educational and practical examples of sustainable and accessible energy supply solutions created by, or suitable for, isolated communities in the cooler regions of the world. The book features the following projects, explored in detail: 1. Promoting Unst Renewable Energy (PURE) project, a pioneering project that demonstrates how wind power and hydrogen technologies can be combined to meet the energy needs of a remote industrial estate on the island of Unst in the British Isles. 2. The EDISON project, or Electric vehicles in a Distributed and Integrated market using Sustainable energy and Open Networks that explored increased renewable energy use and electric vehicle operation in Denmark, with a case study on the island of Bornholm. 3. The Sarfannguit Wireless Electricity Reading project, which has significantly improved utility metering and enabled improved energy management, reduced electricity demand, and the introduction of renewable energy technologies in the isolated villages of Greenland. 4. The Renewable Energy Croft and Hydrogen facility, which uses innovative technologies to support a gardening facility in the Outer Hebrides (Scotland), and is also a working laboratory for students of the local university to develop a hydrogen energy economy. 5. The Samsoe Renewable Energy Island in Denmark, an iconic example of how an island community can consume only green electricity by using a range of innovative technologies and behavioural changes to reduce demand and to harness green energy resources. 6. The Hydrogen Office Project which demonstrates how a commercial office in the coastal town of Methil in Scotland can be supported by a novel renewable, hydrogen and fuel cell energy system, and how the local community is engaged with the project. 7. The Northern Sustainable House in Nunavut, Canada, which explores the process and results of a project to design and implement housing for local families that

  17. Natural radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.

    1979-01-01

    Natural radiative cooling at night was measured based on the surface-radiation spectrum after the heat balance of the surface exposed to the sun had been reradiated. A concept equivalent to the sky temperature and a concept useful for obtaining the net heat flux are discussed. The highest possible equilibrium temperature of the selective surface can be lowered; however, how to apply this practically is not yet known. A simple radiator, completely enclosed by a transparent screen, can produce a significant and inexpensive cooling effect. The results of experiments carried out in an area such as Padua, Italy, where the climate is not suitable for cooling purposes can still be predicted theoretically. The possibility of using the collector for heat collection during the day and as a radiator at night is indicated.

  18. Core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor cooling system transports the heat liberated in the reactor core to the component - heat exchanger, steam generator or turbine - where the energy is removed. This basic task can be performed with a variety of coolants circulating in appropriately designed cooling systems. The choice of any one system is governed by principles of economics and natural policies, the design is determined by the laws of nuclear physics, thermal-hydraulics and by the requirement of reliability and public safety. PWR- and BWR- reactors today generate the bulk of nuclear energy. Their primary cooling systems are discussed under the following aspects: 1. General design, nuclear physics constraints, energy transfer, hydraulics, thermodynamics. 2. Design and performance under conditions of steady state and mild transients; control systems. 3. Design and performance under conditions of severe transients and loss of coolant accidents; safety systems. (orig./RW)

  19. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Don E [ORNL; Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Becklehimer, Jeff [Cray, Inc.; Donovan, Matthew J [ORNL; Layton, Christopher C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  20. Doppler cooling a microsphere

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, P F

    2010-01-01

    Doppler cooling the center-of-mass motion of an optically levitated microsphere via the velocity dependent scattering force from narrow whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances is described. Light that is red detuned from the WGM resonance can be used to damp the center-of-mass motion in a process analogous to the Doppler cooling of atoms. Leakage of photons out of the microsphere when the incident field is near resonant with the narrow WGM resonance acts to damp the motion of the sphere. The scattering force is not limited by saturation, but can be controlled by the incident power. Cooling times on the order of seconds are calculated for a 20 micron diameter silica microsphere trapped within optical tweezers, with a Doppler temperature limit in the microKelvin regime.

  1. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF CAPRYLIC ACID AND LAURIC ACID AS PHASE CHANGE COOL STORAGE MATERIAL%辛酸/月桂酸作为相变蓄冷材料的热性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左建国; 李维仲; 徐士鸣

    2012-01-01

    利用差示扫描量热法和低温显微技术研究辛酸、月桂酸及其二元系统的热性能,建立辛酸/月桂酸二元系统相图.实验结果表明:辛酸/月桂酸二元系统的相图较复杂,辛酸质量分数较低时发生转熔,转熔温度约为14℃,转熔点相应的辛酸质量分数为60%;辛酸质量分数较高时发生共晶,共晶熔融温度为7.44℃,相变潜热为136.43J/g,共晶点相应的辛酸质量分数为80%,该共晶熔融温度适合于空调蓄冷.辛酸/月桂酸共晶混合物经过60次、120次冻熔循环后,其共晶熔融温度、熔融热、比热未发生明显变化,具有较好的热稳定性,可用作相变蓄冷材料.%Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and cryomicroscope were used to investigate the thermal proper-ties of caprylic acid, lauric acid and their binary system, and the phase diagram was obtained. The experimental results showed that the phase diagram of caprylic acid/lauric acid binary system is complex. Peritectic occurs in the low concentration range of caprylic acid. The peritectic temperature is about 14℃, and the corresponding mass fraction of caprylic acid in peritectic point is 60%. Eutectic occurs in the high concentration range of caprylic acid. The eutectic melting temperature is 7.44℃, and the latent heat is 136.43J/g. The corresponding mass fraction of caprylic acid in eutectic mixture is 80%. The eutectic melting temperature is suitable for air-conditioning cool stor-age. The eutectic melting temperature, the latent heat of phase change and the specific heat of eutectic mixture have not obvious variations after 60 and 120 thermal cycles, which proves that the eutectic mixture has good thermal stability. Therefore, it can be used as phase change cool storage material.

  2. Structural and optical properties of SrS nanophosphors influenced by Ce3+ ions concentrations and particle size reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shubhra; Khare, Ayush; Kshatri, D. S.; Tiwari, Sanjay

    2015-10-01

    The SrS nanophosphors doped with different concentrations of Ce3+ are synthesized by solid state diffusion method (SSDM). Various characterization and spectral studies are reported in the light of varied dopant concentrations and reduction in particle size by milling. The as-obtained phosphors are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDX) studies. The FESEM and HRTEM results explain the surface morphology, agglomeration of particles, crystallite size, etc. The results of XRD studies confirm the cubic structure of most intense SrS: Ce3+ nanophosphors and exhibit wider diffraction peaks for 4 h milled sample. The EDX profiles are used to authenticate the occurrence of different starting materials in final products. Upon excitation with UV light (375 nm), two emission peaks are observed at around 459 nm and 551 nm due to transitions of electrons from the 2T2g(5d) → 2F5/2(4f) and 2T2g(5d) → 2F7/2(4f) energy levels. The afterglow decay behavior of different SrS: Ce3+ nanophosphors is presented and discussed systematically.

  3. Research on cooling effectiveness in stepped slot film cooling vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Wu, Hong; Zhou, Feng; Rong, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    As one of the most important developments in air cooling technology for hot parts of the aero-engine, film cooling technology has been widely used. Film cooling hole structure exists mainly in areas that have high temperature, uneven cooling effectiveness issues when in actual use. The first stage turbine vanes of the aero-engine consume the largest portion of cooling air, thereby the research on reducing the amount of cooling air has the greatest potential. A new stepped slot film cooling vane with a high cooling effectiveness and a high cooling uniformity was researched initially. Through numerical methods, the affecting factors of the cooling effectiveness of a vane with the stepped slot film cooling structure were researched. This paper focuses on the cooling effectiveness and the pressure loss in different blowing ratio conditions, then the most reasonable and scientific structure parameter can be obtained by analyzing the results. The results show that 1.0 mm is the optimum slot width and 10.0 is the most reasonable blowing ratio. Under this condition, the vane achieved the best cooling result and the highest cooling effectiveness, and also retained a low pressure loss.

  4. Anomalous law of cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  5. Multiphase cooling flows

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Peter A.

    1996-01-01

    I discuss the multiphase nature of the intracluster medium whose neglect can lead to overestimates of the baryon fraction of clusters by up to a factor of two. The multiphase form of the cooling flow equations are derived and reduced to a simple form for a wide class of self-similar density distributions. It is shown that steady-state cooling flows are \\emph{not} consistent with all possible emissivity profiles which can therefore be used as a test of the theory. In combination, they provide ...

  6. Anomalous law of cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics

  7. Anomalous law of cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapas, Luciano C., E-mail: luciano.lapas@unila.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, Caixa Postal 2067, 85867-970 Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná (Brazil); Ferreira, Rogelma M. S., E-mail: rogelma.maria@gmail.com [Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, 44380-000 Cruz das Almas, Bahia (Brazil); Rubí, J. Miguel, E-mail: mrubi@ub.edu [Departament de Física Fonamental, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Oliveira, Fernando A., E-mail: fernando.oliveira@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto de Física and Centro Internacional de Física da Matéria Condensada, Universidade de Brasília, Caixa Postal 04513, 70919-970 Brasília, Distrito Federal (Brazil)

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  8. A Cool Emperor Penguin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    哇,这只帝企鹅的胸前居然有个心形!It’s cool!(乐天:没错,它的胸前少了这幺撮毛,应该会感觉挺凉快的)cool在这里可不是“凉快”的意思,而是“酷.帅气”的意思。我们《英语大王》的英文名字就叫English Cool Kids哦!(乐天拿出一副墨镜戴上:

  9. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  10. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2004-11-02

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  11. Doppler Cooling a Microsphere

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, P F

    2010-01-01

    Doppler cooling the center-of-mass motion of an optically levitated microsphere via the velocity dependent scattering force from narrow whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances is described. Light that is red detuned from the WGM resonance can be used to damp the center-of-mass motion in a process analogous to the Doppler cooling of atoms. Leakage of photons out of the microsphere when the incident field is near resonant with the narrow WGM resonance acts to damp the motion of the sphere. The...

  12. Compliance of the Savannah River Site D-Area cooling system with environmental regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.; Wilde, E.W. (eds.)

    1990-08-01

    This document presents information relating to a demonstration under Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act for the 400-D Area cooling system at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The demonstration was mandated because the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for SRS (SC0000175), granted on January 1, 1984, specified in-stream temperature limits in SRS streams of 32.2{degree}C and a {Delta}T limit of 2.8{degree}C above ambient. To achieve compliance with in-stream temperature limits, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) entered into a Consent Order (84-4-W) which temporarily superseded the temperature requirements and identified a process for attaining compliance. The preferred option for achieving thermal compliance in Beaver Dam Creek consisted of increased flow, with mixing of the raw water basin overflow with the cooling water discharge during the summer months. Although this action can achieve instream temperatures of less than 32.2{degree}C, {Delta}T's still exceed 2.8{degree}C. Therefore, a 316 (a) Demonstration was initiated to determine whether a balanced indigenous biological community can be supported in the receiving stream with {Delta}T's in excess of 2.8{degree}C. A Biological Monitoring Program for Beaver Dam Creek was approved by SCDHEC in June 1988 and implemented in September 1988. The program monitored the water quality, habitat formers, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, other vertebrate wildlife and threatened and endangered species in Beaver Dam Creek for an 18-month period (September 1988-February 1990). This document summarizes information collected during the monitoring program and evaluates the data to determine whether Beaver Dam Creek presently supports a balanced indigenous biological community. 97 refs., 32 figs., 51 tabs.

  13. Cooling of gas turbines IX : cooling effects from use of ceramic coatings on water-cooled turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W Byron; Livingood, John N B

    1948-01-01

    The hottest part of a turbine blade is likely to be the trailing portion. When the blades are cooled and when water is used as the coolant, the cooling passages are placed as close as possible to the trailing edge in order to cool this portion. In some cases, however, the trailing portion of the blade is so narrow, for aerodynamic reasons, that water passages cannot be located very near the trailing edge. Because ceramic coatings offer the possibility of protection for the trailing part of such narrow blades, a theoretical study has been made of the cooling effect of a ceramic coating on: (1) the blade-metal temperature when the gas temperature is unchanged, and (2) the gas temperature when the metal temperature is unchanged. Comparison is also made between the changes in the blade or gas temperatures produced by ceramic coatings and the changes produced by moving the cooling passages nearer the trailing edge. This comparison was made to provide a standard for evaluating the gains obtainable with ceramic coatings as compared to those obtainable by constructing the turbine blade in such a manner that water passages could be located very near the trailing edge.

  14. Cooling of Hyperonic Neutron Stars with Antikaons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wen-Bo; YU Zi; LIU Yu-Hui

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the impact of hyperons on the neutrino emitting and the gross cooling features of neutron stars with K(-) and ( ˉ)k0 condensations.The results show that hyperons change the density ranges of the direct Urca process with nucleons and the Urca processes of (K-) and (ˉ)k0 condensations,as well as the values of neutrino emissivity.Moreover,interactions between hyperons and antikaons make the neutrino luminosity complicated.It is found that various hyperons play different roles in neutron stars.For massive stars,∑ hyperons make the cooling slower.However,Λ can hardly change the cooling history but it reduces the mass of neutron stars.

  15. Bursty star formation feedback and cooling outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Teresita; Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Slyz, Adrianne; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-10-01

    We study how outflows of gas launched from a central galaxy undergoing repeated starbursts propagate through the circum-galactic medium (CGM), using the simulation code RAMSES. We assume that the outflow from the disc can be modelled as a rapidly moving bubble of hot gas at ˜1 kpc above disc, then ask what happens as it moves out further into the halo around the galaxy on ˜100 kpc scales. To do this, we run 60 two-dimensional simulations scanning over parameters of the outflow. Each of these is repeated with and without radiative cooling, assuming a primordial gas composition to give a lower bound on the importance of cooling. In a large fraction of radiative-cooling cases we are able to form rapidly outflowing cool gas from in situ cooling of the flow. We show that the amount of cool gas formed depends strongly on the `burstiness' of energy injection; sharper, stronger bursts typically lead to a larger fraction of cool gas forming in the outflow. The abundance ratio of ions in the CGM may therefore change in response to the detailed historical pattern of star formation. For instance, outflows generated by star formation with short, intense bursts contain up to 60 per cent of their gas mass at temperatures <5 × 104 K; for near-continuous star formation, the figure is ≲5 per cent. Further study of cosmological simulations, and of idealized simulations with e.g. metal-cooling, magnetic fields and/or thermal conduction, will help to understand the precise signature of bursty outflows on observed ion abundances.

  16. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS WASTE TANKS TO IMPROVE ACTINIDE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.; Thompson, M.

    2011-09-20

    Processes for the removal of residual sludge from SRS waste tanks have historically used solutions containing up to 0.9 M oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining material following sludge removal. The selection of this process was based on a comparison of a number of studies performed to evaluate the dissolution of residual sludge. In contrast, the dissolution of the actinide mass, which represents a very small fraction of the waste, has not been extensively studied. The Pu, Np, and Am in the sludge is reported to be present as hydrated and crystalline oxides. To identify aqueous solutions which have the potential to increase the solubility of the actinides, the alkaline and mildly acidic test solutions shown below were selected as candidates for use in a series of solubility experiments. The efficiency of the solutions in solubilizing the actinides was evaluated using a simulated sludge prepared by neutralizing a HNO{sub 3} solution containing Pu, Np, and Am. The hydroxide concentration was adjusted to a 1.2 M excess and the solids were allowed to age for several weeks prior to starting the experiments. The sludge was washed with 0.01 M NaOH to prepare the solids for use. Following the addition of an equal portion of the solids to each test solution, the concentrations of Pu, Np, and Am were measured as a function of time over a 792 h (33 day) period to provide a direct comparison of the efficiency of each solution in solubilizing the actinide elements. Although the composition of the sludge was limited to the hydrated actinide oxides (and did not contain other components of demonstrated importance), the results of the study provides guidance for the selection of solutions which should be evaluated in subsequent tests with a more realistic surrogate sludge and actual tank waste.

  17. Small high cooling power space cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T. V.; Raab, J.; Durand, D.; Tward, E. [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Redondo Beach, Ca, 90278 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The small High Efficiency pulse tube Cooler (HEC) cooler, that has been produced and flown on a number of space infrared instruments, was originally designed to provide cooling of 10 W @ 95 K. It achieved its goal with >50% margin when limited by the 180 W output ac power of its flight electronics. It has also been produced in 2 stage configurations, typically for simultaneously cooling of focal planes to temperatures as low as 35 K and optics at higher temperatures. The need for even higher cooling power in such a low mass cryocooler is motivated by the advent of large focal plane arrays. With the current availability at NGAS of much larger power cryocooler flight electronics, reliable long term operation in space with much larger cooling powers is now possible with the flight proven 4 kg HEC mechanical cooler. Even though the single stage cooler design can be re-qualified for those larger input powers without design change, we redesigned both the linear and coaxial version passive pulse tube cold heads to re-optimize them for high power cooling at temperatures above 130 K while rejecting heat to 300 K. Small changes to the regenerator packing, the re-optimization of the tuned inertance and no change to the compressor resulted in the increased performance at 150 K. The cooler operating at 290 W input power achieves 35 W@ 150 K corresponding to a specific cooling power at 150 K of 8.25 W/W and a very high specific power of 72.5 W/Kg. At these powers the cooler still maintains large stroke, thermal and current margins. In this paper we will present the measured data and the changes to this flight proven cooler that were made to achieve this increased performance.

  18. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...

  19. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  20. Elementary stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G

    1983-12-01

    Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)

  1. Keeping cool, staying virtuous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waltorp, Karen

    2015-01-01

    their everyday lives. I focus on love and marriage, the imperatives of appearing cool among peers, and keeping the family’s honour intact through the display of virtuous behaviour. Building on Bourdieu’s writings on the split habitus, I introduce the term composite habitus, as it underscores the aspect...

  2. BLAST2SRS, a web server for flexible retrieval of related protein sequences in the SWISS-PROT and SPTrEMBL databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bimpikis, Konstantinos; Budd, Aidan; Linding, Rune;

    2003-01-01

    SRS (Sequence Retrieval System) is a widely used keyword search engine for querying biological databases. BLAST2 is the most widely used tool to query databases by sequence similarity search. These tools allow users to retrieve sequences by shared keyword or by shared similarity, with many public......://blast2srs.embl.de/) aims to meet this need. This server therefore combines the two ways to search sequence databases: similarity and keyword....

  3. Atmospheric impacts of evaporative cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarizes available information on the effects of various power plant cooling systems on the atmosphere. While evaporative cooling systems sharply reduce the biological impacts of thermal discharges in water bodies, they create (at least, for heat-release rates comparable to those of two-unit nuclear generating stations) atmospheric changes. For an isolated site such as required for a nuclear power plant, these changes are rather small and local, and usually environmentally acceptable. However, one cannot say with certainty that these effects will remain small as the number of reactors on a given site increases. There must exist a critical heat load for a specific site which, if exceeded, can create its own weather patterns, and thus create inadvertent weather changes such as rain and snow, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Because proven mathematical models are not available, it is not now possible to forecast precisely the extent and frequency of the atmospheric effects of a particular heat-dissipation system at a particular site. Field research on many aspects of cooling system operation is needed in order to document and quantify the actual atmospheric changes caused by a given cooling system and to provide the data needed to develop and verify mathematical and physical models. The more important topics requiring field study are plume rise, fogging and icing (from certain systems), drift emission and deposition rates, chemical interactions, cloud and precipitation formation and critical heat-release rates

  4. Liquid Cooling/Warming Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Dancisak, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) currently in use was developed over 40 years ago. With the commencement of a greater number of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) procedures with the construction of the International Space Station, problems of astronaut comfort, as well as the reduction of the consumption of energy, became more salient. A shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG) has been developed based on physiological principles comparing the efficacy of heat transfer of different body zones; the capability of blood to deliver heat; individual muscle and fat body composition as a basis for individual thermal profiles to customize the zonal sections of the garment; and the development of shunts to minimize or redirect the cooling/warming loop for different environmental conditions, physical activity levels, and emergency situations. The SLCWG has been designed and completed, based on extensive testing in rest, exercise, and antiorthostatic conditions. It is more energy efficient than the LCVG currently used by NASA. The total length of tubing in the SLCWG is approximately 35 percent less and the weight decreased by 20 percent compared to the LCVG. The novel features of the innovation are: 1. The efficiency of the SLCWG to maintain thermal status under extreme changes in body surface temperatures while using significantly less tubing than the LCVG. 2. The construction of the garment based on physiological principles of heat transfer. 3. The identification of the body areas that are most efficient in heat transfer. 4. The inclusion of a hood as part of the garment. 5. The lesser consumption of energy.

  5. Physiologic and Functional Responses of MS Patients to Body Cooling Using Commercially Available Cooling Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Lee, Hank C.; Luna, Bernadette; Webbon, Bruce W.; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Personal cooling systems are widely used in industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. Increasingly they are also used by heat sensitive multiple sclerosis (HSMS) patients to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. There are a variety of cooling systems commercially available to the MS community. However, little information is available regarding the comparative physiological changes produced by routine operation of these various systems. The objective of this study was to document and compare the patient response to two passive cooling vests and one active cooling garment. The Life Enhancement Technology, Inc. (LET) lightweight active cooling vest with cap, the MicroClimate Systems (MCS) Change of Phase garment, and the Steele Vest were each used to cool 13 male and 13 female MS subjects (31 to 67 yr.) in this study. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approximately 22 C), were tested with one of the cooling garments. Oral, fight and left ear temperatures were logged manually every 5 min. An-n, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; and respiration were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. Each subject was given a series of subjective and objective evaluation tests before and after cooling. The LET and Steele vests test groups had similar, significant (P less than 0.01) cooling effects on oral and ear canal temperature, which decreased approximately 0.4 C, and 0.3 C, respectively. Core temperature increased (N.S.) with all three vests during cooling. The LET vest produced the coldest (P less than 0.01) skin temperature. Overall, the LET vest provided the most improvement on subjective and objective performance measures. These results show that the garment configurations tested do not elicit a similar thermal response in all MS patients. Cooling with the LET active garment configuration resulted in the lowest body temperatures for the MS subjects; cooling with

  6. Sorption cooling: a valid extension to passive cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornink, D.J.; Burger, J.F.; Brake, ter H.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Passive cooling has shown to be a very dependable cryogenic cooling method for space missions. Several missions employ passive radiators to cool down their delicate sensor systems for many years, without consuming power, without exporting vibrations or producing electromagnetic interference. So for

  7. Cooling devices and methods for use with electric submersible pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, Todd A.; Hill, Dallas D.

    2016-07-19

    Cooling devices for use with electric submersible pump motors include a refrigerator attached to the end of the electric submersible pump motor with the evaporator heat exchanger accepting all or a portion of the heat load from the motor. The cooling device can be a self-contained bolt-on unit, so that minimal design changes to existing motors are required.

  8. Study plan for conducting a section 316(a) demonstration: K-Reactor cooling tower, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The K Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS) began operation in 1954. The K-Reactor pumped secondary cooling water from the Savannah River and discharged directly to the Indian Grave Branch, a tributary of Pen Branch which flows to the Savannah River. During earlier operations, the temperature and discharge rates of cooling water from the K-reactor were up to approximately 70 degree C and 400 cfs, substantially altering the thermal and flow regimes of this stream. These discharges resulted in adverse impacts to the receiving stream and wetlands along the receiving stream. As a component of a Consent Order (84-4-W as amended) with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, the Department of Energy (DOE) evaluated the alternatives for cooling thermal effluents from K Reactor and concluded that a natural draft recirculating cooling tower should be constructed. The cooling tower will mitigate thermal and flow factors that resulted in the previous impacts to the Indian Grave/Pen Branch ecosystem. The purpose of the proposed biological monitoring program is to provide information that will support a Section 316(a) Demonstration for Indian Grave Branch and Pen Branch when K-Reactor is operated with the recirculating cooling tower. The data will be used to determine that Indian Grave Branch and Pen Branch support Balanced Indigenous Communities when K-Reactor is operated with a recirculating cooling tower. 4 refs., 1 fig. 1 tab

  9. ALP hints from cooling anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Giannotti, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    We review the current status of the anomalies in stellar cooling and argue that, among the new physics candidates, an axion-like particle would represent the best option to account for the hinted additional cooling.

  10. Study of the circulation theory of the cooling system in vertical evaporative cooling generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Shunzhou; CAI; Jing; GUO; Chaohong

    2006-01-01

    The article briefly states the current development of evaporative cooling generator and its advantages comparing with generators of traditional cooling. Vertical evaporative cooling generator, which adopts Close-Loop-Self-Cycle with no-pump and free convection boil in the hollow stator bar, is one of the great developments in generator design. This article emphasizes the importance of cooling system in generator; expatiates the circulation theory in two aspects, energy and flow; and analyzes the essential reason,motivity and stability of Close-Loop-Self-Cycle. The article points out that the motivity of the circulation is the heat absorbed by coolant. After absorbing heat the coolant will have the ability of doing work because of the phase change. In another words, it is the buoyancy causing by density difference leads to the Close-Loop-Self-Cycle. This conclusion is validated by experimental data.

  11. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  12. Cooling pond temperature prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model is described which predicts temperature responses in the environment that are associated with the operation of a natural gas fueled thermoelectric power generation station. The model is a piecewise computer simulation, limited at present to closed cooling water systems. However, the techniques developed should be applicable to a much larger class of cooling system. The problem encountered consists of two parts: (1) data characterization and (2) modeling. An efficient characterization scheme for the environmental variables greatly simplifies the task of modeling. Methods borrowed from signal theory, but not yet applied to this field are applicable to and greatly simplify the digital computer investigation of environmental data. An optimal data set, from the point of view of information per unit cost, is described for the model

  13. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pulliam, Elias Noel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  14. Standing Slow MHD Waves in Radiatively Cooling Coronal Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Ghafri, Khalil Salim

    2015-01-01

    The standing slow magneto-acoustic oscillations in cooling coronal loops are investigated. There are two damping mechanisms which are considered to generate the standing acoustic modes in coronal magnetic loops namely thermal conduction and radiation. The background temperature is assumed to change temporally due to optically thin radiation. In particular, the background plasma is assumed to be radiatively cooling. The effects of cooling on longitudinal slow MHD modes is analytically evaluated by choosing a simple form of radiative function that ensures the temperature evolution of the background plasma due to radiation coincides with the observed cooling profile of coronal loops. The assumption of low-beta plasma leads to neglect the magnetic field perturbation and eventually reduces the MHD equations to a 1D system modelling longitudinal MHD oscillations in a cooling coronal loop. The cooling is assumed to occur on a characteristic time scale much larger than the oscillation period that subsequently enables...

  15. Construction and alignment experience of Indus-1 SRS in C.A.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 450 MeV Synchrotron Radiation Source, Indus-1 is being constructed at Centre for Advanced Technology at Indore in central India. This paper narrates our experience in construction and alignment of synchrotron machines which was first of its kind for most of us. Careful design, planning and execution of the work yielded modest results so that alignment accuracies between 0.1 to 0.3 mm could be achieved (in booster synchrotron) and, which have proved to be adequate up till now. The building of the SRS complex was constructed such that machine rings have their foundations isolated from rest of the building. A number of 100 x 150 mm size steel plates were embedded in the concrete of floor and walls to serve as base for reference surveying marks which were established later. The pre-injector and booster ring are enclosed in a radiation shielding zone with separate ventilation system. Dipoles, quadrupoles and a few sextupoles were fiducialised during their field mappings; on a CNC Hall-probe manipulator for dipoles and on rotating coil measuring machine for others. Fiducials were of two types- sticker type as well as accurately reamed holes to receive a precision target for alignment measurements with optical instruments. Due to small size of entire machine zone, we decided and used precision surveying method of using ECDS-2 coordinate determination system of KERN (now, Leica) and micrometer type N3 level of WILD. Additionally, accurate spirit levels (10/20 micron per m.) for preliminary leveling and an interferometer to calibrate CNC Hall-probe manipulator were also used. We faced some problems due to instrument failures which were circumvented by mixed use of KERN and WILD theodolites and hand feeding angular readings in the ECDS-2. Of late, the booster synchrotron experiments have established acceleration up to 480 MeV albeit, with very weak current, about 2 mA and first synchrotron light emission was directly observed on 26th Sept. 1995. (J.P.N.)

  16. USE OF CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS FOR SRS REACTOR FACILITY IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING - 11620

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.; Serrato, M.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Waymer, J.; Matheny, D.; Singh, D.

    2010-12-07

    for filling the reactor vessels, and (2) a specialty grout mix to fill a selected portion of the P-Reactor Disassembly Basin. Details of the grout mixes designed for ISD of he SRS Reactor Disassembly Basins and below grade portions of the 105-Buildings was described elsewhere. Material property test results, placement strategies, full-scale production and delivery systems will also be described.

  17. Cool Stars in Hot Places

    OpenAIRE

    Megeath, S. T.; Gaidos, E.; Hester, J. J.; Adams, F. C.; Bally, J.; Lee, J. -E.; Wolk, S.

    2007-01-01

    During the last three decades, evidence has mounted that star and planet formation is not an isolated process, but is influenced by current and previous generations of stars. Although cool stars form in a range of environments, from isolated globules to rich embedded clusters, the influences of other stars on cool star and planet formation may be most significant in embedded clusters, where hundreds to thousands of cool stars form in close proximity to OB stars. At the cool stars 14 meeting, ...

  18. Ceramic cooling tower packings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honekamp, H.; Katzmann, A.

    1986-05-01

    No material for cooling tower packings demonstrates all the characteristics desired by the designer. The choice of a specific material must therefore always be oriented towards the limiting conditions of a specific project. Resistance to frost, combustibility and resistance to ageing may, for example, be determining requirements. Ceramic stones will find further possibilities of application in the near future due to their almost unlimited durability.

  19. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  20. Low mass integrated cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Low mass on - detec tor cooling systems are being developed and stud ied by the Detector Technology group (PH - DT) in the CERN Physics Department in close collaboration with LHC and non - LHC experiments . Two approaches are currently being investigated. The first approach, for barrel configurations, consists in integrating the cooli ng apparatus in light mechanical structures support ing the detectors. In this case , the thermal management can be achieved either with light cooling pipes and thin plates or with a network of microchannels embedded in thin strips of silicon or polyimide . Both configuratio ns are being investigated in the context of the 2018 upgrade program of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). Moreover, it is also possible to use a s ilicon microchannel cooling device itself as structural support for the detectors and electronics. Such a configur ation has been adopted by the NA62 collaboration for the ir GigaTracKer (GTK) as well as by the LHCb collaboration for the 2018 major upgrade of...

  1. Designing modern furnace cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

    2000-02-01

    An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

  2. Water-Cooled Optical Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, A. A.

    1987-01-01

    Water-cooled optical probe measures temperature of nearby radiating object. Intended primarily for use in silicon-growing furnace for measuring and controlling temperatures of silicon ribbon, meniscus, cartridge surfaces, heaters, or other parts. Cooling water and flushing gas cool fiber-optic probe and keep it clean. Fiber passes thermal radiation from observed surface to measuring instrument.

  3. Ultraefficient Cooling of Resonators: Beating Sideband Cooling with Quantum Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoting; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Strauch, Frederick; Jacobs, Kurt

    2012-02-01

    There is presently a great deal of interest in cooling high-frequency micro- and nano-mechanical oscillators to their ground states. The present state of the art in cooling mechanical resonators is a version of sideband cooling, which was originally developed in the context of cooling trapped ions. Here we present a method based on quantum control that uses the same configuration as sideband cooling--coupling the resonator to be cooled to a second microwave (or optical) auxiliary resonator--but will cool significantly colder. This is achieved by applying optimal control and varying the strength of the coupling between the two resonators over a time on the order of the period of the mechanical resonator. As part of our analysis, we also obtain a method for fast, high-fidelity quantum information transfer between resonators.

  4. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OPTIONS FOR SRS WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Koopman, D.

    2009-08-01

    A literature review was conducted to support the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (AECC) for sludge heel removal funded as part of the EM-21 Engineering and Technology program. The goal was to identify potential technologies or enhancements to the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process for chemically dissolving or mobilizing Savannah River Site (SRS) sludge heels. The issues with the potentially large volume of oxalate solids generated from the baseline process have driven an effort to find an improved or enhanced chemical cleaning technology for the tank heels. This literature review builds on a previous review conducted in 2003. A team was charged with evaluating the information in these reviews and developing recommendations of alternative technologies to pursue. The new information in this report supports the conclusion of the previous review that oxalic acid remains the chemical cleaning agent of choice for dissolving the metal oxides and hydroxides found in sludge heels in carbon steel tanks. The potential negative impact of large volumes of sodium oxalate on downstream processes indicates that the amount of oxalic acid used for chemical cleaning needs to be minimized as much as possible or the oxalic acid must be destroyed prior to pH adjustment in the receipt tank. The most straightforward way of minimizing the volume of oxalic acid needed for chemical cleaning is through more effective mechanical cleaning. Using a mineral acid to adjust the pH of the sludge prior to adding oxalic acid may also help to minimize the volume of oxalic acid used in chemical cleaning. If minimization of oxalic acid proves insufficient in reducing the volume of oxalate salts, several methods were found that could be used for oxalic acid destruction. For some waste tank heels, another acid or even caustic treatment (or pretreatment) might be more appropriate than the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process. Caustic treatment of high

  5. Survival in nuclear waste, extreme resistance, and potential applications gleaned from the genome sequence of Kineococcus radiotolerans SRS30216.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Christopher E; Bhat, Swapna; Hawkins, Gary M; Smith, Bryan W; Biswas, Tapan; Hoover, Timothy R; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff S; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Shimkets, Lawrence J

    2008-01-01

    Kineococcus radiotolerans SRS30216 was isolated from a high-level radioactive environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and exhibits gamma-radiation resistance approaching that of Deinococcus radiodurans. The genome was sequenced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute which suggested the existence of three replicons, a 4.76 Mb linear chromosome, a 0.18 Mb linear plasmid, and a 12.92 Kb circular plasmid. Southern hybridization confirmed that the chromosome is linear. The K. radiotolerans genome sequence was examined to learn about the physiology of the organism with regard to ionizing radiation resistance, the potential for bioremediation of nuclear waste, and the dimorphic life cycle. K. radiotolerans may have a unique genetic toolbox for radiation protection as it lacks many of the genes known to confer radiation resistance in D. radiodurans. Additionally, genes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and the excision repair pathway are overrepresented. K. radiotolerans appears to lack degradation pathways for pervasive soil and groundwater pollutants. However, it can respire on two organic acids found in SRS high-level nuclear waste, formate and oxalate, which promote the survival of cells during prolonged periods of starvation. The dimorphic life cycle involves the production of motile zoospores. The flagellar biosynthesis genes are located on a motility island, though its regulation could not be fully discerned. These results highlight the remarkable ability of K radiotolerans to withstand environmental extremes and suggest that in situ bioremediation of organic complexants from high level radioactive waste may be feasible.

  6. Survival in nuclear waste, extreme resistance, and potential applications gleaned from the genome sequence of Kineococcus radiotolerans SRS30216.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Bagwell

    Full Text Available Kineococcus radiotolerans SRS30216 was isolated from a high-level radioactive environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS and exhibits gamma-radiation resistance approaching that of Deinococcus radiodurans. The genome was sequenced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute which suggested the existence of three replicons, a 4.76 Mb linear chromosome, a 0.18 Mb linear plasmid, and a 12.92 Kb circular plasmid. Southern hybridization confirmed that the chromosome is linear. The K. radiotolerans genome sequence was examined to learn about the physiology of the organism with regard to ionizing radiation resistance, the potential for bioremediation of nuclear waste, and the dimorphic life cycle. K. radiotolerans may have a unique genetic toolbox for radiation protection as it lacks many of the genes known to confer radiation resistance in D. radiodurans. Additionally, genes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and the excision repair pathway are overrepresented. K. radiotolerans appears to lack degradation pathways for pervasive soil and groundwater pollutants. However, it can respire on two organic acids found in SRS high-level nuclear waste, formate and oxalate, which promote the survival of cells during prolonged periods of starvation. The dimorphic life cycle involves the production of motile zoospores. The flagellar biosynthesis genes are located on a motility island, though its regulation could not be fully discerned. These results highlight the remarkable ability of K radiotolerans to withstand environmental extremes and suggest that in situ bioremediation of organic complexants from high level radioactive waste may be feasible.

  7. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS): A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feczko, Eric J; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Walum, Hasse; Pruett, John R; Parr, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS). Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological mechanisms underlying

  8. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS: A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Feczko

    Full Text Available Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD, has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS. Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological

  9. Recent developments in cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honekamp, H.; Katzmann, A.

    1981-07-01

    The last few years have brought about some interesting developments in large cooling towers. Cooling tower technology and research have already been reviewed from the researcher's point of view. The present article describes some practical problems from the planning engineer's point of view. Only development trends in wet natural-draught cooling towers are considered. The shape of cooling towers has been improved as well as their internals. Hints for cooling tower operation are given on the basis of operating experience in winter.

  10. Thermodynamic properties of under-cooled silver melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimeter technique combined with the traditional fluxing treatment was used to investigate the specific heat and related thermodynamic properties of under-cooled pure silver melts. The specific heat of the under-cooled melt showed a linear dependence on the temperature in the range of the obtained under-cooling from 0 to 198 K. The related thermodynamic properties of silver, such as the entropy change, the enthalpy change and the Gibbs free energy difference between the under-cooled melt and the solid phase, were derived from the measured specific heat. The relations between the temperature and the thermal diffusion or the thermal conductivity of the under-cooled melt were analyzed respectively.

  11. Laser Cooling of Molecular Anions

    CERN Document Server

    Yzombard, Pauline; Gerber, Sebastian; Doser, Michael; Comparat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme for laser cooling of negatively charged molecules. We briefly summarise the requirements for such laser cooling and we identify a number of potential candidates. A detailed computation study with C$\\_2^-$, the most studied molecular anion, is carried out. Simulations of 3D laser cooling in a gas phase show that this molecule could be cooled down to below 1 mK in only a few tens of milliseconds, using standard lasers. Sisyphus cooling, where no photo-detachment process is present, as well as Doppler laser cooling of trapped C$\\_2^-$, are also simulated. This cooling scheme has an impact on the study of cold molecules, molecular anions, charged particle sources and antimatter physics.

  12. Parametric study on the advantages of weather-predicted control algorithm of free cooling ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predicted climate changes and the increased intensity of urban heat islands, as well as population aging, will increase the energy demand for the cooling of buildings in the future. However, the energy demand for cooling can be efficiently reduced by low-exergy free-cooling systems, which use natural processes, like evaporative cooling or the environmental cold of ambient air during night-time ventilation for the cooling of buildings. Unlike mechanical cooling systems, the energy for the operation of free-cooling system is needed only for the transport of the cold from the environment into the building. Because the natural cold potential is time dependent, the efficiency of free-cooling systems could be improved by introducing a weather forecast into the algorithm for the controlling. In the article, a numerical algorithm for the optimization of the operation of free-cooling systems with night-time ventilation is presented and validated on a test cell with different thermal storage capacities and during different ambient conditions. As a case study, the advantage of weather-predicted controlling is presented for a summer week for typical office room. The results show the necessity of the weather-predicted controlling of free-cooling ventilation systems for achieving the highest overall energy efficiency of such systems in comparison to mechanical cooling, better indoor comfort conditions and a decrease in the primary energy needed for cooling of the buildings. - Highlights: • Energy demand for cooling will increase due to climate changes and urban heat island • Free cooling could significantly reduce energy demand for cooling of the buildings. • Free cooling is more effective if weather prediction is included in operation control. • Weather predicted free cooling operation algorithm was validated on test cell. • Advantages of free-cooling on mechanical cooling is shown with different indicators

  13. Coolant technology of water cooled reactors. V. 1: Chemistry of primary coolant in water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the work performed within the framework of the Coordinated Research Programme on Investigations on Water Chemistry Control and Coolant Interaction with Fuel and Primary Circuit Materials in Water Cooled Power Reactors organized by the IAEA and carried out from 1987 to 1991. It is the continuation of a programme entitled Reactor Water Chemistry Relevant to Coolant-Cladding Interaction (IAEA-TECDOC-429), which ran from 1981 to 1986. Subsequent meetings resulted in the title of the programme being changed to Coolant Technology of Water Cooled Reactors. The results of this Coordinated Research Programme are published in four volumes with an overview in the Technical Reports Series. The titles of the volumes are: Volume 1: Chemistry of Primary Coolant in Water Cooled Reactors; Volume 2: Corrosion in the Primary Coolant Systems of Water Cooled Reactors; Volume 3: Activity Transport Mechanisms in Water Cooled Reactors; Volume 4: Decontamination of Water Cooled Reactors. These publications should be of interest to experts in water chemistry at nuclear power plants, experts in engineering, fuel designers, research and development institutes active in the field and to consultants to these organizations. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OPTIONS FOR SRS WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Koopman, D.

    2009-08-01

    A literature review was conducted to support the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (AECC) for sludge heel removal funded as part of the EM-21 Engineering and Technology program. The goal was to identify potential technologies or enhancements to the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process for chemically dissolving or mobilizing Savannah River Site (SRS) sludge heels. The issues with the potentially large volume of oxalate solids generated from the baseline process have driven an effort to find an improved or enhanced chemical cleaning technology for the tank heels. This literature review builds on a previous review conducted in 2003. A team was charged with evaluating the information in these reviews and developing recommendations of alternative technologies to pursue. The new information in this report supports the conclusion of the previous review that oxalic acid remains the chemical cleaning agent of choice for dissolving the metal oxides and hydroxides found in sludge heels in carbon steel tanks. The potential negative impact of large volumes of sodium oxalate on downstream processes indicates that the amount of oxalic acid used for chemical cleaning needs to be minimized as much as possible or the oxalic acid must be destroyed prior to pH adjustment in the receipt tank. The most straightforward way of minimizing the volume of oxalic acid needed for chemical cleaning is through more effective mechanical cleaning. Using a mineral acid to adjust the pH of the sludge prior to adding oxalic acid may also help to minimize the volume of oxalic acid used in chemical cleaning. If minimization of oxalic acid proves insufficient in reducing the volume of oxalate salts, several methods were found that could be used for oxalic acid destruction. For some waste tank heels, another acid or even caustic treatment (or pretreatment) might be more appropriate than the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process. Caustic treatment of high

  15. A hemolysis study of an intravascular blood cooling system for localized organ tissue cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, T L; Mingin, T; Merrill, D R; Botbyl, J; Akers, J E

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia can reduce both ischemic and reperfusion injury arising after strokes and heart attacks. New localized organ cooling systems offer a way to reduce tissue damage more effectively with fewer side effects. To assess initial blood safety of our new organ cooling system, the CoolGuide Cooling System (CCS), we investigated safe operating conditions and configurations from a hemolysis perspective. The CCS consists of a peristaltic pump, a custom-built external heat exchanger, a chiller, biocompatible polyvinyl cellulose (PVC) tubing, and a control console. The CCS cools and circulates autologous blood externally and re-delivers cooled blood to the patient through a conventional catheter inserted directly into the organ at risk. Catheter configurations used included: a 7F guide catheter only, a 7F guide with a 0.038" wire inserted through the center and advanced 2 cm distal to the catheter distal tip, a 6F guide catheter only and a 6F guide with a 0.014" guidewire similarly inserted through the center. Using porcine blood, an in vitro test rig was used to measure the degree of hemolysis generation, defined as the percentage change in free hemoglobin, adjusted for total hemoglobin and hematocrit, between exiting and entering blood. The highest degree of hemolysis generation was 0.11±0.04%, based on the average behavior with a 6F catheter and a 0.014" guidewire configuration at a blood flow rate of approximately 130 mL/min. In terms of average percentage free hemoglobin exiting the system, based on total hemoglobin, the highest value measured was 0.17%±0.03%, using this 6F and 0.014" guidewire configuration. This result is significantly below the most stringent European guideline of 0.8% used for blood storage and transfusion. This study provides initial evidence showing hemolysis generation arising from the CoolGuide Cooling System is likely to be clinically insignificant. PMID:23047283

  16. Experiments on novel solar heating and cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar heating and nocturnal radiant cooling techniques are united to produce a novel solar heating and cooling system. The radiant panel with both heating and cooling functions can be used as structural materials for the building envelope, which realizes true building integrated utilization of solar energy. Based on the natural circulation principle, the operation status can be changed automatically between the heating cycle and the cooling cycle. System performances under different climate conditions using different covers on the radiant panel are studied. The results show that the novel solar heating and cooling system has good performance of heating and cooling. For the no cover system, the daily average heat collecting efficiency is 52% with the maximum efficiency of 73%, while at night, the cooling capacity is about 47 W/m2 on a sunny day. On a cloudy day, the daily average heat collecting efficiency is 47% with the maximum of 84%, while the cooling capacity is about 33 W/m2. As a polycarbonate (PC) panel or polyethylene film are used as covers, the maximum heat collecting efficiencies are 75% and 72% and the daily average heat collecting efficiencies are 61% and 58%, while the cooling capacities are 50 W/m2 and 36 W/m2, respectively

  17. Compact star cooling by means of heat waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Falcón

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Compact star cooling theory is revised using the Cattaneo law for the heat flux. It is shown changes in the energy transport equation, insinuates quasiperiodic pulses in the luminosity and predicts that the energy is spread by heat waves changing the cooling time. Applications in rapid variations in single white-dwarf oscillators and quasi periodic luminosity pulses of neutron stars are suggested.

  18. Optimization of Saltcake Removal Flowsheet at SRS through Incorporation of Testing and In-Tank Waste Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Adam G. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Tihey, John R. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Saltcake removal at SRS may be performed for several reasons: to provide space for evaporator operation (i.e., to precipitate more salt in the drop tank), to provide feed for salt processing (i.e. immobilize the waste), or to remove the salt for tank closure. Many different salt dissolution techniques have been employed in the 40 years that SRS has been performing salt removal, from a basic “Add, Sit, Remove” method (water is added on top of the saltcake and time is allowed for diffusion), to performing interstitial liquid removal, or using mixing devices to promote contact with the liquid. Lessons learned from previous saltcake removal campaigns, in addition to testing and modeling, have led to opportunities for improvements to the overall saltcake removal process. This includes better understanding of salt properties and behavior during dissolution; the primary concerns for salt dissolution are the release of radiolytic hydrogen and criticality prevention (post-dissolution). Recent developments in salt dissolution include the reuse of dilute supernate and a semi-continuous dissolution (SCD) process, where low volume mixing eductors are used to deliver water near the surface of the saltcake at the same rate as the salt solution is removed and transferred to a receipt tank.

  19. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms. Volume 1, State-of-the-art and potential applications at the SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Benemann, J.R. [Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  20. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  1. Cooled spool piston compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A hydraulically powered gas compressor receives low pressure gas and outputs a high pressure gas. The housing of the compressor defines a cylinder with a center chamber having a cross-sectional area less than the cross-sectional area of a left end chamber and a right end chamber, and a spool-type piston assembly is movable within the cylinder and includes a left end closure, a right end closure, and a center body that are in sealing engagement with the respective cylinder walls as the piston reciprocates. First and second annual compression chambers are provided between the piston enclosures and center housing portion of the compressor, thereby minimizing the spacing between the core gas and a cooled surface of the compressor. Restricted flow passageways are provided in the piston closure members and a path is provided in the central body of the piston assembly, such that hydraulic fluid flows through the piston assembly to cool the piston assembly during its operation. The compressor of the present invention may be easily adapted for a particular application, and is capable of generating high gas pressures while maintaining both the compressed gas and the compressor components within acceptable temperature limits.

  2. ASTROMAG coil cooling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytal, Ben-Zion; Vansciver, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    ASTROMAG is a planned particle astrophysics magnetic facility. Basically it is a large magnetic spectrometer outside the Earth's atmosphere for an extended period of time in orbit on a space station. A definition team summarized its scientific objectives assumably related to fundamental questions of astrophysics, cosmology, and elementary particle physics. Since magnetic induction of about 7 Tesla is desired, it is planned to be a superconducting magnet cooled to liquid helium 2 temperatures. The general structure of ASTROMAG is based on: (1) two superconducting magnetic coils, (2) dewar of liquid helium 2 to provide cooling capability for the magnets; (3) instrumentation, matter-anti matter spectrometer (MAS) and cosmic ray isotope spectrometer (CRIS); and (4) interfaces to the shuttle and space station. Many configurations of the superconducting magnets and the dewar were proposed and evaluated, since those are the heart of the ASTROMAG. Baseline of the magnet configuration and cryostat as presented in the phase A study and the one kept in mind while doing the present study are presented. ASTROMAG's development schedule reflects the plan of launching to the space station in 1995.

  3. Effects of cooling rate on the fracture properties of TA15 ELI alloy plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shikai; XIONG Baiqing; HUI Songxiao

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cooling rate on the mechanical properties and the fatigue crack growth behavior of TA15 ELI alloy plates with different microstructures were investigated at room temperature. The results indicate that the cooling rate (water quench, air cooling, and furnace cooling) has a pronounced influence on the mechanical properties and on the fatigue crack growth,especially for air cooling and furnace cooling.Optical microstructure observation and scanning electron microscopy of tensile fracture surfaces were performed to gain an insight into the mechanism of properties.The dependence of mechanical properties and fatigue crack growth behavior on the cooling rate can be attributed to the α lamellae width and the α colony size,which induce the change in slip length. The microstructure produced by air cooling shows the best damage tolerance behavior when compared with water quench and furnace cooling.

  4. Cooling Performance of an Impingement Cooling Device Combined with Pins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongliang QUAN; Songling LIU; Jianghai LI; Gaowen LIU

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study and one dimensional model analysis were conducted to investigate cooling performance of an integrated impingement and pin fin cooling device. A typical configuration specimen was made and tested in a large scale low speed closed-looped wind tunnel. Detailed two-dimensional contour maps of the temperature and cooling effectiveness were obtained for different pressure ratios and therefore different coolant flow-rates through the tested specimen. The experimental results showed that very high cooling effectiveness can be achieved by this cooling device with relatively small amount of coolant flow. Based on the theory of transpiration cooling in porous material, a one dimensional heat transfer model was established to analyze the effect of various parameters on cooling effectiveness. It was found from this model that the variation of heat transfer on the gas side, including heat transfer coefficient and film cooling effectiveness, of the specimen created much more effect on its cooling effectiveness than that of the coolant side. The predictions of the one-dimensional mode were compared and agreed well with the experimental data.

  5. Modelization of cooling system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the site evaluation study for licensing a new nuclear power facility, the criteria involved could be grouped in health and safety, environment, socio-economics, engineering and cost-related. These encompass different aspects such as geology, seismology, cooling system requirements, weather conditions, flooding, population, and so on. The selection of the cooling system is function of different parameters as the gross electrical output, energy consumption, available area for cooling system components, environmental conditions, water consumption, and others. Moreover, in recent years, extreme environmental conditions have been experienced and stringent water availability limits have affected water use permits. Therefore, modifications or alternatives of current cooling system designs and operation are required as well as analyses of the different possibilities of cooling systems to optimize energy production taking into account water consumption among other important variables. There are two basic cooling system configurations: - Once-through or Open-cycle; - Recirculating or Closed-cycle. In a once-through cooling system (or open-cycle), water from an external water sources passes through the steam cycle condenser and is then returned to the source at a higher temperature with some level of contaminants. To minimize the thermal impact to the water source, a cooling tower may be added in a once-through system to allow air cooling of the water (with associated losses on site due to evaporation) prior to returning the water to its source. This system has a high thermal efficiency, and its operating and capital costs are very low. So, from an economical point of view, the open-cycle is preferred to closed-cycle system, especially if there are no water limitations or environmental restrictions. In a recirculating system (or closed-cycle), cooling water exits the condenser, goes through a fixed heat sink, and is then returned to the condenser. This configuration

  6. Plant Vogtle cooling tower studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Steen, L.

    2000-01-26

    Intensive ground-based field studies of plumes from two large, natural-draft cooling towers were conducted in support of the MTI modeling effort. Panchromatic imagery, IR imagery, meteorological data, internal tower temperatures and plant power data were collected during the field studies. These data were used to evaluate plume simulations, plume radioactive transfer calculations and plume volume estimation algorithms used for power estimation. Results from six field studies indicate that a 3-D atmospheric model at sufficient spatial resolution can effectively simulate a cooling tower plume if the plume is of sufficient size and the ambient meteorology is known and steady. Small plumes and gusty wind conditions degrade the agreement between the simulated and observed plumes. Thermal radiance calculations based on the simulated plumes produced maximum IR temperatures (near tower exit) which were in good agreement with measured IR temperatures for the larger plumes. For the smaller plumes, the calculated IR temperature was lower than the measured temperature by several degrees. Variations in maximum IR plume temperature with decreasing power (one reactor was undergoing a shutdown process), were clearly observed in the IR imagery and seen in the simulations. These temperature changes agreed with those calculated from an overall tower energy and momentum balance. Plume volume estimates based on camcorder images at three look angles were typically 20--30 percent larger than the plume volumes derived from the simulations, although one estimate was twice the simulated volume. Volume overestimation is expected and will have to be accounted for to some degree if plume volume is to be a useful diagnostic quantity in power estimation. Volume estimation with MTI imagery will require a large, stable plume and two looks in the visible bands (5m GSD) along with a solar shadow.

  7. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarjadi, M., E-mail: m.zebarjadi@rutgers.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Institute of Advanced Materials, Devices, and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  8. Optical Mixing Controlled Stimulated Scattering instabilities: Suppression of SRS by the Controlled Introduction of Ion Acoustic and Electron Plasma Wave Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Afeyan, Bedros; Won, K; Montgomery, D S; Hammer, J; Kirkwood, R K; Schmitt, A J

    2012-01-01

    In a series of experiments on the Omega laser facility at LLE, we have demonstrated the suppression of SRS in prescribed spectral windows due to the presence of externally controlled levels of ion acoustic waves (IAW, by crossing two blue beams at the Mach -1 surface) and electron plasma waves (EPW, by crossing a blue and a green beam around a tenth critical density plasma) generated via optical mixing. We have further observed SRS backscattering of a green beam when crossed with a blue pump beam, in whose absence, that (green beam) backscattering signature was five times smaller. This is direct evidence for green beam amplification when crossed with the blue. Additional proof comes from transmitted green beam measurements. A combination of these techniques may allow the suppression of unacceptable levels of SRS near the light entrance hole of large-scale hohlraums on the NIF or LMJ.

  9. To Be Cool or Uncool?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁会珍

    2007-01-01

    The western world has always been divided into two types of people-the cool and the uncool. It is a division that __1__ in school. The cool kids are good at __2__. They are __3__ with the opposite sex. They are good-looking and people want to __4__ their style. They can do their homework but they don't make a big effort. That would __5__ be cool.

  10. Electron Cooling Experiments in CSR

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaodong, Yang

    2011-01-01

    The six species heavy ion beam was accumulated with the help of electron cooling in the main ring of Cooler Storage Ring of Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou(HIRFL-CSR), the ion beam accumulation dependence on the parameters of cooler was investigated experimentally. The 400MeV/u 12C6+ and 200MeV/u 129Xe54+ was stored and cooled in the experimental ring CSRe, the cooling force was measured in different condition.

  11. Electron cooling experiments in CSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARKHOMCHUK; Vasily; REVA; Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The six species heavy ion beam was accumulated with the help of electron cooling in the main ring of Cooler Storage Ring of Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSR). The ion beam accumulation dependence on the parameters of cooler was investigated experimentally. The 400 MeV/u 12C6+ and 200 MeV/u 129Xe54+ were stored and cooled in the experimental ring CSRe, and the cooling force was measured in different conditions.

  12. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  13. Cooling of rectangular bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solution of the time-transient Heat Transfer Differential Equation in rectangular coordinates is presented, leading to a model which describes the temperature drop with time in rectangular bars. It is similar to an other model for cilindrical bars which has been previously developed in the Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy of UFRGS. Following these models, a generalization has been made, which permits cooling time evaluation for all profiles. These results are compared with experimental laboratory data in the 1200 to 8000C range. Some other existing models were also studied which have the purpose of studing the same phenomenon. Their mathematical forms and their evaluated values are analyzed and compared with experimental ones. (Author)

  14. ATLAS' major cooling project

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, a considerable effort has been put into commissioning the various units of ATLAS' complex cryogenic system. This is in preparation for the imminent cooling of some of the largest components of the detector in their final underground configuration. The liquid helium and nitrogen ATLAS refrigerators in USA 15. Cryogenics plays a vital role in operating massive detectors such as ATLAS. In many ways the liquefied argon, nitrogen and helium are the life-blood of the detector. ATLAS could not function without cryogens that will be constantly pumped via proximity systems to the superconducting magnets and subdetectors. In recent weeks compressors at the surface and underground refrigerators, dewars, pumps, linkages and all manner of other components related to the cryogenic system have been tested and commissioned. Fifty metres underground The helium and nitrogen refrigerators, installed inside the service cavern, are an important part of the ATLAS cryogenic system. Two independent helium refrigerators ...

  15. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  16. Evaluation of thermal-storage concepts for solar cooling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P. J.; Morehouse, J. H.; Choi, M. K.; White, N. M.; Scholten, W. B.

    1981-10-01

    Various configuration concepts for utilizing thermal energy storage to improve the thermal and economic performance of solar cooling systems for buildings were analyzed. The storge concepts evaluated provide short-term thermal storge via the bulk containment of water or salt hydrates. The evaluations were made for both residential-size cooling systems (3-ton) and small commercial-size cooling systems (25-ton). The residential analysis considers energy requirements for space heating, space cooling and water heating, while the commercial building analysis is based only on energy requirements for space cooling. The commercial building analysis considered a total of 10 different thermal storage/solar systems, 5 each for absorption and Rankine chiller concepts. The residential analysis considered 4 thermal storage/solar systems, all utilizing an absorption chiller. The trade-offs considered include: cold-side versus hot-side storage, single vs multiple stage storage, and phase-change vs sensible heat storage.

  17. Process Modeling for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The general mathematical model for batch cooling crystallization was established based on the popula tion balance equation considering the change of slurry volume, and simulated with crystallization thermodynamics, kinetics and mass balance employing bed voidage. In the system of vitamin C-water-ethanol, reliability of this model was verified by comparison between simulation results and experimental data. The effects of operation parameters on product quality can be systematically investigated by modeling simulation.

  18. Process Modeling for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧萍; 王静康

    2001-01-01

    The general mathematical model for batch cooling crystallization was established based on the population balance equation considering the change of slurry volume, and simulated with crystallization thermodynamics,kinetics and mass balance employing bed voidage. In the system of vitamin C-water-ethanol, reliability of this model was verified by comparison between simulation results and experimental data. The effects of operation parameters on product quality can be systematically investigated by modeling simulation.

  19. SRS及其质量模糊度量方法的研究%Study of Fuzzy Evaluation for SRS and its Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘早斌; 陈正勇; 陈传波; 裴先登

    2003-01-01

    Being the first stage of the software lifecycle,software requirements analysis plays a pivotal role in the entire software development process. The success and failure key to the entire software development projects is the quality of software requirements specifications (SRS). By means of fuzzy set theory, this paper firstly analyzes SRS and its characteristics, and then proposes the quota system for evaluating the quality of software requirements specifications. This paper also discusses the approaches of relating data acquirement and fuzzy evaluating, and the quantitative analysis for evaluation results. Finally, the expectation of the future work is given.

  20. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE III FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2010-09-01

    a total dose of 3.95 x 10{sup 6} R, indicated little to no affect on the performance of the material to remove Sr and actinides. Previous testing established that mMST releases oxygen gas during the synthesis, and continues to off-gas during storage post synthesis. The post-synthesis gas release rate was measured under several conditions, including varying the pH of the wash water and at elevated temperature (49 C, typical of bounding summertime storage without air conditioning). Results indicated that a high pH (basic) wash reduced the initial gas release rate, but after 2 days the release rates from all different pH washed samples were not statistically different. The gas release rate at 49 C, a temperature at which the material may be exposed to during shipping and storage, was consistently about 2.5 times higher than the rate at room temperature. All gas release results indicated that vented containers would be necessary for shipping and storage of large quantities of material. Suspension of sorbate-loaded solids into diluted solutions representing intermediate and final stages of washing for 24-hours revealed no evidence of desorption of Sr, Pu or Np from the mMST solids. Based on the results of the Phase III testing as well as that from earlier studies (Phases I and II), SRNL researchers recommend adopting the use of the mMST material for the removal of strontium and actinides from the SRS HLW supernatant liquids in the Actinide Removal Process and Salt Waste Processing Facility. Given the decrease in Sr and Pu removal performance for the mMST having an age of 4 years and 8 months, we recommend that mMST be used within 30 months of production. Furthermore we recommend that DOE provide funding to conduct pilot-scale testing of the mixing and settling characteristics of the mMST and impact, if any, on the generation of hydrogen during processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

  1. Characteristics of wetting temperature during spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study has been done to elucidate the effects of mass flux and subcooling of liquid and thermal properties of solid on the wetting temperature during cooling of a hot block with spray. A water spray was impinged at one of the end surfaces of a cylindrical block initially heated at 400 or 500degC. The experimental condition was mass fluxes G=1-9 kg/m2 s and degrees of subcooling ΔTsub =20, 50, 80 K. Three blocks of copper, brass and carbon steel were prepared. During spray cooling internal block temperature distribution and sputtering sound pressure level were recorded and the surface temperature and heat flux were evaluated with 2D inverse heat conducting analysis. Cooling process on cooling curves is divided into four regimes categorized by change in a flow situation and the sound level. The wetting temperature defined as the wall temperature at a minimum heat flux point was measured over an extensive experimental range. The wetting wall temperature was correlated well with the parameter of GΔTsub. The wetting wall temperature increases as GΔTsub increases and reaches a constant value depending on the material of the surface at higher region of GΔTsub. (author)

  2. Air cooled absorption chillers for solar cooling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, W. J.; Reimann, R. C.

    1982-03-01

    The chemical composition of a 'best' absorption refrigerant system is identified, and those properties of the system necessary to design hot water operated, air cooled chilling equipment are determined. Air cooled chillers from single family residential sizes into the commercial rooftop size range are designed and operated.

  3. Sensitivity and variability of Presage dosimeter formulations in sheet form with application to SBRT and SRS QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, Michael, E-mail: mdumas1127@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine and Karmanos Cancer Institute Detroit, Detroit, Michigan 48201 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Rakowski, Joseph T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine and Karmanos Cancer Institute Detroit, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To measure sensitivity and stability of the Presage dosimeter in sheet form for various chemical concentrations over a range of clinical photon energies and examine its use for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) QA. Methods: Presage polymer dosimeters were formulated to investigate and optimize their sensitivity and stability. The dosimeter is composed of clear polyurethane base, leucomalachite green (LMG) reporting dye, and bromoform radical initiator in 0.9–1.0 mm thick sheets. The chemicals are mixed together for 2 min, cast in an aluminum mold, and left to cure at 60 psi for a minimum of two days. Dosimeter response was characterized at energies Co-60, 6 MV, 10 MV flattening-filter free, 15 MV, 50 kVp (mean 19.2 keV), and Ir-192. The dosimeters were scanned by a Microtek Scanmaker i800 at 300 dpi, 2{sup 16} bit depth per color channel. Red component images were analyzed with ImageJ and RIT. SBRT QA was done with gamma analysis tolerances of 2% and 2 mm DTA. Results: The sensitivity of the Presage dosimeter increased with increasing concentration of bromoform. Addition of tin catalyst decreased curing time and had negligible effect on sensitivity. LMG concentration should be at least as high as the bromoform, with ideal concentration being 2% wt. Gamma Knife SRS QA measurements of relative output and profile widths were within 2% of manufacturer’s values validated at commissioning, except the 4 mm collimator relative output which was within 3%. The gamma pass rate of Presage with SBRT was 73.7%, compared to 93.1% for EBT2 Gafchromic film. Conclusions: The Presage dosimeter in sheet form was capable of detecting radiation over all tested photon energies and chemical concentrations. The best sensitivity and photostability of the dosimeter were achieved with 2.5% wt. LMG and 8.2% wt. bromoform. Scanner used should not emit any UV radiation as it will expose the dosimeter, as with the Epson 10000 XL scanner

  4. Sensitivity and variability of Presage dosimeter formulations in sheet form with application to SBRT and SRS QA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To measure sensitivity and stability of the Presage dosimeter in sheet form for various chemical concentrations over a range of clinical photon energies and examine its use for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) QA. Methods: Presage polymer dosimeters were formulated to investigate and optimize their sensitivity and stability. The dosimeter is composed of clear polyurethane base, leucomalachite green (LMG) reporting dye, and bromoform radical initiator in 0.9–1.0 mm thick sheets. The chemicals are mixed together for 2 min, cast in an aluminum mold, and left to cure at 60 psi for a minimum of two days. Dosimeter response was characterized at energies Co-60, 6 MV, 10 MV flattening-filter free, 15 MV, 50 kVp (mean 19.2 keV), and Ir-192. The dosimeters were scanned by a Microtek Scanmaker i800 at 300 dpi, 216 bit depth per color channel. Red component images were analyzed with ImageJ and RIT. SBRT QA was done with gamma analysis tolerances of 2% and 2 mm DTA. Results: The sensitivity of the Presage dosimeter increased with increasing concentration of bromoform. Addition of tin catalyst decreased curing time and had negligible effect on sensitivity. LMG concentration should be at least as high as the bromoform, with ideal concentration being 2% wt. Gamma Knife SRS QA measurements of relative output and profile widths were within 2% of manufacturer’s values validated at commissioning, except the 4 mm collimator relative output which was within 3%. The gamma pass rate of Presage with SBRT was 73.7%, compared to 93.1% for EBT2 Gafchromic film. Conclusions: The Presage dosimeter in sheet form was capable of detecting radiation over all tested photon energies and chemical concentrations. The best sensitivity and photostability of the dosimeter were achieved with 2.5% wt. LMG and 8.2% wt. bromoform. Scanner used should not emit any UV radiation as it will expose the dosimeter, as with the Epson 10000 XL scanner. Presage

  5. Standing Slow MHD Waves in Radiatively Cooling Coronal Loops

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. S. Al-Ghafri

    2015-06-01

    The standing slow magneto-acoustic oscillations in cooling coronal loops are investigated. There are two damping mechanisms which are considered to generate the standing acoustic modes in coronal magnetic loops, namely, thermal conduction and radiation. The background temperature is assumed to change temporally due to optically thin radiation. In particular, the background plasma is assumed to be radiatively cooling. The effects of cooling on longitudinal slow MHD modes is analytically evaluated by choosing a simple form of radiative function, that ensures the temperature evolution of the background plasma due to radiation, coincides with the observed cooling profile of coronal loops. The assumption of low-beta plasma leads to neglecting the magnetic field perturbation and, eventually, reduces the MHD equations to a 1D system modelling longitudinal MHD oscillations in a cooling coronal loop. The cooling is assumed to occur on a characteristic time scale, much larger than the oscillation period that subsequently enables using the WKB theory to study the properties of standing wave. The governing equation describing the time-dependent amplitude of waves is obtained and solved analytically. The analytically derived solutions are numerically evaluated to give further insight into the evolution of the standing acoustic waves. We find that the plasma cooling gives rise to a decrease in the amplitude of oscillations. In spite of the reduction in damping rate caused by rising the cooling, the damping scenario of slow standing MHD waves strongly increases in hot coronal loops.

  6. Heat Driven Cooling in District Energy Systems; Vaermedriven Kyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydstrand, Magnus; Martin, Viktoria; Westermark, Mats [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2004-07-01

    high costs. However heat sinks are unavoidable from a system perspective and there are potential cost savings since a low-pressure steam turbines will not be required if heat driven cooling is implemented. The fuel utilization for some technologies (not necessarily the best technology) was evaluated in two different scenarios: 1) with electricity production from coal; and 2) with electricity production from natural gas. It is shown in the scenarios that the heat driven cooling technologies give lower fuel consumption as compared producing electricity as an intermediate product before cooling is produced. Further it should be noted that electricity is produced, not consumed, if heat is used directly for the production of cooling. We claim that cost effective solutions for district heat driven chillers and/or combined production of electricity and district cooling can be found in all climates with high enough density of heating and cooling demands. It was found that district heat driven chillers can be very energy efficient in warm and humid climates since desiccant systems are an effective way of handling latent cooling loads. In dry climates, with low latent loads, water distributed cooling has a large potential and absorption cooling will give high fuel utilization seen from a system perspective. In climates where water shortage is a problem it is possible that the temperature lift of the conventional absorption chiller has to be increased in order to be able to use dry cooling towers. The temperature lift can be increased by changing the chiller design or by using a different working pair. Heat driven cooling can be integrated into an energy system in different ways. In USA and Japan, district heating is not well developed. Instead small, distributed combined heat and power (CHP) plants with high exhaust temperatures are widespread. Cooling is often produced, in these regions, through absorption cooling (using heat from CHP) or compression chillers depending on

  7. Correlation of Cooling Data from an Air-Cooled Cylinder and Several Multicylinder Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkel, Benjamin; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1940-01-01

    The theory of engine-cylinder cooling developed in a previous report was further substantiated by data obtained on a cylinder from a Wright r-1820-g engine. Equations are presented for the average head and barrel temperatures of this cylinder as functions of the engine and the cooling conditions. These equations are utilized to calculate the variation in cylinder temperature with altitude for level flight and climb. A method is presented for correlating average head and barrel temperatures and temperatures at individual points on the head and the barrel obtained on the test stand and in flight. The method is applied to the correlation and the comparison of data obtained on a number of service engines. Data are presented showing the variation of cylinder temperature with time when the power and the cooling pressure drop are suddenly changed.

  8. MODELING OF ION-EXCHANGE FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM DISSOLVED SALTCAKE IN SRS TANKS 1-3, 37 AND 41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F

    2007-08-15

    This report presents an evaluation of the expected performance of engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange resin for the removal of cesium from dissolved saltcake in SRS Tanks 1-3, 37 and 41. The application presented in this report reflects the expected behavior of engineered CST IE-911 and spherical RF resin manufactured at the intermediate-scale (approximately 100 gallon batch size; batch 5E-370/641). It is generally believed that scale-up to production-scale in RF resin manufacturing will result in similarly behaving resin batches whose chemical selectivity is unaffected while total capacity per gram of resin may vary. As such, the predictions provided within this report should provide reasonable estimates of production-scale column performance. Two versions of the RF cesium isotherm were used. The older version provides a conservative estimate of the resin capacity while the newer version more accurately fits the most recent experimental data.

  9. Analysis of soil and water at the Four Mile Creek seepline near the F ampersand H Areas of SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until 1988, solutions containing sodium hydroxide, nitride acid, low levels of radionuclides (mostly tritiated water) and some metals were discharged to unlined seepage basins at the F and H Areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of normal operations (Killian et al, 1987a,b). The basins are now being closed according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). As part of the closure, a Part B Post-Closure Care Permit is being prepared. The information included in this report will fulfill some of the data requirements for that Part B permit. Several soil and water samples were collected along the Four Mile Creek (FMC) seepline at the F ampersand H Areas of the Savannah River Site. The samples were analyzed for concentrations of metals, radionuclides, and inorganic constituents. The goal of the work reported herein is to document the impacts from the basins of FMC has been completed in a phased approach

  10. DFT calculations of electronic and optical properties of SrS with LDA, GGA and mGGA functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shatendra; Sharma, Jyotsna; Sharma, Yogita

    2016-05-01

    The theoretical investigations of electronic and optical properties of SrS are made using the first principle DFT calculations. The calculations are performed for the local-density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and for an alternative form of GGA i.e. metaGGA for both rock salt type (B1, Fm3m) and cesium chloride (B2, Pm3m) structures. The band structure, density of states and optical spectra are calculated under various available functional. The calculations with LDA and GGA functional underestimate the values of band gaps with all functional, however the values with mGGA show reasonably good agreement with experimental and those calculated by using other methods.

  11. Be Cool, Man! / Jevgeni Levik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levik, Jevgeni

    2005-01-01

    Järg 1995. aasta kriminaalkomöödiale "Tooge jupats" ("Get Shorty") : mängufilm "Be Cool, Chili Palmer on tagasi!" ("Be Cool") : režissöör F. Gary Gray, peaosades J. Travolta ja U. Thurman : USA 2005. Lisatud J. Travolta ja U. Thurmani lühiintervjuud

  12. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  13. Dialogues in the COOL Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, S.I.P.; Kroeze, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Options for the Long-term (COOL) Project is a participatory integrated assessment (PIA) comprising extensive dialogues at three levels: national, European and global. The objective of the COOL Project was to ‘develop strategic notions on how to achieve drastic reductions of greenhouse ga

  14. Cooling off with physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Chris [Unilever R and D (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    You might think of ice cream as a delicious treat to be enjoyed on a sunny summer's day. However, to the ice-cream scientists who recently gathered in Thessaloniki in Greece for the 2nd International Ice Cream Symposium, it is a complex composite material. Ice cream consists of three dispersed phases: ice crystals, which have a mean size of 50 microns, air bubbles with a diameter of about 70 microns, and fat droplets with a size of 1 micron. These phases are held together by what is called the matrix - not a sci-fi film, but a viscous solution of sugars, milk proteins and polysaccharides. The microstructure, and hence the texture that you experience when you eat ice cream, is created in a freezing process that has remained fundamentally unchanged since the first ice-cream maker was patented in the 1840s. The ingredients - water, milk protein, fat, sugar, emulsifiers, stabilizers, flavours and a lot of air - are mixed together before being pasteurized and homogenized. They are then pumped into a cylinder that is cooled from the outside with a refrigerant. As the mixture touches the cylinder wall it freezes and forms ice crystals, which are quickly scraped off by a rotating blade. The blade is attached to a beater that disperses the ice crystals into the mixture. At the same time, air is injected and broken down into small bubbles by the shear that the beater generates. As the mixture passes along the cylinder, the number of ice crystals increases and its temperature drops. As a result, the viscosity of the mixture increases, so that more energy input is needed to rotate the beater. This energy is dissipated as heat, and when the ice cream reaches about -6 deg. C the energy input through the beater equals the energy removed as heat by the refrigerant. The process therefore becomes self-limiting and it is not possible to cool the ice cream any further. However, at -6 deg. C the microstructure is unstable. The ice cream therefore has to be removed from the freezer

  15. Radio Galaxies in Cooling Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Eilek, J A

    2003-01-01

    A currently active radio galaxy sits at the center of almost every strong cooling core. What effect does it have on the cooling core? Could its effect be strong enough to offset the radiative cooling which should be occuring in these cores? In order to answer these questions we need to know how much energy the radio jet carries to the cooling core; but we have no way to measure the jet power directly. We therefore need to understand how the radio source evolves with time, and how it radiates, in order to use the data to determine the jet power. When some simple models are compared to the data, we learn that cluster-center radio galaxies probably are energetically important -- but not necessarily dominant -- in cooling cores.

  16. Experiences in solar cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. S.

    The results of performance evaluations for nine solar cooling systems are presented, and reasons fow low or high net energy balances are discussed. Six of the nine systems are noted to have performed unfavorably compared to standard cooling systems due to thermal storage losses, excessive system electrical demands, inappropriate control strategies, poor system-to-load matching, and poor chiller performance. A reduction in heat losses in one residential unit increased the total system efficiency by 2.5%, while eliminating heat losses to the building interior increased the efficiency by 3.3%. The best system incorporated a lithium bromide absorption chiller and a Rankine cycle compression unit for a commercial application. Improvements in the cooling tower and fan configurations to increase the solar cooling system efficiency are indicated. Best performances are expected to occur in climates inducing high annual cooling loads.

  17. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  18. Analysis of coolability of the control rods of a Savannah River Site production reactor with loss of normal forced convection cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical study of the coolability of the control rods in the Savannah River Site (SRS) K-Production Reactor under conditions of loss of normal forced convection cooling has been performed. The study was performed as part of the overall safety analysis of the reactor supporting its restart. The analysis addresses the buoyancy-driven flow over the control rods that occurs when forced cooling is lost, and the limit of critical heat flux that sets the acceptance criteria for the study. The objective of the study is to demonstrate that the control rods will remain cooled at powers representative of those anticipated for restart of the reactor. The study accomplishes this objective with a very tractable simplified analysis for the modest restart power. In addition, a best-estimate calculation is performed, and the results are compared to results from sub-scale scoping experiments. 5 refs

  19. Simulating the Cooling Flow of Cool-Core Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    We carry out high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of a cool core cluster, resolving the flow from Mpc scales down to pc scales. We do not (yet) include any AGN heating, focusing instead on cooling in order to understand how gas gets to the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of the cluster. We find that, as the gas cools, the cluster develops a very flat temperature profile, undergoing a cooling catastrophe only in the central 10-100 pc of the cluster. Outside of this region, the flow is smooth, with no local cooling instabilities, and naturally produces very little low-temperature gas (below a few keV), in agreement with observations. The gas cooling in the center of the cluster rapidly forms a thin accretion disk. The amount of cold gas produced at the very center grows rapidly until a reasonable estimate of the resulting AGN heating rate (assuming even a moderate accretion efficiency) would overwhelm cooling. We argue that this naturally produces a thermostat which links the coolin...

  20. Solar hybrid cooling system for high-tech offices in subtropical climate - Radiant cooling by absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, K.F., E-mail: bssquare@cityu.edu.hk [Building Energy and Environmental Technology Research Unit, School of Energy and Environment and Division of Building Science and Technology, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chow, T.T.; Lee, C.K.; Lin, Z.; Chan, L.S. [Building Energy and Environmental Technology Research Unit, School of Energy and Environment and Division of Building Science and Technology, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-08-15

    primary energy consumption of the solar hybrid cooling system was lower than that of the conventional vapour compression refrigeration system up to 36.5%. Between the two options of chilled ceilings, the passive chilled beams were more energy-efficient to work with the solar hybrid cooling system in the hot and humid climate. Harnessing solar energy for driving air-conditioning would help in reducing the carbon emission, hence alleviating the climate change.

  1. Secular cooling of Earth as a source of intraplate stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    1987-01-01

    The once popular idea that changes in planetary volume play an important role in terrestrial orogeny and tectonics was generally discarded with the acceptance of plate tectonics. It is nonetheless likely that the Earth has been steadily cooling over the past 3-4 billion years, and the global contraction that accompanied such cooling would have led to a secular decrease in the radius of curvature of the plates. The implications of this global cooling and contraction are explored here for the intraplate stress field and the evolution of continental plates.

  2. Secular cooling of Earth as a source of intraplate stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The once popular idea that changes in planetary volume play an important role in terrestrial orogeny and tectonics was generally discarded with the acceptance of plate tectonics. It is nonetheless likely that the Earth has been steadily cooling over the past 3-4 billion years, and the global contraction that accompanied such cooling would have led to a secular decrease in the radius of curvature of the plates. The implications of this global cooling and contraction are explored here for the intraplate stress field and the evolution of continental plates

  3. Central cooling: absorptive chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-08-01

    This technology evaluation covers commercially available single-effect, lithium-bromide absorption chillers ranging in nominal cooling capacities of 3 to 1,660 tons and double-effect lithium-bromide chillers from 385 to 1,060 tons. The nominal COP measured at operating conditions of 12 psig input steam for the single-effect machine, 85/sup 0/ entering condenser water, and 44/sup 0/F exiting chilled-water, ranges from 0.6 to 0.65. The nominal COP for the double-effect machine varies from 1.0 to 1.15 with 144 psig entering steam. Data are provided to estimate absorption-chiller performance at off-nominal operating conditions. The part-load performance curves along with cost estimating functions help the system design engineer select absorption equipment for a particular application based on life-cycle costs. Several suggestions are offered which may be useful for interfacing an absorption chiller with the remaining Integrated Community Energy System. The ammonia-water absorption chillers are not considered to be readily available technology for ICES application; therefore, performance and cost data on them are not included in this evaluation.

  4. Continuous cooling transformation(CCT) curve of a novel Al-Cu-Li alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-ying; GENG Jin-feng; ZHENG Zi-qiao; WANG Chang-jian; SU Yao; HU Bin

    2006-01-01

    An effective method of measuring continuous cooling transformation(CCT) curve is studied. Corresponding to different cooling rate range, the different measurement methods are employed. The phase-transformation temperatures at slow cooling rate are determined by differential thermal analysis(DTA). The phase-transformation temperatures at medium cooling rate are obtained by measuring a ratio of resistance change against temperature. The phase-transformation temperatures at high cooling rate are measured with thermal mechanical simulator and X-ray diffractometer. Mechanical property combined with microstructure of the samples at various cooling rates is studied and the CCT curve of the alloy is constructed. When the cooling rate increases, phase- transformation temperature drops and the quantity of the secondary phase decreases. The solid solution strengthening is the leading strengthening mechanism during the quench and the hardness increases with the increase of the cooling rate.

  5. Pro-recombination role of Srs2 protein requires SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) but is independent of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolesar, Peter; Altmannova, Veronika; Pinela da Silva, Sonia Cristina;

    2016-01-01

    -interacting motif (SIM) of Srs2 is important for the interaction with several recombination factors. Lack of SIM, but not proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-interacting motif (PIM), leads to increased cell death under circumstances requiring homologous recombination for DNA repair. Simultaneous mutation...

  6. A case of Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS): multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, lack of H19 hypomethylation and favourable growth hormone (GH) treatment response

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zoran S. Gucev; Velibor Tasic; Aleksandra Jancevska; Ilija Kirovski

    2009-08-01

    Hypomethylation of the imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) at the IGF2/H19 locus on 11p15 is linked to Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS) and/or hemihypertrophy. This SRS patient was born in term with weight of 3500 g (50 percentile) and length 48 cm (>1 SD below the mean). He was first noticed at the age of 10 years for short stature (114.5 cm, $-3.85$ SD), relatively normal head circumference, a classic facial phenotype, hemihypertrophy (2.5 cm thinner left arm and leg in comparison to the right, asymmetric face), moderate clinodactyly and striking thinness (BMI of 15.3). At the age of 30, the body asymmetry ameliorated (1 cm thinner left arm and leg than the right), and BMI normalized (20.5 cm). Methylation analysis was performed by bisulphate treatment of DNA samples, radiolabelled PCR amplification, and digestion of the PCR products using restriction enzymes. The patient had normomethylation, and in addition hypopituitarism, with low levels of growth hormone (GH) (provocative testing before the start and after termination of GH treatment), thyroxin, TSH, FSH, LH and testosterone. The GH was given for six years, growth response was satisfactory and he reached an adult height of 166 cm. This is a first report of hypopituitarism in a patient with SRS without H19 hypomethylation. It seems that the lack of hypomethylation in this hypopituitary SRS patient is responsible, at least partly, for the favourable final adult height under GH treatment.

  7. Test Review: Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2012). "Social Responsiveness Scale-Second Edition" ("SRS-2"). Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Teryn P.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the Social Responsiveness Scale-Second Edition (SRS-2), a 65-item rating scale measuring deficits in social behavior associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), as outlined by the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association,…

  8. Commentary: The Observed Association between Autistic Severity Measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and General Psychopathology-- A Response to Hus et al.()

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, John N.; Frazier, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    In their analysis of the accumulated data from the clinically ascertained Simons Simplex Collection (SSC), Hus et al. (2013) provide a large-scale clinical replication of previously reported associations (see Constantino, Hudziak & Todd, 2003) between quantitative autistic traits [as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)] and…

  9. The Screening Accuracy of the Parent and Teacher-Reported Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS): Comparison with the 3Di and ADOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvekot, Jorieke; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    The screening accuracy of the parent and teacher-reported Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was compared with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) classification according to (1) the Developmental, Dimensional, and Diagnostic Interview (3Di), (2) the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), (3) both the 3Di and ADOS, in 186 children referred to…

  10. Determination of KCNQ1OT1 and H19 methylation levels in BWS and SRS patients using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Alders; J. Bliek; K. van der Lip; R. van der Bogaard; M. Mannens

    2009-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) are caused by imprinting defects on chromosome 11p15.5. Standard diagnostic tests for these syndromes include methylation analysis of the differential methylated regions of the H19 and KCNQ1OT1 genes. Traditionally this has been con

  11. Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) Criteria and Society of Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT) 2008 Guidelines in Non-Operative Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbel, Krzysztof; Kozinoga, Mateusz; Stoliński, Łukasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    According to the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS), idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a curvature of more than 10° Cobb angle, affecting 2-3% of pediatric population. Idiopathic scoliosis accounts for 80% of all scoliosis cases. Non-operative principles in the therapy of idiopathic scoliosis, including Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria and guidelines proposed by the experts of the Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORTS) were presented. The possibility to carry out quality of life assessments in a conservative procedure was also demonstrated. Based on the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis, SRS criteria, SOSORT 2008 experts' opinion and the knowledge of the possibilities of psychological assessment of conservative IS treatment, rules were proposed regarding nonsurgical IS therapy procedures, with special consideration being paid to the proper treatment start time (age, Risser test, biological maturity, Cobb angle), possibility of curvature progression, the importance of physiotherapy and psychological assessment. The knowledge of SRS criteria and SOSORT guidelines regarding the conservative treatment of IS are essential for proper treatment (the right time to start treatment), and supports establishment of interdisciplinary treatment teams, consisting of a physician, a physiotherapist, an orthopedic technician and a psychologist. PMID:25066033

  12. Cool Sooting Flames of Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.A. MANSUROV

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and paramagnetism of soot particles sampled from cool sooting flames of methane and propane in a separately-heated two-sectional reactor under atmospheric pressure at the reactor temperatures of 670-1170 K. The temperature profiles of the flames were studied. The sampling was carried out with a quartz sampler and the samples were frozen with liquid nitrogen. A number of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as pyrene, fluoranthene, coronene, anthanthrene, 1,12-benzperylene,were identified by spectroscopic methods in the extract of soot. The processes of soot formation at methaneoxygen mixture combustion in the electric field with applied potential changed from 0 to 2,2 kV at different polarity of electrodes have been investigated. It has been stated that at the electrical field application, an increase in soot particle sizes and soot yield occurs; besides, at the application of the field, speeding up the positively charged particles, the interplanar distance decreases. On the basis of investigation of soot particles paramagnetism, it was shown that initially soot particles have high carcinogetic activity and pollute the environment owing to a rapid decrease of the number of these radical centers. The reduction of the radical concentration is connected with radical recombination on soot.

  13. Numerical modeling of complex heat transfer phenomena in cooling applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    Multiphase and multicomponent flows are frequently encountered in the cooling applications due to combined heat transfer and phase change phenomena. Two-fluid and homogeneous mixture models are chosen to numerically study these flows in the cooling phenomena. Therefore this work is divided in two main parts. In the first part, a two-fluid model algorithm for free surface flows is presented. The two fluid model is usually used as a tool to simulate dispersed flow. With its extension, it may al...

  14. Fast Laser Cooling of Long Lived Ion Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Bessonov, E. G.; Osipov, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Some peculiarities of fast laser cooling of long-lived ion beams in storage rings are discussed. Selective interaction of ions and broadband laser beam with sharp frequency and geometric edges is used while laser and ion beams are partially overlapped. The rates of change of the ion beam density in different regions of the phase space and at different moments of time in this scheme of cooling differ. That is why the generalized Robinson theorem valid for the infinitesimal phase space regions ...

  15. Operational Characteristics of Four Commercially Available Personal Cooling Vests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Lee, Hank C.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which provide chest cooling are used in the industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of two passive and two active cooling vests, and to measure the body temperature and circulatory changes produced by each cooling vest configuration. The MicroClimate Systems and the Life Enhancement Tech(LET) lightweight liquid cooling vests, the Steele Vest and LET's Zipper Front Garment were used to cool the chest region of 11 male and 10 female subjects (25 to 55 yr.) in this study. Calf, forearm and finger blood flows were measured using a tetrapolar impedance rheograph. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx.21 C), were tested for 60 min. with the cooling system operated at its maximum cooling capacity. Blood flows were recorded continuously using a computer data acquisition system with a sampling frequency of 250 Hz. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; respiration; and an activity index were recorded continuously on a URI Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. In general, the male and female subjects' rectal and ear temperature responses to cooling were similar for all vest configurations tested. Oral temperatures during the recovery period were significantly (Pcooling and recovery periods. These results show that all vest configurations elicit a similar thermal response in both male and female subject groups. However, subject population variance was rather large and may have masked differences between the vests. One vest may prove more effective than another for a given individual, and experience is the only means of determining this.

  16. Operational Characteristics of Two Commercially Available Personal Cooling Vests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Lee, Hank C.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which provide chest cooling are used in the industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of two passive cooling vests, and to measure the body temperature and circulatory changes produced by each cooling vest configuration. A Life Enhancement Technologies, (LET) ice vest garment and a Steele, Inc. vest were used to cool the chest region of 11 male subjects (25 to 55 yr) in this study. Calf, forearm and finger blood flows were measured using a tetrapolar impedance rheograph. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approximately 21 C) were tested for 60 min. with the cooling system operating at its maximum cooling capacity. Blood flows were recorded continuously using a computer data acquisition system with a sampling frequency of 250 Hz. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; respiration; and an activity index were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. No significant differences were found in either the oral or ear temperature responses to the two vests. However, the rectal and mean skin temperatures at the end of the cooling period were both significantly lower (P less than 0.05), approximately 0.2 and 1.9 C, respectively for the LET vest than for the Steele garment. These data show that different vest configurations may produce different thermal responses in healthy male subjects which should be considered in the use of these cooling garments.

  17. Novel cooling strategy for electronic packages: Directly injected cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, W.W.; Vaneker, T.H.J.; Mannak, J.H.; Legtenberg, R.

    2009-01-01

    This publication describes the development of a novel cooling strategy for electronic packages. During the conceptual design phase, the engineering disciplines involved are considered simultaneously. Through a case study, it is demonstrated that this integrative approach is an effective methodology

  18. A Phase 3 Trial of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone Versus WBRT and SRS With Temozolomide or Erlotinib for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and 1 to 3 Brain Metastases: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperduto, Paul W., E-mail: psperduto@mropa.com [Metro MN CCOP, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Wang, Meihua [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Robins, H. Ian [University of Wisconsin Medical School Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Schell, Michael C. [Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Souhami, Luis [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Khuntia, Deepak [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Demas, William [Akron City Hospital, Akron, Ohio (United States); Shah, Sunjay A. [Christiana Care Health Services, Inc, CCOP, Newark, Delaware (United States); Nedzi, Lucien A. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas (United States); Perry, Gad [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Suh, John H. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Background: A phase 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) study subset analysis demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) with the addition of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases. Because temozolomide (TMZ) and erlotinib (ETN) cross the blood-brain barrier and have documented activity in NSCLC, a phase 3 study was designed to test whether these drugs would improve the OS associated with WBRT + SRS. Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases were randomized to receive WBRT (2.5 Gy × 15 to 37.5 Gy) and SRS alone, versus WBRT + SRS + TMZ (75 mg/m{sup 2}/day × 21 days) or ETN (150 mg/day). ETN (150 mg/day) or TMZ (150-200 mg/m{sup 2}/day × 5 days/month) could be continued for as long as 6 months after WBRT + SRS. The primary endpoint was OS. Results: After 126 patients were enrolled, the study closed because of accrual limitations. The median survival times (MST) for WBRT + SRS, WBRT + SRS + TMZ, and WBRT + SRS + ETN were qualitatively different (13.4, 6.3, and 6.1 months, respectively), although the differences were not statistically significant. Time to central nervous system progression and performance status at 6 months were better in the WBRT + SRS arm. Grade 3 to 5 toxicity was 11%, 41%, and 49% in arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<.001). Conclusion: The addition of TMZ or ETN to WBRT + SRS in NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases did not improve survival and possibly had a deleterious effect. Because the analysis is underpowered, these data suggest but do not prove that increased toxicity was the cause of inferior survival in the drug arms.

  19. The Cooling of Compact Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Page, D; Weber, F; Page, Dany; Geppert, Ulrich; Weber, Fridolin

    2005-01-01

    The cooling of a compact star depends very sensitively on the state of dense matter at supranuclear densities, which essentially controls the neutrino emission, as well as on the structure of the stellar outer layers which control the photon emission. Open issues concern the hyperon population, the presence of meson condensates, superfluidity and superconductivity, and the transition of confined hadronic matter to quark matter. This paper describes these issues and presents cooling calculations based on a broad collection of equations of state for neutron star matter and strange matter. These results are tested against the body of observed cooling data.

  20. CLIC inner detectors cooling simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Ramos, F.; Villarejo Bermudez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The strict requirements in terms of material budget for the inner region of the CLIC detector concepts require the use of a dry gas for the cooling of the respective sen- sors. This, in conjunction with the compactness of the inner volumes, poses several challenges for the design of a cooling system that is able to fulfil the required detec- tor specifications. This note introduces a detector cooling strategy using dry air as a coolant and shows the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations used to validate the proposed strategy.

  1. CO$_2$ cooling experience (LHCb)

    CERN Document Server

    Van Lysebetten, Ann; Verlaat, Bart

    2007-01-01

    The thermal control system of the LHCb VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a two-phase C0$_2$ cooling system based on the 2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) method. Liquid carbon dioxide is mechanically pumped in a closed loop, chilled by a water-cooled freon chiller and evaporated in the VELO detector. The main goal of the system is the permanent cooling of the VELO silicon sensors and of the heat producing front-end electronics inside a vacuum environment. This paper describes the design and the performance of the system. First results obtained during commissioning are also presented.

  2. Stochastic cooling of bunched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulation studies are presented for transverse and longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched particle beams. Radio frequency buckets of various shapes (e.g. rectangular, parabolic well, single sinusoidal waveform) are used to investigate the enhancement of phase space cooling by nonlinearities of synchrotron motion. The connection between the notions of Landau damping for instabilities and mixing for stochastic cooling are discussed. In particular, the need for synchrotron frequency spread for both Landau damping and good mixing is seen to be comparable for bunched beams

  3. Cooling towers principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D

    1990-01-01

    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  4. Passive low energy cooling of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Baruch

    1994-01-01

    A practical sourcebook for building designers, providing comprehensive discussion of the impact of basic architectural choices on cooling efficiency, including the layout and orientation of the structure, window size and shading, exterior color, and even the use of plantings around the site. All major varieties of passive cooling systems are presented, with extensive analysis of performance in different types of buildings and in different climates: ventilation; radiant cooling; evaporative cooling; soil cooling; and cooling of outdoor spaces.

  5. Systematically investigating the polarization gradient cooling in an optical molasses of ultracold cesium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhong-Hua; Yuan, Jin-Peng; Zhao, Yan-Ting; Chang, Xue-Fang; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang

    2014-11-01

    We systematically investigate the polarization gradient cooling (PGC) process in an optical molasses of ultracold cesium atoms. The SR mode for changing the cooling laser, which means that the cooling laser frequency is stepped to the setting value while its intensity is ramped, is found to be the best for the PGC, compared with other modes studied. We verify that the heating effect of the cold atoms, which appears when the cooling laser intensity is lower than the saturation intensity, arises from insufficient polarization gradient cooling. Finally, an exponential decay function with a statistical explanation is introduced to explain the dependence of the cold atom temperature on the PGC interaction time.

  6. Cooling Rate Determination in Additively Manufactured Aluminum Alloy 2219

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Craig A.; Dennis, Noah

    2015-05-01

    Metallic additive manufacturing processes generally utilize a conduction mode, welding-type approach to create beads of deposited material that can be arranged into a three-dimensional structure. As with welding, the cooling rates in the molten pool are relatively rapid compared to traditional casting techniques. Determination of the cooling rate in the molten pool is critical for predicting the solidified microstructure and resultant properties. In this experiment, wire-fed electron beam additive manufacturing was used to melt aluminum alloy 2219 under different thermal boundary conditions. The dendrite arm spacing was measured in the remelted material, and this information was used to estimate cooling rates in the molten pool based on established empirical relationships. The results showed that the thermal boundary conditions have a significant effect on the resulting cooling rate in the molten pool. When thermal conduction is limited due to a small thermal sink, the dendrite arm spacing varies between 15 and 35 µm. When thermal conduction is active, the dendrite arm spacing varies between 6 and 12 µm. This range of dendrite arm spacing implies cooling rates ranging from 5 to 350 K/s. Cooling rates can vary greatly as thermal conditions change during deposition. A cooling rate at the higher end of the range could lead to significant deviation from microstructural equilibrium during solidification.

  7. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  8. Cooled Ceramic Turbine Vane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — N&R Engineering will investigate the feasibility of cooled ceramics, such as ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine blade concepts that can decrease specific...

  9. Surface-induced evaporative cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Min; Yan Bo; Cheng Feng; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of surface-induced evaporative cooling on an atom chip are investigated. The evolutions of temperature, number and phase-space density of the atom cloud are measured when the atom cloud is brought close to the surface. Rapid decrease of the temperature and number of the atoms is found when the atom-surface distance is < 100 μm. A gain of about a factor of five on the phase-space density is obtained. It is found that the efficiency of the surface-induced evaporative cooling depends on the atom-surface distance and the shape of the evaporative trap. When the atoms are moved very close to the surface, severe heating is observed, which dominates when the holding time is > 8 ms. It is important that the surface-induced evaporative cooling offers novel possibilities for the realization of a continuous condensation, where a spatially varying evaporative cooling is required.

  10. Ozonation of cooling tower waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.; Howe, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Continuous ozone injection into water circulating between a cooling tower and heat exchanger with heavy scale deposits inhibits formation of further deposits, promotes flaking of existing deposits, inhibits chemical corrosion and controls algae and bacteria.

  11. Quantum limit of photothermal cooling

    CERN Document Server

    De Liberato, Simone; Nori, Franco

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of cooling a mechanical oscillator using the photothermal (bolometric) force. Contrary to previous attempts to model this system, we take into account the noise effects due to the granular nature of photon absorption. This allows us to tackle the cooling problem down to the noise dominated regime and to find reasonable estimates for the lowest achievable phonon occupation in the cantilever.

  12. Turbine Blade Cooling System Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    GIRARDEAU, Julian; PAILHES, Jérôme; SEBASTIAN, Patrick; PARDO, Frédéric; Nadeau, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The authors wish to thank turbine designers from TURBOMECA SAFRAN Group.; International audience; Designing high performance cooling systems suitable for preserving the service lifetime of nozzle guide vanes of turboshaft engines leads to significant aerodynamic losses. These losses jeopardize the performance of the whole engine. In the same time, a low efficiency cooling system may affect the costs of maintenance repair and overhaul of the engine as component life decreases. Consequently, de...

  13. Cooling Shelf For Electronic Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, Herbert J.

    1989-01-01

    Heat-pipe action cools and maintains electronics at nearly constant temperature. System designed to control temperatures of spacecraft shelves or baseplates by combining honeycomb sandwich panel with reservoir of noncondensable gas and processing resulting device as variable-conductance heat pipe. Device provides flat surface for mounting heat-dissipating electronics that is effectively cooled and maintained at nearly constant temperature. Potentially useful in freeze drying, refrigeration, and air conditioning.

  14. Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve O' Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

    2012-02-17

    Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

  15. Hot fire, cool soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures i

  16. Radial molecular abundances and gas cooling in starless cores

    CERN Document Server

    Sipilä, O

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We aim to simulate radial profiles of molecular abundances and the gas temperature in cold and heavily shielded starless cores by combining chemical and radiative transfer models. Methods: A determination of the dust temperature in a modified Bonnor-Ebert sphere is used to calculate initial radial molecular abundance profiles. The abundances of selected cooling molecules corresponding to two different core ages are then extracted to determine the gas temperature at two time steps. The calculation is repeated in an iterative process yielding molecular abundances consistent with the gas temperature. Line emission profiles for selected substances are calculated using simulated abundance profiles. Results: The gas temperature is a function of time; the gas heats up as the core gets older because the cooling molecules are depleted onto grain surfaces. The contributions of the various cooling molecules to the total cooling power change with time. Radial chemical abundance profiles are non-trivial: different s...

  17. Air cooling effect of fins on a Honda shine bike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhiyar Abhesinh J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main of aim of this work is to study various researches done in past to improve heat transfer rate of cooling fins by changing cylinder block fin geometry. Low rate of heat transfer through cooling fins is the main problem in this type of cooling. So efficiency of the engine is increase by increase the heat transfer. Examples of direct air cooling in modern automobiles are rare. The most common example is the commercials Automobile bike like a Honda Shine, Bajaj bike, Honda splendor etc. It is conclude about shape try to this fins is more effectively heat transfer in Honda shine bike compare to existing fins. After FEA Analysis it checking on fin whether efficiency of heat transfer increases or not. This work validation with Experimental and Mathematical.

  18. Floor cooling and air-cooling, the effects on thermal comfort or different cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijpheer, N.C.; Bakker, E.J.; Ligthart, F.A.T.M.; Opstelten, I.J. [ECN Energie in de Gebouwde Omgeving en Netten, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    One of the research areas of the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) concerns the built environment. Several facilities to conduct research activities are at ECN's disposal. One of these facilities, are five research dwellings located on the premises of ECN. Measured data from these facilities together with weather data and computer models are used to evaluate innovative energy concepts and components in energy systems. Experiments with different cooling systems in ECN's research dwellings are executed to evaluate their effective influence on both energy use and thermal comfort. Influence of inhabitants' behaviour is taken into account in these experiments. The thermal comfort is indicated by the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) as defined by P.O. Fanger. For this paper, the results of measurements with a floor cooling and air cooling system are assessed. Effects on the PMV measured during experiments with the two different cooling systems will be presented.

  19. Impact of Climate Warming on Passive Night Cooling Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Gyalistras, D.; Manz, H.;

    2008-01-01

    of climate warming on the night-time ventilative cooling potential in Europe, eight representative locations across a latitudinal transect were considered. Based on a degree-hours method, site-specific regression models were developed to predict the climatic cooling potential (CCP) from minimum daily air......Night-time ventilation is often seen as a promising passive cooling concept. However, as it requires a sufficiently high temperature difference between ambient air and the building structure, this technique is highly sensitive to changes in climatic conditions. In order to quantify the impact...... temperature (Tmin). CCP was computed for present conditions (1961-90) using measured Tmin data from the European Climate Assessment (ECA) database. Possible time-dependent changes in CCP were assessed for 1990-2100, with particular emphasis on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 'A2' and 'B2...

  20. Black Is Cool!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1997-01-01

    Do you remember the colors the college freshmen dyed their hair when you were here? Turquoise, orange, bright yellow.... Things have changed. Black has (?)ome the color of choice among the young people. Young men and women alike dye their hair coal black. The women let their hair grow very long. and it hangs straight and stringy down their backs. The young men leave it long on

  1. ACTUAL WASTE TESTING OF GYCOLATE IMPACTS ON THE SRS TANK FARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.

    2014-05-28

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste Tank Farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the Tank Farm were addressed via a literature review and simulant testing, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the actual-waste tests to determine the impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The objectives of this study are to address the following: Determine the extent to which sludge constituents (Pu, U, Fe, etc.) dissolve (the solubility of sludge constituents) in the glycolate-containing 2H-evaporator feed. Determine the impact of glycolate on the sorption of fissile (Pu, U, etc.) components onto sodium aluminosilicate solids. The first objective was accomplished through actual-waste testing using Tank 43H and 38H supernatant and Tank 51H sludge at Tank Farm storage conditions. The second objective was accomplished by contacting actual 2H-evaporator scale with the products from the testing for the first objective. There is no anticipated impact of up to 10 g/L of glycolate in DWPF recycle to the Tank Farm on tank waste component solubilities as investigated in this test. Most components were not influenced by glycolate during solubility tests, including major components such as aluminum, sodium, and most salt anions. There was potentially a slight increase in soluble iron with added glycolate, but the soluble iron concentration remained so low (on the order of 10 mg/L) as to not impact the iron to fissile ratio in sludge. Uranium and plutonium appear to have been supersaturated in 2H-evaporator feed solution mixture used for this testing. As a result, there was a reduction of soluble uranium and plutonium as a function of time. The change in soluble uranium concentration was

  2. Environmental restoration: Integrating hydraulic control of groundwater, innovative contaminant removal technologies and wetlands restoration--A case study at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The groundwater remediation program at the F and H Seepage Basins, Savannah River Sits (SRS) is a case study of the integration of various environmental restoration technologies at a single waste site. Hydraulic control measures are being designed to mitigate the discharge of groundwater plumes to surface water. One of the primary constituents of the plumes is tritium. An extraction and reinjection scenario is being designed to keep the tritium in circulation in the shallow groundwater, until it can naturally decay. This will be accomplished by extracting groundwater downgradient of the waste sites, treatment, and reinjection of the tritiated water into the water table upgradient of the basins. Innovative in-situ technologies, including electrolytic migration, are being field tested at the site to augment the pump-treat-reinject system. The in-situ technologies target removal of contaminants which are relatively immobile, yet represent long term risks to human health and the environment. Wetland restoration is an integral part of the F and H remediation program. Both in-situ treatment of the groundwater discharging the wetlands to adjust the pH, and replacement of water loss due to the groundwater extraction program ar being considered. Toxicity studies indicate that drought and the effects of low pH groundwater discharge have been factors in observed tree mortality in wetlands near the waste sites

  3. [Research on early warning signals of adverse drug reactions to parenterally administered xiyanping based on spontaneous reporting system (SRS) data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Fei; Xiang, Yong-Yang; Xie, Yan-Ming

    2013-09-01

    This article focused on early warning signals regarding the safety of parenterally administered Xiyanping. The study data was obtained from reports made between 2005-2012 from the national spontaneous reporting system (SRS). Proportion reporting ratio (PRR) and Bayesian confidence propagation neural network (BCPNN) algorithms were used to analyse: erythra, pruritus, anaphylactoid reactions and shiver with cold, these 4 adverse drug reactions had a total count of more than 500 events. The article found that Xiyanping's incidence rate of erythra was higher than for background-drugs in every year and in every season. Pruritus was an early warning signal in the second season of 2009, and anaphylactoid reaction was an early warning signal in the fourth season of 2011 and in the second season of 2012. There was however no early warning signal indicated by shiver with cold. This data indicates that erythra maybe an adverse drug reactions to parenterally administered Xiyanping, and if the incidence rate of pruritus and anaphylactoid reaction rises attention should be paid to its safety. PMID:24471321

  4. Reactor Materials Program -- weldment component toughness of SRS PWS piping materials. Task number: 89-023-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    The mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel materials from the reactor systems in the unirradiated (baseline) and the irradiated conditions have been developed previously for structural and fracture analyses of the pressure boundary of the SRS reactor Process Water System (PWS) components. Individual mechanical specimen test results were compiled into three separate weldment components or regions, namely, the base, weld, and weld heat-affected-zone (HAZ), for two orientations (L-C and C-L) with respect to the pipe axis of the source materials and for two test temperatures of 25 and 125{degrees}C. Twelve separate categories were thus defined to assess the effect of test conditions on the mechanical properties and to facilitate selection of properties for structural and fracture analyses. The testing results show high fracture toughness of the materials and support the demonstration of PWS pressure boundary structural integrity under all conditions of reactor operation. The fracture toughness of a fourth weldment component, namely, the weld fusion line region, has been measured to evaluate the potential for a region of low toughness in the interface between the Type 308 stainless steel weld metal and the Type 304 stainless steel pipe. The testing details and results of the weld fusion line toughness are contained in this report.

  5. Evaluation of Setup Uncertainties for Single-Fraction SRS by Comparing the Two Different Mask-Creation Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, Jong Geun; Oh, Young Kee; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Eng Chan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the setup uncertainties for single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SF-SRS) based on the clinical data with the two different mask-creation methods using pretreatment CBCT imaging guidance. Dedicated frameless fixation BrainLAB masks for 23 patients were created as a routine mask (R-mask) making method, as explained in the BrainLAB user manual. The alternative masks (A-mask) which were created by modifying the cover range of the R-mask for the patient head were used for 23 patients. The systematic errors including the each mask and stereotactic target localizer were analyzed and the errors were calculated as the mean and standard deviation (SD) from the LR, SI, AP, and yaw setup corrections. In addition, the frequency of three-dimensional (3D) vector length were also analyzed. The values of the mean setup corrections for the R-mask in all directions were small; < 0.7 mm and < 0.1 degree, whereas the magnitudes of the SDs were relatively large compared to the ...

  6. Analysis of weld seam uniformity through temperature distribution by spatially resolved detector elements in the wavelength range of 0.3μm to 5μm for the detection of structural changing heating and cooling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempe, B.; Maschke, R.; Rudek, F.; Baselt, T.; Hartmann, P.

    2016-03-01

    Online process control systems often only detecting temperatures at a local area of the machining point and determining an integrated value. In order to determine the proper welding quality and the absence of defects, such as temperature induced stress cracks, it is necessary to do time and space resolved measurements before, during and after the production process. The system under development consists of a beam splitting unit which divides the electromagnetic radiation of the heated component on two different sensor types. For high temperatures, a sensor is used which is sensitive in the visible spectrum and has a dynamic range of 120dB.1 Thus, very high intensity differences can be displayed and a direct analysis of the temperature profile of the weld spots is possible.2 A second sensor is operating in the wavelength range from 1 micron to 5 microns and allows the determination of temperatures from approximately 200°C.3 At the beginning of a welding process, the heat-up phase of the metal is critical to the resultant weld quality. If a defined temperature range exceeded too fast, the risk of cracking is significantly increased.4 During the welding process the thermal supervision of the central processing location is decisive for a high secure weld. In the border areas as well as in connection of the welding process especially cooling processes are crucial for the homogeneity of the results. In order to obtain sufficiently accurate resolution of the dynamic heating- and cooling-processes, the system can carry out up to 500 frames per second.

  7. Influence of cooling conditions on X70 pipeline steel in-service welding HAZ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Haicheng; Wang Yong; Han Bin; Chen Yuhua

    2006-01-01

    The chamber device was designed and set up to simulate the in-service welding. The results show: the ts/5, t8/3 and inner wall peak temperature Tp decrease with the cooling rate increases. The welding energy is carried off by flowing medium,the cooling rate increases, and many unbalanced microstructures such as granular bainite, martensite and M-A generate; it worsens the properties of HAZ. Under air-cooling, the cooling rate is slow, the austenite grain grows obviously , the lath ferrite crosses the whole austenite, and it causes the hardness value is also big. The change of HAZ width is not obvious with the increase of cooling rate; and burn-through is not susceptible to the cooling rate. The quench microstructures increase and the hydrogen does not outflow from the HAZ easily when increase the cooling rate, so the susceptibility of hydrogen cracking increases.

  8. A new Newton's law of cooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, M

    1972-12-22

    Several physiologists confuse Fourier's law of animal heat flow with Newton's law of cooling. A critique of this error in 1932 remained ineffective. In 1969 Molnar tested Newton's cooling law. In 1971 Strunk found Newtonian cooling unrealistic for animals. Unfortunately, he called the Fourier formulation of animal heat flow, requiring post-Newtonian observations, a "contemporary Newtonian law of cooling."

  9. Impingement jet cooling in gas turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Due to the requirement for enhanced cooling technologies on modern gas turbine engines, advanced research and development has had to take place in field of thermal engineering. Impingement jet cooling is one of the most effective in terms of cooling, manufacturability and cost. This is the first to book to focus on impingement cooling alone.

  10. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  11. Hemodynamic and Thermal Responses to Head and Neck Cooling in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Carbo, Jorge E.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    1995-01-01

    Personal cooling systems are used to alleviate symptoms of multiple sclerosis and to prevent increased core temperature during daily activities. Configurations of these systems include passive ice vests and circulating liquid cooling garments (LCGs) in the forms of vests, cooling caps and combined head and neck cooling systems. However, little information is available oil the amount or heat that can be extracted from the body with these systems or the physiologic changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objective of this study was to determine the operating characteristics and the physiologic change, produced by short term use of one commercially available thermal control system.

  12. New cooling regulation technology of secondary cooling station in DCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan; Yan, Jun-wei; Zhu, Dong-sheng; Liu, Fei-long; Lei, Jun-xi [The Key Lab of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Liang, Lie-quan [The Key Lab of E-Commerce Market Application Technology of Guangdong Province, Guangdong University of Business Studies, Guangzhou 510320 (China)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a kind of new control technology of secondary cooling station (constant flow rate/variable temperature difference) in district cooling system (DCS) is proposed in view of serial consequences including low efficiency and high operating cost caused by low temperature of supply water in DCS. This technology has been applied in DCS of Guangzhou University City. The result has already indicated that such technology can increase the supply and return temperatures of buildings, return water temperature of primary side in the plate heat exchanger unit, moreover, the efficiency of both the chiller and the whole system are improved significantly. (author)

  13. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    2014-01-01

    . To prevent wet discomfort, the T-shirt was made of a polyester material having a water-repellent silicon coating on the inner surface. The chest, front upper arms, and nape of the neck were adopted as the cooling areas of the human body. We conducted human subject experiments in an office with air......We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  14. Axion Cooling of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakian, Armen

    2015-01-01

    Cooling simulations of neutron stars and their comparison with the data from thermally emitting X-ray sources puts constraints on the properties of axions, and by extension of any light pseudo-scalar dark matter particles, whose existence has been postulated to solve the strong-CP problem of QCD. We incorporate the axion emission by pair-breaking and formation processes by $S$- and $P$-wave nucleonic condensates in a benchmark code for cooling simulations as well as provide fit formulae for the rates of these processes. Axion cooling of neutron stars has been simulated for 24 models covering the mass range 1 to 1.8 solar masses, featuring non-accreted iron and accreted light element envelopes, and a range of nucleon-axion coupling. The models are based on an equation state predicting conservative physics of superdense nuclear matter that does not allow for onset of fast cooling processes induced by phase transitions to non-nucleonic forms of matter or high proton concentration. The cooling tracks in the tempe...

  15. Influence of thermal flow field of cooling tower on recirculation ratio of a direct air-cooled system for a power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wanli; Liu Peiqing

    2008-01-01

    In order to get thermal flow field of direct air-cooled system,the hot water was supplied to the model of direct air-cooled condenser(ACC).The particle image velocimetery(PIV)experiments were carried out to get thermal flow field of a ACC under different conditions in low velocity wind tunnel,at the same time,the recirculation ratio at cooling tower was measured,so the relationship between flow field characteristics and recirculation ratio of cooling tower can be discussed.From the results we can see that the flow field configuration around cooling tower has great effects on average recirculation ratio under cooling tower.The eddy formed around cooling tower is a key reason that recireulation pro-duces.The eddy intensity relates to velocity magnitude and direction angle,and the configuration of eddy lies on the ge-ometry size of cooling tower.So changing the flow field configuration around cooling tower reasonably can decrease recir-culation ratio under cooling tower,and heat dispel effect of ACC can also be improved.

  16. The Effect of SRS on Signal Power in Single-mode Silica Fiber in DWDM Optical Communication System with Equally Spaced Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Jiamin; FANG Qiang; LIU Juan; WANG Yongchang

    2000-01-01

    Assuming that the Raman gain profile of silica fiber is a triangular function, we derive analytic solutions of N-channel steady-state forward SRS coupling wave equation with equal (but arbitrary) channel spacing. Considering the SRS cross coupling among N-channels, the analytic solutions are applicable to arbitrary signal light power. The results point out that the sequence mi=pi(z)/pi(0) [pi(z) and pi(0) is the power of signal light of i-th channel at transmission length z and 0, respectively. i=1,2,...N] maintains a geometric progression with the common ratio q in the transmission process. The common ratio q varies as a exponential function of the effective transmission length, the sum of input light power and the channel spacing, respectively.

  17. Evaluation of an alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from SRS tank waste using laboratory-scale centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from Savannah River Site (SRS) tank waste was evaluated experimentally using a laboratory-scale centrifugal contactor. Single-stage and multistage tests were conducted with this contactor to determine hydraulic performance, stage efficiency, and general operability of the process flowsheet. The results and conclusions of these tests are reported along with those from various supporting tests. Also discussed is the ability to scale-up from laboratory- to plant-scale operation when centrifugal contractors are used to carry out the solvent extraction process. While some problems were encountered, a promising solution for each problem has been identified. Overall, this alkaline-side cesium extraction process appears to be an excellent candidate for removing cesium from SRS tank waste

  18. Cool Cluster Correctly Correlated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergey Aleksandrovich Varganov

    2005-12-17

    Atomic clusters are unique objects, which occupy an intermediate position between atoms and condensed matter systems. For a long time it was thought that physical and chemical properties of atomic dusters monotonically change with increasing size of the cluster from a single atom to a condensed matter system. However, recently it has become clear that many properties of atomic clusters can change drastically with the size of the clusters. Because physical and chemical properties of clusters can be adjusted simply by changing the cluster's size, different applications of atomic clusters were proposed. One example is the catalytic activity of clusters of specific sizes in different chemical reactions. Another example is a potential application of atomic clusters in microelectronics, where their band gaps can be adjusted by simply changing cluster sizes. In recent years significant advances in experimental techniques allow one to synthesize and study atomic clusters of specified sizes. However, the interpretation of the results is often difficult. The theoretical methods are frequently used to help in interpretation of complex experimental data. Most of the theoretical approaches have been based on empirical or semiempirical methods. These methods allow one to study large and small dusters using the same approximations. However, since empirical and semiempirical methods rely on simple models with many parameters, it is often difficult to estimate the quantitative and even qualitative accuracy of the results. On the other hand, because of significant advances in quantum chemical methods and computer capabilities, it is now possible to do high quality ab-initio calculations not only on systems of few atoms but on clusters of practical interest as well. In addition to accurate results for specific clusters, such methods can be used for benchmarking of different empirical and semiempirical approaches. The atomic clusters studied in this work contain from a few atoms

  19. Strangeness in Neutron Star Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yeunhwan; Lee, Chang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermal evolution of neutron stars in the presence of hyperons or kaons in the core. Our results indicate that the nucleon and hyperon direct Urca processes play crucial roles for the cooling of neutron stars. The presence of hyperons drives fast cooling mechanisms in two ways: 1) it allows the hyperon direct Urca prior to the nucleon direct Urca, 2) and it makes the nucleon direct Urca more feasible by reducing the neutron Fermi momentum. We found that the neutron star equation of state (EOS) with hyperons can be consistent with both mass and temperature observations. We also found that the neutron star EOS with kaon condensation can be consistent with observations, even though the cooling behavior is seldom useful to identify or isolate the effect of kaon condensation.

  20. Cool Stars and Space Weather

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Cameron, A C; Morin, J; Villadsen, J; Saar, S; Alvarado, J; Cohen, O; Holzwarth, V; Poppenhaeger, K; Reville, V

    2014-01-01

    Stellar flares, winds and coronal mass ejections form the space weather. They are signatures of the magnetic activity of cool stars and, since activity varies with age, mass and rotation, the space weather that extra-solar planets experience can be very different from the one encountered by the solar system planets. How do stellar activity and magnetism influence the space weather of exoplanets orbiting main-sequence stars? How do the environments surrounding exoplanets differ from those around the planets in our own solar system? How can the detailed knowledge acquired by the solar system community be applied in exoplanetary systems? How does space weather affect habitability? These were questions that were addressed in the splinter session "Cool stars and Space Weather", that took place on 9 Jun 2014, during the Cool Stars 18 meeting. In this paper, we present a summary of the contributions made to this session.

  1. Simulated Measurements of Cooling in Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohayai, Tanaz [IIT, Chicago; Rogers, Chris [Rutherford; Snopok, Pavel [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    Cooled muon beams set the basis for the exploration of physics of flavour at a Neutrino Factory and for multi-TeV collisions at a Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) measures beam emittance before and after an ionization cooling cell and aims to demonstrate emittance reduction in muon beams. In the current MICE Step IV configuration, the MICE muon beam passes through low-Z absorber material for reducing its transverse emittance through ionization energy loss. Two scintillating fiber tracking detectors, housed in spectrometer solenoid modules upstream and downstream of the absorber are used for reconstructing position and momentum of individual muons for calculating transverse emittance reduction. However, due to existence of non-linear effects in beam optics, transverse emittance growth can be observed. Therefore, it is crucial to develop algorithms that are insensitive to this apparent emittance growth. We describe a different figure of merit for measuring muon cooling which is the direct measurement of the phase space density.

  2. System for cooling a cabinet

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Anders; Bahl, Christian; Linderoth, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to a cooling system comprising an active magnetic regenerator having a cold side and a hot side, a hot side heat exchanger connected to the hot side of the magnetic regenerator, one or more cold side heat exchangers, and a cold store reservoir comprising a volume of heat transfer fluid and connected between said one or more cold side heat exchangers and the cold side of the magnetic regenerator, wherein the cooling system is configured to provide a first flow cy...

  3. The chlorination of cooling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After reviewing the means of fighting biological pollution of cooling water circuits in nuclear power stations, the authors describe the chlorination treatment methods used by EDF. This deals with the massive shock chlorination of the cooling towers and the continuous low-level chlorination of coastal nuclear power stations. In both areas, the Research and Development Board of EDF has carried out and encouraged research with the aim of improving circuit protection, while still protecting the aquatic eco-system against damage that might be caused by waste chlorinated water

  4. Analysis of the evaporative towers cooling system of a coal-fired power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laković Mirjana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the cooling system of a 110 MW coal-fired power plant located in central Serbia, where eight evaporative towers cool down the plant. An updated research on the evaporative tower cooling system has been carried out to show the theoretical analysis of the tower heat and mass balance, taking into account the sensible and latent heat exchanged during the processes which occur inside these towers. Power plants which are using wet cooling towers for cooling condenser cooling water have higher design temperature of cooling water, thus the designed condensing pressure is higher compared to plants with a once-through cooling system. Daily and seasonal changes further deteriorate energy efficiency of these plants, so it can be concluded that these plants have up to 5% less efficiency compared to systems with once-through cooling. The whole analysis permitted to evaluate the optimal conditions, as far as the operation of the towers is concerned, and to suggest an improvement of the plant. Since plant energy efficiency improvement has become a quite common issue today, the evaluation of the cooling system operation was conducted under the hypothesis of an increase in the plant overall energy efficiency due to low cost improvement in cooling tower system.

  5. 周期性热作用下相变材料内部相变传热特征实验研究%Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Phase Change Heat Transfer in PCM with Outside Periodic Heating and Cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉茂宇; 赵红利

    2013-01-01

    为了揭示周期性热作用下相变材料内部相变传热特征,为建筑外表相变隔热设计和计算提供支撑,本文设计制作了能模拟太阳运行、提供周期性加热的装置,并将正18烷封装于塑料圆桶容器中,使容器底部和侧面绝热,制作了测试试件.利用热电偶和巡检仪自动记录了周期性热作用下相变材料内部各层温度的变化.测试结果表明,在稳定周期性热作用下,材料内部相变传热特征主要可表述为:1)材料在非稳态周期性相变传热阶段,各层温度在达到相变温度点之前,温度变化明显;相界面会随着周期性加热次数的增加间断性地向内部扩展;温度平均值和振幅值向稳态周期性相变传热时的平均值和振幅值靠近.2)材料在稳态周期性相变传热阶段,内部各点温度也表现出与外界热作用等周期性变化,温度振幅从外到内依次减小.这与发生在固体中的周期性传热特性类似.但材料内温度变化呈现折转现象,在温度明显升高前出现等温滞后,在温度降低时会出现等温冷却.这与发生在固体中的传热现象有很大的区别.3)材料在稳定周期性热作用下,内部不会出现多个相界面共存现象.4)空气流速对相变材料中温度振幅和相界面移动速率都有较大影响,提高空气流速可以降低温度振幅和减慢相变进程.这意味着当相变材料用于建筑外表进行相变隔热时,可以通过组织自然通风减少其用量.%In order to reveal the phase change heat transfer characteristics in PCM with outside steady periodic heating and cooling,and provide some suports for thermal insulation of building skin with PCM,an apparatus which can simulate the sun running and provide periodic heating was designed and made in this paper;a test specimen was also fabricated by encapsulating the octadecane into a plastic circular container with its bottom and side thermal insulation.The temperature variations

  6. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE II FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D; Thomas Peters, T; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Major Thompson, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-06-29

    This document provides a final report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger scale by a commercial vendor, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and measurement of filtration characteristics. Key findings and conclusions include the following. Testing evaluated three synthetic methods and eleven process parameters for the optimum synthesis conditions for the preparation on an improved form of MST. We selected the post synthesis method (Method 3) for continued development based on overall sorbate removal performance. We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. The laboratory prepared modified MST exhibited increased sorption kinetics with simulated and actual waste solutions and similar filtration characteristics to the baseline MST. Characterization of the modified MST indicated that the post synthesis treatment did not significantly alter the particle size distribution, but did significantly increase the surface area and porosity compared to the original MST. Testing indicated that the modified MST exhibits reduced affinity for uranium compared to the baseline MST, reducing risk of fissile loading. Shelf-life testing indicated no change in strontium and actinide performance removal after storing the modified MST for 12-months at ambient laboratory temperature. The material releases oxygen during the synthesis and continues to offgas after the synthesis at a rapidly diminishing rate until below a measurable rate after 4 months. Optima Chemical Group LLC prepared a 15-kilogram batch of the modified MST using the post synthesis procedure (Method

  7. The effect of cooling procedure on the characteristics and quality of raw milk

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-01-01

    Prompt cooling of the milk after milking is vital to preserve milkcharacteristics untill manufacture. The way and the speed of the cooling as well as cooling time and temperature have an important influence on physicochemical characteristics and psychrophilic and psychrotrophic microflora development in milk. Intensity of these changes are especially evident in milk kept at low temperatures more than 48 hours, which make this milk unusable for further processing. The minerals balance is distu...

  8. Life cycle cost analysis changes mixed waste treatment program at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct result of the reduced need for weapons production has been a re-evaluation of the treatment projects for mixed (hazardous/radioactive) wastes generated from metal finishing and plating operations and from a mixed waste incinerator at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis was conducted for two waste treatment projects to determine the most cost effective approach in response to SRS mission changes. A key parameter included in the LCC analysis was the cost of the disposal vaults required for the final stabilized wasteform(s) . The analysis indicated that volume reduction of the final stabilized wasteform(s) can provide significant cost savings. The LCC analysis demonstrated that one SRS project could be eliminated, and a second project could be totally ''rescoped and downsized.'' The changes resulted in an estimated Life Cycle Cost saving (over a 20 year period) of $270,000,000

  9. Strategies for the long-term climate policy. The results of the Cool project. Final report of the second phase of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP II) 1995-2001. Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk M; Hisschemoller M; Mol T; Hordijk L; Kok M; Metz B; NOP

    2002-01-01

    This report, Climate Change, a Permanent Concern, presents the results of research that was conducted in over 90 projects during the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP-II, 1995-2001). The report is intended for policymakers, members of bu

  10. Liquid pump for astronaut cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo portable life support system water-recirculation pump used for astronaut cooling is described. The problems associated with an early centrifugal pump and how these problems were overcome by the use of a new diaphragm pump are discussed. Performance comparisons of the two pump designs are given. Developmental problems and flight results with the diaphragm pump are discussed.

  11. Cooling of the ISIS target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the methods used to analyse and predict cooling of the uranium target of the ISIS facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory by means of a combination of computer models (using the PHOENICS finite difference package) and practical tests. (author)

  12. Passive Cooling of Body Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Ronald; Matic, Peter; Mott, David

    2013-03-01

    Warfighter performance can be adversely affected by heat load and weight of equipment. Current tactical vest designs are good insulators and lack ventilation, thus do not provide effective management of metabolic heat generated. NRL has undertaken a systematic study of tactical vest thermal management, leading to physics-based strategies that provide improved cooling without undesirable consequences such as added weight, added electrical power requirements, or compromised protection. The approach is based on evaporative cooling of sweat produced by the wearer of the vest, in an air flow provided by ambient wind or ambulatory motion of the wearer. Using an approach including thermodynamic analysis, computational fluid dynamics modeling, air flow measurements of model ventilated vest architectures, and studies of the influence of fabric aerodynamic drag characteristics, materials and geometry were identified that optimize passive cooling of tactical vests. Specific architectural features of the vest design allow for optimal ventilation patterns, and selection of fabrics for vest construction optimize evaporation rates while reducing air flow resistance. Cooling rates consistent with the theoretical and modeling predictions were verified experimentally for 3D mockups.

  13. International Ventilation Cooling Application Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzer, Peter; Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; OSullivan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The currently running International Energy Agency, Energy and Conservation in Buildings, Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling (VC) project, is coordinating research towards extended use of VC. Within this Annex 62 the joint research activity of International VC Application Database has been carried out, ...

  14. Solar-powered cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-12-24

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

  15. Cool Runnings For String 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    String 2 is a series of superconducting magnets that are prototypes of those which will be installed in the LHC. It was cooled down to 1.9 Kelvin on September 14th. On Thursday last week, the dipoles of String 2 were successfully taken to nominal current, 11850 A.

  16. A cool present for LEIR

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    LEIR (Low Energy Ion Ring), which will supply lead ions to the LHC experiments, has taken delivery of one of its key components, its electron cooling system. From left to right, Gérard Tranquille, Virginia Prieto and Roland Sautier, in charge of the electron cooling system for LEIR at CERN, and Christian Lacroix, in charge of installation for the LEIR machine. On 16 December, the day before CERN's annual closure, the LEIR teams received a rather impressive Christmas present. The "parcel" from Russia, measuring 7 metres in length and 4 metres in height, weighed no less than 20 tonnes! The component will, in fact, be one of the key elements of the future LEIR, namely its electron cooling system. LEIR is one of the links in the injector chain that will supply lead ions to the LHC experiments, in particular ALICE (see Bulletin No. 28/2004 of 5 July 2004), within the framework of the I-LHC Project. The electron cooling system is designed to reduce and standardise transverse ion velocity. This focuses the bea...

  17. Axion cooling of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrakian, Armen

    2016-03-01

    Cooling simulations of neutron stars and their comparison with the data from thermally emitting x-ray sources put constraints on the properties of axions, and by extension, of any light pseudoscalar dark matter particles, whose existence has been postulated to solve the strong-C P problem of QCD. We incorporate the axion emission by pair-breaking and formation processes by S - and P -wave nucleonic condensates in a benchmark code for cooling simulations, as well as provide fit formulas for the rates of these processes. Axion cooling of neutron stars has been simulated for 24 models covering the mass range 1 to 1.8 solar masses, featuring nonaccreted iron and accreted light-element envelopes, and a range of nucleon-axion couplings. The models are based on an equation state predicting conservative physics of superdense nuclear matter that does not allow for the onset of fast cooling processes induced by phase transitions to non-nucleonic forms of matter or high proton concentration. The cooling tracks in the temperature vs age plane were confronted with the (time-averaged) measured surface temperature of the central compact object in the Cas A supernova remnant as well as surface temperatures of three nearby middle-aged thermally emitting pulsars. We find that the axion coupling is limited to fa/107 GeV ≥(5 - 10 ) , which translates into an upper bound on axion mass ma≤(0.06 - 0.12 ) eV for Peccei-Quinn charges of the neutron |Cn|˜0.04 and proton |Cp|˜0.4 characteristic for hadronic models of axions.

  18. Vapor Jet Ejector Used To Generate Free Waste Heat Driven Cooling In Military Environmental Cooling Units

    OpenAIRE

    Elbel, Stefan; Bowers, Chad D.; Reichle, Manuel; Cristiani, Jonathan M.; Hrnjak, Predrag S.

    2012-01-01

    The waste heat driven vapor jet ejector cooling cycle is a very promising approach to produce ‘free’ cooling by utilizing low-grade energy sources. The mechanism behind ejector-based waste heat cooling is very different from absorption or adsorption cooling technologies that are also aimed at producing heat driven cooling. The ejector cooling system is actually more closely related to vapor compression technology, in which an ejector, a waste heat source, and a liquid pump are used to replace...

  19. Gas turbine heat transfer and cooling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin; Ekkad, Srinath

    2012-01-01

    FundamentalsNeed for Turbine Blade CoolingTurbine-Cooling TechnologyTurbine Heat Transfer and Cooling IssuesStructure of the BookReview Articles and Book Chapters on Turbine Cooling and Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 2010ReferencesTurbine Heat TransferIntroductionTurbine-Stage Heat TransferCascade Vane Heat-Transfer ExperimentsCascade Blade Heat TransferAirfoil Endwall Heat TransferTurbine Rotor Blade Tip Heat TransferLeading-Edge Region Heat TransferFlat-Surface Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 20102.10 ClosureReferencesTurbine Film CoolingIntroductionFilm Cooling on Rotat

  20. Microstructures and Properties of W-Ti Alloys Prepared Under Different Cooling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Weili; Liang, Shuhua; Yang, Qing; Zou, Juntao; Zhuo, Longchao

    2016-07-01

    W-(10 to 15) wt.% Ti alloys were sintered at 1400 or 1500 °C and cooled under different cooling conditions. The microstructures and properties of W-Ti alloys were affected by the cooling conditions. XRD, SEM, EBSD, and TEM were carried out to investigate the effects of cooling conditions and sintering temperature on the microstructures of W-Ti alloys. The nanohardness and elastic modulus of the alloys were also investigated. The results showed that when the temperature was 1500 °C, the content of Ti-rich phase in W-(10 to 15) wt.% Ti alloys decreased obviously with the increase of cooling rate (the average cooling rate of furnace cooling, air cooling and water cooling was 0.2, 10, and 280 °C/s, respectively). For the W-10 wt.% Ti alloy, the content decreased from 20.5 to 9.7%, and the grain size decreased from 2.33 to 0.67 μm. When the temperature decreased to 1400 °C, the grain size was also decreased sharply with the increase of cooling rate, but there was a little change in the microstructure. Meanwhile, the grain sizes were smaller than those of the alloys sintered at 1500 °C. The nanohardness and elastic modulus increased with the increase of cooling rate, and the alloys sintered at different temperatures had different nanohardness and elastic modulus which depended on the cooling conditions. Sintering at a proper temperature and then cooling at a certain cooling condition was a useful method to fabricate alloy with less Ti-rich phase and high properties.

  1. Seasonal and snowmelt-driven changes in the water-extractable organic carbon dynamics in a cool-temperate Japanese forest soil, estimated using the bomb-14C tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) in soil consists of a mobile and bioavailable portion of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool. WEOC plays an important role in dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and transport of radionuclides in forest soils. Although considerable research has been conducted on the importance of recent litter versus older soil organic matter as WEOC sources in forest soil, a more thorough evaluation of the temporal pattern of WEOC is necessary. We investigated the seasonal variation in WEOC in a Japanese cool-temperate beech forest soil by using the carbon isotopic composition (14C and 13C) of WEOC as a tracer for the carbon sources. Our observations demonstrated that fresh leaf litter DOC significantly contributed to WEOC in May (35–52%) when the spring snowmelt occurred because of the high water flux and low temperature. In the rainy season, increases in the concentration of WEOC and the proportion of hydrophobic compounds were caused by high microbial activity under wetter conditions. From summer to autumn, the WEOC in the mineral soil horizons was also dominated by microbial release from SOC (>90%). These results indicate that the origin and dynamics of WEOC are strongly controlled by seasonal events such as the spring snowmelt and the rainy season's intense rainfall. -- Highlights: • 14C and 13C were used for a tracer for the carbon sources of WEOC in a forest soil. • Fresh leaf litter DOC significantly contributed to WEOC in the spring snowmelt. • Microbial activity caused the increase of WEOC concentration in the rainy season

  2. Fluidized bed ice slurry generator for enhanced secondary cooling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ice slurries are liquid solutions of a freezing point depressant in water, in which small ice crystals are present. Ice slurries are efficient secondary cooling fluids because they utilize the latent heat effect involved with the ice/water phase change. A high heat capacity is available at relativel

  3. [Immediate cooling with water: emergency treatment of burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J

    1990-01-01

    Experimental data have demonstrated that prolonged immediate cooling with cold water is the best first-aid treatment for burn injuries. However in France, this treatment is rarely applied; instead old, inefficient and aggravating methods are still very popular. Pediatricians must help to change this practice by recommending immediate cold water treatment for burns in children.

  4. Performance analysis on utilization of sky radiation cooling energy for space cooling. Part 2; Hosha reikyaku riyo reibo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marushima, S.; Saito, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Studies have been made about a heat accumulation tank type cooling system making use of radiation cooling that is a kind of natural energy. The daily operating cycle of the cooling system is described below. A heat pump air conditioner performs cooling during the daytime and the exhaust heat is stored in a latent heat accumulation tank; the heat is then used for the bath and tapwater in the evening; at night radiation cooling is utilized to remove the heat remnant in the tank for the solidification of the phase change material (PCM); the solidified PCM serves as the cold heat source for the heat pump air conditioner to perform cooling. The new system decelerates urban area warming because it emits the cooler-generated waste heat not into the atmosphere but into space taking advantage of radiation cooling. Again, the cooler-generated waste heat may be utilized for energy saving and power levelling. For the examination of nighttime radiation cooling characteristics, CaCl2-5H2O and Na2HPO4-12H2O were tested as the PCM. Water was used as the heating medium. In the case of a PCM high in latent heat capacity, some work has to be done for insuring sufficient heat exchange for it by, for instance, rendering the flow rate low. The coefficient of performance of the system discussed here is three times higher than that of the air-cooled type heat pump system. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. A combined capillary cooling system for cooling fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ana Paula; Pelizza, Pablo Rodrigo; Galante, Renan Manozzo; Bazzo, Edson [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (LabCET/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos], Emails: ana@labcet.ufsc.br, pablo@labcet.ufsc.br, renan@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br

    2010-07-01

    The operation temperature control has an important influence over the PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) performance. A two-phase heat transfer system is proposed as an alternative for cooling and thermal control of PEMFC. The proposed system consists of a CPL (Capillary Pumped Loop) connected to a set of constant conductance heat pipes. In this work ceramic wick and stainless mesh wicks have been used as capillary structure of the CPL and heat pipes, respectively. Acetone has been used as the working fluid for CPL and deionized water for the heat pipes. Experimental results of three 1/4 inch stainless steel outlet diameter heats pipes and one CPL have been carried out and presented in this paper. Further experiments are planned coupling the proposed cooling system to a module which simulates the fuel cell. (author)

  6. Solar-driven high temperature radiant cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG ZhaoPei; WANG RuZhu; ZHAI XiaoQiang

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy is widely used as one of the most important renewable energy. In addition to the growing applications of solar PV and solar water heater, solar cooling is also considered very valuable and the related researches are developing fast because of the synchronism between solar irradiance and building cooling load. Current studies mainly focus on the high temperature solar collector technique and heat-driven cooling technique, while little concern has been paid to the transport process of cooling power. In this paper, the high temperature radiant cooling is studied as an alternative way for transporting cooling power, and the performance of the combination of radiant ceiling and solar cooling is also studied. From simulation and theoretical analysis results, high temperature radiant cooling terminal shows better cooling power transportation ability against conventional air-conditioning terminal, and its thermal comfort is improved. Experiment results indicate that radiant cooling can enhance the chiller's COP (Coefficient of Performance) by 17% and cooling power regeneration by 50%.According to analysis in this paper, high temperature radiant cooling is proved to be suitable for solar cooling system, and out work can serve as a reference for later system design and promotion.

  7. Effects of wet cooling towers on weather and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to all the facts known until now, it may be stated that with the current cooling powers up to about 3,000 MW, the waste heat released through wet cooling towers results in no disadvantageous consequences for the environment. This is also valid for the concentration of several cooling towers of comparable size. Small changes of individual meteorological elements in the immediate neighborhood can no more be considered a hazard for the environment than negligible increases of temperature and rainfall in large cities and industrial agglomerations, known since a long time ago. It therefore seems justified to no longer consider the waste heat emission of large cooling towers set up in a flat, well ventilated terrain as an important part in the official licensing procedure and to carry out the time-consuming efficiency calculations only in individual cases or with especially unfavorable ground conditions. Climatic effects of a larger extent cannot be excluded if by application of higher cooling powers and concentration of groups of power stations the energy supply to the atmosphere occurs on larger areas and with higher vertical energy flows. Until now, the long-term effects on the regional climate which may arise as a consequence of the vapor release of a larger number of wet cooling plants by a change of the low-energy radiation conversion in the atmospheric boundary layer, cannot be assessed. By this mechanism lasting changes of the temperature level, the atmospheric stratifications, and the cloud climatology will be possible by means of variations of the conditions of insulation and emission of radiation. (orig./HP)

  8. Cooling power of transverse thermoelectrics for cryogenic cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Ma, Ming; Grayson, M.

    2016-05-01

    Transverse Peltier coolers have been experimentally and theoretically studied since 1960s due to their capability of achieving cooling in a single-leg geometry. Recently proposed pxn-type transverse thermoelectrics reveal the possibility of intrinsic or undoped transverse coolers that can, in principle, function at cryogenic temperatures, which has drawn more attention to the performance of such transverse coolers. However, unlike longitudinal thermoelectrics, the equations for transverse thermoelectrics cannot be solved analytically. In this study, we therefore calculate the thermoelectric transport in transverse coolers numerically, and introduce a normalized notation, which reduces the independent parameters in the governing equations to a normalized electric field E* and a hot-side transverse figure of merit zTh, only. A numerical study of the maximum cooling temperature difference and cooling power reveals the superior performance of transverse thermoelectric coolers compared to longitudinal coolers with the same figure of merit, providing another motivation in the search for new transverse thermoelectric materials with large figure of merit.

  9. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-12-22

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  10. Creation of an Ultracold Plasma by Photoionizing Laser-Cooled Cesium Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Qun; FENG Zhi-Gang; ZHANG Lin-Jie; LI Chang-Yong; ZHAO Jian-Ming; JIA Suo-Tang

    2008-01-01

    @@ The signals of ultracold plasma are observed by two-photon ionization of laser-cooled atom in a caesium magneto-optical trap.A simple model has been introduced to explain the creation of plasma, and the mechanism is further investigated by changing the energy of a pulsed dye laser and the number of initial cooled atoms.

  11. Effect of cooling to different sub-zero temperatures on boar sperm cryosurvival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Garcia-Olivares

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Cooling of pig sperm to −7 °C (no freezing damaged sperm function and structure; in contrast, cooling to either −3 °C or −5 °C did not change pig sperm survival after freeze-thawing.

  12. Reliability and validity of chinese version of scoliosis research society-22(SRS-22)patient questionnaire%脊柱侧凸研究会-22问卷(SRS-22)中文版的信度及效度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱勇; 刘臻; 孙强; 陈文俊; 陈海鸥; 曹兴兵; 邵翔; 孙明辉

    2008-01-01

    Objecfive To evaluate the validity and reliability of Chinese version of SRS-22 patient questionnaire.Methods The English version of the SRS-22 questionnaire was adapted to Chinese according to the International Quality of Lifc Assessment Project guidelines.and the final version was decided by the surgical experts of spine.126 subjects(35 males and 91 females,mean age,14.5 years)with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis filled the questionnaire.The curve magnitude was 33°(15°to 58°).A subgroup of 35 patients completed the questionnaire again l week later.Internal consistency.reproducibility were determined with Cronbach'S acoefficient and interclass correlation coefficient.respectively.The SRS-22 scores by treatments was also assessed.Results Coefficients for individual domains were as follows:function/activity (0.49),pain(0.73),self-image(0.67),mental health(0.78),and satisfaction(0.48).The test-retest correlation coefficients for individual domains were as follows:function(0.80),pain(0.68),self-image(0.82),mental health (0.81),and satisfaction (0.78).The ceiling effects were found high in all domains.Patients in the surgery group had the highest satisfaction score and the lowest function/activity score.Conclusion Because of the differences between cultures and values,the Chinese version of SRS-22 patient questionnaire may need improvements and the large-scale follow-up.%目的 用中文版SRS-22问卷评估巾国青少年特发性脊柱侧凸患者的牛活质量,考察SRS-22问卷中文版的信度及效度.方法 根据国际生活质量评估计划的规定,将SRS-22问卷英文版译成中文,并由脊柱外科专家讨论后确定最终版本.共有126例青少年特发性脊梓侧凸患者完成了SRS-22问卷中文版测试,男35例,女91例;年龄10~20岁,平均14.5岁;Cobb角15°~58°,平均为33°.为了完成对该问卷重测信度的评估,35例患者1周后进行了第2次问卷调查.SRS-22问卷中义版各领域的内部一致性通过Cronbach

  13. Theoretical analysis of the performance of different cooling strategies with the concept of cool exergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    for the ventilation system being outdoor air vs. air from the crawl-space, and air-to-water heat pump vs. ground heat exchanger as cooling source) on system exergy performance were investigated. It is crucial to minimize the cooling demand because it is possible to use a wide range of heat sinks (ground, lake, sea-water......The whole chains of exergy flows for different cooling systems were compared. The effects of cooling demand (internal vs. external solar shading), space cooling method (floor cooling vs. air cooling with ventilation system), and the availability of a nearby natural heat sink (intake air......, etc.) and indoor terminal units, only with a minimized demand. The water-based floor cooling system performed better than the air-based cooling system; when an air-to-water heat pump was used as the cooling source, the required exergy input was 28% smaller for the floor cooling system. The auxiliary...

  14. Numerical Analysis of Secondary Cooling in Continuous Slab Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kee-Hyeon Cho; Byung-Moon Kim

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, a numerical optimization program has been developed for predicting the optimal secondary cooling patterns in a continuous slab caster. Optimization strategy using Broydon-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) method is carried out by determining the constant heat transfer coefficients in each spray zone, which could satisfy the casting conditions and metallurgical criteria specified by the engineer. From the present results, it is found that even a slight variation in the pouring temperature, allowable surface temperature, and casting speed could give rise to the changes in the cooling pattern throughout the spray zones.

  15. Enhanced Optomechanical Cooling at High-Order Exceptional Points

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, H; Lü, H; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    We study mechanical cooling in systems of coupled passive (lossy) and active (with gain) optical resonators. We find that for a driving laser which is red-detuned with respect to the cavity frequency, the supermode structure of the system is radically changed, featuring the emergence of genuine high-order exceptional points. This in turn leads to giant enhancement of both the mechanical damping and the spring stiffness, facilitating low-power mechanical cooling in the vicinity of gain-loss balance. This opens up new avenues of steering micromechanical devices with exceptional points beyond the lowest-order two.

  16. High temperature cooling system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Eric P.

    2006-12-12

    A method for cooling a heat source, a method for preventing chemical interaction between a vessel and a cooling composition therein, and a cooling system. The method for cooling employs a containment vessel with an oxidizable interior wall. The interior wall is oxidized to form an oxide barrier layer thereon, the cooling composition is monitored for excess oxidizing agent, and a reducing agent is provided to eliminate excess oxidation. The method for preventing chemical interaction between a vessel and a cooling composition involves introducing a sufficient quantity of a reactant which is reactive with the vessel in order to produce a barrier layer therein that is non-reactive with the cooling composition. The cooling system includes a containment vessel with oxidizing agent and reducing agent delivery conveyances and a monitor of oxidation and reduction states so that proper maintenance of a vessel wall oxidation layer occurs.

  17. Lattice Regenerative Cooling Methods (LRCM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate a novel cooling concept called Lattice Regenerative Cooling Methods (LRCM) for future high thrust in-space propulsion...

  18. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  19. Efficient local personal cooling with fluctuating airflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.G.; Hoes-van Oeffelen, E.C.M.; Hordijk, G.J.; Ham, E.R. van de

    2015-01-01

    Overheating in buildings is an increasingly important issue. Various studies show that local personalized cooling can substantially improve comfort levels while saving energy. Airflows are an efficient approach for local cooling. Fluctuating airflows seem more effective and are potentially perceived

  20. Semi-optimal Practicable Algorithmic Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, Yuval; Weinstein, Yossi; 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.042340

    2011-01-01

    Algorithmic Cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin-systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon's entropy bound. AC of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally, and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; Exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semi-optimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein few cycles (typically 2-6) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC, and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. The new algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC a...